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Sample records for mentally ill veterans

  1. Access to and Use of the Internet by Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Record, Elizabeth J; Medoff, Deborah R; Dixon, Lisa B; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Hack, Samantha; Brown, Clayton H; Fang, Li Juan; Kreyenbuhl, Julie

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated internet use among 239 veterans with serious mental illness who completed questionnaires assessing demographics and internet use in 2010-2011. The majority of individuals (70 %) reported having accessed the internet and among those, 79 % had accessed it within the previous 30 days. Those who were younger and more educated were more likely to have accessed the internet, as were those with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder, compared to individuals with PTSD. Veterans with serious mental illness commonly use the internet, including to obtain health information, though use varies across demographic characteristics and clinical diagnosis. PMID:25821927

  2. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. PMID:27138814

  3. Psychopharmacologic Services for Homeless Veterans: Comparing Psychotropic Prescription Fills Among Homeless and Non-Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Eric; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data, this study evaluated differences in psychotropic medication use between homeless and non-homeless adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who used VHA services in 2010. The adjusted mean number of psychotropic prescription fills associated with homeless individuals were identified using regression models adjusted for socio-demographics, diagnoses, and use of health services. Of the 876,989 individuals with SMI using VHA services, 7.2 % were homeless at some time during 2010. In bivariate analysis, homeless individuals filled more psychotropic medication prescriptions compared with non-homeless individuals. However, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, homeless individuals were found to have filled 16.2 % fewer prescriptions than non-homeless individuals when all psychotropics were analyzed together (F = 6947.1, p < .001) and for most individual classes of psychotropics. Greater use of residential/inpatient mental health services by the homeless was the most important single factor associated with filling more psychotropic prescriptions than non-homeless individuals. PMID:26202545

  4. Veterans Affairs Health System and Mental Health Treatment Retention among Patients with Serious Mental Illness: Evaluating Accessibility and Availability Barriers

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John F; Blow, Frederic C; Valenstein, Marcia; Fischer, Ellen P; Owen, Richard R; Barry, Kristen L; Hudson, Teresa J; Ignacio, Rosalinda V

    2007-01-01

    Objective We examine the impact of two dimensions of access—geographic accessibility and availability—on VA health system and mental health treatment retention among patients with serious mental illness (SMI). Methods Among 156,631 patients in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in fiscal year 1998 (FY98), we used Cox proportional hazards regression to model time to first 12-month gap in health system utilization, and in mental health services utilization, by the end of FY02. Geographic accessibility was operationalized as straight-line distance to nearest VA service site or VA psychiatric service site, respectively. Service availability was assessed using county-level VA hospital beds and non-VA beds per 1,000 county residents. Patients who died without a prior gap in care were censored. Results There were 32, 943 patients (21 percent) with a 12-month gap in health system utilization; 65,386 (42 percent) had a 12-month gap in mental health services utilization. Gaps in VA health system utilization were more likely if patients were younger, nonwhite, unmarried, homeless, nonservice-connected, if they had bipolar disorder, less medical morbidity, an inpatient stay in FY98, or if they lived farther from care or in a county with fewer VA inpatient beds. Similar relationships were observed for mental health, however being older, female, and having greater morbidity were associated with increased risks of gaps, and number of VA beds was not significant. Conclusions Geographic accessibility and resource availability measures were associated with long-term continuity of care among patients with SMI. Increased distance from providers was associated with greater risks of 12-month gaps in health system and mental health services utilization. Lower VA inpatient bed availability was associated with increased risks of gaps in health system utilization. Study findings may inform efforts to improve treatment retention. PMID

  5. The mental health of veterans.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Iversen, A; Greenberg, N

    2008-06-01

    For the majority service in the Armed Forces is beneficial and, in the main, military veterans have successful lives. However, a minority have a bleaker outlook as a result of on-going ill health and social exclusion. Whilst the media focuses on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, in reality the most frequent mental health problems for veterans are alcohol problems, depression and anxiety disorders. These difficulties are difficult to manage as veterans, particularly those who are unwell, demonstrate a reticence to seek help for mental health problems. Another issue is that many veterans are now reserve personnel who have been found to be at greater risk of developing mental health problems than their regular counterparts. Steps to improve the knowledge and expertise of primary care services about veteran's mental health issues and increasing the availability of treatment options are important and are underway. PMID:19043996

  6. Enhanced vocational rehabilitation for Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury and mental illness: Pilot study.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maureen K; Mueller, Lisa; Kwon, Eunice; Drebing, Charles E; O'Connor, Ashley A; Semiatin, Alicia; Wang, Shihwe; Daley, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Work plays a significant role in how people identify themselves, and successful return to work is associated with significant psychological and rehabilitative benefits. Unfortunately, despite the many benefits of employment, Veterans who experience mild traumatic brain injury and have mental health issues often have significant difficulty getting their vocational needs met. Considering that a consistent relationship between cognitive dysfunction and difficulties with employability has been firmly established, cognitive rehabilitation may enhance engagement in vocational rehabilitation and return to work outcomes. In this pilot study, we evaluated a 12 wk cognitive rehabilitation intervention embedded within vocational rehabilitation services. Eighteen Veterans were randomly assigned to receive either the embedded cognitive rehabilitation intervention (n = 10) or a control condition offering supportive client-centered therapy that did not focus on employment or cognitive rehabilitation (n = 8); all Veterans (intervention and control groups) received vocational rehabilitation services. This pilot feasibility study demonstrated efficient implementation of an embedded cognitive rehabilitation intervention within vocational rehabilitation. The current pilot data revealed small to moderate effect sizes on employment outcomes. Given these preliminary findings, a larger outcome study is warranted. PMID:27270645

  7. Attitudes about the VA health-care setting, mental illness, and mental health treatment and their relationship with VA mental health service use among female and male OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Annie B; Meyer, Eric C; Vogt, Dawne

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the authors explored gender differences in attitudinal barriers to and facilitators of care for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans and examined the relationship of those factors with VA mental health service use among female and male veterans with probable mental health conditions. Data were collected as part of a national cross-sectional survey of OEF/OIF veterans; the current sample was limited to participants with a probable diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse (N = 278). Although negligible gender differences were observed in attitudes about VA care and perceived fit in the VA setting, men reported slightly more negative beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment than women. In addition, logistic regressions revealed different associations with VA mental health service use for women and men. For women only, positive perceptions of VA care were associated with increased likelihood of seeking mental health treatment. For men only, perceived similarity to other VA care users and negative beliefs about mental health treatment were associated with increased likelihood of service use, whereas negative beliefs about mental illness were associated with lower likelihood of service use. For both women and men, perceived entitlement to VA care was associated with increased likelihood of service use and negative beliefs about treatment-seeking were associated with a reduced likelihood of seeking mental health care in the past 6 months. Results support the need for tailored outreach to address unique barriers to mental health treatment for female and male OEF/OIF veterans. PMID:25365245

  8. Effects of structured vocational services on job-search success in ex-offender veterans with mental illness: 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    LePage, James P; Washington, Edward L; Lewis, Avery A; Johnson, Kim E; Garcia-Rea, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    With the high number of incarcerated veterans with mental illness and substance dependence returning to the community annually, a significant need exists for technologies that will help them return to employment. This study evaluates three methods of assistance: (1) basic vocational services, (2) self-study of a vocational manual designed for formerly incarcerated veterans, and (3) a group led by vocational staff using the vocational manual. We evaluated 69 veterans to determine the number finding employment within 3 months after enrollment in the study. The group format was expected to be superior to self-study, and self-study was expected to be superior to basic services. Though the group format was found to be superior to both self-study and basic services, the results for self-study and basic services were statistically similar. Limitations and directions for future refinement are discussed. PMID:21480102

  9. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer treatment options. Search on the website of local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. ...

  10. Effects of structured vocational services in ex-offender veterans with mental illness: 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    LePage, James P; Lewis, Avery A; Washington, Edward L; Davis, Brandi; Glasgow, Anne

    2013-01-01

    With more than 200,000 veterans incarcerated, a significant need exists for the development of technologies that help veterans with felony histories return to employment. This study evaluated the effect of three methods of vocational assistance on competitive employment over a 6 mo follow-up period: (1) basic vocational services, (2) self-study using a vocational manual designed for formerly incarcerated veterans, and (3) a group led by vocational staff using the vocational manual. We evaluated 111 veterans for time to obtain and total time of competitive employment. The group format was expected to be superior to the self-study and the self-study superior to basic services. Findings indicated that the group format was associated with quicker employment and more total employment than the basic and self-study conditions. Limitations and directions for future refinement are discussed. PMID:23760999

  11. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  12. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  13. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  14. 75 FR 16577 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. The VA is inviting public comments...

  15. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  16. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  17. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. PMID:11579183

  18. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  19. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Change Direction initiative is working to change the culture of mental health in America. It encourages people ... signs of emotional suffering and to change the culture around mental health and mental illness. Learn more ...

  20. Mental Health Among Military Personnel and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Treven; Rothman, David; Crawford, Eric F; Brancu, Mira; Fairbank, John A; Kudler, Harold S

    2015-01-01

    This commentary describes the prevalence of mental health problems affecting military service members and veterans in North Carolina and the rest of the nation, with a special emphasis on those who served in the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Approximately 1.9 million of these veterans have become eligible for Veterans Affairs health care since 2002, and an estimated 1.16 million veterans have registered for this care. PMID:26946859

  1. Metabolism and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Sestan-Pesa, Matija; Horvath, Tamas L

    2016-02-01

    Over the past century, overwhelming evidence has emerged pointing to the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS) as a crucial regulator of systemic control of metabolism, including appetite and feeding behavior. Appetite (or hunger) is a fundamental driver of survival, involving complex behaviors governed by various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex. Here, we provide an overview of basic metabolic principles affecting the CNS and discuss their relevance to physiological and pathological conditions of higher brain functions. These novel perspectives may well provide new insights into future research strategies to facilitate the development of novel therapies for treating mental illness. PMID:26776095

  2. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... adolescents in the United States suffer from serious emotional and mental disorders that cause significant functional impairment in their day-to-day lives at home, in school and with peers. The World Health Organization has ...

  3. Partnering with Communities to Address the Mental Health Needs of Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, JoAnn E.; Farmer, Mary Sue; Shue, Valorie M.; Blevins, Dean; Sullivan, Greer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Many veterans who face mental illness and live in rural areas never obtain the mental health care they need. To address these needs, it is important to reach out to community stakeholders who are likely to have frequent interactions with veterans, particularly those returning from Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Methods:…

  4. 78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Register on March 1, 2012 (77 FR 12522). We provided a 60-day comment period, which ended on April 30, 2012... Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis within 2 years after...

  5. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... population. Research on mental health epidemiology shows that mental disorders are common throughout the United States, affecting tens ... available on the prevalence, treatment, and costs of mental disorders for the population of the United States, in ...

  6. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals. PMID:26444362

  7. 77 FR 18307 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... published the report in the Federal Register (76 FR 65321) and posted it on a social media Web site created... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION...' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA policies and...

  8. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  9. Students’ perception about mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Mahto, R. K.; Verma, P. K.; Verma, A. N.; Singh, A. R.; Chaudhury, S.; Shantna, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In developing countries like India, there are evidences that stigma associated with mental illness is increasing. As in parts of the developing world, with advancement of urbanization and rapid industrialization, people tend to react in a very peculiar and biased way when they confront a mentally ill person. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to find out students’ opinion about mental illness. A total of 100 students (50 male and 50 female) from Ranchi University were purposively recruited for the study, and the 51-item Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) Scale was administered. Results: Majority of the students were from Hindu families, of whom 42 (84%) were males and 38 (68%) were females. With regard to OMI scale, the item, viz., ‘The law should allow a woman to divorce her husband as soon as he has been confined in mental hospital with a severe mental illness’, both male (46%) and female (56%) students were neutral (significant at 0.014, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall no significant level of difference emerged between male and female students with regard to opinion about mental illness. PMID:21180484

  10. Caring for mentally ill people.

    PubMed Central

    van Os, J.; Neeleman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Despite legislation to harmonise mental health practice throughout Europe and convergence in systems of training there remains an extraordinary diversity in psychiatric practice in Europe. Approaches to tackling substance misuse vary among nations; statistics on psychiatric morbidity are affected by different approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; attitudes towards mental illness show definite international differences. Everywhere, though, mental health care for patients with psychotic illnesses is a "cinderella service," and there is a general move towards care falling increasingly on the family and the community. PMID:7987157

  11. To measure attributed mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, J C; Litchford, G B; Yaffe, P E; DiCiurcio, T L

    1980-09-01

    This work follows from the assumption that person perception processes allow people to categorize others, and, thereupon, to predict the perceived person's behaviors. A scale, the Mental Illness Behaviors Prediction Scale (MIBPS) was developed for use in studies of ascribed mental illness. The MIBPS is comprised of fifteen items, each of which describes a situation and four alternative behaviors scaled for "mental illness level." The alternatives were clearly scaleable. High item-to-total-score correlations were found. When subjects rated a "very poorly adjusted person" and a "very well-adjusted person," the item scores, as assigned to these two persons, were clearly differentiating. In other studies the overall "mental illness level" of perceived persons was found to vary with selected independent variables. The utility of the scale supports the conclusion that people have developed and do use a person-perceiving dimension labeled mentally ill/mentally healthy, and the use of this dimension promotes the expectation of specific kinds of behavior from the target person. PMID:7411374

  12. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Mental Health of Veterans.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Waldrop, Jessica R

    2015-06-01

    Many U.S. Veterans have experienced the burdens of mental illness and suicide. The current article focuses on Veterans who served from 2001-2015. Although combat exposure and suicidal ideation are linked, approximately one half of all suicides among Active Duty service members (who have served since 2001) occurred among those who never deployed. Researchers who sought additional risks for suicide found that Veterans have greater odds of adversities in childhood than the general population. Adverse childhood experiences are stressful and traumatic experiences, including abuse and neglect, as well as witnessing household dysfunction, or growing up with individuals with mental illness or substance abuse. Further, childhood physical abuse has been shown to be a significant predictor for posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide. Adverse childhood experiences confer additional risk for the mental health of service members. Psychiatric nursing implications include the importance of assessing early childhood adversity during psychosocial assessments. Providing trauma-informed strategies for treatment is an essential element of psychiatric nursing care. PMID:26091547

  14. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk therapy, that helps people change negative thinking styles and behaviors that may contribute to their depression. ... Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications Science Writing, Press, and Dissemination Branch 6001 Executive ...

  15. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  16. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  17. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  18. 'Chronic' identities in mental illness.

    PubMed

    von Peter, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness. PMID:23528064

  19. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  20. Attitudes of Jordanian mental health nurses toward mental illness and patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses. PMID:19874099

  1. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  2. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  3. Mental Health Care Utilization: How Race, Ethnicity and Veteran Status are Associated with Seeking Help.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Susan M; Blosnich, John R; Hentschel, Elizabeth A W; King, Erika; Amen, Sally

    2016-02-01

    As veterans disproportionately experience higher rates of mental illness than civilians, conflicting results surround the impact of race/ethnicity on treatment utilization. This study utilized the CDC's Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, a random-digit dialed telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults. A subset of Texas respondents (n = 8563) were asked questions related to mental health treatment, stigma, help-seeking attitudes and emotional support. While no differences were found in health care utilization between non-Hispanic white veterans and non-veterans, there were distinct patterns among racial/ethnic minority veterans and non-veterans. Black and Latino non-veterans reported significantly lower health care utilization compared to non-Hispanic white non-veterans. Among veterans, there were no differences in reported utilization rates comparing non-Hispanic whites and Latinos and also non-Hispanic whites and Blacks. Our study adds to the literature by examining health care utilization among a diverse group of veterans by focusing on Veterans Administration (VA) and non-VA services to veterans. PMID:26659853

  4. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  5. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  6. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  7. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  8. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Bobby K.; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one’s reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one’s attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness. PMID:24311820

  9. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  10. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner. PMID:26399492

  11. Epigenetic Basis of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J; Peña, Catherine J; Kundakovic, Marija; Mitchell, Amanda; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Exposure to such environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental versus adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and the aberrant epigenetic regulation that underlies this dysregulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Here, we provide a progress report of epigenetic studies of the three major psychiatric syndromes, depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We review the literature derived from animal models of these disorders as well as from studies of postmortem brain tissue from human patients. While epigenetic studies of mental illness remain at early stages, understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery within specific brain regions to cause lasting changes in disease susceptibility and pathophysiology is revealing new insight into the etiology and treatment of these conditions. PMID:26450593

  12. THE TEENAGER'S CONCEPTION OF MENTAL ILLNESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARKWELL, NOEL G.

    TO COMPLEMENT PREVIOUS SURVEYS OF ADULT OPINION ON MENTAL ILLNESS AND PROVIDE USEFUL INFORMATION FOR THE MENTAL HEALTH EDUCATOR, A SURVEY OF TEENAGE OPINION ON MENTAL ILLNESS WAS CONDUCTED. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DEVELOPED IN CONSULTATION WITH EXPERTS IN RELEVANT DISCIPLINES TO MEASURE THE TEENAGER'S CONCEPTION OF THE FOLLOWING--(1) THE MENTAL…

  13. Inferences of mental illness from noninvolvement.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, J C; Litchford, G B; Wilson, S D; Harrigan, J A; Lehrer, R

    1983-03-01

    These studies continue the exploration of variables related to a person's use of the mental illness categorization. The central concern in the present studies was the effect of perceived variation in a target person's level of involvement in a social situation. While a low level of involvement, as portrayed in videotaped scenarios, prompts attribution of mental illness, other features of implicit personality theories also relate to greater or lesser attribution of mental illness. Those participants who gave evidence of having attributed lower levels of involvement, regardless of filmed information, also attributed higher levels of mental illness. Social workers, compared to general population participants, attributed higher levels of mental illness at all levels of target involvement. We discuss the implications of these findings for dissemination and assignment of the mentally ill role. PMID:6864430

  14. 75 FR 65405 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on November 1-2, 2010, in the Boston... Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program activities related to Gulf War veterans' illnesses...

  15. 75 FR 28686 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on June 28-29, 2010, in room 230 at... Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program activities related to Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses...

  16. 75 FR 8789 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on March 1-2, 2010, in room 230 at... Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program activities related to Gulf War veterans' illnesses...

  17. Trends and Risk Factors for Mental Health Diagnoses Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Using Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care, 2002–2008

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Thomas J.; Gima, Kristian S.; Bertenthal, Daniel; Maguen, Shira; Marmar, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to investigate longitudinal trends and risk factors for mental health diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Methods. We determined the prevalence and predictors of mental health diagnoses among 289 328 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans entering Veterans Affairs (VA) health care from 2002 to 2008 using national VA data. Results. Of 289 328 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, 106 726 (36.9%) received mental health diagnoses; 62 929 (21.8%) were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 50 432 (17.4%) with depression. Adjusted 2-year prevalence rates of PTSD increased 4 to 7 times after the invasion of Iraq. Active duty veterans younger than 25 years had higher rates of PTSD and alcohol and drug use disorder diagnoses compared with active duty veterans older than 40 years (adjusted relative risk = 2.0 and 4.9, respectively). Women were at higher risk for depression than were men, but men had over twice the risk for drug use disorders. Greater combat exposure was associated with higher risk for PTSD. Conclusions. Mental health diagnoses increased substantially after the start of the Iraq War among specific subgroups of returned veterans entering VA health care. Early targeted interventions may prevent chronic mental illness. PMID:19608954

  18. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  19. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    PubMed

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored. PMID:24823515

  20. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness. PMID:22654383

  1. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives. PMID:25899250

  2. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... because of binge drinking, to someone’s symptoms of bipolar disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin ... your story Mental Illness ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Depression Dissociative Disorders Eating Disorders ...

  3. Readjustment of Urban Veterans: A Mental Health and Substance Use Profile of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikins, Ross D.; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence of substance use and mental health problems among veterans and student service members/veterans (SSM/V) returning from Iraq and Afghanistan to New York City's low-income neighborhoods. Participants: A sample of 122 veterans attending college and 116 veterans not enrolled recruited using respondent-driven…

  4. Rural Women Veterans' Use and Perception of Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Ingelse, Kathy; Messecar, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    While the total number of veterans in the U.S. is decreasing overall, the number of women veterans is significantly increasing. There are numerous barriers which keep women veterans from accessing mental health care. One barrier which can impact receiving care is living in a rural area. Veterans in rural areas have access to fewer mental health services than do urban residing veterans, and women veterans in general have less access to mental health care than do their male colleagues. Little is known about rural women veterans and their mental health service needs. Women, who have served in the military, have unique problems related to their service compared to their male colleagues including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and military sexual trauma (MST). This qualitative study investigated use of and barriers to receiving mental health care for rural women veterans. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women veterans who have reported experiencing problems with either MST, PTSD, or combat trauma. All ten women had utilized mental health services during active-duty military service, and post service, in Veterans Administration (VA) community based-outpatient clinics. Several recurring themes in the women's experience were identified. For all of the women interviewed, a sentinel precipitating event led to seeking mental health services. These precipitating events included episodes of chronic sexual harassment and ridicule, traumatic sexual assaults, and difficult combat experiences. Efforts to report mistreatment were unsuccessful or met with punishment. All the women interviewed reported that they would not have sought services without the help of a supportive peer who encouraged seeking care. Barriers to seeking care included feeling like they were not really a combat veteran (in spite of serving in a combat unit in Iraq); feeling stigmatized by providers and other military personnel, being treated as crazy; and a lack of interest

  5. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  6. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  7. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  8. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  9. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  10. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post

  11. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  12. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  13. 77 FR 31071 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) gives notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War...

  14. 76 FR 31018 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on June 27-28, 2011. On June 27, the... Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program...

  15. 78 FR 5871 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory ] Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will conduct a telephone conference call... Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf War. The Committee will discuss its annual report...

  16. 78 FR 36309 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on June 17 and 18, 2013, in room 230... health consequences of military service in the Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf...

  17. 77 FR 2353 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on January 31 and February 1, 2012... Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program...

  18. 76 FR 9407 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program, and National Institute for Health research programs. The... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on February 28- March 1, 2011....

  19. Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

    2013-02-01

    To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster. PMID:23364127

  20. Patient Education for the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Louise Harding

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy of the rehabilitation services department at McLean Hospital on patient education for the mentally ill, noting patient library collection and recommended resources on marital problems, sex education, drug manuals, and diagnostic and research findings. A list of magazines subscribed to, color code classification, and 23…

  1. Coping with Mental Illness in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Agnes B.

    Utilizing the conceptual framework of coping theory, 30 family care-givers of mentally ill family members were interviewed to determine the relationship between coping effectiveness and such variables as patient characteristics, factors of the care-givers life situation, and the availability and adequacy of community supports. Care-givers were…

  2. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  3. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  4. Patient-Centered Mental Health Care for Female Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kimerling, Rachel; Bastian, Lori A.; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne A.; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Carney, Diane V.; Goldstein, Karen M.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Pomernacki, Alyssa; Sadler, Anne G.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Frayne, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mental health services for women vary widely across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, without consensus on the need for, or organization of, specialized services for women. Understanding women’s needs and priorities is essential to guide the implementation of patient-centered behavioral health services. Methods In a cross-sectional, multisite survey of female veterans using primary care, potential stakeholders were identified for VHA mental health services by assessing perceived or observed need for mental health services. These stakeholders (N=484) ranked priorities for mental health care among a wide range of possible services. The investigators then quantified the importance of having designated women’s mental health services for each of the mental health services that emerged as key priorities. Results Treatment for depression, pain management, coping with chronic general medical conditions, sleep problems, weight management, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) emerged as women’s key priorities. Having mental health services specialized for women was rated as extremely important to substantial proportions of women for each of the six prioritized services. Preference for primary care colocation was strongly associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s mental health services. For specific types of services, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s services. Conclusions Female veterans are a diverse population whose needs and preferences for mental health services vary along demographic and clinical factors. These stakeholder perspectives can help prioritize structural and clinical aspects of designated women’s mental health care in the VHA. PMID:25642611

  5. American Christian Engagement With Mental Health and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Although religious belief and practice are relevant to mental health outcomes, many clinicians lack knowledge of particular religious traditions required to make informed judgments about referral to and collaboration with faith-based organizations and clinicians. This Open Forum examines five diverse American Christian approaches to mental health and mental illness-pastoral care and counseling, biblical counseling, integrationism, Christian psychology, and the work of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences--that are relevant for contemporary mental health service delivery. Each of these movements is briefly described and placed in historical, conceptual, and organizational context. Knowledge of the diverse and varied terrain of American Christian engagement with mental health care can inform clinicians' interactions with faith-based providers, clarify opportunities for responsible collaboration, and provide important insight into religious subcultures with faith-based concerns about contemporary psychiatric care. PMID:26369885

  6. Resolving mental illness stigma: should we seek normalcy or solidarity?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered. PMID:27036695

  7. Social Meanings Versus the Psychiatric Concept of Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dorothy L.

    1982-01-01

    According to the societal reaction perspective, mental illness develops when symptoms are molded and imputed by societal reaction into a stable and organized social role. Individuals are thrust into the role by being labeled mentally ill. In contrast, the psychiatric concept assumes that mental illness is a disease. Its purpose is to order, predict, and control the symptoms of mental disease. This paper examines some social theories of mental disorder and compares the societal reaction perspective to the psychiatric concept.

  8. [Hyperprolactinemia in mentally ill patients].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Manuel Maria de; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    prolactin-sparing antipsychotic or the use of a dopamine receptor agonist, such as bromocriptine, cabergoline and amantadine. Given the osteopenic and osteoporosis risk, combined oral contraceptives must be considered in female patients in fertile age which have amenorrhoea for at least a one year period. With the exception of the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines and the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, none of the current international psychiatric guidelines recommend a routine baseline prolactin determination, neither periodic prolactin levels without the presence of any hyperprolactinemia symptoms. PMID:22713195

  9. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not. PMID:18402348

  10. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  11. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  12. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  13. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  14. Cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise minimally help Gulf War veterans' illnesses.

    PubMed

    Luttermoser, Gary

    2003-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy and aerobic exercise provide only modest relief from symptoms of Gulf War veterans' illnesses. Unfortunately, over 80% of the patients showed no improvement of symptoms after 1 year of either or both treatments. With the Iraqi war ending, the outcomes of veterans of this previous conflict may prove significant. PMID:12791222

  15. 78 FR 77205 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... to Gulf War Veterans' illnesses and treatments guided by systems biology. There will also be... Committee report and other Committee business will be discussed on both days. The meeting will include...

  16. Understanding Barriers to Mental Health Care for Recent War Veterans Through Photovoice.

    PubMed

    True, Gala; Rigg, Khary K; Butler, Anneliese

    2015-10-01

    Despite an urgent need for mental health care among U.S. service members returning from deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan, many veterans do not receive timely or adequate treatment. We used photovoice methods to engage veterans in identifying barriers to utilizing mental health services. Veterans described how key aspects of military culture and identity, highly adaptive during deployment, can deter help-seeking behavior and hinder recovery. Veterans' photographs highlighted how mental health symptoms and self-coping strategies operated as barriers to care. Many veterans' photos and stories revealed how negative health care encounters contributed to avoidance and abandonment of treatment; some veterans described these experiences as re-traumatizing. Visual methods can be a powerful tool for engaging recent war veterans in research. In particular, community-based participatory research approaches, which have rarely been used with veterans, hold great promise for informing effective interventions to improve access and enhance provision of patient-centered care for veterans. PMID:25488935

  17. Applying behavior change theory to technology promoting veteran mental health care seeking.

    PubMed

    Whealin, Julia M; Kuhn, Eric; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Despite the availability of effective mental health interventions, the vast majority of veterans with a mental disorder underutilize psychological services. Contemporary research has revealed that several factors such as low education, stigma, stoicism, lack of knowledge, and negative beliefs about mental health services are associated with veterans' underutilization of services. In this article, the authors provide an overview of factors that affect symptomatic veterans' decisions about whether to seek mental health services. Second, they describe the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), a useful model for understanding mental health care seeking that can inform the development of technology-based interventions designed to increase veterans' willingness to seek psychological services. Third, the authors describe the development of Considering Professional Help, a personalized web-based tool developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, which has been designed to promote mental health care seeking in veterans with mental health problems. PMID:25384001

  18. Patient Activation and Mental Health Care Experiences Among Women Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Pavao, Joanne; Wong, Ava

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a nationally representative survey of women veteran primary care users to examine associations between patient activation and mental health care experiences. A dose–response relationship was observed, with odds of high quality ratings significantly greater at each successive level of patient activation. Higher activation levels were also significantly associated with preference concordant care for gender-related preferences (use of female providers, women-only settings, and women-only groups as often as desired). Results add to the growing literature documenting better health care experiences among more activated patients, and suggest that patient activation may play an important role in promoting engagement with mental health care. PMID:25917224

  19. Patient Activation and Mental Health Care Experiences Among Women Veterans.

    PubMed

    Kimerling, Rachel; Pavao, Joanne; Wong, Ava

    2016-07-01

    We utilized a nationally representative survey of women veteran primary care users to examine associations between patient activation and mental health care experiences. A dose-response relationship was observed, with odds of high quality ratings significantly greater at each successive level of patient activation. Higher activation levels were also significantly associated with preference concordant care for gender-related preferences (use of female providers, women-only settings, and women-only groups as often as desired). Results add to the growing literature documenting better health care experiences among more activated patients, and suggest that patient activation may play an important role in promoting engagement with mental health care. PMID:25917224

  20. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  1. Motherhood in women with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Benders-Hadi, Nikole; Barber, Mary; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of motherhood among inpatient females at a large state psychiatric hospital in suburban New York, as well as develop an understanding of the characteristics and needs of this unique population. Data on motherhood status was gathered from October 2010 through April 2011 via medical records. Data on custody status, frequency of contacts with children, and effect of mental illness on parenting was assessed through patient surveys and focus groups. 38.5 % of female inpatients were found to be mothers, almost half of whom reported at least weekly contact with children despite their inpatient status. The majority of identified mothers reported having maintained custody of their minor children and expressed great pride at being primary caretakers for their children, yet also emphasized the challenging effects of stigma associated with mental illness and parenting. A significant proportion of women at this psychiatric hospital were found to be mothers. Although acknowledged by some clinicians at the individual level, motherhood appears to remain a forgotten role systemically. Determining motherhood status and recognizing the varied roles our patients have is one more way mental health providers can model and promote recovery-oriented care. PMID:22576070

  2. Statistical Analysis in Genetic Studies of Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heping

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors for mental illnesses is of significant public health importance. Diagnosis, stigma associated with mental illnesses, comorbidity, and complex etiologies, among others, make it very challenging to study mental disorders. Genetic studies of mental illnesses date back at least a century ago, beginning with descriptive studies based on Mendelian laws of inheritance. A variety of study designs including twin studies, family studies, linkage analysis, and more recently, genomewide association studies have been employed to study the genetics of mental illnesses, or complex diseases in general. In this paper, I will present the challenges and methods from a statistical perspective and focus on genetic association studies. PMID:21909187

  3. Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma

    PubMed Central

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, were assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. PMID:20493559

  4. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group. PMID:26668226

  5. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  6. Common Representations of the Mentally Ill among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovina, I. B.; Panov, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    The study of mental diseases and the mentally ill is, no doubt, the job of psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, social psychology has also made a substantial contribution to research in this field in the past few decades. In this study, the authors describe and analyze the content and structure of representations of the mentally ill among…

  7. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  8. Offenders with Mental Illness in the Correctional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.; Schnell, Marissa J.

    2007-01-01

    The escalating mentally ill population in prisons has created unique challenges for correctional systems, Colorado being no exception with 25% of its incarcerated population having mental health needs. This study examined correctional offenders with mental illness (OMIs) and found a growing number of OMIs in Colorado's prison system. Not only is…

  9. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  10. The chronically mentally ill: planning a future.

    PubMed

    Draper, R J

    1989-09-01

    The plight of the chronically mentally ill in contemporary society is explored. Appropriate treatment strategies identified require organizational changes at both local and provincial levels, and altered management philosophies. The criteria used in major studies to define the study population are identified and epidemiological data provided to illustrate the numbers and disposition of sufferers of "Prolonged Functional Disabilities caused by or aggravated by Severe Mental Disorder." Operational and research data from a regional psychiatric research service confirm that many patients formerly considered chronically institutionalized can be successfully discharged when goal-oriented multidisciplinary methods are introduced. External inhibiting factors are identified which society must address. Psychiatry must embrace and develop the new philosophies. Rational planning based upon patient need will require changes in the present vertical hierarchical structure of health care organization. Some elements of a strategic planning model are identified. PMID:2678188

  11. 38 CFR 63.3 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VA health care under 38 CFR 17.36 or 17.37; and (3) Have a serious mental illness and/or substance... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligible veterans. 63.3 Section 63.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED)...

  12. Use of the internet and an online personal health record system by US veterans: comparison of Veterans Affairs mental health service users and other veterans nationally

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheck, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) operates one of the largest nationwide healthcare systems and is increasing use of internet technology, including development of an online personal health record system called My HealtheVet. This study examined internet use among veterans in general and particularly use of online health information among VA patients and specifically mental health service users. Methods A nationally representative sample of 7215 veterans from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans was used. Logistic regression was employed to examine background characteristics associated with internet use and My HealtheVet. Results 71% of veterans reported using the internet and about a fifth reported using My HealtheVet. Veterans who were younger, more educated, white, married, and had higher incomes were more likely to use the internet. There was no association between background characteristics and use of My HealtheVet. Mental health service users were no less likely to use the internet or My HealtheVet than other veterans. Discussion Most veterans are willing to access VA information online, although many VA service users do not use My HealtheVet, suggesting more education and research is needed to reduce barriers to its use. Conclusion Although adoption of My HealtheVet has been slow, the majority of veterans, including mental health service users, use the internet and indicate a willingness to receive and interact with health information online. PMID:22847305

  13. Racial and ethnic disparities in mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Deepa; Feinglass, Joseph; Corrigan, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    The present study sought to examine whether racial/ethnic differences exist in stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among community college students. Multiple regression models were used to investigate racial/ethnic differences in students' perceived dangerousness and desire for segregation from persons with mental illness both before and after participation in an antistigma intervention. At baseline, African Americans and Asians perceived people with mental illness as more dangerous and wanted more segregation than Caucasians, and Latinos perceived people with mental illness as less dangerous and wanted less segregation than Caucasians. Similar patterns emerged postintervention, except that Asians' perceptions changed significantly such that they tended to perceive people with mental illness as least dangerous of all the racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that racial/ethnic background may help to shape mental illness stigma, and that targeting antistigma interventions to racial/ethnic background of participants may be helpful. PMID:18091196

  14. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders. PMID:16478286

  15. Readjustment of Urban Veterans: a Mental Health and Substance Use Profile of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans in Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    Aikins, Ross D.; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of substance use and mental health problems among veterans and student service members/veterans (SSM/V) returning from Iraq and Afghanistan to New York City’s low-income neighborhoods. Participants A sample of 122 veterans attending college and 116 veterans not enrolled recruited using respondent driven sampling. Methods Logistic regression analysis of variation in characteristics of those veterans attending college; linear regression examining effects of college attendance on life satisfaction. Results Having a traumatic brain injury or disability was positively associated with college attendance. Being married, employed, or in college was predictive of overall life satisfaction. SSM/V were significantly less likely to screen positive for depression or drug use disorder. African American veterans were significantly less likely to attend college than White or Hispanic veterans. Conclusion Substance use and some mental health disorders do not preclude inner-city veterans from entering higher education. This study contributes to the sparse literature on African American veterans and SSM/V. PMID:26367215

  16. Building The Mental Health Workforce Capacity Needed To Treat Adults With Serious Mental Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Olfson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    There are widespread shortages of mental health professionals in the United States, especially for the care of adults with serious mental illnesses. Such shortages are aggravated by maldistribution of mental health professionals and attractive practice opportunities treating adults with less severe conditions. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) and legislation extending mental health parity coverage are contributing to an increasing demand for mental health services. I consider four policy recommendations to reinvigorate the mental health workforce to meet the rising mental health care demand by adults with serious mental illnesses: expanding loan repayment programs for mental health professionals to practice in underserved areas; raising Medicaid reimbursement for treating serious mental illness; increasing training opportunities for social workers in relevant evidence-based psychosocial services; and disseminating service models that integrate mental health specialists as consultants in general medical care. Achieving progress in attracting mental health professionals to care for adults with serious mental illnesses will require vigorous policy interventions. PMID:27269013

  17. Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-05-01

    Globally, more than 70% of people with mental illness receive no treatment from health care staff. Evidence suggests that factors increasing the likelihood of treatment avoidance or delay before presenting for care include (1) lack of knowledge to identify features of mental illnesses, (2) ignorance about how to access treatment, (3) prejudice against people who have mental illness, and (4) expectation of discrimination against people diagnosed with mental illness. In this article, we reviewed the evidence on whether large-scale anti-stigma campaigns could lead to increased levels of help seeking. PMID:23488489

  18. Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between police and mental health professionals, to increase mental health training for police officers, to enhance mental health services after arrest, and to develop more and better community treatment of mentally ill offenders. The necessary components of such treatment are having a treatment philosophy of both theory and practice; having clear goals of treatment; establishing a close liaison between treatment staff and the justice system; understanding the need for structure; having a focus on managing violence; and appreciating the crucial role of case management, appropriate living arrangements, and the role of family members. PMID:15168834

  19. Civil commitment of sex offenders to mental institutions: should the standard be based on serious mental illness or mental disorder?

    PubMed

    Alexander, R

    2000-01-01

    Civil commitment to mental institutions requires that an individual be both seriously mentally ill and dangerous. This principle is erroneously being applied to incarcerated sex offenders nearing release from prison under the theory that they have antisocial personalities or paraphilia disorders, which are called mental illnesses. However, the mental health and legal communities are at odds regarding the use of a diagnosis of personality disorder or paraphilia to justify civil commitment. The author reviews the differences between serious mental illness and mental disorder, the flaws with assessing sex offenders as mentally ill, and the ethical dilemma for social workers employed in mental hospitals. PMID:10557893

  20. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles. PMID:26745309

  1. Help-Seeking Stigma and Mental Health Treatment Seeking Among Young Adult Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Corrigan, Patrick; Marshall, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Veterans underutilize mental health services. We investigated the association between treatment seeking stigma and utilization of mental health services in a sample of 812 young adult veterans. Higher perceived public stigma of treatment seeking was significantly related to lower treatment utilization. Although many veterans were concerned about negative perceptions if they were to seek treatment, a much smaller number of them endorsed that they would judge a fellow veteran negatively in similar situation. Targeting perceived public stigma of treatment seeking, through perceived norms interventions, might help in narrowing the gap between the need and receipt of help among veterans. PMID:26664795

  2. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed. PMID:20802840

  3. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed. PMID:20802840

  4. Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans report symptoms consistent with chronic multisymptom illness one year after deployment.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Lisa M; Helmer, Drew A; Phillips, L Alison; Chandler, Helena K; Ray, Kathleen; Quigley, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    Many Veterans returning from service in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) experience chronic pain. What is not known is whether for some OIF/OEF Veterans this pain is part of a larger condition of diffuse multisystem symptoms consistent with chronic multisymptom illness (CMI). We use data from a prospective longitudinal study of OIF/OEF Veterans to determine the frequency of CMI. We found that 1 yr after deployment, 49.5% of OIF/OEF Veterans met criteria for mild to moderate CMI and 10.8% met criteria for severe CMI. Over 90% of Veterans with chronic pain met criteria for CMI. CMI was not completely accounted for either by posttraumatic stress disorder or by predeployment levels of physical symptoms. Veterans with symptoms consistent with CMI reported significantly worse physical health function than Veterans who did not report symptoms consistent with CMI. This study suggests that the presence of CMI should be considered in the evaluation of OIF/OEF Veterans. Further, it suggests the pain management for these Veterans may need to be tailored to take CMI into consideration. PMID:27006173

  5. "Head take you": causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Carlotta M; Whitley, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Causal attributions are a key factor in explanatory models of illness; however, little research on causal attributions of mental illness has been conducted in developing nations in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. Explanatory models of mental illness may be important in understanding illness experience and be a crucial factor in mental health service seeking and utilization. We explored causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica by conducting 20 focus groups, including 16 community samples, 2 patient samples, and 2 samples of caregivers of patients, with a total of 159 participants. The 5 most commonly endorsed causal attributions of mental illness are discussed: (a) drug-related causes, including ganja (marijuana); (b) biological causes, such as chemical imbalance, familial transmission, and "blood"; (c) psychological causes, including stress and thinking too much; (d) social causes, such as relationship problems and job loss; and (e) spiritual or religious causes, including Obeah. PMID:25406259

  6. [Glutamate transporter dysfunction and major mental illnesses].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohichi

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays an important role in most aspects of normal brain function. In spite of its importance as a neurotransmitter, excess glutamate is toxic to neurons. Clearance of extracellular glutamate is critical for maintenance of low extracellular glutamate concentration, and occurs in large part through the activity of GLT1 (EAAT2) and GLAST (EAAT1), which are primarily expressed by astrocytes. Rare variants and down-regulation of GLT1 and GLAST, in psychiatric disorders have been reported. In this review, we demonstrate that various kinds of GLT1 and/or GLAST knockout mice replicate many aspects of the behavioral abnormalities seen in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, obsessive -compulsive disorders, autism, epilepsy and addiction. PMID:26793898

  7. Perinatal mental illness: definition, description and aetiology.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Michael W; Wisner, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal mental illness is a significant complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. These disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, and postpartum psychosis, which usually manifests as bipolar disorder. Perinatal depression and anxiety are common, with prevalence rates for major and minor depression up to almost 20% during pregnancy and the first 3 months postpartum. Postpartum blues are a common but lesser manifestation of postpartum affective disturbance. Perinatal psychiatric disorders impair a woman's function and are associated with suboptimal development of her offspring. Risk factors include past history of depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder, as well psychosocial factors, such as ongoing conflict with the partner, poor social support, and ongoing stressful life events. Early symptoms of depression, anxiety, and mania can be detected through screening in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Early detection and effective management of perinatal psychiatric disorders are critical for the welfare of women and their offspring. PMID:24140480

  8. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  9. Mental health of Asian American and Pacific Islander military veterans: brief review of an understudied group.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Kong, Grace

    2012-11-01

    The mental health of American military soldiers and veterans is of widespread concern; yet, there has been no prior review of studies on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) veterans. This article provides a brief, but comprehensive review of the mental health of AAPI veterans. An exhaustive literature search was conducted using the major medical and mental health literature databases. Of 13 identified articles, nine were empirical studies on either post-traumatic stress disorder among AAPI Vietnam veterans or health functioning of AAPI veterans based on national veteran surveys. Findings from these studies showed that some AAPI veterans who served during the Vietnam War encountered racism from fellow soldiers and race-related stressors were associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. As a group, AAPI veterans were found to be physically healthier than other veterans, but reported poorer mental health and were less likely to use mental health services. However, these findings were limited by the paucity of studies on AAPI veterans and suggest a need for more research on this subpopulation. PMID:23198528

  10. Resilience Factors in Families Living with People with Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonker, Liezl; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, a substantial burden is placed on families living with people with mental illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify resilience factors in families living in an underprivileged area, caring for people with mental illnesses. Data was obtained from family representatives (N=34) using semistructured interviews and a set of…

  11. Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

  12. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  13. AIDS and the Chronic Mentally Ill: Legal and Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satriano, James; Karp, Mitchell

    The chronic mentally ill experience substantially higher rates of HIV infection than the general population. This paper examines the problems which confront the chronic mentally ill and society at large. Discussed are the questions of whether or not psychiatric patients should be excepted, due to their cognitive and behavioral impairments, from…

  14. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  15. Perceived Mental Illness and Diminished Responsibility: A Study of Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadava, Stan W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perceived mental illness and attribution of responsibility. Subjects evaluated data from various accident cases. Although greater mental illness was attributed to alcoholism and paranoid cases, greater responsibility was attributed to the alcoholic. Only in the normal case was greater responsibility related to…

  16. Keeping the Peace: Police Discretion and Mentally Ill Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    In many urban centers, responding to mentally ill people has become a large part of the police peacekeeping function. This article highlights the police role in handling mentally ill persons. Law enforcement options are discussed, including both formal and informal options. It is noted that officers decisions to hospitalize, arrest, or deal with a…

  17. Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal.

    PubMed

    van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra

    2004-04-01

    Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology. PMID:15060406

  18. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

  19. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload <20) in comparison with non-Intensive Case Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials

  20. [Definition of mental illness and discoursive strategies in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hartman, J

    1998-01-01

    Defining mental illness was presented in the article both as a matter of medical knowledge and a political issue. This latter aspect cannot be successfully dealt with by psychiatry itself, since it is a branch of medicine, nevertheless bioethics offers here its competences and possibilities. The presentation of some elements of traditional strategies in defining mental illness introduces a draft of such a project of the definition procedure, which reinforces the constantly threatened (by the decrease of sovereignity) social and legal status of psychiatry, and--on the other hand--enables us to support the evidently handicapped status of psychiatric patients. This solitary definition strategy, which support both psychiatric circles and patients, assumes that a popular modern tendency to deny the very reality of the mental illness is to be avoided. The definition of mental illness proposed in the article is pragmatic in character and is based on a definition of mental illness as a kind of spiritual disorder. PMID:10816967

  1. Health Literacy Among People with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Whitney; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Bill Baerentzen, M; Britigan, Denise H

    2016-05-01

    People diagnosed with a mental illness are at higher risk of developing preventable chronic diseases; thus, health literacy improvements may have great potential to impact health outcomes for this typically underserved population. However, there is a dearth of research on health literacy of persons with severe mental illness. The purpose of this research was to investigate aspects of health literacy and identify factors associated with low literacy among adults with severe mental illness using three literacy assessment tools. Seventy-one adults with serious mental illness were assessed and a high proportion had limited literacy levels: 42 % with the Single Item Literacy Screener, 50 % with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Short Form, and 67 % with the Newest Vital Sign. Findings suggest that individuals with certain mental illnesses and lower functioning may have more difficulty understanding health information and have limited numerical literacy. PMID:26443671

  2. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  3. Mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness: A descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; BIrudu, Raju; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite of growing evidence of mental disorders in developing countries, research on mental health literacy is limited from India. Aim: To examine mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among 161 randomly selected caregivers of persons with mental illness at outpatient department of a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Regarding the causes of mental illness, a majority agreed that genetic inheritance (69%), substance abuse (64%) and brain disease (59.6%) are main factors for developing mental illness. Although more than two-thirds agreed that anyone could suffer from mental illness, 61.5% also agreed that people with mental health problems are largely to blame for their condition. The majority of the participants also agreed that mentally ill are not able to maintain friendships (45.9%), are dangerous (54%), and not capable to work (59.1%). Just over half (55.9%) of the participants would not want people to know if they had a mental illness and nearly half of them also expressed that they would feel ashamed if a family member had a mental illness. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study researchers suggest that there is an urgent need to educate and change the attitudes of caregivers through mental health literacy programs specifically designed for them. PMID:26167019

  4. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  5. Sexual Dysfunction in Male Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans: Association with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Other Combat-Related Mental Health Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Cohen, Beth E.; Bertenthal, Daniel; Rosen, Raymond C.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Seal, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health disorders are prevalent in the United States, Iraq, and Afghanistan war veterans. Mental illness, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with or without psychiatric medications, can increase the risk for male sexual dysfunction, threatening quality of life. Aims We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction among male Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 405,275 male Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were new users of U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare from October 7, 2001 to September 30, 2009 and had 2-year follow-up. Main Outcome Measures We determined the independent association of mental health diagnoses and sexual dysfunction after adjusting for sociodemographic and military service characteristics, comorbidities, and medications. Results Veterans with PTSD were more likely to have a sexual dysfunction diagnosis, be prescribed medications for sexual dysfunction, or both (10.6%), compared with veterans having a mental diagnosis other than PTSD (7.2%), or no mental health diagnosis (2.3%). In a fully adjusted model, PTSD increased the risk of sexual dysfunction by more than threefold (adjusted risk ratio = 3.61, 95% CI = 3.48–3.75). Veterans with mental health disorders, particularly PTSD, were at the highest risk of sexual dysfunction when prescribed psychiatric medications (adjusted risk ratio = 4.59, 95% CI = 4.41–4.77). Conclusions Among U.S. combat veterans, mental health disorders, particularly PTSD, increased the risk of sexual dysfunction independent of the use of psychiatric medications. PMID:23679562

  6. Mental Health Promotion and Illness Prevention: A Challenge for Psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978

  7. Pastoral care use among post-9/11 veterans who screen positive for mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Nieuwsma, Jason A; Fortune-Greeley, Alice K; Jackson, George L; Meador, Keith G; Beckham, Jean C; Elbogen, Eric B

    2014-08-01

    As a result of their military experience, veterans with mental health problems may have unique motivations for seeking help from clergy. Patterns and correlates of seeking pastoral care were examined using a nationwide representative survey that was conducted among veterans of post-9/11 conflicts (adjusted N = 1,068; 56% response rate). Separate multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine veteran characteristics associated with seeking pastoral care and seeking mental health services. Among post-9/11 veterans with a probable mental disorder (n = 461)-defined as a positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, or alcohol misuse-20.2% reported talking to a "pastoral counselor" in the preceding year, 44.7% reported talking to a mental health professional, and 46.6% reported talking to neither. In a multivariate analysis for veterans with a probable mental disorder, seeing a pastoral counselor was associated with an increased likelihood of seeing a mental health professional in the past year (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: [1.28, 3.65]). In a separate bivariate analysis, pastoral counselors were more likely to be seen by veterans who indicated concerns about stigma or distrust of mental health care. These results suggest that pastoral and mental health care services may complement one another and underscore the importance of enhancing understanding and collaboration between these disciplines so as to meet the needs of the veterans they serve. PMID:24933105

  8. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. PMID:25816446

  9. Viewing Popular Films about Mental Illness through a Sociological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses an exercise she uses requiring students to view a popular film that portrays a particular mental disorder or a character with a mental disorder. Students analyze the film and write two papers, one about the sociological model of mental illness and a second about possible links between media images and the…

  10. Attitudes toward Mental Illness: The Construction of the Libertarian Mental Health Ideology Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Morrison, James

    1980-01-01

    The study was an attempt to construct an attitude scale to measure the radical psychosocial or libertarian position about "mental illness" and mental health practices. The factor analysis defined four scale factors: mental illness mythology, antimedical model, social deviance control, and anti-coercive treatment. (Author)

  11. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  12. Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefani, Dorina

    In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

  13. The power gap: freedom, power and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2006-10-01

    Up to one in four individuals in the US meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness in any given year and a significant proportion have severe or recurring illnesses (e.g. schizophrenia). Despite this prevalence, mental health services remain poorly funded, mental illness remains misunderstood and individuals with recurring illness are constrained to live lives characterized by isolation, under-employment, stigma and denial of rights. Here I examine the idea that this situation is attributable, at least in part, to the ways in which the freedom and power of the mentally ill are undermined by a range of factors, including: (i) dispersion of political power amongst interest groups, which, combined with the relatively wide distribution of the 'interest' of mental illness, has the paradoxical result that mental health interest groups do not command political power proportional to the number affected; (ii) systematic exclusion of the mentally ill from full participation in civic, social and political life (structural violence), resulting in a lack of emphasis on mental health on political agendas and the exclusion of certain policy options as possible responses and (iii) difficulties the mentally ill may experience recognizing or articulating their own needs the absence of effective health-care systems, and the absence of knowledge about alternative systems. I argue that the enhancement of individual agency is central to efforts to address this power gap, including: (i) rights-based approaches, involving the enhancement of national mental health legislation, improvement of advocacy, empowerment and guardianship processes and development of governance, accountability and quality procedures in mental health services; (ii) approaches based on enhancing direct political participation, including voter-registration programmes and development of larger, more effective interest groups and (iii) additional approaches, including increasing accountability throughout services

  14. Correctional officers and the incarcerated mentally ill: responses to psychiatric illness in prison.

    PubMed

    Galanek, Joseph D

    2015-03-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men's prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers' discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates' psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers' observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison's structures and values enable officers' discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates' behaviors. These officers' responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison's order. PMID:25219680

  15. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with chronic fatigue syndrome in veterans with Gulf War unexplained illnesses.

    PubMed

    Binder, L M; Storzbach, D; Campbell, K A; Rohlman, D S; Anger, W K

    2001-11-01

    Gulf War unexplained illnesses (GWUI) are a heterogeneous collection of symptoms of unknown origin known to be more common among veterans of the Gulf War than among nonveterans. In the present study we focused on one of these unexplained illnesses. We tested the hypothesis that in a sample of Persian Gulf War veterans chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) was associated with cognitive deficits on computerized cognitive testing after controlling for the effects of premorbid cognitive differences. We obtained Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) data acquired around the date of induction into the military on 94 veterans of the Gulf War, 32 with CFS and 62 healthy controls. Controls performed better than participants diagnosed with CFS on the AFQT. Cognitive deficits were associated with CFS on 3 of 8 variables after the effect of premorbid AFQT scores was removed with ANCOVA. PMID:11771626

  16. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    PubMed

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature. PMID:25133916

  17. Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

    2012-01-01

    Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

  18. Estimating the true global burden of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness. PMID:26851330

  19. Reinforcing stigmatization: coverage of mental illness in Spanish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Muntaner, Judit; Ceruelo, Santiago; Basora, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Because the media influences society's perceptions of reality, the treatment of mental illness in the news can have an effect on the societal stigma related to it. This study aimed to analyze the content and form of news items related to mental illness in Spanish newspapers in order to understand their role in propagating or attenuating stereotypes, prejudices, and stigma. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on the basis of a review of news items related to mental illness appearing in the Spanish print media. A sample was taken from articles published on the subject in the 20 Spanish newspapers with the widest circulations over the course of the year 2010. Formal elements and content were analyzed by means of a structured evaluation system. The authors analyzed 695 news items. The content of 47.9% (n = 333) of the articles was not strictly related to mental illness, but rather clinical or psychiatric terms were used metaphorically, and frequently in a pejorative sense. The remaining 52.1% (n = 362) consisted of news items related specifically to mental illness. Of these, news items linking mental illness to danger were the most common (178 texts, 49.2%), specifically those associating mental illness with violent crime (130 texts, 35.9%) or a danger to others (126 texts, 34.8%). The results confirm the hypothesis that the press treats mental illness in a manner that encourages stigmatization. The authors appeal to the press's responsibility to society and advocate an active role in reducing the stigma towards mental illness. PMID:24708534

  20. Police Encounters, Mental Illness and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Amy N.; Morabito, Melissa; Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational and individual factors predict injuries. Findings suggest that injuries during police calls involving persons with mental illness are infrequent and rarely require medical attention. Predictors of injuries in these calls are similar to those in police encounters with the general population. PMID:21113331

  1. Group treatment for parents of the adult mentally ill.

    PubMed

    McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C

    1982-07-01

    Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality. PMID:7106719

  2. Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core components of positive mental health: feelings of happiness and satisfaction with life (emotional well-being), positive individual functioning in terms of self-realization (psychological well-being), and positive societal functioning in terms of being of social value (social well-being). The two continua model holds that mental illness and mental health are related but distinct dimensions. This model was studied on the basis of a cross-sectional representative internet survey of Dutch adults (N = 1,340; 18–87 years). Mental illness was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and mental health with the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. It was found that older adults, except for the oldest-old, scored lower on psychopathological symptoms and were less likely to be mentally ill than younger adults. Although there were fewer age differences for mental health, older adults experienced more emotional, similar social and slightly lower psychological well-being. In sum, today’s older adults have fewer mental illness problems, but they are not in a better positive mental health than today’s younger adults. These findings support the validity of the two continua model in adult development. PMID:20502508

  3. Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Keyes, Corey L M

    2010-06-01

    Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core components of positive mental health: feelings of happiness and satisfaction with life (emotional well-being), positive individual functioning in terms of self-realization (psychological well-being), and positive societal functioning in terms of being of social value (social well-being). The two continua model holds that mental illness and mental health are related but distinct dimensions. This model was studied on the basis of a cross-sectional representative internet survey of Dutch adults (N = 1,340; 18-87 years). Mental illness was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and mental health with the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. It was found that older adults, except for the oldest-old, scored lower on psychopathological symptoms and were less likely to be mentally ill than younger adults. Although there were fewer age differences for mental health, older adults experienced more emotional, similar social and slightly lower psychological well-being. In sum, today's older adults have fewer mental illness problems, but they are not in a better positive mental health than today's younger adults. These findings support the validity of the two continua model in adult development. PMID:20502508

  4. Filicide: Mental Illness in Those Who Kill Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra M.; Shaw, Jenny J.; Abel, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. Method All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997–2006) were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. Results 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66%) perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27%) and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%), most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. Conclusion In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research. PMID:23593128

  5. Concepts of mental illness and medical pluralism in Harare.

    PubMed

    Patel, V; Musara, T; Butau, T; Maramba, P; Fuyane, S

    1995-05-01

    The Focus Group Discussions (FGD) described in this paper are the first step of a study aiming to develop an 'emic' case-finding instrument. In keeping with the realities of primary care in Zimbabwe, nine FGD were held with 76 care providers including 30 village community workers, 22 traditional and faith healers (collectively referred to as traditional healers in this paper), 15 relatives of patients and 9 community psychiatric nurses. In addition to the general facets of concepts of mental illness, three 'etic' case vignettes were also presented. A change in behaviour or ability to care for oneself emerged as the central definition of mental illness. Both the head and the heart were regarded as playing an important role in the mediation of emotions. The types of mental illness described were intimately related to beliefs about spiritual causation. Angered ancestral spirits, evil spirits and witchcraft were seen as potent causes of mental illness. Families not only bore the burden of caring for the patient and all financial expenses involved, but were also ostracized and isolated. Both biomedical and traditional healers could help mentally ill persons by resolving different issues relating to the same illness episode. All case vignettes were recognized by the care providers in their communities though many felt that the descriptions did not reflect 'illnesses' but social problems and that accordingly, the treatment for these was social, rather than medical. The data enabled us to develop screening criteria for mental illness to be used by traditional healers and primary care nurses in the next stage of the study in which patients selected by these care providers on the grounds of suspicion of suffering from mental illness will be interviewed to elicit their explanatory models of illness and phenomenology. PMID:7480429

  6. Attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students’ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students’. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115) and not exposed (n = 61) to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students’ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013) and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009) domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students’ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems. PMID:26167018

  7. Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, M. J; McKenzie, K.; Harpham, T.; Huttly, S.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: The concept of social capital has influenced mental health policies of nations and international organisations despite its limited evidence base. This papers aims to systematically review quantitative studies examining the association between social capital and mental illness. Design and setting: Twenty electronic databases and the reference sections of papers were searched to identify published studies. Authors of papers were contacted for unpublished work. Anonymised papers were reviewed by the authors of this paper. Papers with a validated mental illness outcome and an exposure variable agreed as measuring social capital were included. No limitations were put on date or language of publication. Main results: Twenty one studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Fourteen measured social capital at the individual level and seven at an ecological level. The former offered evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and common mental disorders. There was moderate evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and child mental illness, and combined measures of social capital and common mental disorders. The seven ecological studies were diverse in methodology, populations investigated, and mental illness outcomes, making them difficult to summarise. Conclusions: Individual and ecological social capital may measure different aspects of the social environment. Current evidence is inadequate to inform the development of specific social capital interventions to combat mental illness. PMID:16020636

  8. Attributions of Mental Illness: An Ethnically Diverse Community Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bignall, Whitney J Raglin; Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Although the prevalence of mental illness is similar across ethnic groups, a large disparity exists in the utilization of services. Mental health attributions, causal beliefs regarding the etiology of mental illness, may contribute to this disparity. To understand mental health attributions across diverse ethnic backgrounds, we conducted focus groups with African American (n = 8; 24 %), Asian American (n = 6; 18 %), Latino/Hispanic (n = 9; 26 %), and White (n = 11; 32 %) participants. We solicited attributions about 19 mental health disorders, each representing major sub-categories of the DSM-IV. Using a grounded theory approach, participant responses were categorized into 12 themes: Biological, Normalization, Personal Characteristic, Personal Choice, Just World, Spiritual, Family, Social Other, Environment, Trauma, Stress, and Diagnosis. Results indicate that ethnic minorities are more likely than Whites to mention spirituality and normalization causes. Understanding ethnic minority mental health attributions is critical to promote treatment-seeking behaviors and inform culturally responsive community-based mental health services. PMID:25536943

  9. Mentally Ill Still Gain Illegal Possession of Guns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk, added Swanson, a professor with Duke University School of Medicine's department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. Mental illness causes only a small fraction of gun violence in the United States, around 3 to 5 ...

  10. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  11. Comorbid mental illness and criminalness implications for housing and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Nicole R; Morgan, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between mental illness, violence, and criminal behavior is complex, and involves a multifaceted interaction of biological, psychological, and social processes. In this article, we review the emerging research that examines the neurobiological and psychological factors that distinguish between persons with mental illness who do and who do not engage in crime and violence. Additionally, a novel model for understanding the interaction between mental illness and criminalness is proposed. (As defined by Morgan and colleagues, criminalness is defined as behavior that breaks laws and social conventions and/or violates the rights and wellbeing of others.) Stemming from this model and outlined research, we argue that management and treatment approaches should target the co-occurring domains of mental illness and criminalness to improve criminal and psychiatric outcomes. Specifically, we discuss and propose effective housing (management) and biopsychosocial intervention strategies for improving outcomes. PMID:25953043

  12. Transitional care for seriously mentally ill persons: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda E; Gerson, Linda; Carbo, Cynthia

    2007-12-01

    This article reports the results of a pilot study of a nurse-based in-home transitional care intervention for seriously mentally ill persons. The goals of the intervention were to address the lack of continuity of care in existing programs and to meet the immediate postdischarge needs of severely mentally ill persons. This article focuses primarily on the applicability and feasibility of the intervention for this population, given the challenges of engaging seriously mentally ill patients in a community-based protocol and the complexity of their illnesses. Factors that are important to community adjustment postdischarge were identified: caregiver concerns and health status impeding illness management, lack of structure/involvement in daily activities, structural and functional factors affecting adherence, and presence of symptoms after discharge. Use of an advanced practice nurse to provide transitional care can offer an alternative to patients who might otherwise be left poorly treated or untreated in the community setting. PMID:18037440

  13. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  14. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  15. 75 FR 54028 - Technical Revisions To Conform With the Veterans' Mental Health Care Act of 2008 and Other Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN52 Technical Revisions To Conform With the Veterans' Mental Health Care... 2001; the Veterans Health Care, Capital Asset, and Business Improvement Act of 2003; and the Veterans' Mental Health and Other Care Improvements Act of 2008. DATES: Effective Date: October 4, 2010....

  16. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  17. A Psychoeducational Support Group for Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    2009-01-01

    The formation, structure, and goals of an open-ended psychoeducational support group for people with serious and persistent mental illnesses are described, differentiating psychoeducation from psychotherapy, and professional from peer-led support groups. Major goals are to provide education for illness management and help members combat social…

  18. An integrative review of the mental health of partners of veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Yambo, Teresa; Johnson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an integrative review of the mental health of veteran partners living with veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Living with a veteran with PTSD affects the psychological well-being and health outcomes of a veteran partner. Fourteen research articles that focused on the mental health of military partners, which directly influence the psychological well-being of veteran partners, were reviewed. Findings indicate that a range of mental health concerns exist among veteran partners living with veterans with PTSD. The mental well-being of veteran partners is affected by the emotional strain of living and caring for veterans with PTSD. For years, the partner's presence has been overlooked in the PTSD treatment. However, to promote the comprehensive health of veterans with PTSD, it is paramount to understand the mental health state of veteran partners. Understanding the mental health state of veteran partners will provide a broader perspective to the plight of veteran partners. PMID:24441511

  19. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  20. Serious Mental Illness in Florida Nursing Homes: Need for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Victor A.; Merritt, Stacy S.; Mills, Whitney L.; Chiriboga, David A.; Conboy, Ann; Hyer, Kathryn; Becker, Marion A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how the mental health needs of nursing home (NH) residents with serious mental illness (SMI) are addressed. Data were collected from three sources: interviews with 84 SMI stakeholders; surveys of 206 NH staff members; and focus groups at two psychiatry specialty NHs. Four common themes emerged: placement of older adults with…

  1. US Veterans' Use Of VA Mental Health Services And Disability Compensation Increased From 2001 To 2010.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    There has been concern about the capacity of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system to provide care for veterans returning from war zones in the Middle East and Afghanistan. We used two nationally representative surveys of US veterans in 2001 and 2010 to examine changes in the veteran population and veterans' use of health care services after a decade of war. The population was older and more diverse in 2010 than in 2001. In both years, veterans who served in the World War II era or earlier were more likely to have been exposed to combat-related trauma than veterans of more recent service eras. In 2010 veterans who served in the Persian Gulf War era (1990 through the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan) were more likely to have used VA mental health services and to have received VA disability compensation than veterans of previous service eras. Compared to veterans in 2001, those in 2010 were two times more likely to have used any VA health services and were more likely to have received VA disability compensation. These findings highlight changes in the veteran population over time that are important to consider in planning for future VA services. PMID:27269011

  2. Community Care for the Chronically Mentally Ill: Removing Barriers and Building Supports. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Rebecca T.

    1986-01-01

    The plight of the chronically mentally ill is discussed in this document. Chronic mental illness is defined as producing major impairments in functioning for an extended period of time. It is noted the chronically mentally ill are expected to negotiate a bureaucratic maze to receive help. The history of treatment of the mentally ill is traced from…

  3. "I'm Coming Home, Tell the World I'm Coming Home". The Long Homecoming and Mental Health Treatment of Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans.

    PubMed

    Rozanova, Julia; Noulas, Paraskevi; Smart, Kathleen; Roy, Alicia; Southwick, Steven M; Davidson, Larry; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    This study explored the journey of American armed forces personnel from their decision to join the service, through their service in an active military conflict and how these factors may be associated with potential resistance for mental healthcare. The data came from qualitative interviews with 46 OIF/OEF/OND active-duty military, reservists, and discharged veterans of the average age of 25 years, who presented for a new episode of mental health treatment to a large Veterans Affairs Hospital (VAH) in Northeastern United States in 2011-2012. Qualitative analysis of veterans' perceptions revealed several major themes describing how a mental health diagnosis would negatively impact both their sense of identity and pragmatic career-building goals: enlisting as a career-building avenue, 'noble superhero' identity, escaping from hardship, and mental illness as a career-killer. Findings suggest that factors making young veterans resist mental healthcare may be reduced by partnering VAH psychiatrists with career counselors, and by enhancing military leadership's awareness and understanding about how to support soldiers with emotional and mental health needs, with a goal to eliminating stigma. PMID:26566926

  4. A review of the role of illness models in severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Lobban, Fiona; Barrowclough, Christine; Jones, Steve

    2003-03-01

    The ways in which people think about illness experiences have been associated with a variety of important behaviours and emotional responses in patients, carers, and professionals. Some of these responses have been shown to be related to outcome. Explicit models such as the self-regulation model (SRM) [Leventhal, H., Nerenz, D. R., & Steele, D. F. (1984). Illness representations and coping with health threats. In A. Baum & J. Singer (Eds.), A handbook of psychology and health. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 219-252.] have been shown to be useful in highlighting key beliefs across a wide range of different physical illnesses. The specific beliefs about mental illness that have been assessed have been varied and largely without a common theoretical framework. This has resulted in a literature from which it is difficult to draw firm conclusions. The central aim of this paper is to assess the applicability of the SRM to mental illness. To this end, we review studies to date that have examined the beliefs that people with a mental illness have about their experiences. In addition, we review studies that have examined the beliefs of relatives of people with a mental illness and professionals who work with this population. We assess to what extent these studies are consistent with the SRM before suggesting ways in which the model could be further developed and tested. The SRM is presented as a useful framework for more advanced investigations into the function of beliefs about mental illness and how these can be modified in order to effect outcome. Developing psychological theories common to both physical and mental health may eventually result in an integrated approach in which mental illness becomes less stigmatised within the treatment setting. PMID:12573669

  5. Mental hospital reform in Asia: the case of Yuli Veterans Hospital, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Ai-Ling; Minas, Harry; Cohen, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Background Yuli Veterans Hospital (YVH) has been the largest mental hospital for the patients with chronic and severe mental illness in Taiwan for the past 50 years. While this hospital used to be a symbol of hopelessness among patients and their families and an unspoken shame among Taiwan psychiatry and mental health circles it now represents an example of how an old, custodial hospital can be transformed into a very different institution. In this case study we will describe the features of this transformation, which, over the past 20 years, has aimed to help extended stay inpatients with severe mental illness to integrate into the local community of Yuli even though it is not their original home. Methods Using historical documents and oral narratives from Yuli inhabitants, workers and patients of YVH, we will offer a case study of the Yuli model. Results There are four main components of the Yuli model: holistic medical support, vocational rehabilitation, case management, and the residential program. The four components help patients recover two essential features of their lives: vocational life and ordinary daily routines. As the process of recovery evolves, patients gradually regain inner stability, dignity, self-confidence, and a sense of control. The four components are critical to rebuild the structure and order of life of the patients and are indispensable and interdependent parts of one service package. They operate simultaneously to benefit the patients to the greatest degree possible. Discussion There are many challenges to the further development and financial viability of the model of services developed at YVH. There are also important questions concerning the replicability of the Yuli model in other sociocultural and service system contexts. Conclusion This case study reveals the possibility of transforming a custodial mental hospital into a hospital providing high quality care. Hospital and community are not in opposition. They are part of a

  6. Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise

    2015-11-01

    The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives. PMID:25300675

  7. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  8. Effects of a Unit in Mental Health on Rural Adolescents' Attitudes about Seeking Help and Concepts of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.; And Others

    One factor thought to contribute to the underutilization of mental health services, especially among rural Americans, is the stigma attached to mental illness and the associated help seeking process. This study investigated the effects of an instructional unit on mental illness and related issues on rural adolescents' concept of mental illness and…

  9. Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected People with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Stephens-Shield, Alisa J; Momplaisir, Florence; Taylor, Lynne; Gross, Robert; Dubé, Benoit; Glanz, Karen; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-08-01

    Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008-2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (≥2 primary HIV visits separated by ≥90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection drug use, CD4 count, and calendar year. Of 730 HIV-infected persons, representative of 9409 persons in care for HIV in Philadelphia, 49.0 % had mental illness. In adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences in retention (91.3 vs. 90.3 %; AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63-2.56) and prescription of ART (83.2 vs. 88.7 %; AOR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.49-1.25) between those with and without mental illness. However, mentally ill patients were less likely to achieve viral suppression than those without mental illness (65.9 vs. 74.4 %; AOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.46-0.90). These findings argue for the need to optimize ART adherence in this population. PMID:25931243

  10. Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected People with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Stephens-Shield, Alisa J.; Momplaisir, Florence; Taylor, Lynne; Gross, Robert; Dubé, Benoit; Glanz, Karen; Brady, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008–2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (≥2 primary HIV visits separated by ≥90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection drug use, CD4 count, and calendar year. Of 730 HIV-infected persons, representative of 9409 persons in care for HIV in Philadelphia, 49.0 % had mental illness. In adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences in retention (91.3 vs. 90.3 %; AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63–2.56) and prescription of ART (83.2 vs. 88.7 %; AOR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.49–1.25) between those with and without mental illness. However, mentally ill patients were less likely to achieve viral suppression than those without mental illness (65.9 vs. 74.4 %; AOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.46–0.90). These findings argue for the need to optimize ART adherence in this population. PMID:25931243

  11. 250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Diana; Thornicroft, Graham; Pinfold, Vanessa; Kassam, Aliya

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma against people with mental illness is a major barrier to help-seeking in young people for mental health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of stigma in relation to treatment avoidance in 14 year-old school students in England in relation to how they refer to people with mental illness. Methods This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. The data were gathered as part of the baseline assessment for an intervention study intended to reduce stigma among 14 year old school students. The participating schools were two grammar (selective) schools and three comprehensive (non-selective) schools. At the start of the lesson, the students were asked 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' Words and terms used to refer to mental illness were enumerated. Using the grounded theory approach, words and terms were grouped in terms of their denotative and connotative meanings. Labels were then derived to capture the key themes attached by the students to the concepts of mental illness. The frequencies of occurrence for each word were also tabulated. Results 400 of the 472 participating students (85%) provided 250 words and terms to describe a person with mental illness. Five themes were identified from the data. The first theme called 'popular derogatory terms' (116 items) accounted for nearly half of the words examined. The second theme occurred less often and was described as 'negative emotional state' (61 items). The third theme demonstrated the confusion of young people between physical disabilities, learning difficulties and mental health problems (38 items). The use of psychiatric diagnoses (15 items) and terms related to violence (9 items) were unexpectedly uncommon. Conclusion Our findings suggest the hypothesis that help-seeking by mentally ill young people may be improved by interventions that address both their lack of factual information about

  12. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Adult Veterans: Online Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. Objective In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Methods Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. Results We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more

  13. Mental health utilization of new-to-care Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans following suicidal ideation assessment.

    PubMed

    Denneson, Lauren M; Corson, Kathryn; Helmer, Drew A; Bair, Matthew J; Dobscha, Steven K

    2014-07-30

    We evaluated the impact of brief structured suicidal ideation (SI) assessments on mental health care among new-to-care Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans. National datasets provided military, demographic, and clinical information. For all new-to-care OEF/OIF veterans administered depression screens (PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and structured SI assessments in primary care or ambulatory mental health settings of three Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers between April 2008 and September 2009 (N=465), generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between SI and number of subsequent-year specialty mental health visits and antidepressant prescriptions. Approximately one-third of the veterans reported SI. In multivariate models, PTSD and anxiety diagnoses, severe depression symptoms, being married, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with more mental health visits in the subsequent year. Depression, PTSD, and anxiety diagnoses, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with receiving antidepressants. Presence of SI did not significantly affect subsequent year mental health utilization when adjusting for diagnostic and clinician variables, but inaugural visits involving mental health clinicians were consistently associated with subsequent mental health care. PMID:24726814

  14. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  15. Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-09-01

    People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

  16. Mental Illness Sexual Stigma: Implications for Health and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, Milton L.; Cournos, Francine; Wall, Melanie M.; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Pinto, Diana; Pinho, Veronica; McKinnon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Among people in psychiatric care worldwide, the majority is sexually active, and sharply elevated rates of HIV infection compared to the general population have been shown. Recovery-oriented treatment does not routinely address sexuality. We examined the relationship between gender, severe mental illness diagnosis, and stigma experiences related to sexuality among people in psychiatric outpatient care. Method 641 sexually active adults attending eight public outpatient psychiatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed for psychiatric diagnosis and stigma experiences. Stigma mechanisms well established in the literature but not previously examined in relation to sexuality were measured with the Mental Illness Sex Stigma Questionnaire, a 27-item interview about stigma in sexual situations and activities. Results Experiences of stigma were reported by a majority of participants for 48% of questionnaire items. Most people reported supportive attitudes toward their sexuality from providers and family members. Those with severe mental illness diagnoses showed greater stigma on Individual Discrimination and Structural Stigma mechanisms than those with non-severe mental illness diagnoses, while there was no difference on the Social Psychological Processes (internalized stigma) mechanism. Regardless of diagnosis or gender, a majority of participants devalued themselves as sexual partners. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Adults in psychiatric outpatient care frequently reported stigma experiences related to aspects of their sexual lives. From the perspectives of both HIV prevention and recovery from mental illness, examining the consequences of stigma in the sexual lives of people in psychiatric care and improving their measurement would have wide applicability. PMID:27030909

  17. The status of the mentally ill in Jewish law.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y A

    1993-01-01

    The Jewish law goes into great detail discussing the status of the mentally ill. There are many aspects to this question over and above the legal aspects of such a person's rights, obligations, doing business, etc. What is the Halachic approach to a mentally ill person in general? Is this person subject to the code of Jewish law the same as the normal Jew? Should we make an effort to help this type of person fulfil the commandments and prevent him or her from transgressing them or perhaps since such a person is incapable of controlling his or her behaviour, there is no purpose in these efforts? Marriage and divorce are other serious issues to which the Jewish law gives special attention in this context. Marriage must be entered into by a rational and judicious person or the act will not be valid. A very serious problem arises when a husband is mentally ill and due to that halachically cannot divorce his wife and she remains an Agunah. The situation is more complicated as the definition of mentally ill encompasses a broader spectrum of cases. Which psychiatric disorders come under the definition of a mentally ill person who is unable to control his or her behaviour? Which symptoms attest the inability of a person to enter into marriage or to grant a divorce? The Talmud discusses these matters in several places and the Halacha bases its rulings on their conclusions. PMID:8231701

  18. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. Methods We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Results Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Conclusions Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture. PMID:21079911

  19. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, S J

    1992-01-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  20. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed

    Gold, S J

    1992-09-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  1. Multidisciplinary team perspectives on older adult hoarding and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Terry L; Leiste, Matthew R; Spano, Richard; Chapin, Rosemary K

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined multidisciplinary team members' perspectives of their involvement in older adult hoarding cases. Fifteen informants, as representatives of four hoarding teams, described cases in which teams did or did not work well together. Specifically, informants described their (a) team characteristics, (b) awareness of hoarding as a mental health illness, (c) barriers to providing mental health services for older adults who hoard, and (d) components of successful teamwork within the team and with the older adult as hoarder. Implications include research to better guide interventions, team training to develop common perspectives, and policy development that supports mental health representation on teams and in-home mental health treatment. PMID:23289417

  2. Mental Illness and Prisoners: Concerns for Communities and Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The United States prison system is the largest in the world. Mental illness is disproportionately represented within this system where half of all incarcerated individuals have a mental illness, compared to 11% of the population. Four of 10 inmates released from prison recidivate and are re-incarcerated within three years. A social hypothesis suggests recidivism is the result of compounding social factors. Mentally ill individuals often find themselves in less than ideal circumstances of compounding social factors such as illicit substances and unemployment. Prison life may provide improved social situations and a rehabilitating environment, yet corrections often fall short of meeting acceptable standards of healthcare. This article provides a brief overview of healthcare in the corrections environment and discusses factors that affect mental healthcare in prisons, such as characteristics of the prison population and social policy. The article also addresses factors impacting mentally ill persons who are incarcerated, including access and barriers to mental health treatment and efforts to reduce recidivism. PMID:26824261

  3. A Comparison of Sleep Difficulties among Iraq/Afghanistan Theater Veterans with and without Mental Health Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Christi S.; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; Germain, Anne E.; Voils, Corrine I.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Illness Research Education and Clinical Center Registry Workgroup. A comparison of sleep difficulties among Iraq/Afghanistan theater veterans with and without mental health diagnoses. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(9):995–1005. PMID:26094928

  4. South African Hindu psychologists' perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, Priyanka; Laher, Sumaya

    2014-04-01

    Conceptualisations of mental illness are not universally applicable, as culture shapes the expression, perceptions and treatment preferences thereof. By focusing on the perceptions of Hindu psychologists regarding mental illness, this study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that religious beliefs have on such conceptualisations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Hindu psychologists around the Johannesburg area, South Africa. Responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. From the findings, it was evident that religion plays a critical role in the understanding and treatment of mental illness. Hindu beliefs around psychological disturbances were salient. Additionally, it was found that a tension existed between psychologists' awareness of the influential function of religion, particularly amongst collectivistic communities such as the Hindu community, and their occupational understandings and practices, which are deeply rooted in Western thought. Furthermore, it was suggested that the fear of stigma prevented Hindu clients from reaping the benefits of seeking help from culturally competent psychologists. PMID:23054478

  5. Therapeutic factors in a group for parents with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Kalivatz, Zvi; Amir, Yael; Aldor, Roy; Lipot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Parents with mental illness face many parenting related challenges that are exacerbated by the lack of services focusing on these needs. A study was conducted with 35 persons who participated in a group for parents with mental illness in Israel in order to examine the parenting related concerns the participants might bring up in a group modality, and the therapeutic factors in the group process. The findings illuminate the centrality of the parenting role in the participants lives and the value of the group modality as a tool enabling the participants to reveal their vulnerabilities. The therapeutic factors at work in the group, such as, imparting information, interpersonal learning, socialization techniques helped them deal with the difficulties of fulfilling their parenting roles at the same time they cope with their own mental illness. PMID:24962269

  6. Mental illness and mental health: is the glass half empty or half full?

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2012-11-01

    During the past century, the scope of mental health intervention in North America has gradually expanded from an initial focus on hospitalized patients with psychoses to outpatients with neurotic disorders, including the so-called worried well. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, is further embracing the concept of a mental illness spectrum, such that increasing attention to the softer end of the continuum can be expected in the future. This anticipated shift rekindles important questions about how mental illness is defined, how to distinguish between mental disorders and normal reactions, whether psychiatry is guilty of prevalence inflation, and when somatic therapies should be used to treat problems of living. Such debates are aptly illustrated by the example of complicated bereavement, which is best characterized as a form of adjustment disorder. Achieving an overarching definition of mental illness is challenging, owing to the many different contexts in which DSM diagnoses are used. Careful analyses of such contextual utility must inform future decisions about what ends up in DSM, as well as how mental illness is defined by public health policy and society at large. A viable vision for the future of psychiatry should include a spectrum model of mental health (as opposed to exclusively mental illness) that incorporates graded, evidence-based interventions delivered by a range of providers at each point along its continuum. PMID:23149280

  7. Challenging claims that mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining.

    PubMed

    Busfield, Joan

    2012-08-01

    There has been a tendency by some social scientists and the media to claim that in advanced western societies like Britain and the US mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining over the period since the Second World War. In this paper I consider the evidence that is invoked in making such claims, along with the counter-evidence. In order to assess the evidence it is essential to take account of the different ways mental illness and mental well-being are measured and the definitions the measures embed. I argue that when the findings from studies using similar measures at different points in time are compared, there is little evidence of consistent secular increases in mental illness or declines in mental well-being. I suggest that such claims are encouraged by two main factors: first and most importantly, the major changes that have occurred in the official boundaries of mental disorder over the post-war period, which have also changed the ideas and perceptions of professionals and the public about mental health and illness; and second, the ready way in which data on mental health and illness can be used to support criticism of certain features of present-day society. PMID:22591824

  8. Advocating for children and adolescents with mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Ptakowski, Kristin Kroeger

    2010-01-01

    The mental health community has made tremendous strides in eradicating stigma, demanding policy change, and improving the lives of children and adolescents with mental illnesses, accomplished through advocacy at all government levels and assisted by community involvement. However, addressing access to care for children and adolescents with mental illnesses is still challenging. Legislators are often unaware of children's mental health issues. Advocacy includes working directly with legislators and policy makers, working with a school's administration to meet the unique needs of the child, appealing against the managed care company's denial of specific treatment or formulary approval, and educating and collaborating with primary care physicians. Three principles need to be understood: change takes time, persistence is absolute, and compromise is inevitable. PMID:19951812

  9. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill

    PubMed Central

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic “hands-on” scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues. PMID:25642196

  10. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  11. Physical and Mental Health and Access to Care among Nonmetropolitan Veterans Health Administration Patients Younger than 65 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alan; Weeks, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The 4.5 million military veterans treated by the Veterans Health Administration (VA) are believed to experience poorer physical and mental health than nonveterans. Furthermore, nonmetropolitan residents have less access to medical services, whether or not they are veterans in VA care. A direct comparison of metropolitan and…

  12. Psychometric analysis of the Mental Health Recovery Measure in a sample of veterans with depression.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Kristen M; Nelson, C Beau; Ganoczy, Dara; Zivin, Kara; Brandfon, Samantha; Walters, Heather; Cohen, Jay L; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-05-01

    Using data from a sample of 398 veterans diagnosed with depression, the present study used principal components analysis to shorten the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM) to a 10-item instrument. Results indicated the 10-item MHRM had excellent internal reliability. Construct validity for the 10-item MHRM was evidenced by correlations with measures of depression coping self-efficacy, social adjustment, hopelessness, and depression. The 10-item MHRM derived in the present study was compared with a 10-item version of the MHRM that was previously empirically derived in a sample of veterans with schizophrenia (Armstrong, Cohen, Hellemann, Reist, & Young, 2014). Results suggest that similar items represent the underlying construct of recovery for veterans with depression and veterans with schizophrenia. Veterans with depression reported lower average levels of recovery than veterans with schizophrenia. Study limitations, directions for future investigations, and the implications of routine assessment of mental health recovery in public mental health systems are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148954

  13. Mental Illness Discrimination in Mental Health Treatment Programs: Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Holley, Lynn C; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y; Stromwall, Layne K

    2016-04-01

    People with mental illnesses (PWMI) who are of color and/or lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) experience mental health disparities, including within mental health treatment programs (MHTPs). Informed by a critical framework with attention to intersectionality and microaggressions, this qualitative study asked 20 PWMI and family members who also are of color and/or LGB whether they had experienced mental illness discrimination in MHTPs, a possible factor in disparities. We also asked participants about aspects of MHTPs that supported recovery. Participants reported that they were ignored/not listened to, not viewed as complex individuals, experienced condescension/lack of respect and violations of privacy or other rights, and were presumed to lack intelligence. In addition, identifying mental illness discrimination was complex due to intersections of identities. Despite these perceptions of discrimination, participants described supportive aspects of MHTPs. Implications for practice and research are offered. PMID:26797761

  14. 38 CFR 63.3 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VA health care under 38 CFR 17.36 or 17.37; and (3) Have a serious mental illness and/or substance... worker, or addiction specialist). (b) Priority veterans. In allocating HCHV program resources, VA...

  15. 38 CFR 63.3 - Eligible veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VA health care under 38 CFR 17.36 or 17.37; and (3) Have a serious mental illness and/or substance... worker, or addiction specialist). (b) Priority veterans. In allocating HCHV program resources, VA...

  16. Exploring Mental Illness through a Poetry Writing Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    An atypical and challenging writing assignment for courses in general or abnormal psychology is to ask the students to write a poem about the experience of mental illness. The format, length, and topic are left entirely up to the student. While shocked at first, students rose to the challenge after being told they would be judged on content and…

  17. Child Custody Loss among Women with Persistent Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzed quantitative data from an NIMH-funded longitudinal study of 322 women with persistent severe mental illness (SMI) and qualitative data from semistructured interviews with 82 of the women who ever lost custody of a child. The purpose was to test the hypothesis, derived from human ecology theory, that individual and environmental…

  18. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  19. Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental…

  20. The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

  1. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  2. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  3. Ethical Considerations for People Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Richard; Markos, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an ethical analysis of the important issues surrounding the involuntary institutionalization of people who are homeless and mentally ill (HMI) in the United States. The legal, economic, and moral implications of state-sponsored involuntary institutionalization of people who are HMI are considered. An ethical decision-making…

  4. Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

  5. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  6. Medications Frequently Used To Treat Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danser, Helen Lisanby

    The manual is intended to assist the rehabilitation professional in planning services for persons with disabilities, such as long-term mental illness, which require treatment with medication, especially psychotropic medications. The compilation of data groups similar medications together and includes such information as purpose of medication, side…

  7. The Depiction of Mental Illnesses in Children's Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel

    2007-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…

  8. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  9. Facts on Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Nancy; Reilly, Phyllis

    Individuals are considered mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) when they exhibit psychotic behaviors and are actively abusing alcohol and/or drugs; are actively psychotic with a history of alcohol or drug abuse; and/or are actively abusing alcohol or other drugs and have a history of severe psychiatric diagnoses. Although some practitioners use…

  10. Smoking cessation and reduction in people with chronic mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mollie E

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of cigarette smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in people with chronic mental illness is well documented. This review summarizes results from studies of smoking cessation treatments in people with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It also summarizes experimental studies aimed at identifying biopsychosocial mechanisms that underlie the high smoking rates seen in people with these disorders. Research indicates that smokers with chronic mental illness can quit with standard cessation approaches with minimal effects on psychiatric symptoms. Although some studies have noted high relapse rates, longer maintenance on pharmacotherapy reduces rates of relapse without untoward effects on psychiatric symptoms. Similar biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be involved in the initiation and persistence of smoking in patients with different disorders. An appreciation of these common factors may aid the development of novel tobacco treatments for people with chronic mental illness. Novel nicotine and tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and very low nicotine content cigarettes may also be used to improve smoking cessation rates in people with chronic mental illness. PMID:26391240

  11. From sin to science: fighting the stigmatization of mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather

    2012-08-01

    Our paper provides an overview of current stigma discourse, the origins and nature of the stigma associated with mental illnesses, stigmatization by health providers, and approaches to stigma reduction. This is a narrative review focusing on seminal works from the social and psychological literature, with selected qualitative and quantitative studies and international policy documents to highlight key points. Stigma discourse has increasingly moved toward a human rights model that views stigma as a form of social oppression resulting from a complex sociopolitical process that exploits and entrenches the power imbalance between people who stigmatize and those who are stigmatized. People who have a mental illness have identified mental health and health providers as key contributors to the stigmatization process and worthy targets of antistigma interventions. Six approaches to stigma reduction are described: education, protest, contact-based education, legislative reform, advocacy, and stigma self-management. Stigma denigrates the value of people who have a mental illness and the social and professional support systems designed to support them. It creates inequities in funding and service delivery that undermine recovery and full social participation. Mental health professionals have often been identified as part of the problem, but they can redress this situation by becoming important partners in antistigma work. PMID:22854027

  12. Behavioral Patterns in Mental Health and Mental Illness--Adults: PT IIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Lori

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Patterns in Mental Health and Mental Illness--Adults," a course for nursing and psychiatric technician students on psychopathology, the dynamics of psychiatric disorders, and the behavioral patterns associated with these disorders. A glossary of instruction-related terms is followed by a course description,…

  13. Discontinuation of Neuroleptics in Community-Dwelling Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-eight community-dwelling individuals with mental retardation and mental illness were discontinued from neuroleptics. Those with a psychotic disorder were significantly more likely to be restarted on neuroleptics at 3 months and 12 months. Not having a history of delusions was significantly associated with remaining neuroleptic-free at 3…

  14. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  15. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less

  16. A study of psychiatrists' concepts of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Harland, R.; Antonova, E.; Owen, G. S.; Broome, M.; Landau, S.; Deeley, Q.; Murray, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background There are multiple models of mental illness that inform professional and lay understanding. Few studies have formally investigated psychiatrists' attitudes. We aimed to measure how a group of trainee psychiatrists understand familiar mental illnesses in terms of propositions drawn from different models. Method We used a questionnaire study of a sample of trainees from South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust designed to assess attitudes across eight models of mental illness (e.g. biological, psychodynamic) and four psychiatric disorders. Methods for analysing repeated measures and a principal components analysis (PCA) were used. Results No one model was endorsed by all respondents. Model endorsement varied with disorder. Attitudes to schizophrenia were expressed with the greatest conviction across models. Overall, the ‘biological’ model was the most strongly endorsed. The first three components of the PCA (interpreted as dimensions around which psychiatrists, as a group, understand mental illness) accounted for 56% of the variance. Each main component was classified in terms of its distinctive combination of statements from different models: PC1 33% biological versus non-biological; PC2 12% ‘eclectic’ (combining biological, behavioural, cognitive and spiritual models); and PC3 10% psychodynamic versus sociological. Conclusions Trainee psychiatrists are most committed to the biological model for schizophrenia, but in general are not exclusively committed to any one model. As a group, they organize their attitudes towards mental illness in terms of a biological/non-biological contrast, an ‘eclectic’ view and a psychodynamic/sociological contrast. Better understanding of how professional group membership influences attitudes may facilitate better multidisciplinary working. PMID:19091161

  17. Postmortem Brain: An Underutilized Substrate for Studying Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    McCullumsmith, Robert E; Hammond, John H; Shan, Dan; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2014-01-01

    We propose that postmortem tissue is an underutilized substrate that may be used to translate genetic and/or preclinical studies, particularly for neuropsychiatric illnesses with complex etiologies. Postmortem brain tissues from subjects with schizophrenia have been extensively studied, and thus serve as a useful vehicle for illustrating the challenges associated with this biological substrate. Schizophrenia is likely caused by a combination of genetic risk and environmental factors that combine to create a disease phenotype that is typically not apparent until late adolescence. The complexity of this illness creates challenges for hypothesis testing aimed at understanding the pathophysiology of the illness, as postmortem brain tissues collected from individuals with schizophrenia reflect neuroplastic changes from a lifetime of severe mental illness, as well as treatment with antipsychotic medications. While there are significant challenges with studying postmortem brain, such as the postmortem interval, it confers a translational element that is difficult to recapitulate in animal models. On the other hand, data derived from animal models typically provide specific mechanistic and behavioral measures that cannot be generated using human subjects. Convergence of these two approaches has led to important insights for understanding molecular deficits and their causes in this illness. In this review, we discuss the problem of schizophrenia, review the common challenges related to postmortem studies, discuss the application of biochemical approaches to this substrate, and present examples of postmortem schizophrenia studies that illustrate the role of the postmortem approach for generating important new leads for understanding the pathophysiology of severe mental illness. PMID:24091486

  18. Public Policy and Mental Illnesses: Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Grob, Gerald N

    2005-01-01

    President Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health was intended to recommend policies to overcome obvious deficiencies in the mental health system. Bureaucratic rivalries within and between governments; tensions and rivalries within the mental health professions; identity and interest group politics; the difficulties of distinguishing the respective etiological roles of such elements as poverty, racism, stigmatization, and unemployment; and an illusory faith in prevention all influenced the commission's deliberations and subsequent enactment of the short-lived Mental Health Systems Act. The commission's work led to the formulation of the influential National Plan for the Chronically Mentally Ill, but a system of care and treatment for persons with serious mental illnesses was never created. PMID:16201999

  19. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  20. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Caroline R; Faulkner, Guy; McDevitt, Judith; Skrinar, Gary S; Hutchinson, Dori S; Piette, John D

    2005-03-01

    This article reviews evidence supporting the need for interventions to promote physical activity among persons with serious mental illness. Principles of designing effective physical activity interventions are discussed along with ways to adapt such interventions for this population. Individuals with serious mental illness are at high risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary behavior, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The effects of lifestyle modification on chronic disease outcomes are large and consistent across multiple studies. Evidence for the psychological benefits for clinical populations comes from two meta-analyses of outcomes of depressed patients that showed that effects of exercise were similar to those of psychotherapeutic interventions. Exercise can also alleviate secondary symptoms such as low self-esteem and social withdrawal. Although structured group programs can be effective for persons with serious mental illness, especially walking programs, lifestyle changes that focus on accumulation of moderate-intensity activity throughout the day may be most appropriate. Research suggests that exercise is well accepted by people with serious mental illness and is often considered one of the most valued components of treatment. Adherence to physical activity interventions appears comparable to that in the general population. Mental health service providers can provide effective, evidence-based physical activity interventions for individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:15746508

  1. Methodology and mental illness: resistance and restorying.

    PubMed

    Fisher, P; Freshwater, D

    2014-04-01

    Concerns with social justice have been traditionally associated with a modernist concept of the individual whose actions express an underlying, essential and unified self. This paper compares the usefulness of two methodologies (post-structuralist and narrative) that are based on a rejection of identity of a unified self and compares their usefulness in relation to the development of a social justice paradigm within mental health. It considers how professional forms of knowledge may be deconstructed by post-structural analyses, arguing that these have also been used by service users to articulate more enabling discursive alternatives. The notion of agency is central to our understanding of social justice. We question the commonly held assumption that although post-structuralism deconstructs power and challenges its legitimacy, it is nevertheless unsuited to facilitating the necessary agency to put forward viable alternatives. The second half of the paper considers how narrative research offers greater emancipatory potential by enabling the research subject to author their stories and thereby brings about their own subjective transformation. Nevertheless, the interpretation of people's stories by researchers may result in the imposition of narrative templates that erase complexities and contribute to the perpetuation of oppression. This raises ethical implications in relation to how people's stories are interpreted. PMID:23578326

  2. Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert D.; Flora, David B.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender’s ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted. PMID:22471384

  3. Choice of health insurance by families of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Deb, P; Wilcox-Gök, V; Holmes, A; Rubin, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates whether choice of health insurance is influenced by the perceived mental and physical health of family members among a sample of policy-holders with private health insurance. A multinomial probit model of the choice among major medical coverage only, traditional full coverage, and coverage through a health maintenance organization is estimated. Results indicate that the presence of at least one family member who rates his or her general health as poor does not affect the policy-holder's choice of health insurance. However, the presence of at least one family member considered at risk of mental illness does in some instances affect the policy-holder's choice of health insurance: We observe significant effects for policy-holders who are female, black, have some college education, work for a large firm, and live in an urban area. These findings suggest that adverse selection may arise when individuals are able to choose between health insurance policies with different degrees of coverage for mental health care and that such effects are far more pronounced for those people who consider themselves at risk for mental illness than physical illness. PMID:8653192

  4. Photovoice in mental illness research: A review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Han, Christina S; Oliffe, John L

    2016-03-01

    In the past few decades, photovoice research has gained prominence, providing context rich insights through participants' photographs and narratives. Emergent within the field of photovoice research have been health studies embracing diverse illness issues. The goal of this scoping review article was to describe the use of photovoice in mental illness, paying particular attention to the following: (1) the study design and methods, (2) empirical findings, and (3) dissemination strategies. Nine qualitative studies (seven drawing from primary and two secondary analyses) featuring diverse approaches to analysis of data comprising individual and/or focus group interviews using participant-produced photographs were included in the review. Described were participant's experiences of living with mental illness and/or substance overuse, including feelings of loneliness and being marginalized, along with their support care needs (e.g. physical, emotional, and spiritual) to garner self-confidence, respite, and/or recovery. Empirically, the reviewed articles confirmed the value of participant-produced photographs for obtaining in-depth understandings about individual's mental illness experiences while a focus on stigma and recovery was prominent. In terms of dissemination, while most of the published articles shared some participants' photographs and narratives, less evident were strategies to actively engage the public or policymakers with the images. Recommendations for future photovoice research include conducting formal analyses of participant photographs and strategically lobbying policymakers and raising public awareness through virtual and "in person" photo exhibitions while de-stigmatizing and affirming the experiences of those who are challenged by mental illness. PMID:25673051

  5. Photovoice in mental illness research: A review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Christina S; Oliffe, John L

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, photovoice research has gained prominence, providing context rich insights through participants’ photographs and narratives. Emergent within the field of photovoice research have been health studies embracing diverse illness issues. The goal of this scoping review article was to describe the use of photovoice in mental illness, paying particular attention to the following: (1) the study design and methods, (2) empirical findings, and (3) dissemination strategies. Nine qualitative studies (seven drawing from primary and two secondary analyses) featuring diverse approaches to analysis of data comprising individual and/or focus group interviews using participant-produced photographs were included in the review. Described were participant’s experiences of living with mental illness and/or substance overuse, including feelings of loneliness and being marginalized, along with their support care needs (e.g. physical, emotional, and spiritual) to garner self-confidence, respite, and/or recovery. Empirically, the reviewed articles confirmed the value of participant-produced photographs for obtaining in-depth understandings about individual’s mental illness experiences while a focus on stigma and recovery was prominent. In terms of dissemination, while most of the published articles shared some participants’ photographs and narratives, less evident were strategies to actively engage the public or policymakers with the images. Recommendations for future photovoice research include conducting formal analyses of participant photographs and strategically lobbying policymakers and raising public awareness through virtual and “in person” photo exhibitions while de-stigmatizing and affirming the experiences of those who are challenged by mental illness. PMID:25673051

  6. [Psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness: past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ferretti, José María

    2011-01-01

    The use of psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness has evolved through Modernity. In the last century, indefinite and involuntary committal was a widespread practice but has now become an extraordinary and short-term therapeutic recourse. Even though law experts, doctors and other mental health professionals agree on the benefits of this shift, in practice there are disagreements rooted in the shortcomings of health service providers. The current medical and legal criteria for hospitalization of patients with mental disorders should move away from the concept of endangerment and embrace therapeutic procedures and social care. New contemporary challenges, such as drugs and violence, require the implementation of a social strategy that is more comprehensive than medical treatment. This article presents a series of case studies describing the circumstances that led to the hospitalization of mental health patients, mostly in the city of Buenos Aires. PMID:22091456

  7. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  8. Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

  9. The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

  10. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The program…