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Sample records for mercaptoethanol

  1. Hydrodynamic properties of 2-mercaptoethanol-modified glycogen.

    PubMed

    Geddes, R; Harvey, J D; Wills, P R

    1977-12-01

    Treatment of glycogen with 2-mercaptoethanol and iodoacetamide gives rise to a modified glycogen which resembles the original glycogen in its hydrodynamic behaviour but has a pronounced tendency to aggregate. The modified glycogen can be distinguished easily, by its diffusion coefficient, from glycogen degraded by more traditional methods of extraction. The 'fundamental' glycogen particle appears to be composed of two or three glycogen beta-particles linked by a single protein chain. PMID:598377

  2. Urea-Mercaptoethanol-Soluble Protein from Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis and Other Species

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, H. J.; Delafield, F. P.; Rittenberg, S. C.

    1970-01-01

    Treatment with urea-mercaptoethanol of purified spores of Bacillus thuringiensis, other Bacillus species, and Clostridium roseum solubilizes a protein fraction between 5 and 12% of the dry weight of the spores. This fraction behaves identically to the crystal protein of B. thuringiensis on acrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The protein from all of the Bacillus species shows partial homology with crystal protein, using the Ouchterlony immunodiffusion technique. A further fraction, similar in amount, can be removed from spores of B. thuringiensis by the addition of sodium lauryl sulfate to the urea-mercaptoethanol. Spores of B. thuringiensis extracted in these ways show no difference when compared to untreated spores with respect to viability or resistance to heat and ultraviolet-irradiation. The extracted spores do show differences in their germination requirements and their susceptibility to phase-darkening by lysozyme. It is concluded that an urea-mercaptoethanol-soluble protein or class of protein is a widespread component of bacterial spores, possibly located in the spore coat, and that this protein may be related to the crystal protein of B. thuringiensis. Images PMID:4984077

  3. Effects of thiol antioxidant β-mercaptoethanol on diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siu; Kirkland, James L.; Schwanz, Heidi A.; Simmons, Amber L.; Hamilton, James A.; Corkey, Barbara E.; Guo, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Aims Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increased oxidant stress. However, treatments of obese subjects with different types of antioxidants often give mixed outcomes. In this work, we sought to determine if long-term supplementation of a thiol antioxidant, β-mercaptoethanol, to diet-induced obese mice may improve their health conditions. Main Methods Middle-age mice with pre-existing diet-induced obesity were provided with low concentration β-mercaptoethanol (BME) in drinking water for six months. Animals were assessed for body composition, gripping strength, spontaneous physical and metabolic activities, as well as insulin and pyruvate tolerance tests. Markers of inflammation were assessed in plasma, fat tissue, and liver. Key findings BME-treated mice gained less fat mass and more lean mass than the control animals. They also showed increased nocturnal locomotion and respiration, as well as greater gripping strength. BME reduced plasma lipid peroxidation, decreased abdominal fat tissue inflammation, reduced fat infiltration into muscle and liver, and reduced liver and plasma C-reactive protein. However, BME was found to desensitize insulin signaling in vivo, an effect also confirmed by in vitro experiments. Conclusion Long-term supplementation of low dose thiol antioxidant BME improved functional outcomes in animals with pre-existing obesity. Additional studies are needed to address the treatment impact on insulin sensitivity if a therapeutic value is to be explored. PMID:24802126

  4. Stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol.

    PubMed

    Pacharra, Marlene; Schäper, Michael; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Wolf, Oliver T; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported enhanced vigilance for threat-related information in response to acute stress. While it is known that acute stress modulates sensory systems in humans, its impact on olfaction and the olfactory detection of potential threats is less clear. Two psychophysical experiments examined, if acute stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol. Participants in Experiment 1 (N = 30) and Experiment 2 (N = 32) were randomly allocated to a control group or a stress group. Participants in the stress group underwent a purely psychosocial stressor (public mental arithmetic) in Experiment 1 and a stressor that combined a physically demanding task with social-evaluative threat in Experiment 2 (socially evaluated cold-pressor test). In both experiments, olfactory detection thresholds were repeatedly assessed by means of dynamic dilution olfactometry. Each threshold measurement consisted of three trials conducted using an ascending method of limits. Participants in the stress groups showed the expected changes in heart rate, salivary cortisol, and mood measures in response to stress. About 20 min after the stressor, participants in the stress groups could detect 2-mercaptoethanol at a lower concentration than participants in the corresponding control groups. Our results show that acute stress lowers the detection threshold for a malodor. PMID:26553419

  5. Aminopeptidase activity in rat brain synaptosomes - 2-mercaptoethanol stimulation and Arg-vasopressin degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.H.; Orawski, A.T.

    1986-03-05

    Rat brain synaptic plasma membranes contain an amastatin-inhibited aminopeptidase activity which degrades Arg-vaso-pressin (AVP). The pH optimum for AVP cleavage was found to be 6.8, similar to that reported for oxytocin. The ability of other peptides and arylamides such as oxytocin, Tyr-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH/sub 2/ and Arg-Arg-..beta..NA to inhibit cleavage of (/sup 3/H-Tyr/sup 2/)-AVP suggests that the enzyme may not be specific for AVP. The AVP-cleaving activity has been solubilized and partially characterized. Synaptosomes were lysed with hypotonic buffer, washed, and extracted with 1% Nonidet P-40 detergent. The solubilized protein was chromatographed by gel filtration HPLC on Superose 6. A single peak of activity was found with a M.W. = 117,000 which could hydrolyze 1mM Ala-..beta..NA, Arg-..beta..NA, Arg-Arg-..beta..NA, Phe-Met and Phe-Arg as well as slowly cleave AVP with the ultimate release of /sup 3/H-Tyr. 2-Mercaptoethanol (3.9mM) (ME) stimulated activity 3.6 to 6.6-fold for arylamide and dipeptide substrates, but 35-fold for labelled AVP, possibly owing to reduction of the AVP disulfide bond. All activities in the presence of ME were completely inhibited by 0.2mM amastatin.

  6. Evaluation of usefulness of 2-mercapto-ethanol treatment in serodiagnosis of swine leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Awad-Masalmeh, A; Willinger, H

    1983-04-01

    Serum samples of piglets infected artificially or naturally, respectively, with Leptospira pomona were treated with 2-mercapto-ethanol (ME) and tested in the microscopic agglutination test in comparison with untreated sera. Serum-treatment with ME showed two beneficial effects, one being the total elimination of heterotypic reactions, the other the reduction or elimination, respectively, of early antibodies, presumably belonging to the IgM class. Accordingly, two practical implications can be derived from our results. The ratio of ME-sensitive and ME-resistant antibody titers allows the recognition of early leptospira infections. The total suppression by ME of heterotypic agglutination eliminates the danger of determining the wrong leptospira type as causative agent, a crucial problem encountered not infrequently with agglutination testing of untreated sera. Recognition of early cases of swine leptospirosis by ME-treatment of sera is particularly useful, as the complement fixative reaction, successfully used in other species for the same purpose, is inappropriate in swine sera owing to their autolytic properties. Furthermore by elimination of all heterotypic reactions the ME-method gives better chances for the determination of the causative agent and hence for correct interpretation of serological results. ME-treatment is considered as a useful help in serodiagnosis of field samples, in which determination of duration of infection is essential or in which heterotypic agglutination is obscuring the etiological leptospira type. PMID:6688116

  7. Induction of an antioxidant protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by O2, Fe3+, or 2-mercaptoethanol.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, I H; Kim, K; Rhee, S G

    1989-01-01

    A soluble 27-kDa protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae specifically prevents the inactivation of various enzymes caused by a nonenzymatic Fe3+/O2/thiol mixed-function oxidation system but not by mixed-function oxidation systems in which the thiol component is replaced by another electron donor-e.g., ascorbate. In this report, using a 125I-labeled monospecific antibody against the 27-kDa protein, we measured changes in the 27-kDa protector protein in response to changes in oxidative stress and heat shock. With a shift from an anaerobic (95% N2/5% CO2) to a hyperaerobic (95% O2/5% CO2) atmosphere, a 3-fold increase was observed. This increase was prevented by cycloheximide, indicating that the induction requires new protein synthesis. The antioxidant protein synthesis was also significantly enhanced by the addition of either 2-mercaptoethanol or Fe3+ to the growth medium. Radioimmunoassay results also show that the antioxidant protein is an abundant protein, as it constitutes 0.7% of total soluble protein from yeast grown aerobically. Immunoblotting experiments revealed that rat tissues also contain a 27-kDa protein that can be specifically recognized by antibodies against the yeast protein. These results suggest that in vivo induction in yeast of the 27-kDa protein may represent an adaptive response that evolved to protect cells against damage caused by thiol-dependent mixed-function oxidation systems, and the antioxidant protein is conserved in mammalian tissues. A heat shock applied to yeast did not cause any significant increases in the concentration of the 27-kDa protein. Images PMID:2668950

  8. Review: 2-mercaptoethanol alteration of in vitro immune functions of species other than murine.

    PubMed

    Click, Robert E

    2014-01-15

    Descriptions that organosulfurs could alter biologically relevant cellular functions began some 40years ago when cell mediated and humoral murine in vitro immune responses were reported to be dramatically enhanced by any of four xenobiotic, sulfhydryl compounds-2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), dithiothreitol, glutathione, and l-cysteine; the most effective of the four was 2-ME. These findings triggered a plethora of reports defining 2-ME benefits for a multitude of immunological processes, primarily with murine models. This led to investigations on 2-ME alterations of (a) immune functions in other species, (b) activities of other cell-types, and (c) in situ diseases. In addition, the early findings may have been instrumental in the identification of the previously undefined anticarcinogenic chemicals in specific foods as organosulfurs. Outside the plant organosulfurs, there are no comprehensive reviews of these areas to help define mechanisms by which organosulfurs function as well as identify potential alternative uses. Therefore, the present review will focus on 2-ME alterations of in vitro immune functions in species other than murine; namely, fish, amphibian, reptile, avian, whales, dolphins, rat, hamster, rabbit, guinea pig, feline, canine, porcine, ovine, bovine, and human. Processes, some unique to a given species, were in general, enhanced and in some cases dependent upon the presence of 2-ME. The largest benefits occurred in media that were serum free, followed by those in autologous serum and then fetal bovine serum supplemented medium. Concentrations of 2-ME were generally in the low μM range, with exceptions of those for salamander (20mM), turtles (70mM) and dolphins (7mM). The few studies designed to assess mechanisms found that changes induced by 2-ME were generally accompanied by alterations of reduced/oxidized glutathione cellular concentrations. The major benefit for most studies, however, was to increase the sensitivity of the culture environment, which

  9. Alteration of radiation-sensitive processes associated with cancer and longevity by dietary 2-mercaptoethanol

    PubMed Central

    Click, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous results demonstrated dietary 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) delayed appearance of cancer in certain murine strains. In addition, it had a benefit not found with other organosulfurs, in that it completely prevented spontaneous development of cancer in BXSB-Yaa+ over an entire lifespan. Aims These benefits raise the question: What, if any, alteration of radiation-induced tumorigenesis would 2-ME impart that may differ from that of other sulfur antioxidants? This is relevant based on the extensive use of radiation in diagnoses and therapy and 2-ME's superior in vitro and in situ immune enhancement properties. Materials and Methods This was addressed by exposing long-lived, B10.A(4R) mice to sublethal, 5.5 Gy ionizing gamma-rays and then tumor development monitored over a lifetime. Statistical Analysis Two-tailed P-values were determined using the Fischer's Exact Test. Results The only tumors detected were mammary and only in animals that were both exposed to radiation and not treated with 2-ME. The 43% incidence differed significantly from the absence of tumors in non-irradiated mice that were or were not exposed to 2-ME and in those irradiated and treated daily with 2-ME, irrespective of whether treatment was started prior to or post irradiation. However, quite unexpectedly, radiation shortened longevity 29% from undefined causes, including cancer, in animals pretreated with 2-ME; longevity was not altered in those not pretreated or if treatment was started post-irradiation. Conclusions The findings have relevance for cancer prevention and the controversy relative to “long term survival/safety” of currently used antioxidants as free radical scavengers in humans undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:24762499

  10. Laser induced autofluorescence in the monitoring of β-mercaptoethanol mediated photo induced proton coupled electron transfer in proteins.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, S; Satish Rao, B S; Satyamoorthy, K; Mahato, K K

    2015-01-01

    Photo induced proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) is an important process that many organisms use for progression of catalytic reactions leading to energy conversion. In the present study, the influence of SDS and BME on the redox properties of tyrosine and tryptophan for five different globular proteins, BSA, HSA, RNase-A, trypsin and lysozyme were studied using laser induced autofluorescence. The proteins were subjected to denaturation under SDS, SDS plus heat and SDS plus β-mercaptoethanol (BME) plus heat and the corresponding fluorescence were recorded. The influence of BME on the autofluorescence properties of the proteins were evaluated upon tris-2-corboxy-ethyl phosphine (TCEP) denaturation. The BSA and HSA when exposed to SDS alone, exhibited hydrophobic collapse around their tryptophan moieties. However, these proteins when treated with SDS plus BME plus heat, an unusual red shift in the emission was observed, may be due to proton transfer from hydroxyl group of the excited tyrosine residues to the local microenvironments. The observation was further confirmed with similar proton transfer in absence of tryptophan in RNase-A showing involvement of tyrosine in the process. A drastic quenching of fluorescence in all of the proteins under study were also observed, may be due to photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from BME to the intrinsic fluorophores resulting in radical ions formation, evaluated upon DCFDA measurements. PMID:25985124

  11. Influence of thiol capping on the photoluminescence properties of L-cysteine-, mercaptoethanol- and mercaptopropionic acid-capped ZnS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, A; Dhoble, S J; Kher, R S

    2015-11-01

    Mercaptoethanol (ME), mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and L-cysteine (L-Cys) having -SH functional groups were used as surface passivating agents for the wet chemical synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles. The effect of the thiol group on the optical and photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnS nanoparticles was studied. L-Cysteine-capped ZnS nanoparticles showed the highest PL intensity among the studied capping agents, with a PL emission peak at 455 nm. The PL intensity was found to be dependent on the concentration of Zn(2+) and S(2-) precursors. The effect of buffer on the PL intensity of L-Cys-capped ZnS nanoparticles was also studied. UV/Vis spectra showed blue shifting of the absorption edge. PMID:25683960

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol using modified glassy carbon electrode by MWCNT in combination with unsymmetrical manganese (II) Schiff base complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Mohebbi, Sajjad Eslami, Saadat

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • High electocatalytic efficiency and stability of modified hybrid electrode GC/MWCNTs/MnSaloph. • Direct reflection of catalytic activity of manganese complexes on electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-ME. • Decreasing overpotential and increasing catalytic peak current toward oxidation of 2-ME. • Deposition of range of novel substituted N{sub 2}O{sub 2} Saloph complexes of manganese(II) on GCE/MWCNT. • Enhancement of electrocatalytic oxidation activity upon electron donating substitutions on the Saloph. - Abstract: The performance of modified hybrid glassy carbon electrode with composite of carbon nanotubes and manganese complexes for the electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol is developed. GC electrode was modified using MWCNT and new N{sub 2}O{sub 2} unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff base complexes of manganese namely Manganese Saloph complexes 1-5, with general formula Mn[(5-x-4-y-Sal)(5-x′-4-y′-Sal) Ph], where x, x′ = H, Br, NO{sub 2} and y, y′ = H, MeO. Direct immobilization of CNT on the surface of GCE is performed by abrasive immobilization, and then modified by manganese(II) complexes via direct deposition method. These novel modified electrodes clearly demonstrate the necessity of modifying bare carbon electrodes to endow them with the desired behavior and were identified by HRTEM. Also complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, MS, UV–vis and IR spectroscopy. Modified hybrid GC/MWCNT/MnSaloph electrode exhibits strong and stable electrocatalytic activity towards the electrooxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol molecules in comparison with bare glassy carbon electrode with advantages of very low over potential and high catalytic current. Such ability promotes the thiol’s electron transfer reaction. Also, electron withdrawing substituent on the Saloph was enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation activity.

  13. Alterations in immune function in rats caused by dietary lipotrope deficiency: effect of culture medium, 2-mercaptoethanol and mitogen dose on the in vitro lymphocyte transformation response.

    PubMed

    Nauss, K M; Connor, A M; Newberne, P M

    1982-12-01

    The effect of variations in culture media, mitogen dose, harvest time, 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) addition and length of [3H]thymidine pulse on the concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated splenic lymphocyte transformation response of male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a control (C), folacin-deficient (F) or marginal methionine-choline (M/C) diet was examined. Splenocytes cultured in minimal essential medium reached an optimal response on day 4. The response of F rats was significantly lower than C rats on day 3 and day 4. The response of M/C rats were lower on day 3. The addition of 2-ME to the culture medium shifted the cell cycle kinetics toward and earlier peak response time (day 2), and significant differences among groups were seen only under suboptimal conditions. Cells cultured in Medium 199 had a low transformation response, which reached peak stimulation on day 5. The response of F and M/C rats was significantly lower than C animals on days 3 and 4. In contrast, splenocytes cultured in medium 199 + 2-ME reached optimal stimulation on day 2, with no significantly differences between groups. No effect on cell viability was seen from 2-ME, but it did accelerate cell cycle kinetics and reversed the normal age-induced immunosuppression seen in C animals. PMID:7143115

  14. Determination of Gonyautoxin-4 in Echinoderms and Gastropod Matrices by Conversion to Neosaxitoxin Using 2-Mercaptoethanol and Post-Column Oxidation Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marisa; Rey, Verónica; Botana, Ana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Botana, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Paralytic Shellfish Toxin blooms are common worldwide, which makes their monitoring crucial in the prevention of poisoning incidents. These toxins can be monitored by a variety of techniques, including mouse bioassay, receptor binding assay, and liquid chromatography with either mass spectrometric or pre- or post-column fluorescence detection. The post-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method, used routinely in our laboratory, has been shown to be a reliable method for monitoring paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel, scallop, oyster and clam species. However, due to its high sensitivity to naturally fluorescent matrix interferences, when working with unconventional matrices, there may be problems in identifying toxins because of naturally fluorescent interferences that co-elute with the toxin peaks. This can lead to erroneous identification. In this study, in order to overcome this challenge in echinoderm and gastropod matrices, we optimized the conversion of Gonyautoxins 1 and 4 to Neosaxitoxin with 2-mercaptoethanol. We present a new and less time-consuming method with a good recovery (82.2%, RSD 1.1%, n = 3), requiring only a single reaction step. PMID:26729166

  15. Structure of the dinuclear active site of urease. X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of native and 2-mercaptoethanol-inhibited bacterial and plant enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shengke; Scott, R.A. ); Lee, M.H.; Hausinger, R.P. ); Clark, P.A.; Wilcox, D.E. )

    1994-04-13

    The structures of the dinuclear Ni(II) active sites of urease from jack bean and Klebsiella aerogenes are compared with and without the addition of the inhibitor 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). No significant differences are observed by nickel K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy between the plant and bacterial enzymes. The Ni X-ray absorption edge spectra display an 8332-eV 1s[yields]3d peak intensity similar to that observed for five-coordinate Ni(II) compounds[sup 1] for both native and 2-ME-bound derivatives. Curve-fitting of Ni EXAFS data indicates that the average Ni(II) coordination environment in native urease can be described as Ni(imidazole)[sub x](N,O)[sub 5[minus]x], with x = 2 or 3. Addition of 2-ME results in replacement of one of the non-imidazole (N,O) ligands with (S,Cl) (most likely the thiolate sulfur of 2-ME) and results in the appearance of a new peak in the Fourier transforms that can only be fit with a Ni[center dot][center dot][center dot]Ni scattering component at a Ni-Ni distance of [approximately]3.26 [angstrom]. A structure for this 2-ME-bound dinuclear site is proposed to contain the two Ni(II) ions bridged by the thiolate sulfur of 2-ME.

  16. Serological profile of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) female calves vaccinated with standard Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine using rose bengal, 2-mercaptoethanol and complement fixation tests.

    PubMed

    Nardi, G Júnior; Ribeiro, M G; Jorge, A M; Megid, J; Silva, L M P

    2012-03-01

    The serological profiles of 21 female buffaloes vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age using Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) were evaluated by rose bengal (RBT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) and complement fixation (CFT) tests. The serum strains were collected in day zero, 15, 30, 45, 60th days and subsequently to each 30 months, until 720th day after vaccination. No animal showed reaction in day zero. In 15th day above 95% of animals revealed reaction in all tests. All the animals presented absence of reactions in CFT, RBT and 2ME tests at 270, 300 and 360 days after vaccination, respectively. Our finding highlighted early response in CFT compared than other conventional agglutination tests. None of animals presented oscillation of titers or reactions in any test after 360 day of study, which enables the use of these tests after this period without interference of antibodies from S19 vaccine origin between 3 and 8 months in buffalo heifers. PMID:22284623

  17. Evaluation of nitrogen nuclear hyperfine and quadrupole coupling parameters for the proximal imidazole in myoglobin-azide, -cyanide, and -mercaptoethanol complexes by electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Magliozzo, R S; Peisach, J

    1993-08-24

    Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy and computer simulation of spectra has been used to evaluate the nitrogen nuclear hyperfine and quadrupole coupling parameters for the proximal imidazole nitrogen directly coordinated to iron in three low-spin heme complexes, myoglobin-azide, -cyanide, and -mercaptoethanol (MbN3, MbCN, and MbRS). The variability in the weak electron-nuclear coupling parameters reveals the electronic flexibility within the heme group that depends on properties of the exogenous ligands. For example, the isotropic component of the nitrogen nuclear hyperfine coupling ranges from 4.4 MHz for MbN3 to 2.2 MHz for both MbCN and MbRS. The weaker coupling in MbCN and MbRS is taken as evidence for delocalization of unpaired electron spin from iron into the exogenous anionic ligands. The value of e2Qq, the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant for the axial imidazole nitrogen in MbCN and MbRS, was 2.5 MHz but was significantly larger, 3.2 MHz, in MbN3. This large value is considered evidence for a weakened sigma bond between the proximal imidazole and ferric iron in this form, and for a feature contributing to the origin of the high spin-low spin equilibrium exhibited by MbN3 [Beetlestone, J., & George, P. (1964) Biochemistry 5, 707-714]. The ESEEM results have allowed a correlation to be made between the orientation of the g tensor axes, the orientation of the p-pi orbital of the proximal imidazole nitrogen, and sigma- and pi-bonding features of the axial ligands. Furthermore, the proximal imidazole is suggested to act as a pi-acceptor in low-spin heme complexes in order to support strong sigma electron donation from the lone pair orbital to iron. An evaluation of the nitrogen nuclear hyperfine coupling parameters for the porphyrin pyrrole sites in MbRS reveals a large inequivalence in isotropic components consistent with an orientation of rhombic axes (and g tensor axes) that eclipses the Fe-Npyrrole vector directions. PMID:8395204

  18. Toxic material advisory report - 2-mercaptoethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N. M.; White, O. Jr.; Baloyi, R. S.; Silverstein, B. D.

    1983-03-01

    A review of the animal toxicity data for 2-ME is presented. The results revealed that chronic inhalation exposures at a concentration of 6 mg/m/sup 3/ produced decreased oxygen consumption, lymphopenia, and neutrophilia. Comparison of acute toxicity data for 2-ME with data of structurally similar compounds suggests that 2-ME may be 2.3 times more toxic than butanethiol (TLV = 0.5 ppM), 6.5 times more toxic than ethanethiol, and 6 times more toxic than propanethiol (TLV = 0.5 ppM) via oral administration but may be comparable to propanethiol and less toxic than butanethiol and ethanethiol by the inhalation route of exposure. The TLVs for ethanethiol, methanethiol, and butanethiol were based on discomfort to human volunteers rather than toxicity. Since 2-ME has many effects similar to those of the thiols discussed and its odor threshold falls in the range of other thiols, by analogy the exposure limit for 2-ME should be comparable to the TLVs for butanethiol and ethanethiol. An interim exposure limit (IEL) of 0.5 ppM for a time-weighted average concentration during an 8-hour work shift is recommended. As with other thiols, a nuisance problem due to 2-ME odors and complaints of odor may serve as a primary reason for controlling workplace concentrations.

  19. Effect of the addition of beta-mercaptoethanol to a thawing solution supplemented with caffeine on the function of frozen-thawed boar sperm and on the fertility of sows after artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, S; Funahashi, H

    2012-03-15

    We have reported that artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with caffeine increased the number of uterine sperm by inhibiting the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the uterine lumen, thereby improving the fertility of gilts and sows. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of the addition of the antioxidant beta-mercaptoethanol (bME) and caffeine to the thawing solution on the function of frozen-thawed sperm, on the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm, and on the fertility of sows after AI. When frozen-thawed sperm were cultured in the presence of 25 or 50 μm bME, sperm capacitation and spontaneous acrosome reactions were inhibited (P < 0.01). There was no effect of bME on phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm in vitro. When hormonally treated (400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin + 200 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin) weaned sows experienced a single intrauterine insemination with frozen-thawed sperm (25 × 10(8) sperm per 50 ml dose) 40 h after subsequent hCG administration, pregnancy and farrowing rates were unaffected by the addition of 50 μm bME (pregnancy rate, 20 vs 21% in controls; farrowing rate, 20 vs 21%; n = 15 and 14, respectively). However, litter size tended to be higher than in the presence of 50 μm bME compared to its absence (10.0 ± 1.0 vs 5.7 ± 1.5, respectively; P < 0.07). Thus, the addition of bME to the thawing solution containing caffeine could be of benefit for improving the function of frozen-thawed sperm without influencing the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm. Although there were no statistically significant effects of bME on pregnancy or farrowing rates, the litter size tended to be higher in the sows subjected to a fixed-time single AI treatment with synchronized ovulation. PMID:22115816

  20. Alteration of GI symptoms in a cow with Johne disease by the dietary organosulfur, 2-mercaptoethanol

    PubMed Central

    Click, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)—Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis and some cases of irritable bowel syndrome—are generally considered a consequence of gastrointestinal inflammation of unknown etiology. Conventional therapy and more recently biologic agents, all with varying degrees of drawbacks, have resulted in improved control of these diseases. However, as the incidence and prevalence continue to rise, needs for prevention, permanent remission and cures remain unmet, plus there still remain needs for improved control of symptoms, such as pain and diarrhea. The case report herein describes a serendipitous, novel means for curtailing these symptoms associated with a bovine gastrointestinal disease that may have applicability for patients with diseases characterized by abdominal-visceral pain and diarrhea. PMID:23076275

  1. PREPARATION AND REGENERATION OF PROTOPLASTS OF COLLETOTRICHUM GLEOSPORIODES F. SP. AESCHYNOMENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protoplasts were produced from conidia of Colletotrichum gloesporioides f. sp. aeschynomene, a fungal plant pathogen of Aeschynomene virginica, during treatment with Novozym 234 or a mixture of chitinase and B-glucuronidase after pretreatment with 2-mercaptoethanol. rotoplasts we...

  2. Kinetic studies of the uptake of aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase into mitochondria in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Marra, E; Passarella, S; Casamassima, E; Perlino, E; Doonan, S; Quagliariello, E

    1985-01-01

    Kinetic measurements of the uptake of native mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase into mitochondria in vitro were carried out. The uptake of both the enzymes is essentially complete in 1 min and shows saturation characteristics. The rate of uptake of aspartate aminotransferase into mitochondria is decreased by malate dehydrogenase, and vice versa. The inhibition is exerted by isoenzyme remaining outside the mitochondria rather than by isoenzyme that has been imported. The thiol compound beta-mercaptoethanol decreases the rate of uptake of the tested enzymes; inhibition is a result of interaction of beta-mercaptoethanol with the mitochondria and not with the enzymes themselves. The rate of uptake of aspartate aminotransferase is inhibited non-competitively by malate dehydrogenase, but competitively by beta-mercaptoethanol. The rate of uptake of malate dehydrogenase is inhibited non-competitively by aspartate aminotransferase and by beta-mercaptoethanol. beta-Mercaptoethanol prevents the inhibition of the rate of uptake of malate dehydrogenase by aspartate aminotransferase. These results are interpreted in terms of a model system in which the two isoenzymes have separate but interacting binding sites within a receptor in the mitochondrial membrane system. PMID:4015628

  3. Improving the in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum with reducing agents

    PubMed Central

    Hamaker, B. R.; Kirleis, A. W.; Butler, L. G.; Axtell, J. D.; Mertz, E. T.

    1987-01-01

    We have shown in previous reports that cooked sorghum protein is less digestible than other cooked cereal proteins. The pepsin-indigestible proteins in sorghum were found to be mainly prolamin proteins. Cooking sorghum in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol increased protein digestibility (in vitro with pepsin or trypsin/chymotrypsin) to a level comparable with other cereals. At a concentration of 100 mM, other reducing agents (dithiothreitol, sodium bisulfite, and L-cysteine) were equally effective in improving sorghum digestibility. When maize was cooked in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, protein digestibility increased 5% compared to 25% for sorghum. Cooking barley, rice, and wheat with 2-mercaptoethanol had no significant effect on protein digestibility. The addition of reducing agents appears to prevent the formation of protein polymers linked by disulfide bonds. PMID:16593805

  4. Improving the in vitro Protein Digestibility of Sorghum with Reducing Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaker, B. R.; Kirleis, A. W.; Butler, L. G.; Axtell, J. D.; Mertz, E. T.

    1987-02-01

    We have shown in previous reports that cooked sorghum protein is less digestible than other cooked cereal proteins. The pepsin-indigestible proteins in sorghum were found to be mainly prolamin proteins. Cooking sorghum in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol increased protein digestibility (in vitro with pepsin or trypsin/chymotrypsin) to a level comparable with other cereals. At a concentration of 100 mM, other reducing agents (dithiothreitol, sodium bisulfite, and L-cysteine) were equally effective in improving sorghum digestibility. When maize was cooked in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, protein digestibility increased 5% compared to 25% for sorghum. Cooking barley, rice, and wheat with 2-mercaptoethanol had no significant effect on protein digestibility. The addition of reducing agents appears to prevent the formation of protein polymers linked by disulfide bonds.

  5. Synthesis of Capped AIIBVI Nanoparticles for Fluorescent Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudko, Galyna; Fediv, Volodymyr; Davydenko, Igor; Gule, Evgen; Olar, Olena; Kovalchuk, Andrii

    2016-02-01

    The conditions for growing CdS nanoparticles suitable for the visualization of biological tissues were theoretically studied and experimentally checked. The optimal ranges for pH values and precursors' concentrations were determined. The applicability of the mercaptoethanol-capped nanoparticles for in vitro luminescence visualization of several cellular forms in histological specimens of human placenta has been proven.

  6. Investigating the microstructure of keratin extracted from wool: peptide sequence (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and protein conformation (FTIR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keratin was extracted from wool by reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. It was isolated as intact keratin and characterized by its similar molecular weight, protein composition, and secondary structure to native keratin. Gel electrophoresis patterns and MALDI-TOF/TOF peptide sequences provided the ide...

  7. Synthesis of Capped A(II)B(VI) Nanoparticles for Fluorescent Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Rudko, Galyna; Fediv, Volodymyr; Davydenko, Igor; Gule, Evgen; Olar, Olena; Kovalchuk, Andrii

    2016-12-01

    The conditions for growing CdS nanoparticles suitable for the visualization of biological tissues were theoretically studied and experimentally checked. The optimal ranges for pH values and precursors' concentrations were determined. The applicability of the mercaptoethanol-capped nanoparticles for in vitro luminescence visualization of several cellular forms in histological specimens of human placenta has been proven. PMID:26864278

  8. Is vanadate reduced by thiols under biological conditions? Changing the redox potential of V(V)/V(IV) by complexation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Crans, Debbie C; Zhang, Boyan; Gaidamauskas, Ernestas; Keramidas, Anastasios D; Willsky, Gail R; Roberts, Chris R

    2010-05-01

    Although dogma states that vanadate is readily reduced by glutathione, cysteine, and other thiols, there are several examples documenting that vanadium(V)-sulfur complexes can form and be observed. This conundrum has impacted life scientists for more than two decades. Investigation of this problem requires an understanding of both the complexes that form from vanadium(IV) and (V) and a representative thiol in aqueous solution. The reactions of vanadate and hydrated vanadyl cation with 2-mercaptoethanol have been investigated using multinuclear NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Vanadate forms a stable complex of 2:2 stoichiometry with 2-mercaptoethanol at neutral and alkaline pH. In contrast, vanadate can oxidize 2-mercaptoethanol; this process is favored at low pH and high solute concentrations. The complex that forms between aqueous vanadium(IV) and 2-mercaptoethanol has a 1:2 stoichiometry and can be observed at high pH and high 2-mercaptoethanol concentration. The solution structures have been deduced based on coordination induced chemical shifts and speciation diagrams prepared. This work demonstrates that both vanadium(IV) and (V)-thiol complexes form and that redox chemistry also takes place. Whether reduction of vanadate takes place is governed by a combination of parameters: pH, solute- and vanadate-concentrations and the presence of other complexing ligands. On the basis of these results it is now possible to understand the distribution of vanadium in oxidation states (IV) and (V) in the presence of glutathione, cysteine, and other thiols and begin to evaluate the forms of the vanadium compounds that exert a particular biological effect including the insulin-enhancing agents, antiamoebic agents, and interactions with vanadium binding proteins. PMID:20359175

  9. Purification and characterization of guinea pig liver morphine 6-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yamano, S; Kageura, E; Ishida, T; Toki, S

    1985-05-10

    Morphine 6-dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the dehydrogenation of morphine to morphinone, has been purified about 440-fold from the soluble fraction of guinea pig liver with a yield of 38%. The purified enzyme was a homogeneous protein on polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were 29,000 and 7.6, respectively. The enzyme utilizes both NAD and NADP as a cofactor, and the Km values were 0.12 mM for NAD and 0.42 mM for NADP. The Vmax values for morphine were 588 milliunits/mg of protein (with NAD) and 1600 milliunits/mg of protein (with NADP). The Km values for morphine were 0.12 mM (with NAD) and 0.49 mM (with NADP). The enzyme also exhibited activity for morphine-related compounds: nalorphine, normorphine, codeine, and ethylmorphine; however, 7,8-saturated congeners such as dihydromorphine and dihydrocodeine were poor substrates. The enzyme was inactivated by removal of 2-mercaptoethanol from the enzyme solution. The inactivated enzyme was rapidly recovered by the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol. Phenylarsine oxide and CdCl2 (dithiol modifiers) inhibited competitively toward cofactor binding and noncompetitively toward morphine binding. These results suggest that the enzyme possesses the essential thiol groups, probably vicinal dithiol, at or near the cofactor-binding site. Using the partially purified enzyme, 8-(2-hydroxyethylthio)dihydromorphinone was isolated as the product and identified by UV, mass, and NMR spectra. It was confirmed that morphinone proposed as the dehydrogenation product was nonenzymatically and covalently bound to 2-mercaptoethanol. Accordingly, the isolated morphinone-2-mercaptoethanol conjugate must be formed by two steps: enzymatic production of morphinone from morphine and then nonenzymatic binding of 2-mercaptoethanol to morphinone. PMID:2580834

  10. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  11. Low temperature regulated growth of PbS quantum dots by wet chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Hitanshu Barman, P. B.; Singh, Ragini Raj; Bind, Umesh Chandra

    2015-08-28

    Narrow size distribution with regulated synthesis of lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) was achieved through wet chemical method. Different concentrations of 2-mercaptoethanol (capping agent) were used for tailoring the QDs size. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the QDs have mean diameters between 6 to 15 nm. The optical absorption spectra were compared to the predictions of a theoretical model for the electronic structure. The theory agrees well with experiment for QDs larger than 7 nm, but for smaller dots there is some deviation from the theoretical predictions. Consequently, the produced particles are having monodispersity, good water solubility, stability and may be good arguments to be biologically compatible due to the use of 2-mercaptoethanol.

  12. A simple method for enhancing the bioorthogonality of cyclooctyne reagent.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Sakmar, Thomas P; Huber, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The cross-reactivity between some cyclooctynes and thiols limits the bioorthogonality of the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. We show that a low concentration of β-mercaptoethanol significantly reduces the undesirable side reaction between bicyclononyne (BCN) and cysteine and while preserving free cysteines. We site-specifically label a genetically-encoded azido group in the visual photoreceptor rhodopsin to demonstrate the utility of the strategy. PMID:27009873

  13. /sup 75/Selenium-labeled sheep plasma: the time course of changes in 75selenium distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, W.B.; McMurray, C.H.

    1988-09-01

    Sheep fed rations containing 0.1 ppm selenium were labeled by intravenous injection of radioactive sodium selenite or selenocystine. Gel filtration of serially collected plasma samples indicated that, with time, there was a transition from mercaptan sensitive to high mol wt mercaptan and protein solubilizer resistant selenoproteins. Radiolabeled plasma samples collected from selenite and selenocystine labeled sheep were dialyzed against buffer containing 2-mercaptoethanol or protein solubilizer. No difference in the stability between selenite- and selenocystine-labeled plasma could be detected.

  14. Isoenzyme of Pyruvate Kinase in Proplastids from Developing Castor Bean Endosperm 1

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Vincenzo; Dennis, David T.

    1978-01-01

    Proplastids from developing castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm have a pyruvate kinase activity which is extremely unstable on isolation from the organelle. It can be stabilized by 20 mm 2-mercaptoethanol in 20% ethylene glycol. In contrast the soluble pyruvate kinase is stable at 60 C for 10 minutes. The two activities have different pH optima. The soluble and the proplastid activities are eluted from a diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 sievorptive column at different ionic strengths. PMID:16660412

  15. [Transformation of mouse lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutin depending on their cultivation conditions].

    PubMed

    Meshcheriakova, I E; Surkova, E A; Poliak, R Ia

    1979-08-01

    Conditions were elaborated to cultivate splenocytes of mice in medium-199 (Soviet production) changed a little by the addition of 200 mM of glutamine, 6 mM glucose, 60 unit/l of insulin, 5.10(-5) M 2-mercaptoethanol (final concentration), and of 5% serum of new-born calf. In such conditions of cultivation the value of the lymphocyte transformation coefficient lies within 3 and 10. PMID:315124

  16. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using uncooled thermal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datskos, Panos G.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskou, Irene; Egert, Charles M.

    1997-10-01

    We have investigated a novel IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the IR photothermal spectra of molecules absorbed on the surface of an uncooled thermal detector. Traditional gravimetric based chemical detectors require highly selective coatings to achieve chemical specificity. In contrast, IR microcalorimetric based detection requires only moderately specific coatings since the specificity is a consequence of the photothermal spectrum. We have obtained IR photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of chemical analytes including diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), 2-mercaptoethanol and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 micrometers . We found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 micrometers DIMP exhibits two strong photothermal peaks. The photothermal spectra of 2-mercaptoethanol and TNT exhibit a number of peaks in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 micrometers and the photothermal peaks for 2-mercaptoethanol are in excellent agreement with IR absorption peaks present in its IR spectrum. The photothermal response of chemical detectors based on microcalorimetric spectroscopy has been found to vary reproducibly and sensitively as a consequence of adsorption of small number of molecules on a detector surface followed by photon irradiation and can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  17. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using uncooled thermal detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G. |; Rajic, S.; Datskou, I.; Egert, C.M.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have investigated a novel infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the infrared photothermal spectra of molecules absorbed on the surface of an uncooled thermal detector. Traditional gravimetric based chemical detectors (surface acoustic waves, quartz crystal microbalances) require highly selective coatings to achieve chemical specificity. In contrast, infrared microcalorimetric based detection requires only moderately specific coatings since the specificity is a consequence of the photothermal spectrum. They have obtained infrared photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of chemical analytes including diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), 2-mercaptoethanol and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m. They found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m DIMP exhibits two strong photothermal peaks. The photothermal spectra of 2-mercaptoethanol and TNT exhibit a number of peaks in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m and the photothermal peaks for 2-mercaptoethanol are in excellent agreement with infrared absorption peaks present in its IR spectrum. The photothermal response of chemical detectors based on microcalorimetric spectroscopy has been found to vary reproducibly and sensitively as a consequence of adsorption of small number of molecules on a detector surface followed by photon irradiation and can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  18. Glutamate decarboxylase from barley embryos and roots. General properties and the occurrence of three enzymic forms.

    PubMed Central

    Inatomi, K; Slaughter, J C

    1975-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase in extracts of barley has a Km value for L-glutamate of 22 mM and is activated by the addition of pyridoxal phosphate by up to 3.5 times. Sucrose-density-gradient experiments indicate the presence of two enzyme forms with molecular weights 256000 and 120000. The lower-molecular-weight form appears to be relatively inactive and spontaneously associates to the higher-molecular-weight form on storage. The enzyme is inhibited by thiol reagents and the distribution of activity on density gradients is altered in favour of the lower-molecular-weight form by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. After removal of the 2-mercaptoethanol spontaneous association to the higher-molecular-weight form occurs. The presence of oxygen in the extraction buffer and in the water during imbibition leads to a relative increase in the higher-molecular-weight form compared with situations where oxygen is excluded. In contrast, glutamate decarboxylase in extracts of 3-day-old barley roots has a Km value for L-glutamate of 3.1 mM and is activated up to 10% by addition of pyridoxal phosphate. The root enzyme occurs as a single species with molecular weight 310000 and this is unaffected by 2-mercaptoethanol although thiol reagents do act as weak inhibitors. The molecular weight is also unaffected by the presence or absence of oxygen in the extraction buffers. PMID:1167156

  19. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Schatten, H; Walter, M; Mazia, D; Biessmann, H; Paweletz, N; Coffe, G; Schatten, G

    1987-12-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins (designated Ah6/5/9 and referred to herein as Ah6) is found to cross-react specifically with centrosomes in sea urchin eggs and with a 68-kDa antigen in eggs and isolated mitotic apparatus. When preparations stained with Ah6 are counterstained with a human autoimmune serum whose anti-centrosome activity has been established, the immunofluorescence images superimpose exactly. A more severe test of the specificity of the antibody demands that it display all of the stages of the centrosome cycle in the cell cycle: the flattening and spreading of the compact centrosomes followed by their division and the establishment of two compact poles. The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment allows observation of the stages of the centrosome cycle--separation, division, and bipolarization--while the chromosomes are arrested in metaphase. Mitosis is arrested in the presence of 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Chromosomes remain in a metaphase configuration while the centrosomes divide, producing four poles perpendicular to the original spindle axis. Microtubules are still present in the mitotic apparatus, as indicated by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. When 2-mercaptoethanol is removed, the chromosomes reorient to the poles of a tetrapolar (sometimes tripolar) mitotic apparatus. During the following cycle, the blastomeres form a monopolar mitotic apparatus. The observations of the centrosome cycle with the Ah6 antibody display very clearly all the stages that have been seen or deduced from work with other probes. The 68-kDa antigen that reacts with the Ah6 monoclonal antibody to Drosophila intermediate filament proteins must be a constant component of sea urchin centrosomes because it is present at all stages of the centrosome cycle. PMID:3120191

  20. Fluorescence quenching of flavins by reductive agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Bansal, A. K.; Song, S.-H.; Dick, B.

    2007-07-01

    The fluorescence behaviour of the flavins riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and lumiflavin in aqueous solution at pH 8 in the presence of the reducing agents β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME), dithiothreitol (DTT), and sodium nitrite (NaNO 2) is studied under aerobic conditions. The fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are determined as a function of the reducing agent concentration. For all three reducing agents diffusion controlled dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed which is thought to be due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. For DTT additionally static fluorescence quenching occurs.

  1. Rapid hydrophilic interaction chromatography determination of lysine in pharmaceutical preparations with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde.

    PubMed

    Douša, Michal; Břicháč, Jiří; Gibala, Petr; Lehnert, Petr

    2011-04-01

    A rapid procedure for the determination of lysine based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) separation of arginine and lysine with fluorescence detection has been developed. The separation conditions and parameters of lysine postcolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA)/2-mercaptoethanol were studied. The various HILIC columns were employed using isocratic elution. Fluorescence detection was performed at excitation and emission wavelength of 345 nm and 450 nm, respectively. An advantage of the reported method is a simple sample pre-treatment and a quick and very sensitive HPLC method. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of commercial samples of Ibalgin Fast tablets (Zentiva, Czech Republic). PMID:21163603

  2. A modified acidic approach for DNA extraction from plant species containing high levels of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, M M; Siqueira, M V B M; Val, T M; Pavanelli, J C; Monteiro, M; Grando, C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Gimenes, M A

    2014-01-01

    Purified genomic DNA can be difficult to obtain from some plant species because of the presence of impurities such as polysaccharides, which are often co-extracted with DNA. In this study, we developed a fast, simple, and low-cost protocol for extracting DNA from plants containing high levels of secondary metabolites. This protocol does not require the use of volatile toxic reagents such as mercaptoethanol, chloroform, or phenol and allows the extraction of high-quality DNA from wild and cultivated tropical species. PMID:25158268

  3. Sh-Stretching Intensities and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Alkanethiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. J.; Lane, J. R.; Sodergren, A. H.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Dunn, M. E.; Vaida, V.

    2009-06-01

    The SH-stretching overtone transitions of tert-butylthiol and ethanethiol are observed using FT-IR, NIR and photoacoustic spectroscopies. The intensities of these are compared with OH-stretching overtones from the corresponding alcohols. We explain the paucity of SH-stretching intensity using an anharmonic oscillator local mode model. SH- and OH-stretching overtone spectra of 1,2-ethanedithiol and 2-mercaptoethanol are recorded to observe the different effects that hydrogen bonding involving SH - - - S, SH - - - O and OH - - - S have on the spectra. We discuss these effects with the help of high level ab initio calculations.

  4. Determination of cadmium and lead species and phytochelatins in pea (Pisum sativum) by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MSn.

    PubMed

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Kózka, Małgorzata; Piechalak, Aneta; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Sobczak, Paweł

    2009-07-15

    An analytical approach based on hyphenated techniques was used for studying the speciation of cadmium and lead in Pisum sativum. Proper preservation conditions were employed to avoid the oxidation of -SH groups and corresponding decomposition of metal-binding complexes. SEC column was washed with 5 mM beta-mercaptoethanol and then samples were analysed using ICP-MS as a detector. Results showed that cadmium is the inhibitor of lead uptake. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) assays revealed fragmentation pathways of phytochelatins. PMID:19559910

  5. Evidence of reaction rate influencing cubic and hexagonal phase formation process in CdS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Kuldeep; Kalita, M. P. C.

    2016-05-01

    CdS nanocrystals are synthesized by co-precipitation method using 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as capping agent. Cubic, hexagonal and their mixture are obtained by varying the ME concentration. Lower (higher) ME concentration results in cubic (hexagonal) phase. The crystallite sizes are in the range 3-7 nm. Increase in ME concentration lead to lower reaction rate between Cd2+ and S2- of the precursors, and slower reaction rate is found to favor hexagonal phase formation over the cubic one in CdS nanocrystals. Role of reaction rate in the phase formation process provides a way to synthesize CdS nanocrystals in desired crystal phase.

  6. Optical investigations of blue shift in ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Douri, Y.; Verma, K. D.; Prakash, Deo

    2015-12-01

    ZnS quantum dots were synthesized using sulfur source of sodium sulphide and mercaptoethanol via chemical bath deposition technique. The synthesized ZnS QDs were analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. The average particle size goes down to 1.9 nm as capping agent concentration increases and corresponding absorption coefficient peak goes down to 265 nm. The blue shift within absorption-wavelength was elaborated. The refractive index and optical dielectric constant are calculated. A correlation between energy gap and absorption coefficient aside and particle size another side is discussed.

  7. Two micro-scale protocols for the isolation of DNA from polysaccharide-rich plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lara D; McLay, Todd G B

    2011-03-01

    The high polysaccharide content of some plant species hinders the successful isolation of their DNA. As an alternative to the macro-extraction methods previously published for polysaccharide-rich plants, we present two techniques (STE/CTAB and HEPES/CTAB), which are performed in microcentrifuge tubes. These protocols are suitable for small amounts of silica gel-preserved plant tissue such as are commonly available from endangered plants. The critical step to remove polysaccharides was performing initial washes in either STE (0.25 M sucrose, 0.03 M Tris, 0.05 M EDTA) or HEPES (2% β-mercaptoethanol, 0.2% PVP, 0.1 M HEPES, pH 8.0) buffer. Precipitating the DNA at room temperature with isopropanol also aided in decreasing polysaccharide co-precipitation. Of the two protocols we present the STE/CTAB method has the advantages of being more cost-effective and avoiding the use of the hazardous chemical β-mercaptoethanol. PMID:20927638

  8. Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from developing embryos of Hyalomma dromedarii.

    PubMed

    Kamel, M Y; Fahmy, A S; Ghazy, A H; Mohamed, M A

    1991-04-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Hyalomma dromedarii, the camel tick, was purified to apparent homogeneity. A molecular weight of 56,000 - 58,000 was estimated for both the native and denatured enzyme, suggesting that the enzyme is monomeric. Unlike purine nucleoside phosphorylase preparations from other tissues, the H. dromedarii enzyme was unstable in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme had a sharp pH optimum at pH 6.5. It catalyzed the phosphorolysis and arsenolysis of ribo- and deoxyribo-nucleosides of hypoxanthine and guanine, but not of adenine or pyrimidine nucleosides. The Km values of the enzyme at the optimal pH for inosine, deoxyinosine, guanosine, and deoxyguanosine were 0.31, 0.67, 0.55, and 0.33 mM, respectively. Inactivation and kinetic studies suggested that histidine and cysteine residues were essential for activity. The pKa values determined for catalytic ionizable groups were 6-7 and 8-9. The enzyme was completely inactivated by thiol reagents and reactivated by excess beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme was also susceptible to pH-dependent photooxidation in the presence of methylene blue, implicating histidine. Initial velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern of double-reciprocal plots of the data, consistent with a sequential mechanism. PMID:1905141

  9. A computer program for quantification of SH groups generated after reduction of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Iznaga Escobar, N; Morales, A; Núñez, G

    1996-07-01

    Reduction of disulfide bonds to sulfhydryl (SH) groups for direct radiolabeling of antibodies for immunoscintigraphic studies of colorectal and other cancers continues to be of considerable research interest. We have developed a general strategy and a versatile computer program for the quantification of the number of SH per molecule of antibody (Ab) generated after the treatment of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with reducing agents such as 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), stannous chloride (SnCl2), dithiothreitol (DTT), dithioerythritol (DTE), ascorbic acid (AA), and the like. The program we describe here performs an unweighted least-squares regression analysis of the cysteine standard curve and interpolates the cysteine concentration of the samples. The number of SH groups per molecule of antibody in the 2-mercaptoethanol and in the other reducing agents was calculated from the cysteine standard curve using Ellman's reagent to develop the yellow color. The linear least-squares method fit the standard data with a high degree of accuracy and with the correlation coefficient r of 0.999. A program has been written for the IBM PC compatible computer utilizing a friendly menu to interact with the users. The package allows the user to change parameters of the assay, to calculate regression coefficients slope, intercept and its standard errors, to perform statistical analysis, together with detailed analysis of variance, and to produce an output of the results in a printed format. PMID:8905829

  10. Effect of particle size on activation energy and peak temperature of the thermoluminescence glow curve of undoped ZnS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chandra, B P; Chandrakar, Raju Kumar; Chandra, V K; Baghel, R N

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of particle size on the thermoluminescence (TL) of undoped ZnS nanoparticles. ZnS nanoparticles were prepared using a chemical precipitation method in which mercaptoethanol was used as the capping agent. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. When the concentrations of mercaptoethanol used are 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.025, 0.040 and 0.060 M, the sizes of the nanoparticles are 2.86, 2.81, 2.69, 2.40, 2.10, 1.90 and 1.80 nm, respectively. Initially, the TL intensity of UV-irradiated ZnS nanoparticles increases with temperature, attains a peak value Im for a particular temperature Tm, and then decreases with further increases in temperature. The values of both Im and Tm increase with decreasing nanoparticle size. Whereas the activation energy decreases slightly with decreasing nanoparticle size, the frequency factor decreases significantly as the nanoparticle size is reduced. The order of kinetics for the TL glow curve of ZnS nanoparticles is 2. Expressions are derived for the dependence of activation energy (Ea) and Tm on nanoparticle size, and good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical results. PMID:26332287

  11. Epitope Structure of the Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Asialoglycoprotein Receptor to a Monoclonal Antibody Revealed by High-Resolution Proteolytic Excision Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanescu, Raluca; Born, Rita; Moise, Adrian; Ernst, Beat; Przybylski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the H1 subunit of the carbohydrate recognition domain (H1CRD) of the asialoglycoprotein receptor is used as an entry site into hepatocytes by hepatitis A and B viruses and Marburg virus. Thus, molecules binding specifically to the CRD might exert inhibition towards these diseases by blocking the virus entry site. We report here the identification of the epitope structure of H1CRD to a monoclonal antibody by proteolytic epitope excision of the immune complex and high-resolution MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry. As a prerequisite of the epitope determination, the primary structure of the H1CRD antigen was characterised by ESI-FTICR-MS of the intact protein and by LC-MS/MS of tryptic digest mixtures. Molecular mass determination and proteolytic fragments provided the identification of two intramolecular disulfide bridges (seven Cys residues), and a Cys-mercaptoethanol adduct formed by treatment with β-mercaptoethanol during protein extraction. The H1CRD antigen binds to the monoclonal antibody in both native and Cys-alkylated form. For identification of the epitope, the antibody was immobilized on N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose. Epitope excision and epitope extraction with trypsin and FTICR-MS of affinity-bound peptides provided the identification of two specific epitope peptides (5-16) and (17-23) that showed high affinity to the antibody. Affinity studies of the synthetic epitope peptides revealed independent binding of each peptide to the antibody.

  12. Conjugation of Microcystins with Thiols Is Reversible: Base-Catalyzed Deconjugation for Chemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Miles, Christopher O; Sandvik, Morten; Nonga, Hezron E; Ballot, Andreas; Wilkins, Alistair L; Rise, Frode; Jaabaek, J Atle H; Loader, Jared I

    2016-05-16

    Microcystins are potent cyclic heptapeptide toxins found in many freshwater cyanobacteria. Most microcystins contain an α,β-unsaturated amide that can react with thiol-containing amino acids, peptides, and proteins in vivo and in vitro. While soluble conjugates formed from small peptides can be extracted and analyzed directly by LC-MS, microcystins conjugated to proteins are analyzed after oxidative cleavage of their Adda side chains, but information on which microcystin analogues were present is lost. Observations during the development of thiol-derivatization-based LC-MS methods for microcystin analysis indicated that the reaction of thiols with microcystins was reversible. The kinetics of deconjugation was investigated with mercaptoethanol as a model thiol to identify suitable reaction conditions. A range of microcystins conjugated to mercaptoethanol, methanethiol, cysteine, and glutathione were then successfully deconjugated, demonstrating the feasibility of releasing conjugated forms of microcystins for chemical analysis. Reagents for removing the released thiols or for trapping the released microcystins increased the reaction rate. Optimization of methodologies based on this reaction should increase the method's utility for measuring free and conjugated microcystins. The results also indicate that thiol-conjugated microcystins slowly release free microcystins, even at neutral pH, with consequences for assessment of toxin exposure, metabolism, and trophic transfer. A range of other common natural and environmental toxins, such as deoxynivalenol and acrylamide, also contain α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups and can be expected to behave in a similar manner. PMID:26999366

  13. Disulfide-bonded outer membrane proteins in the genus Legionella.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, C A; Street, E D; Hatch, T P; Hoffman, P S

    1985-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila and related species were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for outer membrane proteins. Of the 10 species examined, 9 contained a 24-kilodalton (kDa) major outer membrane protein (MOMP) that was resolvable only when outer membrane material was heated in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Labeling studies with [35S]cysteine indicated that the protein contained cysteine, and disulfide cross-linking of the unreduced complex was demonstrated by labeling with iodoacetamide. The unreduced outer membrane preparation contained peptidoglycan, and after treatment with lysozyme to remove peptidoglycan, a protein complex of 95 kDa was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Reduction of the 95-kDa complex yielded 24-kDa monomers, suggesting that the 95-kDa complex was composed of four subunits. The 24-kDa MOMP from L. pneumophila was purified, and antibody produced to this protein cross-reacted with all species of Legionella as determined from an immunoblot of a sodium dodecyl sulfate gel. Only serogroup 1 strains of L. bozemanii lacked the 24-kDa MOMP and showed no cross-reactivity. These results suggest that the 24-kDa MOMP common to most species of Legionella contains a genus-specific epitope. Images PMID:3980079

  14. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  15. Alpha-substituted 1-aryl-3-dimethylaminopropanone hydrochlorides: potent cytotoxins towards human WiDr colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pati, Hari Narayan; Das, Umashankar; Ramirez-Erosa, Irving Javier; Dunlop, Donna Mae; Hickie, Robert Allan; Dimmock, Jonathan Richard

    2007-04-01

    A series of 1-aryl-2-dimethylaminomethyl-2-propenone hydrochlorides 1 were prepared which possessed IC(50) values of less than 10 microM when examined towards human WiDr colon cancer cells. The related 1-aryl-2-dimethylaminomethyl-3-hydroxypropanone hydrochlorides 2, formed by hydration of the analogs in series 1, also had IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. On the other hand, conversion of 2-dimethylaminomethyl-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-propenone hydrochloride 1c into the corresponding 2-mercaptoethanol of adduct 3c led to a 37-fold reduction in potency. Two thirds of the compounds prepared in this study were more potent than a reference drug cisplatin while one third of these molecules displayed greater cytotoxicity to the WiDr cells than human CRL-2522 fibroblasts. A stability study of the 4-nitrophenyl analog in each of the series 1-3 in deuterium oxide was undertaken. In the case of 1c, replacement of the dimethylamino hydrochloride group by a hydroxy function was noted while in series 2, the loss of both water and dimethylamine hydrochloride gave rise to a mixture of two enones. The mercaptoethanol adduct 3c underwent deamination. The data obtained provide guidelines for amplifying the project in the future. PMID:17409538

  16. Cadmium-binding proteins of three marine molluscs and characterization of two cadmium-binding glycoproteins from the hepatopancreas of a whelk, Buccinum tenuissimum

    SciTech Connect

    Dohi, Y.; Kosaka, K.; Ohba, K.; Yoneyama, Y.

    1986-03-01

    The cadmium-binding proteins were shown to exist in the hepatopancreas of three molluscs, a whelk, Buccinum tenuissimum, a turbo, Batillus cornutus, and a squid, Todarodes pacificus. Cadmium was efficiently accumulated in nature to a mean concentration of 119, 33, and 50 ..mu..g/g wet tissue in the hepatopancreas of three species of molluscs. Separation of the soluble fraction by Sephadex G-75 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol revealed that cadmium was mainly bound to the protein fraction FII of molecular weight 10,000. Two cytoplasmic cadmium-binding glycoproteins from the hepatopancreas of Buccinum tenuissimum were purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration and double DEAE-Sephadex A-25 chromatographies in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. These two cadmium-binding glycoproteins, termed FII/sub A/ and FII/sub B/, had molecular weights of 8000 and 13,000 and consisted of 52 and 94 amino acid residues, respectively. The sugar contents of FII/sub A/ and FII/sub B/ were about 20.5% and 8.7% by weight, respectively, consisting of galactose, mannose, fucose, and amino sugar. Both showed strong metal-binding ability, especially for cadmium, copper, and mercury.

  17. Crystal structure of the first plant urease from jack bean: 83 years of journey from its first crystal to molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2010-07-16

    Urease, a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme, is synthesized by plants, some bacteria, and fungi. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Although the amino acid sequences of plant and bacterial ureases are closely related, some biological activities differ significantly. Plant ureases but not bacterial ureases possess insecticidal properties independent of its ureolytic activity. To date, the structural information is available only for bacterial ureases although the jack bean urease (Canavalia ensiformis; JBU), the best-studied plant urease, was the first enzyme to be crystallized in 1926. To better understand the biological properties of plant ureases including the mechanism of insecticidal activity, we initiated the structural studies on some of them. Here, we report the crystal structure of JBU, the first plant urease structure, at 2.05 A resolution. The active-site architecture of JBU is similar to that of bacterial ureases containing a bi-nickel center. JBU has a bound phosphate and covalently modified residue (Cys592) by beta-mercaptoethanol at its active site, and the concomitant binding of multiple inhibitors (phosphate and beta-mercaptoethanol) is not observed so far in bacterial ureases. By correlating the structural information of JBU with the available biophysical and biochemical data on insecticidal properties of plant ureases, we hypothesize that the amphipathic beta-hairpin located in the entomotoxic peptide region of plant ureases might form a membrane insertion beta-barrel as found in beta-pore-forming toxins. PMID:20471401

  18. Helicobacter pylori urease inhibition by rabeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, M; Imamura, L; Park, J B; Kobashi, K

    1995-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of four gastric proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): rabeprazole, a novel benzimidazole PPI, omeprazole, lansoprazole and AG-2000, on the urease activity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Their 50% inhibitory concentrations (I50s) were found to be 0.29, 5.4, 9.3 and 0.3 microM respectively. Rabeprazole and omeprazole were also potent inhibitors of Jack bean and Proteus mirabilis cellular ureases. The thioether derivative of rabeprazole, one of its metabolites, had no inhibitory effect on H. pylori urease, despite being reported as a more potent inhibitor of H. pylori growth than rabeprazole. The inhibitory effect of rabeprazole was prevented completely and reversed considerably by the addition of sulfhydryl compounds, such as beta-mercaptoethanol, glutathione and dithiothreitol. Moreover, the addition of beta-mercaptoethanol recovered the urease activity inhibited by rabeprazole. From these results, we expected that rabeprazole inhibited H. pylori urease activity by forming disulfide bonds between it and the active site of the enzyme. PMID:8535394

  19. Separation of thiol and cyanide hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Copper, Christine L; Collins, Greg E

    2004-03-01

    The fluorescence derivatizing agent, o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), has been applied to the separation and detection of cyanide and several structurally similar thiols by capillary electrophoresis (CE)-laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Of particular interest to this investigation was the separation of 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, and cyanide, each of which are hydrolysis products or hydrolysis product simulants of the chemical warfare (CW) agents O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-2-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (R-VX), and tabun (GA). Other structurally similar thiols simultaneously resolved by this method include 1-pentanethiol and 2-mercaptoethanol. Instrumental parameters were probed and optimum values for capillary length (50 cm) and inner diameter (75 microm), injection time (30 s) and field strength (15 kV) were determined. Sample stacking methods enabled detection limits of 9.3 microg/L for cyanide, 1.8 microg/L for 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, 35 microg/L for 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 15 microg/L for 2-mercaptoethanol, and 89 microg/L for 1-pentanethiol. The linearity of the method was verified over an order of magnitude and the reproducibility was found to be 3.0%. PMID:15004852

  20. The Structurally Flexible Bicyclic Bis(2-hydroxyethanethiolato)bismuth(III) Complex: A Model for Asymmetric Monoanionic Chelation of Bismuth(III).

    PubMed

    Agocs, Lisa; Briand, Glen G.; Burford, Neil; Cameron, T. Stanley; Kwiatkowski, Witold; Robertson, Katherine N.

    1997-06-18

    Reaction of Bi(NO(3))(3) with 2-mercaptoethanol gives [Bi(SCH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)][NO(3)], 5(NO(3)), independent of stoichiometry. Other salts or derivatives of 5, 5(Cl) and 5(Br), are readily prepared by anion exchange reactions and can also be obtained by reaction of BiX(3) (X = Cl, Br) with 2-mercaptoethanol. Reaction of Bi(CH(3)COO)(3) with 2-mercaptoethanol gives the conjugate base of 5 which is readily protonated with glacial acetic acid to give the acetate salt 5(CH(3)COO). The compounds have been characterized by IR, Raman, and NMR spectroscopies and APCI mass spectrometry. X-ray crystallographic studies of 5(NO(3)) [crystal data: C(4)H(10)O(5)BiS(2)N.H(2)O, I4(1)/a, a = 20.337(6) Å, b = 20.337(6) Å, c = 11.303(7) Å, Z = 16], 5(Cl) [crystal data: C(4)H(10)O(2)BiS(2)Cl, P2(1)/n, a = 8.653(2) Å, b = 10.618(3) Å, c = 10.564(2) Å, beta = 100.51(2) degrees, Z = 4], and 5(CH(3)COO) [crystal data: C(6)H(13)O(4)BiS(2), P2(1)/c, a = 8.089(2) Å, b = 16.313(3) Å, c = 8.708(2) Å, beta = 98.37(3) degrees, Z = 4] show them to each contain the bicyclic bis(2-hydroxyethanethiolato)bismuth framework 5. The conformational features of 5 are dramatically different in each of the structures, perhaps reflecting the relative donor capabilities of the anions. The observations reveal a substantial thermodynamic preference for the thiolate-alcohol chelate in a 2:1 stoichiometry over other possible structural arrangements, which is interpreted in terms of hard and soft acid-base theory and mediation of the acidity of the bismuth site by the double hydroxyl coordination. PMID:11669922

  1. Purification and Partial Characterization of Maize (Zea mays L.) β-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Asim

    1992-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) β-glucosidase (β-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) was extracted from the coleoptiles of 5- to 6-day-old maize seedlings with 50 millimolar sodium acetate, pH 5.0. The pH of the extract was adjusted to 4.6, and most of the contaminating proteins were cryoprecipitated at 0°C for 24 hours. The pH 4.6 supernatant from cryoprecipitation was further fractionated by chromatography on an Accell CM column using a 4.8 to 6.8 pH gradient of 50 millimolar sodium acetate, which yielded the enzyme in two homogeneous, chromatographically different fractions. Purified enzyme was characterized with respect to subunit molecular weight, isoelectric point, amino acid composition, NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, pH and temperature optima, thermostability, and activity and stability in the presence of selected reducing agents, metal ions, and alkylating agents. The purified enzyme has an estimated subunit molecular mass of 60 kilodaltons, isoelectric point at pH 5.2, and pH and temperature optima at 5.8 and 50°C, respectively. The amino acid composition data indicate that the enzyme is rich in Glx and Asx, the sum of which approaches 25%. The sequence of the first 20 amino acids in the N-terminal region was H2N-Ser-Ala-Arg-Val-Gly-Ser-Gln-Asn-Gly-Val-Gln-Met-Leu-Ser-Pro-(Ser?) -Glu-Ile-Pro-Gln, and it shows no significant similarity to other proteins with known sequence. The enzyme is extremely stable at 0 to 4°C up to 1 year but loses activity completely at and above 55°C in 10 minutes. Likewise, the enzyme is stable in the presence of or after treatment with 500 millimolar 2-mercaptoethanol, and it is totally inactivated at 2000 millimolar 2-mercaptoethanol. Such metal ions as Hg2+ and Ag+ reversibly inhibit the enzyme at micromolar concentrations, and inhibition could be completely overcome by adding 2-mercaptoethanol at molar excess of the inhibitory metal ion. The alkylating agents iodoacetic acid and iodoacetamide irreversibly inactivate the

  2. Characterization of sulfate transport in cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, I K

    1976-09-01

    Sulfate transport by tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Xanthi) cultured in liquid medium was investigated.Transport was linear with time, had a sharp pH optimum between 6.5 and 7.5, and obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Km varied within the range 2 x 10(-5)m and 4 x 10(-5)m and the maximum velocity was in the range 100 to 400 nanomoles per gram fresh weight.hour.Transport was inhibited more than 90% by 10(-4)m sulfite, thiosulfate, metabisulfite, sulfide, selenate, and chromate, but was inhibited less than 40% by 10(-3)m chloride, nitrate, or phosphate. Selenate was a competitive and sulfide a noncompetitive inhibitor of sulfate transport.The oxidative respiration inhibitors, azide and cyanide, uncoupling reagents, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and dinitrophenol, and the ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) were all potent inhibitors of transport. Inhibition by CCCP was not prevented by preincubation of cells with dithiothreitol. Removal of CCCP from the transporting medium resulted in a partial resumption of transport, in contrast removal of DCCD had no effect.Sulfate transport was inhibited more than 90% by 10(-4)m mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, or d-cysteine and was abolished by either 10(-5)m N-ethylmaleimide or 10(-4)m iodoacetamide. Removal of mercaptoethanol from the transporting medium resulted in a return to maximal rates of transport whereas when either N-ethylmaleimide or iodoacetamide were removed transport remained inhibited.N-ethylmaleimide (10(-5)m) and iodoacetamide (10(-4)m), which inhibited transport completely, induced the efflux of between 70 and 90% of the transported sulfate in 5 hours. Metabolite efflux was induced by the following compounds, which are listed according to their effectiveness, DCCD, CCCP, mercaptoethanol, and selenate. Increasing the concentration of an inhibitor, in excess of that required to inhibit transport 100%, increased the rate of nonspecific metabolite efflux from the

  3. Reduction in nonfluorescence state of quantum dots on an immunofluorescence staining

    SciTech Connect

    Li-Shishido, Songhua; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Tada, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Hideo . E-mail: higuchi@tubero.tohoku.ac.jp; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2006-12-08

    Fluorescence quantum dots are widely used in immunofluorescence staining because of their intense and stable fluorescence. However, the nonfluorescence state of the quantum dots is their disadvantage. Here, the nonfluorescence state of the dots labeled to cells and tissues was suppressed. Cells and tissues where the receptor HER2 had been overexpressed were fixed and then labeled with anti-HER2 crosslinked with the dots. The intensity of the dots increased with the illumination time. The majority of the single dots were in the nonfluorescence state at beginning of the illumination period and the number of fluorescence dots observed increased with the illumination time. Living cells were also labeled with the anti-HER2-Qdots. Blinking and bleaching of the Qdots was effectively suppressed by adding {beta}-mercaptoethanol and glutathione. Therefore, the movement of the Qdots bound to cell membrane could be observed for long periods of time.

  4. Synthesis and structure design of new bio-based elastomers via Thiol-ene-Click Reactions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafiullah; Wang, Zhao; Wang, Runguo; Zhang, Liqun

    2016-10-01

    The additions of 2-mercaptoethanol to (S)-(-)-limonene via click reaction is described as an adaptable and efficient way to obtain alcohol functionalized renewable monomer for the synthesis of new cross-linkable bio-based elastomers. Thiol first reacted with the limonene endocyclic double bond and then reacted with the exocyclics double bond to form the difunctional monomer. The structure of the monomer was determined by using FTIR, (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetrys (DSC) characterization exposed that this monomer could be used to synthesize elastomers with excellent and adaptable thermal properties. The molecular weight of the synthesized elastomer could reach 186kDaa via melting polycondensation route and the structure-properties relationship was deliberated. Finally, these elastomers were mixed with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) to form cross-linked elastomers with certain mechanical property, and the gel contents of the elastomers were confirmed by using Soxhlet extraction method. PMID:27287154

  5. A phospholipid-deacylating system of bacteria active in a frozen medium.

    PubMed Central

    Hazlewood, G P; Dawson, R M

    1976-01-01

    A phosphatidylcholine-deacylating system present in a Butyrivibrio species (probably fibrisolvens) shows appreciable activity at low temperatures with a maximum hydrolysis rate at--10 degrees C. 2. The rate at--10 degrees C is higher than at 39 degrees C unless the system at the latter temperature is stimulated by adding oleic acid or sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. The low-temperature phospholipase activity has an absolute requirement for thiol reagents, e.g. cysteine, dithiothreitol or mercaptoethanol. 4. Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ stimulate the activity up to 10 mM, but EDTA inhibits; higher concentrations of Ca2+ also inhibit. 5. The enhancement of activity at low temperatures appears not to be associated with a crystalline change in the hydrated phospholipid substrate, but depends on the formation of a solid phase in the incubation medium which brings the substrate and bacterial cells into juxtaposition or causes fusion. Images PLATE 1 PMID:1259714

  6. Studies on Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties of Chemically Deposited CdS1-xSex Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Deo, Soumya R; Singh, Ajaya K; Deshmukh, Lata; Singh, Narendra Pratap; Aleksandrova, Mariya P

    2016-03-01

    The thin films of CdS1-xSex were successfully deposited over glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique. Cadmium acetate, thiourea and sodium selenosulfate were used as source materials for Cd(2+), S(2-) and Se(2-) ions, while 2-mercaptoethanol was used as capping agent. The various deposition conditions such as precursor concentration, deposition temperature, pH and deposition time were optimized for the deposition of CdS1-xSex thin films of good quality and the films were annealed at 200° and 300 °C. The structural, morphological, chemical and optical properties were examined by various characterization techniques and discussed in detail. The optical band gap of CdS1-xSex thin film samples were estimated and found in the range from 2.11 to 1.79 eV for as-deposited and annealed thin films. PMID:26634707

  7. Effect of additives on the purification of urease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of additives on the purification of proteins was investigated. The target protein studied here is the enzyme urease. Studies on the purification of urease from jack bean meal were carried out. 32% (v/v) acetone was utilized to extract urease from the jack bean meal. Further purification by crystallization with the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol and EDTA disodium salt dehydrate was carried out. It was found out that the presence of additives can affect the selectivity of the crystallization. Increases in both purity and yield of the urease after crystallization were observed in the presence of additives, which were proven using both SDS-PAGE and activity. Urease crystals with a yield of 69.9% and a purity of 85.1% were obtained in one crystallization step in the presence of additives. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the thermodynamics and kinetics of urease crystallization was studied.

  8. [Stability of the hydrogenase from Tetraselmis subcordiformis and its preliminary purification].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Chen, Zhao'an; Cao, Xupeng; Lu, Hongbin; Xue, Song; Zhang, Wei

    2010-07-01

    Tetraselmis subcordiformis, a marine green alga, can produce hydrogen by photobiologically hydrolyzing seawater with hydrogenase. In this study, the preliminary purification of the enzyme was explored by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and the impact of sodium dithionite, beta-mercaptoethanol and glycerol on the enzyme stability during the process was investigated. The experimental results illustrated that sodium dithionite provided significant protection on the hydrogenase by depleting oxygen, while glycerol, a protectant against the structure instability of the enzyme, also presented protection. Crude enzyme with specific activity of 0.557 U/mg protein was extracted using 60%-70% saturated ammonium sulfate solution supplemented with 200 mmol/L sodium dithionite and 5% glycerol, and the hydrogenase recovery yield was about 30%. PMID:20954403

  9. The natural heterohaemagglutinin in the serum of the toad Bufo regularis, and its relationship to lower vertebrate immunoglobulins.

    PubMed Central

    Balding, P; Gold, E R

    1976-01-01

    The serum of the toad Bufo regularis contains a natural heterohaemagglutinin for human erythrocytes, Which appears to have anti-(B + HP) specificity. Results of inhibition and absorption experiments indicate that only one agglutinin is present. The biochemical specificity of the agglutinin may be provisionally described as involving alpha-D-galactose residues linked (1-3) in the B determinant, of red cells possessing the H ANTIGEN. Unlike amphibian IgM, the agglutinin was insensitive to 2-mercaptoethanol treatment; moreover, it could be eluted from the alpha1 globulin region on cellulose acetate electrophoresis. These results suggest that this naturally occurring heterohaemagglutinin has a structure similar to that of plant and animal lectins. The relationship of this observation to the phylogenetic evolution of immunity is discussed. PMID:58835

  10. [Kinetics of Ca2+, NADH, and oxidized flavoproteins in the frog olfactory lining under the effect of odorants].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Ia N; Bigdaĭ, E V; Samoĭlov, V O

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of fluorescence of Ca(2+) - chlortertacyclin-cell membrane complex as well as of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins in receptor cells of the frog olfactory lining under the effect of odorants has been studied. Changes in the fluorescence of the olfactory lining upon stimulation by cineole and vanillin occurred more rapidly than under the effect of camphor and amyl alcohol. Differences in the kinetics of reactions of NADH and the Ca(2+)-CTC-CM complex to different odorants are apparently due to heterogeneity of molecular mechanisms associated with the involvement of different intracellular signal systems in the transduction of these odorants in the olfactory lining. In contrast to them, ammonia and beta3-mercaptoethanol penetrate into olfactory cells and inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain without the participation of second messengers. At the same time, the motor activity of olfactory cilia is depressed. PMID:17348402

  11. Quantification of structurally related aliphatic amino alcohols in l-valinol by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation combined with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Douša, Michal; Stach, Jan; Gibala, Petr; Lemr, Karel

    2016-03-01

    The amino alcohols in l-valinol were effectively separated and quantified using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with fluorescence detection. The influence of the mobile phase (salt type, buffer concentration, and pH) on retention was studied. A column TSKgel amide and mobile phase consisting of 10 mM acetate buffer pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) provided well-separated symmetric peaks of analytes. Fluorescence detection was performed using postcolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde/2-mercaptoethanol at an excitation and emission wavelength of 345 and 450 nm, respectively. Simple sample pretreatment and very high sensitivity represent the main advantages of the developed method. After validation, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial samples of l-valinol. PMID:26697727

  12. Liquid chromatographic separation of pregabalin and its possible impurities with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde.

    PubMed

    Dousa, Michal; Gibala, Petr; Lemr, K

    2010-11-01

    A rapid procedure based on direct extraction and RP-HPLC separation of pregabalin and its possible impurities with fluorescence detection has been developed. The separation conditions and parameters of derivatization reaction for postcolumn derivatization of pregabalin with o-phtaldialdehyde/2-mercaptoethanol were studied. Purospher STAR RP-8e column with isocratic elution was employed. Fluorescence detection was performed at excitation and emission wavelength of 345 nm and 450 nm, respectively. The proposed method has an advantage of a simple sample pre-treatment and a quick and very sensitive HPLC method. The applicability of developed method was successfully verified during analysis of commercial samples of tablets of Lyrica (Pfizer, USA). PMID:20435423

  13. Nonaggregating refolding of ribonuclease A using reverse micellar dialysis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Tsutomu; Nagatomo, Mai; Nagao, Tomoaki; Ijima, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Koei

    2005-02-01

    A hydrophilic ultrafiltration membrane, regenerated cellulose, facilitates the size-selectable permeability of hydrophilic solutes in reverse micellar solution. By using an ultrafiltration membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 3,500, we demonstrate a nonaggregating protein refolding technique based on the dialysis of reverse micellar solution. This realizes concurrent removal of denaturants, urea and 2-mercaptoethanol, and the supply of redox reagents, reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG), to promote renaturation of proteins. Two mg/ml ribonuclease A (RNase A) was refolded completely without any dilution and aggregation for 60 h. The refolding behavior of RNase A is strongly influenced by the ratio of GSH and GSSG. Moreover, we recovered 90% of the refolded RNase A from AOT reverse micellar solution with acetone precipitation and beta-cyclodextrin washing. These findings should facilitate the production of a continuous protein refolding membrane reactor. PMID:15625675

  14. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Morales Rodriguez, Marissa E; Senesac, Larry R; Rajic, Slobodan; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Smith, Barton; Datskos, Panos G

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated an infrared (IR) microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the IR photothermal spectra of molecules absorbed on the surface of uncooled thermal micromechanical detectors. IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy requires no chemical specific coatings and the chemical specificity of the presented method is a consequence of the wavelength-specific absorption of IR photons from tunable quantum cascade lasers due to vibrational spectral bands of the analyte. We have obtained IR photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of RDX and a monolayer of 2-mercaptoethanol, over the wavelength region from 6 to 10 m. We found that in this wavelength region both chemicals exhibit a number of photothermal absorption features that are in good agreement with their respective IR spectra.

  15. Coats from Myxococcus xanthus: characterization and synthesis during myxospore differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kottel, R H; Bacon, K; Clutter, D; White, D

    1975-10-01

    An extracellular coat from glycerol-induced myxospores of Myxococcus xanthus has been isolated and characterized. Coats were examined chemically and by using both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. On a dry weight basis, approximately 75% of the coat is polysaccharide composed entirely of galactosamine and glucose. The remainder of the coat is protein (14%), glycine (8%), and organic phosphorus (less than 1%). Coats remained morphologically intact despite boiling in 10 M urea, sodium lauryl sulfate plus beta-mercaptoethanol, or extraction with warm phenol. Coats also resisted digestion with a variety of proteolytic and polysaccharide degrading enzymes. Synthesis of myxospore coat begins approximately 1 h after the addition of glycerol to a culture. One portion of the coat is complete by 5 to 6 h but additional material consisting primarily of glucose is added after 8 h. PMID:809426

  16. Lactoperoxidase haem, an iron-porphyrin thiol.

    PubMed Central

    Nichol, A W; Angel, L A; Moon, T; Clezy, P S

    1987-01-01

    The haem prosthetic group of lactoperoxidase can be prepared from the enzyme in high yield by reductive cleavage with mercaptoethanol in 8 M-urea under mild conditions. The product yields porphyrins, after removal of iron, which show visible spectroscopic properties similar to protoporphyrin but are considerably more polar. In the presence of iodoacetamide, a different product is obtained by reductive cleavage. The proton n.m.r. and mass spectra of this compound indicate that the prosthetic group of the enzyme is the iron complex of 18-mercaptomethyl-2,7,12-trimethyl-3,8-divinylporphyrin-13,17-d ipropionic acid. It is proposed that the unusual strength of binding of the prosthetic group to the apoprotein is due to formation of a disulphide bond from a cysteine residue to the porphyrin thiol. PMID:3689341

  17. A Method for the Highly Selective, Colorimetric and Ratiometric Detection of Hg(2+) in a 100% Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingkai; Xu, Zhenghe; Xu, Lirong; Bian, Zhen; Sang, Guoqing; Zhu, Baocun

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and its derivatives pose a serious threat to the environment and human health. Thus, the development of methods for the selective and sensitive determination of Hg(2+) is very important to understand its distribution, and to implement more detailed toxicological studies. Herein, we developed a new method for the detection of Hg(2+) based on the tricyanoethylene derivative and mercaptoethanol. This method could selectively detect Hg(2+) in a 100% aqueous solution by the naked-eye within the range of 1 - 60 μM. Importantly, this method also could detect Hg(2+) quantitatively by ratiometic absorption spectroscopy in the range of 0.1 - 6 μM with a detection limit of 55 nM. We anticipate that this proposed method will be used widely to monitor Hg(2+) in the environment. PMID:26960619

  18. Studies on the Pycnoporus sanguineus CCT-4518 laccase purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Telma Alves; Santiago, Mariângela Fontes; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2007-05-01

    A laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus was purified by two steps using phenyl-Sepharose columm. A typical procedure provided 54.1-fold purification, with a yield of 8.37%, using syringaldazine as substrate. The molecular weight of the purified laccase was 69 and 68 kDa as estimated by 12% (w/v) SDS-PAGE gel and by gel filtration, respectively. The K (m) values for the substrates ABTS, syringaldazine, and guaiacol were 58, 8.3, and 370 muM, respectively. The enzyme's pH optimum for syringaldazine was 4.2 and optimal activity was 50 degrees C. The enzyme showed to be thermostable because when kept at 50 degrees C for 24 and 48 h it retained 93 and 76% activity. This laccase was inhibited by L: -cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol, NaN(3), NaF, and HgCl(2). PMID:17216440

  19. Purification and characterization of a toxin inhibiting protein synthesis from Croton mongue, a Madagascar Euphorbiaceae.

    PubMed

    Ralison, C; Creppy, E E; Boulanger, Y; Dirheimer, G

    1986-01-01

    Monguine, a thermostable toxic protein was extracted from the seeds of Croton mongue (Euphorbiaceae) and purified by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and G-15. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified monguine in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and after treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol showed one band corresponding to a molecular weight of 9000. The same molecular weight was determined by analytical centrifugation. Amino acid analysis revealed a high content in both aspartic and glutamic acids (or the corresponding amides). The LD50 (24 h) is 12 mg/kg of mouse body weight. Monguine inhibits protein synthesis in hepatoma tissue culture cells and globin synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. PMID:3098307

  20. The Study On The Physical Properties Of CdS Quantum Dots Synthesized By Ligand Exchange in Cd{sup 2+}-thiol Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, S. Y.; Yoo, D. S.; Kim, I. G.; Choo, M. S.; Kim, G. W.; Lee, E. S.; Lee, B. C.

    2011-12-23

    We synthesized CdS quantum dots in aqueous medium using three thiolate-ligands, 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), 3-mercaptopropanoic acid (MPA) and dimercaprol (BAL) by ligand exchange method. With a fixed concentration of thiols, the absorption edge of the quantum dots formed shifted towards shorter wavelength, as to the decreasing of a concentration of CdCl{sub 2}. When a concentration of CdCl{sub 2} and thiol was same, band gap energies and average sizes of the quantum dots were shown to be 2.65 eV, 3.26 nm for MPA, 2.84 eV, 3.16 nm for 2 ME and 3.16 eV, 1.81 nm for BAL, respectively. PL spectra analysis shows that as the decrease in molar concentration of CdCl{sub 2}, emission peak shifted towards shorter wavelength.

  1. Novel hybrid materials based on the vanadium oxide nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabrodina, G. S.; Makarov, S. G.; Kremlev, K. V.; Yunin, P. A.; Gusev, S. A.; Kaverin, B. S.; Kaverina, L. B.; Ketkov, S. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Novel hybrid materials based on zinc phthalocyanine and nanostructured vanadium oxides have attracted extensive attention for the development of academic research and innovative industrial applications such as flexible electronics, optical sensors and heterogeneous catalysts. Vanadium oxides nanobelts were synthesized via a hydrothermal treatment V2O5·nH2O gel with surfactants (TBAB, CTAB) used as structure-directing agents, where CTAB - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, TBAB - tetrabutylammonium bromide. Hybrid materials were prepared decoration of (CTA)0.33V2O5 flexible nanobelts with cationic zinc phthalocyanine by the ion-exchange route. Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures of the (CTA)0.33V2O5, (TBA)0.16V2O5 nanobelts and zinc phthalocyanine exchange product were carried out. The hybrid materials based on the nanostructured vanadium oxide and zinc phthalocyanine were tested as photocatalysts for oxidation of citronellol and 2-mercaptoethanol by dioxygen.

  2. Establishment and characterization of an astroglial cell line derived from the brain of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Tian-Zi; SUN, Ai; WANG, Na; CUI, Zhong-Kai; CHEN, Song-Lin; SHA, Zhen-Xia

    2015-01-01

    An astroglial cell line was established from the brain of half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) and was designated as CSAC. CSAC shows the morphological homogeneity of epithelial cells. The cell identity was tested by the presence of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which was revealed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The cell line was optimally maintained at 24 °C in minimum essential medium supplemented with HEPES, antibiotics, 20% fetal bovine serum, 2-Mercaptoethanol (2-Me) and basic fibroblast growth factor. Chromosome analysis revealed that the CSAC cells maintained a normal diploid chromosome number (2n=42). The fluorescent signals were observed in CSAC after the cells were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmids. The CSAC cell line may serve as a valuable tool for studies on the potential functions of fish astroglial cells. PMID:26452695

  3. Isoenzymes of Pyruvate Kinase in Etioplasts and Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, Robert J.; Deluca, Vincenzo; Dennis, David T.

    1979-01-01

    Isoenzymes of pyruvate kinase from green leaves of castor bean and etiolated leaves of pea plants have been separated by ion filtration chromatography. One of the isoenzymes is localized in the plastid, whereas the other is in the cytosol. The cytosolic enzyme has a pH optimum from pH 7 to pH 9, and is able to utilize nucleotides other than ADP as the phosphoryl acceptor. The plastid enzyme has a much sharper optimum at pH 8, and is less efficient at using alternative nucleotides. The plastic pyruvate kinase, unlike the cytosolic enzyme, requires the presence of dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol during isolation and storage to stabilize the activity. PMID:16660835

  4. Novel spectrophotometric method for detection and estimation of butanol in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermenter.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sampa; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Bihan, Yann Le; Drogui, Patrick; Buelna, Gerardo; Verma, Mausam; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-08-15

    A new, simple, rapid and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for detection and estimation of butanol in fermentation broth. The red colored compound, produced during reduction of diquat-dibromide-monohydrate with 2-mercaptoethanol in aqueous solution at high pH (>13), becomes purple on phase transfer to butanol and gives distinct absorption at λ520nm. Estimation of butanol in the fermentation broth has been performed by salting out extraction (SOE) using saturated K3PO4 solution at high pH (>13) followed by absorbance measurement using diquat reagent. Compatibility and optimization of diquat reagent concentration for detection and estimation of butanol concentration in the fermentation broth range was verified by central composite design. A standard curve was constructed to estimate butanol in acetone-ethanol-butanol (ABE) mixture under optimized conditions. The spectrophotometric results for butanol estimation, was found to have 87.5% concordance with the data from gas chromatographic analysis. PMID:25966390

  5. Hemoglobin-mimetic oxygen adsorbent prepared via self-assembly of cysteinyl bolaamphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chaemyeong; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a novel cysteinyl bolaamphiphilic molecule was synthesized and its self-assembled planar suprastructure was applied as a biomimetic matrix to create a hemoglobin-mimetic oxygen adsorbent that exploits the ability of cysteine thiols to bind hemin. Self-assembly of the cysteinyl bolaamphiphilic molecule exposed cysteine thiols on its surface in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol, known to reduce disulfide bonds, without which, helically coiled structures were generated. The self-assembled planar structure was used as a soft matrix to create a hemoglobin-mimetic oxygen adsorbent. The surface-exposed cysteine thiols were used to attach hemin, producing a hemin-bound, planar structure mimicking hemoglobin. This hemoglobin mimic strongly adsorbed oxygen and remained stable up to 50°C. The cysteinyl bolaamphiphile self-assembled structure provided a biomimetic platform that allowed for the association of biological substances in a manner similar to natural proteins. PMID:26970824

  6. Fibrinogenolytic toxin from Indian monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, C Chandra; Chakrabarty, Dibakar

    2011-06-01

    A fibrinogenolytic toxin of molecular weight 6.5 kDa has been purified from the venom of Indian monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) by repeated cation exchange chromatography on CM-sephadex C-50. The purified toxin did not show any phospholipase activity but was mildly hemolytic on human erythrocytes. This toxin, called Lahirin, cleaved fibrinogen in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The digestion process apparently started with the A alpha chain, and gradually other lower-molecular-weight chains were also cleaved to low-molecular-weight peptides. The fibrinolytic activity was completely lost after treatment with ethylene di-amine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). However, exposure to 100 degree C for 1 min or pre-treatment with phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) did not affect the fibrinolytic activity. Cleavage of di-sulphide bonds by beta-mercaptoethanol or unfolding the protein with 4 M urea caused complete loss of activity of pure Lahirin. PMID:21654088

  7. Sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of superoxide dismutase activity in tissue extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Paoletti, F.; Aldinucci, D.; Mocali, A.; Caparrini, A.

    1986-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) has been assayed by a spectrophotometric method based on the inhibition of a superoxide-driven NADH oxidation. The assay consists of a purely chemical reaction sequence which involves EDTA. Mn(II), mercaptoethanol, and molecular oxygen, requiring neither auxiliary enzymes nor sophisticated equipment. The method is very flexible and rapid and is applicable with high sensitivity to the determination of both pure and crude superoxide dismutase preparations. The decrease of the rate of NADH oxidation is a function of enzyme concentration, and saturation levels are attainable. Fifty percent inhibition, corresponding to one unit of the enzyme, is produced by approximately 15 ng of pure superoxide dismutase. Experiments on rat liver cytosol have shown the specificity of the method for superoxide dismutase. Moreover, common cellular components do not interfere with the measurement, except for hemoglobin when present at relatively high concentrations. The assay is performed at physiological pH and is unaffected by catalase.

  8. Isolation, characterization and in vitro mitogenic stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from an American buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nagi, A M; Babiuk, L A

    1989-10-01

    A rapid and reproducible method is described for the isolation and characterization of leukocytes from the peripheral blood of an American buffalo (bison). Centrifugation of the buffy coat cells on a Percoll gradient (1.079 g/mL) at 650 x g for 20 min resulted in the separation and high yields of pure viable leukocytes. The sheep erythrocyte-rosetting technique (ER) showed that 59% of the cells were ER+ (T lymphocytes). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated peanut agglutinin and FITC-conjugated concanavalin A revealed 77% and 89% positive cells, respectively. The isolated leukocytes contained adherent accessory cells and functionally active T and B lymphocytes which proliferated in response to both T and B cell mitogens and to exogenous recombinant bovine interleukin-2 in the absence and/or presence of the thiol compound 2-mercaptoethanol. PMID:2590878

  9. Optical studies of capped CdSe nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Otaqsara, Seyed Mohammad; Nemati-Kande, Ebrhim; Barzegar, Ramin

    2013-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and mercaptoethanol (ME)-capped CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully prepared and systematic investigation on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties is presented. The intrinsic characteristics of resulting nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer. Cubic phase, nearly uniform size (˜10 nm) and spherical morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles were established through XRD and TEM analysis. Spectroscopic measurements exhibit that capping agent can effectively tune energy band structure. ME-capped CdSe NPs exhibit higher light emission efficiency as compared to PEG capping. Photocatalytic activity of CdSe nanoparticles on methylene blue (MB) dye, a significant enhancement was observed in the photodegradation efficiency. A maximum degradation of MB dye (73.5%) was obtained.

  10. The effect of aromatic amines and phenols in the thiyl-induced reactions of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaro Bujak, Ivana; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Ferreri, Carla; Valgimigli, Luca; Amorati, Riccardo; Mihaljević, Branka

    2016-07-01

    Thiols are well known for their role in cellular redox homeostasis, while aromatic amines and phenols are the best known classes of chain-breaking antioxidants. On the other hand, thiyl radicals are known to catalyse the double bond isomerization in PUFA. We investigated the role and interplay of 2-mercaptoethanol and diphenylamine in the parallel processes of peroxidation and cis-trans isomerization of linoleic acid (LA) during gamma radiolysis, both in solution and micelles. Both compounds, used alone were able to protect LA from oxidation; however pro-oxidant activity and enhanced isomerization was observed when they were used together, depending on the experimental settings. Instead, α-tocopherol protected LA from both oxidation and isomerization in the presence of thiols under any tested settings. The mechanistic scenario is discussed highlighting the role of diphenylaminyl radicals in promoting thiyl-radical-induced cis-trans isomerization in the presence of oxygen.

  11. Protection of chymotrypsin from inactivation by a N-mustard analog.

    PubMed

    Brecher, A S; Koenig, M J

    1995-02-01

    Chymotrypsin activity is rapidly inactivated by the N-mustard anti-tumor drug, chlorambucil. Since mustards react with thiols, amines, carboxyls, imidazoles, and sulfide sites on proteins, N-acetylcysteine, 2 proprietary protein hydrolyzates, beta-mercaptoethanol, ethanolamine, and sodium lactate were tested for their capacity to protect chymotrypsin from inactivation by the mustard. In each instance, protection was afforded to chymotrypsin. In as much as N-acetylcysteine protected chymotrypsin from inactivation by chlorambucil, it is suggested that this thiol compound may serve as a detoxication agent and may not require prior transformation into glutathione by cells in order to reduce mustard levels within the cells, as suggested by Smith and Gross (Proceedings of the NATO Panel VIII meeting, Grenoble, France, 1991.) It is further suggested that amino acids present as biosynthetic and degradative components of cells may detoxify mustards. PMID:7701511

  12. Purification and properties of phytate-specific phosphatase from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Powar, V K; Jagannathan, V

    1982-01-01

    An enzyme which liberates Pi from myo-inositol hexaphosphate (phytic acid) was shown to be present in culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis. It was purified until it was homogeneous by ultracentrifugation, but it still showed two isozymes on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme differed from other previously known phytases in its metal requirement and in its specificity for phytate. It had a specific requirement for Ca2+ for its activity. The enzyme hydrolyzed only phytate and had no action on other phosphate esters tested. This B. subtilis phytase is the only known phytate-specific phosphatase. The products of hydrolysis of phytate by this enzyme were Pi and myo-inositol monophosphate. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 7.5. It was inhibited by Ba2+, Sr2+, Hg2+, Cd2+, and borate. Its activity was unaffected by urea, diisopropylfluorophosphate, arsenate, fluoride, mercaptoethanol, trypsin, papain, and elastase. Images PMID:6286590

  13. The enzymatic and chemical reduction of extended biliverdins.

    PubMed

    Frydman, R B; Bari, S; Tomaro, M L; Frydman, B

    1990-08-31

    The substrate specificity of rat liver biliverdin reductase was probed using helical and extended biliverdins. The former were the ZZZ-all-syn biliverdins IX alpha and IX gamma, and the latter were the 5Z-syn, 10Z-syn, 15Z-anti; 5Z-anti, 10E-anti, 15E-anti biliverdins. It was found that the reduction rates of the biliverdins increased with the progressive stretching of their conformations. The most extended biliverdin was reduced at a higher rate than biliverdin IX alpha. The chemical reduction rates to bilirubins followed a similar pattern. Nucleophilic addition of 2-mercaptoethanol to the C10 methine was also favored in the extended biliverdins. PMID:2393401

  14. Initial description of a tumor enhancing activity produced by murine splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, W H; Stebler, B; Ershler, W B

    1991-08-30

    We have shown that certain murine tumors grow more slowly and spread less readily in immune deficient animals. We have also demonstrated that immunologic factors explain certain aspects of this difference. In the work presented we demonstrate that a subpopulation of splenocytes produce a factor(s) that enhances tumor cell proliferation in vitro. We also describe an in vitro model to determine the level of tumor stimulatory activity. We found that the tumor cell growth-enhancing activity (TEA) is heat stable but sensitive to trypsin digestion, low pH and beta-mercaptoethanol. TEA production is found to be insensitive to mitogen stimulation such as concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, and phytohemagglutinin. Among the known growth factors and interleukins we have tested (interleukin 1-7, basic FGF, EGF, TGF-beta PDGF, GM-CSF, and MCSF), none appear to account for TEA activity. PMID:1883389

  15. Influence of different growth factors on a rat choriocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Verstuyf, A; Goebels, J; Sobis, H; Vandeputte, M

    1993-01-01

    The influence of epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factors I and II, insulin, transforming growth factor beta 1 and transferrin on the growth of a postgestational rat choriocarcinoma was examined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The cell line was cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, beta-mercaptoethanol, glucose, sodium pyruvate and antibiotics. The experiments were done in media supplemented with 10% (optimal) or 3% (suboptimal) fetal calf serum. Among the different growth factors tested, only epidermal growth factor and to a certain extent insulin had a growth-promoting effect by themselves. The other growth factors had either an additive effect in the presence of epidermal growth factor or no effect at all. The cytotrophoblast cells expressed both epidermal growth factor and transferrin receptors whereas the more differentiated giant cells expressed only transferrin receptors. PMID:8493450

  16. Establishment and characterization of an astroglial cell line derived from the brain of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Zi; Sun, Ai; Wang, Na; Cui, Zhong-Kai; Chen, Song-Lin; Sha, Zhen-Xia

    2015-09-18

    An astroglial cell line was established from the brain of half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) and was designated as CSAC. CSAC shows the morphological homogeneity of epithelial cells. The cell identity was tested by the presence of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which was revealed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The cell line was optimally maintained at 24 °C in minimum essential medium supplemented with HEPES, antibiotics, 20% fetal bovine serum, 2-Mercaptoethanol (2-Me) and basic fibroblast growth factor. Chromosome analysis revealed that the CSAC cells maintained a normal diploid chromosome number (2n=42). The fluorescent signals were observed in CSAC after the cells were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmids. The CSAC cell line may serve as a valuable tool for studies on the potential functions of fish astroglial cells. PMID:26452695

  17. 4-Coumaroyl coenzyme A 3-hydroxylase activity from cell cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and its relationship to polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z X; Li, S M; Löscher, R; Heide, L

    1997-11-15

    A 4-coumaroyl-CoA 3-hydroxylase activity was purified 4600-fold from cell cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. The enzyme showed a molecular mass of 42,400 +/- 1700 Da in gel chromatography and required ascorbate, NADH, or NADPH as cofactors. 4-Coumaroyl-CoA, 4-coumarate, p-cresol, and several other phenolic substances, but not tyrosine, were accepted as substrates for the hydroxylation. Besides hydroxylase activity, the enzyme showed diphenol oxidase activity. Both activities were inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate or beta-mercaptoethanol, although at different concentrations. The enzyme showed striking similarity to a 4-coumaroyl-glucose 3-hydroxylase from sweet potato (Ipomoe batatas) roots, which has reportedly been purified to homogeneity and identified as a specific enzyme of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis. Close examination and comparison to a commercially available polyphenol oxidase, however, suggest that the enzyme activities purified from both Lithospermum and sweet potato are polyphenol oxidases rather than specific enzymes of secondary metabolism. PMID:9367532

  18. Two-Dimensional Heterospectral Correlation Analysis of the Redox-Induced Conformational Transition in Cytochrome c Using Surface-Enhanced Raman and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopies on a Two-Layer Gold Surface

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The heme protein cytochrome c adsorbed to a two-layer gold surface modified with a self-assembled monolayer of 2-mercaptoethanol was analyzed using a two-dimensional (2D) heterospectral correlation analysis that combined surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Stepwise increasing electric potentials were applied to alter the redox state of the protein and to induce conformational changes within the protein backbone. We demonstrate herein that 2D heterospectral correlation analysis is a particularly suitable and useful technique for the study of heme-containing proteins as the two spectroscopies address different portions of the protein. Thus, by correlating SERS and SEIRAS data in a 2D plot, we can obtain a deeper understanding of the conformational changes occurring at the redox center and in the supporting protein backbone during the electron transfer process. The correlation analyses are complemented by molecular dynamics calculations to explore the intramolecular interactions. PMID:23930980

  19. [Evaluation of the agglutination test (AT), complement fixation test (CFT) and the antiglobulin test (AGT) in the diagnosis of swine brucellosis. III. Basic studies].

    PubMed

    Karpiński, T M; Zórawski, C; Skwarek, P

    1986-01-01

    In the examinations of the swine sera obtained from swines immunized s.c. with adjuvant Br.abortus S19 vaccine or Br.suis 1417 vaccine, it was found that agglutinins were present after 3 weeks, and C.F. antibodies or incomplete agglutinins normally after injections. Probably, in the first period of Brucella infection negative results of C.F.T. or AGT or both will be obtained. In the swine sera from Brucella free herds, agglutinins reacting with the Brucellognost antigen were present. The performance of mercaptoethanol test or C.F.T. lead in most cases to suitable diagnosis. In our conditions we have not obtained results which permit to classify AGT as a supplement test in serodiagnosis of swine brucellosis. PMID:3822855

  20. Identification of protein phosphatases dephosphorylating mRNP proteins from cryptobiotic gastrulae of the brine shrimp A. salina.

    PubMed

    Thoen, C; Van Hove, L; Cohen, P; Slegers, H

    1985-08-30

    In the cytosol of A. salina cryptobiotic gastrulae at least five protein phosphatases active on phosphorylase a have been detected by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Only two of these enzymes (PP-X and PP-Y) are active in mRNP dephosphorylation. Both enzymes are insensitive to inhibitor-1 and -2 and stimulation of enzymatic activity (2.5-fold with PP-X and 6.5-fold with PP-Y) can be accomplished by ethanol treatment of the native enzymes, or freeze-thawing in the presence of 1.7% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol. These properties allow PP-X and PP-Y to be classified as type-2A enzymes according to the nomenclature of Cohen. This paper is the first report of protein phosphatases capable of dephosphorylating mRNP proteins. PMID:2994667

  1. Rapid RNA Strand Scission Following C2′-Hydrogen Atom Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rakesh; Greenberg, Marc M.

    2015-01-01

    C2′-Nucleotide radicals have been proposed as key intermediates in direct strand break formation in RNA exposed to ionizing radiation. Uridin-2′-yl radical (1) was independently generated in single- and double-stranded RNA via photolysis of a ketone precursor. Direct stand breaks result from heterolytic cleavage of the adjacent C3′-carbon–oxygen bond. Trapping of 1 by O2 or β-mercaptoethanol (1 M) does not compete with strand scission, indicating that phosphate elimination is >106 s−1. Uracil loss also does not compete with strand scission. When considered in conjunction with reports that nucleobase radicals produce 1, this chemistry explains why RNA is significantly more susceptible to strand scission by ionizing radiation (hydroxyl radical) than is DNA. PMID:25580810

  2. The mRNA-binding protein which controls ferritin and transferrin receptor expression is conserved during evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, S; Müllner, E W; Kühn, L C

    1990-01-01

    A post-transcriptional regulatory protein, termed iron regulatory factor (IRF), that binds specifically to the iron-responsive elements of ferritin and transferrin receptor mRNA, has recently been identified in the cytoplasm of human and mouse cells. Activation of this factor by low intracellular iron levels leads to inhibition of ferritin translation and an increase of TR mRNA stability. To investigate whether these feedback regulatory mechanisms are conserved during evolution, we analysed cytoplasmic extracts from 12 different species for a specific IRE-binding activity. We found mRNA-binding proteins in chicken, frog, fish and fly, which are equivalent to human and mouse IRF in gel-retardation assays with radiolabeled RNA transcripts. Competition experiments, molecular weight determinations, and modulation of the mRNA-binding activity in response to intracellular iron levels or reduction by beta-mercaptoethanol indicate that IRF has similar structural and functional properties in these different species. Images PMID:2157191

  3. Virion and soluble antigens of japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Eckels, K H; Hetrick, F M; Russell, P K

    1975-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virions contain a 58 X 10-3-molecular-weight envelope glycoprotein antigen that can be solubilized with sodium lauryl sulfate and separated from other virion structural polypeptides and viral ribonucleic acid by gel filtration chromatography. The 58 X 10-3-molecular-weight envelope protein is the major antigen responsible for cross-reactivity of the virion in complement fixation tests with other closely related arboviruses. A naturally occurring soluble complement-fixing antigen is found in Japanese encephalitis mouse brain preparations after removal of particulate antigens. After partial purification by gel filtration and isoelectric focusing, the 53 X 10-3-molecular weight soluble complement-fixing antigen is more type specific than the Japanese encephalitis envelope antigen in complement fixation tests. Further, the Japanese encephalitis soluble complement-fixing antigen is stable to treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol, whereas virion complement-fixing antigens are unstable after this treatment. Images PMID:47312

  4. Data on the catalytic mechanism of thiol peroxidase mimics.

    PubMed

    Zadehvakili, B; Giles, N M; Fawcett, J P; Giles, G I

    2016-09-01

    We have recently reported SAR data describing the pharmacological activity of a series of phenyl alkyl selenides and tellurides which catalyse the oxidation of thiols by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), "The design of redox active thiol peroxidase mimics: dihydrolipoic acid recognition correlates with cytotoxicity and prooxidant action" B. Zadehvakili, S.M. McNeill, J.P. Fawcett, G.I. Giles (2016) [1]. This thiol peroxidase (TPx) activity is potentially useful for a number of therapeutic applications, as it can alter the outcome of oxidative stress related pathologies and modify redox signalling. This article presents data describing the molecular changes that occur to a TPx mimic upon exposure to H2O2, and then the thiol mercaptoethanol, as characterised by UV-vis spectroscopy and HPLC retention time. PMID:27331089

  5. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of domestic pigs and some wild game species from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Hove, T; Dubey, J P

    1999-04-01

    Serum samples of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa), elands (Taurotragus oryx), sable antelopes (Hippotragus niger), warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), bushpigs (Koiropotamus [Potamochoerus] koiropotamus), white rhinos (Ceratotherium simus), African buffalos (Syncerus caffer), wildebeest (Connochaetas taurinus), and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from Zimbabwe were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with whole formalized tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Sera were diluted at 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 for MAT testing. Sera with antibodies in a 1:25 dilution were considered to have T. gondii infection. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 9.3% of 97 domestic pigs, 36.8% of 19 elands, 11.9% of 67 sables, 0 of 3 warthogs, 0 of 3 bushpigs, 50% of 2 white rhinos, 5.6% of 18 buffalos, 14.5% of 69 wildebeest, and 10.5% of 19 elephants examined. PMID:10219323

  6. Acetohydroxamate inhibition of the activity of urease from dehusked seeds of water melon (Citrullus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan

    2004-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) was purified to apparent homogeneity, using two acetone fractionation steps, heat treatment at 48 degrees C and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. Effect of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) on the activity of the homogeneous enzyme preparation (sp. act. 3000 +/- 550U/mg protein) was investigated. AHA exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition both in the presence and absence of the substrate. The inhibition was uncompetitive and the Ki was 2.5 mM. Binding of AHA with the enzyme was reversible, as 63% activity could be restored by dialysis. Time-dependent inhibition revealed a monophasic inhibition of the activity. Addition of beta-mercaptoethanol (ME) gradually abolished the inhibition. Pre-treatment of native enzyme with 8.0 mM ME for 5 min at 30 degrees C exhibited protection against AHA-induced inhibition. The significance of these observations is discussed. PMID:15558957

  7. Curcumin-incorporated albumin nanoparticles and its tumor image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guangming; Pan, Qinqin; Wang, Kaikai; Wu, Rongchun; Sun, Yong; Lu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Albumin is an ideal carrier for hydrophobic drugs. This paper reports a facile route to develop human serum albumin (HSA)-curcumin (CCM) nanoparticles, in which β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) acted as an inducer and CCM acted as a bridge. Fluorescence quenching and conformational changes in HSA-CCM nanoparticles occurred during assembly. Disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions may play a key role in assembly. HSA-CCM nanoparticles were about 130 nm in size, and the solubility of CCM increased by more than 500 times. The HSA-CCM nanoparticles could accumulate at the cytoplasm of tumor cells and target the tumor tissues. Therefore, HSA nanoparticles fabricated by β-ME denaturation are promising nanocarriers for hydrophobic substances from chemotherapy drugs to imaging probes.

  8. Functionalisation of CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles with polystyrene brushes by radical polimerization.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Haritz; Zalakain, Iñaki; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Eceiza, Arantxa; Kortaberria, Galder; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    CdSe nanoparticles with polystyrene (PS) brushes are obtained by "grafting through" technique starting from solely aqueously synthesized nanoparticles. Mercaptoethanol (ME) capped nanoparticles are used to achieve double bond functional groups on the surface by condensation reaction with methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). PS polymerization starts from these double bonds. Spectroscopic, diffraction and thermal techniques are used to characterize the nanoparticles. Infrared spectroscopy shows the formation of robust bonding between CdSe nanoparticles and the organic ligand, as well as the presence of the functional double bond on the surface of nanoparticles. Thermal analysis reveals changes in thermal properties of PS, as thermal stability of PS in the functionalised nanoparticles is improved. UV-vis and fluorescence measurements show that PS-CdSe nanoparticles exhibit good optical properties and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs shows good level of dispersion of CdSe nanoparticles in a PS matrix. PMID:23646790

  9. Lipid modification processes induced by thiyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaljević, Branka; Bujak, Ivana Tartaro

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation by thiyl radicals (RS•) is believed to be responsible for some of the biological radiation damage. At the same time, RS• can cause isomerization of PUFA double bonds with the formation of trans isomers. The aim of this study was to better understand the competition between lipid peroxidation and geometrical isomerization processes in biomimetic model system of linoleic acid in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol using irradiation as a method for free radicals generation. In air-equilibrated conditions the propagation of lipid peroxidation was dominant up to the dose of 400 Gy, after which at higher doses up to 10 kGy the termination occurred with the predominance of geometrical isomerization. This study revealed that undesirable and permanent lipid modifications are possible at higher irradiation doses which should be considered in the planning of irradiation treatment of foods and feeds with high content of lipids and sulfur compounds.

  10. Evidence for the spontaneous formation of disulfide crosslinked aggregates of tubulin during nondenaturing electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Correia, J J; Welch, M K; Williams, R C

    1987-06-01

    Phosphocellulose-purified tubulin has been shown to form a characteristic "ladder" of nonmicrotubular aggregates during nondenaturing gel electrophoresis (J. J. Correia and R. C. Williams, Jr. (1985) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 239, 120-129). In this paper we describe evidence that the intersubunit bonds responsible for formation of these oligomeric particles are disulfides. Two-dimensional nondenaturing-denaturing gel electrophoresis demonstrates that each aggregate zone is composed of alpha- and beta-subunits of tubulin. Omission of beta-mercaptoethanol during the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-electrophoresis step causes a pattern of aggregates to appear and implicates disulfide linkages in their stabilization. Molecular weights, estimated from mobilities in the second (SDS) dimension of two-dimensional gels, suggest that the aggregates are crosslinked in units of monomers, not heterodimers. Consistent with this conclusion, alpha- or beta-subunits alone (isolated by isoelectric focusing) will form the same ladder of aggregates. The disulfide crosslinking of tubulin is also achievable in solution. It is favored by high concentrations of alcohol, the presence of oxidizing agents, high pH, and high temperature, conditions that denature tubulin and cause rapid noncovalent aggregation or precipitation. When aggregate formation was monitored as a function of time by SDS-gel electrophoresis in the absence of beta-mercaptoethanol and by quantitative sulfhydryl and disulfide titrations, the most effective conditions for the crosslinking reaction included greater than 75% alcohol, excess H2O2, or excess iodine. These results suggest that proximity of a hydrophobic gel matrix, high pH, the presence of oxidizing agents, high protein concentration, tubulin's propensity to aggregate nonspecifically, and the availability of as many as 20 sulfhydryls in alpha beta-tubulin contribute, during nondenaturing gel electrophoresis, to the spontaneous formation of disulfide

  11. Effect of nitroso-chloramphenicol on mitochondrial DNA polymerase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L.O.; Abou-Khalil, W.H.; Yunis, A.A.; Abou-Khalil, S.

    1984-08-01

    A study was made of the effects of nitroso-chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol, amino-chloramphenicol, and thiamphenicol on the activity of mitochondrial DNA polymerase of rat liver. /sup 3/H-thymidine triphosphate incorporation into DNA was used to measure the DNA polymerase activity in the mitochondrial matrix fraction. This fraction was in the supernatant of sonicated mitochondria obtained by ultracentrifugation. Under standard experimental conditions, thymidine triphosphate incorporation was time dependent up to 10 minutes. This activity was enhanced by ..beta..-mercaptoethanol and was blocked by the known polymerase inhibitors ethidium bromide and 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate. Chloramphenicol and its analogues, amino-chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, did not have a significant effect on the polymerase activity, whereas nitroso-chloramphenicol was inhibitory. The degree of inhibition was dependent on the experimental conditions. Thus, in the absence of ..beta..-mercaptoethanol, nitroso-chloramphenicol was inhibitory. The degree of inhibition was dependent on the experimental conditions. Under similar conditions, the addition of dithiothreitol also provided partial protection. On the other hand, the inhibition by nitroso-chloramphenicol was significantly enhanced with its preincubation in the mitochondrial matrix fraction before the addition of nucleotides and DNA; thus after 40 minutes of preincubation, nitroso-chloramphenicol at a concentration of 200 ..mu..mol/L gave 53% inhibition, and produced total inhibition at 600 ..mu..mol/L. The addition of NADH or NADPH to the preincubation medium produced substantial protection against nitroso-chloramphenicol, whereas nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide had no effect. These results suggest that mitochondrial DNA polymerase may be a target for nitroso-chloramphenicol action.

  12. Binding of the extracellular matrix component entactin to Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    López-Ribot, J L; Chaffin, W L

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction between Candida albicans and entactin, a recently characterized glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix, especially in the basement membrane. Organisms of both the yeast and the hyphal morphologies of the fungus had the ability to bind recombinant entactin, as detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Material present in the 2-mercaptoethanol cell wall extracts from both C. albicans growth forms was capable of binding to immobilized recombinant entactin in a dose-dependent manner. Binding to entactin was approximately twice that observed for laminin. Binding of an extract component(s) to entactin was partially inhibited by an Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide. A polyclonal antientactin antiserum, as well as a pooled antiserum preparation raised against components present in different C. albicans cell wall extracts, completely or almost completely abolished binding. The existence of morphology-specific receptor-like molecules which bind to different domains of the entactin molecule was ruled out in a competition binding assay. The entactin-binding material(s) in the cell wall also displayed some ability to bind laminin and fibronectin, since preadsorption in the presence of these extracellular matrix components resulted in reduction of binding to entactin. Moieties with a molecular mass of approximately 25, 44, and 65 kDa present in the 2-mercaptoethanol cell wall extracts from both blastoconidia and germ tubes were detected in a ligand affinity blotting experiment as having the ability to bind entactin. Interactions between C. albicans and entactin could be important in mediating adhesion of the fungus to the host tissues and may play a role in the establishment of the disseminated form of the disease. Images PMID:7927722

  13. Evidence for the presence of collagenous domains in Candida albicans cell surface proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, P; Murgui, A; López-Ribot, J L; Casanova, M; Timoneda, J; Martínez, J P

    1995-01-01

    Rabbit polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) directed towards the amino-terminal cysteine-rich 7S domain (PAb anti-7S), the major internal collagenous domain (PAb anti-type IV), and the C-terminal noncollagenous region (PAb anti-NC1) of the type IV collagen molecule were probed by indirect immunofluorescence against Candida albicans blastoconidia and germinated blastoconidia. Most nongerminating cells and mother blastoconidia from which germ tubes originated showed strong fluorescence when PAb anti-7S was used, whereas with PAb anti-type IV, fluorescence was found almost exclusively on the surface of filamentous forms. A patched fluorescent pattern rather than a homogenous confluent fluorescence was observed in all cases. No fluorescent cells were observed with PAb anti-NC1. By Western immunoblotting, PAb anti-type IV cross-reacted primarily with a polypeptide of 37 kDa present in wall extracts obtained from intact cells of both growth forms by treatment with beta-mercaptoethanol, whereas PAb anti-7S recognized a major 58-kDa antigen also present in both extracts, along with some other high-molecular-mass (> 106-kDa) polydisperse species present only in the material released from blastoconidia with beta-mercaptoethanol. No reactive bands were observed when PAb anti-NC1 was used as a probe in Western immunoblotting experiments. The sensitivities or resistances to collagenase digestion of the different polypeptides that cross-reacted with PAbs anti-type IV and anti-7S suggest the existence of cell wall components in C. albicans that contain epitopes that mimic the collagenous domains of the type IV collagen molecule. PMID:7768595

  14. Comparative study of the C3d receptor and 58-kilodalton fibrinogen-binding mannoproteins of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    López-Ribot, J L; Martínez, J P; Chaffin, W L

    1995-01-01

    Using polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) raised against the Candida albicans C3d receptor (CR2; PAb anti-CR2) and the 58-kDa fibrinogen-binding mannoprotein (mp58; PAb anti-mp58) as well as ligand interactions, we have studied the relationship between these two receptors. In an indirect immunofluorescence assay with germ tubes, greater intensity was observed on the mother blastoconidium when PAb anti-CR2 was used, whereas greater intensity was localized to the hyphal extension when PAb anti-mp58 or binding of soluble fibrinogen was used. No competition or change in the fluorescence pattern was observed in dual-labeling experiments with PAb anti-CR2 and either fibrinogen or PAb anti-mp58. Binding competition also was not observed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the components present in a beta-mercaptoethanol extract from the cell wall of germ tubes. In immunoblots, PAb anti-CR2 recognized three different discrete bands with apparent molecular masses of 21, 40, and 66 kDa in the beta-mercaptoethanol extracts from the cell wall, whereas a different, single, broader band with an apparent molecular mass of 58 kDa was detected with PAb anti-mp58. However, when nondenaturing conditions were used to separate the materials present in the cell wall extracts, no reactivity could be detected on Western blots (immunoblots) with PAb anti-mp58. When PAb anti-CR2 was used for analysis, a single band migrating in the area corresponding to approximately 40 kDa was detected. These observations suggest a higher molecular weight for mp58 and one or more of the components detected with PAb anti-CR2 in their native state. PMID:7768591

  15. Promoting effect of small molecules in cardiomyogenic and neurogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Khanabdali, Ramin; Saadat, Anbarieh; Fazilah, Maizatul; Bazli, Khairul Fidaa’ Khairul; Qazi, Rida-e-Maria; Khalid, Ramla Sana; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Naeem, Nadia; Khan, Irfan; Salim, Asmat; Shamsuddin, ShamsulAzlin Ahmad; Mohan, Gokula

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 μM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the cell body toward the neighboring cells were observed in the culture. The mRNA expression of neuronal-specific markers, Map2, Nefl, Tau, and Nestin, was significantly higher, indicating that the treated cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells. Immunostaining showed that differentiated cells were positive for the neuronal markers Flk, Nef, Nestin, and β-tubulin. PMID:26766903

  16. Mutational analysis of the [4Fe-4S]-cluster converting iron regulatory factor from its RNA-binding form to cytoplasmic aconitase.

    PubMed Central

    Hirling, H; Henderson, B R; Kühn, L C

    1994-01-01

    The control of cellular iron homeostasis involves the coordinate post-transcriptional regulation of ferritin mRNA translation and transferring receptor mRNA stability. These regulatory events are mediated by a soluble cytoplasmic protein, iron regulatory factor (IRF), which binds specifically to mRNA hairpin structures, termed iron-responsive elements (IREs), in the respective mRNAs. IRF is modulated by variations of cellular iron levels and exists as either an apo-protein or a [4Fe-4S]-cluster protein. The two conformations show distinct, mutually exclusive functions. High-affinity IRE binding is observed with the apo-form induced by iron deprivation, but is lost under high iron conditions when IRF is converted to the [4Fe-4S]-cluster form which shows cytoplasmic aconitase activity. Moreover, IRE binding is inactivated by the sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent diamide and fully activated in vitro by 2% 2-mercapto-ethanol, whereas alkylation of IRF inhibits IRE binding. In the present study, we analyzed each of the above features using site-directed mutants of recombinant human IRF. The results support the bifunctional nature of IRF. We conclude that cysteines 437, 503 and 506 anchor the [4Fe-4S]-cluster, and are essential to the aconitase activity. Mutagenesis changing any of the cysteines to serine leads to constitutive RNA binding in 0.02% 2-mercaptoethanol. Cysteine 437 is particularly critical to the RNA-protein interaction. The spontaneous or diamide-induced formation of disulfide bonds between cysteines 437 and 503 or 437 and 506, in apo-IRF, as well as its alkylation by N-ethylmaleimide, inhibit binding to the IRE.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7508861

  17. A functional study on polymorphism of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2: critical role of arginine-482 in methotrexate transport.

    PubMed Central

    Mitomo, Hideyuki; Kato, Ryo; Ito, Akiko; Kasamatsu, Shiho; Ikegami, Yoji; Kii, Isao; Kudo, Akira; Kobatake, Eiry; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Ishikawa, Toshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 reportedly causes multidrug resistance, whereas altered drug-resistance profiles and substrate specificity are implicated for certain variant forms of ABCG2. At least three variant forms of ABCG2 have been hitherto documented on the basis of their amino acid moieties (i.e., arginine, glycine and threonine) at position 482. In the present study we have generated those ABCG2 variants by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed them in HEK-293 cells. Exogenous expression of the Arg(482), Gly(482), and Thr(482) variant forms of ABCG2 conferred HEK-293 cell resistance toward mitoxantrone 15-, 47- and 54-fold, respectively, as compared with mock-transfected HEK-293 cells. The transport activity of those variants was examined by using plasma-membrane vesicles prepared from ABCG2-overexpressing HEK-293 cells. [Arg(482)]ABCG2 transports [(3)H]methotrexate in an ATP-dependent manner; however, no transport activity was observed with the other variants (Gly(482) and Thr(482)). Transport of methotrexate by [Arg(482)]ABCG2 was significantly inhibited by mitoxantrone, doxorubicin and rhodamine 123, but not by S -octylglutathione. Furthermore, ABCG2 was found to exist in the plasma membrane as a homodimer bound via cysteinyl disulphide bond(s). Treatment with mercaptoethanol decreased its apparent molecular mass from 140 to 70 kDa. Nevertheless, ATP-dependent transport of methotrexate by [Arg(482)]ABCG2 was little affected by such mercaptoethanol treatment. It is concluded that Arg(482) is a critical amino acid moiety in the substrate specificity and transport of ABCG2 for certain drugs, such as methotrexate. PMID:12741957

  18. The effect of 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide on lymphocyte subsets and humoral immune response in SRBC-immunized mice.

    PubMed

    Drynda, Angelika; Obmińska-Mrukowicz, Bożena; Mączyński, Marcin; Ryng, Stanisław

    2015-04-01

    5-Amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide is a non-cytotoxic synthetic isoxazole derivative with considerable immunomodulatory properties demonstrated in in vitro experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of this compound, depending on the dosage and schedule of treatment, on lymphocyte subsets in non-immunized mice and humoral immune response in SRBC (sheep red blood cells)-immunized mice. An analysis of lymphocyte subsets was carried out by flow cytometry, using specific monoclonal antibodies stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or phycoerythrin (PE). In the SRBC-immunized mice, the influence of the compound on the humoral response was determined, depending on the time of administration relative to the antigen. The number of plaque forming cells (PFC) was determined by a local hemolysis technique in an agar gel. Total and 2-mercaptoethanol resistant serum agglutination titers were defined by active hemagglutination test carried out on microplates. The investigated hydrazide was able to modulate the percentage and absolute number of T lymphocyte subsets in the thymus, and T and B lymphocytes in the peripheral lymphatic organs. It also enhanced humoral immune response in SRBC-immunized mice by increasing the number of cells producing hemolytic anti-SRBC antibodies (PFC) and by augmenting the level of total and 2-mercaptoethanol resistant hemagglutinin. The present study showed modulatory effects of 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide on lymphocyte subsets and humoral immune response in mice. This compound could be potentially useful for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, infections or as an adjuvant for boosting the efficacy of vaccines. PMID:25572572

  19. Kinetics of the competitive degradation of deoxyribose and other molecules by hydroxyl radicals produced by the Fenton reaction in the presence of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M J; Jung, L

    1995-09-01

    The competition method in which the Fenton reaction is employed as an .OH radical generator and deoxyribose as a detecting molecule, has been used to determine the rate constants for reactions of the .OH radical with its scavengers. Nonlinear competition plots were obtained for those scavengers which reacted with the Fenton reagents (Fe2+ or H2O2). Ascorbic acid is believed to overcome this problem. We have investigated the kinetics of deoxyribose degradation by .OH radicals generated by the Fenton reaction in the presence of ascorbic acid, and observed that the inclusion of ascorbic acid in the Fenton system greatly increased the rate of .OH radical generation. As a result, the interaction between some scavengers and the Fenton reagents became negligeable and linear competition plots of A degree/A vs scavenger concentrations were obtained. The effects of experimental conditions such as, the concentrations of ascorbic acid, deoxyribose, H2O2 and Fe(2+)-EDTA, the EDTA/Fe2+ ratio as well as the incubation time, on the deoxyribose degradation and the determination of the rate constant for mercaptoethanol chosen as a reference compound were studied. The small standard error, (6.76 +/- 0.21) x 10(9) M-1s-1, observed for the rate constant values for mercaptoethanol determined under 13 different experimental conditions, indicates the latter did not influence the rate constant determination. This is in fact assured by introducing a term, kx, into the kinetic equation. This term represents the rate of .OH reactions with other reagents such as ascorbic acid, Fe(2+)-EDTA, H2O2 etc. The agreement of the rate constants obtained in this work with that determined by pulse radiolysis techniques for cysteine, thiourea and many other scavengers, suggests that this simple competition method is applicable to a wide range of compounds, including those which react with the Fenton reagents and those whose solubility in water is low. PMID:7581818

  20. Large-Scale Refolding and Enzyme Reaction of Human Preproinsulin for Production of Human Insulin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Bae; Son, Young-Jin

    2015-10-28

    Human insulin is composed of 21 amino acids of an A-chain and 30 amino acids of a B-chain. This is the protein hormone that has the role of blood sugar control. When the recombinant human proinsulin is expressed in Escherichia coli, a serious problem is the formation of an inclusion body. Therefore, the inclusion body must be denatured and refolded under chaotropic agents and suitable reductants. In this study, H27R-proinsulin was refolded from the denatured form with β-mercaptoethanol and urea. The refolding reaction was completed after 15 h at 15°C, whereas the reaction at 25°C was faster than that at 15°C. The refolding yield at 15°C was 17% higher than that at 25°C. The refolding reaction could be carried out at a high protein concentration (2 g/l) using direct refolding without sulfonation. The most economical and optimal refolding condition for human preproinsulin was 1.5 g/l protein, 10 mM glycine buffer containing 0.6 M urea, pH 10.6, and 0.3 mM β-mercaptoethanol at 15°C for 16 h. The maximum refolding yield was 74.8% at 15°C with 1.5 g/l protein. Moreover, the refolded preproinsulin could be converted into normal mature insulin with two enzymes. The average amount of human insulin was 138.2 g from 200 L of fermentation broth after enzyme reaction with H27R-proinsulin. The direct refolding process for H27R-proinsulin was successfully set up without sulfonation. The step yields for refolding and enzyme reaction were comparatively high. Therefore, our refolding process for production of recombinant insulin may be beneficial to the large-scale production of other biologically active proteins. PMID:26139616

  1. [Activity of porcine anti-Brucella abortus immunoglobulins in the acid plate agglutination test (APAT)].

    PubMed

    Stryszak, A; Błaszczyk, B; Królak, M

    1987-01-01

    Serological activity of swine IgM and IgG against Brucella abortus in RBPT was determined in relation to four other reactions used in Poland for diagnosing brucellosis standard agglutination test, complement fixation test, antiglobulin test, 2-mercaptoethanol test). Isolation of IgG was performed by the method of filtration on Sephadex gel G-200 of swine sera raised against Brucella abortus S19 by double immunization with suspension of killed bacteria. The presence of a certain Ig class in the fractions thus obtained was confirmed by immunoelectrophoresis and immunodiffusion tests. RBPT revealed the reaction of antibodies of IgM and IgG class which proves usability of this reaction diagnosis both early (IgM) and chronic (IgG) infection with brucellosis. Both classes of antibodies mentioned above were active also in SAT and CTT. Also the results obtained in AGT and MET were found interesting. In one of the sera, the absence of incomplete antibodies was observed, whereas positive reaction in antiglobulin test was found in its fractions containing IgG. This phenomenon was determined as concealment of incomplete agglutinins through higher level of complete antibodies in normal serum. In swine (the results were different from those obtained for cattle), apart from incomplete antibodies in IgG class, the presence of these agglutinins in IgM class was noted. On the other hand, the results obtained in MET proved that IgM antibodies of swine were not totally reduced when affected by 2-mercaptoethanol. PMID:3137534

  2. Solubility, tensile, and color properties of modified soy protein isolate films.

    PubMed

    Rhim, J W; Gennadios, A; Handa, A; Weller, C L; Hanna, M A

    2000-10-01

    Protein solubility (PS) values of different soy protein isolate (SPI) films were determined in water, 0.01 N HCl, 0.01 N NaOH, 4 M urea, and 0.2 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Tensile and color (L, a, and b values) properties of films also were determined. Control films were cast from heated (70 degrees C for 20 min), alkaline (pH 10) aqueous solutions of SPI (5 g/100 mL of water) and glycerin (50% w/w of SPI). Additional films were cast after incorporation of dialdehyde starch (DAS) at 10% w/w of SPI or small amounts of formaldehyde in the film-forming solutions. Also, control film samples were subjected to heat curing (90 degrees C for 24 h), UV radiation (51.8 J/m(2)), or adsorption of formaldehyde vapors. PS of control films was highest (P < 0.05) in 2-mercaptoethanol, confirming the importance of disulfide bonds in SPI film formation. All treatments were effective in reducing (P < 0.05) film PS in all solvents. Both DAS and adsorbed formaldehyde rendered the protein in films practically insoluble in all solvents. Adsorption of formaldehyde vapors and heat curing also substantially increased (P < 0.05) film tensile strength from 8.2 to 15.8 or 14.7 MPa, respectively. However, heat curing decreased (P < 0.05) film elongation at break from 30 to 6%. Most treatments had small but significant (P < 0.05) effects on b color values, with DAS-containing films having the greatest (P < 0. 05) mean b value (most yellowish). Also, DAS-containing, heat-cured, and UV-irradiated films were darker, as evidenced by their lower (P < 0.05) L values, than control films. It was demonstrated that PS of SPI films can be notably modified through chemical or physical treatments prior to or after casting. PMID:11052759

  3. Biochemical and EPR-Spectroscopic Investigation into Heterologously Expressed Vinyl Chloride Reductive Dehalogenase (VcrA) from Dehalococcoides mccartyi Strain VS

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Anutthaman; Stich, Troy A.; Lohner, Svenja T.; Lesnefsky, Ann; Britt, R. David; Spormann, Alfred M.

    2015-01-01

    Reductive dehalogenases play a critical role in the microbial detoxification of aquifers contaminated with chloroethenes and chlorethanes by catalyzing the reductive elimination of a halogen. We report here the first heterologous production of vinyl chloride reductase VcrA from Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain VS. Heterologously expressed VcrA was reconstituted to its active form by addition of hydroxocobalamin/adenosylcobalamin, Fe3+, and sulfide in the presence of mercaptoethanol. The kinetic properties of reconstituted VcrA catalyzing vinyl chloride reduction with Ti(III)-citrate as reductant and methyl viologen as mediator were similar to those obtained previously for VcrA as isolated from D. mccartyi strain VS. VcrA was also found to catalyze a novel reaction, the environmentally important dihaloelimination of 1,2-dichloroethane to ethene. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies with reconstituted VcrA in the presence of mercaptoethanol revealed the presence of Cob(II)alamin. Addition of Ti(III)-citrate resulted in the appearance of a new signal characteristic of a reduced [4Fe–4S] cluster and the disappearance of the Cob(II)alamin signal. UV–vis absorption spectroscopy of Ti(III)citrate-treated samples revealed the formation of two new absorption maxima characteristic of Cob(I)alamin. No evidence for the presence of a [3Fe–4S] cluster was found. We postulate that during the reaction cycle of VcrA, a reduced [4Fe–4S] cluster reduces Co(II) to Co(I) of the enzyme-bound cobalamin. Vinyl chloride reduction to ethene would be initiated when Cob(I)alamin transfers an electron to the substrate, generating a vinyl radical as a potential reaction intermediate. PMID:25686300

  4. Potato tuber pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase: effect of thiols and polyalcohols on its intrinsic fluorescence, oligomeric structure, and activity in dilute solutions.

    PubMed

    Podestá, F E; Moorhead, G B; Plaxton, W C

    1994-08-15

    The effect of dilution of homogeneous potato tuber pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.1.90; PFP) on the enzyme's intrinsic fluorescence, activity, and oligomeric structure has been examined. A rapid decrease in PFP's intrinsic fluorescence occurred in response to dilution. The decay follows double-exponential kinetics and was accompanied by a reduction in catalytic activity (measured in the glycolytic direction). Gel filtration-HPLC indicated a concomitant deaggregation of the native alpha 4 beta 4 heterooctamer into the inactive free alpha- and beta-subunits, followed by random aggregation of the subunits into an inactive, high M(r) conglomerate. The addition of 2 mM dithiothreitol, 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, or 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol, but not any of the substrates, Mg2+, or fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, prevented this process. When purified PFP was stored for 1 week at -20 degrees C in the presence of 50% (v/v) glycerol partial degradation of its alpha-subunit occurred. This resulted in a labile enzyme that was more susceptible to subunit dissociation. The intrinsic fluorescence of the degraded PFP could be stabilized by 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol, but not by 2 mM dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol. It is proposed that the current assay procedures for PFP, which normally involve considerable dilution in the absence of added sulfhydryl reducing agents or polyhydroxy compounds, may underestimate the actual activity of the enzyme. This has important implications for the assessment of the functions and regulation of PFP in vivo. PMID:8053686

  5. Influence of the backbone structure on the release of bioactive volatiles from maleic acid-based polymer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Damien L; Paret, Nicolas; Trachsel, Alain; Herrmann, Andreas

    2010-11-17

    Poly(maleic acid monoester)-based β-mercapto ketones were synthesized and investigated as potential delivery systems for the controlled release of bioactive, volatile, α,β-unsaturated enones (such as damascones and damascenones) by retro 1,4-addition. The bioconjugates were prepared in a one-pot synthesis using 2-mercaptoethanol as a linker. The thiol group of 2-mercaptoethanol adds to the double bond of the enone to form a β-mercapto ketone, which was then grafted via nucleophilic ring-opening of the remaining alcohol function onto a series of alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and 1-octadecene, ethylene, isobutylene, and methyl vinyl ether. The influence of copolymer backbones on the release of δ-damascone was investigated in buffered aqueous solution as a function of pH and time. In the presence of a cationic surfactant, the polymer conjugates were transferred from an aqueous medium to a cotton surface. The deposition and the release of δ-damascone from the cotton surface as a function of the polymer backbone structure were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic headspace analysis, respectively. All polymer conjugates were found to deliver higher amounts of the volatile into the headspace than the reference consisting of unmodified δ-damascone. Polymers with a hydrophobic backbone were generally efficiently deposited on the cotton surface, but released δ-damascone only moderately in solution. Conjugates with a more hydrophilic backbone release the active compound more efficiently in water, but are deposited to a lower extent onto the target surface. A good balance of the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the polymer backbone is the key factor to maximize the deposition of the conjugates on the target surface and to optimize the release of the bioactive volatiles. PMID:20936844

  6. The Crystal Structure of a Ternary Complex of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Provides New Insight Into the Reaction Mechansim and Shows A Novel Binding Mode of the 2'-Phosphate of NADP+ and A Novel Cation Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Segura, L.; Rudino-Pinera, E; Munoz-Clares, R; Horjales, E

    2009-01-01

    In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the NAD(P)+-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (PaBADH) may play the dual role of assimilating carbon and nitrogen from choline or choline precursors-abundant at infection sites-and producing glycine betaine and NADPH, potentially protective against the high-osmolarity and oxidative stresses prevalent in the infected tissues. Disruption of the PaBADH gene negatively affects the growth of bacteria, suggesting that this enzyme could be a target for antibiotic design. PaBADH is one of the few ALDHs that efficiently use NADP+ and one of the even fewer that require K+ ions for stability. Crystals of PaBADH were obtained under aerobic conditions in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, glycerol, NADP+ and K+ ions. The three-dimensional structure was determined at 2.1-A resolution. The catalytic cysteine (C286, corresponding to C302 of ALDH2) is oxidized to sulfenic acid or forms a mixed disulfide with 2-mercaptoethanol. The glutamyl residue involved in the deacylation step (E252, corresponding to E268 of ALDH2) is in two conformations, suggesting a proton relay system formed by two well-conserved residues (E464 and K162, corresponding to E476 and K178, respectively, of ALDH2) that connects E252 with the bulk water. In some active sites, a bound glycerol molecule mimics the thiohemiacetal intermediate; its hydroxyl oxygen is hydrogen bonded to the nitrogen of the amide groups of the side chain of the conserved N153 (N169 of ALDH2) and those of the main chain of C286, which form the 'oxyanion hole.' The nicotinamide moiety of the nucleotide is not observed in the crystal, and the adenine moiety binds in the usual way. A salt bridge between E179 (E195 of ALDH2) and R40 (E53 of ALDH2) moves the carboxylate group of the former away from the 2?-phosphate of the NADP+, thus avoiding steric clashes and/or electrostatic repulsion between the two groups. Finally, the crystal shows two K+ binding sites per subunit. One is in an

  7. Intravascular and interstitial degradation of bradykinin in isolated perfused rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Dendorfer, Andreas; Wolfrum, Sebastian; Wellhöner, Peter; Korsman, Katja; Dominiak, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects which are potentiated by inhibitors of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). In order to clarify the significance of ACE within the whole spectrum of myocardial kininases we investigated BK degradation in the isolated rat heart. Tritiated BK (3H-BK) or unlabelled BK was either repeatedly perfused through the heart, or applied as an intracoronary bolus allowing determination of its elution kinetics. BK metabolites were analysed by HPLC. Kininases were identified by ramiprilat, phosphoramidon, diprotin A and 2-mercaptoethanol or apstatin as specific inhibitors of ACE, neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV and aminopeptidase P (APP), respectively. In sequential perfusion passages, 3H-BK concentrations in the perfusate decreased by 39% during each passage. Ramiprilat reduced the rate of 3H-BK breakdown by 54% and nearly abolished [1-5]-BK generation. The ramiprilat-resistant kininase activity was for the most part inhibited by the selective APP inhibitor apstatin (IC50 0.9 μM). BK cleavage by APP yielded the intermediate product [2-9]-BK, which was rapidly metabolized to [4-9]-BK by dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV. After bolus injection of 3H-BK, 10% of the applied radioactivity were protractedly eluted, indicating the distribution of this fraction into the myocardial interstitium. In samples of such interstitial perfusate fractions, 3H-BK was extensively (by 92%) degraded, essentially by ACE and APP. The ramiprilat- and mercaptoethanol-resistant fraction of interstitial kininase activity amounted to 14%, about half of which could be attributed to NEP. Only the product of NEP, [1-7]-BK, was continuously generated during the presence of 3H-BK in the interstitium. ACE and APP are located at the endothelium and represent the predominant kininases of rat myocardium. Both enzymes form a metabolic barrier for the extravasated fraction of BK. Thus, only interstitial, but not

  8. Protein Bodies of Castor Bean Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Raymond E.; Beevers, Harry

    1976-01-01

    Protein bodies in the endosperm of castor bean seeds (Ricinus communis L.) contain phytin globoids and protein crystalloids embedded in an amorphous proteinaceous matrix. The protein bodies are apparently surrounded by a single membrane. The protein bodies were isolated by grinding and centrifuging in glycerol. Such isolated protein bodies were almost identical (after cytological fixation) to those observed in situ, except that the globoids were lost. However, membrane-like structures appear to have surrounded the globoids. Histochemical analysis of the isolated protein bodies showed that carbohydrates (glycoproteins) are localized only in the matrix region. Addition of water to protein bodies in glycerol caused dissolution of the matrix, and release of the globoids and crystalloids. When the crystalloids were centrifuged on sucrose density gradients, they were recovered at an equilibrium density of 1.29 to 1.30 g/ml. The crystalloids were only slightly soluble in most aqueous buffers but were very soluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, or NaOH solutions. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and chromatography on ion exchange celluloses show that the protein bodies are composed of one major and several minor anodic proteins. The major protein, along with a few of the minor proteins, is localized in the crystalloids. The major protein (molecular weight 65,000) was converted by mercaptoethanol into subunits with molecular weights of 32,000 and 15,800. It is proposed that the protein is made up of two of the smaller subunits and one of the larger, linked by disulfide bridges. None of the crystalloid proteins appear to be glycosylated. The water-soluble matrix fraction is composed mainly of two proteins, with molecular weights of 12,500 and 10,300 on the gels. Neither is a glycoprotein, and neither can be reduced with mercaptoethanol to give subunits. The soluble fraction also contains other lesser components among which are

  9. Role of disulfide bonds in maintaining the structural integrity of the sheath of Leptothrix discophora SP-6.

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, D; Ghiorse, W C

    1993-01-01

    Isolated sheaths of Leptothrix discophora SP-6 (ATCC 51168) were tested for susceptibility to degradation by a variety of chemical denaturants and lytic enzymes and found to be resistant to many reagents and enzyme treatments. However, disulfide bond-reducing agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT), beta-mercaptoethanol, sodium cyanide, and sodium sulfite degraded the sheath, especially at elevated pH (pH 9) and temperature (50 degrees C). DTT and beta-mercaptoethanol caused more rapid degradation of the sheath than cyanide or sulfite. Treatment of the sheath with 1 N NaOH resulted in rapid breakdown, while treatment with 1 N HCl resulted in slow but significant hydrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the 6.5-nm fibrils previously shown to be an integral structural element of the sheath fabric (D. Emerson and W. C. Ghiorse, J. Bacteriol. 175:7808-7818, 1993) were progressively dissociated into random masses during DTT-induced degradation. Quantitation of disulfide bonds with DTT showed that the sheaths contained approximately 2.2 mumol of disulfides per mg of sheath protein. Reaction with 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) showed that sheaths also contained approximately 0.8 mumol of free sulfhydryls per mg of protein. A sulfhydryl-specific fluorescent probe (fluorescein 5-maleimide) showed that the free sulfhydryls in sheathed cell filaments were evenly distributed throughout the sheath. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography of [14C]iodoacetamide-labeled sheaths and DTT-dissociated sheath fibril suspensions showed that the majority of 14C-labeled sulfhydryls in the sheaths did not enter the gel. However, low-molecular-mass silver-staining bands (14 to 45 kDa) did appear in the gels after iodoacetic acid or iodoacetamide alkylation of the dissociated fibrils. These bands did not stain with Coomassie blue. Their migration in gels was slightly affected by digestion with pronase. The fibrils contained 20 to 25

  10. Role of disulfide bonds in maintaining the structural integrity of the sheath of Leptothrix discophora SP-6.

    PubMed

    Emerson, D; Ghiorse, W C

    1993-12-01

    Isolated sheaths of Leptothrix discophora SP-6 (ATCC 51168) were tested for susceptibility to degradation by a variety of chemical denaturants and lytic enzymes and found to be resistant to many reagents and enzyme treatments. However, disulfide bond-reducing agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT), beta-mercaptoethanol, sodium cyanide, and sodium sulfite degraded the sheath, especially at elevated pH (pH 9) and temperature (50 degrees C). DTT and beta-mercaptoethanol caused more rapid degradation of the sheath than cyanide or sulfite. Treatment of the sheath with 1 N NaOH resulted in rapid breakdown, while treatment with 1 N HCl resulted in slow but significant hydrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the 6.5-nm fibrils previously shown to be an integral structural element of the sheath fabric (D. Emerson and W. C. Ghiorse, J. Bacteriol. 175:7808-7818, 1993) were progressively dissociated into random masses during DTT-induced degradation. Quantitation of disulfide bonds with DTT showed that the sheaths contained approximately 2.2 mumol of disulfides per mg of sheath protein. Reaction with 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) showed that sheaths also contained approximately 0.8 mumol of free sulfhydryls per mg of protein. A sulfhydryl-specific fluorescent probe (fluorescein 5-maleimide) showed that the free sulfhydryls in sheathed cell filaments were evenly distributed throughout the sheath. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography of [14C]iodoacetamide-labeled sheaths and DTT-dissociated sheath fibril suspensions showed that the majority of 14C-labeled sulfhydryls in the sheaths did not enter the gel. However, low-molecular-mass silver-staining bands (14 to 45 kDa) did appear in the gels after iodoacetic acid or iodoacetamide alkylation of the dissociated fibrils. These bands did not stain with Coomassie blue. Their migration in gels was slightly affected by digestion with pronase. The fibrils contained 20 to 25

  11. Oxidative metabolites of [2-14C]propylthiouracil in rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, R H; Kelly, K; Hill, J B

    1979-06-01

    The identities and relative amounts of the major metabolites in rat thyroids 6 h after the administration of [14C]propylthiouracil ([14C]PTU) have been investigated. Rat thyroid extracts were chromatographed on columns of Bio-Gel P-2 and DEAE-Sephadex and in various thin layer chromatography systems. The extracts contained protein-bound PTU metabolites; an unknown peak 3; peak 1, which was chromatographically similar to PTU--SO2H; peak 2, which was similar to PTU--SO3H; PTU; and small amounts of 6-n-propyluracil (PU). The major metabolites were isolated and purified by column chromatograpy. On the basis of chromatographic properties identical to cochromatographed standards in seven different systems and the products formed after treatment with various reagents, peak 1 was identified as PTU-SO2H and peak 2 as PTU--SO3H. Peak 3 was seen only on Bio-Gel P-2 columns, was very unstable, and was not similar to any known PTU standard. The properties of this compound suggest that it may be a thiolsulfonic ester (formula:see text), but the data are insufficient for positive identification. Approximately 85% of the radioactivity in the protein peak was bound to thyroglobulin. HCl converted 86.5% of the protein-bound radioactivity to PU, and H2S converted 91% to PTU, indicating that an oxidized S was involved in the linkage to protein. Dithiothreitol released 23.6% of the protein-bound radioactivity as PTU, and mercaptoethanol released 32.5%, indicating that 25-35% of the PTU is bound in disulfide linkage. Approximately 50% of the radioactivity released by mercaptoethanol was S-ethanol PTU, which suggests a PTU-protein bond similar to a thiolsulfonic ester. Quantitation of the metabolites revealed that protein-bound metabolites accounted for 21-29% of the total radioactivity, unknown peak 3 accounted for 7.1%, PTU--SO2H for 48-50%, PTU--SO3H for 8-10%, and PTU for 10.7-16.5%. Only traces of PU were observed. The data demonstrate that PTU--SO2H is the major PTU metabolite in

  12. Approach for rapid extraction and speciation of mercury using a microtip ultrasonic probe followed by LC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    López, Isabel; Cuello, Susana; Cámara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2010-07-15

    A fast method for mercury extraction from biological samples based on the use of HCl leaching plus different enzymatic hydrolysis (with and without mercury complexing agents), and the use of focussed ultrasounds (2-mm microtip) is here proposed. Total mercury content in several biological samples was determined by FI-ICP-MS using a carrier solution consisting of 0.1% (v/v) HCl, 0.1% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol, to avoid memory effect, and 0.15% (w/v) KCl. For mercury speciation a RP18 chromatographic column coupled to ICP-MS was used. A mobile phase consisting of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid, 0.1% (v/v) HFBA, 2% (v/v) methanol, and 0.02% (w/v) mM L-cysteine at pH 2.1 was used for chromatographic separation of the mercury species in the sample extracts. Extraction procedures were validated by using 50 mg of tuna fish tissue CRM-463 (2.85+/-0.16 mg kg(-1) for methylmercury). The recoveries obtained were 99+/-3% and 93+/-1% after acid leaching (HCl 7 M) and enzymatic extraction (15 mg protease type XIV in 2.5% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol), respectively. The optimal sonication conditions (5 min of exposure time and 40% of ultrasound amplitude) were applied to 5 mg of CRM-463 (88+/-5%), 5 mg of mussel tissue (81+/-11%) and to 2 mg of zebra fish embryos (90+/-10%) obtaining good recoveries in all cases. Methylmecury was found to be the most abundant Hg specie in all samples. The developed method is simple and rapid (5 min sample treatment); it is suitable for very small samples and does not alter the original form of the mercury species. Thus, it is of special interest in those cases in which validation of the results may often be hampered by lack of sample availability. PMID:20602941

  13. [Biochemistry of the growth cycle of Triatoma infestans (Vinchuca). VIII. Preliminary study of hemo-lymphatic apolipoproteins in the adult male].

    PubMed

    Fichera, L E; Brenner, R R

    1985-01-01

    The three lipoproteins of high (HDL) and very high density (VHDL-I and VHDL-II) were separated from the hemolymph of adult males of T. infestans. They were delipidated and the corresponding apolipoproteins examined by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) gel electrophoresis in polyacrylamide in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. They were also iso-electro focused in a pH gradient of 5 to 8. All three groups of apolipoproteins were separated in several polypeptide chains, but all of them had in common a glycoproteic unit of PM 86 000. The VHDL-II presented the simplest composition with predominance of the 86 000 band. Apo-HDL was the most complicated and showed intense bands of PM as high as 210 000 and as low as 17 000 together with 44 000 and 86 000 and less intense bands. The apo-VHDL-I was separated in polypeptides chains in the range of 86 000 to 17 000. The different apoproteins are apparently formed by the association at least in part of common polypeptides. PMID:2938415

  14. Purification and mechanism of action of macromomycin.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, T H; Prestayko, A W; Crooke, S T

    1979-04-01

    Macromomycin (MCR), a polypeptide antibiotic previously shown to have antitumor activity in experimental tumors, has been purified into an electrophoretically homogeneous component with an approximate molecular weight of 12,500. MCR has alanine as an NH2-terminal amino acid, 4 cysteine residues, and no arginine or methionine residues. With a fluorescence assay and agarose gel electrophoresis, MCR was shown to induce strand breaks in PM2 DNA in vitro. 2-Mercaptoethanol inhibited the DNA cleavage activity of MCR. When incubated with Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells in tissue culture, MCR caused Novikoff hepatoma ascites cell DNA degradation as observed by the slower sedimentation of DNA on alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation when compared to untreated cell DNA. DNA synthesis in Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells was inhibited by 80% after a two-hr treatment with MCR (0.03 microgram/ml). RNA and protein syntheses were inhibited by 25 and less than 10%, respectively, at this concentration of drug. At a concentration of MCR (1.0 microgram/ml), syntheses of DNA and RNA in Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells were totally inhibited. The results of this study suggest that MCR may inhibit tumor cell growth by causing DNA breakage with subsequent inhibition of DNA and other macromolecule syntheses. PMID:421201

  15. Development of potentiometric urea biosensor based on urease immobilized in PVA-PAA composite matrix for estimation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN).

    PubMed

    Jha, Sandeep Kumar; Topkar, Anita; D'Souza, Stanislaus F

    2008-04-24

    A urea biosensor was developed using the urease entrapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylamide (PAA) composite polymer membrane. The membrane was prepared on the cheesecloth support by gamma-irradiation induced free radical polymerization. The performance of the biosensor was monitored using a flow-through cell, where the membrane was kept in conjugation with the ammonia selective electrode and urea was added as substrate in phosphate buffer medium. The ammonia produced as a result of enzymatic reaction was monitored potentiometrically. The potential of the system was amplified using an electronic circuit incorporating operational amplifiers. Automated data acquisition was carried by connecting the output to a 12-bit analog to digital converter card. The sensor working range was 1-1000 mM urea with a response time of 120 s. The enzyme membranes could be reused 8 times with more than 90% accuracy. The biosensor was tested for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) estimation in clinical serum samples. The biosensor showed good correlation with commercial Infinitytrade mark BUN reagent method using a clinical chemistry autoanalyzer. The membranes could be preserved in phosphate buffer containing dithiothreitol, beta-mercaptoethanol and glycerol for a period of two months without significant loss of enzyme activity. PMID:18329719

  16. Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2014-03-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 μmol/min. The invertase was activated by β-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %. PMID:24142426

  17. Quantitative determination of hydroxy polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Woudneh, Million B; Benskin, Jonathan P; Grace, Richard; Hamilton, M Coreen; Magee, Brian H; Hoeger, Glenn C; Forsberg, Norman D; Cosgrove, John R

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method was developed for quantitative analysis of hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Four hydroxy metabolites of known and suspected carcinogenic PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), and chrysene (CRY)) were selected as suitable biomarkers of PAH exposure and associated risks to human health. The analytical method included enzymatic deconjugation, liquid - liquid extraction, followed by derivatization with methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and instrumental analysis. Photo-induced oxidation of target analytes - which has plagued previously published methods - was controlled by a combination of minimizing exposure to light, employing an antioxidant (2-mercaptoethanol) and utilizing a nitrogen atmosphere. Stability investigations also indicated that conjugated forms of the analytes are more stable than the non-conjugated forms. Accuracy and precision of the method were 77.4-101% (<4.9% RSD) in synthetic urine and 92.3-117% (<15% RSD) in human urine, respectively. Method detection limits, determined using eight replicates of low-level spiked human urine, ranged from 13 to 24pg/mL. The method was successfully applied for analysis of a pooled human urine sample and 78 mouse urine samples collected from mice fed with PAH-contaminated diets. In mouse urine, greater than 94% of each analyte was present in its conjugated form. PMID:27266337

  18. D-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase: Cloning and heterologous expression of the spinach gene, and purification and characterization of the recombinant enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.R.; Hartman, F.C.; Lu, T.Y.S.; Larimer, F.W.

    1998-09-01

    The authors have achieved, to their knowledge, the first high-level heterologous expression of the gene encoding D-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase from any source, thereby permitting isolation and characterization of the epimerase as found in photosynthetic organisms. The extremely labile recombinant spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) enzyme was stabilized by DL-{alpha}-glycerophosphate or ethanol and destabilized by D-ribulose-5-phosphate or 2-mercaptoethanol. Despite this lability, the unprecedentedly high specific activity of the purified material indicates that the structural integrity of the enzyme is maintained throughout isolation. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate and divalent metal cations did not affect epimerase activity, thereby excluding a requirement for the latter in catalysis. As deduced from the sequence of the cloned spinach gene and the electrophoretic mobility under denaturing conditions of the purified recombinant enzyme, its 25-kD subunit size was about the same as that of the corresponding epimerases of yeast and mammals. However, in contrast to these other species, the recombinant spinach enzyme was octameric rather than dimeric, as assessed by gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions. Western-blot analyses with antibodies to the purified recombinant enzyme confirmed that the epimerase extracted from spinach leaves is also octameric.

  19. NaCl-, protease-tolerant and cold-active endoglucanase from Paenibacillus sp. YD236 isolated from the feces of Bos frontalis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mingjie; Yang, Yunjuan; Tang, Xianghua; Shen, Jidong; Xu, Bo; Li, Junjun; Wu, Qian; Zhou, Junpei; Ding, Junmei; Han, Nanyu; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2016-01-01

    Bos frontalis, which consumes bamboo and weeds, may have evolved unique gastrointestinal microorganisms that digest cellulase. A Paenibacillus sp. YD236 strain was isolated from B. frontalis feces, from which a GH8 endoglucanase gene, pglue8 (1107 bp, 54.5 % GC content), encoding a 368-residue polypeptide (PgluE8, 40.4 kDa) was cloned. PgluE8 efficiently hydrolyzed barley-β-d-glucan followed by CMC-Na, soluble starch, laminarin, and glucan from black yeast optimally at pH 5.5 and 50 °C, and retained 78.6, 41.6, and 34.5 % maximum activity when assayed at 20, 10, and 0 °C, respectively. Enzyme activity remained above 176.6 % after treatment with 10.0 mM β-mercaptoethanol, and was 83.0, 78, and 56 % after pre-incubation in 30 % (w/v) NaCl, 16.67 mg/mL trypsin, and 160.0 mg/mL protease K, respectively. Cys23 and Cys364 residues were critical for PgluE8 activity. pglue8, identified from B. frontalis feces for the first time in this study, is a potential alternative for applications including food processing, washing, and animal feed preparation. PMID:27376014

  20. A preparation of Alzheimer paired helical filaments that displays distinct tau proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, S G; Davies, P

    1990-01-01

    Paired helical filaments (PHFs) are prominent components of Alzheimer disease (AD) neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Rather than isolating NFTs, we selected for PHF populations that can be extracted from AD brain homogenates. About 50% of PHF immunoreactivity can be obtained in 27,200 x g supernatants following homogenization in buffers containing 0.8 M NaCl. We further enriched for PHFs by taking advantage of their insolubility in the presence of zwitterionic detergents and 2-mercaptoethanol, removal of aggregates by filtration through 0.45-microns filters, and sucrose density centrifugation. PHF-enriched fractions contained two to five proteins of 57-68 kDa that displayed the same antigenic properties as PHFs. Since the 57- to 68-kDa PHF proteins are antigenically related to tau proteins, they are similar to the tau proteins previously observed in NFTs. However, further analysis revealed that PHF-associated tau can be distinguished from normal, soluble tau by PHF antibodies that do not recognize human adult tau and by one- and two-dimensional PAGE. Images PMID:2116006

  1. A new approach to the thermodynamic study of ABO antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Rouger, P; Salmon, C

    1979-01-01

    Enthalpy change was determined for natural anti-A (B, O subjects) and anti-B (A1, A2, O subjects). Entropy change, free energy change and association constant were calculated according to the law of mass action and the Wurmser method. The concentrations of allohaemagglutinins were measured by the Wilkie and Becker method using an autoanalyser. 2-Mercaptoethanol was used to estimate the proportions of IgG and IgM and their respective contribution to the thermodynamic properties. The following results and conclusions were obtained. Individual enthalpy and entrophy changes are different for each subject so that only the average values of these thermodynamic parameters represent a characteristic of the phenotype. There is a correlation between enthalpy and entropy changes and the relative proportion of anti-A or anti-B IgG. There is heterogeneity of the values of association constant. Free energy change is about 10 kcal mol-1 for all anti-A and anti-B; this result confirms the low energy binding between antigen and antibody. All these results confirm the role of environment and red-cell phenotype in the synthesis of allohaemagglutinins. PMID:500114

  2. Inactivation of Nocardiophages φC and φEC by Extracts of Bacteriophage-Attachable Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, George H.; Crockett, Jennifer K.

    1971-01-01

    Cultures of several species of Nocardia, including N. erythropolis Mat-Ce and Mat-cE mating strains, were extracted with solvents in an attempt to isolate an inactivating complex for nocardiophages φC and φEC. Ethanol was the only solvent found effective in solubilizing an inhibitory substance. Inactivating extracts were obtained from the cells of all species to which the phage were able to attach. After extraction of whole cells or cell wall preparations, the phage could not effectively attach to them. Both phages φC and φEC were inactivated by the same complex. However, phage φEC inactivation was 10-fold greater than φC inactivation. The velocity of inactivation was about 4.1 × 102 plaque-forming units per microgram per minute for φC and 1.1 × 103 plaque-forming units per microgram per minute for phage φEC. The cell extracts required divalent cations for phage inactivation. The inhibitory capacity of the cell extracts was reduced or lost by the activity of proteolytic enzymes, Tween 80, 2-mercaptoethanol, thymol, and sodium lauryl sulfate. Boiling the extract for 10 min did not alter its activity. The inactivating substance was postulated to be a lipoprotein of considerable complexity, unique in the ease with which it is solubilized from host cells by ethanol. PMID:5006039

  3. Purification and characterization of an acidic amino acid specific endopeptidase of Streptomyces griseus obtained from a commercial preparation (Pronase).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, N; Tsuruyama, S; Nagata, K; Hirayama, K; Noda, K; Makisumi, S

    1988-09-01

    A protease was purified 163-fold from Pronase, a commercial product from culture filtrate of Streptomyces griseus, by a series of column chromatographies on CM-Toyopearl (Fractogel), Sephadex G-50, hydroxyapatite, and Z-Gly-D-Phe-AH-Sepharose 4B using Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Glu-pNA as a substrate. The final preparation was homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and gel isoelectric focusing. Studies on the substrate specificity with peptide p-nitroanilides revealed that this protease preferentially hydrolyzed peptide bonds on the carbonyl-terminal side of either glutamic acid or aspartic acid. It was most active at pH 8.8 for the hydrolysis of Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Glu-pNA. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated to be 20,000 by gel filtration on Sepharose 6B using 6 M guanidine hydrochloride as an eluent, and 22,000 by SDS-PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 8.4. The enzyme was inactivated by diisopropyl phosphofluoridate (DFP) but not by p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) or EDTA. PMID:3149277

  4. Novel yeast cell dehydrogenase activity assay in situ.

    PubMed

    Berłowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Klimek, Leszek; Orzeszyna, Bartosz; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a suitable method of succinate dehydrogenase activity assay in situ for different industrial yeast strains. For this purpose different compounds: EDTA, Triton X-100, sodium deoxycholate, digitonin, nystatin and beta-mercaptoethanol were used. The permeabilization process was controlled microscopically by primuline staining. Enzyme assay was conducted in whole yeast cells with Na-succinate as substrate, phenazine methosulfate (PMS) as electron carrier and in the presence one of two different tetrazolium salts: tetrazolium blue chloride (BT) or cyanoditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) reduced during the assay. In comparabile studies of yeast vitality the amount of intracellular ATP was determined according to luciferin/luciferase method. During the succinate dehydrogenase assay in intact yeast cells without permeabilization, BT formazans were partially visualized in the cells, but CTC formazans appeared to be totally extracellular or associated with the plasma membrane. Under these conditions there was no linear relationship between formazan color intensity signal and yeast cell density. From all chemical compounds tested, only digitonin was effective in membrane permeabilization without negative influence on cell morphology. Furthermore, with digitonin-treated cells a linear relationship between formazan color intensity signal and yeast cell number was noticed. Significant decreasing of succinate dehydrogenase activity and ATP content were observed during aging of the tested yeast strains. PMID:17419290

  5. A unique uracil-DNA binding protein of the uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Pau Biak; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan; Patil, Aravind Goud; Woo, Eui-Jeon; Varshney, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs) are an important group of DNA repair enzymes, which pioneer the base excision repair pathway by recognizing and excising uracil from DNA. Based on two short conserved sequences (motifs A and B), UDGs have been classified into six families. Here we report a novel UDG, UdgX, from Mycobacterium smegmatis and other organisms. UdgX specifically recognizes uracil in DNA, forms a tight complex stable to sodium dodecyl sulphate, 2-mercaptoethanol, urea and heat treatment, and shows no detectable uracil excision. UdgX shares highest homology to family 4 UDGs possessing Fe-S cluster. UdgX possesses a conserved sequence, KRRIH, which forms a flexible loop playing an important role in its activity. Mutations of H in the KRRIH sequence to S, G, A or Q lead to gain of uracil excision activity in MsmUdgX, establishing it as a novel member of the UDG superfamily. Our observations suggest that UdgX marks the uracil-DNA for its repair by a RecA dependent process. Finally, we observed that the tight binding activity of UdgX is useful in detecting uracils in the genomes. PMID:26304551

  6. Nutritional stability of various naturally occurring monoglutamate derivatives of folic acid.

    PubMed

    O'Broin, J D; Temperley, I J; Brown, J P; Scott, J M

    1975-05-01

    The nutritional stabilities of four major dietary folates were studied as their corresponding monoglutamates and were compared to pteroylglutamate (folic acid) itself. The study of the monoglutamyl rather than polyglutamyl forms was justified since the former are formed during the course of digestion and also addition of extra glutamyl residues is unlikely to affect the types of nutritional instability associated with these derivatives. Since ability to support growth in Lactobacillus casei is known to reflect nutritional activity in man this organism was used in the stability studies. It was found that pteroylglutamate and 5-formyltetrahydropteroylglutamate had nutritional stabilities of the order of weeks although the stability of the former was decreased by phosphate. Surprisingly 10-formyltetrahydropteroylglutamate was nutritionally more stable than expected, possibly due to its conversion to the more stable oxidized 10-formylpteroylglutamate or to the reduced 5-formyl derivative. In contrast 5-methyltetrahydropteroylglutamate was much less stable nutritionally than expected.Unsubstituted tetrahydropteroylglutamate was most unstable nutritionally but in contrast to the other derivatives examined it was more stable under acidic than basic conditions. Ascorbate was found to be a far superior stabilizing agent than 2-mercaptoethanol at comparable concentrations. PMID:236647

  7. Effect ofin vitro digestion on fumonisin B1 in corn flakes.

    PubMed

    Motta, E L; Scott, P M

    2007-12-01

    Low levels of fumonisins have been found frequently in corn based breakfast cereals and can occur bound to protein and other matrix components.In vitro digestion of two samples of corn flakes was carried out under "fed conditions." Fumonisins were measured as o-phthaldialdehyde/mercaptoethanol derivatives by LC-fluorescence. One sample of corn flakes (FN12) had high concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB) (average 125 ng/g) and total bound FB1, (TB FB1) (average 92 ng/g) and the other (FN11) had a low level of free FB1 (average 29 ng/g) and no detectable TB FB1. After incubation of the samples with gastrointestinal tract solutions simulating saliva plus stomach and duodenal juices, chyme was analysed for FB1, hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1) and partially hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 (PHFB1). The bioaccessibility (percentage of FB1 released from corn flakes into chyme) was 38-78% for incurred FB1 in FN12, 8-54% for incurred plus spiked FB1 in FN12, and 19-66% for incurred plus spiked FB1 in FN11. HFB1 and PHFB1 were not detected. If free FB1 was first extracted from sample FN12, no FB1 was detected in the chyme, indicating no contribution from TB FB1. Concentrations were corrected for method recovery of FB1 or, for bound FB1, partial method recovery of HFB1. PMID:23606020

  8. Purification and biochemical characterization of an extracellular endoglucanase from the necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium myriotylum Dreschler.

    PubMed

    Geethu, C; Nair, R Aswati

    2014-12-01

    An extracellular endoglucanase (EG) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate was purified to homogeneity from the soft-rot causing oomycete P. myriotylum with maximum EG production observed in presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose. The enzyme designated PmEG was observed to be monomeric with a molecular weight of 78 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Optimal activity of PmEG was determined at pH 5.0 and 25 °C with stability observed at pH extending over acidic to alkaline ranges viz., 3.0-10.0 and thermal stability upto 75 °C for 1 h. Optimal PmEG activity was obtained by addition of metal ions viz., Ca(2+) , Fe(3+) , Zn(2+) , Cu(2+) , Al(3+) , and also in presence of DTT and β-mercaptoethanol while it was inhibited by Cr(2+) . Various organic solvents, surfactants, and the oxidant, H2 O2 had little/no effect on PmEG activity reflecting its robustness and potential commercial significance. Kinetic constants of PmEG, Km and Vmax were determined as 1.1 mM and 407 µmol min(-1)  mg(-1) protein, respectively. Glucose was observed to cause mixed non-competitive inhibition of PmEG. PMID:25123590

  9. Purification and biochemical characterization of glucose-cellobiose-tolerant cellulases from Scytalidium thermophilum.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jean Carlos Rodrigues; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza; Salgado, José Carlos Santos; Furriel, Rosa Prazeres Melo; Polizeli, Maria Lourdes T M; Rosa, José César; Jorge, João Atilio

    2013-11-01

    Two cellulases from Scytalidium thermophilum were purified and characterized, exhibiting tolerance to glucose and cellobiose. Characterization of purified cellulases I and II by mass spectrometry revealed primary structure similarities with an exoglucanase and an endoglucanase, respectively. Molecular masses were 51.2 and 45.6 kDa for cellulases I and II, respectively, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cellulases I and II exhibited isoelectric points of 6.2 and 6.9 and saccharide contents of 11 and 93 %, respectively. Optima of temperature and pH were 60-65 °C and 4.0 for purified cellulase I and 65 °C and 6.5 for purified cellulase II. Both cellulases maintained total CMCase activity after 60 min at 60 °C. Cysteine, Mn(2+), dithiotreitol and ß-mercaptoethanol-stimulated cellulases I and II. The tolerance to cellulose hydrolysis products and the high thermal stabilities of Scytalidium cellulases suggest good potential for industrial applications. PMID:23564627

  10. Efficient isolation of high quality nucleic acids from different tissues of Taxus baccata L.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Kejani, Abolghasem; Hosseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali; Khayyam Nekouei, Sayed Mojtaba; Mofid, Mohammad Reza

    2010-02-01

    Improved and efficient methods were developed for isolating high quality DNA and RNA from different sources of Iranian Yew (Taxus baccata L.). The methods were based on CTAB extraction buffer added with high levels of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and beta-mercaptoethanol to properly remove polysaccharides and prevent oxidation of phenolics. The pellets obtained by ethanol precipitation were washed only with Chloroform: isoamyl alcohol (24:1). So, we could successfully eliminate the dangerous phenol/chloroform extraction steps from the isolation procedure. Both spectrophotometric (A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios) and agarose electrophoresis analysis of isolated nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) indicated good results. DNA with the average yield of 100-300 microg/g leaf and stem tissue and total RNA with an average yield of 20-30 microg/g cell culture and 80-100 microg/g leaf and stem tissue of Iranian yew could be obtained. Successful amplification of pam and pds by PCR and RT-PCR, showed the integrity of isolated DNA and RNA, respectively. PMID:19578976

  11. Fast protocol for extraction of DNA from Prosopis spp leaves (plant adapted to arid environment) without liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Michel-López, C Y; González-Mendoza, D; Grimaldo-Juarez, O

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Prosopis spp for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is complicated, owing to the presence of a high percentage of secondary metabolites that bind to or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. In the present study, we report a modified sodium dodecyl sulfate/phenol protocol that eliminates the use of liquid nitrogen in the maceration process, β-mercaptoethanol in the buffer extraction, and the ethanol precipitation step. The A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 2.0 to 1.9, suggesting that the DNA fraction was pure and can be used for further PCR analysis. The DNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could be applied to other organisms that have similar substances that hinder DNA extraction. Finally, this proposal represents an alternative fast, cheap, and effective method for the isolation of genomic DNA from fresh leaves of Prosopis spp, even in low-technology laboratories. PMID:24089098

  12. CFTR: Ligand Exchange between a Permeant Anion ([Au(CN)2]−) and an Engineered Cysteine (T338C) Blocks the Pore

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, José R.; Liu, Xuehong; Borg, Erik R.; Alexander, Christopher S.; Shaw, C. Frank; Dawson, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Previous attempts to identify residues that line the pore of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel have utilized cysteine-substituted channels in conjunction with impermeant, thiol-reactive reagents like MTSET+ and MTSES−. We report here that the permeant, pseudohalide anion [Au(CN)2]− can also react with a cysteine engineered into the pore of the CFTR channel. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing the T338C CFTR channel to as little as 100 nM [Au(CN)2]− produced a profound reduction in conductance that was not reversed by washing but was reversed by exposing the oocytes to a competing thiol like DTT (dithiothreitol) and 2-ME (2-mercaptoethanol). In detached, inside out patches single-channel currents were abolished by [Au(CN)2]− and activity was not restored by washing [Au(CN)2]− from the bath. Both single-channel and macroscopic currents were restored, however, by exposing [Au(CN)2]−-blocked channels to excess [CN]−. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that [Au(CN)2]− can participate in a ligand exchange reaction with the cysteine thiolate at 338 such that the mixed-ligand complex, with a charge of −1, blocks the anion conduction pathway. PMID:16766608

  13. Detection of growth sites in and protomer pools for the sheath of Methanospirillum hungatei GP1 by use of constituent organosulfur and immunogold labeling.

    PubMed Central

    Southam, G; Beveridge, T J

    1992-01-01

    Methanospirillum hungatei GP1 integrated approximately 9% of cellular [35S]cysteine into its sheath. Autoradiography of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels revealed that [35S]cysteine was confined to the proteins released by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-beta-mercaptoethanol-EDTA solubilization method (G. Southam and T. J. Beveridge, J. Bacteriol. 173:6213-6222, 1991) and was not present in the proteins released by treatment with phenol (G. Southam and T. J. Beveridge, J. Bacteriol. 174:935-946, 1992). Limited labeling of exposed sulfhydryl groups on hoops produced from sheath material suggested that most organosulfur groups occur within hoops and therefore help contribute to resilience. Electron microscopic autoradiography demonstrated that sheath growth, which is most active at the sites of cell division (spacer region), occurs through the de novo development of hoops. For growth to occur in the spacer region, sheath precursors must transverse several periodic envelope layers, including the cell wall (a single layer) and the various lamellae of the spacer plug (T. J. Beveridge, G. D. Sprott, and P. Whippey, J. Bacteriol. 173:130-140, 1991). Images PMID:1400199

  14. Characterization of biotechnologically relevant extracellular lipase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bijay Kumar; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme production by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 was studied under liquid static surface and solid-state fermentation using mustard oil cake as a substrate. The maximum lipase biosynthesis was observed after incubation at 30°C for 96h. Among the domestic oils tested, the maximum lipase biosynthesis was achieved using palm oil. The crude lipase was purified 2.56-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity, with a yield of 8.44%, and the protein had a molecular weight of 46.3kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Enzyme characterization confirmed that the purified lipase was most active at pH 6.0, temperature of 50°C, and substrate concentration of 1.5%. The enzyme was thermostable at 60°C for 1h, and the optimum enzyme-substrate reaction time was 30min. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and commercial detergents did not significantly affect lipase activity during 30-min incubation at 30°C. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum lipase activity was attained in the presence of Zn(2+), followed by Mg(2+) and Fe(2+). Lipase activity was not significantly affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (1mM) and the reducing, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited lipase activity. The remarkable stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors and metal ions makes this lipase unique and a potential candidate for significant biotechnological exploitation. PMID:26887237

  15. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of almond and cashew nut seed 11S legumins, amandin and anacardein.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Fajer, Piotr; Sharma, Girdhari M; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2011-01-12

    Native, undenatured amandin and anacardein secondary structures were estimated to be, respectively, 56.4 and 49% β-sheet, 14 and 23.7% α-helix, and 29.6 and 27.4% random coil. Circular dichroic (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to assess structural changes in amandin and anacardein subjected to denaturing treatments that included heat (100 °C, 5 min), guanidium HCl (GuHCl), urea, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and reducing agent, 2% v/v β-mercaptoethanol (βME) + heat. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 4C10 and 4F10 directed against amandin and 1F5 and 4C3 directed against anacardein were used to assess the influence of denaturing treatments on the immunoreactivity of amandin and anacardein. Among the denaturing treatments investigated, SDS and β-ME caused a significant reduction in the immunoreactivity of amandin and anacardein when probed with mAb 4C10 and 4C3, respectively. PMID:21138244

  16. Studies on guinea-pig macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). II. Purification of MIF after treatment with reducing and denaturing agents.

    PubMed

    Kotkes, P; Pick, E

    1979-09-01

    Treatment of guinea-pig macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) containing culture supernatants with the denaturing agents guanidine hydrochloride (Gu HCl) or urea, in the presence or absence of the reducing agent 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), or with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), does not destroy biological activity. Alkylation of reduced MIF preparations results in a considerable decrease or total loss of MIF activity. Treatment of supernatants with the combinations, Gu HCl and 2-ME or urea and 2-ME results in the recovery of MIF activity in association with molecules less than 30,000 in molecular weight (mol. wt). After removal of the agents by dialysis, MIF activity is found associated with molecules larger than 30,000. The reduction in mol. wt is dependent on the presence of 2-ME. When MIF-containing supernatants are treated with urea and SDS and fractionated by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in the presence of the same agents, MIF activity is recovered in the mol. wt range of 42,000--80,000. When supernatants are treated with 2-me, in addition to urea and SDS, and preparative PAGE is performed in their presence, MIF activity is found associated with material having a mol. wt of 15,000--18,000. Analytical SDS-PAGE of this fraction reveals two or three closely grouped bands corresponding to the above mol. wt range. PMID:389497

  17. [Studies on human alpha-2 macroglobulin structure and its complexes with proteases, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Fine, J M; Lambin, P; Steinbuch, M

    1975-09-01

    Pure alpha2M is prepared with fresh plasma as starting material, to prevent the interaction of alpha2M from proteolytic enzymes of plasma such as thrombin, plasmin and kallikrein. During the purification steps, polybrene and aprotin are used as inhibitors and plasminogen is absorbed onto bentonite. When alpha 2M is submitted to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAA) containing 0.1% SDS, a complete dissociation in two half-molecules of MW 380,000 occurs. When alpha2M is incubated in 1% SDS and 1% beta-mercaptoethanol as reducing agent, only one component of MW 190,000 is observed in PAA-SDS. This experiments show that the alpha2M molecule consist of two symetric halves of same MW (380,000) linked by non covalent bonds. Each two-half-molecules is made of two polypeptides chains MW 190,000 linked by disulfide bonds. Thus alpha2M molecule contains four polypeptides chains having a same MW. The same techniques were applied to the study of alaph2M proteinases complexes. Three different proteinases (plasmin, trypsin and papain) were used in these experiments. Trypsin and papain are commercialy available. Plasminogen was obtained by affinity chromatography and activated into plasmin by insoluble streptokinase fixed on PAB cellulose. PMID:59941

  18. Surface modification of CdS quantum dots using thiols—structural and photophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangadurai, P.; Balaji, S.; Manoharan, P. T.

    2008-10-01

    This study is aimed at identifying a suitable organic thiol for CdS by studying its structural, thermal and photophysical characteristics. Quantum dots of the II-VI semiconductor CdS, in the size regime of 2.0-3.3 nm, were prepared in the cubic phase by a wet chemical method. Five organic thiols were used for capping: (i) 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), (ii) 2-mercaptoethanol (ME), (iii) cysteine (Cys), (iv) methionine (Meth), and (v) glutathione (GSH). Structural studies were carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed the cubic phase of CdS. Optical properties were studied by FT-IR, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques, and a comparison was made between uncapped and capped CdS. FT-IR studies suggested two different bonding mechanisms of the capping agents with the CdS. GSH and DTT capped CdS showed significant decrease in absorption wavelengths. An increase in band gap was observed in two cases: when (i) capped and (ii) decreased in size. The band gap was increased from 2.50 eV for the uncapped to 2.77 eV for the DTT capped CdS. DTT was found to be the best capping agent for CdS among these five organic thiols in two aspects: (i) yielding lower grain size in cubic phase, and (ii) good fluorescence properties with efficient quenching of the surface traps.

  19. Impact of a Reducing Agent on the Dynamic Surface Properties of Lysozyme Solutions.

    PubMed

    Tihonov, Michael M; Kim, Viktoria V; Noskov, Boris A

    2016-05-01

    Disulfide bond shuffling in the presence of the reducing agents dithiothreitol (DTT) or β-mercaptoethanol (BME) strongly affects the surface properties of lysozyme solutions. The addition of 0.32 mM DTT substantially alters the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity and surface tension relative to those of pure protein solutions. The significant increase in the dynamic surface elasticity likely relates to the cross-linking between lysozyme molecules and the formation of a dense layer of protein globules stabilized by intermolecular disulfide bonds at the liquid/gas interface. This effect differs from the previously described influence of chaotropic denaturants, such as guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) and urea, on the surface properties of lysozyme solutions. If both chaotropic and reducing agents are added to protein solutions simultaneously, their effects become superimposed. In the case of mixed lysozyme/GuHCl/DTT solutions, the dynamic surface elasticity near equilibrium decreases as the GuHCl concentration increases because of the gradual loosening of the cross-linked layer of protein globules but remains much higher than that of lysozyme/GuHCl solutions. PMID:27086995

  20. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel cold‑adapted GDSL family esterase from Photobacterium sp. strain J15.

    PubMed

    Shakiba, Mehrnoush Hadaddzadeh; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Leow, Thean Chor

    2016-01-01

    The gene encoding for a novel cold-adapted enzyme from family II of bacterial classification (GDSL family) was cloned from the genomic DNA of Photobacterium sp. strain J15 in an Escherichia coli system, yielding a recombinant 36 kDa J15 GDSL esterase which was purified in two steps with a final yield and purification of 38.6 and 15.3 respectively. Characterization of the biochemical properties showed the J15 GDSL esterase had maximum activity at 20 °C and pH 8.0, was stable at 10 °C for 3 h and retained 50 % of its activity after a 6 h incubation at 10 °C. The enzyme was activated by Tween-20, -60 and Triton-X100 and inhibited by 1 mM Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), while β-mercaptoethanol and Dithiothreitol (DTT) enhanced activity by 4.3 and 5.4 fold respectively. These results showed the J15 GDSL esterase was a novel cold-adapted enzyme from family II of lipolytic enzymes. A structural model constructed using autotransporter EstA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a template revealed the presence of a typical catalytic triad consisting of a serine, aspartate, and histidine which was verified with site directed mutagenesis on active serine. PMID:26475626

  1. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Esteves-Villanueva, Jose; Soudy, Rania; Kaur, Kamaljit; Martic-Milne, Sanela

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-). The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine) and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol) was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers) in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides. PMID:26262621

  2. Postcolumn reactor using a laser-drilled capillary for light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection in CE.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Kaneta, Takashi; Imasaka, Totaro

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated a novel postcolumn reactor for fluorescence detection in CE. A laser-drilled capillary, with an aperture made by laser ablation, was used for mixing derivatization reagents with the analytes separated by CZE. The derivatization reagents, o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA), and 2-mercaptoethanol, were introduced into the capillary through the aperture and reacted with the analytes after CZE separation. High voltages were applied to both the inlet reservoir and the reservoir filled with the derivatization reagents. Thus, the flow rate of the derivatization reagents was controlled by the electric potential that was applied to the reservoir of the derivatization reagents. A UV light-emitting diode was used as an excitation light source for the fluorescence detection of OPA derivatives. A commercially available tee connector was compared with the laser-drilled capillary. The results implied that the dead volume of the laser-drilled capillary was less than that of the tee connector, since the laser-drilled capillary suppressed band broadening more efficiently. The LODs for amino acids were determined to be approximately 5 microM. The method was applied to the determination of amino acids in a Japanese beverage. PMID:17948271

  3. A fluorescence detection scheme for capillary electrophoresis of N-methylcarbamates with on-column thermal decomposition and derivatization

    PubMed

    Wu; Lee; Li

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes a fluorescence detection method for N-methylcarbamate (NMC) pesticides in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separation. Fulfillment of the fluorescence detection hinged on the discovery that quaternary ammonium surfactants (particularly cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB), besides serving as hydrophobic pseudophases in MEKC, are also capable of catalyzing the thermal decomposition of NMCs to liberate methylamine. Thus, a multifunctional MEKC medium consisting of borate buffer, CTAB, and derivatizing components (o-phthaldialdehyde/2-mercaptoethanol) was formulated, which allowed first normal MEKC separation, subsequent thermal decomposition, and finally in situ derivatization of NMCs. With careful optimization of the operation conditions, fluorescence detection of 10 NMC compounds was achieved, with column efficiencies typically higher than 50,000 and detection limits better than 0.5 ppm. The present work represents an unprecedented effort in capillary electrophoresis (CE), in which an intact capillary was consecutively utilized as chambers for separation, decomposition, derivatization, and detection, without involving any interfacing features. The success in the implementation of such a detection system resulted in strikingly simple instrumentation as compared with the traditional postcolumn fluorescence determination of NMCs by reversed-phase HPLC. Similar protocols should be workable in the determination of a wide range of pesticides and pharmaceuticals in CE formats. PMID:10763238

  4. Rugged gap reactor device for postcolumn fluorescence detection in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wei, H; Li, S F

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, the construction and performance of a rugged device for postcolumn derivatization in capillary electrophoresis (CE) are described. The device was based on a gap design, and a gap with a very small distance (<3 μm, estimated under microscope) could be easily constructed without micromanipulation. Addition of derivatizing reagents into the reaction capillary was attributable to gravity flow. The concentration of derivatizing reagents can be controlled through manipulating the electroosmotic flow in the reaction capillary and the height of the liquid levels from the derivatizing reagents to the buffer reservoirs. The device has been applied in fluorescence detection of amino acids using a mixture of o-phthaldialdehyde/2-mercaptoethanol as derivatizing reagent. Theoretical plate numbers for 11 amino acids separated in a pH 9.5 borate buffer were obtained in the order of 40 000-250 000. The detection limit for glycine (S/N = 2) was found to be 6.7 × 10(-)(7) mol/L using a commercial HPLC fluorescence detector modified for CE. Free amino acids in a wine sample were also determined. Because the device is quite stable, we believe that it can be used routinely in analytical laboratories. PMID:21644687

  5. Purification and biochemical characterization of Eumiliin from Euphorbia milii var. hislopii latex.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, K C; Morais, N C G; Queiroz, M R; Silva, M C; Gomes, M S; Costa, J O; Mamede, C C N; Torres, F S; Penha-Silva, N; Beletti, M E; Canabrava, H A N; Oliveira, F

    2010-05-01

    A protease, which we designate Eumiliin, was isolated from the latex of Euphorbia milii var. hislopii by a combination of ion-exchange chromatographic steps using DEAE-Sephacel and gel-filtration with Sephadex G-75. Eumiliin is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and gave one main peak at 29,814 KDa in MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Eumiliin has caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities, but no hemorrhagic or defibrinating activities. The enzyme readily hydrolyzes the Aalpha-chain of fibrinogen and, more slowly, the Bbeta-chain. Its fibrinogenolytic activity is inhibited by beta-mercaptoethanol and leupeptin. In contrast, EDTA and benzamidine did not affect the activity of Eumiliin. The caseinolytic activity of Eumiliin had a pH optimum of 8.0 and was stable in solution at up to 40 degrees C; activity was completely lost at >or=80 degrees C. Intraplantar injection of Eumiliin (1-25 microg/paw) caused a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia, which peaked 1-5h after enzyme injection. Intraplantar injection of Eumiliin (1-25 microg/paw) also caused an oedematogenic response that was maximal after 1h. Morphological analyses indicated that Eumiliin induced an intense myonecrosis, with visible leukocyte infiltrate and damaged muscle cells 24h after injection. PMID:20206951

  6. An intact interchain disulfide bond is required for the neurotoxicity of tetanus toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Schiavo, G; Papini, E; Genna, G; Montecucco, C

    1990-01-01

    Tetanus toxin is composed of a heavy chain (100 kDa) and a light chain (50 kDa) held together by a single interchain disulfide bridge. An additional intrachain disulfide is present in the carboxy-terminal part of the heavy chain. Reduction of the two disulfide bonds in tetanus toxin with both chemical and proteinaceous reducing agents was studied. Dithiothreitol and 2-mercaptoethanol cleaved both the inter- and intrachain disulfide bridges of the toxin, while glutathione and cysteine were ineffective. Specific reduction of the single interchain disulfide link was achieved with the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system, thus indicating that this bond is exposed at the protein surface. Also, dead or permeabilized cells were able to reduce the toxin. Such reduced toxin bound to neuronal membranes as well as the native toxin but was not neurotoxic. These findings open the possibility that reduction by cytoplasmic agents released by dead cells contributes to detoxification of tetanus toxin. Moreover, together with the notion that the light chain is the active form of the toxin in the cytoplasm, these results suggest that the interchain disulfide bond of tetanus toxin plays a role in nerve cell penetration. Images PMID:2254033

  7. Investigation of cadmium-induced alterations in renal glomerular function

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This research was designed to test the hypothesis that certain aspects of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction are the result of glomerular, rather than classic tubular, injury. To determine whether cadmium-induced proteinuria was due to altered glomerular function, cadmium was administered chronically at a concentration of 185 ppm in the drinking water. This protocol resulted in the production of proteinuria which when analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay was indistinguishable from that occurring in control rats. Glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and filtration fraction were all significantly depressed after 20-30 weeks of exposure. In order to further investigate these alterations in glomerular function, an acute exposure model was developed. It was found that a single i.p. injection of cadmium in mercaptoethanol resulted in the onset of acute renal failure. The clinical picture was characterized by a reduction in glomerular filtrate rate of 50-90% within 24 hours, with partial to total recovery occurring by day 7 post-exposure. Histological evidence indicated that to a large extent the reduction in GFR was due to tubular blockade and/or backleak of filtrate across damaged tubules.

  8. Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Major Penicillium glabrum Xylanase Using Brewer's Spent Grain as Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Beitel, Susan Michelz; Fortkamp, Diana; Terrasan, César Rafael Fanchini; de Almeida, Alex Fernando

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, xylanases have been used in many processing industries. This study describes the xylanase production by Penicillium glabrum using brewer's spent grain as substrate. Additionally, this is the first work that reports the purification and characterization of a xylanase using this agroindustrial waste. Optimal production was obtained when P. glabrum was grown in liquid medium in pH 5.5, at 25 °C, under stationary condition for six days. The xylanase from P. glabrum was purified to homogeneity by a rapid and inexpensive procedure, using ammonium sulfate fractionation and molecular exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed one band with estimated molecular mass of 18.36 kDa. The optimum activity was observed at 60 °C, in pH 3.0. The enzyme was very stable at 50 °C, and high pH stability was verified from pH 2.5 to 5.0. The ion Mn2+ and the reducing agents β-mercaptoethanol and DTT enhanced xylanase activity, while the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ as well as the detergent SDS were strong inhibitors of the enzyme. The use of brewer's spent grain as substrate for xylanase production cannot only add value and decrease the amount of this waste but also reduce the xylanase production cost. PMID:23762855

  9. Simultaneous analysis of the non-canonical amino acids norleucine and norvaline in biopharmaceutical-related fermentation processes by a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography approach.

    PubMed

    Biermann, Michael; Bardl, Bettina; Vollstädt, Sebastian; Linnemann, Julia; Knüpfer, Uwe; Seidel, Guido; Horn, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a precise and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of non-canonical (norvaline and norleucine) and standard amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, histidine, glycine, threonine, arginine, tyrosine, methionine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine) in biopharmaceutical-related fermentation processes was established. After pre-column derivatization with ortho-phthaldialdehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol, the derivatives were separated on a sub-2 μm particle C18 reverse-phase column. Identification and quantification of amino acids were carried out by fluorescence detection. To test method feasibility on standard HPLC instruments, the assay was properly transferred to a core-shell particle C18 reverse-phase column. The limits of detection showed excellent sensitivity by values from 0.06 to 0.17 pmol per injection and limits of quantification between 0.19 and 0.89 pmol. In the present study, the newly established UHPLC method was applied to a recombinant antibody Escherichia coli fermentation process for the analysis of total free amino acids. We were able to specifically detect and quantify the unfavorable amino acids in such complex samples. Since we observed trace amounts of norvaline and norleucine during all fermentation phases, an obligatory process monitoring should be considered to improve quality of recombinant protein drugs in future. PMID:23306451

  10. Effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Qiu, S; Huang, T; Huang, Z; Xu, L; Wu, C; Gelbic, I; Guan, X

    2013-06-01

    To examine the effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) against Plutella xylostella (L.), inorganic salts, nitrogenous compounds, protein solubilizing agents, and organic acids were selected and tested. The chosen materials are low in cost and environmentally safe. Results show that many inorganic salts can increase the activity of B. thuringiensis in a range of 1.31- to 3.08-fold. These include calcium acetate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium acetate, potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium acetate, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, and zinc sulfate. Nitrogenous compounds, including peptone, sodium nitrate, and ammonium nitrate, can enhance the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62-, 1.32-, and 1.37-fold, respectively. Among the protein solubilizing agents, EDTA, urea, mercaptoethanol and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate increased the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62- to 2.34-fold. Among the organic acids, maleic and citric acids boosted the activity 1.45- and 1.55-fold, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium benzoate and resorcinol led to 1.74- and 1.44-fold activity gains, respectively. Use of appropriate additives could provide great benefit not only in reducing the costs for field applications of biological insecticides but also by boosting the efficacy of B. thuringiensis. PMID:23865169

  11. Brucella suis in armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus) from La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Fort, Marcelo; de Echaide, Susana T; Casanave, Emma B

    2014-06-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonosis. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies in Chaetophractus villosus from a region of La Pampa, Argentina to assess public health risks. The C. villosus is endemic to South America, and in Argentina it represents a food resource for human consumption. A total of 150 sera of armadillos bleeding between 2007 and 2010 were tested using buffered plate antigen test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and complement fixation test (CFT), for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies. Antibodies to Brucella sp. were found in 16% (24:150) of the armadillos tested using the BPAT test. All 24 positive samples were confirmed by the SAT, 2-ME and CFT tests. Strain isolation was attempted from liver and spleen samples of two animals with positive serology. Isolates were characterized by conventional biotyping and identification of specific DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 2 isolates were recovered from spleen and liver. Both of them were identified as Brucella suis biovar 1. This preliminary study provides the first report on the seroprevalence of brucellosis and describes the first isolate of B. suis biovar 1 in C. villosus in Argentina. PMID:24685240

  12. Biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin: the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mário Sérgio R; Naves de Souza, Dayane L; Guimarães, Denise O; Lopes, Daiana S; Mamede, Carla C N; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie C; Achê, David C; Rodrigues, Renata S; Yoneyama, Kelly A G; Borges, Márcia H; de Oliveira, Fábio; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2015-03-01

    We present the biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin, the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This protein was purified after three chromatographic steps on cation exchange CM-Sepharose fast flow, size-exclusion column Sephacryl S-300 and anion exchange Capto Q. Bothropoidin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and comprised a single chain of 49,558 Da according to MALDI TOF analysis. The protein presented an isoelectric point of 3.76, and the sequence of six fragments obtained by MS (MALDI TOF\\TOF) showed a significant score when compared with other PIII Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Bothropoidin showed proteolytic activity on azocasein, Aα-chain of fibrinogen, fibrin, collagen and fibronectin. The enzyme was stable at pH 6-9 and at lower temperatures when assayed on azocasein. Moreover, its activity was inhibited by EDTA, 1.10-phenanthroline and β-mercaptoethanol. Bothropoidin induced haemorrhage [minimum haemorrhagic dose (MHD) = 0.75 µg], inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP, and interfered with viability and cell adhesion when incubated with endothelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Our results showed that Bothropoidin is a haemorrhagic metalloproteinase that can play an important role in the toxicity of B. pauloensis envenomation and might be used as a tool for studying the effects of SVMPs on haemostatic disorders and tumour metastasis. PMID:25261583

  13. Monoterpene alcohol metabolism: identification, purification, and characterization of two geraniol dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Polygonum minus leaves.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Maizom; Maarof, Nur Diyana; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Noor, Normah Mohd; Othman, Roohaida; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    NADP(+)-dependent geraniol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.183) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of geraniol to geranial. Stable, highly active cell-free extract was obtained from Polygonum minus leaves using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, Amberlite XAD-4, glycerol, 2-mercaptoethanol, thiourea, and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride in tricine-NaOH buffer (pH 7.5). The enzyme preparation was separated into two activity peaks, geraniol-DH I and II, by DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column chromatography at pH 7.5. Both isoenzymes were purified to homogeneity in three chromatographic steps. The geraniol-DH isoenzymes were similar in molecular mass, optimal temperature, and pH, but the isoelectric point, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters were different. The K(m) values for geraniol of geraniol-DH I and II appeared to be 0.4 mM and 0.185 mM respectively. P. minus geraniol-DHs are unusual among geraniol-DHs in view of their thermal stability and optimal temperatures, and also their high specificity for allylic alcohols and NADP(+). PMID:22878188

  14. Purification and characterization of the xylanase produced by Jonesia denitrificans BN-13.

    PubMed

    Boucherba, Nawel; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Copinet, Estelle; Bettache, Azeddine; Duchiron, Francis; Benallaoua, Said

    2014-03-01

    Jonesia denitrificans BN-13 produces six xylanases: Xyl1, Xyl2, Xyl3, Xyl4, Xyl5, and Xyl6; the Xyl4 was purified and characterized after two consecutive purification steps using ultrafiltration and anion exchange chromatography. The xylanase-specific activity was found to be 77 unit (U)/mg. The molecular weight of the Xyl4 estimated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a monomeric isoenzyme of about 42 kDa. It showed an optimum pH value of 7.0 and a temperature of 50 °C. It was stable at 50 °C for 9.34 h. The enzyme showed to be activated by Mn(+2), β-mercaptoethanol, and dithiothreitol (DTT) with a high affinity towards birchwood xylan (with a K(m) of 1 mg ml(-1)) and hydrolysis of oat-spelt xylan with a K(m) of 1.85 mg ml(-1). The ability of binding to cellulose and/or xylan was also investigated. PMID:24425300

  15. Sensitivity enhancement in the fluorometric determination of aliphatic amines using naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde derivatization followed by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-Yi; Tung, Shu-Yin; Lo, Yu-Shiu; Huang, Hsien-Lu; Ko, Chun-Han; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2016-05-15

    A highly sensitive liquid chromatographic method was developed for the fluorometric determination of trace amounts of linear aliphatic primary amines. Prior to extraction, amines were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) in the presence of cyanide ion (CN) and extracted by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME). The optimum conditions were as follows: derivatization reaction time for 5min in 2.0mL aqueous donor samples with 50μM NDA/CN, and 10mM borate buffer at pH 9; vortex extraction time for 20s in the VALLME step with 50μL of isooctane as the extractant phase; centrifugation for 1min at 6000rpm. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were between 0.01 and 0.04nmolL(-1). The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.1-20nmolL(-1). In comparison with previous work using o-phthalaldehyde/2-mercaptoethanol derivatization, the method has much more stable fluorescent derivatives, higher fluorescence intensities, and greater extraction efficiencies. The sensitivity enhancement factors (SEF) were between 2 and 70, which is in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from partition coefficients in VALLME system. PMID:26992544

  16. Isolation of high quality RNA from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) and other woody plants high in secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Rajaei, Saideh; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The quality and quantity of RNA are critical for successful downstream transcriptome-based studies such as microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA isolation from woody plants, such as Pistacia vera, with very high amounts of polyphenols and polysaccharides is an enormous challenge. Here, we describe a highly efficient protocol that overcomes the limitations posed by poor quality and low yield of isolated RNA from pistachio and various recalcitrant woody plants. The key factors that resulted in a yield of 150 μg of high quality RNA per 200 mg of plant tissue include the elimination of phenol from the extraction buffer, raising the concentration of β-mercaptoethanol, long time incubation at 65 °C, and nucleic acid precipitation with optimized volume of NaCl and isopropyl alcohol. Also, the A260/A280 and A260/A230 of extracted RNA were about 1.9-2.1and 2.2-2.3, respectively, revealing the high purity. Since the isolated RNA passed highly stringent quality control standards for sensitive reactions, including RNA sequencing and real-time PCR, it can be considered as a reliable and cost-effective method for RNA extraction from woody plants. PMID:26600686

  17. Copper-metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus: potential role as Cu(I) donors to apohemocyanin

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwer, M.; Whaling, P.; Engel, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    The physiological function of copper(I)-metallothionein is not well understood. The respiratory function of hemocyanin, a copper(I)-containing respiratory protein found in the hemolymph of many invertebrates, has been known a long time. However, the mechanism by which Cu(I) is inserted into the oxygen-binding site of apohemocyanin is completely unknown. This investigation tests that hypothesis that copper(I)-metallothionein may act as a Cu(I) donor to apohemocyanin. To this end, copper-binding proteins and hemocyanin were purified from the digestive gland and hemolymph of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In the presence of ..beta..-mercaptoethanol, the copper-binding proteins can be resolved into three components of DEAE-cellulose. The first two have been characterized as metallothioneins. The cysteine content of the third component is half of that of components I and II. The purified proteins are not capable of transferring Cu(I) to the active sites of completely copper-free apohemocyanin. They are capable, however, of transferring Cu(I) to active sites of hemocyanin containing reduced amounts of Cu(I), suggesting that the conformational state of hemocyanin is the determining factor in the Cu(I) transfer mechanism.

  18. Cloning and characterization of a new manganese superoxide dismutase from deep-sea thermophile Geobacillus sp. EPT3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbing; Wang, Guohong; Ni, Hui; Xiao, Anfeng; Cai, Huinong

    2014-04-01

    A new gene encoding a superoxide dismutase (SOD) was identified from a thermophile Geobacillus sp. EPT3 isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field in east Pacific. The open reading frame of this gene encoded 437 amino acid residues. It was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli (DE3), and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. Geobacillus sp. EPT3 SOD was of the manganese-containing SOD type, as judged by the insensitivity of the recombinant enzyme to both KCN and H₂O₂, and the activity analysis of Fe or Mn reconstituted SODs by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The recombinant SOD was determined to be a homodimer with monomeric molecular mass of 59.0 kDa. In comparison with other Mn-SODs, the manganese-binding sites are conserved in the sequence (His260, His308, Asp392, His396). The recombinant enzyme had high thermostability at 50 °C. It retained 57 % residual activity after incubation at 90 °C for 1 h, which indicated that this SOD was thermostable. The enzyme also showed striking stability over a wide range of pH 5.0-11.0. At tested conditions, the recombinant SOD from Geobacillus sp. EPT3 showed a relatively good tolerance to some inhibitors, detergents, and denaturants, such as β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, Chaps, Triton X-100, urea, and guanidine hydrochloride. PMID:24242973

  19. Cysteine-2 and Cys30 are essential for chlorophyll-binding activity of the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) of Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Seki, Yumiko; Uchida, Akira; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Chenopodium album has a non-photosynthetic chlorophyll protein known as the water-soluble chlorophyll (Chl)-binding protein (WSCP). The C. album WSCP (CaWSCP) is able to photoconvert the chlorin skeleton of Chl a into a bacteriochlorin-like skeleton. Reducing reagents such as β-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol inhibit photoconversion, indicating that S-S bridge(s) in CaWSCP are quite important for it. Recently, we found that the mature region of CaWSCP contains five cysteine residues; Cys2, Cys30, Cys48, Cys63, and Cys144. To identify which cysteine residues are involved in the photoconversion, we generated five mutants (C2S, C30S, C48S, C63S, and C144S) by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, C48S, C63S, and C144S mutants showed the same Chl-binding activity and photoconvertibility as those of the recombinant wild-type CaWSCP-His, while the C2S and C30S mutants completely lost Chl-binding activity. Our findings indicated that the S-S bridge between Cys2 and Cys30 in each CaWSCP subunit is essential for Chl-binding activity. PMID:25060234

  20. On the surface interactions of proteins with lignin.

    PubMed

    Salas, Carlos; Rojas, Orlando J; Lucia, Lucian A; Hubbe, Martin A; Genzer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Lignins are used often in formulations involving proteins but little is known about the surface interactions between these important biomacromolecules. In this work, we investigate the interactions at the solid-liquid interface of lignin with the two main proteins in soy, glycinin (11S) and β-conglycinin (7S). The extent of adsorption of 11S and 7S onto lignin films and the degree of hydration of the interfacial layers is quantified via Quartz crystal microgravimetry (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Solution ionic strength and protein denaturation (2-mercaptoethanol and urea) critically affect the adsorption process as protein molecules undergo conformational changes and their hydrophobic or hydrophilic amino acid residues interact with the surrounding medium. In general, the adsorption of the undenatured proteins onto lignin is more extensive compared to that of the denatured biomolecules and a large amount of water is coupled to the adsorbed molecules. The reduction in water contact angle after protein adsorption (by ~40° and 35° for undenatured 11S and 7S, respectively) is explained by strong nonspecific interactions between soy proteins and lignin. PMID:23234476

  1. Role of activation in alveolar macrophage-mediated suppression of the plaque-forming cell response.

    PubMed Central

    Mbawuike, I N; Herscowitz, H B

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are highly suppressive of the in vitro plaque-forming cell (PFC) response of spleen cells obtained from mice primed with sheep erythrocytes. Comparison of macrophage populations obtained from disparate anatomical sites revealed that although in both cases there was a cell-concentration-dependent suppression of the PFC response, resident AM or AM activated as a result of intravenous injection of Mycobacterium bovis BCG were equally suppressive at the doses examined. Although there was a similar dose-dependent suppression with peritoneal macrophages, BCG-activated cells were more suppressive of the PFC response than were resident cells. In contrast, splenic macrophages at comparable concentrations were not at all suppressive. Resident AM exhibited significantly lower levels of 5'-nucleotidase activity than did resident peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage-mediated suppression of the in vitro PFC response could not be attributed to the release of toxic oxygen metabolites (H2O2, O2- ,and .OH) or prostaglandins, since the addition of catalase, superoxide dismutase, 2-mercaptoethanol, or indomethacin did not completely reverse suppression. These results suggest that the lung microenvironment may maintain AM in an activated state which contributes to their potential immunoregulatory functions. PMID:2830191

  2. Marked changes in volume of mesophyll protoplasts of pea (Pisum sativum) on exposure to growth hormones.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Venkat Apparao; Suhita, Dontamala; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2004-05-01

    The present study reports quick and significant changes induced by plant hormones in the volume of mesophyll protoplasts of pea (Pisum sativum). Four plant hormones: gibberellic acid (GA3), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA)(+/-) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), caused marked changes in the volume of mesophyll protoplasts. GA3 and IAA increased the volume of the protoplasts (up to 90%) whereas the ABA and MJ decreased (by about 40%) the volume. Aquaporins or water channels appear to play an important role in swelling/shrinkage of the protoplasts as indicated by the suppression of volume changes by HgCl2 and reversal by mercaptoethanol. The possible role of secondary messengers in volume changes induced by GA3 was investigated by using selected pharmacological reagents. The GA3 induced swelling was restricted by GDP-beta-S (G-protein antagonist), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), and TFP (calmodulin antagonist), but was not affected by 1-butanol (phospholipase D inhibitor), GTP-gamma-S (G-protein agonist), or verapamil (calcium channel blocker). The results suggest that the mesophyll protoplasts can be a simple and useful system for further studies on volume changes in plant tissues. PMID:15202712

  3. Cloning, Expression and 3D Structure Prediction of Chitinase from Chitinolyticbacter meiyuanensis SYBC-H1

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zhikui; Wu, Hangui; Yang, Meiling; Chen, Jianjun; Xi, Limin; Zhao, Weijie; Yu, Jialin; Liu, Jiayang; Liao, Xiangru; Huang, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    Two CHI genes from Chitinolyticbacter meiyuanensis SYBC-H1 encoding chitinases were identified and their protein 3D structures were predicted. According to the amino acid sequence alignment, CHI1 gene encoding 166 aa had a structural domain similar to the GH18 type II chitinase, and CHI2 gene encoding 383 aa had the same catalytic domain as the glycoside hydrolase family 19 chitinase. In this study, CHI2 chitinase were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells, and this protein was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose, and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Optimal activity of CHI2 chitinase occurred at a temperature of 40 °C and a pH of 6.5. The presence of metal ions Fe3+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ inhibited CHI2 chitinase activity, while Na+ and K+ promoted its activity. Furthermore, the presence of EGTA, EDTA, and β-mercaptoethanol significantly increased the stability of CHI2 chitinase. The CHI2 chitinase was active with p-NP-GlcNAc, with the Km and Vm values of 23.0 µmol/L and 9.1 mM/min at a temperature of 37 °C, respectively. Additionally, the CHI2 chitinase was characterized as an N-acetyl glucosaminidase based on the hydrolysate from chitin. Overall, our results demonstrated CHI2 chitinase with remarkable biochemical properties is suitable for bioconversion of chitin waste. PMID:27240345

  4. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Esteves-Villanueva, Jose; Soudy, Rania; Kaur, Kamaljit; Martic-Milne, Sanela

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine) and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol) was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers) in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides. PMID:26262621

  5. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Fungal Laccase from Pleurotus sp.

    PubMed

    More, Sunil S; P S, Renuka; K, Pruthvi; M, Swetha; Malini, S; S M, Veena

    2011-01-01

    Laccases are blue copper oxidases (E.C. 1.10.3.2 benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase) that catalyze the one-electron oxidation of phenolics, aromatic amines, and other electron-rich substrates with the concomitant reduction of O(2) to H(2)O. They are currently seen as highly interesting industrial enzymes because of their broad substrate specificity. A positive strain was isolated and characterized as nonspore forming Basidiomycetes Pleurotus sp. Laccase activity was determined using ABTS as substrate. Laccase was purified by ionexchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified laccase was a monomer showed a molecular mass of 40 ± 1 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE and a 72-fold purification with a 22% yield. The optimal pH and temperature were 4.5 and 65(°)C, respectively. The K(m) and V(max) values are 250 (mM) and 0.33 (μmol/min), respectively, for ABTS as substrate. Metal ions like CuSO(4), BaCl(2), MgCl(2), FeCl(2), ZnCl(2) have no effect on purified laccase whereas HgCl(2) and MnCl(2) moderately decrease enzyme activity. SDS and sodium azide inhibited enzyme activity, whereas Urea, PCMB, DTT, and mercaptoethanol have no effect on enzyme activity. The isolated laccase can be used in development of biosensor for detecting the phenolic compounds from the effluents of paper industries. PMID:21977312

  6. Enzymes involved in vinyl acetate decomposition by Pseudomonas fluorescens PCM 2123 strain.

    PubMed

    Szczyrba, Elżbieta; Greń, Izabela; Bartelmus, Grażyna

    2014-03-01

    Esterases are widely used in food processing industry, but there is little information concerning enzymes involved in decompositions of esters contributing to pollution of environment. Vinyl acetate (an ester of vinyl alcohol and acetic acid) is a representative of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in decomposition, of which hydrolyses and oxidoreductases are mainly involved. Their activities under periodically changing conditions of environment are essential for the removal of dangerous VOCs. Esterase and alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were determined in crude cell extract from Pseudomonas fluorescens PMC 2123 after vinyl acetate induction. All examined enzymes exhibit their highest activity at 30-35 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Esterase preferably hydrolyzed ester bonds with short fatty chains without plain differences for C2 or C4. Comparison of Km values for alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases for acetaldehyde suggested that this metabolite was preferentially oxidized than reduced. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol suggested that one mechanism of defense against the elevated concentration of toxic acetaldehyde could be its temporary reduction to ethanol. Esterase activity was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, while β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no inhibitor effect. From among metal ions, only Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) stimulated the cleavage of ester bond. PMID:23913099

  7. Inactivation of jack bean urease by scutellarin: elucidation of inhibitory efficacy, kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dian-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Xie, Jian-Hui; Su, Zu-Qing; Su, Ji-Yan; Tan, Li-Rong; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Chen, Jian-Nan; Su, Zi-Ren

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the inactivation effect of scutellarin (SL) on jack bean urease was investigated to elucidate the inhibitory potency, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition. It was revealed that SL acted as a concentration- and time-dependent inactivator of urease characteristic of slow-binding inhibition with an IC50 of 1.35±0.15 mM. The rapid formation of the initial SL-urease complex with an inhibition constant of Ki=5.37×10(-2) mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with the overall inhibition constant of Ki*=3.49×10(-3) mM. High effectiveness of thiol protectors, such as L-cysteine (L-cys), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and dithiothreitol (DTT) significantly slowed down the rate of inactivation, indicating the strategic role of the active site sulfhydryl group in the blocking process. While the insignificant protection by boric acid and fluoride from the inactivation further confirmed that the active site cysteine should be obligatory for urease inhibition, which was also rationalized by the molecular docking study. The inhibition of SL on urease proved to be reversible since SL-blocked urease could be reactivated by DTT application and multidilution. The results obtained indicated that urease inactivation resulted from the reaction between SL and the sulfhydryl group. PMID:23978581

  8. Adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells: host-induced protein synthesis and signaling events.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, A; Wadsworth, E; Calderone, R

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of proteins by Candida albicans was studied following adherence of blastoconidia to human buccal epithelial cells (HBEC). Initially, labeling of HBEC, C. albicans, and HBEC-C. albicans with [35S]methionine was performed. After a 3-h incubation and prior to labeling with [35S]methionine, the cultures were treated with cycloheximide to prevent HBEC protein synthesis. The HBEC-C. albicans mixture as well as C. albicans and HBEC incubated separately were extracted with beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME). These extracts as well as the cell residue (solubilized by boiling with sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. In comparison to cultures of C. albicans incubated without HBEC, proteins with molecular masses of approximately 52 to 56 kDa from beta-ME extracts and from SDS-solubilized cells were observed only from adhering cultures. In addition, unlabeled beta-ME extracts were electrotransferred to nitrocellulose and immunoblotted with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies to determine whether cell signaling events were occurring during adherence. Proteins with molecular masses of 54 and 60 kDa were recognized only in mixed cultures of C. albicans and HBEC. These data indicate that following adherence of C. albicans to HBEC, new Candida proteins are expressed. Further, these events are accompanied by the expression of signal proteins, presumably of Candida origin. PMID:7822023

  9. Preparation and application of monoclonal antibodies for a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the major soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30K.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, H; Bando, N; Kimoto, M; Okada, N; Ogawa, T

    1993-08-01

    In order to obtain probes suitable for the determination of the major soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30 K, in soybean-related processed foods, we have prepared two monoclonal antibodies, F5 of IgG2a and H6 of IgM, by the fusion of P3U1 myeloma cells with the spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with the reductively carboxymethylated allergen (RCM-allergen). The two monoclonal antibodies were shown to be specific to the intact allergen as well as the RCM-allergen and to recognize distinct epitopes on the allergen. Of the monoclonal antibodies, F5 was conjugated with peroxidase. H6 and the labeled F5 were applied as the fixing antibody and the labeled first antibody, respectively, for a direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the allergen. When the allergen was extracted from the soybean-related foods with Tris-HCl buffer containing sodium dodecylsulfate and mercaptoethanol, the allergen, Gly m Bd 30 K, was shown to be measured in a range of 5-500 ng in this assay. PMID:7506767

  10. Effects of redox and sulfhydryl reagents on the bioelectric properties of the giant axon of the squid.

    PubMed

    Huneeus-Cox, F; Fernandez, H L; Smith, B H

    1966-09-01

    The effects of internally and externally applied sulfhydryl reagents on the bioelectric properties of the giant axon of the squid Loligo pealeii and Dosidicus gigas were studied. Cysteine-HCl (400 mM, pH 7.3) was used to remove axoplasm from the perfusion channel. Oxidizing agents (1 to 60 mM) tended to increase the duration of the action potential and had a slow, irreversible blocking effect when perfused internally; the membrane potential was little affected. Reducing agents applied internally caused a decrease in the spike duration without affecting its height or the membrane potential, although at high concentrations there was reversible deterioration of the action potential. Both external and internal perfusion of mercaptide-forming reagents caused deterioration in the action and membrane potentials with conduction block occurring in 5 to 45 min. 2-mercaptoethanol reversed the effects. Thiol alkylating reagents, iodoacetate and iodoacetamide, were without effect. N-ethylmaleimide did, however, block. Tests with chelating agents for nonheme iron in the membrane brought about no change in the electrical parameters. The implications of the present findings with regard to the macromolecular mechanism of excitation are discussed. PMID:5970570

  11. Evaluation of Primary Binding Assays for Presumptive Serodiagnosis of Swine Brucellosis in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, P. Silva; Vigliocco, A. M.; Ramondino, R. F.; Marticorena, D.; Bissi, E.; Briones, G.; Gorchs, C.; Gall, D.; Nielsen, K.

    2000-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA), a competitive ELISA (CELISA), and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) for the presumptive serological diagnosis of swine brucellosis were evaluated using two populations of swine sera: sera from brucellosis-free Canadian herds and sera from Argentina selected based on positive reactions in the buffered antigen plate agglutination test (BPAT) and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) test. In addition, sera from adult swine from which Brucella suis was isolated at least once for each farm of origin were evaluated. The IELISA, CELISA, and FPA specificity values were 99.9, 99.5, and 98.3%, respectively, and the IELISA, CELISA, and FPA sensitivity values relative to the BPAT and the 2-ME test were 98.9, 96.6, and 93.8%, respectively. Actual sensitivity was assessed by using 37 sera from individual pigs from which B. suis was cultured, and the values obtained were as follows: BPAT, 86.5%; 2-ME test, 81.1%; IELISA, 86.5%; CELISA, 78.5%; and FPA, 80.0%. PMID:10973463

  12. Specific protein binding to a conserved region of the ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Manzella, J M; Blackshear, P J

    1992-04-01

    An RNA gel retardation assay was used to identify one or more cellular protein(s) (ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-UTR binding protein (ODCBP)) that bind specifically to a conserved region of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of rat ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA. Ultraviolet light cross-linking demonstrated that this protein has an apparent Mr = 58,000 in mammalian cells. Treatment with the oxidizing agent diamide prevented binding of the ODCBP to ODC mRNA; addition of beta-mercaptoethanol reversed this inhibition and permitted mRNA.ODCBP complex formation. Cytoplasmic extracts from a variety of animal cells and tissues demonstrated similar binding activities; however, there was marked tissue-specific expression of the protein in the rat, with brain, heart, lung, and testis containing large amounts, and kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle expressing negligible amounts. Binding was completely prevented by several mutations within a highly conserved heptanucleotide region (CCAU/ACUC) that was within 61 bases of the initiation codon in ODC mRNAs from mammals, Xenopus, and Caenorhabditis elegans; mutations 5' and 3' of the conserved heptanucleotide domain had no effect on binding activity. Binding was not affected by manipulation of cellular polyamine levels or by treatment of cells with agents that stimulate ODC biosynthesis. Thus, we have identified a widely distributed cellular protein that binds to a conserved domain within the 5'-UTR of ODC mRNA from many animal species; functional consequences of this binding remain to be determined. PMID:1551914

  13. Serological properties of γA antibodies to Escherichia coli present in human colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, M.; Glynn, A. A.; Lindsay, Margaret; Milne, Celia M.

    1966-01-01

    Antibodies against Esch. coli WF 96 and WF 61 present in human colostrum and serum were fractionated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Using the haemagglutination test it was found that the antibodies present in colostrum were recovered in the fraction containing the bulk of γA-globulin, whereas the antibodies present in serum were recovered in the fraction containing the bulk of γM-globulin. In the presence of human or guinea-pig complement the antibodies present in colostrum did not lyse red cells coated with bacterial polysaccharides whereas the antibodies present in serum were lytic. When the properties of γA and γM antibodies were studied using a bacteriolytic system, it was observed that γA-globulin lysed bacteria only in the presence of both complement and lysozyme; in this respect γAbacterial antibodies behaved differently from γM antibodies which were bacteriolytic in the presence of complement alone, without lysozyme. The effect of treating γA and γM antibodies with 2-mercaptoethanol at neutral pH and of heating at 56° was investigated. PMID:5330427

  14. Outer membrane proteins of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, A; Kleivdal, H; Joergensen, C; Thestrup, H; Jensen, H B

    1997-08-01

    Membranes obtained from whole-cell lysates of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were separated by Triton X-100 extraction. The resulting insoluble fraction was enriched in outer membranes as assessed by electron microscopy and by the content of beta-hydroxy palmitic acid and particulate methane monooxygenase. Major proteins with molecular masses of approximately 27, 40, 46, 59, and 66 kDa were detected by SDS-PAGE of the Triton-X-100-insoluble membranes. MopA, MopB, MopC, MopD, and MopE (Methylococcus outer membrane protein) are proposed to designate these proteins. Several of the Mop proteins exhibited heat-modifiable properties in SDS-PAGE and were influenced by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol in the sample buffer. The 46- and 59-kDa bands migrated as a single high-molecular-mass 95-kDa oligomer under mild denaturing conditions. When reconstituted into black lipid membranes, this oligomer was shown to serve as a channel with an estimated single-channel conductance of 1.4 nS in 1 M KCl. PMID:9238104

  15. Electron transfer with self-assembled copper ions at Au-deposited biomimetic films: mechanistic ‘anomalies’ disclosed by temperature- and pressure-assisted fast-scan voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshtariya, Dimitri E.; Dolidze, Tinatin D.; Tretyakova, Tatyana; van Eldik, Rudi

    2015-06-01

    It has been suggested that electron transfer (ET) processes occurring in complex environments capable of glass transitions, specifically in biomolecules, under certain conditions may experience the medium’s nonlinear response and nonergodic kinetic patterns. The interiors of self-assembled organic films (SAMs) deposited on solid conducting platforms (electrodes) are known to undergo glassy dynamics as well, hence they may also exhibit the abovementioned ‘irregularities’. We took advantage of Cu2+ ions as redox-active probes trapped in the Au-deposited  -COOH-terminated SAMs, either L-cysteine, or 3-mercaptopropionic acid diluted by the inert 2-mercaptoethanol, to systematically study the impact of glassy dynamics on ET using the fast-scan voltammetry technique and its temperature and high-pressure extensions. We found that respective kinetic data can be rationalized within the extended Marcus theory, taking into account the frictionally controlled (adiabatic) mechanism for short-range ET, and complications due to the medium’s nonlinear response and broken ergodicity. This combination shows up in essential deviations from the conventional energy gap (overpotential) dependence and in essentially nonlinear temperature (Arrhenius) and high-pressure patterns, respectively. Biomimetic aspects for these systems are also discussed in the context of recently published results for interfacial ET involving self-assembled blue copper protein (azurin) placed in contact with a glassy environment.

  16. Lactogen receptors in rat Leydig cells: analysis of their structure with bifunctional cross-linking reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Bonifacino, J.S.; Dufau, M.L.

    1985-04-01

    (/sup 125/I)Iodohuman GH was found to bind to receptors with specificity for lactogenic hormones in a Triton X-100 extract from Leydig cell membranes displaying an affinity constant of 3.8 X 10(/sup 9/) M-1 and a binding capacity of 167 fmol/mg protein. Cross-linking of solubilized (/sup 125/I)iodohuman GH-receptor complexes with disuccinimidyl suberate followed by analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol and autoradiography resulted in the appearance of bands with apparent mol wt of 113,000, 103,000, 59,000, and 53,000. The appearance of these bands was prevented by incubation in the presence of lactogenic hormones. By using a two-dimensional electrophoresis technique (first dimension under nonreducing conditions; second dimension under reducing conditions), it was demonstrated that a fraction of the mol wt 59,000 species can be released from the mol wt 103,000 species upon cleavage of disulfide bonds. These results suggest the existence of lactogen receptor species with approximate mol wt of 91,000, 81,000, 37,000, and 31,000 in Triton X-100 extracts from Leydig cell membranes if the contribution of the free hormone (mol wt, 22,000) is subtracted. A fraction of the mol wt 37,000 subunits appears to be contained within the 81,000 species linked through disulfide bonds.

  17. Statistical optimization of thermo-tolerant xylanase activity from Amazon isolated Bacillus circulans on solid-state cultivation.

    PubMed

    Heck, Júlio Xandro; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Hertz, Plinho Francisco; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2006-10-01

    A 2(2) factorial design was performed to find the best conditions of pH and temperature for xylanolytic activity of Bacillus circulans BL53 isolated from the Amazon environment. Solid-state cultivation was carried out on an inexpensive, abundant agro-industrial soybean residue. The central composite design (CCD) used for the analysis of treatment combinations showed that a second-order polynomial regression model was in good agreement with experimental results, with R(2) = 0.9369 (P < 0.05). The maximum activity was obtained at a high temperature (80 degrees C) and over a large pH range (4.0-7.0). Enzymatic activity was maintained in heated extracts up to 50 degrees C, suggesting that the xylanases of B. circulans BL53 are thermo-tolerant biocatalysts, being of interest for industrial processes. The crude enzyme extract hydrolyzed rice straw, sugar cane bagasse and soybean fiber and its activity was stimulated by Co(2+), Fe(3+), and beta-mercaptoethanol but inhibited by Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+) and by EDTA. PMID:16216495

  18. Effects of exogenous materials on pollen tube growth in Lilium longiflorum pistils.

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, P D

    1981-01-01

    With the use of stigmatic exudate or distilled water as carriers, various antimetabolites, inhibitors, and miscellaneous materials were injected into the hollow styles of detached Lilium longiflorum pistils before, at, or after compatible or incompatible pollination. Pollen tube lengths were measured 48 hr after pollination with pollinated styles incubated at 22-23 degrees C. Substances considered inhibitors of protein synthesis in microbial systems significantly retarded both compatible and incompatible pollen tube growth while inhibitors of RNA synthesis tended to significantly inhibit compatible pollen tube growth with less or no effect on incompatible pollen tubes. Application of the inhibitors in stigmatic exudate at or after compatible pollination produced significant results at the lowest concentrations. Significant retardation of pollen tube growth also occurred after injection of 2,4-dinitrophenol, mercaptoethanol, indoleacetic acid, naphthaleneacetic acid, benzyladenine, dimethyl sulfoxide, or potassium or sodium iodide. Pollen tube growth in detached pistils of L. longiflorum may be useful as a bioassay in situ for screening biologically active materials. PMID:7460875

  19. Rapid approach to biobased telechelics through two one-pot thiol-ene click reactions.

    PubMed

    Lluch, Cristina; Ronda, Joan C; Galià, Marina; Lligadas, Gerard; Cádiz, Virginia

    2010-06-14

    The application of environmentally friendly thiol-ene chemistry to the preparation of biobased telechelics is presented in this work. This methodology is based on two one-pot photoinitiated thiol-ene click processes: step-growth polymerization using a 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol and end-group postpolymerization modification with three functional thiols: 2-mercaptoethanol, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. We applied this approach to a potentially 100% biomass-derived monomer, allyl ester of 10-undecenoic acid (UDA). To show the generality and scope of this methodology, a series of well-defined telechelics with molecular weight ranging from 1000-3000 g/mol and hydroxyl, carboxyl, or trimethoxysilyl groups at the polymer terminus were prepared. An exhaustive (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF MS analyses demonstrates the highly end-group fidelity of this methodology being an interesting procedure for the accelerated preparation of telechelics derived from divinyl monomers. UDA-based thelechelic diol prepared using this methodology was reacted with 4,4'-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) and 1,4-butanediol as the chain extender to obtain multiblock poly(ester urethane). PMID:20462176

  20. Screening for stress-resistance mutations in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chick, Wallace S.; Ludwig, Michael; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Kitzenberg, David; Williams, Kristina; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Longevity is correlated with stress resistance in many animal models. However, previous efforts through the boosting of the antioxidant defense system did not extend life span, suggesting that longevity related stress resistance is mediated by other uncharacterized pathways. We have developed a high-throughput platform for screening and rapid identification of novel genetic mutants in the mouse that are stress resistant. Selection for resistance to stressors occurs in mutagenized mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are carefully treated so as to maintain pluripotency for mouse production. Initial characterization of these mutant ES cells revealed mutations in Pigl, Tiam1, and Rffl, among others. These genes are implicated in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis, NADPH oxidase function, and inflammation. These mutants: (1) are resistant to two different oxidative stressors, paraquat and the omission of 2-mercaptoethanol, (2) have reduced levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), (3) are capable of generating live mice, and (4) transmit the stress resistance phenotype to the mice. This strategy offers an efficient way to select for new mutants expressing a stress resistance phenotype, to rapidly identify the causative genes, and to develop mice for in vivo studies. PMID:25250048

  1. Purification and physical chemical characterization of 23S glycoprotein from sea urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) eggs.

    PubMed

    Giga, Y; Ikai, A

    1985-07-01

    A large glycoprotein with a sedimentation coefficient, S(0)20,w, of 23.3S was purified to homogeneity from sea urchin eggs (Anthocidaris crassispina) by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-4B and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The molecular weight of the protein was 700,000 as determined by sedimentation equilibrium. On polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) it showed a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 180,000 or 360,000 in the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, respectively. The protein consisted of four polypeptides of equal molecular weight, which were disulfide bonded in pairs. Its carbohydrate content as determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method was 20% of the total weight. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, circular dichroic spectrum and electron microscopic image are also presented. The protein showed many structural similarities with the previously purified major glycoprotein (MCP) in the coelomic fluid of the same animal in addition to being immunologically cross reactive with it. However, the two proteins were distinct glycoproteins. Their biological functions have not been identified. PMID:4044553

  2. Establishment and characterization of a gonad cell line from half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis pseudomale.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai; Chen, Song-Lin; Gao, Feng-Tao; Li, Hai-Long; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Na; Sha, Zhen-Xia

    2015-06-01

    A new cell line was established from half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis pseudomale gonad (CSPMG). Primary culture was initiated from gonad tissues pieces, and the CSPMG cells were cultured at 24 °C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (1:1) (pH7.0), supplemented with 20 % fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, 2-mercaptoethanol, penicillin and streptomycin. The cultured CSPMG cells, in fibroblast shape, proliferated to 100 % confluency 10 days later and had been subcultured to passage 109. Chromosome analyses indicated that the CSPMG cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with a modal chromosome number of 42, which displayed the normal diploid karyotype of half-smooth tongue sole (2n = 42t, NF = 42). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed CSPMG cells could express gonad somatic cell functional genes Sox9a, Wt1a and weakly germ cell marker gene Vasa, but not male specific gene Dmrt1. Transfection experiment demonstrated that CSPMG cells transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid and small RNA could express green and red fluorescence signals with high transfection efficiency. In conclusion, a continuous CSPMG cell line has been established successfully. The cell line might serve as a valuable tool for studies on the mechanism of sex determination, sex reversal and gonad development in flatfish. PMID:25724869

  3. Purification and characterization of a digestive cysteine proteinase from the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Laycock, M V; Hirama, T; Hasnain, S; Watson, D; Storer, A C

    1989-10-15

    A new cysteine proteinase was isolated from the digestive juice of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The enzyme was purified by a combination of affinity and ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The cysteine proteinase accounted for 80% of the proteolytic activity in the lumen of the hepatopancreas. The most potent heavy-metal inhibitors were Hg, Cu, and Ag ions. Inhibition by organic proteinase inhibitors, including E-64 [L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane] and activation of the enzyme by 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol are characteristic of cysteine proteinases. Several similarities to papain are noted and include the N-terminal sequence, of which 22 of the first 28 amino acids are identical. Some notable differences are the higher Mr of 28,000 compared with 23,350 for papain, and the low isoelectric point (pI 4.5) of the lobster enzyme. The effects of pH and temperature on catalytic activity of the lobster proteinase were studied with benzyloxycarbonylalanine p-nitrophenyl ester as the substrate. The kcat./Km value was effectively temperature-independent between 10 and 60 degrees C. The pH-activity profile for the lobster enzyme revealed four apparent protonation states, of which only two are active. PMID:2597115

  4. Use of 8-azidoguanosine 5'-(gamma-/sup 32/P)triphosphate as a probe of the guanosine 5'-triphosphate binding protein subunits in bovine rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Kohnken, R.E.; Mc Connell, D.G.

    1985-07-02

    In an in vitro incubation, 8-azidoguanosine 5'-(gamma-/sup 32/P)triphosphate ( (gamma-/sup 32/P)-8-azido-GTP) labeled bleached rhodopsin independent of ultraviolet light. Characterization of this labeling indicated that rhodopsin was phosphorylated with (gamma-/sup 32/P)-8-azido-GTP as a phosphate donor. At low concentrations, ATP increased this labeling activity 5-fold. In the same incubation, (gamma-/sup 32/P)-8-azido-GTP also labeled G alpha (Mr 40 000). This labeling was ultraviolet light dependent. G beta (Mr 35 000) was also labeled dependent for the most part upon ultraviolet light, but a smaller component of labeling appeared to result from phosphorylation. Differential labeling of G alpha and G beta was found to vary intricately with experimental conditions, especially prebleaching of rhodopsin, tonicity of the medium, and the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Affinity labeling of G alpha and G beta by (gamma-/sup 32/P)-8-azido-GTP in competition with ATP or GTP was kinetically complex, consistent with possible multiple binding sites for GTP on both subunits. Independent evidence for two or more binding sites on G alpha has been offered by other laboratories, and recently, at least one binding site on G beta and its analogues among the N proteins of adenylate cyclases has been identified.

  5. Glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS production, Ca(2+) and water channel in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, ShanShan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, GenXuan

    2016-03-01

    Sugars act as vital signaling molecules that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the effects of sugars on stomatal movement have been unclear. In our study, we explored the effects of monosaccharides such as glucose and mannose on stomatal aperture. Here, we demonstrate that glucose and mannose trigger stomatal closure in a dose- and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of broad bean (Vicia faba). Pharmacological studies revealed that glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was almost completely inhibited by two reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), was significantly abolished by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), whereas they were hardly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). Furthermore, glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was strongly inhibited by a Ca(2+) channel blocker, LaCl3 , a Ca(2+) chelator, ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and two water channel blockers, HgCl2 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); whereas the inhibitory effects of the water channel blockers were essentially abolished by the reversing agent β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). These results suggest that ROS production mainly via NADPH oxidases, Ca(2+) and water channels are involved in glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure. PMID:26046775

  6. Reversible and irreversible cross-linking of immunoglobulin heavy chains through their carbohydrate residues.

    PubMed Central

    Heimgartner, U; Kozulić, B; Mosbach, K

    1990-01-01

    After periodate oxidation and incubation with a dihydrazide, cross-linking of the two heavy chains of immunoglobulins G from several species proceeds specifically through their oligosaccharides. We have used malonic acid dihydrazide, adipic acid dihydrazide and dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide. The last compound is introduced in this work as a cleavable-carbohydrate-specific cross-linker. It was found that in rabbit and human immunoglobulins the degree of cross-linking was strongly dependent on the oxidation conditions but only very weakly dependent on the concentration and size of the dihydrazides. Papain cleavage of the cross-linked rabbit IgG indicated that the cross-linking occurred predominantly, if not exclusively, in the Fc region, probably through the two glycans linked to Asn-297 in the CH2 domain of each of the two heavy chains. The immunoglobulins from sheep, pig, goat and guinea pig show a comparable cross-linking pattern, indicating that the sugar chains from these immunoglobulins have a spatial structure closely related to that of rabbit and human IgG. When dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide was used as the cross-linker, the cross-link could be cleaved by mercaptoethanol. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2111130

  7. Fimbriae and determination of host species specificity of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, E H; Norman, J M; Hatcher, M D; Bemis, D A

    1993-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, designated CF8 and prepared against fimbrial protein enrichments of Bordetella bronchiseptica 110H, was determined by immunogold electron microscopy to bind to some but not all fimbrial filaments on intact bacterial cells. Comparison of the reactivity of this antibody with that of monoclonal antibody BPF2, which is specific for Bordetella pertussis serotype 2 fimbriae, indicated that CF8 recognizes an epitope similar to that recognized by BPF2. By Western blot (immunoblot), it was determined that monoclonal antibody CF8 does not react with proteins denatured by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate and beta-mercaptoethanol and by boiling for 5 min but that it does recognize fimbrial proteins in their native, nondenatured state. This antibody was used to compare fimbriae between strains of B. bronchiseptica isolated from different species. Strains from pigs, dogs, guinea pigs, and four other species were compared by an enzyme immunoassay. Strains isolated from pigs were found to express significantly more CF8-reactive and B. pertussis serotype 2 cross-reactive fimbriae than strains isolated from guinea pigs. Strains from dogs were more variable in reactivity than those from pigs or guinea pigs. The reactivity with antifimbrial monoclonal antibody CF8 did not correlate with enzyme electromorphotype but did correlate with the host species, suggesting a role for fimbriae in the determination of host species specificity of B. bronchiseptica. Images PMID:8102377

  8. Purification and characterization of a novel chitinase from Trichosanthes dioica seed with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Rahman, Md Musfikur; Tasnim, Shahnima; Karim, Md Rezaul; Khatun, Nazma; Hasan, Imtiaj; Amin, Ruhul; Islam, Shaikh Shohidul; Nurujjaman, Md; Kabir, Ahmad Humayan; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Asaduzzaman, A K M

    2016-03-01

    Chitinases are a group of enzymes that show differences in their molecular structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanism and widely found in organisms like bacteria, yeasts, fungi, arthropods actinomycetes, plants and humans. A novel chitinase enzyme (designated as TDSC) was purified from Trichosanthes dioica seed with a molecular mass of 39±1 kDa in the presence and absence of β-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme was a glycoprotein in nature containing 8% neutral sugar. The N-terminal sequence was determined to be EINGGGA which did not match with other proteins. Amino acid analysis performed by LC-MS revealed that the protein was rich in leucine. The enzyme was stable at a wide range of pH (5.0-11.0) and temperature (30-90 °C). Chitinase activity was little bit inhibited in the presence of chelating agent EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid), urea and Ca(2+). A strong fluorescence quenching effect was found when dithiothreitol and sodium dodecyl sulfate were added to the enzyme. TDSC showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. as tested by MTT assay and disc diffusion method. PMID:26666429

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Mechanoluminescence of ZnS:Mn Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ravi; BiSen, D. P.; Chandra, B. P.

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis and mechanoluminescence (ML) of manganese-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles. Clusters of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were prepared by chemical precipitation, by mixing of solutions of zinc chloride, sodium sulfide, and manganese chloride. Mercaptoethanol (ME) was used as capping agent, to modify the surface of the nanoparticles and prevent their growth. The particle size of the nanocrystals, measured by use of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, was in the range 2-5 nm. The ZnS:Mn nanoparticles were deformed impulsively by dropping a load from a fixed height. The ML intensity of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals increased with increasing mechanical stress i.e. with increasing impact velocity. The impact velocity-dependence of maximum ML intensity, I m, and total ML intensity, I T, are discussed. The effect of crystal size on the ML intensity-time curve is also discussed. ML intensity initially increases with increasing concentration of Mn in the samples, reaches an optimum value at a specific concentration of Mn, then decreases with further increasing concentration of Mn in the nanocrystals. The theory of the ML of nanoparticles is also discussed.

  10. Isolation and analysis of sacculi from Streptococcus sanguis.

    PubMed Central

    Reusch, V M

    1982-01-01

    Sacculi were prepared from Streptococcus sanguis 34 by exhaustive extraction of bacteria with hot 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate-0.5% 2-mercaptoethanol. Lyophilized residue was dissociated by brief sonication to single bodies closely resembling streptococci in phase-contrast microscopic density, staining properties, and morphology. Electron micrographs revealed bodies that contained variable amounts of cellular contents and were bounded by intact cell walls. Chemical analyses of sacculi demonstrated the presence of peptidoglycan, carbohydrate, protein, and phosphate. The hexose content of sacculi varied 10-fold depending upon the composition of the growth medium. When sacculi were subjected to treatment with 5 M LiCl, 8 M urea, 40% phenol (25 degrees C), or dimethyl sulfoxide most of the nitrogen and carbohydrate present was recovered in the insoluble fraction. These data suggest that sacculi contain the cell wall fraction of the extracted bacteria and that most of the carbohydrates and proteins of sacculi are firmly bound to the insoluble fraction, which contains the peptidoglycan matrix. Images PMID:7107558

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a galectin-1 homolog in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuli; Wei, Jingguang; Xu, Meng; Yang, Min; Li, Pingfei; Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    As a member of animal lectin family, galectin has the functions of pathogen recognition, anti-bacteria and anti-virus. In the present study, a galectin-1 homolog (EcGel-1) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcGel-1 is 504 bp, including a 408 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.19 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcGel-1 was constitutively expressed in all analyzed tissues of healthy grouper. The expression of EcGel-1 in the spleen of grouper was differentially up-regulated challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), poly (I:C), and LPS. EcGel-1 was abundantly distributed in the cytoplasm in GS cells. Recombinant EcGel-1(rEcGel-1) protein can make chicken erythrocyte aggregation, and combine with gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in the presence of 2-Mercaptoethanol (β-ME). Taken together, the results showed that EcGel-1 may be an important molecule involved in pathogen recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of grouper. PMID:27109200

  12. Phospholipid transfer from vesicles to high density lipoproteins, catalyzed by human plasma phospholipid transfer protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeny, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) catalyzes the mass transfer of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Partial purification of PLTP yielded proteins with apparent M/sub r/ = 59,000 and 40,000 by SDS-PAGE. PLTP activity was measured by transfer of (/sup 14/C)L-..cap alpha..-dipalmitoyl PC from egg-PC vesicles to HDL. Activity was enhanced at low pH (4.5) upon addition of ..beta..-mercaptoethanol while Ca/sup +2/ and Na/sup +/ had no effect. E/sub act/ for facilitated PC transfer was 18.2 +/- 2 kcal/mol. The donor specificity of PLTP was examined using vesicles containing egg-PC plus cholesterol or sphingomyelin. The fluidity of the donor membrane (measured by fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene) correlated strongly with a decrease in PLTP activity. Phosphatidic acid did not affect activity. Increase in vesicle size reduced activity. The acceptor specificity of PLTP was examined using chemically modified HDL. PLTP activity increased up to 1.7-fold with an initial increase in negative charge and then decreased upon extensive modification. A mechanism is proposed where PLTP binds to vesicls and enhances the diffusion of PC into the medium where it is adsorbed by HDL.

  13. Purification and characterization of a highly stable tyrosinase from Thermomicrobium roseum.

    PubMed

    Kong, K H; Hong, M P; Choi, S S; Kim, Y T; Cho, S H

    2000-04-01

    Tyrosinase, with an isoelectric point at pH 4.9, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermomicrobium roseum. Gel filtration, N-terminal amino acid sequencing and SDS/PAGE analysis indicate that T. roseum tyrosinase is composed of two identical subunits, each with a molecular mass of 43000 Da. The enzyme exhibited high substrate specificity towards catechol, chlorogenic acid, L-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine (L-DOPA) and pyrogallol. The K(m) value of the enzyme for L-DOPA was 0.18 mM. beta-Mercaptoethanol and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate notably inhibited the enzymic activity. The activity of the enzyme was optimal at pH 9.5 and 70 degrees C, and was increased by addition of 1 mM Mg(2+), K(+) or Cu(2+). The enzyme was highly stable against high temperature and guanidine hydrochloride. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was determined to be Asp-Ile-Asn-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Thr-Leu-Pro-Gln-Lys-Leu-Tyr. These facts indicate that T. roseum tyrosinase appears to be distinct from the tyrosinases so far purified from other sources. PMID:10744956

  14. Purification and characterization of a new serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis with specificity for amino acids at P1 and P2 positions.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, A; Yoshida, N; Noda, K; Ito, A

    1995-12-01

    A proteinase was purified 230-fold to apparent homogeneity from culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis by a series of column chromatographies on DE52, DEAE-Toyopearl, Cellulofine GC200M, and Mono-Q, using Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ser-pNA as a substrate. The molecular weight of the proteinase was estimated to be 42,000 by SDS-PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Studies on the substrate specificity with peptide p-nitroanilides and natural peptides revealed that this proteinase preferentially hydrolyzed the peptide bond on the carboxyl-terminal side of either serine or alanine residues at the P1 position and hydrophobic bulky amino acids at P2. It was most active at pH 9.5 for the hydrolysis of Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ser-pNA. The enzyme was inactivated by diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), but not by tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) or by EDTA. Based on the reactivity toward substrates and inhibitors, this enzyme differs from elastase- or subtilisin-like proteinase, hence it is a new type of proteinase with specificity for amino acids at P1 and P2 positions. PMID:8519806

  15. Purification and partial characterization of English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) vitellogenin.

    PubMed

    Roubal, W T; Lomax, D P; Willis, M L; Johnson, L L

    1997-11-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG) was purified by double-step chromatography from plasma of male English sole treated with 17 beta-estradiol. The intact protein appeared to exist as a dimer in two forms of approximately 300 and 320 kDa and had an isoelectric point of 6.63. In SDS-PAGE, it was reduced to a single monomer of approximately 130 kDa. In immunoblotting, the protein showed cross-reactivity with coho salmon VTG antiserum. Native PAGE (sample not treated with the reducing agent mercaptoethanol) and immunoblotting of plasma from control and estradiol-treated male sole and gravid female sole demonstrated that the putative English sole VTG was normally female specific and estradiol inducible in males. It was immunocytochemically localized in liver and ovary of English sole, rock sole and starry flounder, using polyclonal antiserum to the purified protein from the estradiol-treated male English sole. The protein was characterized as a phospholipoglycoprotein by native PAGE, staining the gels for phosphorus with methyl green, for lipid with Sudan black B and for carbohydrate by an improved periodic-acid Fuchsin sulfite method. The amino acid composition of the putative VTG was generally similar to that of VTGs from other teleosts, with the non-polar amino acids alanine, valine, leucine and isoleucine accounting for one-third of the total amino acids present. However, English sole vitellogenin contained a higher proportion of leucine and a lower proportion of glycine than most other teleost vitellogenins isolated to date. PMID:9467873

  16. Isolation and characterisation of dipeptidyl peptidase IV from Prevotella loescheii ATCC 15930.

    PubMed

    Koreeda, Y; Hayakawa, M; Ikemi, T; Abiko, Y

    2001-08-01

    A proline-specific dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5), was purified from a cell sonicate soluble fraction of Prevotella loescheii ATCC 15930 by sequential column chromatography. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was estimated as 160 kDa by high-pressure liquid gel filtration column chromatography and unheated sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The subunit molecular mass was 80 kDa when the enzyme was heated to 100 degrees C in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol before SDS-PAGE, suggesting that the native enzyme consists of two identical subunits and is folded in 2% SDS. The optimum pH, with glycyl-prolyl-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide as the substrate, was 8.0; the isoelectric point was 5.2. Purified enzyme showed a strong preference for dipeptide substrates containing proline and, less efficiently, alanine in the P1 position. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), and serine proteinase inhibitor di-isopropylfluorophosphate. PMID:11389867

  17. Ternary DNA chip based on a novel thymine spacer group chemistry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanli; Yildiz, Umit Hakan; Peh, Jaime; Liedberg, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A novel thymine-based surface chemistry suitable for label-free electrochemical DNA detection is described. It involves a simple two-step sequential process: immobilization of 9-mer thymine-terminated probe DNAs followed by backfilling with 9-mer thymine-based spacers (T9). As compared to commonly used organic spacer groups like 2-mercaptoethanol, 3-mercapto-1-propanol and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol, the 9-mer thymine-based spacers offer a 10-fold improvement in discriminating between complementary and non-complementary target hybridization, which is due mainly to facilitated transport of the redox probes through the probe-DNA/T9 layers. Electrochemical measurements, complemented with Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-D) binding analyses, reveal that optimum selectivity between complementary and non-complementary hybridization is obtained for a sensing surface prepared using probe-DNA and backfiller T9 at equimolar concentration (1:1). At this particular ratio, the probe-DNAs are preferentially oriented and easily accessible to yield a sensing surface with favorable hybridization and electron transfer characteristics. Our findings suggest that oligonucleotide-based spacer groups offer an attractive alternative to short organic thiol spacers in the design of future DNA biochips. PMID:25465760

  18. Stripping of proteins from submitochondrial particles of rat skeletal muscle or bovine heart by chemical uncouplers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, E W; Huzel, N J

    1983-09-01

    Proteins of similar molecular weights were stripped from submitochondrial particles (A particles) of rat skeletal muscle or bovine heart by treatment with classical chemical uncouplers at 0 degrees C as with Ca2+. Proteins released included two of high molecular weight (about 43 000 and 30 000), an ATPase inhibitor protein (IF1) as well as the Ca2+-binding lipoprotein that has previously been shown to protect the mitochondrial ATPase complex against inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). The latter two proteins were purified to a high degree. The crude fraction obtained by stripping with chemical uncouplers also contained traces of an additional protein (relative mass (Mr) approximately 13 000) which was also found upon aging of the crude fraction stripped by Ca2+. It was not found in aged preparations of either purified IF1 or the lipoprotein, but appeared when IF1 and the lipoprotein were mixed and aged together. Pretreatment of the mixture with 2-mercaptoethanol prior to electrophoresis did not remove the hybrid. More phospholipid was stripped from A particles by chemical uncouplers than by Ca2+ but less protein was stripped. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, and cardiolipin were identified in the phospholipid fractions. PMID:6226347

  19. [Study of the topology of the active center of glycosidases of Aspergillus niger].

    PubMed

    Borzova, N V; Varbanets', L D

    2004-01-01

    Activity of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase and alpha-galactosidase isolated from the culture medium of micromycete Aspergillus niger v. Tiegh F-16694 has been studied as affected by anions, cations and specific chemical reagents (n-chlormercurybenzoate, L-cysteine, dithiotreitol, beta-mercaptoethanol, EDTA, o-phenanthroline, sodium azide, hydrogen peroxide). It has been established that silver ions noncompetitively inhibit alpha-galactosidase at pH 5.2, the inhibition constant (Ki) being 2.5 x 10(-4) M. Galactose in concentration of 1-5 mM does not protect the enzyme from the negative action of silver ions, but this inhibitory effect is almost completely removed by the corresponding concentrations of L-cysteine. The same noncompetitive character was inherent in the inhibition of alpha-galactosidase reaction by mercury ions and n-chlormercurybenzoat (Ki is 4.5 x 10(-6) and 1.8 x 10(-4), respectively). The importance of sulphydryl groups for the support of active comformation of alpha-galactosidase molecule was established on the basis of inhibition and kinetic analysis. It has been shown that the enzyme molecule does not contain the groups which include metal atoms. PMID:15554293

  20. Isolation of full-length RNA from a thermophilic cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Luo, X Z; Stevens, S E

    1997-11-01

    Isolation of full-length mRNA without degradation is critical in the study of in vivo gene regulation and transcription, cDNA synthesis and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. It is particularly difficult to isolate full-length mRNA from thermophiles, which have higher turnover rates of mRNA degradation. Mastigocladus laminosus is a thermophilic heterocystous cyanobacterium. The assay of M. laminosus cell lysates showed that RNase activity was high and was resistant to the conventional guanidine thiocyanate and 2-mercaptoethanol denaturation methods. The mRNA isolated by several conventional methods was completely degraded. A method was developed to purify full-length mRNA by a combination of fast cooling, vanadyl-ribonucleoside-complex inhibition, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extraction, lithium chloride precipitation and the lysing of cells with the French Press. This method produced high-quality, full-length mRNA in high yield. Purified mRNA was suitable for Northern blotting, cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR. This method could be applicable to other thermophiles in which the RNase activity is high and/or is resistant to guanidine thiocyanate. PMID:9383558

  1. Production, purification and characterization of cholesterol oxidase from a newly isolated Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Niwas, Ram; Singh, Vineeta; Singh, Rajbir; Tripathi, Divya; Tripathi, C K M

    2013-11-01

    Cholesterol oxidase production (COD) by a new isolate characterized as Streptomyces sp. was studied in different production media and fermentation conditions. Individual supplementation of 1 % maltose, lactose, sucrose, peptone, soybean meal and yeast extract enhanced COD production by 80-110 % in comparison to the basal production medium (2.4 U/ml). Supplementation of 0.05 % cholesterol (inducer) enhanced COD production by 150 %. COD was purified 14.3-fold and its molecular weight was found to be 62 kDa. Vmax (21.93 μM/min mg) and substrate affinity Km (101.3 μM) suggested high affinity of the COD for cholesterol. In presence of Ba(2+) and Hg(2+) the enzyme activity was inhibited while Cu(2+) enhanced the activity nearly threefold. Relative activity of the enzyme was found maximum in triton X-100 whereas sodium dodecyl sulfate inactivated the enzyme. The enzyme activity was also inhibited by the thiol-reducing reagents like Dithiothreitol and β-mercaptoethanol. The COD showed moderate stability towards all organic solvents except acetone, benzene and chloroform. The activity increased in presence of isopropanol and ethanol. The enzyme was most active at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. This organism is not reported to produce COD. PMID:23700127

  2. Lipophosphoramidate-based bipolar amphiphiles: their syntheses and transfection properties.

    PubMed

    Berchel, Mathieu; Le Gall, Tony; Lozach, Olivier; Haelters, Jean-Pierre; Montier, Tristan; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain

    2016-03-14

    Six new cationic bolaamphiphiles (also called bipolar amphiphiles, bolaform amphiphiles, or bolalipids) were readily prepared by a thiol-ene click reaction that engaged a mercapto-alcohol (mercapto-ethanol or mercapto-hexanol) and a cationic based lipophosphoramidate. The cationic lipophosphoramidates contain two lipid chains that end in an alkene group and a selected cationic polar head group (trimethylammonium, dimethyl hydroxyethyl ammonium, or methylimidazolium). These compounds were formulated in water (with or without DOPE as a colipid) to produce supramolecular aggregates. These aggregates, before (i.e. bolasomes) and after (i.e. bolaplexes) mixing with plasmid DNA (pDNA) at various charge ratios, were characterized with regard to their sizes and zeta potentials. In the case of bolasomes, the suspensions were unstable since precipitation occurred after only a few hours at room temperature. On the other hand, bolaplex formulations exhibited clearly a better colloidal stability. Then, the gene delivery properties of the cationic bolasomes were investigated using two human-derived epithelial cell lines (A549 and 16HBE). Compared to the commercially available lipofection reagent (Lipofectamine), most of the cationic bolaamphiphiles were able to efficiently transfect these cells when they were formulated with DOPE in a 1 : 1 molar ratio. We report herein that bolaamphiphiles possessing a trimethylammonium or a dimethyl hydroxyethyl ammonium head group were the most efficient in terms of transfection efficiency while exhibiting no significant cytotoxicity. PMID:26864681

  3. Isolation of a psychrotrophic Exiguobacterium sp. SKPB5 (MTCC 7803) and characterization of its alkaline protease.

    PubMed

    Kasana, Ramesh C; Yadav, Sudesh K

    2007-03-01

    Out of nine psychrotrophic bacterial strains isolated from cold environments of the Western Himalayas, SKPB5 was selected for protease purification and characterization because it had the largest zone of clearance on plate assay. On the basis of the phenotypic and biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, isolate was identified as Exiguobacterium sp. SKPB5. The protease was purified near to homogeneity with a purification fold of 7.1, and its molecular weight was determined to be 36 kDa. The enzyme exhibited maximum stability at 50 degrees C and an optimal pH of 8.0. Metal ions Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+ enhanced the enzyme activity, whereas Cu2+ had no effect. Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid did not show any effect on the activity of the enzyme, whereas a 20% increase in activity was observed when it was incubated in presence of reducing agents such as beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol. This suggests that the protease isolated from psychrotrophic Exiguobacterium sp. SKPB5 belongs to the cysteine family. The results highlight the relevance of unexplored microbes from cold environments of Western Himalayas for the isolation of protease enzymes active at wide range of temperature and pH. PMID:17294327

  4. Determination of mercury compounds in fish by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-vapor generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Chwei-Sheng; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Kumar Danadurai, K. Suresh

    2001-07-01

    A method employing a vapor generation system and LC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) is presented for the determination of mercury in biological tissues. An open vessel microwave digestion system was used to extract the mercury compounds from the sample matrix. The efficiency of the mobile phase, a mixture of L-cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol, was evaluated for LC separation of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)], methylmercury (methyl-Hg) and ethylmercury (ethyl-Hg). The sensitivity, detection limits and repeatability of the liquid chromatography (LC) ICP-MS system with a vapor generator were comparable to, or better than, that of an LC-ICP-MS system with conventional pneumatic nebulization, or other sample introduction techniques. The experimental detection limits for various mercury species were in the range of 0.05-0.09 ng ml -1 Hg, based on peak height. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury compounds in a swordfish sample purchased from the local market. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing a marine biological certified reference material (DORM-2, NRCC).

  5. Humoral immune responses in foetal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, K J; Morris, B

    1978-01-01

    A total of fifty-two foetal sheep between 49 and 126 days gestation were injected with polymeric and monomeric flagellin, dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin, chicken red blood cells, ovalbumin, ferritin, chicken gamma-globulin and the somatic antigens of Salmonella typhimurium in a variety of combinations. Immune responses were followed in these animals by taking serial blood samples from them through indwelling vascular cannulae and measuring the circulating titres of antibody. Of the antigens tested, ferritin induced immune responses in the youngest foetuses. A short time later in gestation, the majority of foetuses responded to chicken red blood cells, polymeric flagellin, monomeric flagellin and dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin. Only older foetuses responded regularly to chicken gamma-globulin and ovalbumin. However, antibodies to all these antigens were first detected over the relatively short period of development between 64 and 82 days gestation and this made it difficult to define any precise order in the development of immune responsiveness. Of the antigens tested only the somatic antigens of S. typhimurium failed to induce a primary antibody response during foetal life. The character and magnitude of the antibody responses in foetuses changed throughout in utero development. Both the total amount of antibody produced and the duration of the response increased with foetal age. Foetuses younger than 87 days gestation did not synthesize 2-mercaptoethanol resistant antibodies or IgG1 immunoglobulin to any of the antigens tested, whereas most foetuses older than this regularly did so. PMID:711249

  6. Development of high refractive ZnS/PVP/PDMAA hydrogel nanocomposites for artificial cornea implants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanyuan; Su, Kai; Chan-Park, Mary B; Wu, Hong; Wang, Dongan; Xu, Rong

    2014-03-01

    A series of high refractive index (RI) ZnS/PVP/PDMAA hydrogel nanocomposites containing ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized via a simple ultraviolet-light-initiated free radical co-polymerization method. The average diameter of the ZnS NPs is ∼ 3 nm and the NPs are well dispersed and stabilized in the PVP/PDMAA hydrogel matrix up to a high content of 60 wt.% in the hydrogel nanocomposites. The equilibrium water content of ZnS/PVP/PDMAA hydrogel nanocomposites varied from 82.0 to 66.8 wt.%, while the content of mercaptoethanol-capped ZnS NPs correspondingly varied from 30 to 60 wt.%. The resulting nanocomposites are clear and transparent and their RIs were measured to be as high as 1.58-1.70 and 1.38-1.46 in the dry and hydrated states, respectively, which can be tuned by varying the ZnS NPs content. In vitro cytotoxicity assays suggested that the introduction of ZnS NPs added little cytotoxicity to the PVP/PDMAA hydrogel and all the hydrogel nanocomposites exhibited minimal cytotoxicity towards common cells. The hydrogel nanocomposites implanted in rabbit eyes can be well tolerated over 3 weeks. Hence, the high RI ZnS/PVP/PDMAA hydrogel nanocomposites with adjustable RIs developed in this work might potentially be a candidate material for artificial corneal implants. PMID:24374324

  7. Studies on canine bone marrow long-term culture: effect of stem cell factor.

    PubMed

    Neuner, E; Schumm, M; Schneider, E M; Guenther, W; Kremmer, E; Vogl, C; Büttner, M; Thierfelder, S; Kolb, H J

    1998-02-16

    Long-term culture of canine marrow cells allows in vitro studies of the hematopoietic system of the dog and characterization of early progenitor cells. Colonies of fresh marrow cells grew equally good in both agar or methylcellulose supplemented with fetal calf serum, while colonies of long-term cultures required agar-based medium containing human serum. Optimum colony growth was obtained when stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were used as growth stimuli of colony forming units (CFU). Similar results were achieved with several cell culture media. Addition of hydrocortisone to long-term cultures improved clonogenic growth of cultured cells. Addition of 2-mercaptoethanol had no effect. Strong differences were observed in long-term culture with different horse serum lots and the addition of fetal calf serum to long-term culture suppressed CFU growth of cultured cells. Recharging of cultures with fresh marrow cells on day 7 of culture improved CFU growth only in the following week but had little effect on the outcome. Adding SCF to long-term cultures led to differentiation of more primitive cells and destruction of the stromal layer. Investigation of purified and cultured cell populations was possible when preestablished long-term cultures as stromal layers were used. Loss of long-term culture-initiating ability could be demonstrated in this system with lineage negative marrow cells expanded ex vivo with SCF and GM-CSF. PMID:9613468

  8. Purification from Bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom of a fibrino(geno)lytic enzyme with esterolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lôbo de Araújo, A; Donato, J L; Bon, C

    1998-05-01

    Bothrops lanceolatus venom has high caseinolytic, phospholipasic, esterolytic and hemorrhagic activities. In spite of having no coagulant effect on plasma, this venom contains a thrombin-like enzyme. Using gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatographies, we have purified an esterolytic fraction (F-II-1a) from this venom with a protein yield of 4% and a 58% recovery in enzyme activity. SDS-PAGE in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol showed that the enzyme is a single chain polypeptide with a MW=38,100. Immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis of fraction F-II-1a against serum from horses immunized with B. lanceolatus venom and against rabbit antiserum prepared using fraction F-II-1a both showed a single immunoprecipitin line. The Km and Vmax values for TAME hydrolysis were 0.85 mM and 38.6 micromol/min/mg, respectively. The esterolytic activity was completely inhibited by PMSF (10 mM) but not by EDTA (20 mM). Fraction F-II-1a hydrolyzed the alpha and beta chains of fibrinogen. Degradation of the alpha chain occurred within 10 min while that of the beta-chain was slower. The enzyme had no effect on the gamma-chain even after 4 h of hydrolysis. PMID:9655635

  9. Purification and characterization of a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer-de-lance) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Stroka, Alessandra; Donato, José L; Bon, Cassian; Hyslop, Stephen; de Araújo, Albetiza Lôbo

    2005-03-15

    Bothrops snake venoms contain metalloproteinases that contribute to the local effects seen after envenoming. In this work, a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase (BlaH1) was purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops lanceolatus by a combination of gel filtration, affinity (metal chelating) and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The hemorrhagin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and had a molecular mass of 28 kDa that was unaltered by treatment with beta-mercaptoethanol. BlaH1 gave a single band in immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting using commercial bothropic antivenom. BlaH1 had hemorrhagic, caseinolytic, fibrinogenolytic, collagenolytic and elastinolytic activities, but no phospholipase A(2) activity. The hemorrhagic and caseinolytic activities were inhibited by EDTA, indicating that they were metal ion-dependent. In contrast, aprotinin, benzamidine and PMSF did not affect these activities. The caseinolytic activity of BlaH1 had a pH optimum of 8.0 and was stable in solution at up to 40 degrees C; activity was completely lost at > or =70 degrees C. The hemorrhagic activity was neutralized by commercial bothropic antivenom. These properties suggest that this new hemorrhagin belongs to class P-I snake venom metalloproteinases. PMID:15733562

  10. ELISA versus Conventional Methods of Diagnosing Endemic Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Mantur, Basappa; Parande, Aisha; Amarnath, Satish; Patil, Giridhar; Walvekar, Ravindra; Desai, Arun; Parande, Mahantesh; Shinde, Rupali; Chandrashekar, Masiyappa; Patil, Satish

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic value of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated when blood specimens of 92 patients suspected of brucellosis underwent the ELISA (IgM and IgG), standard tube agglutination (SAT), and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) tests and blood cultures; 38 sera from non-brucellosis patients and 34 sera from blood donors were also subjected to ELISA, SAT, and 2-ME tests. SAT was able to pinpoint only 23 (25%), whereas ELISA confirmed the etiology in 56 (60.9%; P < 0.001) patients with brucellosis, including 31 culture-confirmed cases. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 100% and 71.31%, respectively. Because they were confirmed by ELISA, the diagnosis could never be excluded with SAT in 33 cases. ELISA has been found to be more sensitive in acute (28% higher sensitivity; P < 0.02) and chronic (55% higher sensitivity; P < 0.01) cases. For accurate diagnosis in suspected brucellosis cases detection, we recommend both ELISA IgM and IgG tests. ELISA IgG and 2-ME tests seem to be promising tools in judging prognosis. PMID:20682874

  11. Purification and Properties of Flavin- and Molybdenum-Containing Aldehyde Oxidase from Coleoptiles of Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, T.; Saito, E.; Ono, N.; Yamamoto, N.; Sato, M.

    1996-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO; EC 1.2.3.1) that could oxidize indole-3-acetaldehyde into indole-3-acetic acid was purified approximately 2000-fold from coleoptiles of 3-d-old maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme was about 300 kD as estimated by gel-filtration column chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the enzyme was composed of 150-kD subunits. It contained flavin adenine dinucleotide, iron, and molybdenum as prosthetic groups and had absorption peaks in the visible region (300-600 nm). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide and metals in plant AO. Other aromatic aldehydes such as indole-3-aldehyde and benzaldehyde also served as good substrates, but N-methylnicotinamide, a good substrate for animal AO, was not oxidized. 2-Mercaptoethanol, p-chloromercu-ribenzoate, and iodoacetate partially inhibited the activity, but well-known inhibitors of animal AO, such as menadione and estradiol, caused no reduction in activity. These results indicate that, although maize AO is similar to animal enzymes in molecular mass and cofactor components, it differs in substrate specificity and susceptibility to inhibitors. Immunoblotting analysis with mouse polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified maize AO showed that the enzyme was relatively rich in the apical region of maize coleoptiles. The possible role of this enzyme is discussed in relation to phytohormone biosynthesis in plants. PMID:12226218

  12. A new post-column reactor-laser induced fluorescence detector for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Liling

    1996-01-02

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), a powerful separation method based on the differential migration of charged species under the influence of an electric field, has been widely used for separations covering from small ions to big biomolecules. Chapter 1 describes the method, then discusses detection of the separated analytes by laser induced fluorescence and by chemical derivatization, and the use of O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) as a post-column reagent. Chapter 2 describes a post-column reactor which uses two narrow bore capillaries connected coaxially. This reactor differs from other coaxial reactors in terms of capillary dimensions, reagent flow control, ease of construction and most importantly, better limits of detection. The derivatization reagent is electroosmotically driven into the reaction capillary and the reagent flow rate is independently controlled by a high voltage power supply. Amino acids, amines and proteins, derivatized by OPA/2-mercaptoethanol using this post-column reactor coupled with LIF detection, show low attomole mass limits of detection, and for the first time, the authors demonstrate single cell capability with a post-column derivatization scheme. The single cell capability shows that this reactor could find applications in assaying non-fluorescent or electrochemically inactive components in individual biological cells in the future.

  13. Metal ion dependence of a heat-modifiable protein from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, J C; Ou, J T

    1977-01-01

    One heat-modifiable protein of Escherichia coli outer membrane does not completely change to the high-temperature form in the presence of magnesium ion in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution. When the metal ion complexing reagents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, phosphate ion, hydroxyl ion, or the competitive cations Zn2+ or Ca2+ are added to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized sample of outer membrane, and then the sample is heated to 100 degrees C and recooled to room temperature, the protein is almost completely converted to the high-temperature form. In control samples, or if sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, or manganous chloride are added to these samples and treated the same way, a large amount of the low-temperature form of the protein is preserved. beta-Mercaptoethanol additions gave the same results as the metal ion complexing reagents and may owe its activity in these solutions to metal-binding activity and not to its role as a reducing reagent. We concluded that magnesium ion may be involved with stabilization of the low-temperature form of the protein either by directly binding the magnesium or by mediating interaction with other components of the membrane. Images PMID:410782

  14. Heterogeneity of collagens in rabbit cornea: type VI collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Cintron, C.; Hong, B.S.

    1988-05-01

    Normal adult rabbit corneas were digested with 5% pepsin and their collagens extracted with acetic acid. Collagen extracts were fractionated by differential salt precipitation. The 2.5 M NaCl fraction was then redissolved with tris buffer and precipitated with sodium acetate. The precipitate contained a high-molecular-weight disulfide-bonded aggregate which, upon reduction with mercaptoethanol, was converted into three distinct polypeptides having molecular weights between 45 and 66 Kd. These physical characteristics, together with the susceptibility of these polypeptides to collagenase and their amino acid composition, identified the high molecular weight aggregate as type VI collagen. Corneas from neonate rabbits and adult corneas containing 2-week-old scars were organ cultured in the presence of (/sup 14/C) glycine to incorporate radiolabel into collagen. Tissues were digested with 0.02% pepsin and their collagens extracted with formic acid. The total radioactivity of the extracts and tissue residues was determined before the collagens were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Radioactive collagen polypeptides bands were then stained with Coomassie blue, processed for fluorography, and analyzed by densitometry. The results show that: (1) type VI collagen is synthesized by neonate corneas and healing adult corneas; (2) it is not readily solubilized from either corneal tissue by 0.02% pepsin digestion and formic acid extraction; and (3) the proportion of type VI collagen deposited in scar tissue is markedly lower than that found in neonate corneas.

  15. Proteases from Canavalia ensiformis: Active and Thermostable Enzymes with Potential of Application in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Rayane Natshe; Gozzini Barbosa, Suellen Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of leaves, seeds, roots, and stem from a tropical legume, C. ensiformis, were prepared employing buffers and detergent in aqueous solution. Leaf extracts had the highest protein content and the most pronounced peptidase activity with optimal pH in the neutral to alkaline range. All extracts exhibited peaks of activity at various pH values, suggesting the presence of distinctive classes of proteases. N-α-Tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester hydrolysis was maximal at 30°C to 60°C and peptidase activity from all extracts presented very good thermal stability after 24 h incubation at 70°C. C. ensiformis proteases exhibited molecular masses of about 200–57, 40–37, and 20–15 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. These enzymes cleaved hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin at different levels. Serine and metalloproteases are the major proteases in C. ensiformis extracts, modulated by divalent cations, stable at 1% of surfactant Triton X-100 and at different concentrations of the reducing agent β-mercaptoethanol. Thus, C. ensiformis expresses a particular set of proteases in distinctive organs with high activity and stability, making this legume an important source of proteases with biotechnological potential.

  16. Purification and characterization of cell suspensions peroxidase from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouadio, N'guessan Eugène Jean Parfait; Niamké, Sébastien; Kouadio, Yatty Justin; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2009-06-01

    Two peroxidases, cPOD-I and rPOD-II, have been isolated and purified from cotton cell suspension and their biochemical characteristics studied. rPOD-II from R405-2000, a non-embryogenic cultivar, has higher activity than cPOD-I derived from Coker 312, which developed an embryogenic structure. The cPOD-I and rPOD-II had molecular mass of 39.1 and 64 kDa respectively, as determined by SDS-PAGE. Both enzymes showed high efficiency of interaction with the guaiacol at 25 mM. The optimal pH for cPOD-I and rPOD-II activity was 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. The enzyme had an optimum temperature of 25 degrees C and was relatively stable at 20-30 degrees C. The isoenzymes were highly inhibited by ascorbic acid, dithiothreitol, sodium metabisulfite, and beta-mercaptoethanol. Their activities were highly enhanced by Al(3+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+), and Ni(2+), but they were moderately inhibited by Mn(2+) and K(+). The enzyme lost 50% to 62% of its activity in the presence of Zn(2+) and Hg(2+). PMID:18649146

  17. Purification and characterization of Microcystis aeruginosa (freshwater cyanobacterium) lectin.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Jimbo, M; Sakai, R; Muramoto, K; Kamiya, H

    1998-03-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa, strain M228, a laboratory culture of freshwater cyanobacterium, showed hemagglutinating activity against rabbit, horse and human ABO erthrocytes. Crossed absorption tests revealed the presence of a single type of lectin in the extract of M228 strain cells. The lectin, termed MAL, was purified in combination with the affinity chromatography on acid-treated agarose gel and the gel permeation chromatography in an electrophoretically pure form. MAL was a glycoprotein containing 7.8% neutral sugars and was composed of a single polypeptide having a molecular weight of 57 kDa. Isoelectric point was estimated to be pH 6.4. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited effectively by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and by glycoproteins. D-galactose and lactose also showed moderate inhibitory activity. The destruction of the hemagglutinating activity by a 2-mercaptoethanol treatment suggests the presence of intra-chain disulfide bond(s) essential for the activity in the molecule. The sequence of the amino-terminal region of MAL was determined as Val-Leu-Ala-Ser-Leu-Val-Ser-Thr-Ser-Gln-Ala-Gly-Ser-Leu-Glu-Leu-Leu- Ala [corrected]. PMID:9734343

  18. A serological diagnostic survey for Brucella canis infection in Turkish patients with Brucellosis-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sayan, Murat; Erdenlig, Sevil; Stack, Judy; Kilic, Selcuk; Guducuoglu, Huseyin; Aksoy, Yavuz; Baklan, Ayhan; Etiler, Nilay

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of Brucella canis infection in humans is unknown in Turkey. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B. canis infection in human sera obtained from six regions in Turkey and comparatively evaluated the results obtained by agglutination-based techniques using standardized antigens made from B. canis. The patients (n = 1,746) presented with clinical symptoms that were similar to those of brucellosis. All patients who tested negative in the Rose Bengal test for the smooth Brucella strains (abortus, melitensis, and suis) were screened for evidence of B. canis infection using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT), the microagglutination test (MAT), and the 2-mercaptoethanol RSAT test (2ME-RSAT). Of the samples tested, 157 (8.9%), 68 (3.8%), and 66 (3.7%) were positive for B. canis, as determined by RSAT, MAT, and 2ME-RSAT, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RSAT were 100%, 94.6%, 42%, and 100%, respectively, and of MAT were 100%, 99.9%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. We recommend the routine use of MAT and 2ME-RSAT to check the sera of all patients with symptoms of brucellosis who are negative for brucellosis using a smooth Brucella antigen. PMID:22116333

  19. Isolation and characterization of an inducible NAD-dependent butyraldehyde dehydrogenase from clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, W.; Duerre, P.

    1996-12-31

    A NAD-dependent butyraldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD) has been purified from C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 and DSM 173 1. This key enzyme of butanol production, catalyzing the conversion of butyryl-CoA to butyraldehyde, was induced shortly before the onset of butanol production and proved to be oxygen-sensitive. A one step purification procedure on reactive green 19 allowed to purify the enzyme to homogeneity. The purified protein was found to be extremely unstable and could only partially be stabilized by addition of mercaptoethanol and storage below -20{degrees}C. The enzyme subunit had a molecular mass of 39.5 kDa. In the reverse reaction (butyryl-CoA-forming) the apparent pH optimum was 9.75 and Vmax was significantly higher with butyraldehyde and propionaldehyde than with acetaldehyde. BAD could also use NADP+, but NAD+ was the preferred coenzyme for the reverse reaction. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the C. acetobutylicurn DSM 792 protein showed high homology to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAP), especially to the protein of C. pasteurianum. Genomic libraries of C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 were screened by hybridization using PCR-generated heterologous probes encoding the gap gene of C. pasteurianum. Sequence analysis of the positive clones revealed high homology, but no identity to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the butyraldehyde dehydrogenase. Thus, BAD from C. acetobutylicum is distinctly different from other reported aldehyde dehydrogenases with butyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

  20. The Zeta Potential of Surface-Functionalized Metallic Nanorod Particles in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, G M; Rose, K A; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Chuang, F S; Sha, M Y; Chakarova, G; Penn, S G

    2007-05-07

    Metallic nanoparticles suspended in aqueous solutions, and functionalized with chemical and biological surface coatings, are important elements in basic and applied nanoscience research. Many applications require an understanding of the electrokinetic or colloidal properties of such particles. In this paper we describe the results of experiments to measure the zeta potential of metallic nanorod particles in aqueous saline solutions, including the effects of pH, ionic strength, metallic composition, and surface functionalization state. Particle substrates tested include gold, silver, and palladium monometallic particles as well as gold/silver bimetallic particles. Surface functionalization conditions included 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), mercaptoethanol (ME), and mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), as well as MUA layers subsequently derivatized with proteins. Zeta potential data for typical charge-stabilized polystyrene particles are also presented for comparison. Experimental data are compared with theory. The results of these studies are useful in predicting and controlling the aggregation, adhesion, and transport of functionalized metallic nanoparticles within microfluidic devices and other systems.

  1. Comparison in effect of different metal ions, pH and reducing agent on the protease activity in human hyper mature and mature cataract

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Amtul Jamil; Sami, Amtul Naseer; Kanwal, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to isolate and characterize the protease activity of human eye lens sample of mature and hyper mature cataract. Samples were collected just after surgery of the cataract lens and were stored at −20 °C. The total protein extract was isolated from 5 samples in each case (mature and hyper mature cataract) and clear supernatant obtained after centrifugation was used as an enzyme source. The optimum pH for the proteases of mature cataract was 7.5 while the proteases of hyper mature cataract were recorded for maximum activity at pH 5.5 and 7.5. The optimum temperature for both enzyme sources was 50 °C. Effect of different metal ions such as potassium, lead, silver, zinc and borate was studied. In each case protease activity was increased. Reducing agent e.g. β mercaptoethanol also caused an increase in activity indicating the involvement of sulfhydryl groups. Protease activity was also located on agar plates. PMID:17657864

  2. Opposing Effects of Bacitracin on Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Infection: Enhancement of Binding and Entry and Inhibition of Endosomal Penetration

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Janice A.; Deymier, Martin J.; Bronnimann, Matthew P.; Ozbun, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Cell invasion by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is a complex process relying on multiple host cell factors. Here we describe an investigation into the role of cellular protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) by studying the effects of the commonly used PDI inhibitor bacitracin on HPV16 infection. Bacitracin caused an unusual time-dependent opposing effect on viral infection. Enhanced cellular binding and entry were observed at early times of infection, while inhibition was observed at later times postentry. Bacitracin was rapidly taken up by host cells and colocalized with HPV16 at late times of infection. Bacitracin had no deleterious effect on HPV16 entry, capsid disassembly, exposure of L1/L2 epitopes, or lysosomal trafficking but caused a stark inhibition of L2/viral DNA (vDNA) endosomal penetration and accumulation at nuclear PML bodies. γ-Secretase has recently been implicated in the endosomal penetration of L2/vDNA, but bacitracin had no effect on γ-secretase activity, indicating that blockage of this step occurs through a γ-secretase-independent mechanism. Transient treatment with the reductant β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) was able to partially rescue the virus from bacitracin, suggesting the involvement of a cellular reductase activity in HPV16 infection. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of cellular PDI and the related PDI family members ERp57 and ERp72 reveals a potential role for PDI and ERp72 in HPV infection. PMID:22345461

  3. Tumor metastases and cell-mediated immunity in a model system in DBA/2 mice. VIII. Expression and shedding of Fc gamma receptors on metastatic tumor cell variants.

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, V; Jacobs, W

    1979-01-01

    The expression of receptors for the Fc portion of IgG immunoglobin molecules was studied on tumor cell lines with high and low metastatic capacity. Two tumor cell lines from DBA/2 mice that had high metastatic activity, ESb and MDAY-D2, contained a high percentage of Fc receptor positive cells, as detected in a rosette assay with IgG antibody-coated erythrocytes (EA). In contrast, the low metastatic parental line Eb, from which ESb was derived, contained only a low percentage of EA-rosette-forming cells. ESb ascites tumor cells adapted to tissue culture in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) had a high expression of Fc receptors, whereas a cell line adapted to tissue culture in the absence of 2ME had a low expression of Fc receptors. "Soluble" Fc receptors were detectable by their ability to bind to EA and to cause blocking of rosette formation. They were found to be present in fluids from tumor-bearing animals, such as serum and cell-free ascites. Even animals with an ascites tumor of the low-metastatic line Eb contained "soluble" Fc receptors. The results are discussed with regard to their possible significance for tumor metastasis. PMID:522481

  4. Synthesis, characterization and thermoluminescence studies of Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chandrakar, Raju Kumar; Baghel, R N; Chandra, B P

    2016-03-01

    ZnS:Mn nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Capping agent (mercaptoethanol) concentrations used were 0 M, 0.005 M, 0.01 M, 0.015 M, 0.025 M, 0.040 M, and 0.060 M, and resulted in nanoparticles sizes of 2.98 nm, 2.9 nm, 2.8 nm, 2.7 nm, 2.61 nm, 2.2 nm and 2.1 nm, respectively. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve was recorded by heating the sample exposed to UV-radiation, at a fixed heating rate 1°C sec(-1). The TL intensity initially increased with temperature, attained a peak value Im for a particular temperature, and then decreased with further increase in temperature. The peak TL intensity increased with decreasing nanoparticle size, whereas the temperature corresponding to the peak TL intensity decreased slightly with reducing nanocrystal size. As a consequence of increase in surface-to-volume ratio and increased carrier recombination rates, the TL intensity increased with decreasing nanoparticle size. It was found that, whereas activation energy slightly decreased with decreasing nanoparticle size, the frequency factor decreased significantly with reduction in nanoparticle size. PMID:26105811

  5. Role of disulfide bonds upon the structural stability of an amaranth globulin.

    PubMed

    Castellani, O F; Martínez, E N; Añón, M C

    1999-08-01

    Analysis of globulin-P, the polymerized amaranth globulin, gave a low amount of free sulfhydryls (10.2 +/- 0.5 micromol/g) from which 7 +/- 1 micromol/g was buried inside the molecule. In addition, its disulfide content was high (51 +/- 1 micromol/g) and similar to soybean 11S globulin content. The more exposed disulfide bridges were found to be stabilizing polymers, whereas the less reactive bridges were either linking P(20) and P(30) polypeptides or forming intrachain linkages. It was found that the buried bonds participate in the stabilization of folded polypeptides and the quaternary structure of the globulin. In turn, the dissociation of polymers and disruption of the quaternary structure by the action of 2-mercaptoethanol reverted upon removal of the reducing agent. This demonstrates that the polymerized state and the quaternary structure of the molecules are most favorable from the thermodynamic point of view. The similar content of SH and SS in globulin-P and globulin-S found in this laboratory suggests that the differences between these proteins may be ascribed to other compositional differences. PMID:10552600

  6. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  7. Properties of diphenolase from Vanilla planifolia (Andr.) shoot primordia cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Debowska, R; Podstolski, A

    2001-07-01

    Properties of diphenolase (PPO, EC1.10.3.1) from vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andr.) shoot primordia culture were investigated. Two pH optima of the enzyme extraction at pH 6 and 8 were found. Nevertheless, the enzymes shared the same optimum pH of activity-between pH 3 and 4. Sodium dodecyl sulfate slightly improved diphenolase extraction but caused a 3-fold increase in its specific activity. The extracts of pH 6 and 8.0 revealed three isozyme bands after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-two of them were similar in both extracts and two distinct. The enzyme showed high thermal stability-no loss was observed after 120 min at 50 degrees C. Diethyldithiocarbamic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid disodium salt, ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, L-ascorbic acid, dithiothreitol, glutathione (reduced), and beta-mercaptoethanol were found to be potent inhibitors of the diphenolase studied. The enzyme showed also monophenolase activity. Km and Vmax were calculated with monophenols [p-coumaric acid, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid] and with diphenols (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol, protocatechuic aldehyde and acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine). The highest Vmax was found with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and the greatest affinity to protocatechuic acid, respectively-the most abundant monophenol and one of the least abundant o-diphenols in the studied Vanilla tissue. PMID:11453787

  8. Structural investigation of radiation-induced aggregates of ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Hajós, G; Delincée, H

    1983-10-01

    Following irradiation of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease in aqueous solution with 60Co gamma-rays protein aggregates are formed. The nature of the bonds linking these radiation-induced aggregates together has been investigated by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. Thin-layer gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, both in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate, demonstrated the existence of covalent crosslinks between the aggregates. However, non-covalent crosslinking also plays a role in the radiolysis of ribonuclease. Thin-layer gel filtration with and without 6 M urea and 2 per cent beta-mercaptoethanol added to the gel, revealed that only part of the covalent bonds between the aggregates consisted of disulphide linkages. By separation of the reduced aggregates by thin-layer gel filtration and electrophoresis, both with SDS, this finding was substantiated. Densitometric measurements indicated for example that the percentage of covalently linked dimers held together by disulphide bridges amounted to about 40-45 per cent, whereas the remaining 55-60 per cent of the dimers must be linked by other covalent bonds. The existence of covalent crosslinks other than disulphide bonds was also confirmed by isoelectric focusing. By this method definite differences were established between the proteolytic hydrolysates of the reduced aggregates and the reduced monomer of gamma-irradiated ribonuclease. PMID:6605318

  9. Cross-linked informofers.

    PubMed Central

    Prosvirnin, V V; Ruzidic, S; Samarina, O P

    1979-01-01

    The proteins of 30S RNP particles containing pre-mRNA (hnRNA) were cross-linked with bifunctional reagents (dimethyl-suberimidate and dimethyl-3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate). Further treatment with 1 or 2 M NaCl dissociates all RNA from protein. However, a significant part of protein particles--informofers being cross-linked survived high salt treatment. Their sedimentation coefficients were close to those of original particles. No RNA could be detected in the informofers even after labeling the cells with a precursor for a long period of time. Sodium dodecylsulfate or urea dissociated cross-linked informofers into oligomeric polypeptides. They could be dissociated by beta-mercaptoethanol treatment if a reversible cross-linked reagent had been used. The resulting polypeptides were represented by informatin. RNP particles (30S RNP or poly-particles) were reconstituted upon mixing of cross-linked informofers with pre-mRNA and removal of 2 M NaCl. PMID:503864

  10. Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0–10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0–60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by β-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications. PMID:23402438