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Sample records for mercedes maroto-valer chunshan

  1. 75 FR 19461 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long-Wheelbase MPVs Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway... Safety Administration (NHTSA) has received a petition to decide that 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class... safety standards (the U.S.-certified 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class (463 chassis) LWB MPV), and...

  2. Mercedes Sosa: "Duerme, negrito"--Versuch einer Liedinterpretation im Spanischunterricht (Mercedes Sosa: "Duerme, negrito"--A Trial Interpretation of a Song in Spanish Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Karl-Heinz

    1973-01-01

    Appended is text of the song Duerme, negrito'' (Sleep, Little Black Boy) by Atahualpa Yupanqui, as recorded by Mercedes Sosa on the album El grito de la tierra'' (The Cry of the Land), Philips 6347005. (RS)

  3. Bilambdoid and posterior sagittal synostosis: the Mercedes Benz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moore, M H; Abbott, A H; Netherway, D J; Menard, R; Hanieh, A

    1998-09-01

    A consistent pattern of craniosynostosis in the sagittal and bilateral lambdoid sutures is described in three patients. The external cranial ridging associated with fusion of these sutures produces a characteristic triradiate, or "Mercedes Benz," appearance to the posterior skull. Locally marked growth restriction is evident in the posterior fossa with compensatory secondary expansion of the anterior fossa manifesting a degree of frontal bossing which mimics bicoronal synostosis. Although this appearance could lead to inadvertent surgery in the frontal region, attention to the occipital region with wide early suture excision and vault shaping is indicated. PMID:9780908

  4. Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cristiano L; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: The anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity, and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility. PMID:19673572

  5. Three-dimensional ``Mercedes-Benz'' model for water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Cristiano L.; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: The anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity, and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.

  6. An improved thermodynamic perturbation theory for Mercedes-Benz water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbic, T.; Vlachy, V.; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu. V.; Dill, K. A.

    2007-11-01

    We previously applied Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory for associative fluids to the simple Mercedes-Benz model of water. We found that the theory reproduced well the physical properties of hot water, but was less successful in capturing the more structured hydrogen bonding that occurs in cold water. Here, we propose an improved version of the thermodynamic perturbation theory in which the effective density of the reference system is calculated self-consistently. The new theory is a significant improvement, giving good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the model, and predicting key anomalies of cold water, such as minima in the molar volume and large heat capacity, in addition to giving good agreement with the isothermal compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient.

  7. An improved thermodynamic perturbation theory for Mercedes-Benz water.

    PubMed

    Urbic, T; Vlachy, V; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu V; Dill, K A

    2007-11-01

    We previously applied Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory for associative fluids to the simple Mercedes-Benz model of water. We found that the theory reproduced well the physical properties of hot water, but was less successful in capturing the more structured hydrogen bonding that occurs in cold water. Here, we propose an improved version of the thermodynamic perturbation theory in which the effective density of the reference system is calculated self-consistently. The new theory is a significant improvement, giving good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the model, and predicting key anomalies of cold water, such as minima in the molar volume and large heat capacity, in addition to giving good agreement with the isothermal compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient. PMID:17994831

  8. Confined water: a Mercedes-Benz model study.

    PubMed

    Urbic, T; Vlachy, V; Dill, K A

    2006-03-16

    We study water that is confined within small geometric spaces. We use the Mercedes-Benz (MB) model of water, in NVT and muVT Monte Carlo computer simulations. For MB water molecules between two planes separated by a distance d, we explore the structures, hydrogen bond networks, and thermodynamics as a function of d, temperature T, and water chemical potential mu. We find that squeezing the planes close enough together leads to a vaporization of waters out of the cavity. This vaporization transition has a corresponding peak in the heat capacity of the water. We also find that, in small pores, hydrogen bonding is not isotropic but, rather, it preferentially forms chains along the axis of the cavity. This may be relevant for fast proton transport in pores. Our simulations show oscillations in the forces between the inert plates, due to water structure, even for plate separations of 5-10 water diameters, consistent with experiments by Israelachvili et al. [Nature 1983, 306, 249]. Finally, we find that confinement affects water's heat capacity, consistent with recent experiments of Tombari et al. on Vycor nanopores [J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 122, 104712]. PMID:16526737

  9. Poisson equation for the Mercedes diagram in string theory at genus one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-03-01

    The Mercedes diagram has four trivalent vertices which are connected by six links such that they form the edges of a tetrahedron. This three-loop Feynman diagram contributes to the {D}12{{ R }}4 amplitude at genus one in type II string theory, where the vertices are the points of insertion of the graviton vertex operators, and the links are the scalar propagators on the toroidal worldsheet. We obtain a modular invariant Poisson equation satisfied by the Mercedes diagram, where the source terms involve one- and two-loop Feynman diagrams. We calculate its contribution to the {D}12{{ R }}4 amplitude.

  10. Preliminary assessment of the Lago Mercedes discovery, Magallanes Basin, Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.S. ); Wilson, J.T.; Mainzer, G.F. ); Escobar, F.; Aguirre, G. )

    1993-02-01

    The Lago Mercedes No. 1 well, spudded January 17, 1991, was positioned to test a seismically defined structural culmination located along a blind thrust near the deep foreland axis of the western magallanes Basin. This fault, which defines the leading edge of Andean-related thrust detachment in the region, is responsible for a trap geometry that is genetically related to, but fundamentally different from the numerous unrooted Tertiary folds in the area. Although the Lower Cretaceous Springhill Formation comprised the primary target, it was anticipated that the geometry of the fold allowed for the possibility of several fractured intervals in the hanging wall, including volcaniclastic rocks of the underlying Jurassic Tobifera [open quotes]basement[close quotes] sequence, recently found to be productive elsewhere on the eastern platform of the basin. During drilling of the well, gas and condensate shows were encountered in numerous horizons. The most surprising of these later proved to be a Permo-Triassic granodiorite underlying the Tobifera. Although relatively widespread on outcrop, this represents the first time a pre-rift intrusive body has been penetrated in the subsurface. All of the hydrocarbon-bearing intervals exhibit minimal matrix porosity but varying degrees of fracturing. Subsequent testing of the well yielded combined flow rates of in excess of 12 MMCFD of rich gas and 1140 BPD of 52 A.P.I. condensate. The most prolific zone corresponds to an intensely fractured and partially weathered interval in the uppermost portion of the intrusive. Additional testing is planned prior to any estimate of recoverable reserves. Nevertheless, this unique accumulation underscored the possibility for nonconventional reservoirs throughout the lightly explored Sub-Andean basin trend, particularly fold-thrust belts which have the potential to [open quotes]create[close quotes] reservoirs and trap geometry simultaneously.

  11. Computed tomography manifestation of a triple-barreled aortic dissection: the Mercedes-Benz mark sign.

    PubMed

    Shin, M S; Zorn, G L; Ho, K J

    1988-04-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings of a rare case of triple-barreled aortic dissection was described. CT demonstrated the extent of dissection, a communication between two channels, and three lumens separated by the intimal flap and a thin undetached tunica media, resembling a Mercedes-Benz mark. PMID:3168525

  12. [Gas-containing gallstones: value of the "Mercedes-Benz" sign at CT examination].

    PubMed

    Delabrousse, E; Bartholomot, B; Narboux, Y; Barrali, E; Chirouze, C; Kastler, B

    2000-11-01

    Gas-containing gallstones are well-known in vitro. The typical triradiate arrangement of fissures filled with gas, first described on abdominal plain films, was named by Meyers the "Mercedes-Benz" sign. This sign is absent of the recent literature. We report a case where gas was the only CT sign suggesting the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. PMID:11104980

  13. 77 FR 38391 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC, and Daimler AG (DAG), Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC \\1\\ (MBUSA) and its parent company Daimler AG (DAG)(collectively referred to as ``MB'') have determined that certain model year 2011 and 2012 Mercedes-Benz S-Class (221 platform) passenger cars do not fully comply with paragraph S4.4 TPMS Malfunction of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 138, Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems. MB has filed an appropriate......

  14. Multiscale molecular dynamics/hydrodynamics implementation of two dimensional "Mercedes Benz" water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scukins, A.; Nerukh, D.; Pavlov, E.; Karabasov, S.; Markesteijn, A.

    2015-09-01

    A multiscale Molecular Dynamics/Hydrodynamics implementation of the 2D Mercedes Benz (MB or BN2D) [1] water model is developed and investigated. The concept and the governing equations of multiscale coupling together with the results of the two-way coupling implementation are reported. The sensitivity of the multiscale model for obtaining macroscopic and microscopic parameters of the system, such as macroscopic density and velocity fluctuations, radial distribution and velocity autocorrelation functions of MB particles, is evaluated. Critical issues for extending the current model to large systems are discussed.

  15. Mercedes-Benz water molecules near hydrophobic wall: Integral equation theories vs Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbic, T.; Holovko, M. F.

    2011-10-01

    Associative version of Henderson-Abraham-Barker theory is applied for the study of Mercedes-Benz model of water near hydrophobic surface. We calculated density profiles and adsorption coefficients using Percus-Yevick and soft mean spherical associative approximations. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation data. It is shown that at higher temperatures both approximations satisfactory reproduce the simulation data. For lower temperatures, soft mean spherical approximation gives good agreement at low and at high densities while in at mid range densities, the prediction is only qualitative. The formation of a depletion layer between water and hydrophobic surface was also demonstrated and studied.

  16. Ice polyamorphism in the minimal Mercedes-Benz model of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Piro, Oreste; Sánchez, Pedro A.; Sintes, Tomás

    2012-12-01

    We investigate ice polyamorphism in the context of the two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water. We find a first-order phase transition between a crystalline phase and a high-density amorphous phase. Furthermore, we find a reversible transformation between two amorphous structures of high and low density; however, we find this to be a continuous and not an abrupt transition, as the low-density amorphous phase does not show structural stability. We discuss the origin of this behavior and its implications with regard to the minimal generic modeling of polyamorphism.

  17. Ice polyamorphism in the minimal Mercedes-Benz model of water.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Piro, Oreste; Sánchez, Pedro A; Sintes, Tomás

    2012-12-28

    We investigate ice polyamorphism in the context of the two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water. We find a first-order phase transition between a crystalline phase and a high-density amorphous phase. Furthermore, we find a reversible transformation between two amorphous structures of high and low density; however, we find this to be a continuous and not an abrupt transition, as the low-density amorphous phase does not show structural stability. We discuss the origin of this behavior and its implications with regard to the minimal generic modeling of polyamorphism. PMID:23277941

  18. Mercedes-Benz water molecules near hydrophobic wall: integral equation theories vs Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Urbic, T; Holovko, M F

    2011-10-01

    Associative version of Henderson-Abraham-Barker theory is applied for the study of Mercedes-Benz model of water near hydrophobic surface. We calculated density profiles and adsorption coefficients using Percus-Yevick and soft mean spherical associative approximations. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation data. It is shown that at higher temperatures both approximations satisfactory reproduce the simulation data. For lower temperatures, soft mean spherical approximation gives good agreement at low and at high densities while in at mid range densities, the prediction is only qualitative. The formation of a depletion layer between water and hydrophobic surface was also demonstrated and studied. PMID:21992334

  19. 75 FR 1117 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005 and 2006 Mercedes Benz S-Class...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...This document announces receipt by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2005 and 2006 Mercedes Benz S-Class passenger cars manufactured before September 1, 2006, that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) are eligible for importation into the United States because......

  20. 78 FR 48769 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC and Daimler AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Receipt of petition. SUMMARY: Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC (MBUSA) \\1\\ on behalf of itself... passenger vehicles (MPVs), do not fully comply with paragraph S5.1.1.6 of Federal Motor Vehicle...

  1. Molecular Dynamics implementation of BN2D or 'Mercedes Benz' water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scukins, Arturs; Bardik, Vitaliy; Pavlov, Evgen; Nerukh, Dmitry

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional 'Mercedes Benz' (MB) or BN2D water model (Naim, 1971) is implemented in Molecular Dynamics. It is known that the MB model can capture abnormal properties of real water (high heat capacity, minima of pressure and isothermal compressibility, negative thermal expansion coefficient) (Silverstein et al., 1998). In this work formulas for calculating the thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties in microcanonical (NVE) and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensembles for the model from Molecular Dynamics simulation are derived and verified against known Monte Carlo results. The convergence of the thermodynamic properties and the system's numerical stability are investigated. The results qualitatively reproduce the peculiarities of real water making the model a visually convenient tool that also requires less computational resources, thus allowing simulations of large (hydrodynamic scale) molecular systems. We provide the open source code written in C/C++ for the BN2D water model implementation using Molecular Dynamics.

  2. Analytical model for three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz water molecules

    PubMed Central

    Urbic, T.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a statistical model which describes the thermal and volumetric properties of water-like molecules. A molecule is presented as a three-dimensional sphere with four hydrogen-bonding arms. Each water molecule interacts with its neighboring waters through a van der Waals interaction and an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. This model, which is largely analytical, is a variant of a model developed before for a two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water. We explored properties such as molar volume, density, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility as a function of temperature and pressure. We found that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with temperature as in real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, including the density anomaly, the minimum in the isothermal compressibility, and the decreased number of hydrogen bonds upon increasing the temperature. PMID:23005100

  3. Analytical model for three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz water molecules.

    PubMed

    Urbic, T

    2012-06-01

    We developed a statistical model which describes the thermal and volumetric properties of water-like molecules. A molecule is presented as a three-dimensional sphere with four hydrogen-bonding arms. Each water molecule interacts with its neighboring waters through a van der Waals interaction and an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. This model, which is largely analytical, is a variant of a model developed before for a two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water. We explored properties such as molar volume, density, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility as a function of temperature and pressure. We found that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with temperature as in real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, including the density anomaly, the minimum in the isothermal compressibility, and the decreased number of hydrogen bonds upon increasing the temperature. PMID:23005100

  4. Hydrophobicity within the three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model: potential of mean force.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cristiano L; Hynninen, Teemu; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Foster, Adam S; Karttunen, Mikko

    2011-02-14

    We use the three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model for water and Monte Carlo simulations to study the structure and thermodynamics of the hydrophobic interaction. Radial distribution functions are used to classify different cases of the interaction, namely, contact configurations, solvent separated configurations, and desolvation configurations. The temperature dependence of these cases is shown to be in qualitative agreement with atomistic models of water. In particular, while the energy for the formation of contact configurations is favored by entropy, its strengthening with increasing temperature is accounted for by enthalpy. This is consistent with our simulated heat capacity. An important feature of the model is that it can be used to account for well-converged thermodynamics quantities, e.g., the heat capacity of transfer. Microscopic mechanisms for the temperature dependence of the hydrophobic interaction are discussed at the molecular level based on the conceptual simplicity of the model. PMID:21322739

  5. Hydrophobicity within the three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model: Potential of mean force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Cristiano L.; Hynninen, Teemu; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Foster, Adam S.; Karttunen, Mikko

    2011-02-01

    We use the three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model for water and Monte Carlo simulations to study the structure and thermodynamics of the hydrophobic interaction. Radial distribution functions are used to classify different cases of the interaction, namely, contact configurations, solvent separated configurations, and desolvation configurations. The temperature dependence of these cases is shown to be in qualitative agreement with atomistic models of water. In particular, while the energy for the formation of contact configurations is favored by entropy, its strengthening with increasing temperature is accounted for by enthalpy. This is consistent with our simulated heat capacity. An important feature of the model is that it can be used to account for well-converged thermodynamics quantities, e.g., the heat capacity of transfer. Microscopic mechanisms for the temperature dependence of the hydrophobic interaction are discussed at the molecular level based on the conceptual simplicity of the model.

  6. Analytical model for three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbic, T.

    2012-06-01

    We developed a statistical model which describes the thermal and volumetric properties of water-like molecules. A molecule is presented as a three-dimensional sphere with four hydrogen-bonding arms. Each water molecule interacts with its neighboring waters through a van der Waals interaction and an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. This model, which is largely analytical, is a variant of a model developed before for a two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water. We explored properties such as molar volume, density, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility as a function of temperature and pressure. We found that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with temperature as in real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, including the density anomaly, the minimum in the isothermal compressibility, and the decreased number of hydrogen bonds upon increasing the temperature.

  7. Theory for the three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizjak, Alan; Urbic, Tomaz; Vlachy, Vojko; Dill, Ken A.

    2009-11-01

    The two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz (MB) model of water has been widely studied, both by Monte Carlo simulations and by integral equation methods. Here, we study the three-dimensional (3D) MB model. We treat water as spheres that interact through Lennard-Jones potentials and through a tetrahedral Gaussian hydrogen bonding function. As the "right answer," we perform isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo simulations on the 3D MB model for different pressures and temperatures. The purpose of this work is to develop and test Wertheim's Ornstein-Zernike integral equation and thermodynamic perturbation theories. The two analytical approaches are orders of magnitude more efficient than the Monte Carlo simulations. The ultimate goal is to find statistical mechanical theories that can efficiently predict the properties of orientationally complex molecules, such as water. Also, here, the 3D MB model simply serves as a useful workbench for testing such analytical approaches. For hot water, the analytical theories give accurate agreement with the computer simulations. For cold water, the agreement is not as good. Nevertheless, these approaches are qualitatively consistent with energies, volumes, heat capacities, compressibilities, and thermal expansion coefficients versus temperature and pressure. Such analytical approaches offer a promising route to a better understanding of water and also the aqueous solvation.

  8. Theory for the three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water.

    PubMed

    Bizjak, Alan; Urbic, Tomaz; Vlachy, Vojko; Dill, Ken A

    2009-11-21

    The two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz (MB) model of water has been widely studied, both by Monte Carlo simulations and by integral equation methods. Here, we study the three-dimensional (3D) MB model. We treat water as spheres that interact through Lennard-Jones potentials and through a tetrahedral Gaussian hydrogen bonding function. As the "right answer," we perform isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo simulations on the 3D MB model for different pressures and temperatures. The purpose of this work is to develop and test Wertheim's Ornstein-Zernike integral equation and thermodynamic perturbation theories. The two analytical approaches are orders of magnitude more efficient than the Monte Carlo simulations. The ultimate goal is to find statistical mechanical theories that can efficiently predict the properties of orientationally complex molecules, such as water. Also, here, the 3D MB model simply serves as a useful workbench for testing such analytical approaches. For hot water, the analytical theories give accurate agreement with the computer simulations. For cold water, the agreement is not as good. Nevertheless, these approaches are qualitatively consistent with energies, volumes, heat capacities, compressibilities, and thermal expansion coefficients versus temperature and pressure. Such analytical approaches offer a promising route to a better understanding of water and also the aqueous solvation. PMID:19929057

  9. Theory for the three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water

    PubMed Central

    Bizjak, Alan; Urbic, Tomaz; Vlachy, Vojko; Dill, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz (MB) model of water has been widely studied, both by Monte Carlo simulations and by integral equation methods. Here, we study the three-dimensional (3D) MB model. We treat water as spheres that interact through Lennard-Jones potentials and through a tetrahedral Gaussian hydrogen bonding function. As the “right answer,” we perform isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo simulations on the 3D MB model for different pressures and temperatures. The purpose of this work is to develop and test Wertheim’s Ornstein–Zernike integral equation and thermodynamic perturbation theories. The two analytical approaches are orders of magnitude more efficient than the Monte Carlo simulations. The ultimate goal is to find statistical mechanical theories that can efficiently predict the properties of orientationally complex molecules, such as water. Also, here, the 3D MB model simply serves as a useful workbench for testing such analytical approaches. For hot water, the analytical theories give accurate agreement with the computer simulations. For cold water, the agreement is not as good. Nevertheless, these approaches are qualitatively consistent with energies, volumes, heat capacities, compressibilities, and thermal expansion coefficients versus temperature and pressure. Such analytical approaches offer a promising route to a better understanding of water and also the aqueous solvation. PMID:19929057

  10. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Hydrogen-Fueled Mercedes Sprinter Van Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of testing conducted over 6,864 kilometers (4,265 miles) of operation using the pure-hydrogen-fueled Mercedes Sprinter van.

  11. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Hydrogen-Fueled Mercedes Sprinter Van -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure- hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of testing conducted over 6,864 kilometers (4,265 miles) of operation using the pure-hydrogen-fueled Mercedes Sprinter van.

  12. A molecular dynamics implementation of the 3D Mercedes-Benz water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynninen, T.; Dias, C. L.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Heinonen, V.; Karttunen, M.; Foster, A. S.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2012-02-01

    The three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model was recently introduced to account for the structural and thermodynamic properties of water. It treats water molecules as point-like particles with four dangling bonds in tetrahedral coordination, representing H-bonds of water. Its conceptual simplicity renders the model attractive in studies where complex behaviors emerge from H-bond interactions in water, e.g., the hydrophobic effect. A molecular dynamics (MD) implementation of the model is non-trivial and we outline here the mathematical framework of its force-field. Useful routines written in modern Fortran are also provided. This open source code is free and can easily be modified to account for different physical context. The provided code allows both serial and MPI-parallelized execution. Program summaryProgram title: CASHEW (Coarse Approach Simulator for Hydrogen-bonding Effects in Water) Catalogue identifier: AEKM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 20 501 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 551 044 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Program has been tested on desktop workstations and a Cray XT4/XT5 supercomputer. Operating system: Linux, Unix, OS X Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: The code has been parallelized using MPI. RAM: Depends on size of system, about 5 MB for 1500 molecules. Classification: 7.7 External routines: A random number generator, Mersenne Twister ( http://www.math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/m-mat/MT/VERSIONS/FORTRAN/mt95.f90), is used. A copy of the code is included in the distribution. Nature of problem: Molecular dynamics simulation of a new geometric water model. Solution method: New force-field for

  13. The 'Jack Stone' or 'Mercedes Benz' sign--anew theory to explain the presence of gas within fissures in gallstones.

    PubMed

    Wright, F W

    1977-07-01

    Gas within clefts of fissures in gallstones is not a very common finding, but when it occurs is, characteristic and indicates the presence of one or more calculi. It closely resembles the appearance of a 'Jack Stone' but has previously been termed the 'Mercedes Benz' sign. Only a few cases have previously been recognised in the U.K. Most reported cases have been associated with biliary colic or cholecystitis. Various theories have been put forward to explain the presence of gas, but the author believes that the gas is released from solution by negative pressure within cholesterol stones undergoing internal fissuring due to their crystalline structure, i.e. the gas is released from solution from the small amount of fluid trapped in the calculus, in the same way that gas may be 'pulled' out of solution in a joint, a degenerate intervertebral disc or the fibro-cartilage of the symphysis pubis. PMID:872516

  14. The new Mercedes-Benz OM 904 LA light heavy-duty diesel engine for class 6 trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Schittler, M.; Bergmann, H.; Flathmann, K.

    1996-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive strategic product initiative the most important commercial vehicle manufacturer--Mercedes-Benz AG--is step by step renewing its entire product range. This primarily refers to the heart of the vehicles--the engine. After the OM 457 LA, which was developed together with DDC for the special American market demands and which is produced and sold in the US by DDC under the label Series 55, has had its premiere in Freightliner`s Century Class, the OM 904 LA will now follow in the light commercial vehicle class. This engine has a completely new concept of a direct-injection, highly sophisticated turbocharged four-cylinder in-line engine with air-to-air intercooler, whose main characteristics can be outlined by the terms multi-valve technology, high-pressure injection via unit pumps and electronic engine control. This small engine has several interesting features, which--up to now--were only known from class 8 engines. In addition to fulfilling increased customer demands with regard to long service life, easy maintenance, reliability and economy, great attention was paid during the design of the engine to not only fulfill the global regulations, but also account for sufficient potential to comply with further aggravations to be expected. The most important design features and the attained engine ratings are indicated and explained in detail.

  15. Mercedes-Benz pyloroplasty: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Vashney, S; Somers, S S

    2001-01-01

    Closure of large duodeno-pyloro-gastrotomy can be difficult. The resulting 'pyloroplasty' may lead to major deformity at the gastric outlet. We describe a technique that combines features of the Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty and V-Y plasty. The technique is simple and is not associated with any new post-operative problem. PMID:11963337

  16. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO< sub> 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  17. The mercedes-benz approach to γ-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, Carl W.

    1988-02-01

    The sensitivity requirements for ground-based γ-ray astronomy are reviewed in the light of the most reliable estimates of stellar fluxes above 100 GeV. Current data strongly favor the construction of detectors with the lowest energy thresholds. Since improvements in angular resolution are limited by shower fluctuations, better methods of rejecting hadronic showers must be found to reliably observe the known astrophysical sources. Several possible methods for reducing this hadronic background are discussed.

  18. Calcified gallstone fissures: the reversed Mercedes Benz sign.

    PubMed

    Strijk, S P

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the occurrence of an unusual radiating pattern of calcification in the center of large radiolucent gallstones. The radiographic findings are attributed to calcium deposition within the fissures of biliary calculi. PMID:3556975

  19. First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, L.M.; Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

    1982-01-01

    In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

  20. Application for certification, 1992 model-year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mercedes Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines that he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  1. Application for certification, 1986 model year heavy-duty vehicles/engines - Mercedes-Benz truck

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  2. Application for certification, 1992 model-year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines that he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  3. Application for certification, 1991 model-year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems or exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. Application for certification 1981 model year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  5. Application for certification 1987 model year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. The engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. They also provide information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  6. Application for certification, 1990 model-year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes Benz of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  7. Application for certification 1984 model year heavy-duty engines - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  8. Application for certification 1992 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  9. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  10. Application for certification, 1986 model year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  11. Application for certification 1982 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing.

  12. 75 FR 31837 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mercedes-Benz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... antitheft devices already installed in the Aston Martin Vantage, BMW 6-series and Porsche 911 vehicle lines... average theft rate for the BMW 6-series with an immobilizer was 2.3505 in MY/CY 2005 and 1.6227 in MY/CY... effective in contributing to an additional (31%) reduction in the theft rate of the BMW 6-series...

  13. 78 FR 4195 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mercedes-Benz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention... vehicle line in accordance with 49 CFR part 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This... standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as...

  14. 78 FR 10686 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming Long-Wheel Base 2005 Mercedes-Benz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted... compliance with Standard Nos. 102 Transmission Shift Lever Sequence, Starter Interlock, and...

  15. 76 FR 28501 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005 Mercedes-Benz 350 CLS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... cars, as originally manufactured, conform to: Standard Nos. 102 Transmission Shift Lever...

  16. 76 FR 4421 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC and Daimler AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all comments received... headlamp grill that does not pose any risk of scratching or condensation buildup, force the beam to...

  17. Application for certification, 1989 model year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes-Benz of North America, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  18. Application for certification 1988 model year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes-Benz of North America, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings that describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission-control systems.

  19. Application for certification 1987 model year heavy-duty vehicles/engines - Mercedes-Benz Truck Company, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. They also provide information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  20. 77 FR 65444 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How To... Electric Brake Systems, 106 Brake Hoses, 113 Hood Latch System, 116 Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids, 119...

  1. 76 FR 30426 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006 Mercedes-Benz CLS Class...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How To Read Comments submitted... meet the requirements of this standard. Standard No. 208 Occupant Crash Protection: inspection of...

  2. 78 FR 38442 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to... does not already conform. Standard No. 208 Occupant Crash Protection: Reprogramming the...

  3. 78 FR 43967 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC, on Behalf of Daimler AG, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... comment period, on September 13, 2012 in the Federal Register (77 FR 56698). No comments were received. To.... Amina Fisher, Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, the National Highway Traffic Safety...

  4. 77 FR 56698 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC, on Behalf of Daimler AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all... and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor... vehicle placard on the spare tire rim originally provided with the vehicle, it would be...

  5. 78 FR 60275 - Alternative Method for Calculating Off-Cycle Credits for Mercedes-Benz Vehicles Under the Light...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... that may be used beginning in MY 2014.\\2\\ \\1\\ 75 FR 25438-25440, May 7, 2010. \\2\\ 77 FR 62832-62839... established a program to allow automobile manufacturers to generate ``off-cycle'' carbon dioxide (CO...

  6. 75 FR 28674 - Mercedes-Benz, U.S.A. LLC; Denial of Application for Renewal of Temporary Exemption From Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ..., hazard warning signal lamps, and school bus warning lamps shall be wired to flash. Headlamps and side... said, translates into a ``crash ratio per month'' for vehicles with the flashing stop lamp feature of 11.44688645 as compared to a ratio of 19.86328146 for vehicles without the feature. MBUSA...

  7. Vehicle Component Benchmarking Using a Chassis Dynamometer: Using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2013 Mercedes E350 (SAE Paper 2015-01-0589)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to ...

  8. Photoelectric Photometry of Asteroid 6 Hebe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, R. G.; Blain, A.

    1988-03-01

    Photoelectric observations of the asteroid 6 Hebe were made from Observatorio Municipal de Mercedes during the period June 18 - June 27, 1987. The reported synodic rotational period is consistent with previously determined rotation periods.

  9. Floating stones in a nonopacified gallbladder: ultrasonographic sign of gas-containing gallstones.

    PubMed

    Strijk, S P; Boetes, C; Rosenbusch, G

    1981-01-01

    Floating stones were noted in the nonopacified gallbladder at ultrasound examination. Gas-containing fissures in these stones could be demonstrated pre- and postoperatively (Mercedes Benz sign). PMID:7308702

  10. Comment on ``The application of the thermodynamic perturbation theory to study the hydrophobic hydration'' [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 024101 (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    It is shown that the behaviour of the hydration thermodynamic functions obtained in the 3D Mercedes-Benz model of water by Mohoric et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 024101 (2013)] is not qualitatively correct with respect to experimental data for a solute whose diameter is 1.5-fold larger than that of a water molecule. It is also pointed out that the failure is due to the fact that the used 3D Mercedes-Benz model of water [A. Bizjak, T. Urbic, V. Vlachy, and K. A. Dill, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 194504 (2009)] does not reproduce in a quantitatively correct manner the peculiar temperature dependence of water density.

  11. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  12. Hydrobus, gyrobus use brake-generated energy

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.

    1980-04-01

    M.A.N. of Munich is developing a hydrobus concept, involving hydraulic pressure as the storage medium, and a gyrobus system with flywheel energy storage. Mercedes-Benz is also working on a gyrobus design. The hydraulic storage regenerative-braking design and the flywheel storage in the gyrobus are explained.

  13. Managing Training Materials with Structured Text Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streit, Les D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes characteristics of structured text design; benefits of its use in training; benefits for developers of training materials and steps in preparing training materials. A case study illustrating how the structured text design process solved the sales training needs of the Mercedes-Benz Truck Company is presented. (MBR)

  14. 40 CFR 86.1706-99 - National LEV program in effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... North America, Inc. Chrysler Corporation Fiat Auto U.S.A., Inc. Ford Motor Company General Motors... Rover North America, Inc. Mazda (North America) Inc. Mercedes-Benz of North America Mitsubishi Motor Sales of America, Inc. Nissan North America, Inc. Porsche Cars of North America, Inc. Rolls-Royce......

  15. Access to Justice: Middle School Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Gayle; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Gayle Mertz offers simulations covering balloting and the juvenile court system along with a legislation drafting activity. Mercedes J. Newsome provides guidance on the use of community resource persons. Teri Wilson's activity simulates a juvenile proceeding while Richard Marcroft and Elenor Taylor describe a simulation of small claims court. (KO)

  16. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... longer necessary. \\1\\ 73 FR 38372. Our belief stemmed from the fact that FMVSS No. 219 had succeeded in... standard (73 FR at 38374). Agency Response: Our action today to withdraw the July 7, 2008 NPRM will not... members included: BMW Group, Chrysler LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz...

  17. 75 FR 47720 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... 12521 0.7188 148 TOYOTA LEXUS IS 41 57055 0.7186 149 MERCEDES-BENZ......... 203 (C-CLASS)........ 83... 158 KIA SEDONA VAN 41 60873 0.6735 159 HONDA FIT 46 68642 0.6701 160 SUBARU LEGACY/OUTBACK....... 10...: This final notice revises the Federal Register notice published on March 10, 2010 (75 FR 11005)...

  18. Fulfilling Community Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article features South Texas High School for Health Professions in Mercedes, Texas. With the support and encouragement of their parents and siblings, students choose to attend South Texas High School for Health Professions, because it offers a way out of poverty through a rigorous education with a strong occupational career component. South…

  19. Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2003 (Interamerican Review of Adult Education, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This journal offers a collection of Spanish-language articles, including: "Educacion a Distancia y Uso de las Tecnologias: Experiencias Desafios y Oportunidades Educativas para Jovenes y Adultos" (Ma. Mercedes Ruiz); "Volver a a Educacion Fundamental? Notas para una Arquelogia de los Mandatos Fundacionales del CREFAL" (Jorge Rivas Diaz); "Una…

  20. Canceling updating in the comprehension of counterfactuals embedded in narratives.

    PubMed

    de Vega, Manuel; Urrutia, Mabel; Riffo, Bernardo

    2007-09-01

    Participants were given counterfactual sentences--for example, "If Mary had won the lottery she would have bought a Mercedes car"--or factual sentences--for example, "Because Mary won the lottery, she bought a Mercedes car"--embedded in short narratives. Reading times showed that readers were immediately sensitive to the special status of counterfactual information (Experiment 1). In addition, probe-recognition latencies demonstrated that old information was more accessible in counterfactual than in factual stories, and new information was equally accessible in both kinds of stories (Experiment 2). However, after reading additional clauses, new information became less accessible in counterfactual than in factual stories (Experiment 3). These results suggest that counterfactual events are momentarily represented but are later suppressed and the readers' attention goes back to previous events in the story. PMID:18035637

  1. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.; Ribas, Ignasi; Giménez, Alvaro; Harmanec, Petr; Hilditch, Ronald W.; Kaluzny, Janusz; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Nordström, Birgitta; Oláh, Katalin; Richards, Mercedes T.; Scarfe, Colin D.; Sion, Edward M.; Torres, Guillermo; Vrielmann, Sonja

    2010-05-01

    During the commission business session, the past President presented the new Organizing Committee which was selected by the OC through a e-mail vote conducted during the months before the Rio de Janeiro General Assembly. The new OC will consist of Ignasi Ribas (President), Mercedes Richards (Vice President), and Slavek Rucinski (Past President) with the members: David Bradstreet, Petr Harmanec, Janusz Kaluzny, Joanna Mikolajewska, Ulisse Munari, Panos Niarchos, Katalin Olah, Theo Pribulla, Colin Scarfe and Guillermo Torres.

  2. [Fissures in biliary calculi. Personal contribution (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nano, M; Potenzoni, F; Camandona, M; Casalegno, P A

    1979-04-01

    In a series of 70 patients suffering from biliary lithiasis, the roentgenologic findings of fissures in the calculi was observed in 5 cases examined by means of cholecystography and in 7 cases who underwent cholangiocholecystography. Fissures were demonstrated 11 times in calculi after surgery. The "Mercedes-Benz" sign was never observed at the abdominal examination without contrast medium. The presence of fissures may be an additional sign in the radiologic diagnosis of biliary calculi, but its value is not determinant. PMID:550199

  3. The Mercedez-Benz four-valve diesel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This article describes changes made to the standard two-valve-per-cylinder naturally aspirated prechamber engine series produced by Mercedes-Benz since 1983. These changes to valves, prechamber location and intake systems improve torque and allow this diesel engine to be sold in all of the US. Topics of the article include improving air charge, emission behavior, fuel-heating system, and intake system.

  4. String junction as a baryonic constituent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu. S.; Nefediev, A. V.

    1996-02-01

    We extend the model for QCD string with quarks to consider the Mercedes Benz string configuration describing the three-quark baryon. Under the assumption of adiabatic separation of quark and string junction motion we formulate and solve the classical equation of motion for the junction. We dare to quantize the motion of the junction, and discuss the impact of these modes on the baryon spectra.

  5. Large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres from a Paleogene lateritic profile of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genise, Jorge F.; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Verde, Mariano; González, Mirta G.

    2011-10-01

    It is proposed herein that columns included in the unconformity between Mercedes (Upper Cretaceous) and Asencio (Lower Eocene) formations of Uruguay, forming "caves" known since the XIX century, are large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres. Diagnostic characters are concentric internal structure, radiating secondary prolongations, preservation of original lamination, trace fossils, and other attributes of the original deposit. In contrast with rhizoliths, which originated as root casts or by roots and their peritrophic zones, palaeorhizospheres are originated from peritrophic zones to a few tens of centimeters in the soil surrounding the roots. In many cases, like those presented herein, rhizoliths are not preserved inside the palaeorhizospheres. Specimens were studied in 6 localities from central Uruguay, where 5 different morphological types were recognized according to its internal structure: (1) rimmed, (2) concentric, (3) concentric disrupted, (4) nodular or mottled, and (5) brecciated. The palaeorhizosphere hypothesis can explain this diversity of internal structures, which may be compatible with different stages of root and rhizosphere development. Types 1 and 2 could be produced by living roots, whereas 3 to 5 more probably by percolation and staining by Fe solutions coming from the overlying Asencio Formation through decaying or dead roots. The rim that surrounds most structures may be interpreted as the boundary of the original rhizosphere, where Fe ions translocated outward from the root by chelation, found oxidizing conditions. Concentric pattern would result from the centrifugal displacement of the oxidizing rim. Type 3 to 5 structures would start when most biologic processes around the living or decaying root cease, and periodic formation of rings stops. Even when palaeorhizospheres are included in the Mercedes Formation, their possibility to be produced during Mercedes times is unlikely because the strong oxidation processes involved were exclusive of

  6. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  7. The application of the thermodynamic perturbation theory to study the hydrophobic hydration.

    PubMed

    Mohoric, Tomaz; Urbic, Tomaz; Hribar-Lee, Barbara

    2013-07-14

    The thermodynamic perturbation theory was tested against newly obtained Monte Carlo computer simulations to describe the major features of the hydrophobic effect in a simple 3D-Mercedes-Benz water model: the temperature and hydrophobe size dependence on entropy, enthalpy, and free energy of transfer of a simple hydrophobic solute into water. An excellent agreement was obtained between the theoretical and simulation results. Further, the thermodynamic perturbation theory qualitatively correctly (with respect to the experimental data) describes the solvation thermodynamics under conditions where the simulation results are difficult to obtain with good enough accuracy, e.g., at high pressures. PMID:23862923

  8. Modeling Hofmeister Effects.

    PubMed

    Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Vlachy, Vojko; Dill, Ken A

    2009-03-11

    A two dimensional model of water, so-called Mercedes-Benz model, was used to study effects of the size of hydrophobic solute on the insertion thermodynamics in electrolyte solutions. The model was examined by the constant pressure Monte Carlo computer simulation. The results were compared with the experimental data for noble gasses and methane in water and electrolyte solution. The influence of different ions at infinite dilution on the free energy of transfer was explored. Qualitative agreement with the experimental results was obtained. The mechanism of Hofmeister effects was proposed. PMID:20161468

  9. Characterization of diesel emissions as a function of fuel variables. Final report September 1979-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bykowski, B.B.

    1981-04-01

    Several properties of a refinery 'straight-run kerosene', which had a narrow boiling range approximating the middle of a No. 1 diesel fuel, were altered to study their effects on regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. Eleven fuel blends, representing changes in nitrogen content, aromatic level, boiling point distribution, olefin content, and cetane number, were evaluated in a 1975 Mercedes-Benz 240D. Statistical analysis, including regression, was performed using selected fuel properties as independent variables. Higher aromatic levels were generally associated with increased emissions, while increased olefin levels were generally associated with decreased emissions.

  10. F-cell world drive 2011: are tactical medicine principles applicable to a civilian scenario?

    PubMed

    Burkert, Manuel G

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, a Mercedes Benz (MB) conducted the F-Cell World Drive tour around the globe in 125 days. While crossing Asia from Shanghai (China) to Helsinki (Finland) by car, en route medical care was provided by embedded emergency physicians. The designated route crossed four different countries, multiple climate zones, and challenging road conditions. There was only limited information provided about hospitals and emergency medical services within different host nations in the planning phase, so we adopted tactical medical principles for mission planning and execution, as we were facing remote conditions and limitations to equipment, staffing, and patient transport. PMID:22427051

  11. Theory for the solvation of nonpolar solutes in water.

    PubMed

    Urbic, T; Vlachy, V; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu V; Dill, K A

    2007-11-01

    We recently developed an angle-dependent Wertheim integral equation theory (IET) of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) model of pure water [Silverstein et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 3166 (1998)]. Our approach treats explicitly the coupled orientational constraints within water molecules. The analytical theory offers the advantage of being less computationally expensive than Monte Carlo simulations by two orders of magnitude. Here we apply the angle-dependent IET to studying the hydrophobic effect, the transfer of a nonpolar solute into MB water. We find that the theory reproduces the Monte Carlo results qualitatively for cold water and quantitatively for hot water. PMID:17994825

  12. Modeling Hofmeister Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Vlachy, Vojko; Dill, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    A two dimensional model of water, so-called Mercedes-Benz model, was used to study effects of the size of hydrophobic solute on the insertion thermodynamics in electrolyte solutions. The model was examined by the constant pressure Monte Carlo computer simulation. The results were compared with the experimental data for noble gasses and methane in water and electrolyte solution. The influence of different ions at infinite dilution on the free energy of transfer was explored. Qualitative agreement with the experimental results was obtained. The mechanism of Hofmeister effects was proposed. PMID:20161468

  13. Theory for the solvation of nonpolar solutes in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbic, T.; Vlachy, V.; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu. V.; Dill, K. A.

    2007-11-01

    We recently developed an angle-dependent Wertheim integral equation theory (IET) of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) model of pure water [Silverstein et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 3166 (1998)]. Our approach treats explicitly the coupled orientational constraints within water molecules. The analytical theory offers the advantage of being less computationally expensive than Monte Carlo simulations by two orders of magnitude. Here we apply the angle-dependent IET to studying the hydrophobic effect, the transfer of a nonpolar solute into MB water. We find that the theory reproduces the Monte Carlo results qualitatively for cold water and quantitatively for hot water.

  14. The application of the thermodynamic perturbation theory to study the hydrophobic hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohorič, Tomaž; Urbic, Tomaz; Hribar-Lee, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    The thermodynamic perturbation theory was tested against newly obtained Monte Carlo computer simulations to describe the major features of the hydrophobic effect in a simple 3D-Mercedes-Benz water model: the temperature and hydrophobe size dependence on entropy, enthalpy, and free energy of transfer of a simple hydrophobic solute into water. An excellent agreement was obtained between the theoretical and simulation results. Further, the thermodynamic perturbation theory qualitatively correctly (with respect to the experimental data) describes the solvation thermodynamics under conditions where the simulation results are difficult to obtain with good enough accuracy, e.g., at high pressures.

  15. The application of the thermodynamic perturbation theory to study the hydrophobic hydration

    PubMed Central

    Mohorič, Tomaž; Urbic, Tomaz; Hribar-Lee, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic perturbation theory was tested against newly obtained Monte Carlo computer simulations to describe the major features of the hydrophobic effect in a simple 3D-Mercedes-Benz water model: the temperature and hydrophobe size dependence on entropy, enthalpy, and free energy of transfer of a simple hydrophobic solute into water. An excellent agreement was obtained between the theoretical and simulation results. Further, the thermodynamic perturbation theory qualitatively correctly (with respect to the experimental data) describes the solvation thermodynamics under conditions where the simulation results are difficult to obtain with good enough accuracy, e.g., at high pressures. PMID:23862923

  16. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  17. 77 FR 58500 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...,198 0.9099 83 CHRYSLER JEEP LIBERTY........ 44 48,487 0.9075 84 KIA SOUL 68 75,847 0.8965 85 BMW 3 42...,599 0.6900 111 TOYOTA HIGHLANDER 58 84,152 0.6892 112 AUDI AUDI A4/A5 26 38,497 0.6754 113 MERCEDES...,890 0.5093 128 HONDA INSIGHT 22 43,523 0.5055 129 TOYOTA LEXUS IS 21 41,696 0.5036 130 NISSAN ROGUE......

  18. Bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS): a unique craniosynostosis syndrome or predictable craniofacial phenotype?

    PubMed

    Hing, Anne V; Click, Eleanor S; Holder, Ursula; Seto, Marianne L; Vessey, Kyle; Gruss, Joseph; Hopper, Richard; Cunningham, Michael L

    2009-05-01

    Multisutural craniosynostosis that includes bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS) results in a very characteristic head shape with frontal bossing, turribrachycephaly, biparietal narrowing, occipital concavity, and inferior displacement of the ears. This entity has been reported both in the genetics literature as craniofacial dyssynostosis and in the surgical literature as "Mercedes Benz" syndrome. Craniofacial dyssynostosis was first described in 1976 by Dr. Neuhauser when he presented a series of seven patients with synostosis of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures, short stature, and developmental delay. Over the past 30 years nine additional patients with craniofacial dyssynostosis have been reported in the literature adding to the growing evidence for a distinct craniosynostosis syndrome. The term "Mercedes Benz" syndrome was coined by Moore et al. in 1998 due to the characteristic appearance of the fused sutures on three-dimensional CT imaging. In contrast to the aforementioned reported cases of craniofacial dyssynostosis, all three patients had normal development. Recently, there have been several case reports of patients with BLSS and distinct chromosomal anomalies. These findings suggest that BLSS is a heterogeneous disorder perhaps with syndromic, chromosomal, and isolated forms. In this manuscript we will present the largest series of patients with BLSS and review clinical, CT, and molecular findings. PMID:19396832

  19. Electric vehicle developments in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yerkes, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Volkswagen, Mercedes, and the big three Japanese companies, Nissan, Toyota and Honda may develop for the 1998 model year good basic electric cars. VW`s Concept 1 will be offered with gasoline, diesel/electric, and full electric drive trains. From a cost stand point most of the cars will be offered with improved lead-acid batteries such as the Horizon with NiCd or some form of advanced battery as an upgrade or high performance option. General Motors will sell the Impact with lead-acid batteries. The position of Ford and Chrysler is unknown at this point, but both are fielding electric versions of vans already in production. At least one of these efforts may pay off and after 2000 the electric car could improve rapidly.

  20. Full size zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.R.; Koretz, B.

    1993-11-01

    The Electric Fuel zinc-air battery yielded energy densities from 6.8 to 10.2 times higher than those of the lead-acid batteries. The higher the power and the more difficult the driving cycle, the higher this ratio of energy densities grew. Not only was the Electric Fuel battery capable of extended high-power discharge, the impact of such discharge conditions on energy and driving range was show to be quite small, and was much smaller than the comparable impact on lead-acid traction batteries. At the time of writing this paper, tests are scheduled to continue with the 110-kWh battery in the Mercedes van, and preliminary plans have been made for testing of additional batteries on other vehicle types.

  1. Surgical management of retraction pockets of the pars tensa with cartilage and perichondrial grafts.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, P; Mills, R

    2006-09-01

    Stable, self-cleansing retraction pockets of the pars tensa are common incidental findings and require no treatment. In other cases, recurrent discharge occurs and there may also be associated conductive hearing loss. In a minority of cases, cholesteatoma may develop. This paper presents the results of surgery using a graft composed of cartilage and perichondrium for retraction pockets involving the posterior half of the tympanic membrane, as well as early results using a larger graft designed to manage retraction of the entire tympanic membrane. Data on 51 patients with posterior retraction pockets are presented. Forty-two (82 per cent) patients had no aural discharge one year following surgery and the tympanic membrane was not retracted in 43 (84 per cent). The larger 'Mercedes-Benz' graft was used in four patients and the results obtained suggested that it may prove a successful technique for extensive retraction pockets. PMID:16740207

  2. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.

  3. In-use performance of Daimler-Benz light-duty diesel particulate-trap oxidizers. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, T.M.; Carlson, P.N.

    1988-02-01

    Ten in-use 1985 Mercedes-Benz light-duty diesel vehicles equiped with particulate trap oxidizer systems and with mileages between 30,000 and 50,000 miles were tested for particulate (PM) and gaseous exhaust (HC,CO, CO/sub 2/, and NOx) emissions. Seven out of ten vehicles had a first-test particulate emission level lower than a predetermined cutoff point of 0.35 g/mi. (The California PM certification standard for 1985 light-duty diesel vehicles is 0.4 g/mi.) Attempts were made to regenerate the particulate-trap oxidizers on the three vehicles that exceeded the 0.35 g/mi PM level and the vehicles were retested. Two of three retested vehicles passed the PM cutoff level.

  4. Two-dimensional lattice-fluid model with waterlike anomalies.

    PubMed

    Buzano, C; De Stefanis, E; Pelizzola, A; Pretti, M

    2004-06-01

    We investigate a lattice-fluid model defined on a two-dimensional triangular lattice, with the aim of reproducing qualitatively some anomalous properties of water. Model molecules are of the "Mercedes Benz" type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. We work out phase diagrams, response functions, and stability limits for the liquid phase, making use of a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster, whose accuracy is verified, in some cases, by Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram displays one ordered (solid) phase which is less dense than the liquid one. At fixed pressure the liquid phase response functions show the typical anomalous behavior observed in liquid water, while, in the supercooled region, a reentrant spinodal is observed. PMID:15244571

  5. What is a realistic frontal-offset test procedure?

    PubMed

    Scheunert, D; Justen, R; Herrmann, R; Zeidler, F; Decker, J; Kallina, I

    1994-06-01

    With an increasing number of vehicles satisfying the FMVSS 208 Flat Barrier Impact Test and increasing belt usage, a high reduction of occupant injuries in general and a change from acceleration-induced to intrusion-induced injury mechanisms has been observed in Europe. The significance of intrusion-induced injury mechanisms associated with offset frontal impacts is assuming greater importance. Beginning in 1978, in response to this challenge, Mercedes-Benz has emphasized front structural countermeasures that have been found to be effective in the frequent asymmetrical frontal impacts. As an internal test, an offset impact with 40% overlap against a rigid barrier was defined. The relationship between actual accident frontal-overlap damage and barrier-test overlap values is explored in the paper. The results support the view that if a test of this type and associated design countermeasures were adopted by all vehicle manufacturers, a significant reduction of injuries would take place. PMID:8011047

  6. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

    2008-10-01

    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  7. TRANSIENT, REAL-TIME, PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS IN DIESEL ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S; Shih, J; Hillman, G; sekar, R; Graze, R; Shimpi, S; Martin, W; Pier, D

    2003-08-24

    This paper reports our efforts to develop an instrument, TG-1, to measure particulate emissions from diesel engines in real-time. TG-1 while based on laser-induced incandescence allows measurements at 10 Hz on typical engine exhausts. Using such an instrument, measurements were performed in the exhaust of a 1.7L Mercedes Benz engine coupled to a low inertia dynamometer. Comparative measurements performed under engine steady state conditions showed the instrument to agree within {+-}12% of measurements performed with an SMPS. Moreover, the instrument had far better time response and time resolution than a TEOM{reg_sign} 1105. Also, TG-1 appears to surpass the shortcomings of the TEOM instrument, i.e., of yielding negative values under certain engine conditions and, being sensitive to external vibration.

  8. Classification of robust heteroclinic cycles for vector fields in {\\protect\\bb R}^3 with symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawker, David; Ashwin, Peter

    2005-09-01

    We consider a classification of robust heteroclinic cycles in the positive octant of {\\bb R}^3 under the action of the symmetry group {{\\bb Z}_2}^3 . We introduce a coding system to represent different classes up to a topological equivalence, and produce a characterization of all types of robust heteroclinic cycle that can arise in this situation. These cycles may or may not contain the origin within the cycle. We proceed to find a connection between our problem and meandric numbers. We find a direct correlation between the number of classes of robust heteroclinic cycle that do not include the origin and the 'Mercedes-Benz' sequence of integers characterizing meanders through a 'Y-shaped' configuration. We investigate upper and lower bounds for the number of classes possible for robust cycles between n equilibria, one of which may be the origin.

  9. A simple water model in the presence of inert Lennard-Jones obstacles II: the hydrophobic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtjak, Mario; Urbic, Tomaz

    2015-04-01

    Using Monte Carlo computer simulations, hydrophobic effect for a non-polar particle with the diameter of a water molecule was studied in water, confined within a disordered matrix. Freely mobile two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz water was put in a disordered, but fixed, matrix of Lennard-Jones disks. Influence of temperature and matrix properties on the thermodynamic quantities of a non-polar solute solvation was studied. The hydrophobic effect is changed by the presence of the obstacles. Smaller matrix particles change the solute-water structure and thermodynamics drastically, as it was also observed for the properties of pure confined water. The study is bringing new scientific important observations in understanding the role of hydrophobic forces under confinement.

  10. Hydration of an apolar solute in a two-dimensional waterlike lattice fluid.

    PubMed

    Buzano, C; De Stefanis, E; Pretti, M

    2005-05-01

    In a previous work, we investigated a two-dimensional lattice-fluid model, displaying some waterlike thermodynamic anomalies. The model, defined on a triangular lattice, is now extended to aqueous solutions with apolar species. Water molecules are of the "Mercedes Benz" type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three equivalent bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. The insertion of inert molecules displays typical signatures of hydrophobic hydration: large positive transfer free energy, large negative transfer entropy (at low temperature), strong temperature dependence of the transfer enthalpy and entropy, i.e., large (positive) transfer heat capacity. Model properties are derived by a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster. PMID:16089537

  11. Tracking prominent points in image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael

    1994-03-01

    Measuring image motion and inferring scene geometry and camera motion are main aspects of image sequence analysis. The determination of image motion and the structure-from-motion problem are tasks that can be addressed independently or in cooperative processes. In this paper we focus on tracking prominent points. High stability, reliability, and accuracy are criteria for the extraction of prominent points. This implies that tracking should work quite well with those features; unfortunately, the reality looks quite different. In the experimental investigations we processed a long sequence of 128 images. This mono sequence is taken in an outdoor environment at the experimental field of Mercedes Benz in Rastatt. Different tracking schemes are explored and the results with respect to stability and quality are reported.

  12. A two-dimensional model of water: Solvation of nonpolar solutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbič, T.; Vlachy, V.; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu. V.; Southall, N. T.; Dill, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    We recently applied a Wertheim integral equation theory (IET) and a thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) to the Mercedes-Benz (MB) model of pure water. These analytical theories offer the advantage of being computationally less intensive than the Monte Carlo simulations by orders of magnitudes. The long-term goal of this work is to develop analytical theories of water that can handle orientation-dependent interactions and the MB model serves as a simple workbench for this development. Here we apply the IET and TPT to the hydrophobic effect, the transfer of a nonpopular solute into MB water. As before, we find that the theories reproduce the Monte Carlo results quite accurately at higher temperatures, while they predict the qualitative trends in cold water.

  13. Hydration of an apolar solute in a two-dimensional waterlike lattice fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzano, C.; de Stefanis, E.; Pretti, M.

    2005-05-01

    In a previous work, we investigated a two-dimensional lattice-fluid model, displaying some waterlike thermodynamic anomalies. The model, defined on a triangular lattice, is now extended to aqueous solutions with apolar species. Water molecules are of the “Mercedes Benz” type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three equivalent bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. The insertion of inert molecules displays typical signatures of hydrophobic hydration: large positive transfer free energy, large negative transfer entropy (at low temperature), strong temperature dependence of the transfer enthalpy and entropy, i.e., large (positive) transfer heat capacity. Model properties are derived by a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster.

  14. Potential of mean force between two hydrophobic solutes in water.

    PubMed

    Southall, Noel T; Dill, Ken A

    2002-12-10

    We study the potential of mean force between two nonpolar solutes in the Mercedes Benz model of water. Using NPT Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the solute size determines the relative preference of two solute molecules to come into contact ('contact minimum') or to be separated by a single layer of water ('solvent-separated minimum'). Larger solutes more strongly prefer the contacting state, while smaller solutes have more tendency to become solvent-separated, particularly in cold water. The thermal driving forces oscillate with solute separation. Contacts are stabilized by entropy, whereas solvent-separated solute pairing is stabilized by enthalpy. The free energy of interaction for small solutes is well-approximated by scaled-particle theory. PMID:12488009

  15. Two-dimensional lattice-fluid model with waterlike anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzano, C.; de Stefanis, E.; Pelizzola, A.; Pretti, M.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate a lattice-fluid model defined on a two-dimensional triangular lattice, with the aim of reproducing qualitatively some anomalous properties of water. Model molecules are of the “Mercedes Benz” type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. We work out phase diagrams, response functions, and stability limits for the liquid phase, making use of a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster, whose accuracy is verified, in some cases, by Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram displays one ordered (solid) phase which is less dense than the liquid one. At fixed pressure the liquid phase response functions show the typical anomalous behavior observed in liquid water, while, in the supercooled region, a reentrant spinodal is observed.

  16. Simple model of hydrophobic hydration.

    PubMed

    Lukšič, Miha; Urbic, Tomaz; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A

    2012-05-31

    Water is an unusual liquid in its solvation properties. Here, we model the process of transferring a nonpolar solute into water. Our goal was to capture the physical balance between water's hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions in a model that is simple enough to be nearly analytical and not heavily computational. We develop a 2-dimensional Mercedes-Benz-like model of water with which we compute the free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and the heat capacity of transfer as a function of temperature, pressure, and solute size. As validation, we find that this model gives the same trends as Monte Carlo simulations of the underlying 2D model and gives qualitative agreement with experiments. The advantages of this model are that it gives simple insights and that computational time is negligible. It may provide a useful starting point for developing more efficient and more realistic 3D models of aqueous solvation. PMID:22564051

  17. Water's hydrogen bonds in the hydrophobic effect: a simple model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huafeng; Dill, Ken A

    2005-12-15

    We propose a simple analytical model to account for water's hydrogen bonds in the hydrophobic effect. It is based on computing a mean-field partition function for a water molecule in the first solvation shell around a solute molecule. The model treats the orientational restrictions from hydrogen bonding, and utilizes quantities that can be obtained from bulk water simulations. We illustrate the principles in a 2-dimensional Mercedes-Benz-like model. Our model gives good predictions for the heat capacity of hydrophobic solvation, reproduces the solvation energies and entropies at different temperatures with only one fitting parameter, and accounts for the solute size dependence of the hydrophobic effect. Our model supports the view that water's hydrogen bonding propensity determines the temperature dependence of the hydrophobic effect. It explains the puzzling experimental observation that dissolving a nonpolar solute in hot water has positive entropy. PMID:16375338

  18. Characterization of exhaust emissions from trap-equipped light-duty diesels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the project was to thoroughly characterize and quantify the criteria and toxic-pollutant emissions from two different types of trap-equipped light-duty diesel vehicles. These vehicles included a 1986 Mercedes-Benz 300 SDL, which utilizes a catalyzed trap system, and a prototype Volkswagen, which utilizes an additive trap system (organometallic iron additive). Exhaust emissions from the two vehicles were evaluated as to driving cycle, presence of traps, engine condition, trap condition and fuel aromatic content. In addition to the currently regulated emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter), a number of unregulated emissions were measured, including aldehydes, benzene, PAHs, metals and trace elements, and 1,3-butadiene. Particulate samples were also analyzed for mutagenic activity using the Ames test. In general, the vehicles produced lower hydrocarbon emissions, higher carbon monoxide emissions, and lower fuel economy when the traps were installed in the vehicles.

  19. Panel Discussion IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, F.; Batten, A.; Budding, E.; Devinney, E.; Eggleton, P.; Hatzes, A.; Hubeny, I.; Kley, W.; Lammer, H.; Linnell, A.; Trimble, V.; Wilson, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    I. Hubeny Welcome to the last panel meeting. We invite general comments either from the audience or from the panelists. V. Trimble Well, Mercedes started us with a vocabulary item and I think I would like to end with a vocabulary item. When they were first discovered, we called them `extra solar system planets' which was descriptive and fine, but it's just rather cumbersome. At some point they became `extra solar planets.' Now I have never seen a planet inside the Sun. And therefore `extrasolar' is not a good descriptor. `Exoplanets' is OK, but now that there are so many of them that perhaps they are simply `the planets.' When you want to specialize to ours, you could say `solar system planets.' Think how much ink it would save.

  20. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Nacaome, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Nacaome that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Nacaome as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope at Nacaome were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at two bridges. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Nacaome at Nacaome, 5,040 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Nacaome en Las Mercedes, located about 13 kilometers upstream from Nacaome. One of the discharges, 4,549 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 16 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 1,922 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges is 3,770 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharges for Rio Grande, 3,890 cubic meters per

  1. Sound in ecclesiastical spaces in Cordoba. Architectural projects incorporating acoustic methodology (El sonido del espacio eclesial en Cordoba. El proyecto arquitectonico como procedimiento acustico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Rafael

    2003-11-01

    This thesis is concerned with the acoustic analysis of ecclesiastical spaces, and the subsequent implementation of acoustic design methodology in architectural renovations. One begins with an adequate architectural design of specific elements (shape, materials, and textures), with the intention of elimination of acoustic deficiencies that are common in such spaces. These are those deficiencies that impair good speech intelligibility and good musical audibility. The investigation is limited to churches in the province of Cordoba and to churches built after the reconquest of Spain (1236) and up until the 18th century. Selected churches are those that have undergone architectural renovations to adapt them to new uses or to make them more suitable for liturgical use. The thesis attempts to summarize the acoustic analyses and the acoustical solutions that have been implemented. The results are presented in a manner that should be useful for the adoption of a model for the functional renovation of ecclesiastical spaces. Such would allow those involved in architectural projects to specify the nature of the sound, even though somewhat intangible, within the ecclesiastical space. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: jnavarro@us.es

  2. Innovative approaches to improve bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye

    In this thesis we studied the electrical properties of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices fabricated using a variety of conjugated polymers, including regioregular P3HT, regiorandom P3HT, MEH-PPV and Mercedes, and several fullerene derivatives including [C61]PCBM, [C71]PCBM, bis-PCBM, Jalapeno and Habanero. We first optimized the fabrication recipe for P3HT/PCBM devices to yield a power conversion efficiency ˜3.5%, which is comparable to the reported state-of-the-art P3HT/PCBM device performance. We then fabricated OPV devices using alternative high LUMO fullerenes and a narrow bandgap/deep HOMO polymer to enhance OPV device performance and studied the electrical properties of these devices. Devices fabricated using P3HT/Jalapeno demonstrate a high efficiency ˜5%. Finally, we discovered an innovative spin-related method, which can potentially compliment the use of alternative donor/acceptor materials, to enhance OPV device performance. We doped the spin ½ radial Galvinoxyl into P3HT/PCBM devices and improved efficiency from 3.5% to 4%. Our experimental results suggest that the existence of Galvinoxyl at the P3HT/PCBM interface facilitates the exciton/polaron dissociation process, while Galvinoxyl molecules that are sparsely distributed in PCBM domains yield enhanced free charge carrier transport.

  3. Laparoscopic right colectomy with transvaginal extraction in a patient with prior pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    YAGCI, M.A.; KAYAALP, C.; KUTLUTURK, K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous complicated abdominal surgeries such as pancreaticoduodenectomy with large abdominal incisions may keep the surgeons away from major laparoscopic procedures. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study that shows the feasibility of major laparoscopic surgery in a patient with previous pancreaticoduodenectomy. Case report A 68-year-old female (BMI 27 kg/m2, ASA II), was admitted for anemia. Her medical history included an open pancreaticoduodenectomy four years ago for chronic pancreatitis. She had an abdominal Mercedes incision. Computed tomography and colonoscopy showed a 5-cm cecal mass with a histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. We performed a totally laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and intracorporeal ileotransverse anastomosis. The specimen was extracted through the vagina. The operating time was 500 minutes and the blood loss was 400 ml. The patient was uneventfully discharged on postoperative day four. Conclusions Laparoscopic colon surgery can be feasible and safe despite previous extensive abdominal surgeries such as pancreaticoduodenectomy. Moreover, laparoscopic surgery in these cases can also be completed with intracorporeal anastomosis and specimen extraction through a natural orifice. PMID:25419586

  4. A statistical mechanical theory for a two-dimensional model of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbic, Tomaz; Dill, Ken A.

    2010-06-01

    We develop a statistical mechanical model for the thermal and volumetric properties of waterlike fluids. Each water molecule is a two-dimensional disk with three hydrogen-bonding arms. Each water interacts with neighboring waters through a van der Waals interaction and an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. This model, which is largely analytical, is a variant of the Truskett and Dill (TD) treatment of the "Mercedes-Benz" (MB) model. The present model gives better predictions than TD for hydrogen-bond populations in liquid water by distinguishing strong cooperative hydrogen bonds from weaker ones. We explore properties versus temperature T and pressure p. We find that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with T as real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of MB water, including the density anomaly, the minimum in the isothermal compressibility, and the decreased number of hydrogen bonds for increasing temperature. The model reproduces that pressure squeezes out water's heat capacity and leads to a negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperatures. In terms of water structuring, the variance in hydrogen-bonding angles increases with both T and p, while the variance in water density increases with T but decreases with p. Hydrogen bonding is an energy storage mechanism that leads to water's large heat capacity (for its size) and to the fragility in its cagelike structures, which are easily melted by temperature and pressure to a more van der Waals-like liquid state.

  5. Orientational order as the origin of the long-range hydrophobic effect.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Saikat; Singh, Rakesh S; Bagchi, Biman

    2015-04-01

    The long range attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed in water is observed to decrease exponentially with their separation-this distance-dependence of effective force is known as the hydrophobic force law (HFL). We explore the microscopic origin of HFL by studying distance-dependent attraction between two parallel rods immersed in 2D Mercedes Benz model of water. This model is found to exhibit a well-defined HFL. Although the phenomenon is conventionally explained by density-dependent theories, we identify orientation, rather than density, as the relevant order parameter. The range of density variation is noticeably shorter than that of orientational heterogeneity. The latter is comparable to the observed distances of hydrophobic force. At large separation, attraction between the rods arises primarily from a destructive interference among the inwardly propagating oppositely oriented heterogeneity generated in water by the two rods. As the rods are brought closer, the interference increases leading to a decrease in heterogeneity and concomitant decrease in free energy of the system, giving rise to the effective attraction. We notice formation of hexagonal ice-like structures at the onset of attractive region which suggests that metastable free energy minimum may play a role in the origin of HFL. PMID:25854251

  6. Energy saving through LED in signaling functions for automotive exterior lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bony, Alexis; Hamami, Khaled; Tebbe, Frank; Mertens, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Safety considerations have always driven the way for improving exterior automotive lighting legal requirements. With the recent adoption of day-time running lamps for passenger cars, the steadily increasing need for reduction of vehicle power consumption has led to the introduction of LED-based day-time running lamps. Solutions with incandescent bulbs have also been implemented, as they present price advantages while offering limited design perspectives. In the meantime, technology developments has turned LED sources into ideal candidates for daytime running lamps by increasing their lumen per watt efficiency ratio towards values around 100 lm/W or higher. In this work, taking as an example the new Mercedes-Benz roadster SLK (R172), we present the first single LED daytime- running lamp, with a total power consumption below 5W per vehicle. After reviewing legal requirements, the optical and electronic concepts are discussed. Details on the tail lamp LED functions are also discussed, and particularly the advantages from the realization of fog lamp with LEDs.

  7. Oxidant generation and toxicity enhancement of aged-diesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianfeng; Wyatt, Anna; Kamens, Richard M.

    Diesel exhaust related airborne Particulate Matter (PM) has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease. The underlying toxicological mechanisms are of great scientific interest. A hypothesis under investigation is that many of the adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. In this study, the main objective was to determine whether aged-diesel exhaust PM has a higher oxidant generation and toxicity than fresh diesel exhaust PM. The diesel exhaust PM was generated from a 1980 Mercedes-Benz model 300SD, and a dual 270 m 3 Teflon film chamber was utilized to generate two test atmospheres. One side of the chamber is used to produce ozone-diesel exhaust PM system, and another side of the chamber was used to produce diesel exhaust PM only system. A newly optimized dithiothreitol (DTT) method was used to assess their oxidant generation and toxicity. The results of this study showed: (1) both fresh and aged-diesel exhaust PM had high oxidant generation and toxicity; (2) ozone-diesel exhaust PM had a higher toxicity response than diesel exhaust PM only; (3) the diesel exhaust PM toxicity increased with time; (4) the optimized DTT method could be used as a good quantitative chemical assay for oxidant generation and toxicity measurement.

  8. A two-dimensional model of water: Theory and computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbič, T.; Vlachy, V.; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu. V.; Southall, N. T.; Dill, K. A.

    2000-02-01

    We develop an analytical theory for a simple model of liquid water. We apply Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and integral equation theory (IET) for associative liquids to the MB model, which is among the simplest models of water. Water molecules are modeled as 2-dimensional Lennard-Jones disks with three hydrogen bonding arms arranged symmetrically, resembling the Mercedes-Benz (MB) logo. The MB model qualitatively predicts both the anomalous properties of pure water and the anomalous solvation thermodynamics of nonpolar molecules. IET is based on the orientationally averaged version of the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This is one of the main approximations in the present work. IET correctly predicts the pair correlation function of the model water at high temperatures. Both TPT and IET are in semi-quantitative agreement with the Monte Carlo values of the molar volume, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient, and heat capacity. A major advantage of these theories is that they require orders of magnitude less computer time than the Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. A summary of the University of Idaho conference commercialization of biodiesel--establishment of engine warranties

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.

    1995-11-01

    The University of Idaho, Department of Agricultural Engineering with assistance from The National Center for Advanced Transportation, The PNW and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, The Idaho Department of Water Resources Energy Division and the ASAE T-11, Energy Committee sponsored an invited, focused workshop on Commercialization of Biodiesel, Establishment of Engine Warranties. Participants were invited from all segments of the Biodiesel industry but engine manufacturer`s and users were particularly targeted. Representatives from Detroit Diesel, Navistar, Cummins, Mercedes Benz, the National Biodiesel Board, the Austrian Biodiesel Industry, Link Transportation, Spokane Transit plus other interested research workers and individuals participated in the conference. The conference had two goals (1) development of a brief statement on the current status of the effect of Biodiesel on Engine Warranties (2) development of a strategic plan for making Biodiesel a recognized fuel acceptable by engine manufacturers for use in their engines. This paper will summarize the presentations of the conference, will discuss the draft statement on where we are today on warranty for use of Biofuel and the issues related to warranty which the engine manufacturer`s and users developed as part of the conference. A complete proceedings of the warranty conference is available from the National Center for Advanced Transportation Technology at the University of Idaho.

  10. A statistical mechanical theory for a two-dimensional model of water.

    PubMed

    Urbic, Tomaz; Dill, Ken A

    2010-06-14

    We develop a statistical mechanical model for the thermal and volumetric properties of waterlike fluids. Each water molecule is a two-dimensional disk with three hydrogen-bonding arms. Each water interacts with neighboring waters through a van der Waals interaction and an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. This model, which is largely analytical, is a variant of the Truskett and Dill (TD) treatment of the "Mercedes-Benz" (MB) model. The present model gives better predictions than TD for hydrogen-bond populations in liquid water by distinguishing strong cooperative hydrogen bonds from weaker ones. We explore properties versus temperature T and pressure p. We find that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with T as real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of MB water, including the density anomaly, the minimum in the isothermal compressibility, and the decreased number of hydrogen bonds for increasing temperature. The model reproduces that pressure squeezes out water's heat capacity and leads to a negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperatures. In terms of water structuring, the variance in hydrogen-bonding angles increases with both T and p, while the variance in water density increases with T but decreases with p. Hydrogen bonding is an energy storage mechanism that leads to water's large heat capacity (for its size) and to the fragility in its cagelike structures, which are easily melted by temperature and pressure to a more van der Waals-like liquid state. PMID:20550408

  11. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  12. Hybrid baryons [alpha].

    SciTech Connect

    Page, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modeled by both the bag and flux tube models. The low lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2{sup +} with a mass of 1.5 - 1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue rich processes of diffractive {gamma}N and {pi}N production, {Psi} decays and p{bar p} annihilation. We review the current status of research on three quarks with a gluonic excitation, called a hybrid baryon. The excitation is not an orbital or radial excitation between the quarks. Hybrid baryons have also been reviewed elsewhere. The Mercedes-Benz logl in Figure 1 indicates two possible views of the confining interaction of three quarks, an essential issue in the study of hybrid baryons. In the logo the three points where the Y shape meets the boundary circle should be identified with the three quarks. There are two possibilities fo rthe interaction of the quarks: (1) a pairwise interaction of the quarks represented by the circle, or (2) a Y shaped interaction between the quarks, represented by the Y-shape in the logo.

  13. Orientational order as the origin of the long-range hydrophobic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Singh, Rakesh S.; Bagchi, Biman

    2015-04-01

    The long range attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed in water is observed to decrease exponentially with their separation—this distance-dependence of effective force is known as the hydrophobic force law (HFL). We explore the microscopic origin of HFL by studying distance-dependent attraction between two parallel rods immersed in 2D Mercedes Benz model of water. This model is found to exhibit a well-defined HFL. Although the phenomenon is conventionally explained by density-dependent theories, we identify orientation, rather than density, as the relevant order parameter. The range of density variation is noticeably shorter than that of orientational heterogeneity. The latter is comparable to the observed distances of hydrophobic force. At large separation, attraction between the rods arises primarily from a destructive interference among the inwardly propagating oppositely oriented heterogeneity generated in water by the two rods. As the rods are brought closer, the interference increases leading to a decrease in heterogeneity and concomitant decrease in free energy of the system, giving rise to the effective attraction. We notice formation of hexagonal ice-like structures at the onset of attractive region which suggests that metastable free energy minimum may play a role in the origin of HFL.

  14. Receptacle model of salting-in by tetramethylammonium ions.

    PubMed

    Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

    2010-11-25

    Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

  15. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment. PMID:2473105

  16. Orientation-dependent integral equation theory for a two-dimensional model of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbič, T.; Vlachy, V.; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu. V.; Dill, K. A.

    2003-03-01

    We develop an integral equation theory that applies to strongly associating orientation-dependent liquids, such as water. In an earlier treatment, we developed a Wertheim integral equation theory (IET) that we tested against NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional Mercedes Benz model of water. The main approximation in the earlier calculation was an orientational averaging in the multidensity Ornstein-Zernike equation. Here we improve the theory by explicit introduction of an orientation dependence in the IET, based upon expanding the two-particle angular correlation function in orthogonal basis functions. We find that the new orientation-dependent IET (ODIET) yields a considerable improvement of the predicted structure of water, when compared to the Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, ODIET predicts more long-range order than the original IET, with hexagonal symmetry, as expected for the hydrogen bonded ice in this model. The new theoretical approximation still errs in some subtle properties; for example, it does not predict liquid water's density maximum with temperature or the negative thermal expansion coefficient.

  17. Extreme multiplicity in cylindrical Rayleigh-Bénard convection. II. Bifurcation diagram and symmetry classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borońska, Katarzyna; Tuckerman, Laurette S.

    2010-03-01

    A large number of flows with distinctive patterns have been observed in experiments and simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a water-filled cylinder whose radius is twice the height. We have adapted a time-dependent pseudospectral code, first, to carry out Newton’s method and branch continuation and, second, to carry out the exponential power method and Arnoldi iteration to calculate leading eigenpairs and determine the stability of the steady states. The resulting bifurcation diagram represents a compromise between the tendency in the bulk toward parallel rolls and the requirement imposed by the boundary conditions that primary bifurcations be toward states whose azimuthal dependence is trigonometric. The diagram contains 17 branches of stable and unstable steady states. These can be classified geometrically as roll states containing two, three, and four rolls; axisymmetric patterns with one or two tori; threefold-symmetric patterns called Mercedes, Mitsubishi, marigold, and cloverleaf; trigonometric patterns called dipole and pizza; and less symmetric patterns called CO and asymmetric three rolls. The convective branches are connected to the conductive state and to each other by 16 primary and secondary pitchfork bifurcations and turning points. In order to better understand this complicated bifurcation diagram, we have partitioned it according to azimuthal symmetry. We have been able to determine the bifurcation-theoretic origin from the conductive state of all the branches observed at high Rayleigh number.

  18. Bifurcation phenomena in cylindrical convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuckerman, Laurette; Boronska, K.; Bordja, L.; Martin-Witkowski, L.; Navarro, M. C.

    2008-11-01

    We present two bifurcation scenarios occurring in Rayleigh-Benard convection in a small-aspect-ratio cylinder. In water (Pr=6.7) with R/H=2, Hof et al. (1999) observed five convective patterns at Ra=14200. We have computed 14 stable and unstable steady branches, as well as novel time-dependent branches. The resulting complicated bifurcation diagram, can be partitioned according to azimuthal symmetry. For example, three-roll and dipole states arise from an m=1 bifurcation, four-roll and ``pizza'' branches from m=2, and the ``mercedes'' state from an m=3 bifurcation after successive saddle-node bifurcations via ``marigold'', ``mitsubishi'' and ``cloverleaf'' states. The diagram represents a compromise between the physical tendency towards parallel rolls and the mathematical requirement that primary bifurcations be towards trigonometric states. Our second investigation explores the effect of exact counter-rotation of the upper and lower bounding disks on axisymmetric flows with Pr=1 and R/H=1. The convection threshold increases and, for sufficiently high rotation, the instability becomes oscillatory. Limit cycles originating at the Hopf bifurcation are annihilated when their period becomes infinite at saddle-node-on-periodic-orbit (SNOPER) bifurcations.

  19. Subdermal liposuction.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M; Emiliozzi, P; Gargani, G

    1990-01-01

    Liposuction is a widely used technique today and indications are that it is becoming even more popular due to new technical refinements. The use of cannulae with a smaller diameter allows suction of the fat immediately under the dermis. The cannula we use to perform this new kind of fat suction is straight and has an external diameter of less than 2 mm. This cannula, the so-called Mercedes cannula, has a bullet tip and a three-hole head. Moreover, the holes are not round but are slit-shaped and oriented in the same plane at 120 degrees. This cannula is specifically designed to produce less trauma. The cannula with one downward-facing orifice is not suitable for suction of the subdermal layer and an upward-facing orifice would be too traumatic. The advantage of this new technique, apart from the possibility of treating patients with very slight adiposity, is to allow an effective skin retraction. When a large amount of fat has already been aspirated, residual deformities can occur. These skin irregularities represent the lack of an effective cutaneous retraction mostly due to the permanence of the subdermal fat. In fact, the presence of a thick subdermal adipose layer decreases the possibility of skin retraction. Therefore, indications for liposuction of the subdermal fat are mainly the slight adiposities and the remnant deformities of a previous liposuction operation. Moreover, this technique is applied to every lipoplasty whenever better skin retraction is needed. PMID:2333810

  20. MALL liposuction: the natural evolution of subdermal superficial liposuction.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1994-01-01

    Subdermal superficial liposuction, first presented by the authors at the ISAPS Congress at Zurich in 1989, is performed with thin three-hole Mercedes cannulas (diameter ranges from 1.8 to 2 mm) to treat small and secondary adiposities and to allow better skin retraction. Suction of the subdermal layer of fat reduces the thickness and consistency of the superficial fat and enhances the possibility of skin retraction. In cases where there is a large adiposity of the abdomen, arms, or inner thighs, there is a conspicuous volume of fat whose weight tends to overstretch and to carry the overlying skin downward. In these cases we need to reduce the large fat volume to permit effective skin retraction. Therefore, we apply the principles of traditional liposuction with those of subdermal superficial liposuction to aspirate large amounts of fat from all the adipose layers. We call this technique Massive All Layer Liposuction (MALL). The amount of skin shrinkage after this "defatting" procedure is remarkable and the clinical results are very good. The MALL technique can be applied to other areas as well. In our experience this new liposuction technique has dramatically reduced the indications of abdominoplasties and dermolipectomies of inner thighs and arms. PMID:7976757

  1. Night vision: requirements and possible roadmap for FIR and NIR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Källhammer, Jan-Erik

    2006-04-01

    A night vision system must increase visibility in situations where only low beam headlights can be used today. As pedestrians and animals have the highest risk increase in night time traffic due to darkness, the ability of detecting those objects should be the main performance criteria, and the system must remain effective when facing the headlights of oncoming vehicles. Far infrared system has been shown to be superior to near infrared system in terms of pedestrian detection distance. Near infrared images were rated to have significantly higher visual clutter compared with far infrared images. Visual clutter has been shown to correlate with reduction in detection distance of pedestrians. Far infrared images are perceived as being more unusual and therefore more difficult to interpret, although the image appearance is likely related to the lower visual clutter. However, the main issue comparing the two technologies should be how well they solve the driver's problem with insufficient visibility under low beam conditions, especially of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. With the addition of an automatic detection aid, a main issue will be whether the advantage of FIR systems will vanish given NIR systems with well performing automatic pedestrian detection functionality. The first night vision introductions did not generate the sales volumes initially expected. A renewed interest in night vision systems are however to be expected after the release of night vision systems by BMW, Mercedes and Honda, the latter with automatic pedestrian detection.

  2. Virtual Transgenics: Using a Molecular Biology Simulation to Impact Student Academic Achievement and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shegog, Ross; Lazarus, Melanie M.; Murray, Nancy G.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Sessions, Nathalie; Zsigmond, Eva

    2012-10-01

    The transgenic mouse model is useful for studying the causes and potential cures for human genetic diseases. Exposing high school biology students to laboratory experience in developing transgenic animal models is logistically prohibitive. Computer-based simulation, however, offers this potential in addition to advantages of fidelity and reach. This study describes and evaluates a computer-based simulation to train advanced placement high school science students in laboratory protocols, a transgenic mouse model was produced. A simulation module on preparing a gene construct in the molecular biology lab was evaluated using a randomized clinical control design with advanced placement high school biology students in Mercedes, Texas ( n = 44). Pre-post tests assessed procedural and declarative knowledge, time on task, attitudes toward computers for learning and towards science careers. Students who used the simulation increased their procedural and declarative knowledge regarding molecular biology compared to those in the control condition (both p < 0.005). Significant increases continued to occur with additional use of the simulation ( p < 0.001). Students in the treatment group became more positive toward using computers for learning ( p < 0.001). The simulation did not significantly affect attitudes toward science in general. Computer simulation of complex transgenic protocols have potential to provide a "virtual" laboratory experience as an adjunct to conventional educational approaches.

  3. Acoustics of native-American ceremonial sites in prehispanic America (Acustica en los espacios escenios rituales prehispanicos)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Maria Isabel

    2003-11-01

    This thesis establishes a methodology that incorporates the latest procedures used in architectural acoustics for the study of open spaces of this general type, and definitions are given for the acoustic variables of interest. The ``Juego de Pelota'' (ball game) sites are the only ceremonial sites built specifically for the performance of a fertility ritual, and are ideal for the study of prehispanic architectural topographies. Analysis of the acoustic properties of such sites revealed that the topographical characteristics of the elevation profiles of these architectural structures determine the acoustic behavior of these spaces. Such profiles are classified into three basic types: (i) inclined profile, (ii) terraced profile, and (iii) mixed profile. The terraced profiles are the most efficient, and the mixed profiles are the least efficient, in regard to acoustics. The consideration of the acoustic behavior of architectural structures intended for the ``Ball Game,'' as the designs evolved over time, leads to the conclusion that acoustical sensations that contributed effectively to the characteristic mystical atmosphere of the ceremonial rituals were characteristic only of those sites constructed in the ``classical'' period. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: jnavarro@us.es

  4. Which Single Intervention Would Do the Most to Improve the Health of Those Living on Less Than $1 Per Day?

    PubMed Central

    Yamey, Gavin

    2007-01-01

    Background to the debate: PLoS Medicine is participating in the Council of Science Editors' global theme issue on poverty and human development on October 22, 2007 (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/globalthemeissue.cfm). Over 200 scientific and medical journals are taking part. For our theme issue, we asked a wide variety of commentators worldwide—including clinicians, medical researchers, health reporters, policy makers, health activists, and development experts—to name the single intervention that they think would improve the health of those living in poverty. We also asked four individuals living in poor, rural agricultural communities in the Santillana district, province of Huanta, Ayacucho, Peru to give us their response to the question, “What do you think would do the most to improve your health and the health of your family?” (The four community members were Severino Rojas Poma, Mercedes Vargas Soto, Julián De La Cruz Chahua, and Martín Rojas Poma). Our October 2007 Editorial discusses this debate further. PMID:17958464

  5. Changes in the Physical State of Membrane Lipids during Senescence of Rose Petals 1

    PubMed Central

    Faragher, John D.; Wachtel, Ellen; Mayak, Shimon

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the physical state of microsomal membrane lipids during senescence of rose flower petals (Rosa hyb. L. cv Mercedes) were measured by x-ray diffraction analysis. During senescence of cut flowers held at 22°C, lipid in the ordered, gel phase appeared in the otherwise disordered, liquid-crystalline phase lipids of the membranes. This was due to an increase in the phase transition temperature of the lipids. The proportion of gel phase in the membrane lipids of 2-day-old flowers was estimated as about 20% at 22°C. Ethylene may be responsible, at least in part, for the increase in lipid transition temperature during senescence since aminooxyacetic acid and silver thiosulfate inhibited the rise in transition temperature. When flowers were stored at 3°C for 10 to 17 days and then transferrd to 22°C, gel phase lipid appeared in membranes earlier than in freshly cut flowers. This advanced senescence was the result of aging at 3°C, indicated by increases in membrane lipid transition temperature and ethylene production rate during the time at 3°C. It is concluded that changes in the physical state of membrane lipids are an integral part of senescence of rose petals, that they are caused, at least in part, by ethylene action and that they are responsible, at least in part, for the increase in membrane permeability which precedes flower death. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:16665320

  6. Quality Designed Twin Wire Arc Spraying of Aluminum Bores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Methner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    After 125 years of development in combustion engines, the attractiveness of these powerplants still gains a great deal of attention. The efficiency of engines has been increased continuously through numerous innovations during the last years. Especially in the field of motor engineering, consequent friction optimization leads to cost-effective fuel consumption advantages and a CO2 reduction. This is the motivation and adjusting lever of NANOSLIDE® from Mercedes-Benz. The twin wire arc-spraying process of the aluminum bore creates a thin, iron-carbon-alloyed coating which is surface-finished through honing. Due to the continuous development in engines, the coating strategies must be adapted in parallel to achieve a quality-conformed coating result. The most important factors to this end are the controlled indemnification of a minimal coating thickness and a homogeneous coating deposition of the complete bore. A specific system enables the measuring and adjusting of the part and the central plunging of the coating torch into the bore to achieve a homogeneous coating thickness. Before and after measurement of the bore diameter enables conclusions about the coating thickness. A software tool specifically developed for coating deposition can transfer this information to a model that predicts the coating deposition as a function of the coating strategy.

  7. As its R D budget nears $2 billion Bayer rethinks priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1993-03-17

    With a planned 1993 research and development budget of roughly DM3.2 billion ($1.95 billion), Bayer (Leverkusen) is the industry's biggest R D spender. But while the German giant lays out a healthy 7% of sales on R D, caution is clearly replacing the heady spending spurts of several years ago. And faced with an increasingly rigorous corporate business restructuring, Bayer - like others in the chemical industry - is rethinking its R D strategies. While Bayer's R D stress is clearly on life sciences, the company remains bullish on certain new materials, particularly inorganics. It has developed several engineering ceramics for use in automotive engines, with the most advanced - a silicon nitride - being road tested in Mercedes models. [open quotes]We have the materials and know their properties,[close quotes] says Hauke Fuerstenwerth, Bayer's head of R D coordination. The challenge now, he says, is to demonstrate a commercially attractive process for large-scale production. Bayer is also pursuing new silicon wafer technology. Already in small-scale production, the firm is testing an amorphous silicon that is intended to be far cheaper than existing crystalline silicon wafers, while maintaining suitable properties for applications such as solar collectors.

  8. Committees and Sponsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    Local Organizing Committee J Fernando Barbero González (IEM, CSIC) Laura Castelló Gomar (Univ. Complutense, Madrid) Mikel Fernández Méndez (IEM, CSIC) Iñaki Garay Elizondo (Univ. País Vasco) Luis J Garay Elizondo (Univ. Complutense, Madrid) Mercedes Martín-Benito (Perimeter Institute, Canada) Daniel Martín de Blas (IEM, CSIC) Guillermo A Mena Marugán (IEM, CSIC) Javier Olmedo Nieto (IEM, CSIC) Gonzalo Olmo Alba (IFIC, CSIC) Tomasz Pawlowski (Warsaw University, Poland) Eduardo J Sánchez Villaseñor (Univ. Carlos III, Madrid) Scientific International Committee Abhay Ashtekar (Penn State University, USA) J Fernando Barbero González (IEM, CSIC, Spain) John Barrett (University of Nottingham, UK) José Manuel Cidade Mourão (Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa, Portugal) Laurent Freidel (Perimeter Institute, Canada) Jerzy Lewandowski (Warsaw University, Poland) Guillermo A Mena Marugán (IEM, CSIC, Spain) Jorge Pullin (Louisiana State University, USA) Carlo Rovelli (Univ. Méditerranée, Marseille, France) Thomas Thiemann (Univ. Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany) Sponsors MinisterioBBVA CSICESF UniCarlosCPAN

  9. Paleoclimatic implications (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) from micromorphology of calcretes, palustrine limestones and silcretes, southern Paraná Basin, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tófalo, Ofelia R.; Pazos, Pablo J.

    2010-04-01

    Sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of outcroping and subsurface calcretes, palustrine carbonates, and silcretes were carried out in the southern Paraná Basin (Uruguay). The aim of this work is to describe the microfabric and interpret the genesis of these rocks through detailed analyses, since they contain significant paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution information. The main calcrete and silcrete host rock (Mercedes Formation) is represented by a fluvial thinning upward succession of conglomerate and sandstone deposits, with isolated pelitic intervals and paleosoils. Most of the studied calcretes are macroscopically massive with micromorphological features of alpha fabric, originated by displacive growth of calcite in the host clastic material due to evaporation, evapotranspiration and degassing. Micromorphologically, calcretes indicate an origin in the vadose and phreatic diagenetic environments. Micrite is the principal component, and speaks of rapid precipitation in the vadose zone from supersaturated solutions. The abundance of microsparite and secondary sparite is regarded as the result of dissolution and reprecipitation processes. Although present, brecciated calcretes are less common. They are frequent in vadose diagenetic environments, where the alternation between cementation and non-tectonic fracturing conditions take place. These processes generated episodes of fragmentation, brecciation and cementation. Fissures are filled with clear primary sparitic calcite, formed by precipitation of extremely supersaturated solutions in a phreatic diagenetic environment. The micromorphological characteristics indicate that calcretes resulted from carbonate precipitation in the upper part of the groundwater table and the vadose zone, continuously nourished by lateral migration of groundwater. The scarcity of biogenic structures suggests that they were either formed in zones of little biological activity or that the overimposed processes related to

  10. Architectural acoustics and the heritage of theater architecture in Andalusia (Acustica arquitectonica y patrimonio teatral en Andalucia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Angel Luis

    2003-11-01

    This thesis reports on the study of the acoustic properties of 18 theaters belonging to the Andalusian historical and architectural heritage. These theaters have undergone recent renovations to modernize and equip them appropriately. Coincident with this work, evaluations and qualification assessments with regard to their acoustic properties have been carried out for the individual theaters and for the group as a whole. Data measurements for this purpose consisted of acoustic measurements in situ, both before the renovation and after the renovation. These results have been compared with computer simulations of sound fields. Variables and parameters considered include the following: reverberation time, rapid speech transition index, back-ground noise, definition, clarity, strength, lateral efficiency, interaural cross-correlation coefficient, volume/seat ratio, volume/audience-area ratio. Based on the measurements and analysis, general conclusions are given in regard to the acoustic performance of theaters whose typology and size are comparable to those that were used in this study (between 800 and 8000 cubic meters). It is noted that these properties are comparable to those of the majority of European theaters. The results and conclusions are presented so that they should be of interest to architectural acoustics practitioners and to architects who are involved in the planning of renovation projects for theaters Thesis advisors: Juan J. Sendra and Jaime Navarro Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the author, Angel L. Leon, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: leonr@us.es

  11. [Lipids in the amphipod Talorchestia margaritae (Amphipoda: Talitridae) and its relationship with the ecology of the species].

    PubMed

    López, Sandra; Díaz, Yusbelly; Noris, Karem; Cabrera, Aivle

    2010-09-01

    T. margaritae, an endemic species inhabiting Venezuelan coasts, plays an important ecological role in plant and animal decomposition. To understand this issue in some animal groups, especially small ones, lipid composition analysis has been an interesting tool to describe their trophic relationships and food preferences. In order to assess this and visualize the components of their diet, we determined the lipid composition differences between males and females and among age classes in this species. Two sandy beaches were selected: Mangle Quemao and Las Mercedes de Paparo, from which sand samples of known volume were collected at the supralittoral area in 2007. Organisms were separated by age and sex classes, and their size, weight, density, biomass, total lipids (TL), lipid classes and fatty acid markers present in their tissues were determined. The sizes were similar for all age classes between the two locations, while the weights were higher for Mangle Quemao. The TL and lipid classes showed similar proportions between sexes, age classes and locations (TL: 3-5%; Phospholipids: 20-30%; Glycolipids: <1%; sterols: 4%). On the other hand, Triglycerides (TAG) were higher in Mangle Quemao, which may be related to the difference between the weights of two locations. The most abundant fatty acid biomarkers in the two studied sites were 16:0 and 18:1(n-9); this last one is characteristic of a carnivorous diet. The other nine markers were identified with changes in their distribution in organisms at Mangle Quemao and between males and females of both populations. Based on observed fatty acids markers we can assume T. margaritae as a generalist carnivore. Those populations were influenced by available food; inducing differences in weight, TAG proportion and markers diversity. PMID:20737842

  12. Reliability of lead-calcium automotive batteries in practical operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghoff, H.-G.; Richter, G.

    In order to reach a statistically sound conclusion on the suitability of maintenance-free, lead-calcium automotive batteries for practical operations, the failure behaviour of such batteries has been observed in a large-scale experiment carried out by Mercedes Benz AG and Robert Bosch GmbH in different climatic zones of North America. The results show that the average failure behaviour is not significantly different to that of batteries from other manufacturers using other grid alloy systems and operated under otherwise identical conditions; the cumulative failure probability after 30 months is 17%. The principal causes of failure are: (i) early failure: transport damage, filling errors, and short-circuits due to the outer plates being pushed up during plate-block assembly (manufacturing defect); (ii) statistical failure: short-circuits due to growth of positive plates caused by a reduction in the mechanical strength of the cast positive grid as a result of corrosion; (iii) late failure due to an increased occurrence of short-circuits, especially frequent in outer cell facing the engine of the vehicle (subjected to high temperature), and to defects caused by capacity decay. As expected, the batteries exhibit extremely low water loss in each cell. The poor cyclical performance of stationary batteries, caused by acid stratification and well-known from laboratory tests, has no detrimental effect on the batteries in use. After a thorough analysis of the corrosion process, the battery manufacturer changed the grid alloy and the method of its production, and thus limited the corrosion problem with cast lead-calcium grids and with it the possibility of plate growth. The mathematical methods used in this study, and in particular the characteristic factors derived from them, have proven useful for assessing the suitability of automotive batteries.

  13. Solid-solid collapse transition in a two dimensional model molecular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rakesh S.; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-11-01

    Solid-solid collapse transition in open framework structures is ubiquitous in nature. The real difficulty in understanding detailed microscopic aspects of such transitions in molecular systems arises from the interplay between different energy and length scales involved in molecular systems, often mediated through a solvent. In this work we employ Monte-Carlo simulation to study the collapse transition in a model molecular system interacting via both isotropic as well as anisotropic interactions having different length and energy scales. The model we use is known as Mercedes-Benz (MB), which, for a specific set of parameters, sustains two solid phases: honeycomb and oblique. In order to study the temperature induced collapse transition, we start with a metastable honeycomb solid and induce transition by increasing temperature. High density oblique solid so formed has two characteristic length scales corresponding to isotropic and anisotropic parts of interaction potential. Contrary to the common belief and classical nucleation theory, interestingly, we find linear strip-like nucleating clusters having significantly different order and average coordination number than the bulk stable phase. In the early stage of growth, the cluster grows as a linear strip, followed by branched and ring-like strips. The geometry of growing cluster is a consequence of the delicate balance between two types of interactions, which enables the dominance of stabilizing energy over destabilizing surface energy. The nucleus of stable oblique phase is wetted by intermediate order particles, which minimizes the surface free energy. In the case of pressure induced transition at low temperature the collapsed state is a disordered solid. The disordered solid phase has diverse local quasi-stable structures along with oblique-solid like domains.

  14. Maximally dense packings of two-dimensional convex and concave noncircular particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Steven; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2012-09-01

    Dense packings of hard particles have important applications in many fields, including condensed matter physics, discrete geometry, and cell biology. In this paper, we employ a stochastic search implementation of the Torquato-Jiao adaptive-shrinking-cell (ASC) optimization scheme [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature08239 460, 876 (2009)] to find maximally dense particle packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space Rd. While the original implementation was designed to study spheres and convex polyhedra in d≥3, our implementation focuses on d=2 and extends the algorithm to include both concave polygons and certain complex convex or concave nonpolygonal particle shapes. We verify the robustness of this packing protocol by successfully reproducing the known putative optimal packings of congruent copies of regular pentagons and octagons, then employ it to suggest dense packing arrangements of congruent copies of certain families of concave crosses, convex and concave curved triangles (incorporating shapes resembling the Mercedes-Benz logo), and “moonlike” shapes. Analytical constructions are determined subsequently to obtain the densest known packings of these particle shapes. For the examples considered, we find that the densest packings of both convex and concave particles with central symmetry are achieved by their corresponding optimal Bravais lattice packings; for particles lacking central symmetry, the densest packings obtained are nonlattice periodic packings, which are consistent with recently-proposed general organizing principles for hard particles. Moreover, we find that the densest known packings of certain curved triangles are periodic with a four-particle basis, and we find that the densest known periodic packings of certain moonlike shapes possess no inherent symmetries. Our work adds to the growing evidence that particle shape can be used as a tuning parameter to achieve a diversity of packing structures.

  15. Spin dynamics of qqq wave function on light front in high momentum limit of QCD: Role of qqq force

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, A.N.

    2008-04-15

    The contribution of a spin-rich qqq force (in conjunction with pairwise qq forces) to the analytical structure of the qqq wave function is worked out in the high momentum regime of QCD where the confining interaction may be ignored, so that the dominant effect is Coulombic. A distinctive feature of this study is that the spin-rich qqq force is generated by a ggg vertex (a genuine part of the QCD Lagrangian) wherein the 3 radiating gluon lines end on as many quark lines, giving rise to a (Mercedes-Benz type) Y-shaped diagram. The dynamics is that of a Salpeter-like equation (3D support for the kernel) formulated covariantly on the light front, a la Markov-Yukawa Transversality Principle (MYTP) which warrants a 2-way interconnection between the 3D and 4D Bethe-Salpeter (BSE) forms for 2 as well as 3 fermion quarks. With these ingredients, the differential equation for the 3D wave function {phi} receives well-defined contributions from the qq and qqq forces. In particular a negative eigenvalue of the spin operator i{sigma}{sub 1} . {sigma}{sub 2} x {sigma}{sub 3} which is an integral part of the qqq force, causes a characteristic singularity in the differential equation, signalling the dynamical effect of a spin-rich qqq force not yet considered in the literature. The potentially crucial role of this interesting effect vis-a-vis the so-called 'spin anomaly' of the proton, is a subject of considerable physical interest.

  16. Solid-solid collapse transition in a two dimensional model molecular system.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakesh S; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-11-21

    Solid-solid collapse transition in open framework structures is ubiquitous in nature. The real difficulty in understanding detailed microscopic aspects of such transitions in molecular systems arises from the interplay between different energy and length scales involved in molecular systems, often mediated through a solvent. In this work we employ Monte-Carlo simulation to study the collapse transition in a model molecular system interacting via both isotropic as well as anisotropic interactions having different length and energy scales. The model we use is known as Mercedes-Benz (MB), which, for a specific set of parameters, sustains two solid phases: honeycomb and oblique. In order to study the temperature induced collapse transition, we start with a metastable honeycomb solid and induce transition by increasing temperature. High density oblique solid so formed has two characteristic length scales corresponding to isotropic and anisotropic parts of interaction potential. Contrary to the common belief and classical nucleation theory, interestingly, we find linear strip-like nucleating clusters having significantly different order and average coordination number than the bulk stable phase. In the early stage of growth, the cluster grows as a linear strip, followed by branched and ring-like strips. The geometry of growing cluster is a consequence of the delicate balance between two types of interactions, which enables the dominance of stabilizing energy over destabilizing surface energy. The nucleus of stable oblique phase is wetted by intermediate order particles, which minimizes the surface free energy. In the case of pressure induced transition at low temperature the collapsed state is a disordered solid. The disordered solid phase has diverse local quasi-stable structures along with oblique-solid like domains. PMID:24320339

  17. The ZEBRA electric vehicle battery: power and energy improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Roy C.; Haslam, Steven

    Vehicle trials with the first sodium/nickel chloride ZEBRA batteries indicated that the pulse power capability of the battery needed to be improved towards the end of the discharge. A research programme led to several design changes to improve the cell which, in combination, have improved the power of the battery to greater than 150 W kg -1 at 80% depth of discharge. Bench and vehicle tests have established the stability of the high power battery over several years of cycling. The gravimetric energy density of the first generation of cells was less than 100 Wh kg -1. Optimisation of the design has led to a cell with a specific energy of 120 Wh kg -1 or 86 Wh kg -1 for a 30 kWh battery. Recently, the cell chemistry has been altered to improve the useful capacity. The cell is assembled in the over-discharged state and during the first charge the following reactions occur: at 1.6 V: Al+4NaCl=NaAlCl 4+3Na; at 2.35 V: Fe+2NaCl=FeCl 2+2Na; at 2.58 V: Ni+2NaCl=NiCl 2+2 Na. The first reaction serves to prime the negative sodium electrode but occurs at too low a voltage to be of use in providing useful capacity. By minimising the aluminium content more NaCl is released for the main reactions to improve the capacity of the cell. This, and further composition optimisation, have resulted in cells with specific energies in excess of 140 Wh kg -1, which equates to battery energies>100 Wh kg -1. The present production battery, as installed in a Mercedes Benz A class electric vehicle, gives a driving range of 205 km (128 miles) in city and hill climbing. The cells with improved capacity will extend the practical driving range to beyond 240 km (150 miles).

  18. Possibilities of psychoacoustics to determine sound quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus

    For some years, acoustic engineers have increasingly become aware of the importance of analyzing and minimizing noise problems not only with regard to the A-weighted sound pressure level, but to design sound quality. It is relatively easy to determine the A-weighted SPL according to international standards. However, the objective evaluation to describe subjectively perceived sound quality - taking into account psychoacoustic parameters such as loudness, roughness, fluctuation strength, sharpness and so forth - is more difficult. On the one hand, the psychoacoustic measurement procedures which are known so far have yet not been standardized. On the other hand, they have only been tested in laboratories by means of listening tests in the free-field and one sound source and simple signals. Therefore, the results achieved cannot be transferred to complex sound situations with several spatially distributed sound sources without difficulty. Due to the directional hearing and selectivity of human hearing, individual sound events can be selected among many. Already in the late seventies a new binaural Artificial Head Measurement System was developed which met the requirements of the automobile industry in terms of measurement technology. The first industrial application of the Artificial Head Measurement System was in 1981. Since that time the system was further developed, particularly by the cooperation between HEAD acoustics and Mercedes-Benz. In addition to a calibratable Artificial Head Measurement System which is compatible with standard measurement technologies and has transfer characteristics comparable to human hearing, a Binaural Analysis System is now also available. This system permits the analysis of binaural signals regarding physical and psychoacoustic procedures. Moreover, the signals to be analyzed can be simultaneously monitored through headphones and manipulated in the time and frequency domain so that those signal components being responsible for noise

  19. Spin dynamics of qqq wave function on light front in high momentum limit of QCD: Role of qqq force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, A. N.

    2008-04-01

    The contribution of a spin-rich qqq force (in conjunction with pairwise qq forces) to the analytical structure of the qqq wave function is worked out in the high momentum regime of QCD where the confining interaction may be ignored, so that the dominant effect is Coulombic. A distinctive feature of this study is that the spin-rich qqq force is generated by a ggg vertex (a genuine part of the QCD Lagrangian) wherein the 3 radiating gluon lines end on as many quark lines, giving rise to a (Mercedes-Benz type) Y-shaped diagram. The dynamics is that of a Salpeter-like equation (3D support for the kernel) formulated covariantly on the light front, a la Markov-Yukawa Transversality Principle (MYTP) which warrants a 2-way interconnection between the 3D and 4D Bethe-Salpeter (BSE) forms for 2 as well as 3 fermion quarks. With these ingredients, the differential equation for the 3D wave function ϕ receives well-defined contributions from the qq and qqq forces. In particular a negative eigenvalue of the spin operator iσ1 · σ2 × σ3 which is an integral part of the qqq force, causes a characteristic singularity in the differential equation, signalling the dynamical effect of a spin-rich qqq force not yet considered in the literature. The potentially crucial role of this interesting effect vis-a-vis the so-called 'spin anomaly' of the proton, is a subject of considerable physical interest.

  20. A statistical mechanical theory for a two-dimensional model of water

    PubMed Central

    Urbic, Tomaz; Dill, Ken A.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a statistical mechanical model for the thermal and volumetric properties of waterlike fluids. Each water molecule is a two-dimensional disk with three hydrogen-bonding arms. Each water interacts with neighboring waters through a van der Waals interaction and an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. This model, which is largely analytical, is a variant of the Truskett and Dill (TD) treatment of the “Mercedes-Benz” (MB) model. The present model gives better predictions than TD for hydrogen-bond populations in liquid water by distinguishing strong cooperative hydrogen bonds from weaker ones. We explore properties versus temperature T and pressure p. We find that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with T as real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of MB water, including the density anomaly, the minimum in the isothermal compressibility, and the decreased number of hydrogen bonds for increasing temperature. The model reproduces that pressure squeezes out water’s heat capacity and leads to a negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperatures. In terms of water structuring, the variance in hydrogen-bonding angles increases with both T and p, while the variance in water density increases with T but decreases with p. Hydrogen bonding is an energy storage mechanism that leads to water’s large heat capacity (for its size) and to the fragility in its cagelike structures, which are easily melted by temperature and pressure to a more van der Waals-like liquid state. PMID:20550408

  1. Maximally dense packings of two-dimensional convex and concave noncircular particles.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Steven; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2012-09-01

    Dense packings of hard particles have important applications in many fields, including condensed matter physics, discrete geometry, and cell biology. In this paper, we employ a stochastic search implementation of the Torquato-Jiao adaptive-shrinking-cell (ASC) optimization scheme [Nature (London) 460, 876 (2009)] to find maximally dense particle packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space R(d). While the original implementation was designed to study spheres and convex polyhedra in d≥3, our implementation focuses on d=2 and extends the algorithm to include both concave polygons and certain complex convex or concave nonpolygonal particle shapes. We verify the robustness of this packing protocol by successfully reproducing the known putative optimal packings of congruent copies of regular pentagons and octagons, then employ it to suggest dense packing arrangements of congruent copies of certain families of concave crosses, convex and concave curved triangles (incorporating shapes resembling the Mercedes-Benz logo), and "moonlike" shapes. Analytical constructions are determined subsequently to obtain the densest known packings of these particle shapes. For the examples considered, we find that the densest packings of both convex and concave particles with central symmetry are achieved by their corresponding optimal Bravais lattice packings; for particles lacking central symmetry, the densest packings obtained are nonlattice periodic packings, which are consistent with recently-proposed general organizing principles for hard particles. Moreover, we find that the densest known packings of certain curved triangles are periodic with a four-particle basis, and we find that the densest known periodic packings of certain moonlike shapes possess no inherent symmetries. Our work adds to the growing evidence that particle shape can be used as a tuning parameter to achieve a diversity of packing structures. PMID:23030907

  2. Water in the presence of inert Lennard-Jones obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtjak, Mario; Urbic, Tomaz

    2014-04-01

    Water confined by the presence of a 'sea' of inert obstacles was examined. In the article, freely mobile two-dimensional Mercedes-Benz (MB) water put to a disordered, but fixed, matrix of Lennard-Jones disks was studied by the Monte Carlo computer simulations. For the MB water molecules in the matrix of Lennard-Jones disks, we explored the structures, hydrogen-bond-network formation and thermodynamics as a function of temperature and size and density of matrix particles. We found that the structure of model water is perturbed by the presence of the obstacles. Density of confined water, which was in equilibrium with the bulk water, was smaller than the density of the bulk water and the temperature dependence of the density of absorbed water did not show the density anomaly in the studied temperature range. The behaviour observed as a consequence of confinement is similar to that of increasing temperature, which can for a matrix lead to a process similar to capillary evaporation. At the same occupancy of space, smaller matrix molecules cause higher destruction effect on the absorbed water molecules than the bigger ones. We have also tested the hypothesis that at low matrix densities the obstacles induce an increased ordering and 'hydrogen bonding' of the MB model molecules, relative to pure fluid, while at high densities the obstacles reduce MB water structuring, as they prevent the fluid to form good 'hydrogen-bonding' networks. However, for the size of matrix molecules similar to that of water, we did not observe this effect.

  3. Luxury for the masses.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Michael J; Fiske, Neil

    2003-04-01

    Increasingly wide income disparities, higher levels of education, and greater awareness of other cultures' ideas of the good life have given rise to a new class of American consumer. And a new category of products and services, including automobiles, apparel, food, wine, and spirits, has sprung into being to cater to it. That category is called new luxury. America's middle-market consumers are trading up to higher levels of quality and taste than ever before. Members of the middle market (those earning $50,000 and above annually) collectively have around $1 trillion of disposable income. And they will pay premiums of 20% to 200% for well-designed, well-engineered, and well-crafted goods that can't be found in the mass middle market and that have the artisanal touches of traditional luxury items. Most important, even when they address basic necessities, such goods evoke and engage consumers' emotions while feeding their aspirations for a better life. Supply-side forces are essential to the rise of new luxury. Like the consumers of their goods, entrepreneurs are better educated and more sophisticated about their customers than ever before. In addition, global sourcing, falling trade barriers and transportation costs, and rising offshore manufacturing standards are making possible the economical production of alluring products of high quality. Unlike old-luxury goods, new-luxury products can generate high sales volumes despite their relatively high prices. As a result, new-luxury companies are achieving levels of profitability and growth beyond the reach of their conventional competitors. Whether the item in question is a $6 Panera sandwich or a $30,000 Mercedes, new luxury is a formula that middle-market companies, facing erosion of their market share by high-end and low-end producers, can ill afford to ignore. PMID:12687919

  4. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  5. Estimates of inbreeding and relationship among registered Holstein females in the United States.

    PubMed

    Young, C W; Seykora, A J

    1996-03-01

    The estimate of inbreeding for registered Holstein females born during 1990 was 5.1 +/- 0.4% for a random sample of 600 two-line pedigrees. Previously published estimates were 4.7% for 1970, 3.8% for 1976, and 4.3% for 1982 from similar samples of pedigrees. These estimates were calculated using a base of approximately 1884, or the initiation of herd-book registration in the US. The estimate of relationship between randomly paired females born during 1990 was 10.2 +/- 0.8%; relationships were 5.2% for 1970, 7.3% for 1976, and 9.8% for 1982. Average relationship within the breed increased significantly without a corresponding increase in inbreeding. Inbreeding was also estimated for alternative base years with 10-yr increments to determine the effect of base year on estimates of inbreeding. Using 1950 as the base year, inbreeding was estimated at 0.5% for 1970, 0.3% for 1976, 1.6% for 1982, and 2.1% for 1990. Estimates using 1920 as the base year were 2.0% for 1970, 1.9% for 1976, 2.3% for 1982, and 3.2% for 1990. More recent base years gave lower estimates of inbreeding, as expected, but showed an exaggerated percentage of increase in inbreeding from 1970 to 1990. However, the annual amount of increase of inbreeding from 1976 to 1990 was not significantly affected by time of base year and ranged from 0.08 to 0.12/yr. The five most influential bulls of the breed were Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief 1427381, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation 1491007, S-W-D Valiant 1650414, Osborndale Ivanhoe 1189870, and Sir Pietertje Ormsby Mercedes 44931; estimated direct relationships to the breed were 0.123, 0.122, 0.096, 0.083, and 0.074, respectively. PMID:8708114

  6. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CLEAN DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John

    2001-08-05

    Diesel engines are the most realistic technology to achieve a major improvement in fuel economy in the next decade. In the US light truck market, i.e. Sport Utility Vehicles , pick-up trucks and mini-vans, diesel engines can more than double the fuel economy of similarly rated spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines currently in these vehicles. These new diesel engines are comparable to the SI engines in noise levels and 0 to 60 mph acceleration. They no longer have the traditional ''diesel smell.'' And the new diesel engines will provide roughly twice the service life. This is very significant for resale value which could more than offset the initial premium cost of the diesel engine over that of the SI gasoline engine. So why are we not seeing more diesel engine powered personal vehicles in the U.S.? The European auto fleet is comprised of a little over 30 percent diesel engine powered vehicles while current sales are about 50 percent diesel. In France, over 70 percent of the luxury class cars i.e. Mercedes ''S'' Class, BMW 700 series etc., are sold with the diesel engine option selected. Diesel powered BMW's are winning auto races in Germany. These are a typical of the general North American perspective of diesel powered autos. The big challenge to commercial introduction of diesel engine powered light trucks and autos is compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2, 2007 emissions standards. Specifically, 0.07gm/mile Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 gm/mile particulates (PM). Although the EPA has set a series of bins of increasing stringency until the 2007 levels are met, vehicle manufacturers appear to want some assurance that Tier 2, 2007 can be met before they commit an engine to a vehicle.

  7. Lithospheric structure below seismic stations in Cuba from the joint inversion of Rayleigh surface waves dispersion and receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, O'Leary; Moreno, Bladimir; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2012-05-01

    The joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion and receiver functions has been used to study the crust and upper mantle structure at eight seismic stations in Cuba. Receiver functions have been computed from teleseismic recordings of earthquakes at epicentral (angular) distances in the range from 30° to 90° and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion relations have been taken from earlier surface wave tomographic studies in the Caribbean area. The thickest crust (˜30 km) below Cuban stations is found at Cascorro (CCC) and Maisí (MAS) whereas the thinnest crust (˜18 km) is found at stations Río Carpintero (RCC) and Guantánamo Bay (GTBY), in the southeastern part of Cuba; this result is in agreement with the southward gradual thinning of the crust revealed by previous studies. In the crystalline crust, the S-wave velocity varies between ˜2.8 and ˜3.9 km s-1 and, at the crust-mantle transition zone, the shear wave velocity varies from ˜4.0 and ˜4.3 km s-1. The lithospheric thickness varies from ˜65 km, in the youngest lithosphere, to ˜150 km in the northeastern part of the Cuban island, below Maisí (MAS) and Moa (MOA) stations. Evidence of a subducted slab possibly belonging to the Caribbean plate is present below the stations Las Mercedes (LMG), RCC and GTBY whereas earlier subducted slabs could explain the results obtained below the Soroa (SOR), Manicaragua (MGV) and Cascorro (CCC) station.

  8. Volcanic Ashes Intercalated with Cultural Vestiges at Archaeological Sites from the Piedmont to the Amazon, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Viviana; Mothes, Patricia; Andrade, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    A mineralogical analysis was done on 70 volcanic ashes; 9 corresponding to proximal samples of seven volcanoes: Cotopaxi (4500 yBP), Guagua Pichincha (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD), Cuicocha (3100 yBP), Pululahua (2400 yBP), Ninahuilca (2350 yBP and 4600 yBP) and 61 to distal ashes collected at eight archaeological sites in the Coastal, Sierra and Amazon regions of Ecuador. Cultural vestiges are from Pre-ceramic, Formative, Regional Development and Integration periods, with the exception of a site denominated Hacienda Malqui, which also has Inca vestiges. The sampling process was done in collaboration with various archaeologists in 2011-2013. The volcanic ashes were washed, dried and divided in order to obtain a representative fraction and their later analysis with binocular microscope. The microscope analysis allowed determination of the characteristics of each component of volcanic ash. These main elements are: pumice fragments, minerals, volcanic glass, lithics and exogenous material (non volcanic). The petrographic analysis of distal volcanic ash layers at each archaeological site was correlated by their components and characteristics with proximal volcanic ashes of source volcanoes. Some correlations permitted obtaining a relative age for the layers of distal volcanic ash in the archaeological sites. The petrographic analysis showed a correlation between the archaeological sites of Las Mercedes - Los Naranjos, Rumipamba and El Condado (located west of Quito) with the eruptive activity of Guagua Pichincha volcano (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD) and Pululahua volcano (2400 yBP). Also, a correlation with eruptive activity of Ninahuilca (2350 yBP), Cotopaxi (4500 yBP) and Quilotoa (800 yBP) volcanoes at Hda. Malqui (60 km west of Latacunga) was provided by mineralogy of the respective ashes expulsed by these volcanoes. The ash layers at Cuyuja (50 km east of Quito) are mostly superficial; they are associated with Quilotoa's 800 yBP plinian. Finally at the

  9. Section 17. Laparoscopic and minimal incisional donor hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2014-04-27

    Living donor hepatectomy is now a well-established surgical procedure. However, a large abdominal incision is still required, which results in a large permanent scar, especially for a right liver graft. This report reviews our techniques of minimally invasive or minimal incisional donor hepatectomy using a transverse incision.Twenty-five living donors underwent right hepatectomy with a transverse incision and 484 donors with a conventional incision between April 2007 and December 2012. Among the donors with a transverse incision, two cases were totally laparoscopic procedures using a hand-port device; 11 cases were laparoscopic-assisted hepatectomy (hybrid technique), and 14 cases were open procedures using a transverse incision without the aid of the laparoscopic technique. Currently, a hybrid method has been exclusively used because of the long operation time and surgical difficulty in totally laparoscopic hepatectomy and the exposure problems for the liver cephalic portion during the open technique using a transverse incision.All donors with a transverse incision were women except for one. Twenty-four of the grafts were right livers without middle hepatic vein (MHV) and one with MHV. The donors' mean BMI was 21.1 kg/m. The median operation time was 355 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 346.1±247.3 mL (range, 70-1200). There was no intraoperative transfusion. These donors had 29 cases of grade I [14 pleural effusions (56%), 11 abdominal fluid collections (44%), 3 atelectasis (12%), 1bile leak (4%)], 1 case of grade II (1 pneumothorax) and two cases of grade III complications; two interventions were needed because of abdominal fluid collections by Clavien-Dindo classification. Meanwhile, donors with a conventional big incision, which included the Mercedes-Benz incision or an inverted L-shaped incision, had 433 cases of grade I, 19 cases of grade II and 18 cases of grade III complications. However, the liver enzymes and total bilirubin of all donors

  10. Experiments evaluating holograms in professional communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellamy, John A.; Butters, John N.

    1981-12-01

    The potential of holograms to achieve improved communication in education and training tasks has been investigated. Experiments in education have been carried out at the secondary level and additionally observations of pupil reactions have been observed for younger children. The holograms were found to command attention which is an important aspect of teaching. Some typical examples of the use of holograms included communication of visual information recorded from rare museum exhibits and science examples in physics and biology. The holograms were capable of displaying images in true perspective, thus conveying the same information as a model or real object, but being conviniently reproduced and requiring a minimum of maintenance and storage space. The experiments were extended to training in two study areas where interest was expressed by tutors and there was a willingness to cooperate in the creation and use of training material in holographic form. The areas concerned were in foundry technology and textiles. The requirements in foundry technology were to assist students in the comprehension of the solid form from engineering drawings and the reverse requirement to produce adequate engineering drawings to define a cast form. In the textile case holograms were used to assist the comprehension of the relationship between stitch form and fabric properties and to identify machine faults from stitch irregularities. The number of students formally tested was small leaving statistical analysis inconclusive, but tutors using holograms found that students learned faster when holograms were made available. As a parallel investigation, three undergraduate engineering students used holographic communication as the subject of their project. Subjects included a tutorial display of a carburettor showing the outside form with air and fuel passages in correct perspective. Other examples showed the transmission arrangement in a Mercedes car and the arrangement of cams for a new

  11. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Charles

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information

  12. Design, Analysis, and Characterization of Metamaterial Quasi-Optical Components for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vinh Ngoc

    Since their introduction by Mercedes Benz in the late 1990s, W-band radars operating at 76-77 GHz have found their way into more and more passenger cars. These automotive radars are typically used in adaptive cruise control, pre-collision sensing, and other driver assistance systems. While these systems are usually only about the size of two stacked cigarette packs, system size, and weight remains a concern for many automotive manufacturers. In this dissertation, I discuss how artificially structured metamaterials can be used to improve lens-based automotive radar systems. Metamaterials allow the fabrication of smaller and lighter systems, while still meeting the frequency, high gain, and cost requirements of this application. In particular, I focus on the development of planar artificial dielectric lenses suitable for use in place of the injection-molded lenses now used in many automotive radar systems. I begin by using analytic and numerical ray-tracing to compare the performance of planar metamaterial GRIN lenses to equivalent aspheric refractive lenses. I do this to determine whether metamaterials are best employed in GRIN or refractive automotive radar lenses. Through this study I find that planar GRIN lenses with the large refractive index ranges enabled by metamaterials have approximately optically equivalent performance to equivalent refractive lenses for fields of view approaching +/-20°. I also find that the uniaxial nature of most planar metamaterials does not negatively impact planar GRIN lens performance. I then turn my attention to implementing these planar GRIN lenses at W-band automotive radar frequencies. I begin by designing uniform sheets of W-band electrically-coupled LC resonator-based metamaterials. These metamaterial samples were fabricated by the Jokerst research group on glass and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates and tested at Toyota Research Institute- North America (TRI-NA). When characterized at W-band frequencies, these

  13. Multi-criteria indexes to evaluate the effects of repeated organic amendment applications on soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obriot, Fiona; Stauffer, Marie; Goubard, Yolaine; Vieuble-Gonod, Laure; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    value of data set permits to normalized the data set, a principal component analysis was used for each data in order to explain the variability and at the end, the combination of all indicators selected and weighted by anterior steps defined SQI. Results The repeated applications of organic amendments increased soil fertility and microbial activity compared to control treatments as revealed by the corresponding indices. The largest improvements were observed in treatments that increased more the soil organic matter content (GWS, FYM and BIO) compared to MSW. The regular application of OWP did not significantly modify the SQI dedicated to biodiversity. A recent additional application did not lead to significant supplementary effect on the SQI. Physical properties, productivity and pollution index need more time to be explained. Conclusion The use of SQI allows the aggregation of different indicators to evaluate specific ecosystem services (soil fertility, soil biodiversity, vegetal productivity…) and disservices (heavy metal contamination) of the introduction of OWP in soil. Separate indices made possible to assess different aspects of soil quality separately. Other field results on the effect of OWP application would make possible to relate more precisely the observed effects to the SQIs. References [a] Velasquez, Elena, Patrick Lavelle, et Mercedes Andrade. « GISQ, a Multifunctional Indicator of Soil Quality ». Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39, no 12 (décembre 2007): 3066 80. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.06.013.

  14. FOREWORD: TAUP 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Alessandro; Coccia, Eugenio; Morales, Julio; Puimedónv, Jorge

    2006-04-01

    qualities, was illustrated. The TAUP Steering Committee recalls with deep gratitude that John Bahcall served continuously as a member of the TAUP International Advisory Committee and that he gave an inspired and brilliant conclusive talk at TAUP 2003 in Seattle. Our astroparticle community will miss him greatly. The TAUP 2005 Organizing Committee thanks Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Gobierno de Aragón, Zaragoza University, INFN, IUPAP, PaNAGIC and Ibercaja for sponsoring the Conference, and the Rector and Vice-Rector of the Zaragoza University for their hospitality in the magnificent Paraninfo Palace, where the meeting was held. We wish to thank Venya Berezinsky, José Bernabéu and José Angel Villar for their invaluable contribution in the scientific shaping of the conference and in the preparation of the present volume. Very special thanks are due to Ms Mercedes Fatás and Ms Franca Masciulli, our workshop secretaries, for their continuous and excellent work in the organization of the conference, and to Ms Leopolda Benazzato for her invaluable assistance during the conference. We also gratefully thank the technical staff: Cristina Gil, Francisco Javier Mena and Alfonso Ortiz de Solórzano for their invaluable help. As announced at the end of the conference, TAUP 2007 will be held in Sendai, Japan, hosted by the Tohoku University with the chairs of Professors Atsuto Suzuki and Kunio Inoue. COMMITTEES TAUP STEERING COMMITTEE F. T. Avignone, U. South Carolina B. Barish, CALTECH E. Bellotti, U. Milano/INFN J. Bernabéu, U. Valenciav A. Bottino (chair), U. Torino/INFN V. de Alfaro, U. Torino/INFN T. Kajita, ICRR Tokyo C. W. Kim, JHU Baltimore/KIAS Seoul E. Lorenz U. München V. Matveev, INR Moscow J. Morales, U. Zaragoza D. Sinclair, U. Carleton TAUP 2005 INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE J. J. Aubert, CNRS Marseille J. Bahcall, U. Princeton M. Baldo-Ceolin, U. Padova/INFN L. Bergström, U. Stockholm R. Bernabei, U. Roma Tor Vergata/INFN A. Bettini, U. Padova/INFN S

  15. FOREWORD: TAUP 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Alessandro; Coccia, Eugenio; Morales, Julio; Puimedónv, Jorge

    2006-04-01

    qualities, was illustrated. The TAUP Steering Committee recalls with deep gratitude that John Bahcall served continuously as a member of the TAUP International Advisory Committee and that he gave an inspired and brilliant conclusive talk at TAUP 2003 in Seattle. Our astroparticle community will miss him greatly. The TAUP 2005 Organizing Committee thanks Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Gobierno de Aragón, Zaragoza University, INFN, IUPAP, PaNAGIC and Ibercaja for sponsoring the Conference, and the Rector and Vice-Rector of the Zaragoza University for their hospitality in the magnificent Paraninfo Palace, where the meeting was held. We wish to thank Venya Berezinsky, José Bernabéu and José Angel Villar for their invaluable contribution in the scientific shaping of the conference and in the preparation of the present volume. Very special thanks are due to Ms Mercedes Fatás and Ms Franca Masciulli, our workshop secretaries, for their continuous and excellent work in the organization of the conference, and to Ms Leopolda Benazzato for her invaluable assistance during the conference. We also gratefully thank the technical staff: Cristina Gil, Francisco Javier Mena and Alfonso Ortiz de Solórzano for their invaluable help. As announced at the end of the conference, TAUP 2007 will be held in Sendai, Japan, hosted by the Tohoku University with the chairs of Professors Atsuto Suzuki and Kunio Inoue. COMMITTEES TAUP STEERING COMMITTEE F. T. Avignone, U. South Carolina B. Barish, CALTECH E. Bellotti, U. Milano/INFN J. Bernabéu, U. Valenciav A. Bottino (chair), U. Torino/INFN V. de Alfaro, U. Torino/INFN T. Kajita, ICRR Tokyo C. W. Kim, JHU Baltimore/KIAS Seoul E. Lorenz U. München V. Matveev, INR Moscow J. Morales, U. Zaragoza D. Sinclair, U. Carleton TAUP 2005 INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE J. J. Aubert, CNRS Marseille J. Bahcall, U. Princeton M. Baldo-Ceolin, U. Padova/INFN L. Bergström, U. Stockholm R. Bernabei, U. Roma Tor Vergata/INFN A. Bettini, U. Padova/INFN S

  16. Binary Stars "Flare" With Predictable Cycles, Analysis of Radio Observations Reveals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Astronomers have completed a 5-year campaign to monitor continuously radio flares from two groups of binary star systems. This survey is of special interest because it provides evidence that certain binary star systems have predictable activity cycles like our Sun. The survey, which ran from January 1995 to October 2000, was conducted with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Green Bank Interferometer. The report was presented at the American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, by Mercedes Richards of the University of Virginia, and her collaborators Elizabeth Waltman of the Naval Research Laboratory, and Frank Ghigo of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This long-term survey was critical to our understanding of the short- and long-term magnetic cycles of these intriguing star systems," said Richards. The survey focused on the binary star systems Beta Persei and V711 Tauri -- both are about 95 light-years from Earth. Beta Persei is the prototype of the "Algol" class of interacting binary stars. An Algol system contains a hot, blue, main sequence star, along with a cool, orange/red star that is more active than our Sun. V711 Tauri is an "RS Canum Venaticorum" binary, which contains two cool stars that behave like our Sun. "Our survey was the longest-running continuous radio flare survey of Algol or RS Canum Venaticorum binary star systems," said Richards. A flare is an enormous explosion on the surface of a star, which is accompanied by a release of magnetic energy. Flares can be detected over the full range of wavelengths from gamma rays to the radio. It is estimated that the energy release in a flare on the Sun is equivalent to a billion megatons of TNT. The strength of the magnetic field and the amount of activity it displays, like sunspots and flares, are directly related to the rotation or "spin" of the star. In Beta Persei and V711 Tauri, the cool star spins once every 3 days, compared to once every month in the

  17. PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    ; all of them were ready for use! We cannot imagine him without his two old-fashioned Mercedes, also in his collection. He also has technical skills in construction and music and always has time for jogging. I would finally say that he is an even-tempered person. In brief, mens sana in corpore sano 1 . Dick is a theorist bound to experimental work, extremely intuitive and very dedicated. In his long stays outside Clemson, he always visited places where experiments were being carried out. He has been, and still is, of great help to experimental PhD students, postdocs or senior scientists in providing valuable advice and suggestions towards new measurements. Plausible interpretations of their results developing theoretical models or always searching for good agreement with experiment are two constants in his daily scientific work. Experimental work is present in most of his 150 papers. One of the main theoretical challenges in this field was to develop a formalism where the plethora of experimental results reported in the literature were accommodated. His transition matrix formalism was also seminal in the field of atom-surface scattering. Elastic and inelastic (single and double phonon) contributions were determined as well as the multiphonon background. This work was preceded by a theory for diffuse inelastic scattering and a posterior contribution for multiphonon scattering, both with V Celli. In a similar vein, a theory of molecule-surface scattering was also derived and, more recently, a theory for direct scattering, trapping and desorption. Very interesting extensions to scattering with molten metal and liquid surfaces have also been carried out. Along with collaborators he has studied energy accommodation and sticking coefficients, providing a better understanding of their meaning. G Armand and Dick proposed the well-known corrugated Morse potential as an interaction potential model providing reliable results of diffraction patterns and selective adsorption