NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-05-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, John
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.
When Charged Black Holes Merge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-08-01
Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the merger of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases in which the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
The Astrophysics of Merging Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
When two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
Chaotic Accretion and Merging Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nixon, Christopher James
2012-09-01
The main driver of the work in this thesis is the idea of chaotic accretion in galaxy centres. Most research in this area focuses on orderly or coherent accretion where supermassive black holes or supermassive black hole binaries are fed with gas always possessing the same sense of angular momentum. If instead gas flows in galaxies are chaotic, feeding occurs through randomly oriented depositions of gas. Previous works show that this chaotic mode of feeding can explain some astrophysical phenomena, such as the lack of correlation between host galaxy structure and the direction of jets. It has also been shown that by keeping the black hole spin low this feeding mechanism can grow supermassive black holes from stellar mass seeds. In this thesis I show that it also alleviates the "final parsec problem" by facilitating the merger of two supermassive black holes, and the growth of supermassive black holes through rapid accretion. I also develop the intriguing possibility of breaking a warped disc into two or more distinct planes.
Visualization of Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
This visualization shows gravitational waves emitted by two black holes of nearly equal mass as they spiral together and merge. Orange ripples represent distortions of space-time caused by the rapi...
Simulating merging binary black holes with nearly extremal spins
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela
2011-01-15
Astrophysically realistic black holes may have spins that are nearly extremal (i.e., close to 1 in dimensionless units). Numerical simulations of binary black holes are important tools both for calibrating analytical templates for gravitational-wave detection and for exploring the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. However, all previous simulations of binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown have been limited by an apparently insurmountable barrier: the merging holes' spins could not exceed 0.93, which is still a long way from the maximum possible value in terms of the physical effects of the spin. In this paper, we surpass this limit for the first time, opening the way to explore numerically the behavior of merging, nearly extremal black holes. Specifically, using an improved initial-data method suitable for binary black holes with nearly extremal spins, we simulate the inspiral (through 12.5 orbits), merger and ringdown of two equal-mass black holes with equal spins of magnitude 0.95 antialigned with the orbital angular momentum.
Gravitational Rocket from the Merging Massive Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Dale
2006-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are expected to be among the most fascinating gravitational wave sources, observable by the NASA/ESA LISA detector. Not only will the merger events reveal the rich phenomenology of extremely strong and dynamical gravity deep inside the potential wells at the centers of galaxies (thus providing an excellent testing ground for general relativity), it will also make important contributions to the astrophysics of massive black hole evolutions. Typical black hole mergers involve asymmetric radiation of gravitational waves and lose linear momentum as well as energy and angular momentum. As a result, the merger remnant receives a kick from the GW emission: a gravitational rocket effect. High kick velocities (higher than the escape velocities of the host structure) would have a strong impact on our understanding of how massive black holes have evolved over time and, in particular, on the estimates of the merger rate for LISA. The main difficulties in calculations of the kick velocities has been in the last moments of the merger where the full theory of general relativity must be employed to accurately model the black hole dynamics. I describe a recent calculation of the kick velocities from numerical relativity simulations of the merging black hole binaries.
Gravitational Rocket from the Merging Massive Black Hole Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, D.
2005-12-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are expected to be among the most fascinating gravitational wave sources, observable by the NASA/ESA LISA detector. Not only will the merger events reveal the rich phenomenology of extremely strong and dynamical gravity deep inside the potential wells at the centers of galaxies (thus providing an excellent testing ground for general relativity), it will also make important contributions to the astrophysics of massive black hole evolutions. Typical black hole mergers involve asymmetric radiation of gravitational waves and lose linear momentum as well as energy and angular momentum. As a result, the merger remnant receives a kick from the GW emission: a gravitational rocket effect. High kick velocities (higher than the escape velocites of the host structure) would have a strong impact on our understanding of how massive black holes have evolved over time and, in particular, on the estimates of the merger rate for LISA. The main difficulties in calculations of the kick velocities has been in the last moments of the merger where the full theory of general relativity must be employed to accurately model the black hole dynamics. I describe a recent calculation of the kick velocities from numerical relativity simulations of the merging black hole binaries. Support from NASA ATP#02-0043-0056 is greatly appreciated.
Comparing initial data for rapidly rotating, merging black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Haroon; SXS Collaboration
2015-04-01
Detecting gravitational waves (ripples of curved spacetime) requires accurate predictions of the expected waveforms. Only numerical simulations can predict the waveforms near the time of merger, because then all analytical approximations fail. These numerical simulations must begin with initial data that satisfy the Einstein constraint equations while yielding a pair of merging black holes of the desired physical configuration. Different methods of constructing initial data yield physically different systems, which lead to different initial bursts of spurious ``junk'' gravitational radiation as the system relaxes to equilibrium. By extending work by to the case of rapidly spinning black holes, I am using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) to test whether such physically different initial data are nevertheless astrophysically equivalent (i.e., whether the waveforms agree after the initial relaxation). Specifically, extending the work of, I am using two different initial data methods to simulate merging black holes with equal masses and equal spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum of the system.
Binary pairs of supermassive black holes - Formation in merging galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valtaoja, L.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.
1989-08-01
A process in which supermassive binary blackholes are formed in nuclei of supergiant galaxies due to galaxy mergers is examined. There is growing evidence that mergers of galaxies are common and that supermassive black holes in center of galaxies are also common. Consequently, it is expected that binary black holes should arise in connection with galaxy mergers. The merger process in a galaxy modeled after M87 is considered. The capture probability of a companion is derived as a function of its mass. Assuming a correlation between the galaxy mass and the blackholes mass, the expected mass ratio in binary black holes is calculated. The binary black holes formed in this process are long lived, surviving longer than the Hubble time unless they are perturbed by black holes from successive mergers. The properties of these binaries agree with Gaskell's (1988) observational work on quasars and its interpretation in terms of binary black holes.
A new route towards merging massive black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchant, Pablo; Langer, Norbert; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Tauris, Thomas M.; Moriya, Takashi J.
2016-04-01
With recent advances in gravitational-wave astronomy, the direct detection of gravitational waves from the merger of two stellar-mass compact objects has become a realistic prospect. Evolutionary scenarios towards mergers of various double compact objects generally invoke so-called common-envelope evolution, which is poorly understood and leads to large uncertainties in the predicted merger rates. Here we explore, as an alternative, the scenario of massive overcontact binary (MOB) evolution, which involves two very massive stars in a very tight binary that remain fully mixed as a result of their tidally induced high spin. While many of these systems merge early on, we find many MOBs that swap mass several times, but survive as a close binary until the stars collapse. The simplicity of the MOB scenario allows us to use the efficient public stellar-evolution code MESA to explore it systematically by means of detailed numerical calculations. We find that, at low metallicity, MOBs produce double-black-hole (BH+BH) systems that will merge within a Hubble time with mass-ratios close to one, in two mass ranges, about 25...60 M⊙ and ≳130M⊙, with pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) being produced at intermediate masses. Our models are also able to reproduce counterparts of various stages in the MOB scenario in the local Universe, providing direct support for the scenario. We map the initial binary parameter space that produces BH+BH mergers, determine the expected chirp mass distribution, merger times, and expected Kerr parameters, and predict event rates. We find typically one BH+BH merger event for ~1000 core-collapse supernovae for Z ≲ Z⊙/ 10 . The advanced LIGO (aLIGO) detection rate is more uncertain and depends on the cosmic metallicity evolution. From deriving upper and lower limits from a local and a global approximation for the metallicity distribution of massive stars, we estimate aLIGO detection rates (at the aLIGO design limit) of ~19-550 yr-1 for BH
Merging Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan M.
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes will emit more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. This energy will come in the form of gravitational waves, which are a key prediction of Einstein's general relativity and a new tool for exploring the universe. Observing these mergers with gravitational wave detectors, such as the ground-based LIGO and the space-based LISA, requires knowledge of the radiation waveforms. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were long plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and w aefo rms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Observing Merging Massive Black Hole Binaries with LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorpe, J.; McWillimas, S.; Baker, J.; Arnaud, K.
2009-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to detect gravitational radiation from the inspiral and merger of massive black hole binaries at high redshifts with large signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). These high-SNR observations will make it possible to extract physical parameters such as hole masses and spins, luminosity distance, and sky position from the observed waveforms. LISA'S effectiveness as a tool for astrophysics will be influenced by the precision with which these parameters can be measured. In addition, the practicality of coordinated observations with other instruments will be affected by the temporal evolution of parameter errors such as sky position. We present estimates of parameter errors for the special case of non-spinning black holes. Our focus is on the contribution of the late inspiral and merger portions of the waveform, a regime which typically dominates the SNR but has not been extensively studied due to the historic lack of a precise description of the waveform. Advances in numerical relativity have recently made such studies possible. Initial results suggest that the portion of the waveform beyond the Schwarzchild inner-most stable circular orbit can reduce parameter uncertainties by up to a factor of two.
Uncovering Binary Supermassive Black Holes in Merging Galaxy Pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNulty, Paul; Satyapal, Shobita; Ellison, Sara L.; Secrest, Nathan; Gliozzi, Mario; Rothberg, Barry
2016-01-01
It is now well known that virtually all galaxies host a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) and that galaxy interactions are ubiquitous. Theory predicts these interactions would funnel gas toward the central regions of galaxies, potentially triggering gas accretion onto the SMBH, causing them to appear as binary active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, despite decades of searching and strong theoretical reasons that they should exist, observationally confirmed cases of binary AGNs are extremely rare, and most have been discovered serendipitously. Since galaxy mergers are likely to be characterized by dusty environments, it is possible that the optical signatures of a significant number of binary AGNs are obscured. Observations from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) may hold the key for increasing the rate of discovery of binary AGN in late-stage mergers. Starting with a sample of ~4,000 galaxy pairs, we searched for mid-IR signatures of binary AGNs. In this poster, we report on the detection frequency of binary AGNs identified through mid-infrared observations and explore its dependence on merger stage.
Merging of unequal mass binary black holes in non-axisymmetric galactic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczik, Peter; Wang, Long; Nitadori, Keigo; Spurzem, Rainer
2016-02-01
In this work we study the stellar-dynamical hardening of unequal mass massive black hole (MBH) binaries in the central regions of galactic nuclei. We present a comprehensive set of direct N-body simulations of the problem, varying both the total mass and the mass ratio of the MBH binary. Our initial model starts as an axisymmetric, rotating galactic nucleus, to describe the situation right after the galaxies have merged, but the black holes are still unbound to each other. We confirm that results presented in earlier works (Berczik et al. 2006; Khan et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014) about the solution of the ``last parsec problem'' (sufficiently fast black hole coalescence for black hole growth in cosmological context) are robust for both for the case of unequal black hole masses and large particle numbers. The MBH binary hardening rate depends on the reduced mass ratio through a single parameter function, which quantitatively quite well agrees with standard 3 body scattering theory (see e.g., Hills 1983). Based on our results we conclude that MBH binaries at high redshifts are expected to merge with a factor of ~ 2 more efficiently, which is important to determine the possible overall gravitational wave signals. However, we have not yet fully covered all the possible parameter space, in particular with respect to the preceding of the galaxy mergers, which may lead to a wider variety of initial models, such as initially more oblate and / or even significantly triaxial galactic nuclei. Our N-body simulations were carried out on a new special supercomputers using the hardware acceleration with graphic processing units (GPUs).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Simulating eXtreme Collaboration; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2016-03-01
The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) began searching for gravitational waves in September 2015, with three times the sensitivity of the initial LIGO experiment. Merging black holes are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves for Advanced LIGO, but near the time of merger, the emitted waves can only be computed using numerical relativity. In this talk, I will present new numerical-relativity simulations of merging black holes, made using the Spectral Einstein Code [black-holes.org/SpEC.html], including cases with black-hole spins that are nearly as fast as possible. I will discuss how such simulations will be able to rapidly follow up gravitational-wave observations, improving our understanding of the waves' sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandel, Ilya; de Mink, Selma E.
2016-05-01
We explore a newly proposed channel to create binary black holes of stellar origin. This scenario applies to massive, tight binaries where mixing induced by rotation and tides transports the products of hydrogen burning throughout the stellar envelopes. This slowly enriches the entire star with helium, preventing the build-up of an internal chemical gradient. The stars remain compact as they evolve nearly chemically homogeneously, eventually forming two black holes, which we estimate typically merge 4-11 Gyr after formation. Like other proposed channels, this evolutionary pathway suffers from significant theoretical uncertainties, but could be constrained in the near future by data from advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected merger rate over cosmic time to explore the implications and uncertainties. Our default model for this channel yields a local binary black hole merger rate of about 10 Gpc-3 yr-1 at redshift z = 0, peaking at twice this rate at z = 0.5. This means that this channel is competitive, in terms of expected rates, with the conventional formation scenarios that involve a common-envelope phase during isolated binary evolution or dynamical interaction in a dense cluster. The events from this channel may be distinguished by the preference for nearly equal-mass components and high masses, with typical total masses between 50 and 110 M⊙. Unlike the conventional isolated binary evolution scenario that involves shrinkage of the orbit during a common-envelope phase, short time delays are unlikely for this channel, implying that we do not expect mergers at high redshift.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVE EXTRACTION FROM AN INSPIRALING CONFIGURATION OF MERGING BLACK HOLES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Dae-Il, Choi; Koppitz, Michael; van Meter, James
2005-01-01
We present new techniques for evolving binary black hole systems which allow the accurate determination of gravitational waveforms directly from the wave zone region of the numerical simulations. Rather than excising the black hole interiors, our approach follows the "puncture" treatment of black holes, but utilizing a new gauge condition which allows the black holes to move successfully through the computational domain. We apply these techniques to an inspiraling binary, modeling the radiation generated during the final plunge and ringdown. We demonstrate convergence of the waveforms and and good conservation of mass-energy, with just over 3% of the system s mass converted to gravitational radiation.
Gravitational-wave extraction from an inspiraling configuration of merging black holes.
Baker, John G; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Koppitz, Michael; van Meter, James
2006-03-24
We present new ideas for evolving black holes through a computational grid without excision, which enable accurate and stable evolutions of binary black hole systems with the accurate determination of gravitational waveforms directly from the wave zone region. Rather than excising the black hole interiors, our approach follows the "puncture" treatment of black holes, but utilizing a new gauge condition which allows the black holes to move successfully through the computational domain. We apply these techniques to an inspiraling binary, modeling the radiation generated during the final plunge and ringdown. We demonstrate convergence of the waveforms and good conservation of mass-energy, with just over 3% of the system's mass converted to gravitational radiation. PMID:16605809
Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.
2001-01-01
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.
2011-02-01
Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.
Robust GRMHD Evolutions of Merging Black-Hole Binaries in Magnetized Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, Bernard; Etienne, Zachariah; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baker, John
2016-03-01
Black-hole binary (BHB) mergers are expected to be powerful sources of gravitational radiation at stellar and galactic scales. A typical astrophysical environment for these mergers will involve magnetized plasmas accreting onto each hole; the strong-field gravitational dynamics of the merger may churn this plasma in ways that produce characteristic electromagnetic radiation visible to high-energy EM detectors on and above the Earth. Here we return to a cutting-edge GRMHD simulation of equal-mass BHBs in a uniform plasma, originally performed with the Whisky code. Our new tool is the recently released IllinoisGRMHD, a compact, highly-optimized ideal GRMHD code that meshes with the Einstein Toolkit. We establish consistency of IllinoisGRMHD results with the older Whisky results, and investigate the robustness of these results to changes in initial configuration of the BHB and the plasma magnetic field, and discuss the interpretation of the ``jet-like'' features seen in the Poynting flux post-merger. Work supported in part by NASA Grant 13-ATP13-0077.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luminet, Jean-Pierre
1992-09-01
Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekki, Kenji
2000-09-01
The central bulge of M31 is observed to have two distinct brightness peaks with the separation of ~2 pc. S. Tremaine recently proposed the new idea that M31's nucleus is actually a single thick eccentric disk surrounding the central supermassive black hole. In order to explore the origin of the proposed eccentric disk, we numerically investigate the dynamical evolution of a merger between a central massive black hole with a mass of ~107 Msolar and a compact stellar system with a mass of ~106 Msolar and size of a few parsecs in the central 10 pc of a galactic bulge. We find that the stellar system is destroyed by the strong tidal field of the massive black hole and consequently forms a rotating nuclear thick stellar disk. The orbit of each stellar component in the developed disk is rather eccentric with a mean eccentricity of ~0.5. These results imply that M31's nuclear eccentric disk proposed by Tremaine can be formed by merging between a central massive black hole and a compact stellar system. We furthermore discuss when and how a compact stellar system is transferred into the nuclear region around a massive black hole.
Acceleration of black hole universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.
2014-01-01
Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.
Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Saito, Yuriko; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao
2014-07-01
Galaxies and massive black holes (BHs) presumably grow via galactic merging events and subsequent BH coalescence. As a case study, we investigate the merging event between the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and a satellite galaxy. We compute the expected observational appearance of the massive BH that was at the center of the satellite galaxy prior to the merger and is currently wandering in the M31 halo. We demonstrate that a radiatively inefficient accretion flow with a bolometric luminosity of a few tens of solar luminosities develops when Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto the BH is assumed. We compute the associated broadband spectrum and show that the radio band (observable with EVLA, ALMA, and the Square Kilometre Array) is the best frequency range in which to detect the emission. We also evaluate the mass and the luminosity of the stars bound by the wandering BH and find that such a star cluster is sufficiently luminous that it could correspond to one of the star clusters found by the PAndAS survey. The discovery of a relic massive BH wandering in a galactic halo will provide a direct means of investigating in detail the coevolution of galaxies and BHs. It also means a new population of BHs (off-center massive BHs) and offers targets for clean BH imaging that avoid strong interstellar scattering in the centers of galaxies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Saito, Yuriko; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao
2014-07-01
Galaxies and massive black holes (BHs) presumably grow via galactic merging events and subsequent BH coalescence. As a case study, we investigate the merging event between the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and a satellite galaxy. We compute the expected observational appearance of the massive BH that was at the center of the satellite galaxy prior to the merger and is currently wandering in the M31 halo. We demonstrate that a radiatively inefficient accretion flow with a bolometric luminosity of a few tens of solar luminosities develops when Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto the BH is assumed. We compute the associated broadband spectrum and show that the radio band (observable with EVLA, ALMA, and the Square Kilometre Array) is the best frequency range in which to detect the emission. We also evaluate the mass and the luminosity of the stars bound by the wandering BH and find that such a star cluster is sufficiently luminous that it could correspond to one of the star clusters found by the PAndAS survey. The discovery of a relic massive BH wandering in a galactic halo will provide a direct means of investigating in detail the coevolution of galaxies and BHs. It also means a new population of BHs (off-center massive BHs) and offers targets for clean BH imaging that avoid strong interstellar scattering in the centers of galaxies.
Close encounters of three black holes
Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef
2008-05-15
We present the first fully relativistic long-term numerical evolutions of three equal-mass black holes in a system consisting of a third black hole in a close orbit about a black-hole binary. These close-three-black-hole systems have very different merger dynamics from black-hole binaries; displaying complex trajectories, a redistribution of energy that can impart substantial kicks to one of the holes, distinctive waveforms, and suppression of the emitted gravitational radiation. In one configuration the binary is quickly disrupted and the individual holes follow complicated trajectories and merge with the third hole in rapid succession, while in another, the binary completes a half-orbit before the initial merger of one of the members with the third black hole, and the resulting two-black-hole system forms a highly elliptical, well separated binary that shows no significant inspiral for (at least) the first t{approx}1000M of evolution.
Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. X.
2015-07-01
Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.
Swift Probes Exotic Object: 'Kicked' Black Hole or Mega Star?
Zoom into Markarian 177 and SDSS1133 and see how they compare with a simulated galaxy collision. When the central black holes in these galaxies combine, a "kick" launches the merged black hole on a...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukue, Jun
2000-08-01
A black hole falling into the Earth would syndrome toward the center, while it would shine through mass accretion. The author has re-examined the dynamics of such a black hole in the Earth. In the case of a non-radiating black hole, the timescale of the syndrome is inversely proportional to the initial mass of the black hole. In the case of a radiating black hole, on the other hand, the syndrome time is of the order of the Eddington time. The radiating black hole in the Earth would act as a strong heat source.
Acceleration of Black Hole Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2012-05-01
An alternative cosmological model called black hole universe has been recently proposed by the author. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we live, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of space-time, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. In this study. we will analyze the acceleration of black hole universe that accretes its ambient matter in an increasing rate. We will also compare the result obtained from the black hole universe model with the measurement of type Ia supernova and the result from the big bang cosmology.
In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel
2016-03-01
Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2014-06-01
The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xiao-Gang; Ma, Bo-Qiang
We show that black holes can be quantized in an intuitive and elegant way with results in agreement with conventional knowledge of black holes by using Bohr's idea of quantizing the motion of an electron inside the atom in quantum mechanics. We find that properties of black holes can also be derived from an ansatz of quantized entropy Δ S = 4π k Δ R/{{-{λ }}}, which was suggested in a previous work to unify the black hole entropy formula and Verlinde's conjecture to explain gravity as an entropic force. Such an Ansatz also explains gravity as an entropic force from quantum effect. This suggests a way to unify gravity with quantum theory. Several interesting and surprising results of black holes are given from which we predict the existence of primordial black holes ranging from Planck scale both in size and energy to big ones in size but with low energy behaviors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciama, D. W.
A physical account of the processes of black hole explosions is presented. Black holes form when the degeneracy pressure in a neutron star can no longer balance gravitational forces because the mass of the star is too large. Although black holes absorb surrounding matter through the action of a gravitational field, quantum fluctuations have been theoretically demonstrated to occur in the vacuum, and feature a thermal character. The temperature field decreases outwards, in accordance with the nonuniformity of the gravitational field, but does allow thermal radiation, i.e., Hawking radiation, to escape the black hole. The time scale for the radiation shortens as the mass of the black hole decreases, until a time scale is reached which is short enough for the process to be called an explosion. Observations of electron-positron Hawking radiation are suggested to offer proof of a black hole explosion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hyeyoun
2015-10-01
This thesis explores the evolution of different types of black holes, and the ways in which black hole dynamics can be used to answer questions about other physical systems. We first investigate the differences in observable gravitational effects between a four-dimensional Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld universe compared to a universe without the extra dimension, by considering a black hole solution to the braneworld model that is localized on the brane. When the brane has a negative cosmological constant, then for a certain range of parameters for the black hole, the intersection of the black hole with the brane approximates a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole on the brane with corrections that fall off exponentially outside the horizon. We compute the quasinormal modes of the braneworld black hole, and compare them to the known quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole. We find that there are two distinct regions for the braneworld black hole solutions that are reflected in the dependence of the quasinormal modes on the black hole mass. The imaginary parts of the quasinormal modes display phenomenological similarities to the quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, indicating that nonlinear gravitational effects may not be enough to distinguish between a lower-dimensional theory and a theory derived from a higher-dimensional braneworld. Secondly, we consider the evolution of non-extremal black holes in N=4, d=2 supergravity, and investigate how such black holes might evolve over time if perturbed away from extremality. We study this problem in the probe limit by finding tunneling amplitudes for a Dirac field in a single-centered background, which gives the decay rates for the emission of charged probe black holes from the central black hole. We find that there is no minimum to the potential for the probe particles at a finite distance from the central black hole, so any probes that are emitted escape to infinity. If
Begelman, Mitchell C
2003-06-20
Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138
Noncommutative Singular Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamid Mehdipour, S.
2010-11-01
In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.
1997-08-01
We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.
Fluctuating black hole horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Jianwei
2013-10-01
In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartman, Thomas Edward
The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the
Black Hole Universe Model and Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2011-01-01
Considering black hole as spacetime and slightly modifying the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach principle and Einsteinian general relativity and self consistently explains various observations of the universe without difficulties. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole and gradually grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient material and merging with other black holes. The entire space is infinitely and hierarchically layered and evolves iteratively. The innermost three layers are the universe that we lives, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and zero limits for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published in peer-review journals. This study will show how this new model explains the acceleration of the universe and why dark energy is not required. We will also compare the black hole universe model with the big bang cosmology.
Black hole as a wormhole factory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Mu-In
2015-12-01
There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc / G) 1 / 2 ∼10-5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as "spacetime foam", due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG /c3) 1 / 2 ∼10-33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called "Black Wormhole", consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2 > 1 / 2), a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2 < 1 / 2), the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2 = 1 / 2). This solution suggests the "Generalized Cosmic Censorship" by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by "negative" energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the recent " ER
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu
2015-01-10
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.
Mathur, Samir D.
2012-11-15
The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emparan, Roberto; Figueras, Pau; Martínez, Marina
2014-12-01
We study six-dimensional rotating black holes with bumpy horizons: these are topologically spherical, but the sizes of symmetric cycles on the horizon vary nonmonotonically with the polar angle. We construct them numerically for the first three bumpy families, and follow them in solution space until they approach critical solutions with localized singularities on the horizon. We find strong evidence of the conical structures that have been conjectured to mediate the transitions to black rings, to black Saturns, and to a novel class of bumpy black rings. For a different, recently identified class of bumpy black holes, we find evidence that this family ends in solutions with a localized singularity that exhibits apparently universal properties, and which does not seem to allow for transitions to any known class of black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmire, Gordon
1999-09-01
WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.
Evidence for Supporting the Black Hole Universe Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2013-06-01
According to Zhang’s recently proposed black hole universe model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole and grew up from a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient matter including radiation and merging with other black holes. With a single hypothesis that a black hole constructs its own spacetime or a spacetime encloses a black hole, this new cosmological model can explain all our observations of the universe to date with the well-developed physics. The observable and non-observable spaces of the universe are hierarchically layered instead of isotropically uniform. His previous work has explained various aspects of the black hole universe such as the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and acceleration of the black hole universe; the cosmic microwave background radiation; the energy emission of quasars; and the black hole nucleosynthesis. This study explores more evidence for supporting the black hole universe model. We will investigate: (i) the emission of dynamic black holes to explain gamma ray bursts and X-ray flares of the massive black hole at the center of Milky Way, (ii) the structure of the black hole universe to explain the greater attractors and dark flows, and (iii) the evolution of the black hole universe to explain the discovery of old galactic clusters in the young universe and the enrichment of heavy elements around the distant quasars. We will also address other properties of the black hole universe and compare this new cosmological model with the big bang theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O’Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-05-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, M.
1998-01-01
Our UV/VIS work concentrates on black hole X-ray nova. These objects consist of two stars in close orbit, one of which we believe is a black hole - our goal is to SHOW that one is a black hole. In order to reach this goal we carry out observations in the Optical, UV, IR and X-ray bands, and compare the observations to theoretical models. In the past year, our UV/VIS grant has provided partial support (mainly travel funds and page charges) for work we have done on X-ray nova containing black holes and neutron stars. We have been very successful in obtaining telescope time to support our project - we have completed approximately a dozen separate observing runs averaging 3 days each, using the MMT (5M), Lick 3M, KPNO 2.1M, CTIO 4M, CTIO 1.5M, and the SAO/WO 1.2M telescopes. These observations have allowed the identification of one new black hole (Nova Oph 1977), and allowed the mass of another to be measured (GS2000+25). Perhaps our most exciting new result is the evidence we have gathered for the existence of 'event horizons' in black hole X-ray nova.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
Observational Evidences of Black Hole Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2010-01-01
Recently, the author has proposed an alternative cosmological model called black hole universe. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and a zero limit for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by a universe family tree. The entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. This presentation will demonstrate the observational evidences of the black hole universe in terms of the universe expansion, star-like and supermassive black holes, galactic evolutions, quasars, background radiation, and large scale structure. We will also compare the black hole universe with the big bang cosmology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.
2011-10-01
In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genzel, Reinhard
1998-01-01
The dimness of the black holes located at the center of galaxies surprises astrophysicists, but a possible explanation has been found in the behavior of the plasma they consume. In a hot accretion flow, the gas is ionized to form a plasma. The heavy ions carry most of the mass, and thus of the energy, whereas the electrons produce most of the radiation. But, crucially, in a low-density flow the temperatures of the ions and of the electrons may decouple. Consequently, most of the gravitational energy would be viscously converted into thermal energy of the ions and not radiated away by the electrons. Instead, the gravitational energy is carried with the flow across the event horizon of the black hole. Such a flow leads to a low radiation efficiency even in a highly dissipative accretion disk.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.
1996-03-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foamlike structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the nontrivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S2×S2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S2×S2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix S/ that does not factorize into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the θ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-01
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability—which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold—akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies—a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2 +1 )-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2013-12-01
General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-15
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N{sub B}=e{Phi}{sub {infinity}}/({pi}c({h_bar}/2{pi})), where {Phi}{sub {infinity}}{approx_equal}2{pi}{sup 2}B{sub NS}R{sub NS}{sup 3}/(P{sub NS}c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Noncommutative solitonic black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone
2012-05-01
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie
1991-01-01
We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru
2015-03-26
We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-01
The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2014-06-20
We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki
2012-03-01
We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Bender, P.; Bloom, E.; Cominsky, L.
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
Weighing supermassive black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafiee, Alireza
We calculate the black hole masses for a sample of 27728 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3 (DR3). To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio, we reconstruct quasar spectra for this large sample of quasars using the eigenspectra method (Yip et al., 2004). This method reduces the uncertainty of the measurements for even noisy original spectra, making almost all the SDSS quasar spectra usable for our study. A few applications for black hole mass estimates are presented here. Wang et al. (2006) estimated an average radiative efficiency of 30%-35% for quasars at moderate redshift, which implies that most supermassive black holes are rotating very rapidly. Using our black hole mass estimates, we have found that their method is not independent of quasar lifetimes and thus that quasars do not necessarily have such high efficiencies. As a second application, we have investigated a claim by Steinhardt and Elvis (2009) that there exists a sub-Eddington boundary in the quasar mass-luminosity plane using the Shen et al. (2008) mass estimates. We re-calibrate the mass-scaling relations following Wang et al. (2009) with the most up-to-date reverberation estimates of black hole masses. We compare results from the original data sets with the new re-calibrated estimates of the mass-luminosity plane. We conclude that the presence of the sub-Eddington boundary in the original data of Shen et al. (2008) is likely due to biases in the mass-scaling relation and not to any physical process.
Binary black holes' effects on electromagnetic fields.
Palenzuela, Carlos; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Neilsen, David
2009-08-21
In addition to producing gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as a possible enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves. PMID:19792706
Liu Xin; Shen Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Greene, Jenny E.
2010-01-01
We present a sample of 167 type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked [O III] lambdalambda4959,5007 narrow emission lines, selected from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The double-peaked profiles can be well modeled by two velocity components, blueshifted and redshifted from the systemic velocity. Half of these objects have a more prominent redshifted component. In cases where the Hbeta emission line is strong, it also shows two velocity components whose line-of-sight (LOS) velocity offsets are consistent with those of [O III]. The relative LOS velocity offset between the two components is typically a few hundred km s{sup -1}, larger by a factor of approx1.5 than the line full width at half maximum of each component. The offset correlates with the host stellar velocity dispersion sigma{sub *}. The host galaxies of this sample show systematically larger sigma{sub *}, stellar masses, and concentrations, and older luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages than a regular type 2 AGN sample matched in redshift, [O III] lambda5007 equivalent width, and luminosity; they show no significant difference in radio properties. These double-peaked features could be due to narrow-line region kinematics, or binary black holes. The statistical properties do not show strong preference for or against either scenario, and spatially resolved optical imaging, spectroscopy, radio or X-ray follow-up are needed to draw firm conclusions.
Close supermassive binary black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaskell, C. Martin
2010-01-01
It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.
Rotating black hole and quintessence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-04-01
We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω ) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass ( M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α =-e^2 ne 0 and ω =1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α =0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω , there exists a critical rotation parameter (a=aE), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a
Prisons of light : black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
BLACK HOLE AURORA POWERED BY A ROTATING BLACK HOLE
Takahashi, Masaaki; Takahashi, Rohta
2010-05-15
We present a model for high-energy emission sources generated by a standing magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) shock in a black hole magnetosphere. The black hole magnetosphere would be constructed around a black hole with an accretion disk, where a global magnetic field could be originated by currents in the accretion disk and its corona. Such a black hole magnetosphere may be considered as a model for the central engine of active galactic nuclei, some compact X-ray sources, and gamma-ray bursts. The energy sources of the emission from the magnetosphere are the gravitational and electromagnetic energies of magnetized accreting matters and the rotational energy of a rotating black hole. When the MHD shock generates in MHD accretion flows onto the black hole, the plasma's kinetic energy and the black hole's rotational energy can convert to radiative energy. In this Letter, we demonstrate the huge energy output at the shock front by showing negative energy postshock accreting MHD flows for a rapidly rotating black hole. This means that the extracted energy from the black hole can convert to the radiative energy at the MHD shock front. When an axisymmetric shock front is formed, we expect a ring-shaped region with very hot plasma near the black hole; this would look like an 'aurora'. The high-energy radiation generated from there would carry to us the information for the curved spacetime due to the strong gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamblin, A.; Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.
2000-03-01
Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.
Thermal corpuscular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-06-01
We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number N of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy m (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy ω >m ). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding N -particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M =N m and a Planckian distribution for E >M at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction precisely related with the Hawking component. By means of the horizon wave function for the system, we finally show the backreaction of modes with ω >m reduces the Hawking flux. Both corrections, to the entropy and to the Hawking flux, suggest the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass, if the black hole is in this particular quantum state.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, Joseph F.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
When asked to discuss Cyg XR-1, E. E. Salpeter once concluded, 'A black hole in Cyg X(R)-1 is the most conservative hypothesis.' Recent observations now make it likely that a black hole in Cyg XR-1 is the only hypothesis tenable. Chandrasekhar first showed that compact stars - those with the inward force of gravity on their outer layers balanced by the pressure generated by the Pauli exclusion principle acting on its electrons (in white dwarfs) or nucleons (in neutron stars) - have a maximum mass. Equilibrium is achieved at a minimum of the total energy of the star, which is the sum of the positive Fermi energy and the negative gravitational energy. The maximum mass attainable in equilibrium is found by setting E = 0: M(max) = 1.5 M(Sun). If the mass of the star is larger than this, then E can be decreased without bound by decreasing the star's radius and increasing its (negative) gravitational energy. No equilibrium value of the radius exist, and general relativity predicts that gravitational collapse to a point occurs. This point singularity is a black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contopoulos, I.
2013-09-01
We revisit the Blandford & Znajek (1977) process and solve the fundamental equation that governs the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole. The solution depends on the distributions of the magnetic field angular velocity and the poloidal electric current I. These are not arbitrary. They are determined self-consistently by requiring that magnetic field lines cross smoothly the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner `light surface' located inside the ergosphere, and the outer `light surface' which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. We obtain the rate of electromagnetic extraction of energy and confirm the results of Blanford & Znajek. Unless the black hole is surrounded by a thick disk and/or extended disk outflows, the asymptotic solution is very similar to the asymptotic pulsar magnetosphere which has no collimation and no significant plasma acceleration. We discuss the role of the surrounding disk and of pair production in the generation of black hole jets.
How to Build a Supermassive Black Hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
NASA astronomer Kim Weaver has got that sinking feeling. You know, it's that unsettling notion you get when you sift through your X-ray data and, to your surprise, find mid-sized black holes sinking toward the center of a galaxy, where they merge with others to form a single supermassive black hole. Could such a thing be true? These would be the largest mergers since America On Line bought Time-Warner, and perhaps even more violent. The process would turn a starburst galaxy inside out, making it more like a quasar host galaxy. Using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Weaver saw a hint of this fantastic process in a relatively nearby starburst galaxy named NGC 253 in the constellation Sculptor. She noticed that starburst galaxies - those gems set aglow in a colorful life cycle of hyperactive star birth, death, and renewal - seem to have a higher concentration of mid-mass black holes compared to other galaxies.
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation of Black Hole Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2009-05-01
Recently, the author has proposed an alternative cosmological model called black hole universe. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The observed cosmic microwave background radiation can be explained as the black body radiation of the black hole universe. When a hot and dense star-like black hole accretes its ambient matter and radiation or merges with other black holes, it expands and cools down. In terms of the Planck law of the black body radiation, a possible thermal history of the black hole universe is obtained. The result shows that the temperature of the present universe can be 3 K as observed if the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole. The initial properties (e.g., temperature, angular momentum, etc.) of the star-like black hole are not critical to the present universe, because most matter and radiation are from the mother universe. Therefore, the black hole universe model is also consistent with the observation of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
2012-04-01
List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.
A CAPTURED RUNAWAY BLACK HOLE IN NGC 1277?
Shields, G. A.; Bonning, E. W. E-mail: erin.bonning@questu.ca
2013-07-20
Recent results indicate that the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277 in the Perseus Cluster contains a black hole of mass {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. This far exceeds the expected mass of the central black hole in a galaxy of the modest dimensions of NGC 1277. We suggest that this giant black hole was ejected from the nearby giant galaxy NGC 1275 and subsequently captured by NGC 1277. The ejection was the result of gravitational radiation recoil when two large black holes merged following the merger of two giant ellipticals that helped to form NGC 1275. The black hole wandered in the cluster core until it was captured in a close encounter with NGC 1277. The migration of black holes in clusters may be a common occurrence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Punsly, Brian
This chapter compares and contrasts winds and jets driven by the two distinct components of the black magnetosphere: the event horizon magnetosphere (the large scale magnetic field lines that thread the event horizon) and the ergospheric disk magnetosphere associated with poloidal magnetic flux threading plasma near the equatorial plane of the ergosphere. The power of jets from the two components as predicted from single-fluid, perfect MHD numerical simulations are compared. The decomposition of the magnetosphere into these two components depends on the distribution of large scale poloidal magnetic flux in the ergosphere. However, the final distribution of magnetic flux in a black hole magnetosphere depends on physics beyond these simple single-fluid treatments, non-ideal MHD (eg, the dynamics of magnetic field reconnection and radiation effects) and two-fluid effects (eg, ion coupled waves and instabilities in the inner accretion flow). In this chapter, it is emphasized that magnetic field line reconnection is the most important of these physical elements. Unfortunately, in single-fluid perfect MHD simulations, reconnection is a mathematical artifact of numerical diffusion and is not determined by physical processes. Consequently, considerable calculational progress is required before we can reliably assess the role of each of these components of black hole magnetospheres in astrophysical systems.
The connection between the formation of galaxies and that of their central supermassive black holes.
Haehnelt, Martin G
2005-03-15
Massive black holes appear to be an essential ingredient of massive galactic bulges but little is known yet to what extent massive black holes reside in dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. Massive black holes most likely grow by a mixture of merging and accretion of gas in their hierarchically merging host galaxies. While the hierarchical merging of dark matter structures extends to sub-galactic scales and very high redshift, it is uncertain if the same is true for the build-up of massive black holes. I discuss here some of the relevant problems and open questions. PMID:15681288
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham
2014-09-01
Black holes are the ultimate prisons of the Universe, regions of spacetime where the enormous gravity prohibits matter or even light to escape to infinity. Yet, matter falling toward the black holes may shine spectacularly, generating the strongest source of radiation. These sources provide us with astrophysical laboratories of extreme physical conditions that cannot be realized on Earth. This chapter offers a review of the basic menus for feeding matter onto black holes and discusses their observational implications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-10-01
We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.
Black holes and the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
Black holes as antimatter factories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D.; Petrov, Alexey A.
2009-09-01
We consider accretion of matter onto a low mass black hole surrounded by ionized medium. We show that, because of the higher mobility of protons than electrons, the black hole would acquire positive electric charge. If the black hole's mass is about or below 1020 g, the electric field at the horizon can reach the critical value which leads to vacuum instability and electron-positron pair production by the Schwinger mechanism. Since the positrons are ejected by the emergent electric field, while electrons are back-captured, the black hole operates as an antimatter factory which effectively converts protons into positrons.
How black holes saved relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-02-01
While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.
2010-04-01
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
Bizon, P. )
1990-06-11
We analyze the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills equations with SU(2) gauge group and show numerically that the equations possess asymptotically flat solutions with regular event horizon and nontrivial Yang-Mills (YM) connection. The solutions have zero global YM charges and asymptotically approximate the Schwarzschild solution with quantized values of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass. Our result questions the validity of the no-hair'' conjecture for YM black holes. This work complements the recent study of Bartnik and McKinnon on static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills soliton solutions.
Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-01-01
A new study using results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provides one of the best pieces of evidence yet that many supermassive black holes are spinning extremely rapidly. The whirling of these giant black holes drives powerful jets that pump huge amounts of energy into their environment and affects galaxy growth. A team of scientists compared leading theories of jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes with Chandra data. A sampling of nine giant galaxies that exhibit large disturbances in their gaseous atmospheres showed that the central black holes in these galaxies must be spinning at near their maximum rates. People Who Read This Also Read... NASA’s Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself "We think these monster black holes are spinning close to the limit set by Einstein's theory of relativity, which means that they can drag material around them at close to the speed of light," said Rodrigo Nemmen, a visiting graduate student at Penn State University, and lead author of a paper on the new results presented at American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas. The research reinforces other, less direct methods previously used which have indicated that some stellar and supermassive black holes are spinning rapidly. According to Einstein's theory, a rapidly spinning black hole makes space itself rotate. This effect, coupled with gas spiraling toward the black hole, can produce a rotating, tightly wound vertical tower of magnetic field that flings a large fraction of the inflowing gas away from the vicinity of the black hole in an energetic, high-speed jet. Computer simulations by other authors have suggested that black holes may acquire their rapid spins when galaxies merge, and through the accretion of gas from their surroundings. "Extremely fast spin might be very common for large
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2002-10-01
Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way
Black-Hole Feedback in Quasars
This animation illustrates how black-hole feedback works in quasars. Dense gas and dust in the center simultaneously fuels the black hole and shrouds it from view. The black-hole wind propels large...
Black Hole Boldly Goes Where No Black Hole Has Gone Before
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-01-01
centres of galaxies. It is perhaps possible for a stellar-mass black hole to gain enough mass through merging with other stellar-mass black holes or accreting star gas to stay locked in a cluster. About 100 solar masses would do. Once entrenched, the black hole has the opportunity to merge with other black holes or accrete gas from a local neighbourhood rife with star-stuff. In this way, they could grow into IMBHs. "If a black hole is massive enough, there's a good chance it can survive the pressures of living in a globular cluster, since it will be too heavy to be kicked out," said Arunav Kundu of Michigan State University, a co-author on the Nature report. "That's what is intriguing about this discovery. We may be seeing how a black hole can grow considerably, become more entrenched in the cluster, and then grow some more. "On the other hand," continued Kundu, "there are a variety of ways to make ULXs without requiring intermediate mass black holes. In particular, if the light goes out in a different direction than the one from which the gas comes in, it doesn't put any force on the gas. Also, if the light can be 'focused' towards us by reflecting off the gas in the same way that light from a flashlight bulb bounces off the little mirror in the flashlight, making the object appear brighter than it really is." Ongoing work will help to determine whether this object is a stellar-mass black hole showing an unusual manner of sucking in gas, allowing it to be extra bright, or an IMBH. The team, which also includes Steve Zepf from Michigan State University, and Katherine Rhode from Wesleyan University, has data for thousands of other globular clusters, which they are now analyzing in an effort to determine just how common this phenomenon is. Note for editors The findings appear on line in the 4 January issue of the journal Nature, in the article titled: "A black hole in a globular cluster", by Thomas J. Maccarone, Arunav Kundu, Stephen E. Zepf and Katherine L. Rhode.
Black hole final state conspiracies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McInnes, Brett
2009-01-01
The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of “conspiracies” between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required “conspiracies” if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy.
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-05-01
In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.
2015-04-01
A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.
Classical black holes: the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime.
Thorne, Kip S
2012-08-01
Numerical simulations have revealed two types of physical structures, made from curved spacetime, that are attached to black holes: tendexes, which stretch or squeeze anything they encounter, and vortexes, which twist adjacent inertial frames relative to each other. When black holes collide, their tendexes and vortexes interact and oscillate (a form of nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime). These oscillations generate gravitational waves, which can give kicks up to 4000 kilometers per second to the merged black hole. The gravitational waves encode details of the spacetime dynamics and will soon be observed and studied by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and its international partners. PMID:22859479
Coleman, S. ); Preskill, J. ); Wilczek, F. )
1991-10-07
A black hole can carry quantum numbers that are {ital not} associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the no-hair'' theorems. In the Higgs phase of a gauge theory, electric charge on a black hole generates a nonzero electric field outside the event horizon. This field is nonperturbative in {h bar} and is exponentially screened far from the hole. It arises from the cloud of virtual cosmic strings that surround the black hole. In the confinement phase, a magnetic charge on a black hole generates a {ital classical} field that is screened at long range by nonperturbative effects. Despite the sharp difference in their formal descriptions, the electric and magnetic cases are closely similar physically.
A nonsingular rotating black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sushant G.
2015-11-01
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a well-defined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m( r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r ≫ k, k>0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k=0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version
This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end.
The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light.
The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.
More Hidden Black Hole Dangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
Black holes such as GRO J1655-40 form from collapsed stars. When stars at least eight times more massive than our Sun exhaust their fuel supply, they no longer have the energy to support their tremendous bulk. These stars explode as supernovae, blasting their outer envelopes into space. If the core is more than three times the mass of the Sun, it will collapse into a singularity, a single point of infinite density.Although light cannot escape black holes, astronomers can see black holes by virtue of the hot, glowing gas often stolen from a neighboring star that orbits these objects. From our vantage point, the light seems to flicker. The Rossi Explorer has recorded this flickering (called quasiperiodic oscillations, or QPOs) around many black holes. QPOs are produced by gas very near the innermost stable orbit the closest orbit a blob of gas can maintain before falling pell-mell into the black hole. As gas whips around the black hole at near light speed, gravity pulls the gas in one direction, then another, adding to the flickering. The QPO is related to the speed and size of this orbit and the mass of the black hole.
Black holes, cooling flows and galaxy formation.
Peacock, J A
2005-03-15
Central black holes in galaxies are now well established as a ubiquitous phenomenon, and this fact is important for theories of cosmological structure formation. Merging of galaxy haloes must preserve the proportionality between black hole mass and baryonic mass; the way in which this happens may help solve difficulties with existing ing models of galaxy formation, which suffer from excessive cooling and thus over- produce stars. Feedback from active nuclei may be the missing piece of the puzzle, regulating galaxy-scale cooling flows. Such a process now seems to be observed in cluster-scale cooling flows, where dissipation of sound waves generated by radio lobes can plausibly balance the energy lost in X-rays, at least in a time-averaged sense. PMID:15681292
Thermodynamics of Lifshitz black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devecioǧlu, Deniz Olgu; Sarıoǧlu, Özgür
2011-06-01
We apply the recently extended conserved Killing charge definition of Abbott-Deser-Tekin formalism to compute, for the first time, the energies of analytic Lifshitz black holes in higher dimensions. We then calculate the temperature and the entropy of this large family of solutions, and study and discuss the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Along the way we also identify the possible critical points of the relevant quadratic curvature gravity theories. Separately, we also apply the generalized Killing charge definition to compute the energy and the angular momentum of the warped AdS3 black hole solution of the three-dimensional new massive gravity theory.
Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickover, Clifford A.
1998-03-01
BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.
Quantum mechanics of black holes.
Witten, Edward
2012-08-01
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely. PMID:22859480
Gravitational polarizability of black holes
Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2009-08-15
The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h{sub l} of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h{sub l}{sup EM}. The Love numbers h{sub l} give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.
Dynamics of Charged Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilhão, Miguel; Cardoso, Vitor; Herdeiro, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Sperhake, Ulrich
2015-01-01
We report on numerical simulations of charged-black-hole collisions.We focus on head-on collisions of non-spinning black holes, starting from rest and with the same charge to mass ratio. The addition of charge to black holes introduces a new interesting channel of radiation and dynamics. The amount of gravitational-wave energy generated throughout the collision decreases by about three orders of magnitude as the charge-to-mass ratio is increased from 0 to 0.98. This is a consequence of the smaller accelerations present for larger values of the charge.
Evaporation of primordial black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.
The usual explanation of the isotropy of the universe is that inflation would have smoothed out any inhomogeneities. However, if the universe was initially fractal or in a foam like state, an overall inflation would have left it in the same state. I suggest that the universe did indeed begin with a tangled web of wormholes connecting pairs of black holes but that the inflationary expansion was unstable: wormholes that are slightly smaller correspond to black holes that are hotter than the cosmological background and evaporate away. This picture is supported by calculations with Raphael Bousso of the evaporation of primordial black holes in the s-wave and large N approximations.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Black holes and Newtonian physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raychaudhuri, A. K.
1992-03-01
It is argued that one-way passage is inconsistent with Newtonian physics and thus the dark bodies as thought of by Michell and Laplace cannot be considered as exact analogues of relativistic black holes.
Black hole accretion disc impacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pihajoki, P.
2016-04-01
We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas
2010-04-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modesto, Leonardo; Nicolini, Piero
2010-11-01
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Probability for primordial black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.
1995-11-01
We consider two quantum cosmological models with a massive scalar field: an ordinary Friedmann universe and a universe containing primordial black holes. For both models we discuss the complex solutions to the Euclidean Einstein equations. Using the probability measure obtained from the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal we find that the only unsuppressed black holes start at the Planck size but can grow with the horizon scale during the roll down of the scalar field to the minimum.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
Modesto, Leonardo; Nicolini, Piero
2010-11-15
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2014-01-01
Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach’s principle, governed by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, and acceleration of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates the emissions of dynamic black holes according to the black hole universe model and provides a self-consistent explanation for the observations of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flares, and quasars as emissions of dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes. It is shown that a black hole, when it accretes its ambient matter or merges with other black holes, becomes dynamic. Since the event horizon of a dynamic black hole is broken, the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation leaks out. The leakage of the inside hot blackbody radiation leads to a GRB if it is a star-like black hole, an X-ray flare if it is a massive black hole like the one at the center of the Milky Way, or a quasar if it is a supermassive black hole like an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The energy spectra and amount of emissions produced by the dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes can be consistent with the measurements of GRBs, X-ray flares, and quasars.
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Black Hole Hunters Set New Distance Record
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-01-01
around each other in a diabolic waltz, with a period of about 32 hours. The astronomers also found that the black hole is stripping matter away from the star as they orbit each other. "This is indeed a very 'intimate' couple," notes collaborator Robin Barnard. "How such a tightly bound system has been formed is still a mystery." Only one other system of this type has previously been seen, but other systems comprising a black hole and a companion star are not unknown to astronomers. Based on these systems, the astronomers see a connection between black hole mass and galactic chemistry. "We have noticed that the most massive black holes tend to be found in smaller galaxies that contain less 'heavy' chemical elements," says Crowther [2]. "Bigger galaxies that are richer in heavy elements, such as the Milky Way, only succeed in producing black holes with smaller masses." Astronomers believe that a higher concentration of heavy chemical elements influences how a massive star evolves, increasing how much matter it sheds, resulting in a smaller black hole when the remnant finally collapses. In less than a million years, it will be the Wolf-Rayet star's turn to go supernova and become a black hole. "If the system survives this second explosion, the two black holes will merge, emitting copious amounts of energy in the form of gravitational waves as they combine [3]," concludes Crowther. However, it will take some few billion years until the actual merger, far longer than human timescales. "Our study does however show that such systems might exist, and those that have already evolved into a binary black hole might be detected by probes of gravitational waves, such as LIGO or Virgo [4]." Notes [1] Stellar-mass black holes are the extremely dense, final remnants of the collapse of very massive stars. These black holes have masses up to around twenty times the mass of the Sun, as opposed to supermassive black holes, found in the centre of most galaxies, which can weigh a million to a
Effects of nearly extremal black-hole spin in numerical-relativity simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovelace, Geoffrey
2012-03-01
There is a significant possibility that nearly extremal black holes (i.e., holes spinning nearly as rapidly as possible) exist and thus are among the compact-binary mergers that could be observed by Advanced LIGO. Numerical-relativity simulations of merging compact objects---necessary for predicting the gravitational waveforms that Advanced LIGO could detect---are particularly challenging when they contain nearly extremal black-hole spins. In this talk, I will discuss results from recent simulations [performed using the SpEC code (black-holes.org/SpEC)] that contain nearly extremal black holes, including a simulation of merging black holes with the highest spins (and among the most gravitational-wave cycles) simulated to date. In particular, I will compare the numerical gravitational waveforms and the holes' masses and spins with analytic predictions. I will also discuss the behavior of the strongly warped spacetime near the holes' horizons.
Rapid and Bright Stellar-mass Binary Black Hole Mergers in Active Galactic Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartos, Imre
2016-06-01
Galactic nuclei are expected to harbor the densest population of stellar-mass black holes, accounting for as much as ∼ 2% of the mass of the nuclear stellar cluster. A significant fraction (∼ 30%) of these black holes can reside in binaries. We discuss the fate of the black hole binaries in active galactic nuclei, which get trapped in the inner region of the accretion disk around the central supermassive black hole. Binary black holes can migrate into and then rapidly merge within the disk. The binaries also accrete a significant amount of gas from the disk, potentially leading to detectable X-ray or gamma-ray emission.
Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Jenny E.
2012-12-01
Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass `stellar mass' black holes and the `supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive `intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ~104-105Msolar black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.
Understanding the "antikick" in the merger of binary black holes.
Rezzolla, Luciano; Macedo, Rodrigo P; Jaramillo, José Luis
2010-06-01
The generation of a large recoil velocity from the inspiral and merger of binary black holes represents one of the most exciting results of numerical-relativity calculations. While many aspects of this process have been investigated and explained, the "antikick," namely, the sudden deceleration after the merger, has not yet found a simple explanation. We show that the antikick can be understood in terms of the radiation from a deformed black hole where the anisotropic curvature distribution on the horizon correlates with the direction and intensity of the recoil. Our analysis is focused on Robinson-Trautman spacetimes and allows us to measure both the energies and momenta radiated in a gauge-invariant manner. At the same time, this simpler setup provides the qualitative and quantitative features of merging black holes, opening the way to a deeper understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of black-hole spacetimes. PMID:20867159
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
Quantum Criticality and Black Holes
Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
2009-09-01
I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.
Scrambling with matrix black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Lucas; Sahakian, Vatche
2013-08-01
If black holes are not to be dreaded sinks of information but rather fully described by unitary evolution, they must scramble in-falling data and eventually leak it through Hawking radiation. Sekino and Susskind have conjectured that black holes are fast scramblers; they generate entanglement at a remarkably efficient rate, with the characteristic time scaling logarithmically with the entropy. In this work, we focus on Matrix theory—M-theory in the light-cone frame—and directly probe the conjecture. We develop a concrete test bed for quantum gravity using the fermionic variables of Matrix theory and show that the problem becomes that of chains of qubits with an intricate network of interactions. We demonstrate that the black hole system evolves much like a Brownian quantum circuit, with strong indications that it is indeed a fast scrambler. We also analyze the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase model and reach the same tentative conclusion.
Quantum Criticality and Black Holes
Sachdev, Subir
2007-08-22
I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.
Liouvillian perturbations of black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Couch, W. E.; Holder, C. L.
2007-10-01
We apply the well-known Kovacic algorithm to find closed form, i.e., Liouvillian solutions, to the differential equations governing perturbations of black holes. Our analysis includes the full gravitational perturbations of Schwarzschild and Kerr, the full gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations of Reissner-Nordstrom, and specialized perturbations of the Kerr-Newman geometry. We also include the extreme geometries. We find all frequencies ω, in terms of black hole parameters and an integer n, which allow Liouvillian perturbations. We display many classes of black hole parameter values and their corresponding Liouvillian perturbations, including new closed-form perturbations of Kerr and Reissner-Nordstrom. We also prove that the only type 1 Liouvillian perturbations of Schwarzschild are the known algebraically special ones and that type 2 Liouvillian solutions do not exist for extreme geometries. In cases where we do not prove the existence or nonexistence of Liouvillian perturbations we obtain sequences of Diophantine equations on which decidability rests.
Tomograms of spinning black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnan, Chethan
2009-12-01
The classical internal structure of spinning black holes is vastly different from that of static black holes. We consider spinning Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes, and probe their interior from the gauge theory. Utilizing the simplicity of the geometry and reverse engineering from the geodesics, we propose a thermal correlator construction which can be interpreted as arising from two entangled conformal field theories. By analytic continuation of these correlators, we can probe the Cauchy horizon. Correlators that capture the Cauchy horizon in our work have a structure closely related to those that capture the singularity in a nonrotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli. As expected, the regions beyond the Cauchy horizon are not probed in this picture, protecting cosmic censorship.
Dance of Two Monster Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-03-01
This past December, researchers all over the world watched an outburst from the enormous black hole in OJ 287 an outburst that had been predicted years ago using the general theory of relativity.Outbursts from Black-Hole OrbitsOJ 287 is one of the largest supermassive black holes known, weighing in at 18 billion solar masses. Located about 3.5 billion light-years away, this monster quasar is bright enough that it was first observed as early as the 1890s. What makes OJ 287 especially interesting, however, is that its light curve exhibits prominent outbursts roughly every 12 years.Diagram illustrating the orbit of the secondary black hole (shown in blue) in OJ 287 from 2000 to 2023. We see outbursts (the yellow bubbles) every time the secondary black hole crosses the accretion disk (shown in red, ina side view) surrounding the primary (the black circle). [Valtonen et al. 2016]What causes the outbursts? Astronomers think that there is a second supermassive black hole, ~100 times smaller, inspiraling as it orbits the central monster and set to merge within the next 10,000 years. In this model, the primary black hole of OJ 287 is surrounded by a hot accretion disk. As the secondary black hole orbits the primary, it regularly punches through this accretion disk, heating the material and causing the release of expanding bubbles of hot gas pulled from the disk. This gas then radiates thermally, causing the outbursts we see.Attempts to model this scenario using Newtonian orbits all fail; the timing of the secondary black holes crossings through the accretion disk (as measured by when we see the outbursts) can only be explained by a model incorporating general-relativistic effects on the orbit. Careful observations and precise timing of these outbursts therefore provide an excellent test of general relativity.Watching a Predicted CrossingThe model of OJ 287 predicted another disk crossing in December 2015, so professional and amateur astronomers around the world readied more
Building Black Holes: Supercomputer Cinema
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, Stuart L.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
1988-07-01
A new computer code can solve Einstein's equations of general relativity for the dynamical evolution of a relativistic star cluster. The cluster may contain a large number of stars that move in a strong gravitational field at speeds approaching the speed of light. Unstable star clusters undergo catastrophic collapse to black holes. The collapse of an unstable cluster to a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy may explain the origin of quasars and active galactic nuclei. By means of a supercomputer simulation and color graphics, the whole process can be viewed in real time on a movie screen.
Information loss in black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.
2005-10-01
The question of whether information is lost in black holes is investigated using Euclidean path integrals. The formation and evaporation of black holes is regarded as a scattering problem with all measurements being made at infinity. This seems to be well formulated only in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The path integral over metrics with trivial topology is unitary and information preserving. On the other hand, the path integral over metrics with nontrivial topologies leads to correlation functions that decay to zero. Thus at late times only the unitary information preserving path integrals over trivial topologies will contribute. Elementary quantum gravity interactions do not lose information or quantum coherence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
Two Monster Black Holes at Work
Zoom into Markarian 739, a nearby galaxy hosting two monster black holes. Using NASA's Swift and Chandra, astronomers have shown that both black holes are producing energy as gas falls into them. T...
Superradiance from a charged dilation black hole
Shiraishi, K. )
1992-12-07
In this paper, the authors study the behavior of the wave function of charged Klein-Gordon field around a charge dilaton black hole. The rate of spontaneous charge loss is estimated for large black hole case.
Dynamical Formation Signatures of Black Hole Binaries in the First Detected Mergers by LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O’Leary, Ryan M.; Meiron, Yohai; Kocsis, Bence
2016-06-01
The dynamical formation of stellar-mass black hole–black hole binaries has long been a promising source of gravitational waves for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Mass segregation, gravitational focusing, and multibody dynamical interactions naturally increase the interaction rate between the most massive black holes in dense stellar systems, eventually leading them to merge. We find that dynamical interactions, particularly three-body binary formation, enhance the merger rate of black hole binaries with total mass M tot roughly as \\propto {M}{{tot}}β , with β ≳ 4. We find that this relation holds mostly independently of the initial mass function, but the exact value depends on the degree of mass segregation. The detection rate of such massive black hole binaries is only further enhanced by LIGO’s greater sensitivity to massive black hole binaries with M tot ≲ 80 {M}ȯ . We find that for power-law BH mass functions dN/dM ∝ M ‑α with α ≤ 2, LIGO is most likely to detect black hole binaries with a mass twice that of the maximum initial black hole mass and a mass ratio near one. Repeated mergers of black holes inside the cluster result in about ∼5% of mergers being observed between two and three times the maximum initial black hole mass. Using these relations, one may be able to invert the observed distribution to the initial mass function with multiple detections of merging black hole binaries.
Fenimore, Edward E.
2014-10-06
Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.
Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryder, Lewis
1973-01-01
The newest and most exotic manner in which stars die is investigated. A brief outline is presented, along with a discussion of the role supernova play, followed by a description of how the black holes originate, exist, and how they might be detected. (DF)
'Black holes': escaping the void.
Waldron, Sharn
2013-02-01
The 'black hole' is a metaphor for a reality in the psyche of many individuals who have experienced complex trauma in infancy and early childhood. The 'black hole' has been created by an absence of the object, the (m)other, so there is no internalized object, no (m)other in the psyche. Rather, there is a 'black hole' where the object should be, but the infant is drawn to it, trapped by it because of an intrinsic, instinctive need for a 'real object', an internalized (m)other. Without this, the infant cannot develop. It is only the presence of a real object that can generate the essential gravity necessary to draw the core of the self that is still in an undeveloped state from deep within the abyss. It is the moving towards a real object, a (m)other, that relativizes the absolute power of the black hole and begins a reformation of its essence within the psyche. PMID:23351000
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-02-01
Prologue; 1. A cosmic case of burnout; 2. Matters of gravity: Newton and Einstein; 3. The capture of light; 4. Tripping the theoretical fantastic; 5. Crossing the bar; 6. Contemplating an enormous nothing; 7. Evidence in the case; 8. Hearts of darkness; 9. The search goes on; 10. Passages into the labyrinth; 11. Black hole legends and far out ideas; Epilogue.
Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fraknoi, Andrew
1991-01-01
Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…
Signatures of black holes at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglià, Marco; Godang, Romulus; Cremaldi, Lucien M.; Summers, Donald J.
2007-06-01
Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.
Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth, Lane
The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for transcendent…
Resource Letter BH-1: Black Holes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Detweiler, Steven
1981-01-01
Lists resources on black holes, including: (1) articles of historical interest; (2) books and journal articles on elementary expositions; (3) elementary and advanced textbooks; and (4) research articles on analytic structure of black holes, black hole dynamics, and astrophysical processes. (SK)
Scalar field radiation from dilatonic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gohar, H.; Saifullah, K.
2012-12-01
We study radiation of scalar particles from charged dilaton black holes. The Hamilton-Jacobi method has been used to work out the tunneling probability of outgoing particles from the event horizon of dilaton black holes. For this purpose we use WKB approximation to solve the charged Klein-Gordon equation. The procedure gives Hawking temperature for these black holes as well.
Extremal higher spin black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.
2016-04-01
The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.
Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2008-07-15
Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to
Black-hole binary evolutions with the LEAN code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sperhake, Ulrich
2007-05-01
Numerical simulations of black-hole binaries, obtained with the Lean code, are presented. The code is demonstrated to produce state-of-the-art evolutions of inspiralling and merging black holes with convergent waveforms. We further compare results from head-on collisions of Brill-Lindquist and Kerr-Schild data to study the dependency of the waveforms on the choice of initial data type. In this comparison we find good qualitative agreement between the results of both data types, but observe a systematic discrepancy of about 10% in the wave amplitudes. Several attempts to explain the observed discrepancy are discussed.
Tunnelling from black holes and tunnelling into white holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Bhramar; Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.
2008-03-01
Hawking radiation is nowadays being understood as tunnelling through black hole horizons. Here, the extension of the Hamilton-Jacobi approach to tunnelling for non-rotating and rotating black holes in different non-singular coordinate systems not only confirms this quantum emission from black holes but also reveals the new phenomenon of absorption into white holes by quantum mechanical tunnelling. The rôle of a boundary condition of total absorption or emission is also clarified.
Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-07-01
Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never
Noncritical superstring-black hole transition
Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A.
2006-04-15
An interesting case of string/black hole transition occurs in two-dimensional noncritical string theory dressed with a compact CFT. In these models the high energy densities of states of perturbative strings and black holes have the same leading behavior when the Hawking temperature of the black hole is equal to the Hagedorn temperature of perturbative strings. We compare the first subleading terms in the black hole and closed string entropies in this setting and argue that the entropy interpolates between these expressions as the energy is varied. We compute the subleading correction to the black hole entropy for a specific simple model.
Mechanism of quasistabilization of primordial black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, R.
2013-06-01
It is argued that primordial black holes with initial masses satisfying M<1015g, instead of having explode, might currently be in a quasistable phase contributing to a tiny fraction of the measured dark matter. This statement is based on a computation of black hole evaporation in which energy conservation is taken into account that shows that the backreaction to Hawking radiation favors the quasistabilization of the black hole. The result is specifically shown for general spherically symmetric quantum black holes described by an effective metric independently of the specific framework from which it is derived. The quintessential primordial black hole is fully analyzed as an example.
Modeling Gravitational Radiation Waveforms from Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, J. G.; Centrelia, J. M.; Choi, D.; Koppitz, M.; VanMeter, J.
2006-01-01
Gravitational radiation from merging binary black hole systems is anticipated as a key source for gravitational wave observations. Ground-based instruments, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) may observe mergers of stellar-scale black holes, while the space-based Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) observatory will be sensitive to mergers of massive galactic-center black holes over a broad range of mass scales. These cataclysmic events may emit an enormous amount of energy in a brief time. Gravitational waves from comparable mass mergers carry away a few percent of the system's mass-energy in just a few wave cycles, with peak gravitational wave luminosities on the order of 10^23 L_Sun. Optimal analysis and interpretation of merger observation data will depend on developing a detailed understanding, based on general relativistic modeling, of the radiation waveforms. We discuss recent progress in modeling radiation from equal mass mergers using numerical simulations of Einstein's gravitational field equations, known as numerical relativity. Our simulations utilize Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) to allow high-resolution near the black holes while simultaneously keeping the outer boundary of the computational domain far from the black holes, and making it possible to read out gravitational radiation waveforms in the weak-field wave zone. We discuss the results from simulations beginning with the black holes orbiting near the system's innermost stable orbit, comparing the recent simulations with earlier "Lazarus" waveform estimates based on an approximate hybrid numerical/perturbative technique.
"Survivor" Black Holes May Be Mid-Sized
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-04-01
New evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA's XMM-Newton strengthens the case that two mid-sized black holes exist close to the center of a nearby starburst galaxy. These "survivor" black holes avoided falling into the center of the galaxy and could be examples of the seeds required for the growth of supermassive black holes in galaxies, including the one in the Milky Way. For several decades, scientists have had strong evidence for two distinct classes of black hole: the stellar-mass variety with masses about ten times that of the Sun, and the supermassive ones, located at the center of galaxies, that range from hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses. But a mystery has remained: what about black holes that are in between? Evidence for these objects has remained controversial, and until now there were no strong claims of more than one such black hole in a single galaxy. Recently, a team of researchers has found signatures in X-ray data of two mid-sized black holes in the starburst galaxy M82 located 12 million light years from Earth. "This is the first time that good evidence for two mid-sized black holes has been found in one galaxy," said Hua Feng of the Tsinghua University in China, who led two papers describing the results. "Their location near the center of the galaxy might provide clues about the origin of the Universe's largest black holes - supermassive black holes found in the centers of most galaxies." One possible mechanism for the formation of supermassive black holes involves a chain reaction of collisions of stars in compact star clusters that results in the buildup of extremely massive stars, which then collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes. The star clusters then sink to the center of the galaxy, where the intermediate-mass black holes merge to form a supermassive black hole. In this picture, clusters that were not massive enough or close enough to the center of the galaxy to fall in would survive, as would any
Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
During the final moments of a binary black hole (BH) merger, the gravitational wave (GW) luminosity of the system is greater than the combined electromagnetic (EM) output of the entire observable universe. However, the extremely weak coupling between GWs and ordinary matter makes these waves very difficult to detect directly. Fortunately, the inspirating BH system will interact strongly-on a purely Newtonian level-with any surrounding material in the host galaxy, and this matter can in turn produce unique EM signals detectable at Earth. By identifying EM counterparts to GW sources, we will be able to study the host environments of the merging BHs, in turn greatly expanding the scientific yield of a mission like LISA. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the subject of EM counterparts, as well as a discussion of the theoretical and observational advances required to fully realize the scientific potential of the field.
Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.
Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can we see what LISA will hear?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are formed when galaxies merge. The final stages of this coalescence produce strong gravitational wave signals that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. When the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
ECCENTRIC EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES
Iwasawa, Masaki; An, Sangyong; Matsubayashi, Tatsushi; Funato, Yoko; Makino, Junichiro
2011-04-10
In recent numerical simulations, it has been found that the eccentricity of supermassive black hole (SMBH)-intermediate black hole (IMBH) binaries grows toward unity through interactions with the stellar background. This increase of eccentricity reduces the merging timescale of the binary through the gravitational radiation to a value well below the Hubble time. It also gives a theoretical explanation of the existence of eccentric binaries such as that in OJ287. In self-consistent N-body simulations, this increase of eccentricity is always observed. On the other hand, the result of the scattering experiment between SMBH binaries and field stars indicated that the eccentricity dose not change significantly. This discrepancy leaves the high eccentricity of the SMBH binaries in N-body simulations unexplained. Here, we present a stellar-dynamical mechanism that drives the increase of the eccentricity of an SMBH binary with a large mass ratio. There are two key processes involved. The first one is the Kozai mechanism under a non-axisymmetric potential, which effectively randomizes the angular momenta of surrounding stars. The other is the selective ejection of stars with prograde orbits. Through these two mechanisms, field stars extract the orbital angular momentum of the SMBH binary. Our proposed mechanism causes the increase in the eccentricity of most of SMBH binaries, resulting in the rapid merger through gravitational wave radiation. Our result has given a definite solution to the 'last-parsec problem'.
Black hole with quantum potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Ahmed Farag; Khalil, Mohammed M.
2016-08-01
In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
Symmetries of supergravity black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, David D. K.
2010-10-01
We investigate Killing tensors for various black hole solutions of supergravity theories. Rotating black holes of an ungauged theory, toroidally compactified heterotic supergravity, with NUT parameters and two U(1) gauge fields are constructed. If both charges are set equal, then the solutions simplify, and then there are concise expressions for rank-2 conformal Killing-Stäckel tensors. These are induced by rank-2 Killing-Stäckel tensors of a conformally related metric that possesses a separability structure. We directly verify the separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on this conformally related metric and of the null Hamilton-Jacobi and massless Klein-Gordon equations on the 'physical' metric. Similar results are found for more general solutions; we mainly focus on those with certain charge combinations equal in gauged supergravity but also consider some other solutions.
Black holes in magnetic monopoles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Kimyeong; Nair, V. P.; Weinberg, Erick J.
1991-01-01
We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs field vacuum expectation value v is less than or equal to a critical value v sub cr, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case, the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordstrom solution. For v less than v sub cr, we find additional solutions which are singular at f = 0, but which have this singularity hidden within a horizon. These have nontrivial matter fields outside the horizon, and may be interpreted as small black holes lying within a magnetic monopole. The nature of these solutions as a function of v and of the total mass M and their relation to the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions is discussed.
Complexity, action, and black holes
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-04-18
In an earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" we conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Complexity, action, and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-04-01
Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Glory scattering by black holes
Matzner, R.A.; DeWitte-Morette, C.; Nelson, B.; Zhang, T.
1985-04-15
We present a physically motivated derivation of the JWKB backward glory-scattering cross section of massless waves by Schwarzschild black holes. The angular dependence of the cross section is identical with the one derived by path integration, namely, dsigma/d..cap omega.. = 4..pi../sup 2/lambda/sup -1/B/sub g/ /sup 2/(dB mW..pi.., where lambda is the wavelength, B(theta) is the inverse of the classical deflection function CTHETA(B), B/sub g/ is the glory impact parameter, s is the helicity of the scattered wave, and J/sub 2s/ is the Bessel function of order 2s. The glory rings formed by scalar waves are bright at the center; those formed by polarized waves are dark at the center. For scattering of massless particles by a spherical black hole of mass M, B(theta)/Mapprox.3 ..sqrt..3 + 3.48 exp(-theta), theta > owig..pi... The numerical values of dsigma/d..cap omega.. for this deflection function are found to agree with earlier computer calculations of glory cross sections from black holes.
Accretion disks around black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abramowicz, M. A.
1994-01-01
The physics of accretion flow very close to a black hole is dominated by several general relativistic effects. It cannot be described by the standard Shakura Sunyaev model or by its relativistic version developed by Novikov and Thome. The most important of these effects is a dynamical mass loss from the inner edge of the disk (Roche lobe overflow). The relativistic Roche lobe overflow induces a strong advective cooling, which is sufficient to stabilize local, axially symmetric thermal and viscous modes. It also stabilizes the non-axially-symmetric global modes discovered by Papaloizou and Pringle. The Roche lobe overflow, however, destabilizes sufficiently self-gravitating accretion disks with respect to a catastrophic runaway of mass due to minute changes of the gravitational field induced by the changes in the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. One of the two acoustic modes may become trapped near the inner edge of the disk. All these effects, absent in the standard model, have dramatic implications for time-dependent behavior of the accretion disks around black holes.
Constraints on black hole remnants
Giddings, S.B. )
1994-01-15
One possible fate of information lost to black holes is its preservation in black hole remnants. It is argued that a type of effective field theory describes such remnants (generically referred to as informons). The general structure of such a theory is investigated and the infinite pair production problem is revisited. A toy model for remnants clarifies some of the basic issues; in particular, infinite remnant production is not suppressed simply by the large internal volumes as proposed in cornucopion scenarios. Criteria for avoiding infinite production are stated in terms of couplings in the effective theory. Such instabilities remain a problem barring what would be described in that theory as a strong coupling conspiracy. The relation to Euclidean calculations of cornucopion production is sketched, and potential flaws in that analysis are outlined. However, it is quite plausible that pair production of ordinary black holes (e.g., Reissner-Noerdstrom or others) is suppressed due to strong effective couplings. It also remains an open possibility that a microsopic dynamics can be found yielding an appropriate strongly coupled effective theory of neutral informons without infinite pair production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-01
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-10
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. PMID:27341223
Black hole binaries and microquasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuang-Nan
2013-12-01
This is a general review on the observations and physics of black hole X-ray binaries and microquasars, with the emphasize on recent developments in the high energy regime. The focus is put on understanding the accretion flows and measuring the parameters of black holes in them. It includes mainly two parts: i) Brief review of several recent review article on this subject; ii) Further development on several topics, including black hole spin measurements, hot accretion flows, corona formation, state transitions and thermal stability of standard think disk. This is thus not a regular bottom-up approach, which I feel not necessary at this stage. Major effort is made in making and incorporating from many sources useful plots and illustrations, in order to make this article more comprehensible to non-expert readers. In the end I attempt to make a unification scheme on the accretion-outflow (wind/jet) connections of all types of accreting BHs of all accretion rates and all BH mass scales, and finally provide a brief outlook.
Puncture Initial Data for Highly Spinning Black-Hole Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruchlin, Ian; Healy, James; Lousto, Carlos; Zlochower, Yosef
2015-04-01
Accretion arguments suggest that some astrophysical black-holes will possess nearly extremal spins. It is expected that gravitational wave signals from orbiting and merging black-hole binaries will be detected by Advanced LIGO in the next few years. Accurate waveform models are needed to interpret detector data. We solve the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints of General Relativity representing two black-holes with nearly extremal spins and ultra-relativistic boosts in the puncture formalism using spectral methods in the Cactus/Einstein Toolkit framework. We use a non-conformally-flat ansatz with an attenuated superposition of two conformally rescaled Lorentz-boosted-Kerr 3-metrics and their corresponding conformal extrinsic curvatures. The initial data are evolved in time using moving punctures in the BSSN and Z4 formalisms. We compare with the standard Bowen-York conformally-flat ansatz, finding an order of magnitude smaller burst of spurious radiation.
The Final Merger of Black-Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrealla, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Recent breakthroughs in the field of numerical relativity have led to dramatic progress in understanding the predictions of General Relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes in the regime of very strong gravitational fields. Such black-hole binaries are important astrophysical systems and are a key target of current and developing gravitational-wave detectors. The waveform signature of strong gravitational radiation emitted as the black holes fall together and merge provides a clear observable record of the process. After decades of slow progress / these mergers and the gravitational-wave signals they generate can now be routinely calculated using the methods of numerical relativity. We review recent advances in understanding the predicted physics of events and the consequent radiation, and discuss some of the impacts this new knowledge is having in various areas of astrophysics
Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-11-01
equivalent to about 350 Suns per year, one hundred times more than rates for typical galaxies in the local Universe. Earlier observations had shown that the companion galaxy is, in fact, under fire: the quasar is spewing a jet of highly energetic particles towards its companion, accompanied by a stream of fast-moving gas. The injection of matter and energy into the galaxy indicates that the quasar itself might be inducing the formation of stars and thereby creating its own host galaxy; in such a scenario, galaxies would have evolved from clouds of gas hit by the energetic jets emerging from quasars. "The two objects are bound to merge in the future: the quasar is moving at a speed of only a few tens of thousands of km/h with respect to the companion galaxy and their separation is only about 22 000 light-years," says Elbaz. "Although the quasar is still 'naked', it will eventually be 'dressed' when it merges with its star-rich companion. It will then finally reside inside a host galaxy like all other quasars." Hence, the team have identified black hole jets as a possible driver of galaxy formation, which may also represent the long-sought missing link to understanding why the mass of black holes is larger in galaxies that contain more stars [3]. "A natural extension of our work is to search for similar objects in other systems," says Jahnke. Future instruments, such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, the European Extremely Large Telescope and the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope will be able to search for such objects at even larger distances from us, probing the connection between black holes and the formation of galaxies in the more distant Universe. Notes [1] Supermassive black holes are found in the cores of most large galaxies; unlike the inactive and starving one sitting at the centre of the Milky Way, a fraction of them are said to be active, as they eat up enormous amounts of material. These frantic actions produce a copious release of energy
The Signature of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebling, Steven; Anderson, Matthew; Hirschmann, Eric; Lehner, Luis; Motl, Patrick; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos
2011-04-01
Black hole-neutron star (BHNS) binaries are key gravitational wave sources, merging in the frequency band to which Earth-based GW detectors are most sensitive. Furthermore, as possible candidates for short-hard gamma ray bursts, combined observations in both gravitational and electromagnetic bands of BHNS mergers is thus an exciting possibility. This talk will discuss results from simulations that account for gravitational and magnetic effects as well as connections with processes capable of explaining key features of gamma ray bursts.
The role of stellar relaxation in the formation and evolution of the first massive black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yajima, Hidenobu; Khochfar, Sadegh
2016-04-01
We present calculations on the formation of massive black holes of 105 M⊙ at z > 6, which can be the seeds of supermassive black holes at z ≳ 6. Under the assumption of compact star cluster formation in merging galaxies, star clusters in haloes of ˜ 108-109 M⊙ can undergo rapid core collapse, leading to the formation of very massive stars (VMSs) of ˜ 1000 M⊙ that collapse directly into black holes with similar masses. Star clusters in haloes of ≳ 109 M⊙ experience Type II supernovae before the formation of VMSs, due to long core-collapse time-scales. We also model the subsequent growth of black holes via accretion of residual stars in clusters. Two-body relaxation refills the loss cones of stellar orbits efficiently at larger radii and resonant relaxation at small radii is the main driver for accretion of stars on to black holes. As a result, more than 90 percent of stars in the initial cluster are swallowed by the central black holes before z = 6. Using dark matter merger trees, we derive black hole mass functions at z = 6-20. The mass function ranges from 103-105 M⊙ at z ≲ 15. Major merging of galaxies of ≳ 4 × 108 M⊙ at z ˜ 20 leads successfully to the formation of ≳ 105 M⊙ black holes by z ≳ 10, which could be the potential seeds of supermassive black holes seen today.
Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators
Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune
2010-11-15
It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/{radical}(3)){<=}(a/M){<=}1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.
Shapes of rotating nonsingular black hole shadows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amir, Muhammed; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-07-01
It is believed that curvature singularities are a creation of general relativity and, hence, in the absence of a quantum gravity, models of nonsingular black holes have received significant attention. We study the shadow (apparent shape), an optical appearance because of its strong gravitational field, cast by a nonsingular black hole which is characterized by three parameters, i.e., mass (M ), spin (a ), and a deviation parameter (k ). The nonsingular black hole under consideration is a generalization of the Kerr black hole that can be recognized asymptotically (r ≫k ,k >0 ) explicitly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and in the limit k →0 as the Kerr black hole. It turns out that the shadow of a nonsingular black hole is a dark zone covered by a deformed circle. Interestingly, it is seen that the shadow of a black hole is affected due to the parameter k . Indeed, for a given a , the size of a shadow reduces as the parameter k increases, and the shadow becomes more distorted as we increase the value of the parameter k when compared with the analogous Kerr black hole shadow. We also investigate, in detail, how the ergoregion of a black hole is changed due to the deviation parameter k .
Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barret, Chris
2000-01-01
NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.
A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruiz, Michael J.
2008-01-01
An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John
2016-08-01
We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a ΛCDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger timescale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.
Hidden Pair of Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2015-08-01
Could a pair of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) be lurking at the center of the galaxy Mrk 231? A recent study finds that this may be the case and the unique spectrum of this galaxy could be the key to discovering more hidden binary SMBH systems.Where Are the Binary Supermassive Black Holes?Its believed that most, if not all, galaxies have an SMBH at their centers. As two galaxies merge, the two SMBHs should evolve into a closely-bound binary system before they eventually merge. Given the abundance of galaxy mergers, we would expect to see the kinematic and visual signatures of these binary SMBHs among observed active galactic nuclei yet such evidence for sub-parsec binary SMBH systems remains scarce and ambiguous. This has led researchers to wonder: is there another way that we might detect these elusive systems?A collaboration led by Chang-Shuo Yan (National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) thinks that there is. The group suggests that these systems might have distinct signatures in their optical-to-UV spectra, and they identify a system that might be just such a candidate: Mrk 231.A Binary CandidateProposed model of Mrk 231. Two supermassive black holes, each with their own mini-disk, orbit each other in the center of a circumbinary disk. The secondary black hole has cleared gap in the circumbinary disk as a result of its orbit around the primary black hole. [Yan et al. 2015]Mrk 231 is a galaxy with a disturbed morphology and tidal tails strong clues that it might be in the final stages of a galactic merger. In addition to these signs, Mrk 231 also has an unusual spectrum for a quasar: its continuum emission displays an unexpected drop in the near-UV band.Yan and her collaborators propose that the odd behavior of Mrk 231s spectrum can be explained if the center of the galaxy houses a pair of SMBHs each with its own mini accretion disk surrounded by a circumbinary accretion disk. As the secondary SMBH orbits the primary SMBH (with a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabach-Clement, Maria E.; Reiris, Martin
2013-08-01
We give a thorough description of the shape of rotating axisymmetric stable black-hole (apparent) horizons applicable in dynamical or stationary regimes. It is found that rotation manifests in the widening of their central regions (rotational thickening), limits their global shapes to the extent that stable holes of a given area A and angular momentum J≠0 form a precompact family (rotational stabilization) and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme-Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotational speed (enforced shaping). The results, which are based on the stability inequality, depend only on A and J. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the space-time and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. A complete set of relations between A, J, the length L of the meridians and the length R of the greatest axisymmetric circle, is given. We also provide concrete estimations for the distance between the geometry of horizons and that of the extreme Kerr, in terms only of A and J. Besides its own interest, the work has applications to the Hoop conjecture as formulated by Gibbons in terms of the Birkhoff invariant, to the Bekenstein-Hod entropy bounds and to the study of the compactness of classes of stationary black-hole space-times.
Holographic interpretation of acoustic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Xian-Hui; Sun, Jia-Rui; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Yun-Long
2015-10-01
With the attempt to find the holographic description of the usual acoustic black holes in fluid, we construct an acoustic black hole formed in the d -dimensional fluid located at the timelike cutoff surface of a neutral black brane in asymptotically AdSd +1 spacetime; the bulk gravitational dual of the acoustic black hole is presented at the first order of the hydrodynamic fluctuation. Moreover, the Hawking-like temperature of the acoustic black hole horizon is showed to be connected to the Hawking temperature of the real anti-de Sitter (AdS) black brane in the bulk, and the duality between the phonon scattering in the acoustic black hole and the sound channel quasinormal mode propagating in the bulk perturbed AdS black brane is extracted. We thus point out that the acoustic black hole appearing in fluid, which was originally proposed as an analogous model to simulate Hawking radiation of the real black hole, is not merely an analogy, it can indeed be used to describe specific properties of the real AdS black holes, in the spirit of the fluid/gravity duality.
Destroying Kerr-Sen black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siahaan, Haryanto M.
2016-03-01
By neglecting the self-force, self-energy, and radiative effects, it has been shown that an extremal or near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole can turn into a naked singularity when it captures charged and spinning massive particles. A straightforward question then arises: do charged and rotating black holes in string theory possess the same property? In this paper we apply Wald's gedanken experiment, in his study on the possibility of destroying extremal Kerr-Newman black holes, to the case of (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black holes. We find that feeding a test particle into a (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black hole could lead to a violation of the extremal bound for the black hole.
Binary black hole merger dynamics and waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-II; Koppitz, Michael; vanMeter, James
2006-01-01
We apply recently developed techniques for simulations of moving black holes to study dynamics and radiation generation in the last few orbits and merger of a binary black hole system. Our analysis produces a consistent picture from the gravitational wave forms and dynamical black hole trajectories for a set of simulations with black holes beginning on circular-orbit trajectories at a variety of initial separations. We find profound agreement at the level of 1% among the simulations for the last orbit, merger and ringdown, resulting in a final black hole with spin parameter a/m = 0.69. Consequently, we are confident that this part of our waveform result accurately represents the predictions from Einstein's General Relativity for the final burst of gravitational radiation resulting from the merger of an astrophysical system of equal-mass non-spinning black holes. We also find good agreement at a level of roughly 10% for the radiation generated in the preceding few orbits.
NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2006-04-01
Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Garrett, Travis
2011-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux. PMID:21768341
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neilsen, D.; Lehner, L.; Palenzuela, C.; Hirschmann, E. W.; Liebling, S. L.; Motl, P. M.; Garrett, T.
2011-08-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Tapping into the Energy of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motl, Patrick M.; Lenher, L.; Liebling, S.; Palenzuela, C.; Neilsen, D.; Hirschmann, E.
2012-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Entropy, area, and black hole pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.; Horowitz, Gary T.; Ross, Simon F.
1995-04-01
We clarify the relation between gravitational entropy and the area of horizons. We first show that the entropy of an extreme Reissner-Nordström black hole is zero, despite the fact that its horizon has nonzero area. Next, we consider the pair creation of extremal and nonextremal black holes. It is shown that the action which governs the rate of this pair creation is directly related to the area of the acceleration horizon and (in the nonextremal case) the area of the black hole event horizon. This provides a simple explanation of the result that the rate of pair creation of nonextreme black holes is enhanced by precisely the black hole entropy. Finally, we discuss black hole annihilation, and argue that Planck scale remnants are not sufficient to preserve unitarity in quantum gravity.
Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes
Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo
2011-05-15
The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M{sub D-1}xS{sup 1}, where D is the spacetime dimension and M{sub D-1} stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.
Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes
Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju
2010-11-15
We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS{sub 3}, and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.
Escape of Black Holes from the Brane
Flachi, Antonino; Tanaka, Takahiro
2005-10-14
TeV-scale gravity theories allow the possibility of producing small black holes at energies that soon will be explored at the CERN LHC or at the Auger observatory. One of the expected signatures is the detection of Hawking radiation that might eventually terminate if the black hole, once perturbed, leaves the brane. Here, we study how the 'black hole plus brane' system evolves once the black hole is given an initial velocity that mimics, for instance, the recoil due to the emission of a graviton. The results of our dynamical analysis show that the brane bends around the black hole, suggesting that the black hole eventually escapes into the extra dimensions once two portions of the brane come in contact and reconnect. This gives a dynamical mechanism for the creation of baby branes.
Boson shells harboring charged black holes
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike
2010-11-15
We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.
2011-09-01
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang
2009-02-01
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes is investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise-coordinate transformation (GTT). It is shown in general that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on time and angle. Further, we find that the chemical potential in the thermal-radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative-energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.
Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo
2016-09-01
We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.
Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.
Greene, Jenny E
2012-01-01
Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism. PMID:23250434
Aspects of Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnett, Gavin S.
This thesis is divided into three Parts. In Part I the general theory of black holes in higher dimensions is discussed. In addition to an introductory essay, two studies of linear perturbations of Myers-Perry black holes are presented. These black holes are the higher dimensional generalization of the Kerr black hole, and their analysis reveals numerous instabilities. Threshold unstable modes provide the connection between the Myers-Perry black holes and novel stationary black hole solutions such as black rings or black Saturns, as well as other non-stationary solutions known as single Killing vector field black holes. In Part II gauge/gravity duality is briefly reviewed and two aspects are studied in detail. First, the problem of finding a holographic dual to a superconductor with d-wave order parameter is investigated, and second, we examine the problem of holographic thermalization in field theories dual to rotating black holes. Lastly, in Part III the role of de Sitter solutions in string theory is discussed. A recent puzzle surrounding the fate of the de Sitter landscape is reviewed, and it is shown how the study of black holes in certain flux backgrounds can provide insight into this puzzle. We then present a theorem ruling out the addition of black holes to a certain class of flux backgrounds. Finally, a study is presented which shows that black holes can be added to the flux backgrounds relevant for the de Sitter landscape in string theory, thereby providing strong evidence for the resolution of the puzzle.
Black holes in galactic centers
Rees, M.J. )
1990-11-01
For more than 25 years astronomers have known that some galaxies also have a bright, compact central nucleus whose emission does not come from normal stars. The most extreme instances of these so-called active galactic nuclei are quasars, objects no larger than the solar system whose total radiation exceeds that of 100 billion stars. Quasars seem to represent a particularly agitated stage in the development of some galaxies. Astronomers generally agree that gravity powers active galactic nuclei. The best candidate for the central engine of quasars is a black hole--a collapsed body whose gravity is so great that nothing, including light, can escape from it. The discovery of black holes in galactic centers, exciting in its own right, could affect current ideas about the evolution of the universe. Quasars appeared when the universe was less than one billion years old, indicting that some galaxies had already developed dense central regions. The early appearance of quasars rules out many cosmological models, which predict that the formation of galaxies should require billions of years, and even raises problems for the reigning cold dark matter model. Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation intensify the puzzle. Most theorists think that galaxies formed from density variations in the newborn universe. Yet measurements of the background radiation indicate that any variations were so slight that it is difficult to understand how they could have produced the structures seen today. Apart from its cosmological significance, the detection of massive black holes also could elucidate predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity.
Entropy spectrum of dimensional stringy black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.
2015-05-01
We explore the entropy spectrum of dimensional dilatonic stringy black holes via the adiabatic invariant integral method known as Jiang and Han's method (Phys Lett B 718:584, 2012) and the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule. It is found that the corresponding spectrum depends on black hole parameters like charge, ADM mass, and, more interestingly, on the dilatonic field. We calculate the entropy of the present black hole system via the Euclidean treatment of quantum gravity and study the thermodynamics of the black hole and find that the system does not undergo any phase transition.
Schwarzschild Black Holes can Wear Scalar Wigs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-01
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Black Holes versus Supersymmetry at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2007-11-01
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. In this paper we assess the distinguishability of supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our analysis shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider can be easily discriminated.
Black holes and local dark matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegyi, D. J.; Kolb, E. W.; Olive, K. A.
1986-01-01
Two independent constraints are placed on the amount of dark matter in black holes contained in the galactic disk. First, gas accretion by black holes leads to X-ray emission which cannot exceed the observed soft X-ray background. Second, metals produced in stellar processes that lead to black hole formation cannot exceed the observed disk metal abundance. Based on these constraints, it appears unlikely that the missing disk mass could be contained in black holes. A consequence of this conclusion is that at least two different types of dark matter are needed to solve the various missing mass problems.
On black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan
2012-12-01
In this Letter, we obtain the black hole spectroscopy by combining the black hole property of adiabaticity and the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. This velocity is obtained in the tunneling framework. In particular, we declare, if requiring canonical invariance, the adiabatic invariant quantity should be of the covariant form Iadia = ∮pi dqi. Using it, the horizon area of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized independently of the choice of coordinates, with an equally spaced spectroscopy always given by ΔA = 8 π lp2 in the Schwarzschild and Painlevé coordinates.
Gamma ray astronomy and black hole astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, Edison P.
1990-01-01
The study of soft gamma emissions from black-hole candidates is identified as an important element in understanding black-hole phenomena ranging from stellar-mass black holes to AGNs. The spectra of Cyg X-1 and observations of the Galactic Center are emphasized, since thermal origins and MeV gamma-ray bumps are evident and suggest a thermal-pair cloud picture. MeV gamma-ray observations are suggested for studying black hole astrophysics such as the theorized escaping pair wind, the anticorrelation between the MeV gamma bump and the soft continuum, and the relationship between source compactness and temperature.
The horizon of the lightest black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calmet, Xavier; Casadio, Roberto
2015-09-01
We study the properties of the poles of the resummed graviton propagator obtained by resumming bubble matter diagrams which correct the classical graviton propagator. These poles have been previously interpreted as black holes precursors. Here, we show using the horizon wave-function formalism that these poles indeed have properties which make them compatible with being black hole precursors. In particular, when modeled with a Breit-Wigner distribution, they have a well-defined gravitational radius. The probability that the resonance is inside its own gravitational radius, and thus that it is a black hole, is about one half. Our results confirm the interpretation of these poles as black hole precursors.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations. PMID:23002734
Hawking radiation from fluctuating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro
2010-09-01
Classically, black holes have a rigid event horizon. However, quantum mechanically, the event horizon of black holes becomes fuzzy due to quantum fluctuations. We study Hawking radiation of a real scalar field from a fluctuating black hole. To quantize metric perturbations, we derive the quadratic action for those in the black hole background. Then, we calculate cubic interaction terms in the action for the scalar field. Using these results, we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation in the presence of the interaction between the scalar field and the metric. It turns out that the spectrum deviates from the Planck spectrum due to quantum fluctuations of the metric.
Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.
Carlip, S
2007-07-13
To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints. PMID:17678209
Corda, Christian
2015-03-10
The idea that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity is today an intuitive but general conviction. In this paper it will be shown that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture. In fact, we will discuss a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. The model is completely consistent with existing results in the literature, starting from the celebrated result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.
Locking information in black holes.
Smolin, John A; Oppenheim, Jonathan
2006-03-01
We show that a central presumption in the debate over black-hole information loss is incorrect. Ensuring that information not escape during evaporation does not require that it all remain trapped until the final stage of the process. Using the recent quantum information-theoretic result of locking, we show that the amount of information that must remain can be very small, even as the amount already radiated is negligible. Information need not be additive: A small system can lock a large amount of information, making it inaccessible. Only if the set of initial states is restricted can information leak. PMID:16606164
Hidden symmetries and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.
2009-10-01
The paper contains a brief review of recent results on hidden symmetries in higher dimensional black hole spacetimes. We show how the existence of a principal CKY tensor (that is a closed conformal Killing-Yano 2-form) allows one to generate a `tower' of Killing-Yano and Killing tensors responsible for hidden symmetries. These symmetries imply complete integrability of geodesic equations and the complete separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, Dirac and gravitational perturbation equations in the general Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics. Equations of the parallel transport of frames along geodesics in these spacetimes are also integrable.
Black Hole Researchers in Schools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doran, Rosa
2016-07-01
"Black Holes in my School" is a research project that aims to explore the impact of engaging students in real research experiences while learning new skills and topics addressed in the regular school curriculum. The project introduces teachers to innovative tools for science teaching, explore student centered methodologies such as inquiry based learning and provides a setting where students take the role of an astrophysicist researching the field of compact stellar mass objects in binary systems. Students will study already existing data and use the Faulkes Telescopes to acquire new data. In this presentation the main aim is to present the framework being built and the results achieved so far.
NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2005-02-01
The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first
NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2005-02-01
The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first
LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-02-01
Big news: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected its first gravitational-wave signal! Not only is the detection of this signal a major technical accomplishment and an exciting confirmation of general relativity, but it also has huge implications for black-hole astrophysics.What did LIGO see?LIGO is designed to detect the ripples in space-time created by two massive objects orbiting each other. These waves can reach observable amplitudes when a binary system consisting of two especially massive objects i.e., black holes or neutron stars reach the end of their inspiral and merge.LIGO has been unsuccessfully searching for gravitational waves since its initial operations in 2002, but a recent upgrade in its design has significantly increased its sensitivity and observational range. The first official observing run of Advanced LIGO began 18 September 2015, but the instruments were up and running in engineering mode several weeks before that. And it was in this time frame before official observing even began! that LIGO spotted its first gravitational wave signal: GW150914.One of LIGOs two detection sites, located near Hanford in eastern Washington. [LIGO]The signal, detected on 14 September, 2015, provides astronomers with a remarkable amount of information about the merger that caused it. From the detection, the LIGO team has extracted the masses of the two black holes that merged, 36+5-4 and 29+4-4 solar masses, as well as the mass of the final black hole formed by the merger, ~62 solar masses. The team also determined that the merger happened roughly a billion light-years away (at a redshift of z~0.1), and the direction of the signal was localized to an area of ~600 square degrees (roughly 1% of the sky).Why is this detection a big deal?This is the firstdirect detection of gravitational waves, providing spectacular further confirmation of Einsteins theory of general relativity. But the implications of GW150914 go far beyond this
Black holes are almost optimal quantum cloners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adami, Christoph; Ver Steeg, Greg
2015-06-01
If black holes were able to clone quantum states, a number of paradoxes in black hole physics would disappear. However, the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids exact cloning of quantum states. Here we show that black holes indeed clone incoming quantum states with a fidelity that depends on the black hole’s absorption coefficient, without violating the no-cloning theorem because the clones are only approximate. Perfectly reflecting black holes are optimal universal ‘quantum cloning machines’ and operate on the principle of stimulated emission, exactly as their quantum optical counterparts. In the limit of perfect absorption, the fidelity of clones is only equal to what can be obtained via quantum state estimation methods. But for any absorption probability less than one, the cloning fidelity is nearly optimal as long as ω /T≥slant 10, a common parameter for modest-sized black holes.
Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, Meg; Treister, Ezequiel; Simmons, Brooke; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Glikman, Eilat
2011-12-20
One of the key open questions in cosmology today pertains to understanding when, where, and how supermassive black holes form. While it is clear that mergers likely play a significant role in the growth cycles of black holes, the issue of how supermassive black holes form, and how galaxies grow around them, still needs to be addressed. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3/IR grism observations of a clumpy galaxy at z = 1.35, with evidence for 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} rapidly growing black holes in separate sub-components of the host galaxy. These black holes could have been brought into close proximity as a consequence of a rare multiple galaxy merger or they could have formed in situ. Such holes would eventually merge into a central black hole as the stellar clumps/components presumably coalesce to form a galaxy bulge. If we are witnessing the in situ formation of multiple black holes, their properties can inform seed formation models and raise the possibility that massive black holes can continue to emerge in star-forming galaxies as late as z = 1.35 (4.8 Gyr after the big bang).
A Different Reason Why Black Holes are Black
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farghal, Noha S.
2009-11-01
Although it is true that black holes appear to be black on the outside due to the fact that the escape velocity from the event horizon is even higher than that of light, black holes may be black on the inside as well. A recent paper by Zach Adams (2009) presents a new model which provides evidence of gravitons actually being a result of a fusion of 2 photons, which manifests in 4-D space. In fact, the duality between gravitons and photons has been suggested in earlier works as well. Falling Photon Experiment shows that as photons approach a massive body, their energies increase, and their wavelengths decrease. Photon-graviton conversions occur when the wavelengths of photons decrease to Planck's length. As a result, the photons approaching the event horizon of a black hole may gain energy enough for photon pairs to fuse and become gravitons. Therefore, as we will discuss in this work, there exists a probability that photons cannot survive within the event horizon of a black hole. It is true that nothing can escape a black hole, which is the reason why it looks black on the outside, but also the possibility that photons may not be able to survive on a black hole means that black holes may be black on the inside as well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.
Quantum criticality and black holes.
Sachdev, Subir; Müller, Markus
2009-04-22
Many condensed matter experiments explore the finite temperature dynamics of systems near quantum critical points. Often, there are no well-defined quasiparticle excitations, and so quantum kinetic equations do not describe the transport properties completely. The theory shows that the transport coefficients are not proportional to a mean free scattering time (as is the case in the Boltzmann theory of quasiparticles), but are completely determined by the absolute temperature and by equilibrium thermodynamic observables. Recently, explicit solutions of this quantum critical dynamics have become possible via the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory duality discovered in string theory. This shows that the quantum critical theory provides a holographic description of the quantum theory of black holes in a negatively curved anti-de Sitter space, and relates its transport coefficients to properties of the Hawking radiation from the black hole. We review how insights from this connection have led to new results for experimental systems: (i) the vicinity of the superfluid-insulator transition in the presence of an applied magnetic field, and its possible application to measurements of the Nernst effect in the cuprates, (ii) the magnetohydrodynamics of the plasma of Dirac electrons in graphene and the prediction of a hydrodynamic cyclotron resonance. PMID:21825396
Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes
Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.
2010-01-15
Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced ''bumpy black holes'': objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity's black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes--objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of bumpy black holes. Using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques, we show how a spacetime's bumps are imprinted on orbital frequencies, and thus can be determined by measurements which coherently track the orbital phase of a small orbiting body. We find that in the weak field, orbits of bumpy black holes are modified exactly as expected from a Newtonian analysis of a body with a prescribed multipolar structure, reproducing well-known results from the celestial mechanics literature. The impact of bumps on strong-field orbits is many times greater than would be predicted from a Newtonian analysis, suggesting that this framework will allow observations to set robust limits on the extent to which a spacetime's multipoles deviate from the black hole expectation.
LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-02-01
Big news: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected its first gravitational-wave signal! Not only is the detection of this signal a major technical accomplishment and an exciting confirmation of general relativity, but it also has huge implications for black-hole astrophysics.What did LIGO see?LIGO is designed to detect the ripples in space-time created by two massive objects orbiting each other. These waves can reach observable amplitudes when a binary system consisting of two especially massive objects i.e., black holes or neutron stars reach the end of their inspiral and merge.LIGO has been unsuccessfully searching for gravitational waves since its initial operations in 2002, but a recent upgrade in its design has significantly increased its sensitivity and observational range. The first official observing run of Advanced LIGO began 18 September 2015, but the instruments were up and running in engineering mode several weeks before that. And it was in this time frame before official observing even began! that LIGO spotted its first gravitational wave signal: GW150914.One of LIGOs two detection sites, located near Hanford in eastern Washington. [LIGO]The signal, detected on 14 September, 2015, provides astronomers with a remarkable amount of information about the merger that caused it. From the detection, the LIGO team has extracted the masses of the two black holes that merged, 36+5-4 and 29+4-4 solar masses, as well as the mass of the final black hole formed by the merger, ~62 solar masses. The team also determined that the merger happened roughly a billion light-years away (at a redshift of z~0.1), and the direction of the signal was localized to an area of ~600 square degrees (roughly 1% of the sky).Why is this detection a big deal?This is the firstdirect detection of gravitational waves, providing spectacular further confirmation of Einsteins theory of general relativity. But the implications of GW150914 go far beyond this
Binary black hole late inspiral: Simulations for gravitational wave observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, John G.; McWilliams, Sean T.; van Meter, James R.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael
2007-06-01
Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of general relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late-inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for ˜1200M through ˜7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass ˜14cycle before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when comparing models. Matching our results to post-Newtonian (PN) calculations for the earlier parts of the inspiral provides a combined waveform with less than one cycle of accumulated phase error through the entire coalescence. Using this waveform, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for iLIGO, adLIGO, and LISA, highlighting the contributions from the late-inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform, which can now be simulated numerically. Contour plots of SNR as a function of z and M show that adLIGO can achieve SNR≳10 for some intermediate mass binary black holes (IMBBHs) out to z˜1, and that LISA can see massive binary black holes (MBBHs) in the range 3×104≲M/M⊙≲107 at SNR>100 out to the earliest epochs of structure formation at z>15.
"Survivor" Black Holes May Be Mid-Sized
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-04-01
New evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA's XMM-Newton strengthens the case that two mid-sized black holes exist close to the center of a nearby starburst galaxy. These "survivor" black holes avoided falling into the center of the galaxy and could be examples of the seeds required for the growth of supermassive black holes in galaxies, including the one in the Milky Way. For several decades, scientists have had strong evidence for two distinct classes of black hole: the stellar-mass variety with masses about ten times that of the Sun, and the supermassive ones, located at the center of galaxies, that range from hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses. But a mystery has remained: what about black holes that are in between? Evidence for these objects has remained controversial, and until now there were no strong claims of more than one such black hole in a single galaxy. Recently, a team of researchers has found signatures in X-ray data of two mid-sized black holes in the starburst galaxy M82 located 12 million light years from Earth. "This is the first time that good evidence for two mid-sized black holes has been found in one galaxy," said Hua Feng of the Tsinghua University in China, who led two papers describing the results. "Their location near the center of the galaxy might provide clues about the origin of the Universe's largest black holes - supermassive black holes found in the centers of most galaxies." One possible mechanism for the formation of supermassive black holes involves a chain reaction of collisions of stars in compact star clusters that results in the buildup of extremely massive stars, which then collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes. The star clusters then sink to the center of the galaxy, where the intermediate-mass black holes merge to form a supermassive black hole. In this picture, clusters that were not massive enough or close enough to the center of the galaxy to fall in would survive, as would any
Effective Potential in Noncommutative BTZ Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, Jafar; Shajiee, Vahid Reza
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigated the noncommutative rotating BTZ black hole and showed that such a space-time is not maximally symmetric. We calculated effective potential for the massive and the massless test particle by geodesic equations, also we showed effect of non-commutativity on the minimum mass of BTZ black hole.
Quasinormal modes of extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richartz, Maurício
2016-03-01
The continued fraction method (also known as Leaver's method) is one of the most effective techniques used to determine the quasinormal modes of a black hole. For extremal black holes, however, the method does not work (since, in such a case, the event horizon is an irregular singular point of the associated wave equation). Fortunately, there exists a modified version of the method, devised by Onozawa et al. [Phys. Rev. D 53, 7033 (1996)], which works for neutral massless fields around an extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole. In this paper, we generalize the ideas of Onozawa et al. to charged massless perturbations around an extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole and to neutral massless perturbations around an extremal Kerr black hole. In particular, the existence of damped modes is analyzed in detail. Similarities and differences between the results of the original continued fraction method for near extremal black holes and the results of the new continued fraction method for extremal black holes are discussed. Mode stability of extremal black holes is also investigated.
Black Hole Phase Transition in Massive Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Shou-Li; Liu, Wen-Biao
2016-07-01
In massive gravity, some new phenomena of black hole phase transition are found. There are more than one critical points under appropriate parameter values and the Gibbs free energy near critical points also has some new properties. Moreover, the Maxwell equal area rule is also investigated and the coexistence curve of the black hole is given.
Slender Galaxy with Robust Black Hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope indicates that a flat, spiral galaxy called NGC 3621 has a feeding, supermassive black hole lurking within it -- a surprise considering that astronomers thought this particular class of super-thin galaxies lacked big black holes.
The data were captured by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that cracks infrared light open to reveal the signatures of elements. In this case, the data, or spectrum, for NGC 3621, shows the signature of highly ionized neon -- a sure sign of an active, supermassive black hole. Only a black hole that is actively consuming gas and stars has enough energy to ionize neon to this state. The other features in this plot are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorine, produced in the gas surrounding stars.
The results challenge current theories, which hold that supermassive black holes require the bulbous central bulges that poke out from many spiral galaxies to form and grow. NGC 3621 is the second disk galaxy without any bulge found to harbor a supermassive black hole; the first, found in 2003, is NGC 4395. Astronomers have also used Spitzer to find six other mega black holes in thin spirals with only minimal bulges. Together, the findings indicate that, for a galaxy, being plump in the middle is not a necessary condition for growing a rotund black hole.
Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.
Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J
2015-05-22
We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent. PMID:26047218
How to Create Black Holes on Earth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bleicher, Marcus
2007-01-01
We present a short overview on the ideas of large extra dimensions and their implications for the possible production of micro black holes in the next generation particle accelerator at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) from this year on. In fact, the possibility of black hole production on Earth is currently one of the most exciting predictions for the…
Black hole physics: More similar than knot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez, José L.
2016-08-01
The detection of a discrete knot of particle emission from the active galaxy M81* reveals that black hole accretion is self-similar with regard to mass, producing the same knotty jets irrespective of black hole mass and accretion rate.
Black Holes at the LHC: Progress since 2002
Park, Seong Chan
2008-11-23
We review the recent noticeable progresses in black hole physics focusing on the up-coming super-collider, the LHC. We discuss the classical formation of black holes by particle collision, the greybody factors for higher dimensional rotating black holes, the deep implications of black hole physics to the 'energy-distance' relation, the security issues of the LHC associated with black hole formation and the newly developed Monte-Carlo generators for black hole events.
Kerr Black Hole Entropy and its Quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Ji-Jian; Li, Chuan-An; Cheng, Xie-Feng
2016-08-01
By constructing the four-dimensional phase space based on the observable physical quantity of Kerr black hole and gauge transformation, the Kerr black hole entropy in the phase space was obtained. Then considering the corresponding mechanical quantities as operators and making the operators quantized, entropy spectrum of Kerr black hole was obtained. Our results show that the Kerr black hole has the entropy spectrum with equal intervals, which is in agreement with the idea of Bekenstein. In the limit of large event horizon, the area of the adjacent event horizon of the black hole have equal intervals. The results are in consistent with the results based on the loop quantum gravity theory by Dreyer et al.
Voros Product and Noncommutative Inspired Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, Sunandan
2013-03-01
We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining the noncommutative (NC) inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström (RN) black holes show that the area law holds up to order (1)/(√ {θ )}e-M2/θ . The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy E for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard identity E = 2STH is found at the order √ {θ }e-M2/θ . This deviation leads to a nonvanishing Komar energy at the extremal point TH = 0 of these black holes. The Smarr formula is finally worked out for the NC Schwarzschild black hole. Similar features also exist for a de Sitter-Schwarzschild geometry.
Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan
2015-08-01
In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter a/M0 with M0 black hole mass and inclination angle i, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter √vartheta/M0 is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter √vartheta/M0, while the distortion increases with it. Compared to the Kerr black hole, the parameter √vartheta/M0 increases the deformation of the shadow. This may offer a way to distinguish noncommutative geometry inspired black hole from Kerr one via astronomical instruments in the near future.
Renormalized vacuum polarization of rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Hugo R. C.
2015-04-01
Quantum field theory on rotating black hole spacetimes is plagued with technical difficulties. Here, we describe a general method to renormalize and compute the vacuum polarization of a quantum field in the Hartle-Hawking state on rotating black holes. We exemplify the technique with a massive scalar field on the warped AdS3 black hole solution to topologically massive gravity, a deformation of (2 + 1)-dimensional Einstein gravity. We use a "quasi-Euclidean" technique, which generalizes the Euclidean techniques used for static spacetimes, and we subtract the divergences by matching to a sum over mode solutions on Minkowski spacetime. This allows us, for the first time, to have a general method to compute the renormalized vacuum polarization, for a given quantum state, on a rotating black hole, such as the physically relevant case of the Kerr black hole in four dimensions.
Black hole thermodynamics in MOdified Gravity (MOG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mureika, Jonas R.; Moffat, John W.; Faizal, Mir
2016-06-01
We analyze the thermodynamical properties of black holes in a modified theory of gravity, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without dark matter. The thermodynamics of non-rotating and rotating black hole solutions resembles similar solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with the electric charge being replaced by a new mass dependent gravitational charge Q =√{ αGN } M. This new mass dependent charge modifies the effective Newtonian constant from GN to G =GN (1 + α), and this in turn critically affects the thermodynamics of the black holes. We also investigate the thermodynamics of regular solutions, and explore the limiting case when no horizons forms. So, it is possible that the modified gravity can lead to the absence of black hole horizons in our universe. Finally, we analyze corrections to the thermodynamics of a non-rotating black hole and obtain the usual logarithmic correction term.
Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Evolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merritt, D.
2004-01-01
Supermassive black holes appear to be generic components of galactic nuclei. The formation and growth of black holes is intimately connected with the evolution of galaxies on a wide range of scales. For instance, mergers between galaxies containing nuclear black holes would produce supermassive binaries which eventually coalesce via the emission of gravitational radiation. The formation and decay of these binaries is expected to produce a number of observable signatures in the stellar distribution. Black holes can also affect the large-scale structure of galaxies by perturbing the orbits of stars that pass through the nucleus. Large-scale N-body simulations are beginning to generate testable predictions about these processes which will allow us to draw inferences about the formation history of supermassive black holes.
Mass formula for quasi-black holes
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2008-12-15
A quasi-black hole, either nonextremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.
Black holes and stars in Horndeski theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Lehébel, Antoine
2016-08-01
We review black hole and star solutions for Horndeski theory. For non-shift symmetric theories, black holes involve a Kaluza–Klein reduction of higher dimensional Lovelock solutions. On the other hand, for shift symmetric theories of Horndeski and beyond Horndeski, black holes involve two classes of solutions: those that include, at the level of the action, a linear coupling to the Gauss–Bonnet term and those that involve time dependence in the galileon field. We analyze the latter class in detail for a specific subclass of Horndeski theory, discussing the general solution of a static and spherically symmetric spacetime. We then discuss stability issues, slowly rotating solutions as well as black holes coupled to matter. The latter case involves a conformally coupled scalar field as well as an electromagnetic field and the (primary) hair black holes thus obtained. We review and discuss the recent results on neutron stars in Horndeski theories.
FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas
Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.
2010-01-01
Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced “bumpy black holes”: objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity’s black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes—objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of bumpy black holes. Using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques, we show how a spacetime’s bumps are imprinted on orbital frequencies, and thus can be determined by measurements which coherently track the orbital phase of a small orbiting body. We find that in the weak field, orbits of bumpy black holes are modified exactly as expected from a Newtonian analysis of a body with a prescribed multipolar structure, reproducing well-known results from the celestial mechanics literature. The impact of bumps on strong-field orbits is many times greater than would be predicted from a Newtonian analysis, suggesting that this framework will allow observations to set robust limits on the extent to which a spacetime’s multipoles deviate from the black hole expectation.
Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filloux, Charline; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.; Durier, Fabrice; Silk, Joseph
2010-05-01
Cosmological simulations describing both the evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies were performed by using the tree PM-SPH code GADGET-2 (Springel 2005). Physical mechanisms affecting the dynamics and the physical conditions of the gas (ionization and cooling processes, local heating by stars, injection of mechanical energy by supernovae, chemical enrichment) were introduced in the present version of the code (Filloux 2009). Black holes in a state of accretion (AGNs) also inject mechanical energy in the surrounding medium, contributing for quenching the star formation activity. In all simulations a ΛCDM cosmology was adopted (h = 0.7, ΩΛ=0.7, Ωm=0.3, Ωb=0.046 and σ8=0.9). Simulations were performed in a volume with a side of 50h-1 Mpc, starting at z = 50 and through the present time (z = 0). For low and intermediate resolution runs, the initial gas mass particles are respectively 5.35× 108 M⊙ and 3.09×108 M⊙. Black holes (BHs) are represented by collisionless particles and seeds of 100 M⊙ were introduced in density peaks at z = 15, growing either by accretion or coalescence. The accretion rate from the “disk mode” is based on a turbulent viscous thin disk model whereas in the “spherical mode” the rate is given by the Bondi-Hoyle formula. When accreting matter, jets, modeled by conical regions perpendicular to the disk plane, inject kinetic energy into the surrounding medium. Two models were tested: in the first, the injected energy rate is about 10% of the gravitational energy rate released in the accretion process while in the second, the injected energy rate is based on the Blandford & Znajek (1977) mechanism. All simulations give, at z = 0, similar black hole mass function but they overestimate slightly the BH density for masses above ~ 108 M⊙. The resulting BH density in this mass range is affected by feedback processes since they control the amount of gas available for accretion. The present simulations are not
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2001-08-01
ISAAC Finds "Cool" Young Stellar Systems at the Centres of Active Galaxies Summary Supermassive Black Holes are present at the centres of many galaxies, some weighing hundreds of millions times more than the Sun. These extremely dense objects cannot be observed directly, but violently moving gas clouds and stars in their strong gravitational fields are responsible for the emission of energetic radiation from such "active galaxy nuclei" (AGN) . A heavy Black Hole feeds agressively on its surroundings . When the neighbouring gas and stars finally spiral into the Black Hole, a substantial fraction of the infalling mass is transformed into pure energy. However, it is not yet well understood how, long before this dramatic event takes place, all that material is moved from the outer regions of the galaxy towards the central region. So how is the food for the central Black Hole delivered to the table in the first place? To cast more light on this central question, a team of French and Swiss astronomers [1] has carried out a series of trailblazing observations with the VLT Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. The ISAAC instrument is particularly well suited to this type of observations. Visible light cannot penetrate the thick clouds of dust and gas in the innermost regions of active galaxies, but by recording the infrared light from the stars close to the Black Hole , their motions can be studied. By charting those motions in the central regions of three active galaxies (NGC 1097, NGC 1808 and NGC 5728), the astronomers were able to confirm the presence of "nuclear bars" in all three. These are dynamical structures that "open a road" for the flow of material towards the innermost region. Moreover, the team was surprised to discover signs of a young stellar population near the centres of these galaxies - stars that have apparently formed quite recently in a central gas disk. Such a system is unstable
Rotating black holes at future colliders. III. Determination of black hole evolution
Ida, Daisuke; Oda, Kin-ya; Park, Seong Chan
2006-06-15
TeV scale gravity scenario predicts that the black hole production dominates over all other interactions above the scale and that the Large Hadron Collider will be a black hole factory. Such higher-dimensional black holes mainly decay into the standard model fields via the Hawking radiation whose spectrum can be computed from the greybody factor. Here we complete the series of our work by showing the greybody factors and the resultant spectra for the brane-localized spinor and vector field emissions for arbitrary frequencies. Combining these results with the previous works, we determine the complete radiation spectra and the subsequent time evolution of the black hole. We find that, for a typical event, well more than half a black hole mass is emitted when the hole is still highly rotating, confirming our previous claim that it is important to take into account the angular momentum of black holes.
Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etienne, Z; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Fauchon-Jones, E; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gaebel, S M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; 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Laguna, P; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M A; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S; Zlochower, Y
2016-06-17
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36_{-4}^{+5}M_{⊙} and 29_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙}; for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval. The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be <0.7 (at 90% probability). The luminosity distance to the source is 410_{-180}^{+160} Mpc, corresponding to a redshift 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03} assuming standard cosmology. The source location is constrained to an annulus section of 610 deg^{2}, primarily in the southern hemisphere. The binary merges into a black hole of mass 62_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙} and spin 0.67_{-0.07}^{+0.05}. This black hole is significantly more massive than any other inferred from electromagnetic observations in the stellar-mass regime. PMID:27367378
Characterizing spinning black hole binaries in eccentric orbits with LISA
Key, Joey Shapiro; Cornish, Neil J.
2011-04-15
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is designed to detect gravitational wave signals from astrophysical sources, including those from coalescing binary systems of compact objects such as black holes. Colliding galaxies have central black holes that sink to the center of the merged galaxy and begin to orbit one another and emit gravitational waves. Some galaxy evolution models predict that the binary black hole system will enter the LISA band with significant orbital eccentricity, while other models suggest that the orbits will already have circularized. Using a full 17 parameter waveform model that includes the effects of orbital eccentricity, spin precession, and higher harmonics, we investigate how well the source parameters can be inferred from simulated LISA data. Defining the reference eccentricity as the value one year before merger, we find that for typical LISA sources, it will be possible to measure the eccentricity to an accuracy of parts in a thousand. The accuracy with which the eccentricity can be measured depends only very weakly on the eccentricity, making it possible to distinguish circular orbits from those with very small eccentricities. LISA measurements of the orbital eccentricity can help constraints theories of galaxy mergers in the early universe. Failing to account for the eccentricity in the waveform modeling can lead to a loss of signal power and bias the estimation of parameters such as the black hole masses and spins.
Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Carbon Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Röver, C.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; Vañó-Viñuales, A.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Brügamin, B.; Campanelli, M.; Clark, M.; Hamberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Kinsey, M.; Laguna, P.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M. A.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Zlochower, Y.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-06-01
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 3 6-4+5M⊙ and 2 9-4+4M⊙ ; for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval. The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be <0.7 (at 90% probability). The luminosity distance to the source is 41 0-180+160 Mpc , corresponding to a redshift 0.0 9-0.04+0.03 assuming standard cosmology. The source location is constrained to an annulus section of 610 deg2 , primarily in the southern hemisphere. The binary merges into a black hole of mass 6 2-4+4M⊙ and spin 0.6 7-0.07+0.05. This black hole is significantly more massive than any other inferred from electromagnetic observations in the stellar-mass regime.
Binary-black-hole encounters, gravitational bursts, and maximum final spin.
Washik, Matthew C; Healy, James; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A
2008-08-01
The spin of the final black hole in the coalescence of nonspinning black holes is determined by the "residual" orbital angular momentum of the binary. This residual momentum consists of the orbital angular momentum that the binary is not able to shed in the process of merging. We study the angular momentum radiated, the spin of the final black hole, and the gravitational bursts in a sequence of equal mass encounters. The initial orbital configurations range from those producing an almost direct infall to others leading to numerous orbits before infall, with multiple bursts of radiation. Our sequence consists of orbits with fixed impact parameter. What varies is the initial linear momentum of the black holes. For this sequence, the final black hole of mass M_{h} gets a maximum spin parameter a/M_{h} approximately 0.823, with this maximum occurring for initial orbital angular momentum L/M_{h};{2} approximately 1.176. PMID:18764445
Black Holes and Quasiblack Holes in Einstein-Maxwell Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meinel, Reinhard; Breithaupt, Martin; Liu, Yu-Chun
2015-01-01
Continuous sequences of asymptotically flat solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations describing regular equilibrium configurations of ordinary matter can reach a black hole limit. For a distant observer, the spacetime becomes more and more indistinguishable from the metric of an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole outside the horizon when approaching the limit. From an internal perspective, a still regular but non-asymptotically flat spacetime with the extreme Kerr-Newman near-horizon geometry at spatial infinity forms at the limit. Interesting special cases are sequences of Papapetrou-Majumdar distributions of electrically counterpoised dust leading to extreme Reissner-Nordström black holes and sequences of rotating uncharged fluid bodies leading to extreme Kerr black holes.
Black Hole Mergers in the Universe.
Portegies Zwart SF; McMillan
2000-01-01
Mergers of black hole binaries are expected to release large amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation. However, binary evolution models predict merger rates that are too low to be of observational interest. In this Letter, we explore the possibility that black holes become members of close binaries via dynamical interactions with other stars in dense stellar systems. In star clusters, black holes become the most massive objects within a few tens of millions of years; dynamical relaxation then causes them to sink to the cluster core, where they form binaries. These black hole binaries become more tightly bound by superelastic encounters with other cluster members and are ultimately ejected from the cluster. The majority of escaping black hole binaries have orbital periods short enough and eccentricities high enough that the emission of gravitational radiation causes them to coalesce within a few billion years. We predict a black hole merger rate of about 1.6x10-7 yr-1 Mpc-3, implying gravity-wave detection rates substantially greater than the corresponding rates from neutron star mergers. For the first-generation Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO-I), we expect about one detection during the first 2 years of operation. For its successor LIGO-II, the rate rises to roughly one detection per day. The uncertainties in these numbers are large. Event rates may drop by about an order of magnitude if the most massive clusters eject their black hole binaries early in their evolution. PMID:10587485
Superextremal spinning black holes via accretion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bode, Tanja; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard
2011-09-01
A Kerr black hole with mass M and angular momentum J satisfies the extremality inequality |J|≤M2. In the presence of matter and/or gravitational radiation, this bound needs to be reformulated in terms of local measurements of the mass and the angular momentum directly associated with the black hole. The isolated and dynamical horizon framework provides such quasilocal characterization of black hole mass and angular momentum. With this framework, it is possible in axisymmetry to reformulate the extremality limit as |J|≤2MH2, with MH the irreducible mass of the black hole computed from its apparent horizon area and J obtained using a rotational Killing vector field on the apparent horizon. The |J|≤2MH2 condition is also equivalent to requiring a non-negative black hole surface gravity. We present numerical experiments of an accreting black hole that temporarily violates this extremality inequality. The initial configuration consists of a single, rotating black hole surrounded by a thick, shell cloud of negative energy density. For these numerical experiments, we introduce a new matter-without-matter evolution method.
Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta
2016-04-01
The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos-Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.
Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-06-01
The biggest black holes may feed just like the smallest ones, according to data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes. This discovery supports the implication of Einstein's relativity theory that black holes of all sizes have similar properties, and will be useful for predicting the properties of a conjectured new class of black holes. The conclusion comes from a large observing campaign of the spiral galaxy M81, which is about 12 million light years from Earth. In the center of M81 is a black hole that is about 70 million times more massive than the Sun, and generates energy and radiation as it pulls gas in the central region of the galaxy inwards at high speed. In contrast, so-called stellar mass black holes, which have about 10 times more mass than the Sun, have a different source of food. These smaller black holes acquire new material by pulling gas from an orbiting companion star. Because the bigger and smaller black holes are found in different environments with different sources of material to feed from, a question has remained about whether they feed in the same way. Using these new observations and a detailed theoretical model, a research team compared the properties of M81's black hole with those of stellar mass black holes. The results show that either big or little, black holes indeed appear to eat similarly to each other, and produce a similar distribution of X-rays, optical and radio light. AnimationMulti-wavelength Images of M81 One of the implications of Einstein's theory of General Relativity is that black holes are simple objects and only their masses and spins determine their effect on space-time. The latest research indicates that this simplicity manifests itself in spite of complicated environmental effects. "This confirms that the feeding patterns for black holes of different sizes can be very similar," said Sera Markoff of the Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, who led the study
Multipole moments of bumpy black holes
Vigeland, Sarah J.
2010-11-15
General relativity predicts the existence of black holes, compact objects whose spacetimes depend only on their mass, spin, and charge in vacuum (the 'no-hair' theorem). As various observations probe deeper into the strong fields of black hole candidates, it is becoming possible to test this prediction. Previous work suggested that such tests can be performed by measuring whether the multipolar structure of black hole candidates has the form that general relativity demands, and introduced a family of 'bumpy black hole' spacetimes to be used for making these measurements. These spacetimes have generalized multipoles, where the deviation from the Kerr metric depends on the spacetime's 'bumpiness'. In this paper, we show how to compute the Geroch-Hansen moments of a bumpy black hole, demonstrating that there is a clean mapping between the deviations used in the bumpy black hole formalism and the Geroch-Hansen moments. We also extend our previous results to define bumpy black holes whose current moments, analogous to magnetic moments of electrodynamics, deviate from the canonical Kerr value.
Spherical polytropic balls cannot mimic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saida, Hiromi; Fujisawa, Atsuhito; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Nambu, Yasusada
2016-04-01
The so-called black hole shadow is a dark region which is expected to appear in a fine image of optical observation of black holes. It is essentially an absorption cross section of the black hole, and the boundary of shadow is determined by unstable circular orbits of photons (UCOP). If there exists a compact object possessing UCOP but no black hole horizon, it can provide us with the same shadow image as black holes, and detection of a shadow image cannot be direct evidence of black hole existence. This paper examines whether or not such compact objects can exist under some suitable conditions. We investigate thoroughly the static spherical polytropic ball of perfect fluid with single polytrope index, and then investigate a representative example of a piecewise polytropic ball. Our result is that the spherical polytropic ball which we have investigated cannot possess UCOP, if the speed of sound at the center is subluminal (slower than light). This means that, if the polytrope treated in this paper is a good model of stellar matter in compact objects, the detection of a shadow image can be regarded as good evidence of black hole existence. As a by-product, we have found the upper bound of the mass-to-radius ratio of a polytropic ball with single index, M_{ast }/R_{ast } < 0.281, under the condition of subluminal sound speed.
Missing Black Holes Driven Out
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2004-05-01
Active galaxies Active galaxies are breathtaking objects. Their compact nuclei (AGN = Active Galaxy Nuclei) are so luminous that they can outshine the entire galaxy; "quasars" constitute extreme cases of this phenomenon, their powerful engine making them visible over a very large fraction of the observable Universe. It is now widely accepted that the ultimate power station of these activities originates in supermassive black holes with masses up to thousands of millions times the mass of our Sun, cf. e.g., ESO PR 04/01. For comparison, the one in the Milky Way galaxy has only about 3 million solar masses, cf. ESO PR 17/02. The central black hole is believed to be fed from a tightly wound accretion disc of gas and dust encircling it, in a donuts-shaped torus (cf. ESO PR 10/04). Material that falls towards these gigantic "vacuum cleaners" will be compressed and heated up to enormous temperatures. This hot gas radiates an incredible amount of light, causing the active galaxy nucleus to shine so brightly. Because of this obscuring dust torus, the aspect of the AGN or the quasar may greatly vary. Sometimes, astronomers can look along the axis of the dust torus from above or from below and thus have a clear view of the black hole. Such objects are called "Type-1 sources". "Type-2 sources", however, are oriented such that the dust torus is seen edge-on from Earth, and our view of the black hole is therefore totally blocked by the dust over a large range of wavelengths from the near-infrared to soft X-rays. Type-2 quasars - where are they? While many examples of rather close-by Type-2 AGNs are known (so-called Seyfert 2 galaxies), it is still a matter of debate whether their larger luminosity quasar counterparts exist. Until very recently, very few examples of this class were known. One of them is the Type-2 Quasar CXOCDFS J033229.9-275106, discovered by combining observations taken in X-rays with spectra obtained by the Very Large Telescope (ESO PR 05/01). It is indeed a
Grazing Collision of Binary Black Holes II: From Merger Towards Ringdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoemaker, Deirdre
2000-04-01
One of the great challenges in gravitational physics is to simulate the collision of two black holes in order to study the resulting gravitational radiation. The Agave collaboration has successfully collided two spinning black holes in a grazing merger. The eventual goal of this work is to simulate the orbit, merger and ringdown stages of an astrophysical binary black hole system. The success of the grazing collision has proven to be strongly dependent on predicting the dynamics of the apparent horizons during the evolution. This is due to the fact that the region inside the apparent horizon containing the singularity is removed from the computational domain. Once the black holes have merged, one is left with a single black hole horizon. The spacetime is of a highly distorted black hole. We present results from simulations of the merged to ringdown stage in the life of a binary black hole collision. We show not only how crucial a role the dynamics of the apparent horizon plays in extending the lifetime of the simulation towards ringdown, but also the vital role the appropriate prescription of gauge conditions plays.
Growth of Supermassive Black Holes, Galaxy Mergers, and Binary SMBHs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komossa, Stefanie
2015-08-01
Galaxy mergers are the sites of major black hole growth. They power luminous quasars, and form supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) at their centers. Coalescing binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the universe. Studying the early and advanced stages galaxy merging, and the onset of accretion onto one or both BHs, informs us about feedback processes, and the origin of the scaling relations between SMBHs and their host galaxies. During gas-rich and gas-poor mergers, the initial conditions are set which later determine the amplitude of GW recoil. Identification of the compact SMBBHs, at parsec and sub-parsec scales, provides us with important constraints on the interaction processes that govern the shrinkage of the binary beyond "the final parsec". Here, I give an overview of the status of observations, important open questions, and future surveys, with an emphasis on SMBBHs.
Never Before Seen: Two Supermassive Black Holes in Same Galaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2002-11-01
For the first time, scientists have proof two supermassive black holes exist together in the same galaxy, thanks to data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These black holes are orbiting each other and will merge several hundred million years from now, to create an even larger black hole resulting in a catastrophic event that will unleash intense radiation and gravitational waves. The Chandra image reveals that the nucleus of an extraordinarily bright galaxy, known as NGC 6240, contains not one, but two giant black holes, actively accreting material from their surroundings. This discovery shows that massive black holes can grow through mergers in the centers of galaxies, and that these enigmatic events will be detectable with future space-borne gravitational wave observatories. "The breakthrough came with Chandra's ability to clearly distinguish the two nuclei, and measure the details of the X-radiation from each nucleus," said Guenther Hasinger, of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, a coauthor of an upcoming Astrophysical Journal Letters paper describing the research. "These cosmic fingerprints revealed features characteristic of supermassive black holes -- an excess of high-energy photons from gas swirling around a black hole, and X-rays from fluorescing iron atoms in gas near black holes," he said. Previous X-ray observatories had shown that the central region produces X-rays, while radio, infrared and optical observations had detected two bright nuclei, but the nature of this region remained a mystery. Astronomers did not know the location of the X-ray source, or the nature of the two bright nuclei. "With Chandra, we hoped to determine which one, if either, of the nuclei was an active supermassive black hole," said Stefanie Komossa, also of the Max Planck Institute, lead author of the paper on NGC 6240. "Much to our surprise, we found that both were active black holes!" At a distance of about 400 million light years, NGC 6240
BTZ black holes inspired by noncommutative geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahaman, Farook; Kuhfittig, P. K. F.; Bhui, B. C.; Rahaman, Mosiur; Ray, Saibal; Mondal, U. F.
2013-04-01
In this paper, a Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1849 (1992)] is constructed from an exact solution of the Einstein field equations in a (2+1)—dimensional anti—de Sitter spacetime in the context of noncommutative geometry. The BTZ black hole turns out to have either two horizons, no horizon, or a single horizon corresponding to a minimal mass. Certain thermodynamical properties are investigated, including Hawking temperature, entropy, and heat capacity. Also discussed is the geodesic structure of BTZ black holes for both massless and massive particles. In particular, it is shown that bound orbits for test particles are possible.
Magnetically charged black holes and their stability
Aichelburg, P.C. ); Bizon, P. )
1993-07-15
We study magnetically charged black holes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory in the limit of infinitely strong coupling of the Higgs field. Using mixed analytical and numerical methods we give a complete description of static spherically symmetric black hole solutions, both Abelian and non-Abelian. In particular, we find a new class of extremal non-Abelian solutions. We show that all non-Abelian solutions are stable against linear radial perturbations. The implications of our results for the semiclassical evolution of magnetically charged black holes are discussed.
Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of MSW Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebastian, Saneesh; Kuriakose, V. C.
2013-10-01
We study the thermodynamics and spectroscopy of a (2+1)-dimensional black hole proposed by Mandal et al.1 [Mod. Phys. Lett. A6, 1685 (1991)]. We put the background spacetime in Kruskal like co-ordinate and find period with respect to Euclidean time. Different thermodynamic quantities like entropy, specific heat, temperature etc. are obtained. The adiabatic invariant for the black hole is found and quantized using Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule. The study shows that the area spectrum of MSW black hole is equally spaced and the value of spacing is found to be ℏ.
The primordial black hole mass range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frampton, Paul H.
2016-04-01
We investigate Primordial Black Hole (PBH) formation by which we mean black holes produced in the early Universe during radiation domination. After discussing the range of PBH mass permitted in the original mechanism of Carr and Hawking, hybrid inflation with parametric resonance is presented as an existence theorem for PBHs of arbitrary mass. As proposed in arXiv:1510.00400, PBHs with many solar masses can provide a solution to the dark matter problem in galaxies. PBHs can also explain dark matter observed in clusters and suggest a primordial origin for Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) in galactic cores.
Electromagnetic emissions from black hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehner, Luis; Garrett, Travis; Hirschmann, Eric; Liebling, Steven; Neilsen, David; Motl, Patrick; Palenzuela, Carlos
2011-04-01
Many of the expected astrophysical sources of gravitational waves may also be bright in the electromagnetic spectrum. Concurrent detection in both electromagnetic and gravitational bands promises significant gains in our ability to understand such systems. We discuss how black holes inmersed on the external magnetic field from a circumbinary disk produces a collimated e mission in the form of electromagnetic jets. In particular we illustrate the behavior of single and binary black holes and the depedence of jet with spin and black hole motion.
Early black hole signals at the LHC
Koch, Ben; Bleicher, Marcus; Stoecker, Horst
2007-10-26
The production of mini black holes due to large extra dimensions is a speculative but possible scenario. We survey estimates for di-jet suppression, and multi-mono-jet emission due to black hole production. We further look for a possible sub-scenario which is the formation of a stable or meta-stable black hole remnant (BHR). We show that the beauty of such objects is, that they are relatively easy to observe, even in the early phase of LHC running.
Rotating black holes can have short bristles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hod, Shahar
2014-12-01
The elegant 'no short hair' theorem states that, if a spherically-symmetric static black hole has hair, then this hair must extend beyond 3/2 the horizon radius. In the present paper we provide evidence for the failure of this theorem beyond the regime of spherically-symmetric static black holes. In particular, we show that rotating black holes can support extremely short-range stationary scalar configurations (linearized scalar 'clouds') in their exterior regions. To that end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon-Kerr-Newman wave equation for a linearized massive scalar field in the regime of large scalar masses.
Neutron tori around Kerr black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witt, H. J.; Jaroszynski, M.; Haensel, P.; Paczynski, B.; Wambsganss, J.
1994-01-01
Models of stationary, axisymmetric, non-self-gravitating tori around stellar mass Kerr black holes are calculated. Such objects may form as a result of a merger between two neutron stars, a neutron star and a stellar mass black hole, or a 'failed supernova' collapse of a single rapidly rotating star. We explore a large range of parameters: the black hole mass and angular momentum, the torus mass, angular momentum and entropy. Physical conditions within the tori are similar to those in young and hot neutron stars, but their topology is different, and the range of masses and energies is much larger.
The black hole spins of quasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Bei; Cao, Xinwu
2016-02-01
We present the estimates of the black hole spins of five quasars. The peaks of the spectra of the accretion discs surrounding massive black holes in quasars are in the far-UV or soft X-ray band, which are usually not observed. However, in the disc corona model, the soft photons from the disc are Comptonized to high energy in the hot corona, and the hard X-ray spectra (luminosity and spectral shape) contain the information of the incident spectra from the disc. The values of black hole spin parameter a are inferred from the spectral fitting, which spread over a large range, ~ -0.94 to 0.998.
The innermost extremes of black hole accretion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabian, A. C.
2016-05-01
The inner 20 gravitational radii around the black hole at the centre of luminous active galactic nuclei and stellar mass black hole binaries are now being routinely mapped by X-ray spectral-timing techniques. Spectral blurring and reverberation of the reflection spectrum are key tools in this work. In the most extreme AGN cases with high black hole spin, when the source appears in a low state, observations probe the region within 1 gravitational radius of the event horizon. The location, size, and operation of the corona which generates the power-law X-ray continuum is also being revealed.
New class of accelerating black hole solutions
Camps, Joan; Emparan, Roberto
2010-07-15
We construct several new families of vacuum solutions that describe black holes in uniformly accelerated motion. They generalize the C metric to the case where the energy density and tension of the strings that pull (or push) on the black holes are independent parameters. These strings create large curvatures near their axis and when they have infinite length they modify the asymptotic properties of the spacetime, but we discuss how these features can be dealt with physically, in particular, in terms of 'wiggly cosmic strings'. We comment on possible extensions and extract lessons for the problem of finding higher-dimensional accelerating black hole solutions.
- on Kerr Black Hole and its Entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncharov, Yu. P.
We describe U(N)-monopoles (N>1) on Kerr black holes using the parameters of the moduli space of holomorphic vector U(N)-bundles over { S}2 with the help of the Grothendieck splitting theorem. For N = 2,3 we obtain this description in an explicit form as well as the estimates for the corresponding monopole masses. This gives us a possibility to adduce some reasonings in favor of the existence of both a fine structure for Kerr black holes and the statistical ensemble tied with it which might generate the Kerr black hole entropy.
Quantum production of black holes at colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arsene, Nicusor; Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian
2016-07-01
We investigate black hole production in p p collisions at the Large Hadron Collider by employing the horizon quantum mechanics for models of gravity with extra spatial dimensions. This approach can be applied to processes around the fundamental gravitational scale and naturally yields a suppression below the fundamental gravitational scale and for increasing number of extra dimensions. The results of numerical simulations performed with the black hole event generator BLACKMAX are here reported in order to illustrate the main differences in the numbers of expected black hole events and mass distributions.
Three charge supertubes and black hole hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Kraus, Per
2004-08-01
We construct finite size, supersymmetric, tubular D-brane configurations with three charges, two angular momenta and several brane dipole moments. In type IIA string theory these are tubular configurations with D0, D4 and F1 charge, as well as D2, D6 and NS5 dipole moments. These multicharge generalizations of supertubes might have interesting consequences for the physics of the D1-D5-P black hole. We study the relation of the tubes to the spinning Breckenridge-Myers-Peet-Vafa black hole, and find that they have properties consistent with describing some of the hair of this black hole.
Some aspects of virtual black holes
Faizal, M.
2012-03-15
We first consider consistently third-quantize modified gravity. We then analyze certain aspects of virtual black holes in this third-quantized modified gravity. We see how a statistical mechanical origin for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy naturally arises in this model. Furthermore, the area and hence the entropy of a real macroscopic black hole is quantized in this model. Virtual black holes cause a loss of quantum coherence, which gives an intrinsic entropy to all physical systems that can be used to define a direction of time and hence provide a solution to the problem of time.
Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David
2015-07-17
We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold. PMID:26230779
Hot matter from exploding black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapusta, J. I.
2006-08-01
The relativistic viscous fluid equations describing the outflow of high temperature matter created via Hawking radiation from microscopic black holes are solved numerically for a realistic equation of state. We focus on black holes with initial temperatures greater than 100 GeV and lifetimes less than 6 days. The spectra of photons and neutrinos are calculated for energies greater than 1 GeV. The most promising route for the observation of these black holes is to search for point sources emitting gamma rays or neutrinos of ever-increasing energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly
2016-04-01
Astronomers now know that supermassive black holes reside in nearly every galaxy.Though these black holes are an observational certainty, nearly every aspect of their evolution -- from their birth, to their fuel source, to their basic dynamics -- is a matter of lively debate. In principle, gas-rich major galaxy mergers can generate the central stockpile of fuel needed for a low mass central black hole seed to grow quickly into a supermassive one. During a galaxy merger, the black holes in each galaxy meet and form a supermassive binary black hole; as the binary orbit shrinks through its final parsec, it becomes the loudest gravitational wave source in the Universe and a powerful agent to sculpt the galactic center. This talk will touch on some current and ongoing work on refining our theories of how supermassive black hole binaries form, evolve within, and alter their galaxy host.
How big can a black hole grow?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Andrew
2016-02-01
I show that there is a physical limit to the mass of a black hole, above which it cannot grow through luminous accretion of gas, and so cannot appear as a quasar or active galactic nucleus (AGN). The limit is Mmax ≃ 5 × 1010 M⊙ for typical parameters, but can reach Mmax ≃ 2.7 × 1011 M⊙ in extreme cases (e.g. maximal prograde spin). The largest black hole masses so far found are close to but below the limit. The Eddington luminosity ≃6.5 × 1048 erg s-1 corresponding to Mmax is remarkably close to the largest AGN bolometric luminosity so far observed. The mass and luminosity limits both rely on a reasonable but currently untestable hypothesis about AGN disc formation, so future observations of extreme supermassive black hole masses can therefore probe fundamental disc physics. Black holes can in principle grow their masses above Mmax by non-luminous means such as mergers with other holes, but cannot become luminous accretors again. They might nevertheless be detectable in other ways, for example through gravitational lensing. I show further that black holes with masses ˜Mmax can probably grow above the values specified by the black-hole-host-galaxy scaling relations, in agreement with observation.
Destruction and recreation of black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, Peter M.
Even though the existence of the gravitationally collapsed concentrations of matter in space known as ‘black holes’ is accepted at all educational levels in our society, the basis for the black hole concept is really only the result of approximate calculations done over 40 years ago. The concept of the black hole is an esoteric subject, and recently the mathematical and physical frailties of the concept have come to light in an interesting round of theoretical shuffling. The recent activity in theorizing about black holes began about 10 years ago, when Cambridge University mathematican Stephen Hawking calculated that black holes could become unstable by losing mass and thus ‘evaporate.’ Hawking's results were surprisingly well received, considering the lack of theoretical understanding of the relations between quantum mechanics and relativity. (There is no quantized theory of gravitation, even today.) Nonetheless, his semiclassical calculations implied that the rate of ‘evaporation’ of a black hole would be slower than the rate of degradation of the universe. In fact, based on these and other calculations, the British regard Hawking as ‘the nearest thing we have to a new Einstein’ [New Scientist, Oct. 9, 1980]. Within the last few months, Frank Tipler, provocative mathematical physicist at the University of Texas, has reexamined Hawking's calculations [Physical Review Letters, 45, 941, 1980], concluding, in simple terms, (1) that because of possible vital difficulties in the assumptions, the very concept of black holes could be wrong; (2) that Hawkings' evaporation hypothesis is so efficient that a black hole once created must disappear in less than a second; or (3) that he, Tipler, may be wrong. The latter possibility has been the conclusion of physicist James Bardeen of the University of Washington, who calculated that black hole masses do evaporate but they do so according to Hawking's predicted rate and that Tipler's findings cause only a second
Non-Abelian magnetic black strings versus black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.
2016-05-01
We present d+1 -dimensional pure magnetic Yang-Mills (YM) black strings (or 1-branes) induced by the d -dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dilaton black holes. The Born-Infeld version of the YM field makes our starting point which goes to the standard YM field through a limiting procedure. The lifting from black holes to black strings (with less number of fields) is done by adding an extra, compact coordinate. This amounts to the change of horizon topology from S^{d-2} to a product structure. Our black string in 5 dimensions is a rather special one, with uniform Hawking temperature and non-asymptotically flat structure. As the YM charge becomes large the string gets thinner to tend into a breaking point and transform into a 4-dimensional black hole.
Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-06-01
The biggest black holes may feed just like the smallest ones, according to data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes. This discovery supports the implication of Einstein's relativity theory that black holes of all sizes have similar properties, and will be useful for predicting the properties of a conjectured new class of black holes. The conclusion comes from a large observing campaign of the spiral galaxy M81, which is about 12 million light years from Earth. In the center of M81 is a black hole that is about 70 million times more massive than the Sun, and generates energy and radiation as it pulls gas in the central region of the galaxy inwards at high speed. In contrast, so-called stellar mass black holes, which have about 10 times more mass than the Sun, have a different source of food. These smaller black holes acquire new material by pulling gas from an orbiting companion star. Because the bigger and smaller black holes are found in different environments with different sources of material to feed from, a question has remained about whether they feed in the same way. Using these new observations and a detailed theoretical model, a research team compared the properties of M81's black hole with those of stellar mass black holes. The results show that either big or little, black holes indeed appear to eat similarly to each other, and produce a similar distribution of X-rays, optical and radio light. AnimationMulti-wavelength Images of M81 One of the implications of Einstein's theory of General Relativity is that black holes are simple objects and only their masses and spins determine their effect on space-time. The latest research indicates that this simplicity manifests itself in spite of complicated environmental effects. "This confirms that the feeding patterns for black holes of different sizes can be very similar," said Sera Markoff of the Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, who led the study
Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: Thermal stability of the Nariai black hole
Myung, Yun Soo
2008-05-15
We study the thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole in five dimensions by introducing two temperatures based on the standard and Bousso-Hawking normalizations. We use the first-law of thermodynamics to derive thermodynamic quantities. The two temperatures indicate that the Nariai black hole is thermodynamically unstable. However, it seems that black hole thermodynamics favors the standard normalization and does not favor the Bousso-Hawking normalization.
Quasars, pulsars, black holes and HEAO's
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doolitte, R. F.; Moritz, K.; Whilden, R. D. C.
1974-01-01
Astronomical surveys are discussed by large X-ray, gamma ray, and cosmic ray instruments carried onboard high-energy astronomy observatories. Quasars, pulsars, black holes, and the ultimate benefits of the new astronomy are briefly discussed.
Black holes and the positive cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Sourav
2013-02-01
We address some aspects of black hole spacetimes endowed with a positive cosmological constant, i.e. black holes located inside a cosmological event horizon. First we establish a general criterion for existence of cosmological event horizons. Using the geometrical set up built for this, we study classical black hole no hair theorems for both static and stationary axisymmetric spacetimes. We discuss cosmic Nielsen-Olesen strings as hair in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. We also give a general calculation for particle creation by a Killing horizon using complex path analysis and using this we study particle creation in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime by both black hole and the cosmological event horizons.
Shadow of rotating regular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Amir, Muhammed; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-05-01
We study the shadows cast by the different types of rotating regular black holes viz. Ayón-Beato-García (ABG), Hayward, and Bardeen. These black holes have in addition to the total mass (M ) and rotation parameter (a ), different parameters as electric charge (Q ), deviation parameter (g ), and magnetic charge (g*). Interestingly, the size of the shadow is affected by these parameters in addition to the rotation parameter. We found that the radius of the shadow in each case decreases monotonically, and the distortion parameter increases when the values of these parameters increase. A comparison with the standard Kerr case is also investigated. We have also studied the influence of the plasma environment around regular black holes to discuss its shadow. The presence of the plasma affects the apparent size of the regular black hole's shadow to be increased due to two effects: (i) gravitational redshift of the photons and (ii) radial dependence of plasma density.
The 'Heartbeats' of Flaring Black Holes
This animation compares the X-ray 'heartbeats' of GRS 1915 and IGR J17091, two black holes that ingest gas from companion stars. GRS 1915 has nearly five times the mass of IGR J17091, which at thre...
White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szekeres, P.
1977-01-01
The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)
Black Hole Observations - Towards the Event Horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britzen, Silke
Black Holes are probably the most elusive solutions of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Despite numerous observations of the direct galactic environment and indirect influence of astrophysical black holes (e.g. jets, variable emission across the wavelength spectrum, feedback processes, etc.) -- a direct proof of their existence is still lacking. This article highlights some aspects deduced from many observations and concentrates on the experimental results with regard to black holes with masses from millions to billions of solar masses. The focus will be on the challenges and remaining questions. The Event Horizon Telescopce (EHT) project to image the photon sphere of Sgr A* and its potential is briefly sketched. This instrumental approach shall lead to highest resolution observations of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way (Sgr A*).
Key problems in black hole physics today
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Pankaj S.
2011-12-01
We review here some of the major open issues and challenges in black hole physics today, and the current progress on the same. It is pointed out that to secure a concrete foundation for the basic theory as well as astrophysical applications for black hole physics, it is essential to gain a suitable insight into these questions. In particular, we discuss the recent results investigating the final fate of a massive star within the framework of the Einstein gravity, and the stability and genericity aspects of the gravitational collapse outcomes in terms of black holes and naked singularities. Recent developments such as spinning up a black hole by throwing matter into it, and physical effects near naked singularities are considered. It is pointed out that some of the new results obtained in recent years in the theory of gravitational collapse imply interesting possibilities and understanding for the theoretical advances in gravity as well as towards new astrophysical applications.
Key problems in black hole physics today
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Pankaj S.
2011-03-01
We review here some of the major open issues and challenges in black hole physics today, and the current progress on the same. It is pointed out that to secure a concrete foundation for the basic theory as well as astrophysical applications for black hole physics, it is essential to gain a suitable insight into these questions. In particular, we discuss the recent results investigating the final fate of a massive star within the framework of the Einstein gravity, and the stability and genericity aspects of the gravitational collapse outcomes in terms of black holes and naked singularities. Recent developments such as spinning up a black hole by throwing matter into it, and physical effects near naked singularities are considered. It is pointed out that some of the new results obtained in recent years in the theory of gravitational collapse imply interesting possibilities and understanding for the theoretical advances in gravity as well as towards new astrophysical applications.
Massive black holes in galactic halos?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lacey, C. G.; Ostriker, J. P.
1985-01-01
In the present attempt to resolve the problems posed by the composition of dark halos and the heating of stellar disks, under the assumption that galaxy halos are composed of massive black holes, it is noted that the black holes must have masses of the order of one million solar masses. The heating mechanism proposed yields predictions for the dependence of the velocity dispersion on time, and for the shape of the velocity ellipsoid, which are in good agreement with observations. Attention is given to the constraints set by dynamical friction causing black holes to spiral to the Galactic center, by the possible presence of dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and by the accretion of interstellar gas by the black holes that produce luminous objects in the Galaxy.
CFT duals for accelerating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astorino, Marco
2016-09-01
The near horizon geometry of the rotating C-metric, describing accelerating Kerr-Newman black holes, is analysed. It is shown that, at extremality, even though it is not isomorphic to the extremal Kerr-Newman, it remains a warped and twisted product of AdS2 ×S2. Therefore the methods of the Kerr/CFT correspondence can successfully be applied to build a CFT dual model, whose entropy reproduces, through the Cardy formula, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the accelerating black hole. The mass of accelerating Kerr-Newman black hole, which fulfils the first law of thermodynamics, is presented. Further generalisation in presence of an external Melvin-like magnetic field, used to regularise the conical singularity characteristic of the C-metrics, shows that the Kerr/CFT correspondence can be applied also for the accelerating and magnetised extremal black holes.
Astrophysics: How black holes restrain old galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarzi, Marc
2016-05-01
Supermassive black holes are thought to keep star formation under control by ejecting or stirring gas in galaxies. Observations of an old galaxy reveal a potential mechanism for how this process occurs. See Letter p.504
Mass of a black hole firewall.
Abramowicz, M A; Kluźniak, W; Lasota, J-P
2014-03-01
Quantum entanglement of Hawking radiation has been supposed to give rise to a Planck density "firewall" near the event horizon of old black holes. We show that Planck density firewalls are excluded by Einstein's equations for black holes of mass exceeding the Planck mass. We find an upper limit of 1/(8πM) to the surface density of a firewall in a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M, translating for astrophysical black holes into a firewall density smaller than the Planck density by more than 30 orders of magnitude. A strict upper limit on the firewall density is given by the Planck density times the ratio M(Pl)/(8πM). PMID:24655237
Conserved quantities in a black hole collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dain, S.; Valiente-Kroon, J. A.
2002-02-01
The Newman-Penrose constants of the spacetime corresponding to the development of the Brill-Lindquist initial data are calculated by making use of a particular representation of spatial infinity due to H Friedrich. The Brill-Lindquist initial data set represents the head-on collision of two non-rotating black holes. In this case one non-zero constant is obtained. Its value is given in terms of the product of the individual masses of the black holes and the square of a distance parameter separating the two black holes. This constant retains its value all along null infinity, and therefore it provides information about the late time evolution of the collision process. In particular, it is argued that the magnitude of the constants provides information about the amount of residual radiation contained in the spacetime after the collision of the black holes.
Spectral line broadening in magnetized black holes
Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.; Tzounis, Christos E-mail: ashoom@ualberta.ca
2014-07-01
We consider weakly magnetized non-rotating black holes. In the presence of a regular magnetic field the motion of charged particles in the vicinity of a black hole is modified. As a result, the position of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) becomes closer to the horizon. When the Lorentz force is repulsive (directed from the black hole) the ISCO radius can reach the gravitational radius. In the process of accretion charged particles (ions) of the accreting matter can be accumulated near their ISCO, while neutral particles fall down to the black hole after they reach 6M radius. The sharp spectral line Fe α, emitted by iron ions at such orbits, is broadened when the emission is registered by a distant observer. In this paper we study this broadening effect and discuss how one can extract information concerning the strength of the magnetic field from the observed spectrum.
Charged fermions tunneling from regular black holes
Sharif, M. Javed, W.
2012-11-15
We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions as a tunneling process from charged regular black holes, i.e., the Bardeen and ABGB black holes. For this purpose, we apply the semiclassical WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation for charged particles and evaluate the tunneling probabilities. We recover the Hawking temperature corresponding to these charged regular black holes. Further, we consider the back-reaction effects of the emitted spin particles from black holes and calculate their corresponding quantum corrections to the radiation spectrum. We find that this radiation spectrum is not purely thermal due to the energy and charge conservation but has some corrections. In the absence of charge, e = 0, our results are consistent with those already present in the literature.
Evolution of binary black-hole spacetimes.
Pretorius, Frans
2005-09-16
We describe early success in the evolution of binary black-hole spacetimes with a numerical code based on a generalization of harmonic coordinates. Indications are that with sufficient resolution this scheme is capable of evolving binary systems for enough time to extract information about the orbit, merger, and gravitational waves emitted during the event. As an example we show results from the evolution of a binary composed of two equal mass, nonspinning black holes, through a single plunge orbit, merger, and ringdown. The resultant black hole is estimated to be a Kerr black hole with angular momentum parameter a approximately 0.70. At present, lack of resolution far from the binary prevents an accurate estimate of the energy emitted, though a rough calculation suggests on the order of 5% of the initial rest mass of the system is radiated as gravitational waves during the final orbit and ringdown. PMID:16197061
Energy conservation for dynamical black holes.
Hayward, Sean A
2004-12-17
An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in mass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the infalling matter and gravitational radiation. This first law of black-hole dynamics describes how a black hole grows and is regular in the limit where it ceases to grow. An effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor is obtained, providing measures of both ingoing and outgoing, transverse and longitudinal gravitational radiation on and near a black hole. Corresponding energy-tensor forms of the first law involve a preferred time vector which plays the role of a stationary Killing vector. Identifying an energy flux, vanishing if and only if the horizon is null, allows a division into energy supply and work terms. The energy supply can be expressed in terms of area increase and a newly defined surface gravity, yielding a Gibbs-like equation. PMID:15697889
Exact formation of hairy planar black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Zhong-Ying; Chen, Bin
2016-04-01
We consider Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with a given potential in general dimensions. We obtain large classes of static hairy planar black holes which are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-times. In particular, for a special case μ =(n -2 )/2 , we obtain new classes of exact dynamical solutions describing black hole formation. We find there are two classes of collapse solutions. The first class of solutions describes the evolution start from AdS space-time with a naked singularity at the origin. The space-time is linearly unstable and evolves into stationary black hole states even under small perturbation. The second class of solutions describes the space-time spontaneously evolving from AdS vacua into stationary black hole states undergoing nonlinear instability. We also discuss the global properties of all these dynamical solutions.
Gravitational radiation from extreme Kerr black hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sasaki, Misao; Nakamura, Takashi
1989-01-01
Gravitational radiation induced by a test particle falling into an extreme Kerr black hole was investigated analytically. Assuming the radiation is dominated by the infinite sequence of quasi-normal modes which has the limiting frequency m/(2M), where m is an azimuthal eigenvalue and M is the mass of the black hole, it was found that the radiated energy diverges logarithmically in time. Then the back reaction to the black hole was evaluated by appealing to the energy and angular momentum conservation laws. It was found that the radiation has a tendency to increase the ratio of the angular momentum to mass of the black hole, which is completely different from non-extreme case, while the contribution of the test particle is to decrease it.
The signature of a black hole transit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, Joseph F.
1989-01-01
This paper considers the possibility of identifying a black hole on the basis of the detection of some unique effect occurring during the transit of a black hole across the stellar disk of a companion star in a binary system. The results of Monte-Carlo calculations show that the amplitude of the photometric and polarimetric light curves in a typical X-ray binary is too small to be observed with present instrumentation, but that a black hole transit might be detectable in a binary having a large separation of the components. No binary system suggested as containing a stellar-mass-sized black hole is a like candidate to exhibit an observable transit signature, with the possible exception of X Persei/4U0352+30 described by White et al. (1976).
Black holes in a cubic Galileon universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichev, E.; Charmousis, C.; Lehébel, A.; Moskalets, T.
2016-09-01
We find and study the properties of black hole solutions for a subclass of Horndeski theory including the cubic Galileon term. The theory under study has shift symmetry but not reflection symmetry for the scalar field. The Galileon is assumed to have linear time dependence characterized by a velocity parameter. We give analytic 3-dimensional solutions that are akin to the BTZ solutions but with a non-trivial scalar field that modifies the effective cosmological constant. We then study the 4-dimensional asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions. The latter present three different branches according to their effective cosmological constant. For two of these branches, we find families of black hole solutions, parametrized by the velocity of the scalar field. These spherically symmetric solutions, obtained numerically, are different from GR solutions close to the black hole event horizon, while they have the same de-Sitter asymptotic behavior. The velocity parameter represents black hole primary hair.
Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
This artist's concept illustrates the two types of spiral galaxies that populate our universe: those with plump middles, or central bulges (upper left), and those lacking the bulge (foreground).
New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. Previously, astronomers thought that a galaxy without a bulge could not have a supermassive black hole. In this illustration, jets shooting away from the black holes are depicted as thin streams.
The findings are reshaping theories of galaxy formation, suggesting that a galaxy's 'waistline' does not determine whether it will be home to a big black hole.
Black hole evaporation rates without spacetime.
Braunstein, Samuel L; Patra, Manas K
2011-08-12
Verlinde recently suggested that gravity, inertia, and even spacetime may be emergent properties of an underlying thermodynamic theory. This vision was motivated in part by Jacobson's 1995 surprise result that the Einstein equations of gravity follow from the thermodynamic properties of event horizons. Taking a first tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole event horizons in a spacetime-free manner. Our result relies on a Hilbert space description of black hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes, global conservation of the no-hair quantities, and the existence of Penrose processes. Our analysis is not wedded to standard general relativity and so should apply to extended gravity theories where we find that the black hole area must be replaced by some other property in any generalized area theorem. PMID:21902381
Testing black hole superradiance with pulsar companions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosa, João G.
2015-10-01
We show that the magnetic dipole and gravitational radiation emitted by a pulsar can undergo superradiant scattering off a spinning black hole companion. We find that the relative amount of superradiant modes in the radiation depends on the pulsar's angular position relative to the black hole's equatorial plane. In particular, when the pulsar and black hole spins are aligned, superradiant modes are dominant at large angles, leading to an amplification of the pulsar's luminosity, whereas for small angles the radiation is dominantly composed of non-superradiant modes and the signal is attenuated. This results in a characteristic orbital modulation of the pulsar's luminosity, up to the percent level within our approximations, which may potentially yield a signature of superradiant scattering in astrophysical black holes and hence an important test of general relativity.
Charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Faizal, Mir; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow. We study the geometric and thermodynamic properties of black hole solutions. We also investigate the effects of rainbow functions on different thermodynamic quantities for these charged black holes in dilatonic gravity's rainbow. Then we demonstrate that the first law of thermodynamics is valid for these solutions. After that, we investigate thermal stability of the solutions using the canonical ensemble and analyze the effects of different rainbow functions on the thermal stability. In addition, we present some arguments regarding the bound and phase transition points in context of geometrical thermodynamics. We also study the phase transition in extended phase space in which the cosmological constant is treated as the thermodynamic pressure. Finally, we use another approach to calculate and demonstrate that the obtained critical points in extended phase space represent a second order phase transition for these black holes.
Energy extremum principle for charged black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraser, Scott; Funkhouser, Shaker Von Price
2015-11-01
For a set of N asymptotically flat black holes with arbitrary charges and masses, all initially at rest and well separated, we prove the following extremum principle: the extremal charge configuration (|qi|=mi for each black hole) can be derived by extremizing the total energy, for variations of the black hole apparent horizon areas, at fixed charges and fixed Euclidean separations. We prove this result through second order in an expansion in the inverse separations. If all charges have the same sign, this result is a variational principle that reinterprets the static equilibrium of the Majumdar-Papapetrou-Hartle-Hawking solution as an extremum of total energy, rather than as a balance of forces; this result augments a list of related variational principles for other static black holes, and is consistent with the independently known Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) energy minimum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Oscar J. C.
2004-10-01
Black holes, first found as solutions of Einstein's General Relativity, are important in astrophysics, since they result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star or a cluster of stars, and in physics since they reveal properties of the fundamental physics, such as thermodynamic and quantum properties of gravitation. In order to better understand the black hole physics we need exact solutions that describe one or more black holes. In this thesis we study exact solutions in three, four and higher dimensional spacetimes. The study in 3-dimensions is important due to the simplification of the problem, while the discussion in higher dimensions is essential due to the fact that many theories indicate that extra dimensions exist in our universe. In this thesis, in any of the dimensions mentioned above, we study exact solutions with a single black hole and exact solutions that describe a pair of uniformly accelerated black holes (C-metric), with the acceleration source being well identified. This later solutions are then used to study in detail the quantum process of black hole pair creation in an external field. We also compute the gravitational radiation released during this pair creation process. KEYWORDS: Exact black hole solutions; Pair of accelerated black holes, C-metric, Ernst solution; Pair creation of black holes; Gravitational radiation; D-dimensional spacetimes; Cosmological constant backgrounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd
2015-11-01
Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.
Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lodato, Giuseppe; Gerosa, Davide
2013-02-01
In this Letter, we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters and noting that the non-linear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assisted spin alignment. We test our predictions with a Monte Carlo realization of random misalignments and accretion rates, and we find that the outcome depends strongly on the spin magnitude. We estimate a generous upper limit to the probability of alignment by making assumptions which favour it throughout. Even with these assumptions, about 40 per cent of black holes with a ≳ 0.5 do not have time to align with the disc. If the residual misalignment is not small and it is maintained down to the final coalescence phase, this can give a powerful recoil velocity to the merged hole. Highly spinning black holes are thus more likely being subject to strong recoils, the occurrence of which is currently debated.
Renyi Entropies of a Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialas, A.; Czyz, W.
2008-08-01
The Renyi entropies, Hl, of Hawking radiation contained in a thin shell surrounding the black hole are evaluated. When the width of the shell is adjusted to the energy content corresponding to the mass defect, the Bekenstein-Hawking formula for the Shannon (S=H1) entropy of a black hole is reproduced. This result does not depend on the distance of the shell from the horizon. The Renyi entropies of higher order, however, are sensitive to it.
Charged black hole remnants at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alberghi, G. L.; Bellagamba, L.; Calmet, X.; Casadio, R.; Micu, O.
2013-06-01
We investigate possible signatures of long-lived (or stable) charged black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we find that black hole remnants are characterised by quite low speed. Due to this fact, the charged remnants could, in some cases, be very clearly distinguished from the background events, exploiting dE/ dX measurements. We also compare the estimate energy released by such remnants with that of typical Standard Model particles, using the Bethe-Bloch formula.
Do evaporating black holes form photospheres?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacGibbon, Jane H.; Carr, B. J.; Page, Don N.
2008-09-01
Several authors, most notably Heckler, have claimed that the observable Hawking emission from a microscopic black hole is significantly modified by the formation of a photosphere around the black hole due to QED or QCD interactions between the emitted particles. In this paper we analyze these claims and identify a number of physical and geometrical effects which invalidate these scenarios. We point out two key problems. First, the interacting particles must be causally connected to interact, and this condition is satisfied by only a small fraction of the emitted particles close to the black hole. Second, a scattered particle requires a distance ˜E/me2 for completing each bremsstrahlung interaction, with the consequence that it is improbable for there to be more than one complete bremsstrahlung interaction per particle near the black hole. These two effects have not been included in previous analyses. We conclude that the emitted particles do not interact sufficiently to form a QED photosphere. Similar arguments apply in the QCD case and prevent a QCD photosphere (chromosphere) from developing when the black hole temperature is much greater than ΛQCD, the threshold for QCD particle emission. Additional QCD phenomenological arguments rule out the development of a chromosphere around black hole temperatures of order ΛQCD. In all cases, the observational signatures of a cosmic or Galactic halo background of primordial black holes or an individual black hole remain essentially those of the standard Hawking model, with little change to the detection probability. We also consider the possibility, as proposed by Belyanin et al. and D. Cline et al., that plasma interactions between the emitted particles form a photosphere, and we conclude that this scenario too is not supported.
Local temperature for dynamical black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayward, Sean A.; di Criscienzo, R.; Nadalini, M.; Vanzo, L.; Zerbini, S.
2009-05-01
A local Hawking temperature was recently derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method, and is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. Descriptions are given of the operational meaning of the temperature, in terms of what observers measure, and its relation to the usual Hawking temperature for static black holes. Implications for the final fate of an evaporating black hole are discussed.
A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2007-12-01
An alternative cosmological model called by Black Hole Universe is newly developed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses due to continuously inhaling matter from its outside - the mother universe. The structure and evolution of the black hole universe are spatially hierarchical and temporally iterative. In each of iterations, the matter reconfigures and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. A universe passes through birth, growth, and death. The entire life of a universe roughly divides into three periods with different rates of expansion. In the early period, the universe was a child, which did not eat much and thus grew slowly. In the middle period, the universe is an adult, which expands quickly with a speed up to the speed of light. And in the final period, the universe will become elder and slow down the expansion till a complete stop when the outside matter is all swallowed. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity and can be understood with the well-developed physics. This new model does not need a dark energy for acceleration and has a great impact on the traditional big bang cosmology. In this presentation, we will show the origin, evolution, and expansion of the black hole universe, explain the cosmic microwave background radiation, describe the energy mechanism of quasars, illustrate the black hole nucleosynthesis of elements, analyze the mechanisms of redshifts, and compare the black hole universe model with the big bang cosmology.
Phantom black holes and sigma models
Azreg-Aienou, Mustapha; Clement, Gerard; Fabris, Julio C.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.
2011-06-15
We construct static multicenter solutions of phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory from null geodesics of the target space, leading to regular black holes without spatial symmetry for certain discrete values of the dilaton coupling constant. We also discuss the three-dimensional gravitating sigma models obtained by reduction of phantom Einstein-Maxwell, phantom Kaluza-Klein and phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion theories. In each case, we generate by group transformations phantom charged black hole solutions from a neutral seed.
Black holes and relativitic gravity theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.
1977-01-01
All presently known relativistic gravitation theories were considered which have a Riemannian background geometry and possess exact static, spherically symmetric solutions which are asymptotically flat. Each theory predicts the existence of trapped surfaces (black holes). For a general static isotropic metric, MACSYMA was used to compute the Newman-Penrose equations, the black hole radius, the impact parameter, and capture radius for photon accretion. These results were then applied to several of the better known gravitation theories.
Improved black hole fireworks: Asymmetric black-hole-to-white-hole tunneling scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Lorenzo, Tommaso; Perez, Alejandro
2016-06-01
A new scenario for gravitational collapse has been recently proposed by Haggard and Rovelli. Presenting the model under the name of black hole fireworks, they claim that the accumulation of quantum gravitational effects outside the horizon can cause the tunneling of geometry from a black hole to a white hole, allowing a bounce of the collapsing star which can eventually go back to infinity. In this paper, we discuss the instabilities of this model and propose a simple minimal modification which eliminates them, as well as other related instabilities discussed in the literature. The new scenario is a time-asymmetric version of the original model with a time scale for the final explosion that is shorter than m log m in Planck units. Our analysis highlights the importance of irreversibility in gravitational collapse which, in turn, uncovers important issues that cannot be addressed in detail without a full quantum gravity treatment.
Black holes with bottle-shaped horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Teo, Edward
2016-06-01
We present a new class of four-dimensional AdS black holes with noncompact event horizons of finite area. The event horizons are topologically spheres with one puncture, with the puncture pushed to infinity in the form of a cusp. Because of the shape of their event horizons, we call such black holes "black bottles." The solution was obtained as a special case of the Plebański-Demiański solution, and may describe either static or rotating black bottles. For certain ranges of parameters, an acceleration horizon may also appear in the space-time. We study the full parameter space of the solution, and the various limiting cases that arise. In particular, we show how the rotating black hole recently discovered by Klemm arises as a special limit.
Black hole evolution - I. Supernova-regulated black hole growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubois, Yohan; Volonteri, Marta; Silk, Joseph; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain
2015-09-01
The growth of a supermassive black hole (BH) is determined by how much gas the host galaxy is able to feed it, which in turn is controlled by the cosmic environment, through galaxy mergers and accretion of cosmic flows that time how galaxies obtain their gas, and also by internal processes in the galaxy, such as star formation and feedback from stars and the BH itself. In this paper, we study the growth of a 1012 M⊙ halo at z = 2, which is the progenitor of a group of galaxies at z = 0, and of its central BH by means of a high-resolution zoomed cosmological simulation, the Seth simulation. We study the evolution of the BH driven by the accretion of cold gas in the galaxy, and explore the efficiency of the feedback from supernovae (SNe). For a relatively inefficient energy input from SNe, the BH grows at the Eddington rate from early times, and reaches self-regulation once it is massive enough. We find that at early cosmic times z > 3.5, efficient feedback from SNe forbids the formation of a settled disc as well as the accumulation of dense cold gas in the vicinity of the BH and starves the central compact object. As the galaxy and its halo accumulate mass, they become able to confine the nuclear inflows provided by major mergers and the BH grows at a sustained near-to-Eddington accretion rate. We argue that this mechanism should be ubiquitous amongst low-mass galaxies, corresponding to galaxies with a stellar mass below ≲ 109 M⊙ in our simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saremi, Omid
Various aspects of gravitational physics from a string theory perspective are examined in this thesis. In string theory, a statistical description of the thermodynamics of neutral black holes is still lacking. Such a microphysical picture would involve field theories in limits difficult to analyze. In the second chapter, a brane-antibrane model for neutral black D p-branes, based on an earlier proposal for conformal branes only, is developed. The black hole entropy is reproduced by the strongly coupled field theory, up to a power of two. Using a toy model containing a tachyon arid bosonic degrees of freedom of the quantum mechanics of D0-branes and anti-D0-branes, our results show that strong-coupling finite-temperature stabilization of the tachyon is indeed possible. The third chapter concerns itself with the classical dynamics of a probe ("test") Dp-brane moving in a gravitational background sourced by a stack of Dp-branes. The physics is qualitatively similar to that of the effective action for open-string tachyon condensation, with a power-law runaway potential. We show that small inhomogeneous ripples of the probe brane grow with time, leading to folding of the brane as it moves. We notice and comment on the application of brane folding to the theory of cosmological fluctuations in string theory inflation. In the fourth chapter, we elaborate on the correspondence between the quantum Hall system with filling factor unity and the N = 4 SYM theory in the half-BPS sector. We present an extension of the rioncommutative Chern-Simons Matrix theory which contains independent degrees of freedom (fields) for particles arid quasiholes. The BPS configurations of our model are in one-to-one correspondence with the half-BPS states in the N = 4 SYM. Within our model, we clarify the symmetry between giant and dual-giant configurations, among others. The fifth chapter is devoted to a check of the "viscosity bound conjecture" by Kovtun, Son and Starinets. The KSS conjecture is
Cosmological production of noncommutative black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Robert B.; Nicolini, Piero
2011-09-01
We investigate the pair creation of noncommutative black holes in a background with a positive cosmological constant. As a first step we derive the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution. By varying the mass and the cosmological constant parameters, we find several spacetimes compatible with the new solution: positive-mass spacetimes admit one cosmological horizon and two, one, or no black hole horizons, while negative-mass spacetimes have just a cosmological horizon. These new black holes share the properties of the corresponding asymptotically flat solutions, including the nonsingular core and thermodynamic stability in the final phase of the evaporation. As a second step we determine the action which generates the matter sector of gravitational field equations and we construct instantons describing the pair production of black holes and the other admissible topologies. As a result we find that for current values of the cosmological constant the de Sitter background is quantum mechanically stable according to experience. However, positive-mass noncommutative black holes and solitons would have plentifully been produced during inflationary times for Planckian values of the cosmological constant. As a special result we find that, in these early epochs of the Universe, Planck size black holes production would have been largely disfavored. We also find a potential instability for production of negative-mass solitons.
Star formation around supermassive black holes.
Bonnell, I A; Rice, W K M
2008-08-22
The presence of young massive stars orbiting on eccentric rings within a few tenths of a parsec of the supermassive black hole in the galactic center is challenging for theories of star formation. The high tidal shear from the black hole should tear apart the molecular clouds that form stars elsewhere in the Galaxy, and transport of stars to the galactic center also appears unlikely during their lifetimes. We conducted numerical simulations of the infall of a giant molecular cloud that interacts with the black hole. The transfer of energy during closest approach allows part of the cloud to become bound to the black hole, forming an eccentric disk that quickly fragments to form stars. Compressional heating due to the black hole raises the temperature of the gas up to several hundred to several thousand kelvin, ensuring that the fragmentation produces relatively high stellar masses. These stars retain the eccentricity of the disk and, for a sufficiently massive initial cloud, produce an extremely top-heavy distribution of stellar masses. This potentially repetitive process may explain the presence of multiple eccentric rings of young stars in the presence of a supermassive black hole. PMID:18719276
Anisotropic Expansion of the Black Hole Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2009-01-01
Recently, Zhang proposed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state of temperature and density with hundred billion-trillion solar masses due to continuously inhaling matter from its outside. The structure of the entire space is similarly hierarchical or layered and the evolution is iterative. In each of iteration a universe passes through birth, growth, and death. The entire life of a universe roughly divides into three periods with different rates of expansion: slowly growing child universe, fast expanding adult universe, and gradually dying aged universe. When one universe expands to die out, a new universe grows up from its inside. On the AAS 211th meeting, the black hole universe model was shown to be consistent with Mach's principle, observations, and Einstein's general relativity. This new cosmological model can explain the cosmic microwave background radiation, quasars, and element abundances with the well-developed physics. Dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate. Inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe does not have the horizon problem. In this presentation, the author will explain why the expansion of the universe is anisotropic as shown by the observed anisotropy of the Hubble constant. He will also compare the significant differences between the black hole universe and the big bang cosmology.
Attractors, Black Holes and Multiqubit Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lévay, Péter
Recently a striking correspondence has been established between quantum information theory and black hole solutions in string theory. For the intriguing mathematical coincidences underlying this correspondence the term "Black Hole Analogy" has been coined. The basic correspondence of the analogy is the one between the entropy formula of certain stringy black hole solutions on one hand and entanglement measures for qubit and qutrit systems on the other. In these lecture notes we develop the basic concepts of multiqubit entanglement needed for a clear exposition of the Black Hole Analogy. We show that using this analogy we can rephrase some of the well-known results and awkward looking expressions of supergravity in a nice form by employing some multiqubit entangled states depending on the quantized charges and the moduli. It is shown that the attractor mechanism in this picture corresponds to a distillation procedure of highly entangled graph states at the black hole horizon. As a further insight we also find a very interesting connection between error correcting codes, designs and the classification of extremal BPS and non-BPS black hole solutions.
New Directions in Black Hole Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, C. S.
2002-12-01
The astrophysics of accreting black holes has been a scientific focus of most major future X-ray missions. In this presentation, I will describe how our science goals and expectations have been effected by new data from Chandra and XMM-Newton as well as new theoretical work. I will argue on the basis of XMM-Newton data that black hole spin does not manifest itself through subtle effects but may have dramatic astrophysical consequences. If this is correct, the exotic astrophysics of black hole spin, including astrophysical realizations of the Penrose and Blandford-Znajek processes, will be a principal focus of Constellation-X, XEUS and MAXIM. On the other hand, data from the late stages of the RXTE/ASCA missions as well as XMM-Newton suggest that the simple technique of relativistic X-ray iron line reverberation mapping, which was originally touted as a good method for studying the inner accretion disk, may be hard to realize. Finally, I will discuss recent theoretical/simulation work on the appearance of a MHD turbulent accretion disk around a black hole. Such simulations may be a good framework to understand future timing observations of Galactic Black Hole Candidates and their quasi-periodic oscillations. They also suggest a quantitative way of measuring the space-time geometry around supermassive black holes in AGN.
Black holes and Abelian symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chagoya, Javier; Niz, Gustavo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2016-09-01
Black hole configurations offer insights on the nonlinear aspects of gravitational theories, and can suggest testable predictions for modifications of General Relativity. In this work, we examine exact black hole configurations in vector–tensor theories, originally proposed to explain dark energy by breaking the Abelian symmetry with a non-minimal coupling of the vector to gravity. We are able to evade the no-go theorems by Bekenstein on the existence of regular black holes in vector–tensor theories with Proca mass terms, and exhibit regular black hole solutions with a profile for the longitudinal vector polarisation, characterised by an additional charge. We analytically find the most general static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions with and without a cosmological constant, and study in some detail their features, such as how the geometry depends on the vector charges. We also include angular momentum, and find solutions describing slowly-rotating black holes. Finally, we extend some of these solutions to higher dimensions.
Black Hole Coalescence: The Gravitational Wave Driven Phase
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
When two supermassive black holes (SMBHS) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.
Phantom energy accretion onto black holes in a cyclic universe
Sun Chengyi
2008-09-15
Black holes pose a serious problem in cyclic or oscillating cosmology. It is speculated that, in the cyclic universe with phantom turnarounds, black holes will be torn apart by phantom energy prior to turnaround before they can create any problems. In this paper, using the mechanism of phantom accretion onto black holes, we find that black holes do not disappear before phantom turnaround. But the remanent black holes will not cause any problems due to Hawking evaporation.
Chandra Sees Remarkable Eclipse of Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-04-01
A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This eclipse has allowed two key predictions about the effects of supermassive black holes to be tested. Just as eclipses of the Sun and moon give astronomers rare opportunities to learn about those objects, an alignment in a nearby galaxy has provided a rare opportunity to investigate a supermassive black hole. Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse The supermassive black hole is located in NGC 1365, a galaxy 60 million light years from Earth. It contains a so called active galactic nucleus, or AGN. Scientists believe that the black hole at the center of the AGN is fed by a steady stream of material, presumably in the form of a disk. Material just about to fall into a black hole should be heated to millions of degrees before passing over the event horizon, or point of no return. The disk of gas around the central black hole in NGC 1365 produces copious X-rays but is much too small to resolve directly with a telescope. However, the disk was eclipsed by an intervening cloud, so observation of the time taken for the disk to go in and out of eclipse allowed scientists to estimate the size of the disk. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation "For years we've been struggling to confirm the size of this X-ray structure," said Guido Risaliti of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass, and the Italian Institute of Astronomy (INAF). "This serendipitous eclipse enabled us to make this breakthrough." The Chandra team directly measured the size of the X-ray source as about seven times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. That means the source of X-rays is about 2 billion times smaller than the host galaxy and only about 10 times larger than the estimated size of the black hole's event horizon, consistent with theoretical predictions. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 1365
An over-massive black hole in the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277.
van den Bosch, Remco C E; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; van de Ven, Glenn; van der Wel, Arjen; Walsh, Jonelle L
2012-11-29
Most massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres, and the masses of the black holes are believed to correlate with properties of the host-galaxy bulge component. Several explanations have been proposed for the existence of these locally established empirical relationships, including the non-causal, statistical process of galaxy-galaxy merging, direct feedback between the black hole and its host galaxy, and galaxy-galaxy merging and the subsequent violent relaxation and dissipation. The empirical scaling relations are therefore important for distinguishing between various theoretical models of galaxy evolution, and they furthermore form the basis for all black-hole mass measurements at large distances. Observations have shown that the mass of the black hole is typically 0.1 per cent of the mass of the stellar bulge of the galaxy. Until now, the galaxy with the largest known fraction of its mass in its central black hole (11 per cent) was the small galaxy NGC 4486B. Here we report observations of the stellar kinematics of NGC 1277, which is a compact, lenticular galaxy with a mass of 1.2 × 10(11) solar masses. From the data, we determine that the mass of the central black hole is 1.7 × 10(10) solar masses, or 59 per cent of its bulge mass. We also show observations of five other compact galaxies that have properties similar to NGC 1277 and therefore may also contain over-massive black holes. It is not yet known if these galaxies represent a tail of a distribution, or if disk-dominated galaxies fail to follow the usual black-hole mass scaling relations. PMID:23192149
Gamma -bursts by primordial Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaina, Alex
Gamma-burts may arise as a result of quantum generation of photons (as well as neutrinos, gravitons, electrons) by Primordial Black Holes (PBH's) of mass 5-7 x 10^14 g (Hawking: Nature, Volume 248, Issue 5443, pp. 30-31, 1974,Communications in Mathematical Physics, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp.199-220; Page:Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole, Phys. Rev. D 13, 198, 1976,Physical Review D - Particles and Fields, 3rd Series, vol. 14, Dec. 15, 1976, p. 3260-327, Particle emission rates from a black hole. III. Charged leptons from a nonrotating hole Phys. Rev. D 16, 2402 Published 15 October 1977; Jane Mac Gibbon, Quark- and gluon-jet emission from primordial black holes. II. The emission over the black-hole lifetime Phys. Rev. D 44, 376 - Published 15 July 1991, J.H. MacGibbon & B.J. Carr,Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 371, April 20, 1991, p. 447-469 ). Another way of the Gamma-rays production by highly rotating PBH's results from the bomb-like accumulation of mass bosons on superradiative bound levels, which I have called Bose instability in Black Holes (Ternov et al.Soviet Physics Journal, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp.1200-1204 1978; Detweiler: Physical Review D (Particles and Fields), Volume 22, Issue 10, 15 November 1980, pp.2323-2326 1980; Gaina and Ternov: Soviet Astronomy Letters, vol. 12, Nov.-Dec. 1986, p. 394-396; Gaina: Soviet Astronomy Letters, Vol.15, NO.3/MAY,JUN, P. 243, 1989,Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions, vol. 10, Issue 2, pp.111-112, 1996,Bulletin Astronomique de Belgrade, No. 153, p. 29 - 34 ). The only type of black Holes which is still undiscovered is just the primordial Black Holes type. Is this a technical problem related wuith the sensitivity of Gamma-detectors or this is rather a problem of unfinalized of the quantum mechanical treatment of the Black Holes evaporation? Is this a problem related with inexactitudes of measurements of the Hubble constant or the primordial black
THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY
Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.
2015-02-01
A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.
The Black Hole Formation Probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.
2015-02-01
A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH(M ZAMS). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH(M ZAMS) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH(M ZAMS) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH(M ZAMS) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.
Foaming three-charge black holes
Bena, Iosif; Wang, C.-W.; Warner, Nicholas P.
2007-06-15
We find a very large set of smooth horizonless geometries that have the same charges and angular momenta as the five-dimensional, maximally spinning, three-charge, supersymmetric black hole (J{sup 2}=Q{sup 3}). Our solutions are constructed using a four-dimensional Gibbons-Hawking base space that has a very large number of two-cycles. The entropy of our solutions is proportional to {radical}(Q). In the same class of solutions we also find microstates corresponding to zero-entropy black rings, and these are related to the microstates of the black hole by continuous deformations.
NASA's Chandra Finds Youngest Nearby Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-11-01
Astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have found evidence of the youngest black hole known to exist in our cosmic neighborhood. The 30-year-old black hole provides a unique opportunity to watch this type of object develop from infancy. The black hole could help scientists better understand how massive stars explode, which ones leave behind black holes or neutron stars, and the number of black holes in our galaxy and others. The 30-year-old object is a remnant of SN 1979C, a supernova in the galaxy M100 approximately 50 million light-years from Earth. Data from Chandra, NASA's Swift satellite, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and the German ROSAT observatory revealed a bright source of X-rays that has remained steady during observation from 1995 to 2007. This suggests the object is a black hole being fed either by material falling into it from the supernova or a binary companion. "If our interpretation is correct, this is the nearest example where the birth of a black hole has been observed," said Daniel Patnaude of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. who led the study. The scientists think SN 1979C, first discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1979, formed when a star about 20 times more massive than the Sun collapsed. Many new black holes in the distant universe previously have been detected in the form of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, SN 1979C is different because it is much closer and belongs to a class of supernovas unlikely to be associated with a GRB. Theory predicts most black holes in the universe should form when the core of a star collapses and a GRB is not produced. "This may be the first time the common way of making a black hole has been observed," said co-author Abraham Loeb, also of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "However, it is very difficult to detect this type of black hole birth because decades of X-ray observations are needed to make the case." The idea of a black hole with
Grumblings from an Awakening Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2015-11-01
In June of this year, after nearly three decades of sleep, the black hole V404 Cygni woke up and began grumbling. Scientists across the globe scrambled to observe the sudden flaring activity coming from this previously peaceful black hole. And now were getting the first descriptions of what weve learned from V404 Cygs awakening!Sudden OutburstV404 Cyg is a black hole of roughly nine solar masses, and its in a binary system with a low-mass star. The black hole pulls a stream of gas from the star, which then spirals in around the black hole, forming an accretion disk. Sometimes the material simply accumulates in the disk but every two or three decades, the build-up of gas suddenly rushes toward the black hole as if a dam were bursting.The sudden accretion in these events causes outbursts of activity from the black hole, its flaring easily visible to us. The last time V404 Cyg exhibited such activity was in 1989, and its been rather quiet since then. Our telescopes are of course much more powerful and sensitive now, nearly three decades later so when the black hole woke up and began flaring in June, scientists were delighted at the chance to observe it.The high variability of V404 Cyg is evident in this example set of spectra, where time increases from the bottom panel to the top. [King et al. 2015]Led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University), a team of scientists observed V404 Cyg with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, obtaining spectra of the black hole during its outbursts. The black hole flared so brightly during its activity that the team had to take precautions to protect the CCDs in their detector from radiation damage! Now the group has released the first results from their analysis.Windy DiskThe primary surprise from V404 Cyg is its winds. Many stellar-mass black holes have outflows of mass, either in the form of directed jets emitted from their centers, or in the form of high-energy winds isotropically emitted from their accretion disks. But V404
Black-hole evaporation and ultrashort distances
Jacobson, T. )
1991-09-15
The role played by ultrahigh frequencies of ultrashort distances in the usual derivations of the Hawking effect is discussed and criticized. The question would a blackhole radiate if there were a Planck scale cutoff in the rest frame of the hole '' is posed. Guidance is sought from Unruh's fluid-flow analogue of black-hole radiation, by taking into account the atomic nature of the fluid. Two arguments for black-hole radiation are given which assume a Planck length cutoff. One involves the response of static accelerated detectors outside the horizon, and the other involves conservation of the expectation value of the stress tensor. Neither argument is conclusive, but they do strongly suggest that, in spite of reasonable doubt about the usual derivations of black-hole radiation, a safe'' derivation which avoids our ignorance of ultrashort-distance physics can likely be formulated. Remaining open questions are discussed.
Stability of black holes from hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozawa, Masato
2010-05-01
It has been well known from old days as a "membrane paradigm" that black holes exhibit laws analogous to laws of fluids. Recent development of AdS/CFT correspondence enhances this similarity into an exact duality, according to which the fluid lumps solving Navier-Stokes equations corresponds holographically to black holes in Scherk-Schwarz (SS) AdS spacetime solving Einstein's equations in the bulk. Black rings in SS-AdS5 are considered to be gravitational duals of stationary and axisymmetric fluid annuli found by Lahiri and Minwalla. We will present a study on the stability of higher dimensional black holes via this dual configurations and further discuss new multiple plasma configurations.
Black hole based tests of general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.
2016-03-01
General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar-tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory.
Simulating Gravitational Wave Emission from Massive Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. In the past few years, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms. highlighting their astrophysical consequences and the dramatic new potential for discovery that arises when merging black holes will be observed using gravitational waves.
Rotating black hole thermodynamics with a particle probe
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2011-10-15
The thermodynamics of Myers-Perry black holes in general dimensions are studied using a particle probe. When undergoing particle absorption, the changes of the entropy and irreducible mass are shown to be dependent on the particle radial momentum. The black hole thermodynamic behaviors are dependent on dimensionality for specific rotations. For a 4-dimensional Kerr black hole, its black hole properties are maintained for any particle absorption. 5-dimensional black holes can avoid a naked ring singularity by absorbing a particle in specific momenta ranges. Black holes over 6 dimensions become ultraspinning black holes through a specific form of particle absorption. The microscopical changes are interpreted in limited cases of Myers-Perry black holes using Kerr/CFT correspondence. We systematically describe the black hole properties changed by particle absorption in all dimensions.
Kick processes in the merger of two colliding black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aranha, R. F.; Soares, I. Damião; Tonini, E. V.
2010-11-01
We examine numerically the process of momentum extraction by gravitational waves in the merger of two colliding black holes, in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. The initial data have already a common horizon so that the evolution covers the post-merger phase up to the final configuration of the remnant black hole. The analysis of the momentum flux carried out by gravitational waves indicates that two distinct regimes are present in the post-merger phase: (i) an initial accelerated regime, followed by (ii) a deceleration regime in which the deceleration increases rapidly towards a maximum and then decreases to zero, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. The analysis is based on the Bondi-Sachs conservation law for the total momentum of the system. We obtain the total kick velocity Vk imparted on the merged black hole during the accelerated regime (i) and the total antikick velocity Vak during the decelerated regime (ii), by evaluating the impulse of the gravitational wave flux during both regimes. The distributions of both Vk and Vak as a function of the symmetric mass ratio η satisfy a simple η-scaling law motivated by post-Newtonian analytical estimates. In the η-scaling formula the Newtonian factor is dominant in the decelerated regime, that generates Vak, contrary to the behavior in the initial accelerated regime. For an initial infalling velocity v/c≃0.462 of each individual black hole we obtain a maximum kick Vk≃6.4km/s at η≃0.209, and a maximum antikick Vak≃109km/s at η≃0.205. The net antikick velocity (Vak-Vk) also satisfies a similar η-scaling law with a maximum approximately 102km/s also at η≃0.205, qualitatively consistent with results from numerical relativity simulations, and post-Newtonian evaluations of binary black hole inspirals. For larger values of the initial data parameter v/c substantial larger values of the net antikick velocity are obtained. Based on the several velocity variables obtained, we discuss a
String theory effects on black hole physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, Alejandra
2009-09-01
This thesis focuses on recent developments in black hole physics in the context of string theory. The two main topics discussed here are: the effects of quantum/string corrections to five dimensional black holes; and the holographic description of two dimensional black holes. In the gravitational theory the quantum/string corrections are encoded in higher derivative terms in the supergravity action, which are governed by the mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons term. We describe the full asymptotically flat solution of black strings and black holes, and construct the near horizon attractor geometries. With these solutions in hand, we study the thermodynamic properties of black holes beyond the leading order. One important achievement was finding the corrected attractor geometries that contain a three dimensional Anti-de Sitter factor. This allows us to verify that the space-time central charge and the anomaly based derivation of it exactly agree. Another motivation to study higher derivative corrections is to resolve the singularities of small black strings. These objects correspond to classical solutions with a naked singularity and vanishing entropy. Once the stringy corrections are included, we obtain completely smooth geometries with the correct asymptotic behavior. We also studied the effect of the Taub-NUT geometry on the sub-leading corrections to the black hole entropy. This space contains a contractible circle that allows one to lift a four dimensional black hole to a five dimensional black hole by tuning the size of the circle. In the microscopic theory, due to the presence of Taub-NUT, the spectrum of states acquires additional modes. These states exactly account for the shift between 5D and 4D corrections to the entropy. Finally, we develop holographic renormalization for two dimensional gravity on Anti-de Sitter space. The transformation properties of the stress tensor indicate that the asymptotic SL(2,R) conformal symmetry of the theory is enhanced
Nonthermal WIMPs and primordial black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georg, Julian; Şengör, Gizem; Watson, Scott
2016-06-01
Nonthermal histories for the early universe have received notable attention as they are a rich source of phenomenology, while also being well motivated by top-down approaches to beyond the Standard Model physics. The early (pre-big bang nucleosynthesis) matter phase in these models leads to enhanced growth of density perturbations on sub-Hubble scales. Here, we consider whether primordial black hole formation associated with the enhanced growth is in conflict with existing observations. Such constraints depend on the tilt of the primordial power spectrum, and we find that nonthermal histories are tightly constrained in the case of a significantly blue spectrum. Alternatively, if dark matter is taken to be of nonthermal origin, we can restrict the primordial power spectrum on scales inaccessible to cosmic microwave background and large scale structure observations. We establish constraints for a wide range of scalar masses (reheat temperatures) with the most stringent bounds resulting from the formation of 1015 g black holes. These black holes would be evaporating today and are constrained by FERMI observations. We also consider whether the breakdown of the coherence of the scalar oscillations on subhorizon scales can lead to a Jean's pressure preventing black hole formation and relaxing our constraints. Our main conclusion is that primordial black hole constraints, combined with existing constraints on nonthermal weakly interacting massive particles, favor a primordial spectrum closer to scale invariance or a red tilted spectrum.
Songlines from Direct Collapse Seed Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John; Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin
2015-01-01
In the last decade, the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) has been intricately linked to galaxy formation and evolution, and is a key ingredient in the assembly of galaxies. Observations of SMBHs with masses of 109 solar at high redshifts (z~7) poses challenges to the theory of seed black hole formation and their growth in young galaxies. Fundamental to understanding their existence within the first billion years after the Big Bang, is the identification of their formation processes, growth rate and evolution through cosmic time. We perform cosmological hydrodynamic simulations following the growth of direct collapse seed black holes (DCBH) including X-ray irradiation from the central black hole, stellar feedback both from metal-free and metal-rich stars and H2 self-shielding. These simulations demonstrate that X-ray irradiation from the central black hole regulates its growth and influence the formation of stellar population in the host halo. In particular, X-ray radiation enhances H2 formation in metal-free gas and initially induces the star formation in the halo. However, in the long term, X-ray irradiation from the accreting seed DCBH stifles the initial growth relative to the Eddington rate argument. This further complicates the explanation for the existence of SMBHs in the early universe.
Black holes in the early Universe.
Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian
2012-12-01
The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics. PMID:23099537
New Results in Black Hole Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whiting, Bernard F.
Brief statements are given on recent results in the following areas: 1) The derivation of a variational (maximum) principle for black hole entropy, and an outline of the physically reasonable properties of the related solution for the density of states in the microcanonical equilibrium ensemble (with Jeffrey Melmed, University of Maine). 2) Analysis of topological contributions to black hole entropy in Lovelock gravity, and the corresponding thermodynamic identity (with Jonathan Z. Simon, University of Maryland). 3) Stability analysis for a shell of matter surrounding a black hole in microcanonical (thermal) equilibrium (with Gerald Horwitz, Hebrew University, Jerusalem)—results from this work can be compared with an earlier analysis of the purely mechanical stability of the shell, and with known properties of both the dynamical and thermal stability for the black hole without a shell. 4) The study of a simple ‘singularity'-free model of gravitational collapse, and an examination of the relationship between the ensuing preservation of quantum coherence and the usual perception that mixed states should be associated with the late time emission of Hawking radiation from a classically formed black hole (with Gerard ’t Hooft and Chris Stephens, University of Utrecht).
Pair creation of black holes during inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen W.
1996-11-01
Black holes came into existence together with the universe through the quantum process of pair creation in the inflationary era. We present the instantons responsible for this process and calculate the pair creation rate from the no boundary proposal for the wave function of the universe. We find that this proposal leads to physically sensible results, which fit in with other descriptions of pair creation, while the tunneling proposal makes unphysical predictions. We then describe how the pair-created black holes evolve during inflation. In the classical solution, they grow with the horizon scale during the slow roll down of the inflaton field; this is shown to correspond to the flux of field energy across the horizon according to the first law of black hole mechanics. When quantum effects are taken into account, however, it is found that most black holes evaporate before the end of inflation. Finally, we consider the pair creation of magnetically charged black holes, which cannot evaporate. In standard Einstein-Maxwell theory we find that their number in the presently observable universe is exponentially small. We speculate how this conclusion may change if dilatonic theories are applied.
Interior of black holes and information recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Hikaru; Yokokura, Yuki
2016-02-01
We analyze time evolution of a spherically symmetric collapsing matter from a point of view that black holes evaporate by nature. We first consider a spherical thin shell that falls in the metric of an evaporating Schwarzschild black hole of which the radius a (t ) decreases in time. The important point is that the shell can never reach a (t ) but it approaches a (t )-a (t )d/a (t ) d t . This situation holds at any radius because the motion of a shell in a spherically symmetric system is not affected by the outside. In this way, we find that the collapsing matter evaporates without forming a horizon. Nevertheless, a Hawking-like radiation is created in the metric, and the object looks the same as a conventional black hole from the outside. We then discuss how the information of the matter is recovered. We also consider a black hole that is adiabatically grown in the heat bath and obtain the interior metric. We show that it is the self-consistent solution of Gμ ν=8 π G ⟨Tμ ν⟩ and that the four-dimensional Weyl anomaly induces the radiation and a strong angular pressure. Finally, we analyze the internal structures of the charged and the slowly rotating black holes.
A black hole in a globular cluster.
Maccarone, Thomas J; Kundu, Arunav; Zepf, Stephen E; Rhode, Katherine L
2007-01-11
Globular star clusters contain thousands to millions of old stars packed within a region only tens of light years across. Their high stellar densities make it very probable that their member stars will interact or collide. There has accordingly been considerable debate about whether black holes should exist in these star clusters. Some theoretical work suggests that dynamical processes in the densest inner regions of globular clusters may lead to the formation of black holes of approximately 1,000 solar masses. Other numerical simulations instead predict that stellar interactions will eject most or all of the black holes that form in globular clusters. Here we report the X-ray signature of an accreting black hole in a globular cluster associated with the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 (in the Virgo cluster). This object has an X-ray luminosity of about 4 x 10(39) erg s(-1), which rules out any object other than a black hole in such an old stellar population. The X-ray luminosity varies by a factor of seven in a few hours, which excludes the possibility that the object is several neutron stars superposed. PMID:17203062
Accretion flows govern black hole jet properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koljonen, K.; Russell, D.; Fernández Ontiveros, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Russell, T.; Curran, P.; Soria, R.; Markoff, S.; van der Horst, A.; Casella, P.
2015-07-01
The process of jet formation in accreting black holes, and the conditions under which it occurs is currently hotly debated, with competing models predicting the jet power to be governed by black hole spin, the magnetic field strength, the location of the jet base, the mass accretion rate and/or the properties of the inner accretion flow. We present new results that show empirical correlations between the accretion flow properties and the spectral energy distribution of the jets launched from accreting black holes. The X-ray power law is directly related to the particle energy distribution in the hot accretion flow. We find that the photon index of this power law correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum emitted near the jet base, and the jet luminosity up to the break frequency. The observed correlations can be explained by the energy distribution of electrons in the hot accretion flow being subsequently channeled into the jet. These correlations represent a new inflow--outflow connection in accreting black holes, and demonstrate that the spectral properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions in the inner accretion flow, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin.
Orientation and quasar black hole mass estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brotherton, Michael S.; Singh, Vikram; Runnoe, Jessie
2015-12-01
We have constructed a sample of 386 radio-loud quasars with z < 0.75 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in order to investigate orientation effects on black hole mass estimates. Orientation is estimated using radio core dominance measurements based on FIRST survey maps. Black hole masses are estimated from virial-based scaling relationships using Hβ, and compared to the stellar velocity dispersion (σ*), predicted using the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of [O III] λ5007, which tracks mass via the M-σ* relation. We find that the FWHM of Hβ correlates significantly with radio core dominance and biases black hole mass determinations that use it, but that this is not the case for σ* based on [O III] λ5007. The ratio of black hole masses predicted using orientation-biased and unbiased estimates, which can be determined for radio-quiet as well as radio-loud quasars, is significantly correlated with radio core dominance. Although there is significant scatter, this mass ratio calculated in this way may in fact serve as an orientation estimator. We additionally note the existence of a small population of radio core-dominated quasars with extremely broad Hβ emission lines that we hypothesize may represent recent black hole mergers.
Mass inflation inside black holes revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav I.
2014-03-01
The mass inflation phenomenon implies that black hole interiors are unstable due to a back-reaction divergence of the perturbed black hole mass function at the Cauchy horizon. The mass inflation was initially derived by using the generalized Dray-’t Hooft-Redmount (DTR) relation in the linear approximation of the Einstein equations near the perturbed Cauchy horizon of the Reissner-Nordström black hole. However, this linear approximation for the DTR relation is improper for the highly nonlinear behavior of back-reaction perturbations at the black hole horizons. An additional weak point in the standard mass inflation calculations is in a fallacious using of the global Cauchy horizon as a place for the maximal growth of the back-reaction perturbations instead of the local inner apparent horizon. It is derived the new spherically symmetric back-reaction solution for two counter-streaming light-like fluxes near the inner apparent horizon of the charged black hole by taking into account its separation from the Cauchy horizon. In this solution the back-reaction perturbations of the background metric are truly the largest at the inner apparent horizon, but, nevertheless, remain small. The back reaction, additionally, removes the infinite blue-shift singularity at the inner apparent horizon and at the Cauchy horizon.
Black Hole Astrophysics in the New Century
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, C. S.
2005-12-01
The new century has seen a transformation in the way we think about supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. It has become clear that these monsters are not just rare quirks of nature. As well as being ubiquitous, growing evidence signals a fascinating connection between the relativistic physics occurring in the immediate vicinity of the black hole and the formation and evolution of galactic-scale structure. My talk will comprise of two parts. Firstly, I will discuss observational and theoretical evidence that accretion onto supermassive black holes can indeed influence galaxy formation (which suggests a solution to the well-known cooling flow problem of galaxy clusters). In particular, I will focus on the successes and failures of recent theoretical work aimed at understanding Chandra observations of galaxy cluster cores. Secondly, I will discuss the ability of X-ray observations to probe the relativistic physics occurring in the central parts of the black hole accretion flow. Using data from the XMM-Newton satellite, we are now beginning to make crude measurements of black hole spin, a crucial parameter if we are to understand the physics of jet formation which are so important for the large-scale feedback. I will end by discussing the exciting developments that will be made possibly by the launch of LISA and Constellation-X.
Perturbative string thermodynamics near black hole horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri; Zakharov, Valentin I.
2015-06-01
We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work [1]. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of α'-corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large k limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O'Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in g s ) to compute thermodynam-ical quantities in black hole spacetimes.
Binary Black Hole Late Inspiral: Simulations for Gravitational Wave Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael
2006-01-01
Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the spacebased interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of General Relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for approximately 1200M through approximately 7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass approximately 14 cycles before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when comparing models. Matching our results to PN calculations for the earlier parts of the inspiral provides a combined waveform with less than half a cycle of accumulated phase error through the entire coalescence. Using this waveform, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for iLIGO, adLIGO, and LISA, highlighting the contributions from the late-inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform which can now be simulated numerically. Contour plots of SNR as a function of z and M show that adLIGO can achieve SNR 2 10 for some IMBBHs out to z approximately equals 1, and that LISA can see MBBHs in the range 3 x 10(exp 4) approximately < M/Mo approximately < 10(exp 7) at SNR > 100 out to the earliest epochs of structure formation at z > 15.
Thick domain walls in AdS black hole spacetimes
Moderski, Rafal; Rogatko, Marek
2006-08-15
Equations of motion for a real self-gravitating scalar field in the background of a black hole with negative cosmological constant were solved numerically. We obtain a sequence of static axisymmetric solutions representing thick domain wall cosmological black hole systems, depending on the mass of black hole, cosmological parameter and the parameter binding black hole mass with the width of the domain wall. For the case of extremal cosmological black hole the expulsion of scalar field from the black hole strongly depends on it.
Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M. Umair
2016-03-01
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes.
Upper bound on the radii of black-hole photonspheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hod, Shahar
2013-11-01
One of the most remarkable predictions of the general theory of relativity is the existence of black-hole “photonspheres”, compact null hypersurfaces on which massless particles can orbit the central black hole. We prove that every spherically-symmetric asymptotically flat black-hole spacetime is characterized by a photonsphere whose radius is bounded from above by rγ⩽3M, where M is the total ADM mass of the black-hole spacetime. It is shown that hairy black-hole configurations conform to this upper bound. In particular, the null circular geodesic of the (bald) Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime saturates the bound.
Thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes
Accetta, F.S.; Gleiser, M.
1986-05-01
We discuss the thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes with particular emphasis on a new class of spinning black holes which, due to the increased number of Casimir invariants, have additional spin degrees of freedom. In suitable limits, analytic solutions in arbitrary dimensions are presented for their temperature, entropy, and specific heat. In 5 + 1 and 9 + 1 dimensions, more general forms for these quantities are given. It is shown that the specific heat for a higher dimensional black hole is negative definite if it has only one non-zero spin parameter, regardless of the value of this parameter. We also consider equilibrium configurations with both massless particles and massive string modes. 16 refs., 3 figs.
Accretion of Ghost Condensate by Black Holes
Frolov, A
2004-06-02
The intent of this letter is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as tenth of a solar mass per second for 10MeV-scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.
Supersymmetry Versus Black Holes at the Lhc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglià, Marco
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. We propose a simple but effective method to discriminate the two models: the analysis of isolated leptons with high transverse momentum. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our results show that the measure of the dilepton invariant mass provides a promising signature to differentiate supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Analysis of event-shape variables and multilepton events complement and strengthen this conclusion.
Electron-positron outflow from black holes.
van Putten, M H
2000-04-24
Cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) appear as the brightest transient phenomena in the Universe. The nature of their central engine is a missing link in the theory of fireballs to stellar mass progenitors, and may be associated with low mass black holes. In contact with an external magnetic field B, black hole spin produces a gravitational potential on the wave function of charged particles. We show that a rapidly rotating black hole of mass M produces outflow from initially electrostatic equilibrium with normalized isotropic emission approximately 10(48)(B/B(c))(2)(M/7M)(2)sin (2) theta erg/s, where B(c) = 4.4x10(13) G. The half-opening angle satisfies theta >or = square root[B(c)/3B]. The outflow proposed as input to GRB fireball models. PMID:11019197
Twisting of light around rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamburini, Fabrizio; Thidé, Bo; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Anzolin, Gabriele
2011-03-01
Kerr black holes are among the most intriguing predictions of Einstein's general relativity theory. These rotating massive astrophysical objects drag and intermix their surrounding space and time, deflecting and phase-modifying light emitted near them. We have found that this leads to a new relativistic effect that imprints orbital angular momentum on such light. Numerical experiments, based on the integration of the null geodesic equations of light from orbiting point-like sources in the Kerr black hole equatorial plane to an asymptotic observer, indeed identify the phase change and wavefront warping and predict the associated light-beam orbital angular momentum spectra. Setting up the best existing telescopes properly, it should be possible to detect and measure this twisted light, thus allowing a direct observational demonstration of the existence of rotating black holes. As non-rotating objects are more an exception than a rule in the Universe, our findings are of fundamental importance.
Fundamental Dynamics of Black Hole Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haramein, Nassim
2002-04-01
The dynamics of rotating, charged black holes, obeying the Kerr-Newman metric is presented. These dynamical high-density, gravitationally collapsing, black hole systems for stellar, galactic, intergalactic and cosmogenesis appear to obey similar constraints on their mass, apparent density and radius. Under these extreme conditions, the gravitational force becomes "balanced" with the larger coupling constant of the electromagnetic force. Thus, the gravitational attraction forms dynamic pseudo equilibrium with the plasma dynamics surrounding the black holes. Thermodynamic-type processes occupy a role in energy transfer between gravitational attraction and electro-dynamic repulsion. Solving the modified Einstein-Maxwell's equations under high magnetic field conditions, with additional thermodynamic conditions, leads to a good description of the processes occurring externally, near and in the event horizons of the Kerr-Newman geometry and leads to a unification possibility. Reference; N. Haramein, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. AB06, 1154(2001)
Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes
Rocha, P; Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong; Santos, N O E-mail: yasuda@on.br E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu
2008-06-15
Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.
Evolution of near-extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.
1997-06-01
Near-extreme black holes can lose their charge and decay by the emission of massive Bogomol'ni-Prasad-Sommerfield charged particles. We calculate the greybody factors for low-energy charged and neutral scalar emission from four- and five-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordström black holes. We use the corresponding emission rates to obtain ratios of the rates of loss of excess energy by charged and neutral emission, which are moduli independent, depending only on the integral charges and the horizon potentials. We consider scattering experiments, finding that evolution towards a state in which the integral charges are equal is favored, but neutral emission will dominate the decay back to extremality except when one charge is much greater than the others. The implications of our results for the agreement between black hole and D-brane emission rates and for the information loss puzzle are then discussed.
Hologram of a pure state black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti
2015-12-01
In this paper, we extend the Hamilton-Kabat-Lifschytz-Lowe (HKLL) holographic smearing function method to reconstruct (quasi)local anti-de Sitter bulk scalar observables in the background of a large anti-de Sitter black hole formed by null shell collapse (a "pure state" black hole), from the dual conformal field theory which is undergoing a sudden quench. In particular, we probe the near horizon and subhorizon bulk locality. First, we construct local bulk operators from the conformal field theory in the leading semiclassical limit, N →∞ . Then, we look at effects due to the finiteness of N , where we propose a suitable coarse-graining prescription involving early and late time cutoffs to define semiclassical bulk observables which are approximately local, their departure from locality being nonperturbatively small in N . Our results have important implications on the black hole information problem.
Asteroseismology of neutron stars and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schutz, B. F.
2008-10-01
One of the goals of the large gravitational wave detectors is eventually to observe radiation from oscillations of neutron stars and black holes. These objects have characteristic frequencies of what are called 'quasi-normal' mode oscillations, and these frequencies reveal important information about the source. The frequency spectrum of black holes is very different from that of any stars, so if one or more modes are observed then one can conclusively identify the source as a black hole. For neutron stars the spectrum is similar to that of main-sequence stars, but observing a single mode is enough to put strong constraints on the nuclear-matter equation of state, something which is still highly uncertain. Current detectors could make these observations only if the source were exceptionally close. But planned upgrades could make the first relativistic asteroseismological observations; in particular the GEO600 detector will be optimised for these observations by 2010.
Black holes and large order quantum geometry
Huang Minxin; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Tavanfar, Alireza
2009-03-15
We study five-dimensional black holes obtained by compactifying M theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds. Recent progress in solving topological string theory on compact, one-parameter models allows us to test numerically various conjectures about these black holes. We give convincing evidence that a microscopic description based on Gopakumar-Vafa invariants accounts correctly for their macroscopic entropy, and we check that highly nontrivial cancellations--which seem necessary to resolve the so-called entropy enigma in the Ooguri-Strominger-Vafa conjecture--do in fact occur. We also study analytically small 5d black holes obtained by wrapping M2 branes in the fiber of K3 fibrations. By using heterotic/type II duality we obtain exact formulae for the microscopic degeneracies in various geometries, and we compute their asymptotic expansion for large charges.
Black Holes in a Violent Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britzen, S.
2012-02-01
"Black Holes in a Violent Universe" is a COST Action (MP0905) connecting scientists from different disciplines - astronomers from all wavelength regimes (i.e. radio to TeV), physicists and particle physicists, theoreticians and observers - from currently 25 countries. The aim is to collaborate in a cross-disciplinary and multi-dimensional approach towards a better understanding of the general Black Hole phenomenon. COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) is one of the longest-running European instruments supporting cooperation among scientists and researchers across Europe. The goal of MP0905 is to decipher further the way the Universe and the stars and galaxies evolved and - in particular - the role Black Holes play in this. This Action is an open and flexible program of communication and interchange.
Black hole attractors and the topological string
Ooguri, Hirosi; Strominger, Andrew; Vafa, Cumrun
2004-11-15
A simple relationship of the form Z{sub BH}= vertical bar Z{sub top} vertical bar{sup 2} is conjectured, where Z{sub BH} is a supersymmetric partition function for a four-dimensional BPS black hole in a Calabi-Yau compactification of Type II superstring theory and Z{sub top} is a second-quantized topological string partition function evaluated at the attractor point in moduli space associated to the black hole charges. Evidence for the conjecture in a perturbation expansion about large graviphoton charge is given. The microcanonical ensemble of BPS black holes can be viewed as the Wigner function associated to the wave function defined by the topological string partition function.
Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon; Son, Edwin J.
2011-06-15
We investigate the stability of an f(R) (Schwarzschild) black hole obtained from the f(R) gravity. It is difficult to carry out the perturbation analysis around the black hole because the linearized Einstein equation is fourth order in f(R) gravity. In order to resolve this difficulty, we transform f(R) gravity into the scalar-tensor theory by introducing two auxiliary scalars. In this case, the linearized curvature scalar becomes a scalaron, showing that all linearized equations are second order, which are the same equations for the massive Brans-Dicke theory. It turns out that the f(R) black hole is stable against the external perturbations if the scalaron does not have a tachyonic mass.
Observational constraints on black hole accretion disks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, Edison P.
1994-01-01
We review the empirical constraints on accretion disk models of stellar-mass black holes based on recent multiwavelength observational results. In addition to time-averaged emission spectra, the time evolutions of the intensity and spectrum provide critical information about the structure, stability, and dynamics of the disk. Using the basic thermal Keplerian disk paradigm, we consider in particular generalizations of the standard optically thin disk models needed to accommodate the extremely rich variety of dynamical phenomena exhibited by black hole candidates ranging from flares of electron-positron annihilations and quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray intensity to X-ray novae activity. These in turn provide probes of the disk structure and global geometry. The goal is to construct a single unified framework to interpret a large variety of black hole phenomena. This paper will concentrate on the interface between basic theory and observational data modeling.
Resolving flows around black holes: the impact of gas angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curtis, Michael; Sijacki, Debora
2016-08-01
Cosmological simulations almost invariably estimate the accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes using a Bondi-Hoyle-like prescription. Doing so ignores the effects of the angular momentum of the gas, which may prevent or significantly delay accreting material falling directly onto the black hole. We outline a black hole accretion rate prescription using a modified Bondi-Hoyle formulation that takes into account the angular momentum of the surrounding gas. Meaningful implementation of this modified Bondi-Hoyle formulation is only possible when the inner vorticity distribution is well resolved, which we achieve through the use of a super-Lagrangian refinement technique around black holes within our simulations. We then investigate the effects on black hole growth by performing simulations of isolated as well as merging disc galaxies using the moving-mesh code AREPO. We find that the gas angular momentum barrier can play an important role in limiting the growth of black holes, leading also to a several Gyr delay between the starburst and the quasar phase in major merger remnants. We stress, however, that the magnitude of this effect is highly sensitive to the thermodynamical state of the accreting gas and to the nature of the black hole feedback present.
Results from Binary Black Hole Simulations in Astrophysics Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2007-01-01
Present and planned gravitational wave observatories are opening a new astronomical window to the sky. A key source of gravitational waves is the merger of two black holes. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in particular, is expected to observe these events with signal-to-noise ratio's in the thousands. To fully reap the scientific benefits of these observations requires a detailed understanding, based on numerical simulations, of the predictions of General Relativity for the waveform signals. New techniques for simulating binary black hole mergers, introduced two years ago, have led to dramatic advances in applied numerical simulation work. Over the last two years, numerical relativity researchers have made tremendous strides in understanding the late stages of binary black hole mergers. Simulations have been applied to test much of the basic physics of binary black hole interactions, showing robust results for merger waveform predictions, and illuminating such phenomena as spin-precession. Calculations have shown that merging systems can be kicked at up to 2500 km/s by the thrust from asymmetric emission. Recently, long lasting simulations of ten or more orbits allow tests of post-Newtonian (PN) approximation results for radiation from the last orbits of the binary's inspiral. Already, analytic waveform models based PN techniques with incorporated information from numerical simulations may be adequate for observations with current ground based observatories. As new advances in simulations continue to rapidly improve our theoretical understanding of the systems, it seems certain that high-precision predictions will be available in time for LISA and other advanced ground-based instruments. Future gravitational wave observatories are expected to make precision.
Black holes in active galactic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valtonen, M. J.; Mikkola, S.; Merritt, D.; Gopakumar, A.; Lehto, H. J.; Hyvönen, T.; Rampadarath, H.; Saunders, R.; Basta, M.; Hudec, R.
2010-01-01
Supermassive black holes are common in centers of galaxies. Among the active galaxies, quasars are the most extreme, and their black hole masses range as high as to 6ṡ1010M⊙. Binary black holes are of special interest but so far OJ287 is the only confirmed case with known orbital elements. In OJ287, the binary nature is confirmed by periodic radiation pulses. The period is twelve years with two pulses per period. The last four pulses have been correctly predicted with the accuracy of few weeks, the latest in 2007 with the accuracy of one day. This accuracy is high enough that one may test the higher order terms in the Post Newtonian approximation to General Relativity. The precession rate per period is 39°.1 ± 0°.1, by far the largest rate in any known binary, and the (1.83 ± 0.01)ṡ1010M⊙ primary is among the dozen biggest black holes known. We will discuss the various Post Newtonian terms and their effect on the orbit solution. The over 100 year data base of optical variations in OJ287 puts limits on these terms and thus tests the ability of Einstein's General Relativity to describe, for the first time, dynamic binary black hole spacetime in the strong field regime. The quadrupole-moment contributions to the equations of motion allows us to constrain the ‘no-hair’ parameter to be 1.0 ± 0.3 which supports the black hole no-hair theorem within the achievable precision.
Black Holes with RXTE: New Insights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomsick, John
2012-01-01
Over the past 15 years, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer has been a remarkable machine for the study of accreting stellar mass black holes. Due to the variable and often transient nature of these systems across the 2-200 keV bandpass, these studies have utilized the full range of RXTE capabilities, including using ASM for finding new black hole systems or outbursts, PCA and HEXTE for broadband spectral studies, and the unprecedented timing capabilities of PCA (in terms of time resolution and collecting area) that have opened up a new window for understanding accreting black holes. RXTE has enabled fundamental advances by constraining black hole spins and probing the inner regions of the accretion disk as well as making critical contributions to studies of powerful outflows in the form of jets. In this talk, I will present a selection of results obtained throughout the mission that demonstrate the advances that have been possible because of RXTE. The results include discoveries of previously unknown high-frequency signals that are fundamental to our understanding of accreting black holes, following the detailed evolution of multi-wavelength properties that constrain the disk/jet connection, and the correlations and patterns that have emerged due to the huge amount of data from observations of black holes by RXTE. These results have only been possible because of the efforts of the large community of observers, theorists, mission scientists, mission planners, and instrumentalists, and it has been a great pleasure to work with the RXTE community during the mission.
Gravity, black holes, and the universe
Nicolson, I.
1981-01-01
The book treats current understandings of the nature and properties of gravity, with particular emphasis on its role in the physics of black holes and the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. The development of modern ideas on force, motion and gravity is traced from the systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy through the work of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler to Newton's law of universal gravitation and Einstein's general theory of relativity. Particular attention is then given to the role of gravity in stellar motions and to the phenomena determined by the immense gravitational forces associated with bodies of such great density, including relativistic effects, tidal forces, space-time effects, event horizons, rotation, mass and electrical charge, the existence of naked singularities and white holes, and black-hole thermodynamics. The existence of actual black holes in the universe is considered, and various black-hole candidates in the Galaxy, quasars and galactic nuclei are indicated. The role of gravity in cosmology is then examined, with attention given to the implications of general relativity, the Hubble law, the age of the universe, the density of the universe and its eventual fate. Possible alternative to general relativity as a theory of gravitation are considered, including theories of variable gravitational constant, grand unified theories, and quantum gravity.
Quantum statistics and noncommutative black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Kumar S.; Meljanac, S.; Samsarov, A.
2012-02-01
We study the behavior of a scalar field coupled to a noncommutative black hole which is described by a κ-cylinder Hopf algebra. We introduce a new class of realizations of this algebra which has a smooth limit as the deformation parameter vanishes. The twisted flip operator is independent of the choice of realization within this class. We demonstrate that the R-matrix is quasi-triangular up to the first order in the deformation parameter. Our results indicate how a scalar field might behave in the vicinity of a black hole at the Planck scale.
Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks
Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2006-11-07
This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.
Constructing black hole entropy from gravitational collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acquaviva, Giovanni; Ellis, George F. R.; Goswami, Rituparno; Hamid, Aymen I. M.
2015-03-01
Based on a recent proposal for the gravitational entropy of free gravitational fields, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black hole formation through gravitational collapse in the framework of the semitetrad 1 +1 +2 covariant formalism. In the simplest case of an Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt collapse, we prove that the change in gravitational entropy outside a collapsing body is related to the variation of the surface area of the body itself, even before the formation of horizons. As a result, we are able to relate the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole end state to the variation of the vacuum gravitational entropy outside the collapsing body.
Thermodynamical stability of the Bardeen black hole
Bretón, Nora; Perez Bergliaffa, Santiago E.
2014-01-14
We analyze the stability of the regular magnetic Bardeen black hole both thermodynamically and dynamically. For the thermodynamical analysis we consider a microcanonical ensemble and apply the turning point method. This method allows to decide a change in stability (or instability) of a system, requiring only the assumption of smoothness of the area functional. The dynamical stability is asserted using criteria based on the signs of the Lagrangian and its derivatives. It turns out from our analysis that the Bardeen black hole is both thermodynamically and dynamically stable.
Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat
2015-11-01
In the AdS /CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black-hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge-invariant relational observables that probe the black hole interior in these states and constrain their properties using effective field theory. By adapting recent versions of the information paradox we show that these observables are necessarily described by state-dependent bulk-boundary maps, which we construct explicitly.
Black holes radiate mainly on the brane.
Emparan, R; Horowitz, G T; Myers, R C
2000-07-17
We examine the evaporation of a small black hole on a brane in a world with large extra dimensions. Since the masses of many Kaluza-Klein modes are much smaller than the Hawking temperature of the black hole, it has been claimed that most of the energy is radiated into these modes. We show that this is incorrect. Most of the energy goes into the modes on the brane. This raises the possibility of observing Hawking radiation in future high energy colliders if there are large extra dimensions. PMID:10991325
Quasi periodic oscillations in black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motta, S. E.
2016-05-01
Fast time variability is the most prominent characteristic of accreting systems and the presence of quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) is a constant in all accreting systems, from cataclysmic variables to AGNs, passing through black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries and through the enigmatic ultra-luminous X-ray sources. In this paper, I will briefly review the current knowledge of QPOs in black hole X-ray binaries, mainly focussing on their observed properties, but also mentioning the most important models that have been proposed to explain the origin of QPOs over the last decades.
Entropy of 4D extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Clifford V.; Khuri, Ramzi R.; Myers, Robert C.
1996-02-01
We derive the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for four-dimensional Reissner-Nordström extremal black holes in type II string theory. The derivation is performed in two separate (T-dual) weak coupling pictures. One uses a type IIB bound state problem of D5- and D1-branes, while the other uses a bound state problem of D0- and D4-branes with macroscopic fundamental type IIA strings. In both cases, the D-brane systems are also bound to a Kaluza-Klein monopole, which then yields the four-dimensional black hole at strong coupling.
Binary Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns.
Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole.
Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat
2015-11-20
In the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black-hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge-invariant relational observables that probe the black hole interior in these states and constrain their properties using effective field theory. By adapting recent versions of the information paradox we show that these observables are necessarily described by state-dependent bulk-boundary maps, which we construct explicitly. PMID:26636843
Black holes in higher derivative gravity.
Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S
2015-05-01
Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics. PMID:25978224
Brief Review on Black Hole Loop Quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmedo, Javier
2016-06-01
Here, we present a review about the quantization of spherically-symmetric spacetimes adopting loop quantum gravity techniques. Several models that have been studied so far share similar properties: the resolution of the classical singularity and some of them an intrinsic discretization of the geometry. We also explain the extension to Reissner---Nordstr\\"om black holes. Besides, we review how quantum test fields on these quantum geometries allow us to study phenomena, like the Casimir effect or Hawking radiation. Finally, we briefly describe a recent proposal that incorporates spherically-symmetric matter, discussing its relevance for the understanding of black hole evolution.
Black Holes and Photons with Entropic Force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xiao-Gang; Ma, Bo-Qiang
2010-07-01
We study the entropic force effects on black holes and photons. It is found that application of an entropic analysis restricts the radial change ΔR of a black hole of radius RH, due to a test particle of a Schwarzschild radius Rh moving towards the black hole by Δx near a black body surface, to be given by a relation RHΔR = RhΔx/2, or ΔR/lambda slashM = Δx/2lambda slashm. We suggest a new rule regarding entropy changes in different dimensions, ΔS = 2πkDΔl/lambdaslash, which unifies Verlinde's conjecture and the black hole entropy formula. We also propose the extension of the entropic force idea to massless particles such as photons. It is realized that there is an entropic force on a photon of energy Eγ, with F = GM(Eγ/c2)/R2, and therefore the photon has an effective gravitational mass mγ = Eγ/c2.
Ultraspinning instability of rotating black holes
Dias, Oscar J. C.; Figueras, Pau; Monteiro, Ricardo; Santos, Jorge E.
2010-11-15
Rapidly rotating Myers-Perry black holes in d{>=}6 dimensions were conjectured to be unstable by Emparan and Myers. In a previous publication, we found numerically the onset of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability in the singly spinning Myers-Perry black hole in d=7, 8, 9. This threshold also signals a bifurcation to new branches of axisymmetric solutions with pinched horizons that are conjectured to connect to the black ring, black Saturn and other families in the phase diagram of stationary solutions. We firmly establish that this instability is also present in d=6 and in d=10, 11. The boundary conditions of the perturbations are discussed in detail for the first time, and we prove that they preserve the angular velocity and temperature of the original Myers-Perry black hole. This property is fundamental to establishing a thermodynamic necessary condition for the existence of this instability in general rotating backgrounds. We also prove a previous claim that the ultraspinning modes cannot be pure gauge modes. Finally we find new ultraspinning Gregory-Laflamme instabilities of rotating black strings and branes that appear exactly at the critical rotation predicted by the aforementioned thermodynamic criterium. The latter is a refinement of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.
STIS RECORDS A BLACK HOLE'S SIGNATURE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
The colorful 'zigzag' on the right is not the work of a flamboyant artist, but the signature of a supermassive black hole in the center of galaxy M84, discovered by Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The image on the left, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary and Camera 2 shows the core of the galaxy where the suspected black hole dwells. Astronomers mapped the motions of gas in the grip of the black hole's powerful gravitational pull by aligning the STIS's spectroscopic slit across the nucleus in a single exposure. The STIS data on the right shows the rotational motion of stars and gas along the slit. The change in wavelength records whether an object is moving toward or away from the observer. The larger the excursion from the centerline -- as seen as a green and yellow picture element (pixels) along the center strip, the greater the rotational velocity. If no black hole were present, the line would be nearly vertical across the scan. Instead, STIS's detector found the S-shape at the center of this scan, indicating a rapidly swirling disk of trapped material encircling the black hole. Along the S-shape from top to bottom, velocities skyrocket as seen in the rapid, dramatic swing to the left (blueshifted or approaching gas), then the region in the center simultaneously records the enormous speeds of the gas both approaching and receding for orbits in the immediate vicinity of the black hole, and then an equivalent swing from the right, back to the center line. STIS measures a velocity of 880,000 miles per hour (400 kilometers per second) within 26 light-years of the galaxy's center, where the black hole dwells. This motion allowed astronomers to calculate that the black hole contains at least 300 million solar masses. (Just as the mass of our Sun can be calculated from the orbital radii and speeds of the planets.) This observation demonstrates a direct connection between a supermassive black hole and activity (such as radio
Black Hole Paradox Solved By NASA's Chandra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2006-06-01
Black holes are lighting up the Universe, and now astronomers may finally know how. New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory show for the first time that powerful magnetic fields are the key to these brilliant and startling light shows. It is estimated that up to a quarter of the total radiation in the Universe emitted since the Big Bang comes from material falling towards supermassive black holes, including those powering quasars, the brightest known objects. For decades, scientists have struggled to understand how black holes, the darkest objects in the Universe, can be responsible for such prodigious amounts of radiation. Animation of a Black Hole Pulling Matter from Companion Star Animation of a Black Hole Pulling Matter from Companion Star New X-ray data from Chandra give the first clear explanation for what drives this process: magnetic fields. Chandra observed a black hole system in our galaxy, known as GRO J1655-40 (J1655, for short), where a black hole was pulling material from a companion star into a disk. "By intergalactic standards J1655 is in our backyard, so we can use it as a scale model to understand how all black holes work, including the monsters found in quasars," said Jon M. Miller of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, whose paper on these results appears in this week's issue of Nature. Gravity alone is not enough to cause gas in a disk around a black hole to lose energy and fall onto the black hole at the rates required by observations. The gas must lose some of its orbital angular momentum, either through friction or a wind, before it can spiral inward. Without such effects, matter could remain in orbit around a black hole for a very long time. Illustration of Magnetic Fields in GRO J1655-40 Illustration of Magnetic Fields in GRO J1655-40 Scientists have long thought that magnetic turbulence could generate friction in a gaseous disk and drive a wind from the disk that carries angular momentum outward allowing the gas to fall inward
Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2004-02-01
Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process
Apparent horizons in binary black hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoemaker, Deirdre Marie
Over the last decade, advances in computing technology and numerical techniques have lead to the possible theoretical prediction of astrophysically relevant waveforms in numerical simulations. With the building of gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory, we stand at the epoch that will usher in the first experimental study of strong field general relativity. One candidate source for ground based detection of gravitational waveforms, the orbit and merger of two black holes, is of great interest to the relativity community. The binary black hole problem is the two-body problem in general relativity. It is a stringent dynamical test of the theory. The problem involves the evolution of the Einstein equation, a complex system of non-linear, dynamic, elliptic-hyperbolic equations intractable in closed form. Numerical relativists are now developing the technology to evolve the Einstein equation using numerical simulations. The generation of these numerical I codes is a ``theoretical laboratory'' designed to study strong field phenomena in general relativity. This dissertation reports the successful development and application of the first multiple apparent horizon tracker applied to the generic binary black hole problem. I have developed a method that combines a level set of surfaces with a curvature flow method. This method, which I call the level flow method, locates the surfaces of any apparent horizons in the spacetime. The surface location then is used to remove the singularities from the computational domain in the evolution code. I establish the following set of criteria desired in an apparent horizon tracker: (1)The robustness of the tracker due to its lack of dependence on small changes to the initial guess; (2)The generality of the tracker in its applicability to generic spacetimes including multiple back hole spacetimes; and (3)The efficiency of the tracker algorithm in CPU time. I demonstrate the apparent
Black Hole Safari: Tracking Populations and Hunting Big Game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McConnell, N. J.
2013-10-01
Understanding the physical connection, or lack thereof, between the growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes is a key challenge in extragalactic astronomy. Dynamical studies of nearby galaxies are building a census of black hole masses across a broad range of galaxy types and uncovering statistical correlations between galaxy bulge properties and black hole masses. These local correlations provide a baseline for studying galaxies and black holes at higher redshifts. Recent measurements have probed the extremes of the supermassive black hole population and introduced surprises that challenge simple models of black hole and galaxy co-evolution. Future advances in the quality and quantity of dynamical black hole mass measurements will shed light upon the growth of massive galaxies and black holes in different cosmic environments.
Small Kerr-anti-de Sitter black holes are unstable
Cardoso, Vitor; Dias, Oscar J.C.
2004-10-15
Superradiance in black hole spacetimes can trigger instabilities. Here we show that, due to superradiance, small Kerr-anti-de Sitter black holes are unstable. Our demonstration uses a matching procedure, in a long wavelength approximation.
Quantum tunneling radiation from self-dual black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, C. A. S.; Brito, F. A.
2013-10-01
Black holes are considered as objects that can reveal quantum aspects of spacetime. Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) is a theory that propose a way to model the quantum spacetime behavior revealed by a black hole. One recent prediction of this theory is the existence of sub-Planckian black holes, which have the interesting property of self-duality. This property removes the black hole singularity and replaces it with another asymptotically flat region. In this work, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of this kind of black holes, called self-dual black holes, using the Hamilton-Jacobi version of the tunneling formalism. Moreover, using the tools of the tunneling approach, we investigate the emission spectrum of self-dual black holes, and investigate if some information about the black hole initial state can be recovered during the evaporation process. Back-reaction effects are included.
Nonlinear evolutions of bosonic clouds around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okawa, Hirotada
2015-11-01
Black holes are a laboratory not only for testing the theory of gravity but also for exploring the properties of fundamental fields. Fundamental fields around a supermassive black hole give rise to extremely long-lived quasi-bound states which can in principle extract the energy and angular momentum from the black hole. To investigate the final state of such a system, the backreaction onto the spacetime becomes important because of the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation. In this paper, we review the numerical method to trace the evolution of massive scalar fields in the vicinity of black holes, how such a system originates from scalar clouds initially in the absence of black holes or from the capture of scalar clouds by a black hole, and the evolution of quasi-bound states around both a non-rotating black hole and a rotating black hole including the backreaction.
Thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole
Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae E-mail: wtkim@sogang.ac.kr
2014-10-01
We study the thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole where the metric depends on the energy of the test particle. Identifying the black hole temperature with the energy from the modified dispersion relation, we obtain the modified entropy and thermodynamic energy along with the modified local temperature in the cavity to provide well defined black hole states. It is found that apart from the conventional critical temperature related to Hawking-Page phase transition there appears an additional critical temperature which is of relevance to the existence of a locally stable tiny black hole; however, the off-shell free energy tells us that this black hole should eventually tunnel into the stable large black hole. Finally, we discuss the reason why the temperature near the horizon is finite in the rainbow black hole by employing the running gravitational coupling constant, whereas it is divergent near the horizon in the ordinary Schwarzschild black hole.
(Anti-)evaporation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen W.
1998-02-01
We study the quantum evolution of black holes immersed in a de Sitter background space. For black holes whose size is comparable to that of the cosmological horizon, this process differs significantly from the evaporation of asymptotically flat black holes. Our model includes the one-loop effective action in the s-wave and large N approximation. Black holes of the maximal mass are in equilibrium. Unexpectedly, we find that nearly maximal quantum Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes anti-evaporate. However, there is a different perturbative mode that leads to evaporation. We show that this mode will always be excited when a pair of cosmological holes nucleates.
Particles and Scalar Waves in Noncommutative Charged Black Hole Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piyali, Bhar; Farook, Rahaman; Ritabrata, Biswas; U. F., Mondal
2015-07-01
In this paper we have discussed geodesics and the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of non-commutative charged black hole spacetime. The motion of massive and massless particle have been discussed seperately. A comparative study of noncommutative charged black hole and usual Reissner-Nordström black hole has been done. The study of effective potential has also been included. Finally, we have examined the scattering of scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime.
Discriminating Supersymmetry and Black Holes at the Large Hadron Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2008-04-01
We assess the distinguishability between supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET. Our study, based on event shape variables, visible and missing momenta, and analysis of dilepton events, shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC can be easily discriminated.
Skyrme black holes in the isolated horizons formalism
Nielsen, Alex B.
2006-08-15
We study static, spherically symmetric, Skyrme black holes in the context of the assumption that they can be viewed as bound states between ordinary bare black holes and solitons. This assumption and results stemming from the isolated horizons formalism lead to several conjectures about the static black hole solutions. These conjectures are tested against the Skyrme black hole solutions. It is shown that, while there is in general good agreement with the conjectures, a crucial aspect seems to violate one of the conjectures.
Black holes in Born-Infeld extended new massive gravity
Ghodsi, Ahmad; Yekta, Davood Mahdavian
2011-05-15
In this paper we find different types of black holes for the Born-Infeld extended new massive gravity. Our solutions include (un)charged warped (anti-)de Sitter black holes for four and six derivative expanded action. We also look at the black holes in unexpanded Born-Infeld action. In each case we calculate the entropy, angular momentum and mass of the black holes. We also find the central charges for the conformal field theory duals.
P-V Criticality of Modified BTZ Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, J.; Kubeka, A. S.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the BTZ black hole in P-V critical point of view. As we know, the BTZ black hole does not have P-V critical behavior. So in this case, we introduce some anstaz that give us the modified BTZ black hole. Finally, we show that this modified BTZ black hole is satisfied by the equation of state of Liquid-gas phase transition.
SLIM DISKS AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES REVISITED
Sadowski, Aleksander
2009-08-01
We investigate stationary slim accretion disks around Kerr black holes. We construct a new numerical method based on the relaxation technique. We systematically cover the whole parameter space relevant to stellar mass X-ray binaries. We also notice some non-monotonic features in the disk structure, overlooked in previous studies.
Phase structure of fuzzy black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Digal, S.; Govindarajan, T. R.; Gupta, Kumar S.; Martin, X.
2012-01-01
Noncommutative deformations of the BTZ black holes are described by non- commutative cylinders. We study the scalar fields in this background. The spectrum is studied analytically and through numerical simulations we establish the existence of novel `stripe phases'. These are different from stripes on Moyal spaces and stable due to topo- logical obstruction.
Black holes in the ghost condensate
Mukohyama, Shinji
2005-05-15
We investigate how the ghost condensate reacts to black holes immersed in it. A ghost condensate defines a hypersurface-orthogonal congruence of timelike curves, each of which has the tangent vector u{sup {mu}}=-g{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {nu}}{phi}. It is argued that the ghost condensate in this picture approximately corresponds to a congruence of geodesics. In other words, the ghost condensate accretes into a black hole just like a pressureless dust. Correspondingly, if the energy density of the ghost condensate at large distance is set to an extremely small value by cosmic expansion then the late-time accretion rate of the ghost condensate should be negligible. The accretion rate remains very small even if effects of higher derivative terms are taken into account, provided that the black hole is sufficiently large. It is also discussed how to reconcile the black-hole accretion with the possibility that the ghost condensate might behave like dark matter.
Observations of tidal disruptions by black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gezari, Suvi
2013-04-01
It was first proposed by theorists in the late 1970's that an inevitable consequence of a massive black hole lurking in the center of a galaxy is that stars will pass close enough to the black hole to be ripped apart by its extreme tidal forces and consumed. The resulting flare of radiation from the accretion of the stellar debris would then be a unique signpost for the presence of a dormant black hole in the center of a normal galaxy. It was not until over two decades later that the first convincing tidal disruption event candidates emerged in the X-rays by the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Since then over a dozen total candidates have now been discovered from searches across the electromagnetic spectrum, including the X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical. In the last couple years, we have also witnessed a paradigm shift with the discovery of the onset of relativistic, jetted emission in a tidal disruption event. I will review the census of observational candidates to date, and discuss the exciting prospects for using large samples of tidal disruption events discovered with the next-generation of ground-based and space-based synoptic surveys to probe accretion physics, jet formation, and black hole demographics.
Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes
Bezrukov, Fedor; Levkov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2015-12-01
In this study, we propose a semiclassical method to calculate S-matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(–B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp(B) as the number of black hole states.more » The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordström black hole. As a result, our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S-matrix in the non-perturbative regime.« less
Hawking Temperature of Acoustic Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhi Kun
2014-09-01
Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, the Hawking radiation of the acoustic black hole was discussed by studying the Klein-Gordon equation of scalar particles in the curve space-time. It was found that the Hawking temperature is connected with time and position on the event horizon.
Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezrukov, Fedor; Levkov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2015-12-01
We propose a semiclassical method to calculate S -matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(- B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp( B) as the number of black hole states. The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordström black hole. Our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S -matrix in the non-perturbative regime.
Vacuum polarization in asymptotically Lifshitz black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinta, Gonçalo M.; Flachi, Antonino; Lemos, José P. S.
2016-06-01
There has been considerable interest in applying the gauge-gravity duality to condensed matter theories with particular attention being devoted to gravity duals (Lifshitz spacetimes) of theories that exhibit anisotropic scaling. In this context, black hole solutions with Lifshitz asymptotics have also been constructed, focused on incorporating finite temperature effects. The goal here is to look at quantum polarization effects in these spacetimes and, to this aim, we develop a way to compute the coincidence limit of the Green's function for massive, nonminimally coupled scalar fields, adapting to the present situation the analysis developed for the case of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes. The basics are similar to previous calculations; however, in the Lifshitz case, one needs to extend the previous results to include a more general form for the metric and dependence on the dynamical exponent. All formulas are shown to reduce to the anti-de Sitter (AdS) case studied before once the value of the dynamical exponent is set to unity and the metric functions are accordingly chosen. The analytical results we present are general and can be applied to a variety of cases, in fact, to all spherically symmetric Lifshitz black hole solutions. We also implement the numerical analysis choosing some known Lifshitz black hole solutions as illustration.
Structural aspects of asymptotically safe black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Benjamin; Saueressig, Frank
2014-01-01
We study the quantum modifications of classical, spherically symmetric Schwarzschild (anti-) de Sitter black holes within quantum Einstein gravity. The quantum effects are incorporated through the running coupling constants Gk and Λk, computed within the exact renormalization group approach, and a common scale-setting procedure. We find that, in contrast to common intuition, it is actually the cosmological constant that determines the short-distance structure of the RG-improved black hole: in the asymptotic UV the structure of the quantum solutions is universal and given by the classical Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution, entailing a self-similarity between the classical and quantum regime. As a consequence asymptotically safe black holes evaporate completely and no Planck-size remnants are formed. Moreover, the thermodynamic entropy of the critical Nariai black hole is shown to agree with the microstate count based on the effective average action, suggesting that the entropy originates from quantum fluctuations around the mean-field geometry.
Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: The Search Continues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanović, Tamara
Gravitationally bound supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) are thought to be a natural product of galactic mergers and growth of the large scale structure in the universe. They however remain observationally elusive, thus raising a question about characteristic observational signatures associated with these systems. In this conference proceeding I discuss current theoretical understanding and latest advances and prospects in observational searches for SBHBs.
Black Hole Spills Kaleidoscope of Color
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
This new false-colored image from NASA's Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer space telescopes shows a giant jet of particles that has been shot out from the vicinity of a type of supermassive black hole called a quasar. The jet is enormous, stretching across more than 100,000 light-years of space -- a size comparable to our own Milky Way galaxy!
Quasars are among the brightest objects in the universe. They consist of supermassive black holes surrounded by turbulent material, which is being heated up as it is dragged toward the black hole. This hot material glows brilliantly, and some of it gets blown off into space in the form of powerful jets.
The jet pictured here is streaming out from the first known quasar, called 3C273, discovered in 1963. A kaleidoscope of colors represents the jet's assorted light waves. X-rays, the highest-energy light in the image, are shown at the far left in blue (the black hole itself is well to the left of the image). The X-rays were captured by Chandra. As you move from left to right, the light diminishes in energy, and wavelengths increase in size. Visible light recorded by Hubble is displayed in green, while infrared light caught by Spitzer is red. Areas where visible and infrared light overlap appear yellow.
Binary Black Holes: Mergers, Dynamics, and Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-04-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
Gravitational Waves from Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes
Bezrukov, Fedor; Levkov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2015-12-01
In this study, we propose a semiclassical method to calculate S-matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(–B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp(B) as the number of black hole states. The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordström black hole. As a result, our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S-matrix in the non-perturbative regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-06-01
We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.
ULXs: Neutron stars versus black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Andrew; Lasota, Jean-Pierre
2016-05-01
We consider ultraluminous X-ray systems (ULXs) where the accretor is a neutron star rather than a black hole. We show that the recently discovered example (M82 X-2) fits naturally into the simple picture of ULXs as beamed X-ray sources fed at super-Eddington rates, provided that its magnetic field is weaker (≃1011G) than a new-born X-ray pulsar, as expected if there has been mass gain. Continuing accretion is likely to weaken the field to the point that pulsing stops, and make the system indistinguishable from a ULX containing a black hole. Accordingly we suggest that a significant fraction of all ULXs may actually contain neutron star accretors rather than black holes, reflecting the neutron-star fraction among their X-ray binary progenitors. We emphasize that neutron-star ULXs are likely to have higher apparent luminosities than black hole ULXs for a given mass transfer rate, as their tighter beaming outweighs their lower Eddington luminosities. This further increases the likely proportion of neutron-star accretors among all ULXs. Cygnus X-2 is probably a typical descendant of neutron-star ULXs, which may therefore ultimately end as millisecond pulsar binaries with massive white dwarf companions.
Vector particles tunneling from BTZ black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ge-Rui; Zhou, Shiwei; Huang, Yong-Chang
2015-11-01
In this paper we investigate vector particles' Hawking radiation from a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole. By applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi ansatz to the Proca equation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. The expected Hawking temperature is recovered.
Phonon Emission from Acoustic Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Hengzhong; Zhou, Kaihu; Song, Yuming
2012-08-01
We study the phonon tunneling through the horizon of an acoustic black hole by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We also make use of the closed-path integral to calculate the tunneling probability, and an improved way to determine the temporal contribution is used. Both the results from the two methods agree with Hawking's initial analysis.
Constant crunch coordinates for black hole simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentle, Adrian P.; Holz, Daniel E.; Kheyfets, Arkady; Laguna, Pablo; Miller, Warner A.; Shoemaker, Deirdre M.
2001-03-01
We reinvestigate the utility of time-independent constant mean curvature foliations for the numerical simulation of a single spherically symmetric black hole. Each spacelike hypersurface of such a foliation is endowed with the same constant value of the trace of the extrinsic curvature tensor K. Of the three families of K-constant surfaces possible (classified according to their asymptotic behaviors), we single out a subfamily of singularity-avoiding surfaces that may be particularly useful, and provide an analytic expression for the closest approach such surfaces make to the singularity. We then utilize a nonzero shift to yield families of K-constant surfaces which (1) avoid the black hole singularity, and thus the need to excise the singularity, (2) are asymptotically null, aiding in gravity wave extraction, (3) cover the physically relevant part of the spacetime, (4) are well behaved (regular) across the horizon, and (5) are static under evolution, and therefore have no ``grid stretching/ sucking'' pathologies. Preliminary numerical runs demonstrate that we can stably evolve a single spherically symmetric static black hole using this foliation. We wish to emphasize that this coordinatization produces K-constant surfaces for a single black hole spacetime that are regular, static, and stable throughout their evolution.
Static black hole uniqueness and Penrose inequality
Mizuno, Ryosuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Seiju
2010-02-15
Under certain conditions, we offer a new way to prove the uniqueness of the static black hole in higher dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the proof, the Penrose inequality plays a key role in higher dimensions as well as four dimensions.
Bose condensation and the BTZ black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2010-03-01
Although all popular approaches to quantum gravity are able to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area law in the thermodynamic limit, there are significant differences in their descriptions of the microstates and in the application of statistics. Therefore, they can have significantly different phenomenological implications. For example, requiring indistinguishability of the elementary degrees of freedom should lead to changes in the black hole's radiative properties away from the thermodynamic limit and at low temperatures. We demonstrate this for the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole. The energy eigenstates and statistical entropy in the thermodynamic limit of the BTZ black hole were obtained earlier by us via symmetry reduced canonical quantum gravity. In that model the BTZ black hole behaves as a system of Bosonic mass shells moving in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. Bose condensation does not occur in the thermodynamic limit but this system possesses a finite critical temperature, Tc, and exhibits a large condensate fraction below Tc when the number of shells is finite.
Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roy, Arunava
2011-01-01
The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…
Cassini states for black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correia, Alexandre C. M.
2016-03-01
Cassini states correspond to the equilibria of the spin axis of a body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black hole binary systems based on a Hamiltonian formalism. In absence of dissipation, the problem is integrable and it is easy to identify all possible trajectories for the spin for a given value of the total angular momentum. As the system collapses due to radiation reaction, the Cassini states are shifted to different positions, which modifies the dynamics around them. This is why the final spin distribution may differ from the initial one. Our method provides a simple way of predicting the distribution of the spin of black hole binaries at the end of the inspiral phase.
Black holes and high energy physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.
2016-01-01
Three mechanisms of getting high energies in particle collisions in the ergosphere of the rotating black holes are considered. The consequences of these mechanisms for observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays particles on the Earth as result of conversion of superheavy dark matter particles into ordinary particles are discussed.
Phantom black holes and critical phenomena
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Marques, Glauber T.
2014-07-01
We consider the two classes cosh and sinh of normal and phantom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The thermodynamics of these holes is characterized by heat capacities that may have both signs depending on the parameters of the theory. Leaving aside the normal Reissner-Nordström black hole, it is shown that only some phantom black holes of both classes exhibit critical phenomena. The two classes share a nonextremality, but special, critical point where the transition is continuous and the heat capacity, at constant charge, changes sign with an infinite discontinuity. This point yields a classification scheme for critical points. It is concluded that the two unstable and stable phases coexist on one side of the criticality state and disappear on the other side, that is, there is no configuration where only one phase exists. The sinh class has an extremality critical point where the entropy diverges. The transition from extremality to nonextremality with the charge held constant is accompanied by a loss of mass and an increase in the temperature. A special case of this transition is when the hole is isolated (microcanonical ensemble), it will evolve by emission of energy, which results in a decrease of its mass, to the final state of minimum mass and vanishing heat capacity. The Ehrenfest scheme of classification is inaccurate in this case but the generalized one due to Hilfer leads to conclude that the transition is of order less than unity. Fluctuations near criticality are also investigated.
Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc
2007-01-01
A striking property of an electric charge near a magnetic pole is that the system possesses angular momentum even when both the electric and the magnetic charges are at rest. The angular momentum is proportional to the product of the charges and independent of their distance. We analyze the effect of bringing gravitation into this remarkable system. To this end, we study an electric charge held at rest outside a magnetically charged black hole. We find that even if the electric charge is treated as a perturbation on a spherically symmetric magnetic Reissner–Nordstrom hole, the geometry at large distances is that of a magnetic Kerr–Newman black hole. When the charge approaches the horizon and crosses it, the exterior geometry becomes that of a Kerr–Newman hole, with electric and magnetic charges and with total angular momentum given by the standard value for a charged monopole pair. Thus, in accordance with the “no-hair theorem,” once the charge is captured by the black hole, the angular momentum associated with the charge monopole system loses all traces of its exotic origin and is perceived from the outside as common rotation. It is argued that a similar analysis performed on Taub–NUT space should give the same result. PMID:17626789
Is there a blackhole among the black-hole candidates?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundt, Wolfgang; Fischer, Daniel
1989-03-01
None of the tentative black-hole identifications has remained without serious difficulties. As a class, the black-hole candidates differ in no obvious property from neutron-star binaries other than in their estimated high mass. An interpretation of the black-hole candidates as binary neutron stars surrounded by a more or less massive accretion disk is favored.
Noncommutative geometry-inspired rotating black hole in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tejeiro, Juan Manuel; Larrañaga, Alexis
2012-01-01
We find a new rotating black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space using an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. We deduce the thermodynamical quantities of this black hole and compare them with those of a rotating BTZ solution.
Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves
Nakamura, Takashi
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed. PMID:25792793
Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves.
Nakamura, Takashi
2006-12-01
Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed. PMID:25792793
Charged fermions tunneling from accelerating and rotating black holes
Rehman, Mudassar; Saifullah, K. E-mail: saifullah@qau.edu.pk
2011-03-01
We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions from accelerating and rotating black holes with electric and magnetic charges. We calculate the tunneling probabilities of incoming and outgoing fermionic particles and find the Hawking temperature of these black holes. We also provide an explicit expression of the classical action for the massive and massless particles in the background of these black holes.
Are black holes with hair a normal state of matter?
Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.
2011-03-28
Recent observations put forward that quasars are black holes with a magnetic dipole moment and no event horizon. To model hairy black holes a quantum field for hydrogen is considered in curved space, coupled to the scalar curvature. An exact, regular solution for the interior metric occurs for supermassive black holes. The equation of state is p = -{rho}c{sup 2}/3.
Thermodynamics and luminosities of rainbow black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Benrong; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang
2015-11-01
Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is ``Gravity's rainbow'', where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Focusing on the ``Amelino-Camelia dispersion relation'' which is E2 = m2+p2[1-η(E/mp)n] with n > 0, we investigate the thermodynamical properties of a Schwarzschild black hole and a static uncharged black string for all possible values of η and n in the framework of rainbow gravity. It shows that there are non-vanishing minimum masses for these two black holes in the cases with η < 0 and n >= 2. Considering effects of rainbow gravity on both the Hawking temperature and radius of the event horizon, we use the geometric optics approximation to compute luminosities of a 2D black hole, a Schwarzschild one and a static uncharged black string. It is found that the luminosities can be significantly suppressed or boosted depending on the values of η and n.
Cutoffs, stretched horizons, and black hole radiators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaloper, Nemanja
2012-11-01
We argue that if the UV cutoff of an effective field theory with many low energy degrees of freedom is of the order, or below, the scale of the stretched horizon in a black hole background, which in turn is significantly lower than the Planck scale, the black hole radiance rate may not be enhanced by the emission of all the light IR modes. Instead, there may be additional suppressions hidden in the UV completion of the field theory, which really control which light modes can be emitted by the black hole. It could turn out that many degrees of freedom cannot be efficiently emitted by the black hole, and so the radiance rate may be much smaller than its estimate based on the counting of the light IR degrees of freedom. If we apply this argument to the Randall-Sundrum II (RS2) brane world, it implies that the emission rates of the low energy conformal field theory modes will be dramatically suppressed: its UV completion is given by the bulk gravity on AdS5×S5, and the only bulk modes which could be emitted by a black hole are the 4-dimensional (4D) s waves of bulk modes with small 5-dimensional momentum, or equivalently, small 4D masses. Further, their emission is suppressed by bulk warping, which lowers the radiation rate much below the IR estimate, yielding a radiation flux ˜(TBHL)2LHawking˜(TBH/MPl)2NLHawking, where LHawking is the Hawking radiation rate of a single light species. This follows directly from low conformal field theory cutoff μ˜L-1≪MPl, a large number of modes N≫1 and the fact that 4D gravity in RS2 is induced, MPl2≃Nμ2.
Black supernovae and black holes in non-local gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambi, Cosimo; Malafarina, Daniele; Modesto, Leonardo
2016-04-01
In a previous paper, we studied the interior solution of a collapsing body in a non-local theory of gravity super-renormalizable at the quantum level. We found that the classical singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the body starts expanding. A black hole, strictly speaking, never forms. The gravitational collapse does not create an event horizon but only an apparent one for a finite time. In this paper, we solve the equations of motion assuming that the exterior solution is static. With such an assumption, we are able to reconstruct the solution in the whole spacetime, namely in both the exterior and interior regions. Now the gravitational collapse creates an event horizon in a finite comoving time, but the central singularity is approached in an infinite time. We argue that these black holes should be unstable, providing a link between the scenarios with and without black holes. Indeed, we find a non catastrophic ghost-instability of the metric in the exterior region. Interestingly, under certain conditions, the lifetime of our black holes exactly scales as the Hawking evaporation time.
Algebraic classification of numerical spacetimes and black-hole-binary remnants
Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef
2009-04-15
In this paper we develop a technique for determining the algebraic classification of a numerically generated spacetime, possibly resulting from a generic black-hole-binary merger, using the Newman-Penrose Weyl scalars. We demonstrate these techniques for a test case involving a close binary with arbitrarily oriented spins and unequal masses. We find that, postmerger, the spacetime quickly approaches Petrov type II, and only approaches type D on much longer time scales. These techniques, in combination with techniques for evaluating acceleration and Newman-Unti-Tamburino parameters, allow us to begin to explore the validity of the 'no-hair theorem' for generic merging-black-hole spacetimes.
Black holes with a single Killing vector field: black resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson
2015-12-01
We numerically construct asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in four dimensions that contain only a single Killing vector field. These solutions, which we coin black resonators, link the superradiant instability of Kerr-AdS to the nonlinear weakly turbulent instability of AdS by connecting the onset of the superradiance instability to smooth, horizonless geometries called geons. Furthermore, they demonstrate non-uniqueness of Kerr-AdS by sharing asymptotic charges. Where black resonators coexist with Kerr-AdS, we find that the black resonators have higher entropy. Nevertheless, we show that black resonators are unstable and comment on the implications for the endpoint of the superradiant instability.
Asymptotically Lifshitz brane-world black holes
Ranjbar, Arash Sepangi, Hamid Reza Shahidi, Shahab
2012-12-15
We study the gravity dual of a Lifshitz field theory in the context of a RSII brane-world scenario, taking into account the effects of the extra dimension through the contribution of the electric part of the Weyl tensor. We study the thermodynamical behavior of such asymptotically Lifshitz black holes. It is shown that the entropy imposes the critical exponent z to be bounded from above. This maximum value of z corresponds to a positive infinite entropy as long as the temperature is kept positive. The stability and phase transition for different spatial topologies are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studying the gravity dual of a Lifshitz field theory in the context of brane-world scenario. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studying the thermodynamical behavior of asymptotically Lifshitz black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Showing that the entropy imposes the critical exponent z to be bounded from above. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussing the phase transition for different spatial topologies.
Giant black hole rips star apart
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2004-02-01
Astronomers believe that a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after a close encounter with another star threw it off course. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information on how these black holes grow and affect the surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Dr Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, who led the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighbourhood." While other observations have hinted that stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as ‘stellar tidal disruptions’), these new results are the first strong evidence. Observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgensatellite (ROSAT), detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the centre of the galaxy RXJ1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in this process is equivalent to that of a supernova. "Now, with all of the data in hand, we have the smoking gun proof that this spectacular event has occurred," said co-author Prof. Guenther Hasinger, also of MPE. The black hole in the centre of RX J1242-11 is estimated to have a mass about 100 million times that of the Sun. By contrast, the destroyed star probably had a mass about equal to that of the Sun, making it a lopsided battle of gravity. "This is the ultimate ‘David versus Goliath’ battle, but here David loses," said Hasinger. The astronomers estimated that about one hundredth of the mass of the star was ultimately consumed, or accreted, by the black hole. This small
Flip-Flopping Binary Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lousto, Carlos O.; Healy, James
2015-04-01
We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d ≈25 M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t =20 000 M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.
Flip-flopping binary black holes.
Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James
2015-04-10
We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes. PMID:25910104
Spacetime Noncommutative Effect on Black Hole as Particle Accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Chikun; Liu, Changqing; Quo, Qian
2013-03-01
We study the spacetime noncommutative effect on black hole as particle accelerators and, find that the particles falling from infinity with zero velocity cannot collide with unbound energy, either near the horizon or on the prograde ISCO when the noncommutative Kerr black hole is exactly extremal. Our results also show that the bigger of the spinning black hole's mass is the higher of center of mass energy that the particles obtain. For small and medium noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole, the collision energy depends on the black hole's mass.
Black hole particle emission in higher-dimensional spacetimes.
Cardoso, Vitor; Cavaglià, Marco; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2006-02-24
In models with extra dimensions, a black hole evaporates both in the bulk and on the visible brane, where standard model fields live. The exact emissivities of each particle species are needed to determine how the black hole decay proceeds. We compute and discuss the absorption cross sections, the relative emissivities, and the total power output of all known fields in the evaporation phase. Graviton emissivity is highly enhanced as the spacetime dimensionality increases. Therefore, a black hole loses a significant fraction of its mass in the bulk. This result has important consequences for the phenomenology of black holes in models with extra dimensions and black hole detection in particle colliders. PMID:16606074
Domination of black hole accretion in brane cosmology.
Majumdar, A S
2003-01-24
We consider the evolution of primordial black holes formed during the high energy phase of the braneworld scenario. We show that the effect of accretion from the surrounding radiation bath is dominant compared to evaporation for such black holes. This feature lasts till the onset of matter (or black hole) domination of the total energy density which could occur either in the high energy phase or later. We find that the black hole evaporation times could be significantly large even for black holes with small initial mass to survive until several cosmologically interesting eras. PMID:12570481
Cosmic censorship of rotating Anti-de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2016-02-01
We test the validity of cosmic censorship in the rotating anti-de Sitter black hole. For this purpose, we investigate whether the extremal black hole can be overspun by the particle absorption. The particle absorption will change the mass and angular momentum of the black hole, which is analyzed using the Hamilton-Jacobi equations consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. We have found that the mass of the extremal black hole increases more than the angular momentum. Therefore, the outer horizon of the black hole still exists, and cosmic censorship is valid.
Trumpet-puncture initial data for black holes
Immerman, Jason D.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.
2009-09-15
We propose a new approach, based on the puncture method, to construct black hole initial data in the so-called trumpet geometry, i.e. on slices that asymptote to a limiting surface of nonzero areal radius. Our approach is easy to implement numerically and, at least for nonspinning black holes, does not require any internal boundary conditions. We present numerical results, obtained with a uniform-grid finite-difference code, for boosted black holes and binary black holes. We also comment on generalizations of this method for spinning black holes.
Grand unification scale primordial black holes: consequences and constraints.
Anantua, Richard; Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T
2009-09-11
A population of very light primordial black holes which evaporate before nucleosynthesis begins is unconstrained unless the decaying black holes leave stable relics. We show that gravitons Hawking radiated from these black holes would source a substantial stochastic background of high frequency gravititational waves (10(12) Hz or more) in the present Universe. These black holes may lead to a transient period of matter-dominated expansion. In this case the primordial Universe could be temporarily dominated by large clusters of "Hawking stars" and the resulting gravitational wave spectrum is independent of the initial number density of primordial black holes. PMID:19792364
"Iron-Clad" Evidence For Spinning Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2003-09-01
Telltale X-rays from iron may reveal if black holes are spinning or not, according to astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory. The gas flows and bizarre gravitational effects observed near stellar black holes are similar to those seen around supermassive black holes. Stellar black holes, in effect, are convenient `scale models' of their much larger cousins. Black holes come in at least two different sizes. Stellar black holes are between five and 20 times the mass of the Sun. At the other end of the size scale, supermassive black holes contain millions or billions times the mass of our Sun. The Milky Way contains both a supermassive black hole at its center, as well as a number of stellar black holes sprinkled throughout the Galaxy. At a press conference at the "Four Years of Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Ala., Jon Miller of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. discussed recent results on the X-ray spectra, or distribution of X-rays with energy, from the iron atoms in gas around three stellar black holes in the Milky Way. "Discovering the high degree of correspondence between stellar and supermassive black holes is a real breakthrough," said Miller. "Because stellar black holes are smaller, everything happens about a million times faster, so they can be used as a test-bed for theories of how spinning black holes affect the space and matter around them." X-rays from a stellar black hole are produced when gas from a nearby companion star is heated to tens of millions of degrees as it swirls toward the black hole. Iron atoms in this gas produce distinctive X-ray signals that can be used to study the orbits of particles around the black hole. For example, the gravity of a black hole can shift the X-rays to lower energies. "The latest work provides the most precise measurements yet of the X-ray spectra for stellar black holes," said Miller. "These data help rule out
Exact solutions of Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes
Aiello, Matias; Ferraro, Rafael; Giribet, Gaston
2004-11-15
The exact five-dimensional charged black hole solution in Lovelock gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics is presented. This solution interpolates between the Hoffmann black hole for the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory and other solutions in the Lovelock theory previously studied in the literature. It is shown how the conical singularity of the metric around the origin can be removed by a proper choice of the black hole parameters. The differences existing with the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes are discussed. In particular, we show the existence of charged black holes with a unique horizon.
A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black hole system.
Deane, R P; Paragi, Z; Jarvis, M J; Coriat, M; Bernardi, G; Fender, R P; Frey, S; Heywood, I; Klöckner, H-R; Grainge, K; Rumsey, C
2014-07-01
Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to some hosting multiple supermassive black holes. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest black hole pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component in this system is at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence (about 100 parsecs for a black hole with mass one billion times that of the Sun). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs (ref. 10). Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z = 0.39, with the closest pair separated by about 140 parsecs and significantly more distant from Earth than any other known binary of comparable orbital separation. The effect of the tight pair is to introduce a rotationally symmetric helical modulation on the structure of the large-scale radio jets, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments. PMID:24990745
Cosmography of KNdS black holes and isentropic phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McInerney, James; Satishchandran, Gautam; Traschen, Jennie
2016-05-01
We present a new analysis of Kerr-Newman-deSitter black holes in terms of thermodynamic quantities that are defined in the observable portion of the Universe; between the black hole and cosmological horizons. In particular, we replace the mass m with a new ‘area product’ parameter X. The physical region of parameter space is found analytically and thermodynamic quantities are given by simple algebraic functions of these parameters. We find that different geometrical properties of the black holes are usefully distinguished by the sum of the black hole and cosmological entropies. The physical parameter space breaks into a region in which the total entropy, together with Λ, a and q uniquely specifies the black hole, and a region in which there is a two-fold degeneracy. In this latter region, there are isentropic pairs of black holes, having the same Λ, a, and q, but different X. The thermodynamic volumes and masses differ in such that there are high and low density branches. The partner spacetimes are related by a simple inversion of X, which has a fixed point at the state of maximal total entropy. We compute the compressibility at fixed total entropy and find that it diverges at the maximal entropy point. Hence a picture emerges of high and low density phases merging at this critical point.
Black Holes and the Central Structure of Early-type Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauer, Tod R.
Central massive black holes appear to have a strong role in determining the central structure of elliptical galaxies. The existence of cores in the more luminous ellipticals may be understood as the merger endpoint of two less-luminous galaxies, each harboring a massive black hole. As the two black holes spiral together at the center of the merger product, stars would be ejected from this region, creating a break in the stellar density profile and the shallow cusp in surface brightness characteristic of a core. Further, the resulting binary or merged black hole would preserve the core over subsequent mergers or cannibalism events by disrupting any incoming dense stellar system that would otherwise fill in the core. The effects of black holes are also strongly favored to explain central ``double-nuclei,'' such as that seen in M31, and a recently discovered class of ``hollow galaxies,'' which have local minima in their central stellar density profiles. In short, any discussion of the origin of galaxy morphology must include the ubiquitous presence of massive black holes.
Relativistic boost as the cause of periodicity in a massive black-hole binary candidate.
D'Orazio, Daniel J; Haiman, Zoltán; Schiminovich, David
2015-09-17
Because most large galaxies contain a central black hole, and galaxies often merge, black-hole binaries are expected to be common in galactic nuclei. Although they cannot be imaged, periodicities in the light curves of quasars have been interpreted as evidence for binaries, most recently in PG 1302-102, which has a short rest-frame optical period of four years (ref. 6). If the orbital period of the black-hole binary matches this value, then for the range of estimated black-hole masses, the components would be separated by 0.007-0.017 parsecs, implying relativistic orbital speeds. There has been much debate over whether black-hole orbits could be smaller than one parsec (ref. 7). Here we report that the amplitude and the sinusoid-like shape of the variability of the light curve of PG 1302-102 can be fitted by relativistic Doppler boosting of emission from a compact, steadily accreting, unequal-mass binary. We predict that brightness variations in the ultraviolet light curve track those in the optical, but with a two to three times larger amplitude. This prediction is relatively insensitive to the details of the emission process, and is consistent with archival ultraviolet data. Follow-up ultraviolet and optical observations in the next few years can further test this prediction and confirm the existence of a binary black hole in the relativistic regime. PMID:26381982
Observational signatures of binary supermassive black holes
Roedig, Constanze; Krolik, Julian H.; Miller, M. Coleman
2014-04-20
Observations indicate that most massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, and theoretical studies suggest that when such galaxies have a major merger, the central black holes will form a binary and eventually coalesce. Here we discuss two spectral signatures of such binaries that may help distinguish them from ordinary active galactic nuclei. These signatures are expected when the mass ratio between the holes is not extreme and the system is fed by a circumbinary disk. One such signature is a notch in the thermal continuum that has been predicted by other authors; we point out that it should be accompanied by a spectral revival at shorter wavelengths and also discuss its dependence on binary properties such as mass, mass ratio, and separation. In particular, we note that the wavelength λ {sub n} at which the notch occurs depends on these three parameters in such a way as to make the number of systems displaying these notches ∝λ{sub n}{sup 16/3}; longer wavelength searches are therefore strongly favored. A second signature, first discussed here, is hard X-ray emission with a Wien-like spectrum at a characteristic temperature ∼100 keV produced by Compton cooling of the shock generated when streams from the circumbinary disk hit the accretion disks around the individual black holes. We investigate the observability of both signatures. The hard X-ray signal may be particularly valuable as it can provide an indicator of black hole merger a few decades in advance of the event.
BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING
Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk
2013-11-10
We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.
Horizons of description: Black holes and complementarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokulich, Peter Joshua Martin
Niels Bohr famously argued that a consistent understanding of quantum mechanics requires a new epistemic framework, which he named complementarity . This position asserts that even in the context of quantum theory, classical concepts must be used to understand and communicate measurement results. The apparent conflict between certain classical descriptions is avoided by recognizing that their application now crucially depends on the measurement context. Recently it has been argued that a new form of complementarity can provide a solution to the so-called information loss paradox. Stephen Hawking argues that the evolution of black holes cannot be described by standard unitary quantum evolution, because such evolution always preserves information, while the evaporation of a black hole will imply that any information that fell into it is irrevocably lost---hence a "paradox." Some researchers in quantum gravity have argued that this paradox can be resolved if one interprets certain seemingly incompatible descriptions of events around black holes as instead being complementary. In this dissertation I assess the extent to which this black hole complementarity can be undergirded by Bohr's account of the limitations of classical concepts. I begin by offering an interpretation of Bohr's complementarity and the role that it plays in his philosophy of quantum theory. After clarifying the nature of classical concepts, I offer an account of the limitations these concepts face, and argue that Bohr's appeal to disturbance is best understood as referring to these conceptual limits. Following preparatory chapters on issues in quantum field theory and black hole mechanics, I offer an analysis of the information loss paradox and various responses to it. I consider the three most prominent accounts of black hole complementarity and argue that they fail to offer sufficient justification for the proposed incompatibility between descriptions. The lesson that emerges from this
Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays and Black Hole Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotera, Kumiko; Silk, Joseph
2016-06-01
The recent detection of the gravitational-wave source GW150914 by the LIGO collaboration motivates a speculative source for the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as a possible byproduct of the immense energies achieved in black hole (BH) mergers, provided that the BHs have spin, as seems inevitable, and there are relic magnetic fields and disk debris remaining from the formation of the BHs or from their accretion history. We argue that given the modest efficiency \\lt 0.01 required per event per unit of gravitational-wave energy release, merging BHs potentially provide an environment for accelerating cosmic rays to ultrahigh energies. The presence of tidally disrupted planetary or asteroidal debris could lead to associated fast radio bursts.
Evidences for Black Hole Formation by Complete Stellar Collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirabel, Igor Felix
2016-07-01
One of the most critical parameters that determines the formation of binary black holes is the range of masses of black holes that may form by direct collapse, namely, with no energetic supernova kicks that would unbound the stellar binary. Theoretical models set mass ranges and limits for black hole formation through the complete collapse of the stellar progenitor. However, observational constraints for those mass limits have been elusive. Since the velocity of a stellar black hole encodes the history of its formation and evolution, it may provide observational constraints on the strength of kicks by natal supernova explosions in the formation of the black hole. Based on the motion in three dimensions of five black hole binaries in our Galaxy it is found that the three black holes with < 10 solar masses are runaway black hole binaries due to kicks from natal supernovae, whereas the two black holes with 10 to 15 solar masses remained in their birth place and must have been form by complete or almost complete collapse of the progenitor star. These observations show that there may be binary black holes with components having masses as low as 10 solar masses, which suggests that a significant fraction of massive stellar binaries would end as black hole binaries that would produce a large stochastic gravitational-wave background.
AN UPPER LIMIT TO THE VELOCITY DISPERSION OF RELAXED STELLAR SYSTEMS WITHOUT MASSIVE BLACK HOLES
Miller, M. Coleman; Davies, Melvyn B.
2012-08-10
Massive black holes have been discovered in all closely examined galaxies with high velocity dispersion. The case is not as clear for lower-dispersion systems such as low-mass galaxies and globular clusters. Here we suggest that above a critical velocity dispersion {approx}40 km s{sup -1}, massive central black holes will form in relaxed stellar systems at any cosmic epoch. This is because above this dispersion primordial binaries cannot support the system against deep core collapse. If, as previous simulations show, the black holes formed in the cluster settle to produce a dense subcluster, then given the extremely high densities reached during core collapse the holes will merge with each other. For low velocity dispersions and hence low cluster escape speeds, mergers will typically kick out all or all but one of the holes due to three-body kicks or the asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation. If one hole remains, it will tidally disrupt stars at a high rate. If none remain, one is formed after runaway collisions between stars, and then it tidally disrupts stars at a high rate. The accretion rate after disruption is many orders of magnitude above Eddington. If, as several studies suggest, the hole can accept matter at that rate because the generated radiation is trapped and advected, then it will grow quickly and form a massive central black hole.
Quasi-black holes: Definition and general properties
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2007-10-15
Objects that are on the verge of being extremal black holes but actually are distinct in many ways are called quasi-black holes. Quasi-black holes are defined here and treated in a unified way by displaying their properties. Their main properties are as follows: (i) there are infinite redshift whole regions (ii) the spacetimes exhibit degenerate, almost singular, features but their curvature invariants remain perfectly regular everywhere (iii) in the limit under discussion, outer and inner regions become mutually impenetrable and disjoint, although, in contrast to the usual black holes, this separation is of a dynamical nature, rather than purely causal, and (iv) for external faraway observers the spacetime is virtually indistinguishable from that of extremal black holes. In addition, we show that quasi-black holes must be extremal. Connections with black hole and wormhole physics are also drawn.
MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN STELLAR SYSTEMS: 'QUIESCENT' ACCRETION AND LUMINOSITY
Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.
2011-04-01
Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.
A Geometric Crescent Model for Black Hole Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamruddin, Ayman Bin; Dexter, J.
2013-01-01
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimeter wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environment of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), have been interpreted in terms of unmotivated geometric models (e.g., a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations involving accretion onto a black hole. The latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated by relativistic effects around black holes, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description of the existing EHT data of Sgr A*, superior to the Gaussian. It also closely matches physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on our results, we make predictions for future observations for the accessibility of the black hole shadow, direct evidence for a black hole event horizon.
Shadows of multi-black holes: Analytic exploration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yumoto, Akifumi; Nitta, Daisuke; Chiba, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Naoshi
2012-11-01
Shadows of multi-black holes have structures distinct from the mere superposition of the shadow of a single black hole: the eyebrow-like structures outside the main shadows and the deformation of the shadows. We present analytic estimates of these structures using the static multi-black hole solution (Majumdar-Papapetrou solution). We show that the width of the eyebrow is related to the distance between the black holes and that the shadows are deformed into ellipses due to the presence of the second black holes. These results are helpful to understand qualitatively the features of the shadows of colliding black holes. We also present the shadows of colliding or coalescing black holes in the Kastor-Traschen solution.
PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS
Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.
2010-09-20
The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M{sub BH{approx}}>10{sup 8} M{sub sun}) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L < L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H{sub 2}O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M{sub BH} and {sigma}{sub *} seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation in this low-mass regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Carl L.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.
2016-04-01
The recent discovery of GW150914, the binary black hole merger detected by Advanced LIGO, has the potential to revolutionize observational astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the Universe, we must compare these new observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. Expanding upon our previous work [C. L. Rodriguez, M. Morscher, B. Pattabiraman, S. Chatterjee, C.-J. Haster, and F. A. Rasio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 051101 (2015).], we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N -body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ejected black hole binaries and a cluster's mass and radius. With our improved treatment of stellar evolution, we find that globular clusters can produce a significant population of massive black hole binaries that merge in the local Universe. We explore the masses and mass ratios of these binaries as a function of redshift, and find a merger rate of ˜5 Gpc-3yr-1 in the local Universe, with 80% of sources having total masses from 32 M⊙ to 64 M⊙. Under standard assumptions, approximately one out of every seven binary black hole mergers
Effective theory of black holes in the 1/D expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emparan, Roberto; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro
2015-06-01
The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (e.g. Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this `black hole surface' (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/ D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for `black droplets', i.e. black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.
Era of Galaxy and Black Hole Growth Spurt Discovered
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2005-04-01
Universe that they can be detected at all. "The deeper we look into the Universe with Chandra, the more fascinating things we find" says Niel Brandt of Penn State University in University Park. "Who knows what nature has in store for us as we push the boundaries yet further." The X-ray observations also showed that the black holes are surrounded by a dense shroud of gas and dust. This is probably the material that will be consumed by the growing black holes. Hubble Space Telescope observations indicate that most of the submillimeter galaxies are actually two galaxies that are colliding and merging. Recent sophisticated computer simulations performed by Tiziana Di Matteo of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Penn., and her collaborators have shown that such mergers drive gas toward the central regions of galaxies, triggering a burst of star formation and providing fuel for the growth of a central black hole. Chandra's X-ray Image of Black Holes in the Early Universe Chandra's X-ray Image of Black Holes in the Early Universe "It is exciting that these recent observations are in good agreement with our simulation," says Di Matteo, "We seem to be converging on a consistent picture of galaxy formation with both observations and theory." In particular, this work will help scientists to understand the observed link in the present epoch between the total mass of stars in the central bulges of large galaxies and the size of their central, supermassive black holes. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is operated on behalf of the United Kingdom, Canada & Netherlands by the Joint Astronomy Centre. With its 15-meter (50-foot) diameter dish the JCMT detects light with "submillimeter" wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves on the wavelength scale. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated by the California Association for Research in Astronomy. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate
High-Resolution Observations of a Binary Black Hole Candidate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Chao-Wei; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Jarrett, Thomas; Emonts, Bjorn; Cluver, Michelle; Eisenhardt, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto
2012-10-01
We propose a 12-hour 2.3 GHz continuum Long Baseline Array (LBA) observation of WISE J2332-5056, a newly discovered supermassive black hole (SMBH) merger candidate that is located in the nearby universe (z = 0.3447). Our recently acquired 9 GHz ATCA map shows unusual radio morphology: a one-sided, smaller (and likely younger) FR-I jet perpendicular to a larger, Doppler-boosted FR-II jet. Follow-up Gemini-S/GMOS spectroscopy of this WISE-selected radio galaxy reveals broad emission lines blue-shifted by > 3,500 km/s with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy, hallmarks of a dual AGN system. Combined, the optical spectroscopy and radio morphology of this object are strongly suggestive of a black hole merger system. Even in the local universe these systems are extremely difficult to identify; yet the process of supermassive blackhole growth is vital toward understanding galaxy evolution from the early to the current universe. Moreover, nearby merging SMBHs may serve as outstanding targets for gravitational wave studies. The proposed high resolution LBA map, reaching 50 pc resolution at the source redshift will allow us to investigate the SMBH merger scenario hypothesis.
RELATIVISTIC MERGERS OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNATURES
Bode, Tanja; Haas, Roland; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Bogdanovic, Tamara
2010-06-01
Coincident detections of electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational wave (GW) signatures from coalescence events of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are the next observational grand challenge. Such detections will provide the means to study cosmological evolution and accretion processes associated with these gargantuan compact objects. More generally, the observations will enable testing general relativity in the strong, nonlinear regime and will provide independent cosmological measurements to high precision. Understanding the conditions under which coincidences of EM and GW signatures arise during SMBH mergers is therefore of paramount importance. As an essential step toward this goal, we present results from the first fully general relativistic, hydrodynamical study of the late inspiral and merger of equal-mass, spinning SMBH binaries in a gas cloud. We find that variable EM signatures correlated with GWs can arise in merging systems as a consequence of shocks and accretion combined with the effect of relativistic beaming. The most striking EM variability is observed for systems where spins are aligned with the orbital axis and where orbiting black holes form a stable set of density wakes, but all systems exhibit some characteristic signatures that can be utilized in searches for EM counterparts. In the case of the most massive binaries observable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, calculated luminosities imply that they may be identified by EM searches to z {approx} 1, while lower mass systems and binaries immersed in low density ambient gas can only be detected in the local universe.
Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, T.
2012-12-01
When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs) should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN). The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary - through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution - on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary's gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible "smoking gun" AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.
Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherepashchuk, A. M.
2014-04-01
In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M_BH = (4{-}20) M_\\odot) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M_BH = (10^{6}{-}10^{10}) M_\\odot) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a_* have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a_* = 0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths \\lambda \\lesssim 1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope).
Chapter 8. Black Holes in Braneworld Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanahashi, N.; Tanaka, T.
In this review, we summarize current understandings of blackhole solutions in various braneworld models, including the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model, the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models, Karch-Randall (KR) model and the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. After illustrating basic properties of each braneworld model, we introduce the bulk/brane correspondence in the RS and KR braneworld models, adding supporting evidence for it. We then summarize the studies on braneworld black hole solutions, which consist of constructing exact or approximate solutions and investigating the phase diagram of solutions. In the study of phase diagram, we will also expound the implications of the bulk/brane correspondence to the braneworld black holes.
Semiclassical geons as solitonic black hole remnants
Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D. E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es
2013-07-01
We find that the end state of black hole evaporation could be represented by non-singular and without event horizon stable solitonic remnants with masses of the order the Planck scale and up to ∼ 16 units of charge. Though these objects are locally indistinguishable from spherically symmetric, massive electric (or magnetic) charges, they turn out to be sourceless geons containing a wormhole generated by the electromagnetic field. Our results are obtained by interpreting semiclassical corrections to Einstein's theory in the first-order (Palatini) formalism, which yields second-order equations and avoids the instabilities of the usual (metric) formulation of quadratic gravity. We also discuss the potential relevance of these solutions for primordial black holes and the dark matter problem.