Science.gov

Sample records for merle saaliste eha

  1. Registration of "Merl" Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

  2. A Response to Merle Borrowman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Harold J.

    1975-01-01

    Author criticized Merle Borrowman's paper (AA 521 907) as two separate papers, the one identifying comparative education as a "swamp" field, the other positively describing the field in terms of "the distribution of cross cultural studies (inclining) one to perceive the world differently and indeed more fruitfully." (Author/RK)

  3. Telemedicine Networks of EHAS Foundation in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Egido, Ignacio; Simó-Reigadas, Javier; Liñán-Benítez, Leopoldo; García-Giganto, Víctor; Martínez-Fernández, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas in developing countries are characterized by lack of resources, low population density, and scarcity of communications infrastructure. These circumstances make it difficult to provide appropriate health-care services. This paper explains research results achieved by Enlace Hispano Americano de Salud – Hispano American Health Link (EHAS) and how they have contributed to improve healthcare in isolated areas of developing countries through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As the first step, EHAS always collaborates with public health systems to identify its communication and information needs. Based on the analysis of needs, EHAS does research on appropriate technologies to provide communication in each context and on information systems suited to needs of health personnel. In parallel, EHAS has worked to provide applications that, making use of the communications services installed, could improve the health-care services in these remote areas. In this line, solutions to improve epidemiological surveillance or to provide telemedicine services (like a digital stethoscope or a tele-microscopy system) have been developed. EHAS has also performed several researches trying to ensure the sustainability of their solutions and has summarized them in a Management Framework for Sustainable e-Healthcare Provision. Finally, the effort to spread acquired knowledge has crystallized in a book that details all the technologies and procedures previously mentioned. PMID:25360436

  4. Telemedicine Networks of EHAS Foundation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Egido, Ignacio; Simó-Reigadas, Javier; Liñán-Benítez, Leopoldo; García-Giganto, Víctor; Martínez-Fernández, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas in developing countries are characterized by lack of resources, low population density, and scarcity of communications infrastructure. These circumstances make it difficult to provide appropriate health-care services. This paper explains research results achieved by Enlace Hispano Americano de Salud - Hispano American Health Link (EHAS) and how they have contributed to improve healthcare in isolated areas of developing countries through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As the first step, EHAS always collaborates with public health systems to identify its communication and information needs. Based on the analysis of needs, EHAS does research on appropriate technologies to provide communication in each context and on information systems suited to needs of health personnel. In parallel, EHAS has worked to provide applications that, making use of the communications services installed, could improve the health-care services in these remote areas. In this line, solutions to improve epidemiological surveillance or to provide telemedicine services (like a digital stethoscope or a tele-microscopy system) have been developed. EHAS has also performed several researches trying to ensure the sustainability of their solutions and has summarized them in a Management Framework for Sustainable e-Healthcare Provision. Finally, the effort to spread acquired knowledge has crystallized in a book that details all the technologies and procedures previously mentioned. PMID:25360436

  5. Glomerular Polycystic Kidney Disease in a Dog (Blue Merle Collie)

    PubMed Central

    Chalifoux, A.; Phaneuf, J. -B.; Olivieri, M.; Gosselin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Glomerular polycystic kidney disease was diagnosed in an 11 month old, female, Blue Merle Collie. Clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, vomiting, diarrhea, partial anorexia) and laboratory work (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum phosphorus, specific gravity, proteinuria, nonregenerative anemia) indicated chronic renal failure. However, after the study of a biopsy specimen, a definitive diagnosis was reached and the prognosis was determined. Necropsy findings and histopathological studies revealed: presence of glomerular cysts, atrophy of glomerular tufts and sclerosis of the interstitial tissue. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422209

  6. Essential anaplerotic role for the energy-converting hydrogenase Eha in hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Thomas J.; Costa, Kyle C.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Korpole, Suresh; Whitman, William B.; Leigh, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of study, electron flow and energy conservation in methanogenic Archaea are still not thoroughly understood. For methanogens without cytochromes, flavin-based electron bifurcation has been proposed as an essential energy-conserving mechanism that couples exergonic and endergonic reactions of methanogenesis. However, an alternative hypothesis posits that the energy-converting hydrogenase Eha provides a chemiosmosis-driven electron input to the endergonic reaction. In vivo evidence for both hypotheses is incomplete. By genetically eliminating all nonessential pathways of H2 metabolism in the model methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis and using formate as an additional electron donor, we isolate electron flow for methanogenesis from flux through Eha. We find that Eha does not function stoichiometrically for methanogenesis, implying that electron bifurcation must operate in vivo. We show that Eha is nevertheless essential, and a substoichiometric requirement for H2 suggests that its role is anaplerotic. Indeed, H2 via Eha stimulates methanogenesis from formate when intermediates are not otherwise replenished. These results fit the model for electron bifurcation, which renders the methanogenic pathway cyclic, and as such requires the replenishment of intermediates. Defining a role for Eha and verifying electron bifurcation provide a complete model of methanogenesis where all necessary electron inputs are accounted for. PMID:22872868

  7. The role of regulator Eha in Edwardsiella tarda pathogenesis and virulence gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Gao, Daqing; Li, Yuhong; Xu, Zeyan; Sheng, Ankang; Zheng, Enjin; Shao, Zeye; Liu, Nian; Lu, Chengping

    2016-06-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a pathogen with a broad host range that infects both animals and humans. Eha is a new transcriptional regulator identified in ET13, which is involved in the bacterial hemolytic activity. This study explored the effect of the Eha in the pathogenesis of E. tarda and the transcriptional regulation of the bacterial virulence genes (eseC, fliC, pagC and fimA). Our results found that the virulence of the eha mutant was 2.5-fold less than the one of its wild ET13 by LD50 in a murine model of i.p. infection, and the bacterial loads of the mutant displayed a different profile from the one of the wild strain. Most significantly, the mice infected with the mutant have greatly reduced acute inflammation in the liver, spleen and kidney compared to the ones infected with the wild. We further demonstrated that eseC, fliC and pagC were regulated directly by the Eha with qRT-PCR and β-Galactosidase assay, but fimA wasn't done. The promoter regions of the genes modulated and the cly gene reported before had been found to contain a common conserved motif by using software. In addition, we found that the wild strain was more toxic to RAW264.7 macrophages, and induced less the host cell apoptotic responses than the eha mutant did. Altogether, these data suggested that the Eha was required for the bacterial infection and the transcriptive regulation of the important virulence genes of E. tarda. PMID:27038844

  8. Coat colour in dogs: identification of the Merle locus in the Australian shepherd breed

    PubMed Central

    Hédan, Benoit; Corre, Sébastien; Hitte, Christophe; Dréano, Stéphane; Vilboux, Thierry; Derrien, Thomas; Denis, Bernard; Galibert, Francis; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; André, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background Coat colours in canines have many natural phenotypic variants. Some of the genes and alleles involved also cause genetic developmental defects, which are also observed in humans and mice. We studied the genetic bases of the merle phenotype in dogs to shed light on the pigmentation mechanisms and to identify genes involved in these complex pathways. The merle phenotype includes a lack of eumelanic pigmentation and developmental defects, hearing impairments and microphthalmia. It is similar to that observed in microphthalmia mouse mutants. Results Taking advantage of the dog as a powerful genetic model and using recently available genomic resources, we investigated the segregation of the merle phenotype in a five-generation pedigree, comprising 96 sampled Australian shepherd dogs. Genetic linkage analysis allowed us to identify a locus for the merle phenotype, spanning 5.5 megabases, at the centromeric tip of canine chromosome 10 (CFA10). This locus was supported by a Lod score of 15.65 at a recombination fraction θ = 0. Linkage analysis in three other breeds revealed that the same region is linked to the merle phenotype. This region, which is orthologous to human chromosome 12 (HSA12 q13-q14), belongs to a conserved ordered segment in the human and mouse genome and comprises several genes potentially involved in pigmentation and development. Conclusion This study has identified the locus for the merle coat colour in dogs to be at the centromeric end of CFA10. Genetic studies on other breeds segregating the merle phenotype should allow the locus to be defined more accurately with the aim of identifying the gene. This work shows the power of the canine system to search for the genetic bases of mammalian pigmentation and developmental pathways. PMID:16504149

  9. The Present-Minded Professor: Merle Curti's Work as an Intellectual Historian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettegrew, John

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of Merle Curti's work in intellectual history, focusing on such issues as the synthesis of social and intellectual history into the historical analysis of social thought, Curti's "presentism," the influence of John Dewey on his scholarship, and his civic-minded scholarship during World War II. (CMK)

  10. Hot isostatically pressed manufacture of high strength MERL 76 disk and seal shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, R. D.; Evans, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using MERL 76, an advanced high strength direct hot isostatic pressed powder metallurgy superalloy, as a full scale component in a high technology, long life, commercial turbine engine were demonstrated. The component was a JT9D first stage turbine disk. The JT9D disk rim temperature capability was increased by at least 22 C and the weight of JT9D high pressure turbine rotating components was reduced by at least 35 pounds by replacement of forged Superwaspaloy components with hot isostatic pressed (HIP) MERL 76 components. The process control plan and acceptance criteria for manufacture of MERL 76 HIP consolidated components were generated. Disk components were manufactured for spin/burst rig test, experimental engine tests, and design data generation, which established lower design properties including tensile, stress-rupture, 0.2% creep and notched (Kt = 2.5) low cycle fatigue properties, Sonntag, fatigue crack propagation, and low cycle fatigue crack threshold data. Direct HIP MERL 76, when compared to conventionally forged Superwaspaloy, is demonstrated to be superior in mechanical properties, increased rim temperature capability, reduced component weight, and reduced material cost by at least 30% based on 1980 costs.

  11. Hot isostatically pressed manufacture of high strength MERL 76 disk and seal shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a HIP MERL 76 disk installed in an experimental engine and exposed to realistic operating conditions in a 150 hour, 1500 cycle endurance test is examined. Post test analysis, based on visual, fluorescence penetrant and dimensional inspection, indicates that the disk performs satisfactorily.

  12. Generation of New M2e-HA2 Fusion Chimeric Peptide to Development of a Recombinant Fusion Protein Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ameghi, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad; Aghaiypour, Khosrow; Barzegar, Abolfazl; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Moghadampour, Masood; Taghizadeh, Morteza; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to design a new construction containing influenza virus (H1N1) M2e gene and HA2 gene by bioinformatics approach, cloning the construct in to Escherichia coli and produce M2e-HA2 peptide. Methods: The procedure was done by virus cultivation in SPF eggs, hemagglutination assay (HA), RNA isolation, RT-PCR, primers designed (DNAMAN 4 and Oligo7), virtual fusion construction translation (ExPASy), N-Glycosylated sites prediction (Ensemblegly-Iowa), complete open reading frame (ORF), stop codon studied (NCBI ORF Finder), rare codon determination (GenScript), Solvent accessibility of epitopes (Swiss-PdbViewer), antigenic sites prediction (Protean), fusion PCR of M2e-HA2 gene, sequence analysis, nested PCR, gel electrophoresis, double digestion of pET22b(+) plasmid and the fusion construct, ligation of them, transformation of the ligated vector (pET22b-M2e-HA2) to E.coli (BL21), mass culture the cloned bacterium ,induction the expression by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), purification the fusion peptide by Ni-NTA column, western blot to verify the purification. Results: In this study we developed a new approach for fusion of Influenza virus M2e (96 nucleotides) and HA2 (663 nucleotides) genes based on fusion PCR strategy and produced a fused fragment with 793 nucleotides. The construct was successfully cloned and expressed. Conclusion: This construct is a 261 amino acid chimeric fusion peptide with about 30 KD molecular weight. According on the latest information; this is the first case of expression and purification M2e-HA2 fusion chimeric peptide, which could be used for development of a recombinant M2e-HA2 fusion protein vaccine. PMID:26793615

  13. FATE OF OCEAN DUMPED ACID-IRON WASTE IN A MERL (MARINE ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH LABORATORY) STRATIFIED MICROCOSM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies have provided information on the short-term effects of acid-iron waste disposal at a deep water dumpsite off the coast of New Jersey. To assess the long-term effects of the acid-iron waste, an experiment was conducted at the MERL facility (Marine Ecosystems Research...

  14. High Voltage EEE Parts for EMA/EHA Applications on Manned Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Trent; Young, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an assessment of high voltage electronic components required for high horsepower electric thrust vector control (TVC) systems for human spaceflight launch critical application. The scope consists of creating of a database of available Grade 1 electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts suited to this application, a qualification path for potential non-Grade 1 EEE parts that could be used in these designs, and pathfinder testing to validate aspects of the proposed qualification plan. Advances in the state of the art in high power electric power systems enable high horsepower electric actuators, such as the electromechnical actuator (EMA) and the electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), to be used in launch vehicle TVC systems, dramaticly reducing weight, complexity and operating costs. Designs typically use high voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT). However, no Grade 1 HV-IGBT exists and it is unlikely that market factors alone will produce such high quality parts. Furthermore, the perception of risk, the lack of qualification methodoloy, the absence of manned space flight heritage and other barriers impede the adoption of commercial grade parts onto the critical path. The method of approach is to identify high voltage electronic component types and key parameters for parts currently used in high horsepower EMA/EHA applications, to search for higher quality substitutes and custom manufacturers, to create a database for these parts, and then to explore ways to qualify these parts for use in human spaceflight launch critical application, including grossly derating and possibly treating hybrid parts as modules. This effort is ongoing, but results thus far include identification of over 60 HV-IGBT from four manufacturers, including some with a high reliability process flow. Voltage ranges for HV-IGBT have been identified, as has screening tests used to characterize HV-IGBT. BSI BS ISO 21350 Space systems Off

  15. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  16. Vertical transport processes of an acid-iron waste in a MERL stratified mesocosm

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.F.; Kester, D.R.; Hunt, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The vertical transport of the Fe particles formed after an acid-Fe waste mixes with seawater and the impact of the waste on the trace metal composition of seawater were examined in a stratified tank (2 m diameter and 5 m deep) at the MERL facility of the University of Rhode Island. Two acid-Fe waste additions were made to one of the stratified tanks at concentrations comparable to those observed after the initial dispersion of the waste in the ocean (10/sup 5/ dilution); a second stratified tank was maintained as a control. The removal of the Fe waste from the water column was due to settling of the Fe particles through the pycnocline; biological transport of the Fe particles was not an important removal mechanism. The kinetic behavior of the Fe particles was different after the two waste additions; gravitational settling was the rate-limiting step after the first addition, whereas flocculation was the rate-limiting step after the second waste addition. The first acid-Fe waste addition apparently altered the properties of the seawater, possibly stripping organic substances from the water column. This alteration in the characteristics of seawater changed the distribution of Pb and V between the dissolved and particulate forms. Both Pb and V showed a strong correlation with Fe, suggesting scavenging of these metals by the Fe particles. Cu and Cd show remarkable independence from the behavior of Fe. 18 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a--- Na `Ohana Hoku `Eha (The Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators--- The Four Star Families)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents the complete modern Hawaiian navigational full-sky. Over eight years of field notes, observations, and interviews with cultural leaders, historians, and ho`okele wa`a (navigators) were used to construct and validate Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators. In contrast to the various historical sky maps designed by different practitioners and local groups in pre-colonial times, this sky-map depicts the four whole-sky constellations used by present day wayfinders. Designed by a loosely bound group of cultural leaders and navigators as a tool to use in modern non-instrumental navigation, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a is a pragmatic fusion of ancient Hawaiian tradition, traditions of greater Polynesia, and modern-day Indigenous cultural forces. Like a very small number of cultures who use the sky for non-instrumental navigation, the ho`okele wa`a conceive of each season's visible sky as a whole image, using a single constellation that stretches from the northern to the southern horizon as a tool that facilitates direction finding in skies that are often very cloudy, and that chunks the sky into sections that decrease the cognitive load placed on the navigator. Moving through the seasons, beginning in Winter, Na `Ohana Hoku `Eha (The Four Star Families) are Kekaomakali`I (The Bailer), Kaiwikuamo`o (The Backbone), Manaiakalani (The Fishhook), and Kalupekawelo (The Kite). The whole-sky character of each of the four "star families," combines with that star family's mo`olelo (purposeful story) to further facilitate navigation, employing the emotional component of moral and familial associations to enhance memorization and to provide wayfinders with encouragement on their long journeys.

  18. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA): A Statutory and Legal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Relan

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the historical background of educating the handicapped; presents the general features of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, including funding, enforcement remedies, and procedural rights; and discusses issues raised by the law. (MLF)

  19. Development of a high strength hot isostatically pressed /HIP/ disk alloy, MERL 76

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.; Eng, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A nickel-based powder metal disk alloy developed for use in advanced commercial gas turbines is described. Consideration is given to final alloy chemistry modifications made to achieve a desirable balance between tensile strength and stress rupture life and ductility. The effects of post-consolidation heat treatment are discussed, the preliminary mechanical properties obtained from full-scale turbine disks are presented.

  20. Shoemaker, Eugene [`Gene'] Merle (1928-97) and Shoemaker, Carolyn [née Spellman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astrogeologist Gene Shoemaker was born in Los Angeles, California and became chief scientist at the USGS Center of Astrogeology (Flagstaff) and professor of geology at CalTech. He worked with his wife Carolyn on cratering, both on the Moon and the Earth, by volcanoes and by meteor and cometary impact. He discovered, with Edward Chao, coesite, a type of silica produced in a violent impact and a si...

  1. Generative Learning Theory, Paradigm Shifts, and Constructivism in Educational Psychology: A Tribute to Merl Wittrock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund

    2010-01-01

    This appreciation of Wittrock's contributions to educational psychology suggests that his 1974 article describing generative learning theory was remarkably prescient. In that article Wittrock set the stage for the subsequent paradigm shift from cognitive to constructivist approaches to instruction. Furthermore, his suggestion that schools were the…

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HERMES spectra of IP Eri (Merle+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, T.; Jorissen, A.; Masseron, T.; van Eck, S.; Siess, L.; van Winckel, H.

    2014-05-01

    Two HERMES/Mercator high-resolution FITS spectra used in the determination of atmospheric parameters and detailed abundance analysis are available. Those spectra are not normalized, with removal of cosmics and not corrected from radial velocity. (2 data files).

  3. Effects of Surface-Water Diversion on Streamflow, Recharge, Physical Habitat, and Temperature, Na Wai `Eha, Maui, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Perreault, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    The perennial flow provided by Waihe‘e River, Waiehu Stream, ‘Īao Stream, and Waikapū Stream, collectively known as Nā Wai ‘Ehā (“The Four Streams”), made it possible for widespread agricultural activities to flourish in the eastern part of West Maui, Hawai‘i. The streams of the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area flow in their upper reaches even during extended dry-weather conditions because of persistent groundwater discharge to the streams. Overall, the lower reaches of these streams lose water, which may contribute to groundwater recharge. During climate years 1984–2007 (when complete streamflow records were available for Waihe‘e River and ‘Īao Stream), Waihe‘e River had the greatest median flow of the four streams upstream of the uppermost diversion on each stream. The median flows, in million gallons per day, during climate years 1984–2007 were: 34 for Waihe‘e River near an altitude of 605 feet; 25 for ‘Īao Stream near an altitude of 780 feet; and estimated to be 4.3 for Waikapū Stream near an altitude of 1,160 feet; 3.2 for North Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 880 feet; and 3.2 for South Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 870 feet. Existing stream diversions in the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area have a combined capacity exceeding at least 75 million gallons per day and are capable of diverting all or nearly all of the dry-weather flows of these streams, leaving some downstream reaches dry. Hourly photographs collected during 2006–2008 indicate that some stream reaches downstream of diversions are dry more than 50 percent of the time. Many of these reaches would be perennial or nearly perennial in the absence of diversions.

  4. An Alternative Image of "School and Society" and the Dewey Tradition (1950-1980): A Reply to Merle Borrowman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Arthur G.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the educational theories of John Dewey in the context of contemporary society. Suggests that although Dewey's approach has merit for an age of turbulent change, it is unlikely that it will receive support. One reason is that society is presently dominated by the values and techniques of Frederick Taylor's scientific efficiency.…

  5. RESPONSE OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES IN MERL EXPERIMENTAL ECOSYSTEMS TO LOW LEVEL, CHRONIC ADDITIONS OF NO. 2 FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The macrofauna and meiofauna of three oiled and three control experimental ecosystems at the Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory were followed for 25 weeks of semi-continuous additions of an oil-water dispersion of No. 2 fuel oil. Water column hydrocarbon levels were maintained...

  6. E.H.A., Part B Flow-Through Entitlement's Project Speak. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    This report presents an evaluation of the third and final year of Project Speak, funded under Part B of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Project Speak was initiated to stimulate the language development of preschool handicapped children through direct instruction and parent training. The program provided home-based language…

  7. School-Based Support Teams, 1981-82 and 1982-83. E.H.A. Part B Flow-Through Entitlement. O.E.E. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    The report documents the 1981-82 and 1982-83 cycles of School-Based Support Team (SBST) services administered by the New York City Public Schools Division of Special Education. SBSTs include school social workers, psychologists, and educational evaluators as core members and are intended to provide consultation and support to regular education…

  8. E.H.A. Part B Supplementary Services for Handicapped Students Health Education Paraprofessionals Program. 1982-83. O.E.E. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; And Others

    The report summarizes accomplishments of the Health Education Paraprofessionals program, which provided individual instruction in self-care and hygiene skills to 363 severely to profoundly handicapped students. Nearly all (98%) of participants mastered one or more new skills, as measured on selected strands of the Santa Cruz VORT Behavioral…

  9. Hearing on the Reauthorization of EHA Discretionary Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This hearing focuses on the discretionary programs of the Education of the Handicapped Act, which cover research, technical assistance, information dissemination, personnel training, and model demonstration projects and activities. The testimony focuses on the significant percentage of disabled minority-group students not receiving special…

  10. Elegant Hermite-Airy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoquan; Zhang, Lijun; Ru, Guoyun

    2015-09-01

    As Ai(x)Ai(-x) can be approximated by \\text{exp}≤ft(-{{x}2}/2\\right) , a kind of elegant Hermite-Airy (EHA) beam that is similar to the elegant Hermite-Gaussian (EHG) beam is introduced in this paper. Analytical expression of the EHA beams passing through an ABCD paraxial optical system is derived. By using the method of numerical fitting, the approximate expressions of 02> , 04> , <\\Thetaj2> , <\\Thetaj4> , and 02\\Thetaj2> for an EHA beam are presented, respectively. When the transverse mode number is larger than 2, 02> , 04> , <\\Thetaj2> , <\\Thetaj4> , and 02\\Thetaj2> of an EHA beam are all larger than those of the EHG beam. Based on the higher-order intensity moments, one can calculate the beam propagation factor, the beam half width, and the kurtosis parameter of the EHA beam passing through an ABCD paraxial optical system. As a numerical example, the propagation characteristics of the EHA beam are demonstrated in free space. Moreover, the propagation properties of the EHA beam are compared with those of the corresponding EHG beam. The evolutionary process of the EHA beam is far slower than that of the corresponding EHG beam. The research denotes that the EHA beams can be used to describe specially distributed optical beams that can not be characterized by the existing EHG beam model. The EHA beam model enriches and replenishes the existing beam model.

  11. Obvious and Subtle Contributions of Merlin C. Wittrock to Programmatic R&D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; O'Neil, Harry

    2010-01-01

    We describe some of Merl's more subtle contributions that extended beyond his own prodigious scholarly record, his high-quality teaching, and his mentoring of students. The context of our remarks on Programmatic R&D focuses on his contribution to the University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Education. Merl was the first director of the…

  12. Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2010-01-01

    Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Several Bryostatin Analogues Bearing a Diacylglycerol Lactone C-Ring.

    PubMed

    Baumann, David O; McGowan, Kevin M; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L; Blumberg, Peter M; Keck, Gary E

    2016-09-01

    As an initial step in designing a simplified bryostatin hybrid molecule, three bryostatin analogues bearing a diacylglycerol lactone-based C-ring, which possessed the requisite pharmacophores for binding to protein kinase C (PKC) together with a modified bryostatin-like A- and B-ring region, were synthesized and evaluated. Merle 46 and Merle 47 exhibited binding affinity to PKC alpha with Ki values of 7000 ± 990 and 4940 ± 470 nM, respectively. Reinstallation of the trans-olefin and gem-dimethyl group present in bryostatin 1 in Merle 48 resulted in improved binding affinity, 363 ± 42 nM. While Merle 46 and 47 were only marginally active biologically, Merle 48 showed sufficient activity on the U937 cells to confirm that it was PMA-like for growth and attachment, as predicted by the substitution pattern of its A- and B-rings. PMID:27494208

  14. Collaborative Case-Based Reasoning for Knowledge Discovery of Elders Health Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Gu, Dong-xiao; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The existing Elders Health Assessment (EHA) system based on single-case-library reasoning has low intelligence level, poor coordination, and limited capabilities of assessment decision support. To effectively support knowledge reuse of EHA system, this paper proposes collaborative case reasoning and applies it to the whole knowledge reuse process of EHA system. It proposes a multi-case library reasoning application framework of EHA knowledge reuse system, and studies key techniques such as case representation, case retrieval algorithm, case optimization and correction, and reuse etc.. In the aspect of case representation, XML-based multi-case representation for case organization and storage is applied to facilitate case retrieval and management. In the aspect of retrieval method, Knowledge-Guided Approach with Nearest-Neighbor is proposed. Given the complexity of EHA, Gray Relational Analysis with weighted Euclidean Distance is used to measure the similarity so as to improve case retrieval accuracy. PMID:25337150

  15. Metabolic annotation of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-25

    Increased levels of the organic acid, 2-ethylhydracrylic acid (2-EHA) occur in urine of subjects with impaired L(+)-isoleucine metabolism. Chiral intermediates formed during isoleucine degradation are (S) enantiomers. Blockage of (S) pathway flux drives racemization of (2S, 3S) L(+)-isoleucine and its (2S, 3R) stereoisomer, L(+)-alloisoleucine. This non-protein amino acid is metabolized to (R)-2-methylbutyryl CoA via enzymes common to branched chain amino acid degradation. Subsequently, (R) intermediates serve as alternate substrates for three valine metabolic enzymes, generating 2-EHA. Once formed, 2-EHA accumulates because it is poorly recognized by distal valine pathway enzymes. Thus, urinary 2-EHA represents a biomarker of isoleucine pathway defects. 2-EHA levels are also increased in rats exposed to the industrial solvent, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether or the neurotoxin precursor, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. In these cases, a block in (S) pathway isoleucine catabolism occurs at the level of (S)-2-methylbutyryl CoA conversion to tiglyl CoA via inhibition of electron transferring flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase dependent reactions. Elevated urinary 2-EHA in propionyl CoA carboxylase deficiency and methylmalonic aciduria results from a buildup of distal intermediates in the (S) pathway of isoleucine degradation. In Barth syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome, 2-EHA is a byproduct of impeded propionyl CoA entry into the Krebs cycle. PMID:26115894

  16. Earth horizontal axis rotational responses in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, Joseph M. R.; Kamerer, Donald B.; Wall, Conrad, III

    1989-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of five patients with surgically confirmed unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions is evaluated. Testing used both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotation. Results indicated that the patients had short VOR time constants, asymmetric responses to both EVA and EHA rotation, and normal EHA modulation components. These findings suggest that unilateral peripheral vestibular loss causes a shortened VOR time constant even with the addition of dynamic otolithic stimulation and causes an asymmetry in semicircular canal-ocular reflexes and one aspect of otolith-ocular reflexes.

  17. Inference for the median residual life function in sequential multiple assignment randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Kidwell, Kelley M.; Ko, Jin H.; Wahed, Abdus S.

    2014-01-01

    In survival analysis, median residual lifetime is often used as a summary measure to assess treatment effectiveness; it is not clear, however, how such a quantity could be estimated for a given dynamic treatment regimen using data from sequential randomized clinical trials. We propose a method to estimate a dynamic treatment regimen-specific median residual life (MERL) function from sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. We present the MERL estimator, which is based on inverse probability weighting, as well as, two variance estimates for the MERL estimator. One variance estimate follows from Lunceford, Davidian and Tsiatis’ 2002 survival function-based variance estimate and the other uses the sandwich estimator. The MERL estimator is evaluated, and its two variance estimates are compared through simulation studies, showing that the estimator and both variance estimates produce approximately unbiased results in large samples. To demonstrate our methods, the estimator has been applied to data from a sequentially randomized leukemia clinical trial. PMID:24254496

  18. PERMEATION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES THROUGH THREE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeation tests were conducted with trimethylolpropane triacrylate TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), and two mixtures of 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate with 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) to better understand the permeation behavior of multifunctional acrylate compounds. he test...

  19. Removal of TCE from water with enhanced hybrid aluminas

    SciTech Connect

    Moskovitz, M.; Kepner, B.; Mitchell, M.

    1996-10-01

    TCE is ubiquitous as a hazardous contaminant in ground water which needs to be removed. We have examined the removal of TCE from water with enhanced hybrid aluminas (EHAs) over the range of TCE concentrations: 5 ppb to 50 ppm. Removal efficiencies of 99+% have been achieved. In some cases TCE levels have been reduced to below 0.1 ppb. The capacity and kinetics of EHAs for TCE removal will be discussed. The ultimate fate of the TCE along with the possibility of catalytic destruction of TCE in water EHAs will be discussed. The removal of TCE as a function of the surface area, pore area, and pore diameter will be described. In addition, the results from infrared studies on of the gas phase sorption of TCE with EHAs will be described.

  20. Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

  1. SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

  2. Eggshell Derived Hydroxyapatite as Bone Graft Substitute in the Healing of Maxillary Cystic Bone Defects: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Kanumuru, Narasimha Reddy; Subbarao, Vummidisetti V; Sidharthan, A; Kumar, T S Sampath; Prasad, L Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since ancient times, use of graft materials to promote healing of defects of bone is wellknown. Traditionally, missing bone is replaced with material from either patient or donor. Multiple sources of bone grafts have been used to graft bone defects to stimulate bone healing. Hydroxyapatite is naturally occurring mineral component of bone, which is osteoconductive. This versatile biomaterial is derived from many sources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of eggshell derived hydroxyapatite (EHA) in the bone regeneration of human maxillary cystic bone defects secondary to cystic removal/apicoectomy and compare the material properties of EHA in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of eight maxillary bone defects were grafted after cystic enucleation and/or apicoectomy in the year 2008 and completed the study at 1 year. The patients were followed-up 2 weeks after surgery for signs and symptoms of infection or any other complications that may have been related to surgical procedure. Follow-up radiographs were obtained immediately after surgery followed by 1, 2, and 3 months to assess the efficacy of EHA in bone healing. Physicochemical characterization of the EHA was carried out in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA), also compared the biocompatibility of EHA using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Results: By the end of the 8th week, the defects grafted with EHA showed complete bone formation. However, bone formation in non-grafted sites was insignificant. The values of density measurements were equal or more than that of surrounding normal bone. These results indicate that the osseous regeneration of the bone defect filled with EHA is significant. EHA showed the superior material properties in comparison with SHA. Conclusion: EHA is a versatile novel bone graft substitute that yielded promising results. Because of its biocompatibility, lack of disease transfer risks, ease of use and unlimited availability, EHA remains a viable choice

  3. Design of a Magnetostrictive-Hydraulic Actuator Considering Nonlinear System Dynamics and Fluid-Structure Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John Philip

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators (EHAs) utilize fluid rectification via one-way check valves to amplify the small, high-frequency vibrations of certain smart materials into large motions of a hydraulic cylinder. Although the concept has been demonstrated in previously, the operating frequency of smart material EHA systems has been limited to a small fraction of the available bandwidth of the driver materials. The focus of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical performance of a magnetostrictive EHA considering key system components: rectification valves, smart material driver, and fluid-system components, leading to an improved actuator design relative to prior work. The one-way valves were modeled using 3-D finite element analysis, and their behavior was characterized experimentally by static and dynamic experimental measurement. Taking into account the effect of the fluid and mechanical conditions applied to the valves within the pump, the dynamic response of the valve was quantified and applied to determine rectification bandwidth of different valve configurations. A novel miniature reed valve, designed for a frequency response above 10~kHz, was fabricated and tested within a magnetostrictive EHA. The nonlinear response of the magnetostrictive driver, including saturation and hysteresis effects, was modeled using the Jiles-Atherton approach to calculate the magnetization and the resulting magnetostriction based on the applied field calculated within the rod from Maxwell's equations. The dynamic pressure response of the fluid system components (pumping chamber, hydraulic cylinder, and connecting passages) was measured over a range of input frequencies. For the magnetostrictive EHA tested, the peak performance frequency was found to be limited by the fluid resonances within the system. A lumped-parameter modeling approach was applied to model the overall behavior of a magnetostrictive EHA, incorporating models for the reed valve response

  4. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. PMID:27317667

  5. Improvement of physico-mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal and degradation properties of PCL/gelatin biocomposites: Effect of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Haydar U.; Beg, M. D. H.

    2015-04-01

    This research was to study the effects of gelatin content variation and gamma radiation after the 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) pre-treatment on the foundamental properties of gelatin film laminated polycaprolactone (PCL) biocomposites. PCL/gelatin film (PCL/GF) composites were fabricated by compression molding and their properties were studied by physico-mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal and degradation properties. The results from mechanical properties such as tensile modulus and impact strength of the composites increased with increasing of gelatin content up to 10 wt% and then decreased while the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. EHA monomer (2-8 wt%) was added to the gelatin solution and films were prepared by casting and found to increase the mechanical properties of the PCL/EHA blended gelatin film (PCL/EGF) composites. Treatment of the gelatin film with gamma radiation after the EHA pre-treatment showed the best mechanical properties of the resulting composites. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis results showed that the storage modulus of the PCL/EGF and PCL/EHA blended gelatin film with gamma radiation (PCL/GEGF) composites was increased significantly. The degradation properties in water and soil were determined for the non-irradiated and irradiated composites. It was observed that the non-irradiated composite degrades more than that of the irradiated composites.

  6. Prophylactic topically applied ice to prevent cutaneous complications of nontarget chemoembolization and radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Wang, David S; Louie, John D; Kothary, Nishita; Shah, Rajesh P; Sze, Daniel Y

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous complications can result from nontarget deposition during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or radioembolization. Liver tumors may receive blood supply from parasitized extrahepatic arteries (EHAs) that also perfuse skin or from hepatic arteries located near the origin of the falciform artery (FA), which perfuses the anterior abdominal wall. To vasoconstrict cutaneous vasculature and prevent nontarget deposition, ice packs were topically applied to at-risk skin in nine chemoembolization treatments performed via 14 parasitized EHAs, seven chemoembolization treatments near the FA origin, and five radioembolization treatments in cases in which the FA could not be prophylactically coil-embolized. No postprocedural cutaneous complications were encountered. PMID:23522163

  7. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2011 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Malabar and AGI 303 from Ohio, Terral TV 8861 from Louisiana, SY 9978 and Coker 9804 from North Carolina, Merl and Shirley from Virginia, AGS 2060 from Arkansas, and USG 3201 and USG 3251...

  8. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2010 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Jamestown, Merl and Shirley from Virginia; Coker 9553 and Oakes from North Carolina; Baldwin from Georgia; Renegade and DK 9577 from Arkansas; USG 3555 from Tennessee; and, Malabar from O...

  9. 76 FR 56277 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-400 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2011 (76 FR... Merle Mattson requested that we revise paragraph (g) of the NPRM (76 FR 21820, April 19, 2011), to... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive...

  10. Accountability and Institutional Research: Measuring Results. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (24th, Hartford, Connecticut, November 1-4, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    This proceedings document is comprised of the 12 papers, panel presentations, and work shares presented at a 1997 conference on institutional research. The papers are: (1) "What Does Accountability in Higher Education Mean to You?" (William R. Dyson, Andrew G. De Rocco, John R. Doyle, and Merle W. Harris); (2) "The University of Delaware…

  11. Lawyers and Courts as Architects of Educational Policy: The Case of Minimal Competence Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Jon E.; Glass, Gene V.

    1979-01-01

    The authors critique legal arguments which have been used by attorneys, especially Merle S. McClung of the Center for Law and Education, in opposing minimum competency testing programs in the schools. The arguments mainly concern the 14th Amendment, racial discrimination, and the denial of due process. (SJL)

  12. Proceedings of the State Conference for Teachers of Exceptional Children (Sheraton Hotal, Louisville, Kentucky, October 25-26, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1968

    The proceedings include addresses by Bernard Weisskopf on the parents of the handicapped child, by William J. Tisdall on student evaluation in special education, and by Merle B. Karnes on the involvement of the total family in the education of the handicapped. Group reports are provided on the crippled, neurologically impaired, visually…

  13. Wittrock's Influence on Mathematics Education: Some Personal Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Merlin C. Wittrock was a friend and colleague who influenced me and many other contemporary mathematics educators on how students learn. In this article I summarize my interactions with Merl beginning in 1965, and how over the following half-century he influenced my thinking on student learning for understanding and, in turn, on how to design…

  14. Sorption of humic acids and alpha-endosulfan by clayminerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hengpraprom, S.; Lee, C.M.; Coates, R.T.

    2005-02-18

    Sorption of alpha-endosulfan by kaolinite andmontmorillonite alone and in the presence of sorbed and dissolved humicacid (HA) was investigated (pH 8 and 25oC). Three types of HA, Elliotsoil HA (EHA), Peat HA (PHA), and Summit Hill HA (SHHA), were used torepresent typical humic substances found in soils. For sorption of HA byeither mineral, Freundlich sorption coefficient (Kf) values appeared todecrease in the order of EHA>PHA>SHHA, which followedincreasing polarity (expressed as the O/C atomic ratio) and decreasingpercent-carbon content. For both clays, sorption of alpha-endosulfan bythe HA mineral complex was greater than for sorption by the clay alone.Sorption of alpha-endosulfan by the HA mineral complexes followed thesame order as the Kf of the HAs (EHA>PHA>SHHA). Based on theamount of HA adsorbed by each mineral, organic carbon partitioncoefficients (KOC) were determined for sorption of alpha-endosulfan bytwo of the HA mineral complexes. The value of KOC for alpha-endosulfansorption was greater for kaolinite EHA than kaolinite SHHA. However, theopposite trend was found with the montmorillonite HA complexes.Montmorillonite appeared to sorb alpha-endosulfan and/or HA with higheraffinity than kaolinite, which likely is due to its 2:1 layer structureand higher surface area. Sorption of endosulfan diol, a hydrolysisproduct, by the minerals was much less than the parentpesticide.

  15. Study on Synthesis, Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Diisopropylphenyl Esters of Selected Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Yasa Sathyam; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bala Bhaskara; Jain, Nishant; Vijayalakshmi, Penumarthy

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of novel diisopropylphenyl esters of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), valproic acid (VA), butyric acid (BA) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA). These esters were chemically synthesized by the esterification of fatty acids with 2,6-diisopropylphenol and 2,4-diisopropylphenol (propofol). The structure of new conjugates viz. propofol-(alpha-linolenic acid) (2,6P-ALA and 2,4P-ALA), propofol-valproic acid (2,6P-VA and 2,4P-VA), propofol-butyric acid (2,6P-BA and 2,4P-BA) and propofol-(2-ethylhexanoic acid) (2,6P2-EHA and 2,4P-2-EHA) were characterized by FT-IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectral data. The synthesized conjugates having more lipophilic character were tested for antiproliferative in vitro studies on A549, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. All the conjugates showed specific growth inhibition on studied cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized esters, the conjugates synthesized from BA, VA and 2-EHA exhibited prominent growth inhibition against A549, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. The preliminary results suggest that the entire novel conjugates possess antiproliferative properties that reduce the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:26666272

  16. Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambron-McCabe, Nelda H.

    This chapter reviews legislation and court litigation during 1986 that addressed the rights of handicapped students and employees. The most far-reaching legal activity occurred in the legislative arena, with the passage in 1986 of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) mandating that services must be available for handicapped children between…

  17. Photo-transformation of pedogenic humic acid and consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) speciation and bioavailability to green microalga.

    PubMed

    Worms, Isabelle A M; Adenmatten, David; Miéville, Pascal; Traber, Jacqueline; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances (HS) play key role in toxic metal binding and protecting aquatic microorganisms from metal-induced stress. Any environmental changes that could alter HS concentration and reactivity can be expected to modify metal complexation and thus affect metal speciation and bioavailability to microalgae. The present study explores the influence of increased solar irradiance on the chemical structures and molecular weight of Elliott soil humic acid (EHA) and the associated consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexation and intracellular metal content in microalga. The results demonstrate that high radiance doses induce an oxidation of EHA with a formation of low molecular weight acids, an increase of -OH and -COOH group abundance, and a drop in EHA hydrodynamic size and molecular weight. The photo-induced structural changes are accompanied with a release of metal from M-EHA complexes and narrowing their size distribution, which in turn results in an increase of the intracellular Cd, Cu and Pb contents in microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in agreement with the measured free metal ions concentrations. PMID:25563161

  18. Double crests of peak height in the equatorial ionospheric F2 layer observed by COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Xiaoli; Lei, Jiuhou; Dou, Xiankang; Dang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we report daytime double crests of peak height (hmF2) in the F2 layer based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) observations during 2007-2014. Evident double crests of hmF2 occurred at around ±10° geomagnetic latitude with a trough over the magnetic equator at low solar activity and at March equinox. This phenomenon is referred to as an equatorial height anomaly (EHA) of the ionospheric F2 layer. The double crests became less obvious at September equinox and disappeared at solstices. At solstices only one crest was observed in the summer hemisphere, which is probably associated with transequatorial neutral winds. In addition, the double EHA crests generally take place during 10:00-14:00 local times. Our results indicate that the EHA favors the conditions of strong vertical plasma drifts and weak transequatorial neutral winds during low solar activity. The EHA feature is reproduced by the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics Global Circulation Model at March equinox and low solar activity.

  19. Effect of Agrobacterium culture and inoculation density on transformation efficiency of a citrange (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Agrobacterium growth phase and density on transformation of citrus rootstock US-812 (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata) epicotyl explants was determined. In the first experiment, Agrobacterium EHA105 containing pBINGUSint was grown in YEP medium to an OD600 of 1 and glycerol sto...

  20. Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

  1. Evaluating the effect of polytetrafluoroethylene and extractum cepae-heparin-allantoin gel in peripheral nerve injuries in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Ahmet; Kahveci, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerves can be injured by congenital, mechanical, thermal or chemical causes. Peripheral nerve injuries are increasing in frequency, particularly in countries that are becoming more industrialized. Nerve and extremity injuries result in work loss and high treatment costs, and can lead to separation of patients from their social environment. Failure of nerve repair causes muscle functional losses, sensory losses and painful neuropathies. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of condensed polytetrafluoroethylene (cPTFE) and cPTFE-extractum cepae-heparin-allantoin (cPTFE-EHA) gel compound on nerve and functional recovery, and the prevention of adhesion and scar tissue formation after total peripheral nerve injury repaired by primary suture in a rat model. RESULTS: cPTFE alone and cPTFE-EHA gel was found to provide better functional recovery and nerve regeneration compared with primary repair only. In the macroscopic evaluation, the cPTFE-EHA gel was found to have no negative effect on wound healing and, despite increasing extra-neural scar tissue and adhesions, it had no negative effect on nerve function; in addition, it facilitated functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the cPTFE application alone, the application of perineural cPTFE-EHA gel during peripheral nerve surgery appeared to provide better functional recovery without causing any significant changes in epineural and extraneural scar tissue formation. PMID:25821766

  2. Structural insights into the substrate stereospecificity of D-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate dehydratase from Delftia sp. HT23: a useful enzyme for the synthesis of optically pure L-threo- and D-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Yasutake, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Yuki; Tamura, Tomohiro; Yokota, Atsushi; Wada, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    D-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartate dehydratase (D-THA DH) is a fold-type III pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, isolated from a soil bacterium of Delftia sp. HT23. It catalyzes the dehydration of D-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate (D-THA) and L-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate (L-EHA). To elucidate the mechanism of substrate stereospecificity, crystal structures of D-THA DH were determined in complex with various ligands, such as an inhibitor (D-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate (D-EHA)), a substrate (L-EHA), and the reaction intermediate (2-amino maleic acid). The C (β) -OH of L-EHA occupied a position close to the active-site Mg(2+), clearly indicating a possibility of metal-assisted C (β) -OH elimination from the substrate. In contrast, the C (β) -OH of an inhibitor was bound far from the active-site Mg(2+). This suggests that the substrate specificity of D-THA DH is determined by the orientation of the C (β) -OH at the active site, whose spatial arrangement is compatible with the 3R configuration of 3-hydroxyaspartate. We also report an optically pure synthesis of L-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate (L-THA) and D-EHA, promising intermediates for the synthesis of β-benzyloxyaspartate, by using a purified D-THA DH as a biocatalyst for the resolution of racemic DL-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate (DL-THA) and DL-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate (DL-EHA). Considering 50 % of the theoretical maximum, efficient yields of L-THA (38.9 %) and D-EHA (48.9 %) as isolated crystals were achieved with >99 % enantiomeric excess (e.e.). The results of nuclear magnetic resonance signals verified the chemical purity of the products. We were directly able to isolate analytically pure compounds by the recrystallization of acidified reaction mixtures (pH 2.0) and thus avoiding the use of environmentally harmful organic solvents for the chromatographic purification. PMID:25715785

  3. Phylogenetic Evidence for H2 based Electron Bifurcation In Early Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. W.; Boyd, E. S.; Schut, G.; Peters, J.

    2012-12-01

    Energy conservation is a fundamental underpinning of all life and is accomplished by electron transport phosphorylation and/or substrate level phosphorylation. A third mechanism, known as flavin-based electron bifurcation, has recently been established as a mechanism by which life can conserve energy. In this mechanism, a flavin-containing multienzyme complex catalyzes the thermodynamically unfavorable reduction of low potential ferredoxin using electron donors with higher potentials, such as NAD(P)H or H2. Such endergonic reactions are driven forward through the simultaneous oxidation of the electron donor with higher potential acceptors such as NAD+ or heterodisulfide. Membrane associated energy converting [NiFe]hydrogenases (Ech, Eha) link the oxidation of ferredoxin with the production of H2 and in the process conserve energy in the form of an ion (Na+/H+) gradient. Ech/Eha exhibit a modular composition represented by a Na+/H+ antiporter domain and a [NiFe] hydrogenase domain. In addition, Ech/Eha can be accompanied by a formate dehyrogenase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, or an FAD/NAD(P)H module that enables coupling with these substrates. Representatives of Ech/Eha have been identified among anaerobic Archaea and Bacteria, including deeply rooted methanogens, sulfur-reducing Crenarcheota/Euryarchaeota as well as Thermotogae. Ech exhibit extensive homology to a number of subunits within the NADH quinone oxidoreductase or complex I family (Nuo, Fpo). Metabolically, Ech generally couple the oxidation of carbon monooxide, formate or ferredoxin to the production of H2. In contrast, the Eha complex couples the translocation of Na+ and the oxidation of H2 to the reduction of ferredoxin, which is then available for the reduction of CO2 in methanogens. In the case of Eha, the gradient of Na+/H+ produced through translocation coupled to ferredoxin oxidation can in be used to drive the phosphorylation of ADP via an ATP synthase complex, thereby representing one of the

  4. Folate Receptor-Targeted Polymeric Micellar Nanocarriers for Delivery of Orlistat as a Repurposed Drug against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Bhethanabotla, Rohith; Mishra, Kaushik; Devulapally, Rammohan; Foygel, Kira; Sekar, Thillai V; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Massoud, Tarik F; Joy, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a recalcitrant malignancy with no available targeted therapy. Off-target effects and poor bioavailability of the FDA-approved antiobesity drug orlistat hinder its clinical translation as a repurposed new drug against TNBC. Here, we demonstrate a newly engineered drug formulation for packaging orlistat tailored to TNBC treatment. We synthesized TNBC-specific folate receptor-targeted micellar nanoparticles (NP) carrying orlistat, which improved the solubility (70-80 μg/mL) of this water-insoluble drug. The targeted NPs also improved the delivery and bioavailability of orlistat to MDA-MB-231 cells in culture and to tumor xenografts in a nude mouse model. We prepared HEA-EHA copolymer micellar NPs by copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (HEA) and 2-ethylhexylacrylate (EHA), and functionalized them with folic acid and an imaging dye. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of TNBC cells indicated a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic populations in cells treated with free orlistat, orlistat NPs, and folate-receptor-targeted Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs in which Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs showed significantly higher cytotoxicity than free orlistat. In vitro analysis data demonstrated significant apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations in cells activated through caspase-3 and PARP inhibition. In vivo analysis demonstrated significant antitumor effects in living mice after targeted treatment of tumors, and confirmed by fluorescence imaging. Moreover, folate receptor-targeted Fol-DyLight747-orlistat NP-treated mice exhibited significantly higher reduction in tumor volume compared to control group. Taken together, these results indicate that orlistat packaged in HEA-b-EHA micellar NPs is a highly promising new drug formulation for TNBC therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(2); 221-31. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26553061

  5. Inhibiting the Thermal Gelation of Copolymer Stabilized Nonaqueous Dispersions and the Synthesis of Full Color PMMA Particles.

    PubMed

    Belsey, Kate E; Topping, Claire; Farrand, Louise D; Holder, Simon J

    2016-03-22

    Polymeric particle dispersions have numerous potential applications; currently one of the most relevant is their use as inks in electrophoretic displays. These colloidal particles are synthesized from the appropriate monomer using nonaqueous dispersion (NAD) polymerization in a nonpolar solvent, which requires a stabilizer to control particle size and morphology. We have previously reported the facile synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(octadecyl acrylate) (PMMA-b-PODA) by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and its use in the NAD polymerization of MMA in hexane/dodecane solvent mixtures. Here we report the synthesis of monodisperse PMMA particles in dodecane following a standard "industrial" procedure using these PMMA-b-PODA stabilizers. However, it was observed that the particle suspensions solidified when they were left at temperatures below ∼18 °C yet redispersed upon being heated. Differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, and rheological studies demonstrated that this thermoresponsive behavior was due to a liquid-gel transition occurring at 17.5 °C as a consequence of the upper critical solution temperature of PODA in dodecane being traversed. Consequently, new copolymers were synthesized by ATRP with an ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) co-monomer incorporated into the lyophilic (dodecane compatible) block. Dispersions stabilized by these PMMA-b-P(ODA-co-EHA) polymers with high EHA contents exhibited lower gelation temperatures because of the greater solvent compatibility with dodecane. The use of a PMMA65-b-(ODA10-co-EHA45) copolymer stabilizer (with the highest EHA content) gave PMMA dispersions that showed no gelation down to 4 °C and monodisperse cross-linked PMMA particles containing organic dyes (cyan, magenta, red, and black) giving colored particles across the size range of approximately 100-1300 nm. PMID:26927952

  6. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine ‘sections’ in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. PMID:26819058

  7. Numerical modeling for an electric-field hyperthermia applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chou, C. K.; Chan, K. W.; Mcdougall, J.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperthermia, in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy for treatment of cancers, is an area of current concern. Experiments have shown that hyperthermia can increase the potency of many chemotherapy drugs and the effectiveness of radiation for treating cancer. A combination of whole body or regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy or radiation should improve treatment results. Conventional methods for inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as exposing a patient in a radiant cabinet or under a hot water blanket, conduct heat very slowly from the skin to the body core. Thus a more efficient system, such as the three-plate electric-field hyperthermia applicator (EHA), is developed. This three-plate EHA has one top plate over and two lower plates beneath the patient. It is driven at 27.12 MHz with 500 Watts through a matching circuit. Using this applicator, a 50 kg pig was successfully heated to 42 C within 45 minutes. However, phantom and animal studies have indicated non-uniform heating near the side of the body. In addition, changes in the size and distance between the electrode plates can affect the heating (or electromagnetic field) pattern. Therefore, numerical models using the method of moments (MOM) or the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are developed to optimize the heating pattern of this EHA before it is used for human trials. The accuracy of the numerical modeling has been achieved by the good agreement between the MOM and FDTD results for the three-plate EHA without a biological body. The versatile FDTD technique is then applied to optimize the EHA design with a human body. Both the numerical and measured data in phantom blocks will be presented. The results of this study will be used to design an optimized system for whole body or regional hyperthermia.

  8. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. PMID:26819058

  9. Assessing the Short-Term Effects of Heatwaves on Mortality and Morbidity in Brisbane, Australia: Comparison of Case-Crossover and Time Series Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shilu; Wang, Xiao Yu; Guo, Yuming

    2012-01-01

    Background Heat-related impacts may have greater public health implications as climate change continues. It is important to appropriately characterize the relationship between heatwave and health outcomes. However, it is unclear whether a case-crossover design can be effectively used to assess the event- or episode-related health effects. This study examined the association between exposure to heatwaves and mortality and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) from non-external causes in Brisbane, Australia, using both case-crossover and time series analyses approaches. Methods Poisson generalised additive model (GAM) and time-stratified case-crossover analyses were used to assess the short-term impact of heatwaves on mortality and EHAs. Heatwaves exhibited a significant impact on mortality and EHAs after adjusting for air pollution, day of the week, and season. Results For time-stratified case-crossover analysis, odds ratios of mortality and EHAs during heatwaves were 1.62 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36–1.94) and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14–1.30) at lag 1, respectively. Time series GAM models gave similar results. Relative risks of mortality and EHAs ranged from 1.72 (95% CI: 1.40–2.11) to 1.81 (95% CI: 1.56–2.10) and from 1.14 (95% CI: 1.06–1.23) to 1.28 (95% CI: 1.21–1.36) at lag 1, respectively. The risk estimates gradually attenuated after the lag of one day for both case-crossover and time series analyses. Conclusions The risk estimates from both case-crossover and time series models were consistent and comparable. This finding may have implications for future research on the assessment of event- or episode-related (e.g., heatwave) health effects. PMID:22655052

  10. Short-term exercise-heat acclimation enhances skin vasodilation but not hyperthermic hyperpnea in humans exercising in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Honda, Yasushi; Ogawa, Takeshi; Tsuji, Bun; Kondo, Narihiko; Koga, Shunsaku; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise-heat acclimation (EHA) attenuates hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans exercising in a hot environment. Twenty-one male subjects were divided into the two groups: control (C, n = 11) and EHA (n = 10). Subjects in C performed exercise-heat tests [cycle exercise for ~75 min at 58% [Formula: see text] (37°C, 50% relative humidity)] before and after a 6-day interval with no training, while subjects in EHA performed the tests before and after exercise training in a hot environment (37°C). The training entailed four 20-min bouts of exercise at 50% [Formula: see text] separated by 10 min of rest daily for 6 days. In C, comparison of the variables recorded before and after the no-training period revealed no changes. In EHA, the training increased resting plasma volume, while it reduced esophageal temperature (T (es)), heart rate at rest and during exercise, and arterial blood pressure and oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) during exercise. The training lowered the T (es) threshold for increasing forearm vascular conductance (FVC), while it increased the slope relating FVC to T (es) and the peak FVC during exercise. It also lowered minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]) during exercise, but this effect disappeared after removing the influence of [Formula: see text] on [Formula: see text]. The training did not change the slope relating ventilatory variables to T (es). We conclude that short-term EHA lowers ventilation largely by reducing metabolism, but it does not affect the sensitivity of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise in humans. PMID:21547423

  11. Fatigue and creep-fatigue deformation of several nickel-base superalloys at 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, R. V.; Gayda, J.; Maier, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the bulk deformation characteristics of seven nickel-base superalloys tested in fatigue and creep-fatigue at 650 C. The alloys were Waspalloy, HIP Astroloy, H plus F Astroloy, H plus F Rene 95, IN 100, MERL 76, and NASA IIB-7. The amount of bulk deformation observed in all the alloys was low. In tests with inelastic strain amplitudes less than about 0.003, only some grains exhibited yielding and the majority of those had the 110 line near the tensile axis. Deformation occurred on octahedral systems for all of the alloys except MERL 76 which also showed abundant primary cube slip. Creep-fatigue cycling occasionally produced extended faults between partial dislocations, but otherwise deformation was much the same as for fatigue cycling.

  12. Scattering theory for the fourth-order Schrödinger equation in low dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausader, Benoit; Xia, Suxia

    2013-08-01

    We prove scattering for the defocusing fourth-order Schrödinger equation in low spatial dimensions (1 ⩽ n ⩽ 4). Inspired by the method in (Pausader 2010 Indiana Univ. Math. J. 59 791-822), we utilize a strategy from Kenig and Merle (2006 Invent. Math. 166 645-75) to compensate for the absence of a Morawetz-type estimate, then we use a new virial-type ingredient to finish the proof.

  13. Giardia vaccination.

    PubMed

    Olson, M E; Ceri, H; Morck, D W

    2000-05-01

    Recently, a Giardia vaccine has become commercially available in the USA for prevention of clinical signs of giardiasis and reduction of cyst shedding in dogs and cats. The vaccine is based upon the current state of knowledge of Giardia antigenicity and immunology. Here, Merle Olson, Howard Ceri and Douglas Morck describe studies that led to the development of this vaccine and subsequent efficacy studies. Immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapeutic application of the vaccine are discussed. PMID:10782082

  14. Properties and microstructures for dual alloy combinations of three superalloys with alloy 901

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Dual alloy combinations have potential for use in aircraft engine components such as turbine disks where a wide range of stress and temperature regimes exists during operation. Such alloy combinations may directly result in the conservation of elements which are costly or not available domestically. Preferably, a uniform heat treatment yielding good properties for both alloys should be used. Dual alloy combinations of iron rich Alloy 901 with nickel base superalloys Rene 95, Astroloy, or MERL 76 were not isostatically pressed from prealloyed powders. Individual alloys, alloy mixtures, and layered alloy combinations were given the heat treatments specified for their use in turbine disks or appropriate for Alloy 901. Selected specimens were overaged for 1500 hr at 650 C. Metallographic examinations revealed the absence of phases not originally present in either alloy of a combination. Mechanical tests showed adequate properties in combinations of Rene 95 or Astroloy with Alloy 901 when given the Alloy 901 heat treatment. Combinations with MERL 76 had better properties when given the MERL 76 heat treatment. The results indicate that these combinations are promising candidates for use in turbine disks.

  15. Fatigue and creep-fatigue deformation of several nickel-base superalloys at 650 °c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miner, R. V.; Gayda, J.; Maier, R. D.

    1982-10-01

    Specimens of seven nickel-base superalloys for gas turbine disk application that had been failed in fatigue and creep-fatigue at 650 °C were examined by transmission electron microscopy to observe the effects of composition and microstructure on the deformation characteristics of the alloys. The alloys were Waspaloy, HIP Astroloy, H+F Astroloy, H+F René 95, IN 100, MERL 76, and NASA IIB-7. The amount of bulk deformation observed in all the alloys was low. At inelastic strain amplitudes less than about 10-3 only favorably oriented grains exhibited yielding, and the majority of those had <110> near the tensile axis. Deformation occurred on octahedral systems for all the alloys except MERL 76, which also exhibited primary cube slip. The difference in slip behavior between MERL 76 and its parent composition, IN 100, was attributed to the addition of Nb. Deformation occurred in well-defined slip bands in the alloys that contained only fine aging γ', 0.01 to 0.06 μm in size. Alloys which also contained a population of larger aging γ' particles, 0.1 to 0.3 μm, exhibited more homogeneous deformation. Deformation in the creep-fatigue cycle, which employed a 15 minute dwell at the maximum tensile strain of the cycle, was not greatly different from fatigue deformation except that a few extended faults were formed.

  16. Advancement of physical process by mental activation: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lehrl, S; Gusinde, J; Schulz-Drost, S; Rein, A; Schlechtweg, P M; Jacob, H; Krinner, S; Gelse, K; Pauser, J; Brem, Matthias H

    2012-01-01

    According to the literature, patients who are significantly impaired by physical mobility limitations can be rehabilitated if the patient's working memory is used to capacity. The conclusion that periodic mental activity improves physical rehabilitation should be evaluated. This is a prospective, controlled, and randomized open study of patients who underwent a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Sixteen patients who played the video game Dr. Kawashima's Brain Training: How Old Is Your Brain? were compared in terms of rehabilitation progress to 16 individuals who did not play. Harris Hip and Merle d'Aubigné scores were evaluated 1 d preoperation and again 12 +/- 1 d postoperation. Preoperation, no significant differences in hip scores between the gaming and control groups were found (median Harris Hip score: 39 vs 33, respectively, p = 0.304; median Merle D'Aubigné score: 12 vs 9, respectively, p = 0.254). Postoperation, there were significant differences between the gaming and control groups (median Harris Hip score: 76.0 vs 56.5, respectively, p = 0.001; median Merle D'Aubigné score: 16.0 vs 13.5, respectively, p = 0.014). Within both groups, the posttest scores significantly improved; however, the increase for the gaming group was greater for both measures. Because the influence of age, sex, and level of education can be excluded, it can be assumed that mental activities can improve physical rehabilitation after THA. PMID:23341314

  17. Preparation of an Adhesive in Emulsion for Maxillofacial Prosthetic

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Judith A.; Ortega, Alejandra; Barceló-Santana, Federico H.; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives. PMID:21152308

  18. Radiation preparation of nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and its toughening effect for polystyrene and high-impact polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daishuang; Xia, Haibing; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Wei, Genshuan; Li, Jiuqiang; Qiao, Jinliang

    2007-11-01

    Nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (NPSBR) was synthesized based on the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex via gamma radiation crosslinking followed by spray drying. Two functional monomers, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as crosslinking agents. It was found that both 2-EHA and TMPTA can improve the radiation crosslinking of SBR latex. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the NPSBR has a particle size similar to that of SBR latex with a diameter of 100 nm due to the high degree of crosslinking of SBR. Mechanical testing results showed that NPSBR could toughen polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) effectively. In addition, NPSBR is more suitable to toughen HIPS than PS at low rubber content.

  19. Copper mediated controlled radical copolymerization of styrene and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and determination of their reactivity ratios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koiry, Bishnu; Singha, Nikhil

    2014-10-01

    Copolymerization is an important synthetic tool to prepare polymers with desirable combination of properties which are difficult to achieve from the different homopolymers concerned. This investigation reports the copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and styrene using copper bromide (CuBr) as catalyst in combination with N,N,N’,N”,N”- pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and 1-phenylethyl bromide (PEBr) as initiator. Linear kinetic plot and linear increase in molecular weights versus conversion indicate that copolymerization reactions were controlled. The copolymer composition was calculated using 1H NMR studies. The reactivity ratio of styrene and EHA (r1 and r2) were determined using the Finemann-Ross (FR), inverted Finemann-Ross (FR) and Kelen-Tudos (KT) methods. Thermal properties of the copolymers were also studied by using TGA and DSC analysis.

  20. Copper mediated controlled radical copolymerization of styrene and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and determination of their reactivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Koiry, Bishnu P; Singha, Nikhil K

    2014-01-01

    Copolymerization is an important synthetic tool to prepare polymers with desirable combination of properties which are difficult to achieve from the different homopolymers concerned. This investigation reports the copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and styrene using copper bromide (CuBr) as catalyst in combination with N,N,N',N″,N″- pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and 1-phenylethyl bromide (PEBr) as initiator. Linear kinetic plot and linear increase in molecular weights vs. conversion indicate that copolymerization reactions were controlled. The copolymer composition was calculated using (1)H NMR studies. The reactivity ratio of styrene and EHA (r1 and r2) were determined using the Finemann-Ross (FR), inverted Finemann-Ross (IFR), and Kelen-Tudos (KT) methods. Thermal properties of the copolymers were also studied by using TGA and DSC analysis. PMID:25368866

  1. Improved efficiency of the walnut somatic embryo gene transfer system.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, G H; Leslie, C A; Uratsu, S L; Dandekar, A M

    1990-01-01

    AnAgrobacterium-mediated gene transfer system which relies on repetitive embryogenesis to regenerate transgenic walnut plants has been made more efficient by using a more virulent strain ofAgrobacterium and vectors containing genes for both kanamycin resistance and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity to facilitate early screening and selection. Two plasmids (pCGN7001 and pCGN7314) introduced individually into the disarmedAgrobacterium host strain EHA101 were used as inoculum. Embryos maintained on medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin after co-cultivation produced more transformed secondary embryos than embryos maintained on kanamycin-free medium. Of the 186 GUS-positive secondary embryo lines identified, 70% were regenerated from 3 out of 16 primary embryos inoculated with EHA101/pCGN7314 and grown on kanamycin- containing medium, 28% from 4 out of 17 primary embryos inoculated with EHA101/ pCGN7001 and grown on kanamycin medium, and 2% from one out of 13 primary embryos inoculated with EHA101/pCGN7001 but not exposed to kanamycin. Because kanamycin inhibits but does not completely block new embryo formation in controls, identification of transformants formerly required repetitive selection on kanamycin for several months. Introduction of the GUS marker gene allowed positive identification of transformant secondary embryos as early as 5-6 weeks after inoculation. DNA analysis of a representative subset of lines (n=13) derived from secondary embryos confirmed transformation and provided evidence for multiple insertion events in single inoculated primary embryos. PMID:24226275

  2. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  3. Permeation of multifunctional acrylates through selected protective glove materials.

    PubMed

    Renard, E P; Goydan, R; Stolki, T

    1992-02-01

    In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research and Development. Several recent PMN submissions relate to multifunctional acrylates and essentially no permeation data are available for this class of compounds. To better understand permeation behavior, tests were conducted with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), and two mixtures of HDDA with 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). Because of the low vapor pressure and low water solubility of these compounds, the tests were conducted by using ASTM Method F739-85 with a silicone rubber sheeting material as the collection medium. Tests were performed at 20 degrees C with butyl, natural, and nitrile rubber glove materials. None of the acrylate compounds nor mixtures was found to permeate the butyl or nitrile rubber under the test conditions. Permeation through the natural rubber was observed in tests with pure HDDA, a 50% HDDA/50% EHA mixture, and a 25% HDDA/75% EHA mixture. TMPTA permeation through the natural rubber was also detected, but only in one of the triplicate tests after the 360-480 min sampling interval. For pure HDDA, the breakthrough detection time was 30-60 min and the steady-state permeation rate was 0.92 micrograms/cm2-min. For the HDDA/EHA mixtures, permeation of both mixture components was detected during the same sampling interval in each test. The breakthrough detection time was 30-60 min for the 50/50 mixture and from 15-30 to 30-60 min for the 25/75 mixture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1543127

  4. Creep-rupture in powder metallurgical nickel-base superalloys at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, C. C.; Blackburn, M. J.

    1980-03-01

    To gain insight into the factors which control the creep-rupture properties of powder metallurgical nickel-base superalloys at intermediate temperatures (650 to 775°C), a comparative study was conducted on the alloys AF115, modified MAR-M432 (B6) and modified IN100 (MERL76). Creep-rupture properties in these alloys were characterized in terms of the stress and temperature dependence of the secondary creep rate, ɛS, andrupture time, t R . Within the limited stress ranges used, the stress dependence of both ɛS and t R at 704°C can be represented by power laws ɛS and C n and t R = Mσ -p ; where C, M, n, and p are constants. The stress exponents n and p are approximately equal for both AF115 and B6 with values of 16 and 7, respectively. In the case of MERL76, n and p are different, with values of 15 and 5, respectively. The apparent activation energies, Q, are 700, 370 and 520 KJ mol-1 for AF115, B6 and MERL76, respectively. For these alloys, long creep-rupture lives are associated with large values of n and Q. The sig-nificant differences in n and Q values between AF115 and B6 were related to creep re-covery processes for which the lattice misfit between the gamma and the gamma prime was identified to be an important parameter. However, the unequal n and p values in MERL76 compared with those in AF115 and B6, were traced to differences in fracture mode. Failures in AF115 and B6 were initiated at carbide particles at grain boundaries. In contrast, fracture in MERL76 was initiated at grain boundary triple junctions. The rupture lives of AF115 and B6 can be modeled reasonably well by the growth of cavities during secondary creep and propagation of a surface-nucleated crack during the tertiary creep.

  5. Hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281 is encoded in a region of pTiBo542 outside of T-DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, E.E.; Helmer, G.L.; Fraley, R.T.; Chilton, M.D.

    1986-12-01

    A binary-vectory strategy was used to study the hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281, an L,L-succinamopine strain. Strain A281 is hypervirulent on several solanaceous plants. Plasmids were constructed (pCS65 and pCS277) carrying either the transferred DNA (T-DNA) or the remainder of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid (pEHA101) from this strain and tested each of these constructs were tested in trans with complementary each of regions from heterologous Ti plasmids. Hypervirulence on tobacco could be reconstructed in a bipartite strain with the L,L-succinamopine T-DNA and the vir region on separate plasmids. pEHA101 was able to complement octopine T-DNA to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants. Nopaline T-DNA was complemented better on tomato plants by pEHA101 than it was by its own nopaline vir region, but not to hypervirulence. L,L-Succinamopine T-DNA could not be complemented to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants with either heterologous vir region. From these results the authors suggest that the hypervirulence of strain A281 is due to non-T-DNA sequences on the Ti plasmid.

  6. The Hip Functional Retrieval after Elective Surgery May Be Enhanced by Supplemented Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Baldissarro, Eleonora; Aquilani, Roberto; Boschi, Federica; Baiardi, Paola; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Pasini, Evasio; Verri, Manuela; Dossena, Maurizia; Gambino, Arianna; Cammisuli, Sharon; Viglio, Simona

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether postsurgery systemic inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities are still present during rehabilitation of individuals after elective hip arthroplasty (EHA). Sixty subjects (36 females; age 66.58 ± 8.37 years) were randomized to receive 14-day oral EAAs (8 g/day) or a placebo (maltodextrin). At admission to and discharge from the rehabilitation center, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and venous plasma amino acid concentrations were determined. Post-EHA hip function was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS) test. Ten matched healthy subjects served as controls. At baseline, all patients had high CRP levels, considerable reduction in several amino acids, and severely reduced hip function (HHS 40.78 ± 2.70 scores). After treatment, inflammation decreased both in the EAA group and in the placebo group. Only EAA patients significantly improved their levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine, and total amino acids. In addition, they enhanced the rate of hip function recovery (HHS) (from baseline 41.8 ± 1.15 to 76.37 ± 6.6 versus baseline 39.78 ± 4.89 to 70.0 ± 7.1 in placebo one; p = 0.006). The study documents the persistence of inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities in post-EHA rehabilitation phase. EAAs enhance hip function retrieval and improve plasma amino acid abnormalities. PMID:27110573

  7. Studies of toxic aerosols via elastic and inelastic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, W.; Li, W.; Allen, T.M.; Blair, D.S.; Davis, E.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Evaporation rates and chemical characteristics of potentially toxic aerosols have been determined by elastic and inelastic light-scattering measurements. The aerosol systems examined were a commercial catalyst consisting of a mixture of stannous octanoate (SNO) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA) and droplets emitted from open tanks of chromic acid solutions used for anodizing aluminum. The heavy metals contained in these aerosols represent a danger to the workplace if such materials are inhaled. Nanogram amounts of the solutions were studied by suspending single microdroplets in electrodynamic balances in a flow of air to measure evaporation rates and to obtain Raman spectra. Elastic scattering data include phase functions and morphological resonance spectra from which droplet sizes are determined. The inelastic light-scattering data or Raman spectra provide molecular vibrational bond information. It was found that EHA spectra agree with bulk data in the literature, and that SNO Raman spectra, which are not available in the literature, are consistent with infrared spectra for bulk SNO. At room temperature the vapor pressure of SNO is on the order of 0.01 Pa while that of EHA is on the order of 0.1 Pa. Raman data for the residue of evaporated chromic acid solutions show the presence of chromium oxides (Cr[sup 6+] compounds), surfactants, and bound (nonvolatile) water. 31 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Robust Position Controller for an Electrohydrostatic Actuator Using Adaptive Antiwindup Sliding Mode Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. PMID:23983640

  9. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana. PMID:21212957

  10. Effects of body orientation and rotation axis on pitch visual-vestibular interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.; Lathan, C. E.; Peterka, R. J.; Reschke, M. F.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial transformations of the vestibular-optokinetic system must account for changes in head position with respect to gravity in order to produce compensatory oculomotor responses. The purpose of this experiment was to study the influence of gravity on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in darkness and on visual-vestibular interaction in the pitch plane in human subjects using two different comparisons: (1) Earth-horizontal axis (EHA) rotation about an upright versus a supine body orientation, and (2) Earth-horizontal versus Earth-vertical (EVA) rotation axes. Visual-vestibular responses (VVR) were evaluated by measuring the slow phase velocity of nystagmus induced during sinusoidal motion of the body in the pitch plane (at 0.2 Hz and 0.8 Hz) combined with a constant-velocity vertical optokinetic stimulation (at +/- 36 degrees/s). The results showed no significant effect on the gain or phase of the VOR in darkness or on the VVR responses at 0.8 Hz between EHA upright and EHA supine body orientations. However, there was a downward shift in the VOR bias in darkness in the supine orientation. There were systematic changes in VOR and VVR between EHA and EVA for 0.2 Hz, including a reduced modulation gain, increased phase lead, and decreased bias during EVA rotation. The same trend was also observed at 0.8 Hz, but at a lesser extent, presumably due to the effects of eccentric rotation in our EVA condition and/or to the different canal input across frequencies. The change in the bias at 0.2 Hz between rotation in darkness and rotation with an optokinetic stimulus was greater than the optokinetic responses without rotation. During EHA, changes in head position relative to gravity preserve graviceptor input to the VVR regardless of body orientation. However, the modifications in VVR gain and phase when the rotation axis is aligned with gravity indicate that this graviceptive information is important for providing compensatory eye movements during visual

  11. Particle learning for probabilistic deterministic finite automata

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-01

    The plpdfa software is a product of an LDRD project at LLNL entitked "Adaptive Sampling for Very High Throughput Data Streams" (tracking number 11-ERD-035). This software was developed by a graduate student summer intern, Chris Challis, who worked under project PI Dan Merl furing the summer of 2011. The software the source code is implementing is a statistical analysis technique for clustering and classification of text-valued data. The method had been previously published by themore » PI in the open literature.« less

  12. High Pressure Gas Permeation and Liquid Diffusion Studies of Coflon and Tefzel Thermoplastics. Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The life of fluid-carrying flexible or umbilical pipes during service at elevated temperatures and pressures depends inter alia on their resistance to attack by the fluids present and the rate at which these fluids are absorbed by the pipe lining materials. The consequences of fluid ingress into the thermoplastic lining could mean a) a reduction in its mechanical strength, to increase chances of crack formation and growth and thus a loss of integrity, b) the occurrence of permeation right through the lining material, with pressure build- up in the outer pipe wall construction (of flexible pipes) or chemical attack (from a hostile permeant) on outer layers of reinforcements. Therefore it is important within this project to have relevant permeation data for Coflon and Tefzel thermoplastics: the former is plasticised, the latter is not. A previous report (CAPP/M.2) described experimental equipment and techniques used by MERL when measuring high pressure (up to 5000 psi) gas permeation and liquid diffusion through thermoplastic samples cut from extruded bar or pipe, and provided the basic theory involved. Norsk Hydro are also performing gas permeation tests on pipe sections, at up to 100 bars (1450 psi) pressure or so, and reporting separately. Some comparisons between data from Norsk Hydro and MERL have been made herein. The tests should be considered as complementary, as the Norsk Hydro test has the obvious benefit of using complete pipe sections, whilst MERL can test at much higher pressures, up to 1000 bar if necessary. The sophisticated analytical measuring equipment of Norsk Hydro can distinguish the individual components of mixed gases and hence the various permeation-linked coefficients whereas MERL, in using pressure increase at constant volume to determine permeation rate, is limited to obtaining single gas data, or apparent (or representative) coefficients for a mixed gas as a whole. Except for the initial fluid diffusion data for Tefzel described in CAPP

  13. Vortex collapse for the L2-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G.; Zwiers, I.

    2011-08-01

    The focusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in two dimensions admits vortex solitons, standing wave solutions with spatial structure, Q(m)(r, θ) = eimθR(m)(r). In the case of spin m = 1, we prove there exists a class of data that collapse with the vortex soliton profile at the log-log rate. This extends the work of Merle and Raphaël (the case m = 0) and suggests that the L2 mass that may be concentrated at a point during generic collapse may be unbounded. Difficulties with m ⩾ 2, or when the spin symmetry is broken, are also discussed.

  14. Particle learning for probabilistic deterministic finite automata

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    The plpdfa software is a product of an LDRD project at LLNL entitked "Adaptive Sampling for Very High Throughput Data Streams" (tracking number 11-ERD-035). This software was developed by a graduate student summer intern, Chris Challis, who worked under project PI Dan Merl furing the summer of 2011. The software the source code is implementing is a statistical analysis technique for clustering and classification of text-valued data. The method had been previously published by the PI in the open literature.

  15. Geothermal greenhouse heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the nursing home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the nursing home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the nursing home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the nursing home.

  16. Student Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Christiane Gumera, right, a student at Stanton College Preparatory High School in Jacksonville, AL, examines a protein sample while preparing an experiment for flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Merle Myers, left, a University of California, Irvine, researcher, prepares to quick-freeze protein samples in nitrogen. The proteins are in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be anlyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  17. Adding Clays to Sandy Soils to Increase Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, R. J.; Sochacki, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon storage is often related to clay content and mineralogy. For example, in a dryland farming area (300 mm/year annual rainfall) of Western Australia, carbon storage increased systematically with increasing clay content. Carbon storage in the surface 0.1 m was 42.5 Mg CO2-e/ha in soils with 1.7% clay compared to 99.1 Mg CO2-e/ha for soils with 9.1% clay. Similar results are evident in other data-sets, with carbon storage being related to site water balance, clay content and soil chemical fertility. We thus investigated whether soil carbon storage could be manipulated in sandy soils by adding clay. Clays are often added to farmed sandy soils to overcome water repellency and to reduce nutrient losses by leaching, but are not considered as a carbon management tool. The combined effects can improve plant productivity and thus carbon inputs to soil carbon pools. Bauxite processing residue (10% clay) had been applied in 1982 to sandy soils at different rates in an area with 760 mm/year annual rainfall. Application of 25 Mg clay/ha resulted in an increase in soil carbon content of 47.7 Mg CO2-e/ha. Soils were sampled to a depth of 0.3 m, with most (65%) of the increase being in the surface 0.1 m. Globally, there are large areas of sandy soils occurring across several soil taxonomic orders. In this presentation we describe the implications of clay amendments for increasing the carbon storage in such soils, and suggest areas of further investigation.

  18. Prevalence of autotransporters in Escherichia coli: what is the impact of phylogeny and pathotype?

    PubMed

    Zude, Ingmar; Leimbach, Andreas; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Autotransporter (AT) proteins are widespread surface-exposed or secreted factors in Escherichia coli. Several ATs have been correlated with pathogenesis or specific phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, an application as biomarkers for individual extraintestinal pathogenic E.coli (ExPEC) or intestinal pathogenic E.coli (IPEC) has been proposed. To put this assumption on a solid foundation, we analyzed 111 publicly available E. coli genome sequences and screened them bioinformatically for the presence of 18 ATs. We determined the highest AT prevalence per strain in phylogroup B2 isolates and showed that AT distribution correlates rather with phylogenetic lineages than with pathotypes. Although a strict dependence between AT prevalence and pathotype was not observed, EspP, EhaA, and EhaG cluster with IPEC of phylogroup B1 and E, respectively, whereas UpaH is predominantly present in ExPEC of phylogroup B2. Furthermore, PicU, SepA, UpaB, UpaI, and UpaJ were associated with phylogroup B2. We detected UpaI and its positional ortholog EhaC in 93% of the E.coli strains tested. This AT variant is thus the most prevalent in E.coli irrespective of pathotype or phylogenetic background. Compared with the ATs UpaB, UpaC, and UpaJ of uropathogenic E.coli strain 536, UpaI had redundant functions, contributing to autoaggregation, biofilm formation, and binding to extracellular matrix proteins. The functional redundancy and wide distribution of ATs among pathogenic and non-pathogenic E.coli indicates that ATs cannot generally be regarded as specific biomarkers and virulence factors. Our results demonstrate that phylogeny has a bigger impact on the distribution of AT variants in E.coli than initially thought, especially in ExPEC. PMID:24239047

  19. Replacement of two amino acids of 9R-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of Aspergillus niger inverts the chirality of the hydroperoxide and the allene oxide.

    PubMed

    Sooman, Linda; Wennman, Anneli; Hamberg, Mats; Hoffmann, Inga; Oliw, Ernst H

    2016-02-01

    The genome of Aspergillus niger codes for a fusion protein (EHA25900), which can be aligned with ~50% sequence identity to 9S-dioxygenase (DOX)-allene oxide synthase (AOS) of Fusarium oxysporum, homologues of the Fusarium and Colletotrichum complexes and with over 62% sequence identity to homologues of Aspergilli, including (DOX)-9R-AOS of Aspergillus terreus. The aims were to characterize the enzymatic activities of EHA25900 and to identify crucial amino acids for the stereospecificity. Recombinant EHA25900 oxidized 18:2n-6 sequentially to 9R-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HPODE) and to a 9R(10)-allene oxide. 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS catalyze abstraction of the pro-R hydrogen at C-11, but the direction of oxygen insertion differs. A comparison between twelve 9-DOX domains of 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS revealed conserved amino acid differences, which could contribute to the chirality of products. The Gly616Ile replacement of 9R-DOX-AOS (A. niger) increased the biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide, whereas the Phe627Leu replacement led to biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide as main products. The double mutant (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) formed over 90% of the 9S stereoisomer of HPODE. 9S-HPODE was formed by antarafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygen insertion, i.e., the original H-abstraction was retained but the product chirality was altered. We conclude that 9R-DOX-AOS can be altered to 9S-DOX-AOS by replacement of two amino acids (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) in the DOX domain. PMID:26603902

  20. Development of an agroinoculation system for full-length and GFP-tagged cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongying; Xiao, Caili; Han, Kelei; Peng, Jiejun; Lin, Lin; Lu, Yuwen; Xie, Li; Wu, Xiaohua; Xu, Pei; Li, Guojing; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2015-11-01

    The complete 6243-nucleotide sequence of a cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate from bottle gourd in Zhejiang province, China, was determined. A full-length cDNA clone of this isolate was constructed by inserting the cDNA between the 35S promoter and the ribozyme in the binary plasmid pCB301-CH. A suspension of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 clone carrying this construct was highly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana and bottle gourd. Another infectious clone containing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene was also successfully constructed. This study is the first report of the efficient use of agroinoculation for generating CGMMV infections. PMID:26323263

  1. Variability of the egg hatch assay to survey benzimidazole resistance in nematodes of small ruminants under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Calvete, C; Ferrer, L M; Lacasta, D; Calavia, R; Ramos, J J; Ruiz-de-Arkaute, M; Uriarte, J

    2014-06-16

    The egg hatch assay (EHA) is one of the main in vitro methods for detection of benzimidazole resistance in nematode parasites of small ruminants. However, although the EHA has been standardised at the laboratory level, the diagnostic performance of this method has not been fully characterised for field screenings. In the present work, monthly variation of benzimidazole resistance estimated by EHA was surveyed over two years in three sheep flocks and in one goat and an additional sheep flock sharing the same pastures. Resistance was measured by calculating both the effective dose of thiabendazole (TBZ) that inhibited hatching of ≥50% of parasite eggs (ED₅₀) and the proportion (Pdd) of eggs hatching at a discriminating dose of 0.1 μg/ml TBZ. Pdd exhibited higher variability than ED₅₀, in agreement with the higher sensitivity of Pdd to changes in resistance levels. Both resistance parameters, however, were highly correlated, and their variation was similarly related to the same factors. Resistance levels differed among sheep flocks, and the resistance level of the goat flock was higher than that measured for the sheep flock sharing the same pasture. Moreover, monthly variation of resistance in goats did not mirror that recorded in sheep. Resistance levels varied seasonally, with the highest values recorded in the spring, and they were inversely related to the number of days that samples were stored under anaerobic conditions. In addition, they were directly associated with the relative abundance of Teladorsagia spp. but inversely related to the relative abundance of Haemonchus spp. After controlling for the effects of these identified factors for variation, inter-monthly sampling variation due to unknown factors was the main source of variability, accounting for more than 60-70% of variance for both resistance parameters and yielding absolute estimation errors higher than 0.06 for ED₅₀ or 0.2 for Pdd when resistance was estimated from a single sampling

  2. Visual-vestibular interaction in humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Visual-vestibular interaction using 60 percent constant velocity earth horizontal axis yaw rotation, simulating both the horizontal semicircular canals and the otolith organs, was measured in seven human subjects. Subjects were tested with their eyes open in the dark (EOD) while fixating upon a target rotating with them (FIX), and while observing stationary optokinetic stripes (VVR). Resulting nystagmus slow component velocity (SCV) was analyzed for EOD, FIX, and VVR conditions. It is concluded that the visual-vestibular interactions during EHA differ significantly from those during rotation about the vertical; specifically, there is a nonlinear interaction between linear acceleration and optokinetic nystagmus.

  3. In vitro effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2010-10-11

    Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of Manihot esculenta (Cassava) leaf were tested in vitro on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects (P<0.0001) were observed for the methanolic extract of leaf against larval development (57.6% +/-7.6), with a dose dependent effect. These results suggest that Cassava possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be the terpenoids and condensed tannin compounds present in the leaf. PMID:20638799

  4. Proof of a Spectral Property related to the singularity formation for the L2 critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibich, Gadi; Merle, Frank; Raphaël, Pierre

    2006-08-01

    We give a proof of a Spectral Property related to the description of the singularity formation for the L2 critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation iut+Δu+u|=0 in dimensions N=2,3,4. Assuming this property, the rigorous mathematical analysis developed in a recent series of papers by Merle and Raphaël provides a complete description of the collapse dynamics for a suitable class of initial data. In particular, this implies in dimension N=2 the existence of a large class of solutions blowing up with the log-log speed |∼√{{log|log(T-t)}/{T-t}} where T>0 is the blow up time. This Spectral Property is equivalent to the coercivity of some Schrödinger type operators. An analytic proof is given in [F. Merle, P. Raphaël, Blow up dynamic and upper bound on the blow up rate for critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Ann. of Math. 161 (1) (2005) 157-222] in dimension N=1 and in this paper, we give a computer assisted proof in dimensions N=2,3,4. We propose in particular a rigorous mathematical frame to reduce the check of this type of coercivity property to accessible and robust numerical results.

  5. Numerical study of blow-up and dispersive shocks in solutions to generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, C.; Peter, R.

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of solutions to general Korteweg-de Vries equations with critical and supercritical nonlinearity, both in the context of dispersive shocks and blow-up. We study the stability of solitons and show that they are unstable against being radiated away and blow-up. In the L2 critical case, the blow-up mechanism by Martel, Merle and Raphaël can be numerically identified. In the limit of small dispersion, it is shown that a dispersive shock always appears before an eventual blow-up. In the latter case, always the first soliton to appear will blow up. It is shown that the same type of blow-up as for the perturbations of the soliton can be observed which indicates that the theory by Martel, Merle and Raphaël is also applicable to initial data with a mass much larger than the soliton mass. We study the scaling of the blow-up time t∗ in dependence of the small dispersion parameter ɛ and find an exponential dependence t∗(ɛ) and that there is a minimal blow-up time t0∗ greater than the critical time of the corresponding Hopf solution for ɛ → 0. To study the cases with blow-up in detail, we apply the first dynamic rescaling for generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations. This allows to identify the type of the singularity.

  6. The fracture morphology of nickel-base superalloys tested in fatigue and creep-fatigue at 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Miner, R. V.

    1981-01-01

    The fracture surfaces of compact tension specimens from seven nickel-base superalloys fatigue tested at 650 C were studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography to determine the nature and morphology of the crack surface in the region of stable growth. Crack propagation testing was performed as part of an earlier study at 650 C in air using a 0.33 Hz fatigue cycle and a creep-fatigue cycle incorporating a 900 second dwell at maximum load. In fatigue, alloys with a grain size greater than 20 micrometers, HIP Astroloy, Waspaloy, and MERL 76, exhibited transgranular fracture. MERL 76 also displayed numerous fracture sites which were associated with boundaries of prior powder particles. The two high strength, fine grain alloys, IN 100 and NASA IIB-7, exhibited intergranular fracture. Rene 95 and HIP plus forged Astroloy displayed a mixed failure mode that was transgranular in the coarse grains and intergranular in the fine grains. Under creep-fatigue conditions, fracture was found to be predominantly intergranular in all seven alloys.

  7. Free vascularized fibular grafting benefits severely collapsed femoral head in concomitant with osteoarthritis in very young adults: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Gao, You-Shui; Chen, Sheng-Bao; Jin, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2013-07-01

    Although free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) has been successfully employed for precollapsed osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), there are few reports concerning its radiographic and functional results for ONFH concomitant with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In the current study, 12 patients with OA induced by traumatic ONFH were enrolled, with FVFG employed as the treatment protocol. The collapsed step of the cartilage surface was measured and compared with the postoperative value, and the Merle d'Aubigné scoring system was used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative status of the hip joint. The collapsed step disappeared, and sphericity of the femoral head could be restored at an average duration of 56 months postoperatively in seven patients. With regard to the severity of hip OA, six were improved to Grade 1 and one to Grade 2. In terms of functionality, all patients with a restored femoral head experienced postoperative improvement in pain relief, mobility, and functional capacity. The average Merle d'Aubigné score increased from 6.0 to 16.9 postoperatively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, for traumatic ONFH concomitant with OA, FVFG can confer benefits in the form of restoration of the contour of the femoral head and improvement in joint function. PMID:23588546

  8. FLASH fly-by-light flight control demonstration results overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halski, Don J.

    1996-10-01

    The Fly-By-Light Advanced Systems Hardware (FLASH) program developed Fly-By-Light (FBL) and Power-By-Wire (PBW) technologies for military and commercial aircraft. FLASH consists of three tasks. Task 1 developed the fiber optic cable, connectors, testers and installation and maintenance procedures. Task 3 developed advanced smart, rotary thin wing and electro-hydrostatic (EHA) actuators. Task 2, which is the subject of this paper,l focused on integration of fiber optic sensors and data buses with cable plant components from Task 1 and actuators from Task 3 into centralized and distributed flight control systems. Both open loop and piloted hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations were conducted with centralized and distributed flight control architectures incorporating the AS-1773A optical bus, active hand controllers, optical sensors, optimal flight control laws in high speed 32-bit processors, and neural networks for EHA monitoring and fault diagnosis. This paper overviews the systems level testing conducted under the FLASH Flight Control task. Preliminary results are summarized. Companion papers provide additional information.

  9. The innervation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver: protein gene product 9.5 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivities

    PubMed Central

    ESTEBAN, F. J.; JIMÉNEZ, A.; BARROSO, J. B.; PEDROSA, J. A.; DEL MORAL, M. L.; RODRIGO, J.; PEINADO, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    We have explored the innervation of the rainbow trout (O. mykiss) liver using immunohistochemical procedures and light microscopy to detect in situ protein gene product 9.5 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivities (PGP-IR and NOS-IR). The results showed PGP-IR nerve fibres running with the extralobular biliary duct (EBD), hepatic artery (EHA) and portal vein (EPV) that form the hepatic hilum, as well as following the spatial distribution of the intrahepatic blood vessel and biliary channels. These nerve fibres appear as single varicose processes, thin bundles, or thick bundles depending on their diameter and location in the wall of the blood vessel or biliary duct. No PGP-IR fibres were detected in the liver parenchyma. NOS-IR nerve fibres were located only in the vessels and ducts that form the hepatic hilum (EBD, EHA, EPV); in addition, NOS-IR nerve cell bodies were found isolated or forming ganglionated plexuses in the peribiliary fibromuscular tissue of the EBD. No PGP-IR ganglionated plexuses were detected in the EBD. The location of the general (PGP-IR) and nitrergic (nNOS-IR) intrinsic nerves of the trout liver suggest a conserved evolutionary role of the nervous control of hepatic blood flow and hepatobiliary activity. PMID:9827640

  10. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell acrylate based latex and study of its reactive blends.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-03-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment. PMID:19325753

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment. PMID:19325753

  12. [Construction and experimental immunity of recombinant replication-competent canine adenovirus type 2 expressing hemagglutinin gene of H5N1 subtype tiger influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Wei; Xia, Xian-Zhu; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Dan; Huang, Geng

    2006-04-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was highly pathogenic and sometimes even fatal for tigers and cats. To develop a new type of vaccine for Felidae influenza prevention, recombinant replication-competent canine adenovirus Type 2 expressing hemagglutinin gene of H5N1 subtype tiger influenza virus was constructed. A/tiger/Harbin/01/2003 (HSN1) HA gene was cloned into PVAX1. The HA expression cassette which included CMV and HA and PolyA was ligated into the E3 deletion region of pVAXdeltaE. The recombinant plasmid was named pdeltaEHA. The pdelta EHA and the pPoly2-CAV2 were digested with Nru I /Sal I, respectively. The purified Nru I/Sal I DNA fragment containing the HA expression cassette was cloned into pPoly2-CAV2 to generate the recombinant plasmid pCAV-2/HA. The recombinant genome was released from pCAV-2/HA, and was transfected into MDCK cells by Lipofectamine. The recombinant virus named CAV2/HA was gained. Anti-H5N1 influenza virus HI antibody (1:8 - 1:16) was detected in the cat immunized with CAV-2/HA. PMID:16736595

  13. Synergistic Action of D-Glucose and Acetosyringone on Agrobacterium Strains for Efficient Dunaliella Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    An effective transformation protocol for Dunaliella, a β-carotene producer, was developed using the synergistic mechanism of D-glucose and Acetosyringone on three different Agrobacterium strains (EHA105, GV3101 and LBA4404). In the present study, we investigated the pre-induction of Agrobacterium strains harboring pMDC45 binary vector in TAP media at varying concentrations of D-glucose (5 mM, 10 mM, and 15mM) and 100 μM of Acetosyringone for co-cultivation. Induction of Agrobacterium strains with 10 mM D-glucose and 100 μM Acetosyringone showed higher rates of efficiency compared to other treatments. The presence of GFP and HPT transgenes as a measure of transformation efficiency from the transgenic lines were determined using fluorescent microscopy, PCR, and southern blot analyzes. Highest transformation rate was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (181 ± 3.78 cfu per 106 cells) followed by GV3101 (128 ± 5.29 cfu per 106 cells) and EHA105 (61 ± 5.03 cfu per 106 cells). However, the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 exhibited more efficient single copy transgene (HPT) transfer into the genome of D. salina than LBA4404. Therefore, future studies dealing with genetic modifications in D. salina can utilize GV3101 as an optimal Agrobacterium strain for gene transfer. PMID:27351975

  14. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  15. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  16. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC.

  17. Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Sanita; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Wei Wen; Gu, Yong Hong

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHAE) is a malignant vascular tumor derived from endothelial cell often misdiagnosed as Hepatic carcinoma on the basis of radiological features. Till now etiology of this rare curiosity is unknown but it is related with use of oral contraceptives pills (OCP), liver trauma, exposure to vinyl chloride and hepatitis. We herein report on a case which failed to be diagnosed by cytopathology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patient was a 46 yr old man presented with abdominal distension for a month. Initial liver function test (LFT) was increased whereas renal function test (RFT) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal. His abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple hypoechoic nodules and multiple liver calcifications. Subsequently laparoscopic omental biopsy and Ultrasound guided liver biopsy was done showing the neoplastic cells scattered in fibrous stroma. The immunohistochemistry for endothelial tumor cells stained positive for Vimentin (+++), CD10 (+++), CD34 (++), CD31 (+), Factor VIII antigen (focal) (+) and low proliferative activity for ki-67. Our case is very interesting in which patient admitted with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal pain and diagnosed to be a Malignant Hepatic EHAE metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery. The patient was on thalidomide 50 mg/day and increased to 100 mg/day. 5-Flurouracil (FU) intraperitoneal chemotherapy and other symptomatic and supportive treatment was given to the patient. Our case highlights on the importance of immunohistopathological diagnosis, compare the radiological findings of this disease and discuss the treatment strategy with review of available literature. PMID:26191313

  18. In vitro effects of Tabernaemontana citrifolia extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Mahieu, M; D'Alexis, S; Philibert, L; Archimede, H

    2010-08-01

    Tabernaemontana citrifolia (Apocynaceae) is traditionally used as an anthelmintic preparation for ruminants in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of this plant against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of T. citrifolia fruit, leaf and root were tested on four developmental stages of the parasite, using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI), and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects were observed for the different parts of T. citrifolia but with differences depending on the parasitic stage; efficacies on the larval development of H. contortus from 88.9% to 99.8% for fruit, from 72.1% to 83.8% for root and from 33.5% to 85% for leaf with dose-dependent effect for the methanolic extract. The root gave the best result on EHA (22.7% efficacy for dichloromethane extract) and AWM (56% efficacy, with dose-dependent effect for dichloromethane extract) and the leaf on LMI (49.4% efficacy). These results suggest that T. citrifolia possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active ingredients responsible for the activity could be the alkaloid compounds present in the plant parts of the plant. PMID:20117808

  19. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC. PMID:27439967

  20. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  1. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category “A” DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays

    PubMed Central

    He, Jie; Kraft, Andrea J.; Fan, Jiang; Van Dyke, Meredith; Wang, Lihua; Bose, Michael E.; Khanna, Marilyn; Metallo, Jacob A.; Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2009-01-01

    Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA) were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category “A” bioterrorism agents. The “Bio T” DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM), Bacillus anthracis (BA), Yersinia pestis (YP), Francisella tularensis (FT) and Varicella zoster virus (VZV). The “Bio T” RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA) was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola), Lassa fever virus (Lassa), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN) and dengue virus (serotypes 1–4). Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked) clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD)) of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1×100∼1×102 copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1×10−2 TCID50/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1×102∼1×103copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1×104∼1×106 copies/mL without extraction and 1×105∼1×106 copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ∼1×10−4 dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1×104 LD50/mL and 1×102 LD50/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ∼1×103 copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction) for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay

  2. Modified porous tantalum rod technique for the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pakos, Emilios E; Megas, Panayiotis; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Syggelos, Spyridon A; Kouzelis, Antonios; Georgiadis, Georgios; Xenakis, Theodoros A

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study a modified porous tantalum technique for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. METHODS: The porous tantalum rod was combined with endoscopy, curettage, autologous bone grafting and use of bone marrow aspirates from iliac crest aspiration in 49 patients (58 hips) with a mean age of 38 years. The majority of the patients had idiopathic osteonecrosis, followed by corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis. Thirty-eight hips were of Steinberg stage II disease and 20 hips were of stage III disease. Patients were followed for 5 years and were evaluated clinically with the Merle D’Aubigne and Postel score and radiologically. The primary outcome of the study was survival based on the conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA). Secondary outcomes included deterioration of the osteonecrosis to a higher disease stage at 5 years compared to the preoperative period and identification of factors that were associated with survival. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to evaluate the survivorship of the prosthesis, and the Fisher exact test was performed to test associations between various parameters with survival. RESULTS: No patient developed any serious intraoperative or postoperative complication including implant loosening or migration and donor site morbidity. During the 5-year follow up, 1 patient died, 7 patients had disease progression and 4 hips were converted to THA. The 5-year survival based on conversion to THA was 93.1% and the respective rate based on disease progression was 87.9%. Stage II disease was associated with statistically significant better survival rates compared to stage III disease (P = 0.04). The comparison between idiopathic and non-idiopathic osteonecrosis and between steroid-induced and non-steroid-induced osteonecrosis did not showed any statistically significant difference in survival rates. The clinical evaluation revealed statistically significantly improved Merle d’Aubigne scores at 12 mo postoperatively

  3. Invasive Electromagnetic Field Treatment in Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Windisch, C.; Kolb, W.; Röhner, E.; Wagner, M.; Roth, A.; Matziolis, G.; Wagner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to compare the surgical treatment of non-ONFH in adulthood by curettage and bone grafting with treatment by curettage and bone grafting in combination with invasive electromagnetic field treatment using Magnetodyn®. This was assessed by examining whether electromagnetic field treatment has a positive additive effect on the clinical parameters modified Harris Hip Score according to Haddad, Cook and Brinker, Merle d'Aubigné hip score and visual analogue scale, and on the subsequent need for treatment by total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methodology : The prospective, non-randomised study included 35 patients with unilateral or bilateral osteonecrosis of the femoral head. These were divided into two groups according to the surgical treatment regime and assessed over a 12-month follow-up period. The study group (Group 1) comprised 19 patients (14 men and 5 women) with a total of 22 non-ONFH, who underwent minimally invasive curettage, bone grafting and electromagnetic field treatment (Magnetodyn®) by implantation of a bipolar induction screw. The control group (Group 2) comprised 16 patients (12 men and 4 women) with a total of 18 non-ONFH, who underwent minimally invasive curettage and bone grafting without Magnetodyn® therapy. At the initial pre-operative examination and the 6 and 12-month follow-up, all patients were assessed by clinical examination and radiological monitoring, and by bilateral hip MRI. The clinical evaluation was based on the modified Harris Hip Score according to Haddad, Cook and Brinker, the Merle d`Aubigné hip score and the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results : At the time of follow-up, total hip arthroplasty (THA) had been performed in four patients in Group 1 (18%). In Group 2, four patients (22%) had received a THA (n.s.). Both procedures led to an improvement in the clinical scores (Harris Hip Score, Merle d`Aubigné score and VAS), although no significant difference

  4. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    During the past six months we have conducted significant research in several domains in order to clarify and understanding the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. We organized numerous analytical studies with methods including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Stress Relaxation experiments. In addition we have reanalyzed previous thermogravimetric data concerning the rate of deplasticization of Coflon pipe. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We conducted stress relaxation experiments of Coflon pipe at several temperatures and determined an activation energy. We also examined the dynamic mechanical response PVDF during deplasticization and during methanol plasticization. We performed numerous DSC analyses to research the changing crystalline morphology. We have noted significant changes in crystallinity upon aging for both PVDF and Tefzel. Little variation in elemental composition was noted for many of the aged Coflon and Tefzel samples tested.

  5. Fate and bioaccumulation of soil-associated low-level naturally occurring radioactivity following disposal into a marine ecosystem. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.

    1986-10-01

    The fate of radium (Ra) and other naturally occurring uranium-series isotopes associated with soils disposed in seawater was examined using the Marine Ecosystem Research Laboratory (MERL) controlled marine ecosystems. Thirty-seven kilograms of a soil containing approximately 400 pCi Ra-226/g from an inactive uranium ore processing plant site in Middlesex, New Jersey, were added to each of two mesocosms over five days in mid-September 1984. Radionuclide activity in these and two control mesocosms was observed for three months after the soil additions. Radioactivity in the soil appeared to be confined to discrete soil particles rather than being distributed equally on the soil particles, suggesting the source of the radioactivity was remnant ore particles.

  6. Geothermal greenhouse-heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the Nursing Home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource (approx. 190/sup 0/F) currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the Nursing Home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the Nursing Home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the Nursing Home.

  7. Stability and Instability of the KDV Solitary Wave Under the KP-I Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, Frederic; Tzvetkov, Nikolay

    2012-07-01

    We consider the KP-I and gKP-I equations in {{{R}} × ({{R}}/2π{{Z}})}. We prove that the KdV soliton with subcritical speed 0 < c < c* is orbitally stable under the global KP-I flow constructed by Ionescu and Kenig (Ann Math Stud 163:181-211, 2007). For supercritical speeds c > c*, in the spirit of the work by Duyckaerts and Merle (GAFA 18:1787-1840, 2009), we sharpen our previous instability result and construct a global solution which is different from the solitary wave and its translates and which converges to the solitary wave as time goes to infinity. This last result also holds for the gKP-I equation.

  8. Seven-year results of a press-fit, hydroxyapatite-coated double mobility acetabular component in patients aged 65 years or older.

    PubMed

    Fresard, Pierre-Luc; Alvherne, Charles; Cartier, Jean-Loup; Cuinet, Patrick; Lantuejoul, Jean-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    One hundred and thirty-four THA were done between 1998 and 2002 with AVANTAGE(®) Press-Fit double mobility cup. The mean age of patients was 74 ± 6 years (range 65-94 years). The mean follow-up was 5.4 years (range, 0.15-10 years). The mean preoperative Harris Hip Score was 51.3 ± 14 versus 88 ± 12, at the latest follow-up, and the mean Merle d'Aubigné hip functional score was 8 ± 3 versus 16.3 ± 2.91; patients (68 %) were alive at a mean of 7.2 years postoperatively (range, 5-10 years). Three revisions were documented for aseptic loosening. The overall survival rate at 7.2 years was 96.3 % (95 % confidence interval 92.2-100) using cup revision for aseptic loosening as the end point. PMID:23412297

  9. Results of Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty with 36-mm Femoral Heads on Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene-Minimum Seven-years Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Kee; Lee, Joo-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We evaluate the clinical and radiographic midterm results of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a 36 mm diameter femoral head on highly cross-linked polyethylene (minimum 7-year follow-up). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 73 patients (74 hips) that underwent primary THA with a 36 mm diameter femoral head on highly cross-linked polyethylene between July 2004 and February 2007. Clinical follow-ups included specific measurements like modified Harris hip scores (HHS) and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel score. For radiologic evaluations, together with position of acetabular cup at 6 weeks later of post-operation, we separately calculated the penentrations of femoral heads into polyethylene liners during post-operation and one year later check-ups, and during one year later check-ups and final check-ups. Results There were no complications except for one case of dislocation. Average modified HHS at final follow-up was 88±7.5 (range, 81-96), and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores were more than 15 (range, 15-18). Mean acetabular cup inclination and anteversion were 50.1°(range, 35°-58°) and 23.6°(range, 5°-38°), respectively. Average femoral head penetration during the first postoperative year was 0.071±0.034 mm/year, and steady-state wear rate determined using radiographs taken at one-year postoperatively and at latest follow-up was 0.051±0.022 mm/year. Average femoral head penetration during entire follow-ups was 0.058±0.013 mm/year. Conclusion Primary THA with a large diameter femoral head on highly cross-linked polyethylene was found to produce the results comparable to previous in vitro laboratory hip simulation studies. And we also find out good scores in terms of patient's functionality.

  10. Clinical results of cementless total hip arthroplasty with shortening osteotomy for high dislocation with developmental dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Desteli, Engin Eren; Imren, Yunus; Tan, Erkan; Erdoğan, Murat; Özcan, Hüseyin

    2015-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty for severe developmental dysplasia of the hip is a technically challenging procedure. Subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy enables reducing the femoral head and restoring abductor muscle strength without compromising proximal femoral bone stock in advanced dysplasia.We aimed to retrospectively evaluate Crowe type III or IV developmental dysplasia of the hip who underwent reconstruction with cementless total hip arthroplasty combined with a transverse subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy. Sixty hips of 52 patients (11 male, 49 female) with Crowe type III (n: 37) or IV (n: 23) developmental dysplasia of the hip were included. The average age was 51.4 years. Surgery was performed in lateral decubitis position with posterolateral approach. Subtrochanteric transverse femoral osteotomy were used with cementless components. 40 of the femoral components were Secur-Fit type, and 20 of them were secur-fit plus max type. Ceramic-ceramic coupling was used in 24 cases and metal-polyethylene coupling was used in 36 cases. Merle D'Aubigne and Harris Hip score were used to rate the clinical outcome at the final follow up. All femoral shortening osteotomies were united at a mean of 5.7 months. Mean Merle D'Aubigne pain score was increased from 3.1 to 5.4, and mean Harris Hip score improved from 39 to 92.8, postoperatively (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in time to union between different types of stems. 4 femoral stems had asymptomatic radiolucent lines. There was no significant difference in time to union between different types of stems. PMID:26280851

  11. Results of Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Using 36 mm Femoral Heads on 1st Generation Highly Cross Linked Polyethylene in Patients 50 Years and Less with Minimum Five Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Kee; Kim, Hee-soo; Nam, Jun-Ho; Chae, Seung-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the clinical and radiographic midterm results of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a 36 mm diameter femoral head on 1st generation highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) in patients 50 years and less with minimum five year follow-up. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients (41 hips) aged 50 years and less underwent primary THA with a 36 mm diameter femoral head on HXLPE between 2004 and 2010. Clinical follow-ups included specific measurements like modified Harris hip scores (HHS) and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel score. For radiologic evaluations, together with position of acetabular cup at six weeks later of postoperation, we separately calculated the penentrations of femoral head into polyethylene liners during postoperation and one year later check-ups, and during one year later check-ups and final check-ups. Results There were no major complications except for one case of dislocation. Average modified HHS at final follow-up was 88 (81-98), and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores were more than 15. Mean acetabular cup inclination and anteversion were 45.81°(36.33°-54.91°) and 13.26°(6.72°-27.71°), respectively. Average femoral head penetration of steady-state wear rate determined using radiographs taken at one-year postoperatively and at latest follow-up was 0.042±0.001 mm/year. Conclusion Based on minimum 5 years clinical results, we think 36 mm metal head coupling with HXLPE as the good alternate articulation surface when planning THA for patients aged 50 years and less. PMID:27536648

  12. [Acetabular fractures in the elderly. Outcome of open reduction and internal fixation].

    PubMed

    Tosounidis, G; Culemann, U; Bauer, M; Holstein, J H; Garcia, P; Kurowski, R; Pizanis, A; Aghayev, E; Pohlemann, T

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome and incidence of hip arthritis in elderly patients with acetabular fractures. Because of poor bone quality in the elderly, even a low-energy trauma may lead to an acetabular fracture. An anatomical reconstruction of the acetabulum is necessary to achieve sufficient stability also for a potential hip arthroplasty. So far, there is very limited information on the outcome of acetabular fractures in the elderly. During a period of 6 years (2001-2006), 48 patients older than 60 years were admitted to our department with an acetabular fracture. Thirty-nine patients were treated operatively and nine patients non-operatively. Twenty-nine operatively treated patients were followed up. Nineteen of them were assessed using EQ-5D, SF-12 and Merle d'Aubigné questionnaires in addition to their clinical examination. Ten other surgical patients were only examined using the questionnaires. Of the 29 patients that were followed up, 5 underwent total hip arthroplasty due to secondary post-traumatic hip arthritis after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The range of motion of the operated hip was comparable to that of the non-operated contralateral side. However, the internal rotation was found to be slightly decreased at the operated side when compared to the non-operated contralateral side. Merle d'Aubigné score and physical and mental SF-12 score components as well as quality of life were better in patients treated with ORIF compared to those patients that were treated by secondary hip arthroplasty. Regarding the different treatment strategies (ORIF vs primary hip arthroplasty vs non-operative treatment) of acetabular fractures in the elderly, data from the literature are conflicting. Our results indicate that ORIF represents a good treatment option for acetabular fractures in the elderly. In patients that did not develop secondary hip arthritis, a good clinical outcome and quality of life was documented. PMID

  13. Lesion of the hip abductor mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Caviglia, Horacio; Cambiaggi, Guillermo; Vattani, Nosrat; Landro, María Eulalia; Galatro, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The disruption of the abductor muscles of the hip after hip revision surgery often causes limping, pain, and instability of the implant. The purpose of our paper is to describe a mesh technique to repair hip abductor mechanism injuries after hip revision. Patients and methods: Forty-six patients with hip abductor damage after prosthetic revision were treated. Inclusion criteria were: patients presenting with prosthetic loosening, complaint of pain, and with a positive Trendelenburg sign due to deficient abductor muscle mechanisms. Thirty-one were women (67.39%) with an average age of 64 years (34–82 years). The number of previous revision surgeries was three (two to seven). The Merle d’Aubigné score and variants before and after treatment were also reported. Results: In the postoperative follow-up after hip revision with the mesh technique, the Merle d’Aubigné score improved and the Trendelenburg sign was negative in 78.3% of the patients (p < 0.001). Also, the Trendelenburg test with the knee flexed was negative in 60.9% (p < 0.001) and the stair-climbing test was negative in 60.9% of cases (p < 0.001). The gluteus medius test in the lateral position was negative in 52.2% of patients, and in the lateral position with the knee flexed it was negative in 47.8% of patients (p < 0.001). Discussion: Repair of the abductor mechanism with the mesh technique has proven effective for both partial and total lesions. PMID:27382925

  14. Development of sensitive, high-throughput one-tube RT-PCR-enzyme hybridisation assay to detect selected bacterial fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T; Carson, J

    2003-03-31

    Bacterial monitoring and surveillance is critical for the early detection of pathogens to avoid the spread of disease. To facilitate this, an efficient, high-performance and high-throughput method to detect the presence of femotgram amounts of ribosomal RNA from 4 bacterial fish pathogens: Aeromonas salmonicida; Tenacibaculum maritimum (formerly Flexibacter maritimus); Lactococcus garvieae; and Yersinia ruckeri was developed. The system uses NucleoLink strips for liquid- and solid-phase PCR in 1 tube, to perform RT-PCR-enzyme hybridisation assays (RT-PCR-EHA) detecting 4 fg or less of rRNA from pure cultures and between 1 and 9 CFU per 200 microl sample volume from selective-enrichment culture media. The liquid-phase amplicons were visualised by gel electrophoresis and the solid-phase amplicons detected using internal probes and visualised using colorimetric detection and p-nitrophenylphosphate. PMID:12747638

  15. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the predominant cool-season perennial grass in the United States. It is widely used for both forage and turf purposes. This chapter describes a protocol that allows for the generation of a large number of transgenic tall fescue plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calli induced from caryopsis are used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain used is EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker, and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Calli resistant to hygromycin are obtained after 4-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown tall fescue plants can be regenerated 4-5 months after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PMID:25416272

  16. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:25300843

  17. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines. PMID:25416248

  18. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  19. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.).

    PubMed

    Maravi, Devendra Kumar; Mazumdar, Purabi; Alam, Shamsher; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) as a source of biodiesel fuel is gaining worldwide importance. Commercial-scale exploration of Jatropha has not succeeded due to low and unstable seed yield in semiarid lands unsuitable for the food production and infestation to diseases. Genetic engineering is promising to improve various agronomic traits in Jatropha and to understand the molecular functions of key Jatropha genes for molecular breeding. We describe a protocol routinely followed in our laboratory for stable and efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Jatropha using cotyledonary leaf as explants. The 4-day-old explants are infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring pBI121 plant binary vector, which contains nptII as plant selectable marker and gus as reporter. The putative transformed plants are selected on kanamycin, and stable integration of transgene(s) is confirmed by histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern hybridization. PMID:25416246

  20. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    PubMed

    Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse. PMID:25300846

  1. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P<0.0001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition >67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant. PMID:24382490

  2. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P<0.001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition>90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts. PMID:19135803

  3. Emulsion templated scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robert; Sherborne, Colin; Paterson, Thomas; Green, Nicola H.; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) are manufactured via emulsion templating and exhibit a highly interconnected microporosity. These materials are commonly used as thin membranes for 3D cell culture. This study uses emulsion templating in combination with microstereolithography to fabricate PolyHIPE scaffolds with a tightly controlled and reproducible architecture. This combination of methods produces hierarchical structures, where the microstructural properties can be independently controlled from the scaffold macrostructure. PolyHIPEs were fabricated with varying ratios of two acrylate monomers (2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)) and varying nominal porosity to tune mechanical properties. Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elongation at failure were determined for twenty EHA/IBOA compositions. Moduli ranged from 63.01±9.13 to 0.36±0.04 MPa, UTS from 2.03±0.33 to 0.11±0.01 MPa and failure strain from 21.86±2.87% to 2.60±0.61%. Selected compositions were fabricated into macro-porous woodpile structures, plasma treated with air or acrylic acid and seeded with human embryonic stem-cell derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hES-MPs). Confocal and two-photon microscopy confirmed cell proliferation and penetration into the micro- and macro-porous architecture. The scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and interestingly, the stiffest IBOA-based scaffolds that were plasma treated with acrylic acid promoted osteogenesis more strongly than the other scaffolds. PMID:26458114

  4. Root and shoot parts of strawberry: factories for production of functional human pro-insulin.

    PubMed

    Tavizi, Ashkan; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Moieni, Ahmad; Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Mohebodini, Mehdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes, a disease caused by excessive blood sugar, is caused by the lack of insulin. For commercial production, insulin is made in bacteria or yeast by protein recombinant technology. The focus of this research is evaluating another resource and producing of recombinant insulin protein in as strawberry as this plant has high potential in production of pharmaceutical proteins. Strawberry is a suitable bioreactor for production of recombinant proteins especially edible vaccines. In this research, human pro-insulin gene was cloned in pCAMBIA1304 vector under CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator. Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, EHA101, C58, C58 (pGV2260) and C58 (pGV3101) strains were used for transformation of pro-insulin gene into strawberry cv. Camarosa, Selva, Sarian Hybrid, Pajaro, Paros, Gaviota, Alpine. Additionally, Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599, R1000, A4 and MSU440 strains were utilized for gene transformation into hairy roots. PCR analysis indicated the presence of transformed human pro-insulin gene in the strawberry and hairy roots. Also, its transcription was confirmed using RT-PCR. Furthermore, the analysis of plants, fruits and hairy roots at the level of proteins using dot blot, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and ECL tests re-confirmed the expression of this protein in the transgenic plants as well as hairy roots. Protein purification of human pro-insulin from transgenic tissues was performed using affinity chromatography. Finally, the bioassay of recombinant pro-insulin was performed. The analysis of second generations of transgenic plants (T1) at DNA and protein levels was also performed as a complementary experiment. This study opens a new avenue in molecular farming of human pro-insulin through its mass production in roots and shoots of strawberry. PMID:25403333

  5. Emulsion templated scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robert; Sherborne, Colin; Paterson, Thomas; Green, Nicola H; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) are manufactured via emulsion templating and exhibit a highly interconnected microporosity. These materials are commonly used as thin membranes for 3D cell culture. This study uses emulsion templating in combination with microstereolithography to fabricate PolyHIPE scaffolds with a tightly controlled and reproducible architecture. This combination of methods produces hierarchical structures, where the microstructural properties can be independently controlled from the scaffold macrostructure. PolyHIPEs were fabricated with varying ratios of two acrylate monomers (2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)) and varying nominal porosity to tune mechanical properties. Young's modulus, ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elongation at failure were determined for twenty EHA/IBOA compositions. Moduli ranged from 63.01±9.13 to 0.36±0.04MPa, UTS from 2.03±0.33 to 0.11±0.01MPa and failure strain from 21.86±2.87% to 2.60±0.61%. Selected compositions were fabricated into macro-porous woodpile structures, plasma treated with air or acrylic acid and seeded with human embryonic stem-cell derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hES-MPs). Confocal and two-photon microscopy confirmed cell proliferation and penetration into the micro- and macro-porous architecture. The scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and interestingly, the stiffest IBOA-based scaffolds that were plasma treated with acrylic acid promoted osteogenesis more strongly than the other scaffolds. PMID:26458114

  6. Scenario-based assessment of buildings damage and population exposure due to tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2015-08-01

    Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt as regards population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has a very important tourist activity. Historical catalogues indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA). We identify three main seismic sources: the Western Hellenic Arc (WHA - reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5), the Eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA - reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0) and the Cyprus Arc (CA - hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0), inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila over 12 000 buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could incur in consequences ranging from important damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2 resulting in more than 150 000 residents being exposed.

  7. Uniform titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) microcapsules prepared by glass membrane emulsification with subsequent solvent evaporation.

    PubMed

    Supsakulchai, A; Ma, G H; Nagai, M; Omi, S

    2002-01-01

    Anatase-type titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) was encapsulated using an Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane emulsification technique and followed by solvent evaporation. The oil phase, consisting of fine#10; powder of anatase TiO(2), Disperbyk-180, the hydrophobic oil phase additive, and polymer wall solution, was pushed through the membrane pores into the aqueous phase of poly(vinyl alcohol) and sodium dodecyl sulfate to form the solid-in-oil-in water, (S/O)/W, emulsion droplets. Three types of styrene-based copolymer poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PS-AA), poly(styrene-co-2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) (PS-2EHA) and poly(styrene-co-dimethyl aminoethylmethacrylate) (PS-DMAEMA) were used as an encapsulating shell. Uniform droplets were successfully obtained by modifying the oil phase using methyl laurate or hexadecanol as the oil phase additive, together with carefully monitoring the emulsification flow rate during the emulsification. The (S/O)/W emulsion was gently stirred in a sealed reactor, and evacuation of solvent started under moderate heating with increasing a vacuum intensity. Those uniform-sized TiO(2) microcapsules revealed fine porous morphologies on their surfaces as a result of a mild phase separation induced from the addition of the oil phase additive. The encapsulation efficiency was influenced by the stability of TiO(2) in the oil phase, the polymer wall employed, and the operational control of the glass membrane emulsification process. The membrane emulsification process could prepare the TiO(2) microcapsules with about approximately 6-8.5 wt% of encapsulation loadings. PS-AA and PS-2EHA copolymers provided better encapsulation efficiency compared to PS-DMAEMA. SPG membranes with 1.42, 2.8, 5.25, 7.0, or 9.5 microm were employed and 2-20 microm microcapsules were subsequently obtained. PMID:12396381

  8. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Danilo Cavalcanti; de Lima, Hélimar Gonçalves; Vaz, Ariádne Vieira; Santos, Nathália Silva; Santos, Francianne Oliveira; Dias, Êuder Reis; Botura, Mariana Borges; Branco, Alexsandro; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the in vitro effect of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The ovicidal activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CE), its partitioned hexane (HE) and aqueous extract (AE) and saponins fraction (SF), including betulinic acid (BA), a biogenetic compound from this plant found in HE, were investigated using the inhibition of egg hatch assay (EHA). Thereafter, the extracts and the SF were evaluated through the larval motility assay (LMA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The AE and SF promoted a complete inhibition of the egg hatch, and the effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) values was 1.9 and 1.3mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentages of inhibition in EHA observed after treatments with CE, HE and BA corresponded to 79, 48 and 17%, respectively. The extracts and SF did not show larvicidal activity in LMA and LMIA. The AE and SF demonstrated cytotoxic effects in 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue tests; however, SF was more toxic (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50=0.20mg/mL). The chemical characterization of the SF was made through Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses, which led to the identification of two saponins known as Joazeiroside B and Lotoside A. The results obtained from the research of this saponin content provide important information about the biological activity, especially the anthelmintic effect present in the plant investigated. That also suggests the types of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for this antiparasitic activity exhibited by the plant extracts. PMID:27514875

  9. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Julia; Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  10. Volatilization and Efflux of Mercury from Biologically Productive Ocean Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jonathan Philip

    Mercury volatilization and oceanic evasion to the atmosphere were investigated in the tropical Pacific Ocean with emphasis on the biologically productive equatorial region. Further studies were conducted at two stations in the oligiotrophic North Pacific gyre, and in the estuarine mesocosms at the Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory (MERL), University of Rhode Island. Dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM) in the tropical Pacific along 150^circ W at 4 stations (10^circ N, 0^ circ, 5^circ S, 12^circ S) ranged from 35-85 femtomoles per liter (fM) in surface waters and from 105-185 fM in deeper waters (350-400 meters). Speciation experiments indicated that Hg^circ was the dominant form in surface waters, while evidence for (CH_3)_2Hg was found at depth. The increases of DGM with depth are consistent with a volatile Hg source in deeper waters. A significant correlation between DGM and apparent oxygen utilization (n = 23, r = 0.694) suggested bacterial methylation of Hg in the oxygen minimum zone. In equatorial Pacific surface waters (155-95 ^circ W), DGM varied between 60 and 225 fM. Elemental Hg appears to comprise the major fraction of DGM. Elevated DGM concentrations corresponded with increased chlorophyll a levels and cooler, nutrient-rich waters. These results suggest that phytoplankton might volatilize Hg in surface seawater or bacteria could produce Hg^circ in deeper waters which upwell to the sea surface. Surface waters of the equatorial Pacific were supersaturated with respect to Hg^circ (179-1769%). Local Hg effluxes, estimated with a thin-film gas exchange model, were between 225 and 1050 pmoles/m^2day. The anual Hg efflux from the equatorial Pacific, 1.6 +/- 1.3 times 10^{+6 } moles (megamoles), was estimated at 4-5% of the total global Hg flux to the atmosphere. When normalized to primary production, a yearly Hg efflux of 14 +/- 9 megamoles was predicted for the oceans. This is about 35% of the annual atmospheric Hg flux and is comparable to human-derived Hg

  11. Treatment of Trochanteric Fractures with the Gamma3 Nail - Methodology and Early Results of a Prospective Consecutive Monitored Clinical Case Series

    PubMed Central

    A.C, Unger; E, Wilde; B, Kienast; C, Jürgens; A. P, Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: There is only sparse data on clinical results and complications of the third-generation Gamma nailing system (Gamma3, Stryker). Therefore, we started a large multi-centre case series in 2008. The aim of this paper is to present the study design and early results of a single arm of a prospective, consecutive, monitored, post-market follow-up evaluation of Gamma3 nails. Methods: From September 2009 to January 2012, 154 consecutive patients with an average age of 80 ± 1.43 years (50-99 years) and a trochanteric femoral fracture were included in the local arm of the trial. All patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were treated with a Gamma3 nail. Preoperative variables included age, gender, fracture classification, walking ability (Merle d’Aubigné score), daily activity level (retrospective Zuckerman score), ASA rating of operative risk, waiting time for operation, use of walker or crutches and body mass index (BMI). Skin-to-skin time, fluoroscopy time, blood loss, intraoperative complications and device information were recorded for each patient. Follow-up postoperative assessment was undertaken at 4, 12 and 24 months. Hip range of motion, pain around the hip and the tight, walking ability (Merle d’Aubigné score, Sahlgrenska mobility score) and management of daily life (Zuckerman score) were used to evaluate the outcome. Results: The descriptive data of age, gender, BMI, ASA classification, fracture type and skin-to-skin time is similar to other studies. Median fluoroscopy time was 62 seconds (range: 4-225 seconds) and significantly shorter in closed reductions. No intraoperative implant-related complication was recorded. A cut-out of the leg-screw during assessment period occurred in 2.6% patients (n = 4). At the 12-month assessment two (1.8%) non-unions were identified and two patients (1.8%) had broken the femoral shaft below the 180 mm nail after a fall. Analysis of the scores showed significantly declined mobility and activity in daily

  12. Outreach geology with the "balades géologiques" project based on smartphone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egoroff, Grégoire; de Wever, Patrick; Cornee, Annie

    2014-05-01

    ., Bonnefoy B., Houssaye A., De Wever P. & Merle D. (2008) - Promenade géologique à Etampes. Coll. balades géologiques, SGF-MNHN-BRGM, 30 pages. Egoroff G., De Wever P., Merle D. & Métivier B. (2011) - Promenade géologique à Dourdan. Biotope, Mèze - MNHN, Paris - BRGM, Orléans (Collection Balades géologiques), 38 pages. Nouvellet S., Egoroff G. & De Wever P. (2013) - Virtual Milly-la-Forêt Geological stroll, online. Android app Wikitude, « ID Bio-Balades géologiques » project "Milly-la-Forêt".

  13. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2012-01-01

    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  14. Stoppa Approach for Anterior Plate Fixation in Unstable Pelvic Ring Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Suk Kyu; Kim, Jung-Jae; Lee, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The Stoppa (intrapelvic) approach has been introduced for the treatment of pelvic-acetabular fractures; it allows easy exposure of the pelvic brim, where the bone quality is optimal for screw fixation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of unstable pelvic ring injuries treated using the Stoppa approach for stable anterior ring fixation. Methods We analyzed 22 cases of unstable pelvic ring injury treated with plate fixation of the anterior ring with the Stoppa approach. We excluded cases of nondisplaced rami fracture, simple symphyseal diastasis, and parasymphyseal fractures, which can be easily treated with other techniques. The average age of the study patients was 41 years (range, 23 to 61 years). There were 10 males and 12 females. According to the Young and Burgess classification, there were 12 lateral compression, 4 anteroposterior compression, and 6 vertical shear fracture patterns. The fracture location on the anterior ring was near the iliopectineal eminence in all cases and exposure of the pelvic brim was required for plate fixation. All patients were placed in the supine position. For anterior plate fixation, all screws were applied to the anterior ramus distally and directed above the hip joint proximally. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by union time and quality of reduction by Matta method. The Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score was used to evaluate the functional results. Results The average radiologic follow-up period was 16 months (range, 10 to 51 months). All fractures united at an average of 3.5 months (range, 3 to 5 months). According to the Matta method, the quality of reduction was classified as follows: 16 anatomical (73%) and 6 nearly anatomical (27%) reductions. There were no cases of screw or implant loosening before bone healing. The functional results were classified as 7 excellent (32%), 12 good (55%), and 3 fair (13%) by the Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score. There were no wound complications

  15. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human

  16. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  17. Scenario-based assessment of buildings' damage and population exposure due to earthquake-induced tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2015-12-01

    Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt with regards to population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has very important tourist activity. Historical records indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the worst-case credible tsunami scenario analysis (WCTSA). We identify three main seismic sources: the western Hellenic Arc (WHA - reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5), the eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA - reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0) and the Cyprus Arc (CA - hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0), inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out in two sea level conditions (mean sea level and maximum high-tide sea level) by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the framework of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila, over 12 000 (13 400 in the case of maximum high tide) buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could sustain damaging consequences, ranging from critical damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2, resulting in more than 150 000 (165 000 in the case of maximum high

  18. Vestibular convergence patterns in vestibular nuclei neurons of alert primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory signal convergence is a fundamental and important aspect of brain function. Such convergence may often involve complex multidimensional interactions as those proposed for the processing of otolith and semicircular canal (SCC) information for the detection of translational head movements and the effective discrimination from physically congruent gravity signals. In the present study, we have examined the responses of primate rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) neurons that do not exhibit any eye movement-related activity using 0.5-Hz translational and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motion. Three distinct neural populations were identified. Approximately one-fourth of the cells exclusively encoded rotational movements (canal-only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The canal-only central neurons encoded head rotation in SCC coordinates, exhibited little orthogonal canal convergence, and were characterized with significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to primary SCC afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (otolith-only cells). During rotations, these neurons only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining one-half of VN neurons were sensitive to both rotations and translations (otolith + canal neurons). Unlike primary otolith afferents, however, central neurons often exhibited significant spatiotemporal (noncosine) tuning properties and a wide variety of response dynamics to translation. To characterize the pattern of SCC inputs to otolith + canal neurons, their rotational maximum sensitivity vectors were computed using exclusively responses during earth-vertical axis rotations (EVA). Maximum sensitivity vectors were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple SCCs. These neurons were also tested with earth-horizontal axis rotations (EHA), which would activate

  19. Reduction of benzimidazole resistance in established Haemonchus contortus populations in goats using a single infection with a benzimidazole-susceptible isolate.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Villegas-Pérez, S L

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study in goats evaluated the effect of superimposing a single artificial infection with a benzimidazole (BZ)-susceptible Haemonchus contortus isolate upon established H. contortus populations of known BZ resistance by measuring the phenotypic BZ resistance of eggs collected from faeces before and after re-infection. Two H. contortus isolates, one benzimidazole resistant (BZR) and the other susceptible (BZS), were used to infect worm-free goats. Eight goats were initially infected with 2000 third-stage larvae (L3). In each case the inoculum contained a pre-determined proportion of the two isolates: 100% BZS (one goat), 75% BZS/25% BZR (two goats), 50% BZS/50% BZR (two goats), 25%BZS/75% BZR (two goats) and, finally, 100% BZR (one goat). The phenotypic BZ susceptibility of the H. contortus population formed in each goat after the first infection was determined on days 30 and 36 post-infection using an egg-hatch assay (EHA) that estimated the concentration of thiabendazole (TBZ) required for 95% inhibition of larval hatching (EC(95)) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). On day 49 post-infection, goats were re-infected with 2000 L3 of the BZS isolate alone. A second set of EHA bioassays was performed 28 days and 34 days after re-infection. The first infection protocol produced three populations classified as BZS (EC(95) 0.055-0.065 μg TBZ/ml) while four were categorized as BZR (EC(95) 0.122-0.344 μg TBZ/ml). The status of one other population could not be determined. After re-infection with BZS L3, the number of susceptible populations increased to six (EC(95) 0.043-0.074 μg TBZ/ml) while the remaining two were deemed resistant (EC(95) 0.114-119 μg TBZ/ml). Re-infection with BZS L3 thereby reduced the resistance status of most H. contortus populations. PMID:25226395

  20. Biofilm Formation, Virulence Gene Profiles, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Nine Serogroups of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaying; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Johnson, Roger P; Chen, Jinding; Hou, Hongman; Zhang, Gongliang; Niu, Yan D

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the phenotype and genotype of 36 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from humans, ovines, or bovines, including the top 6 (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) and three other serogroups implicated in serious illness (O91, O113, and O128). Biofilms were formed by all strains with intermediate to strong biofilm producers (n = 24) more common at 22°C than at 37°C (p < 0.001) and 48 and 72 h (p < 0.001) than 24 h of incubation time. Biofilm-forming potential differed by serogroup and origin with O113 and human strains exhibiting the highest potential (p < 0.001). Biofilm-associated genes, csgA/csgD/crl/fimH (100%), flu (94%), rpoS (92%), ehaA(α) (89%), and cah (72%), were most prevalent, while mlrA (22%) and ehaA(β) (14%) were least prevalent, although there was no clear compliment of genes associated with strains exhibiting the greatest biofilm-forming capacity. Among 12 virulence genes screened, iha and ehxA were present in 92% of the strains. The occurrence of stx1 in the top 6 serogroups (8/12, 67%) did not differ (p = 0.8) from other serogroups (17/24, 71%), but stx2 was less likely (confidence interval [CI] = 0.14-1.12; p = 0.04) to be in the former (9/24, 38%) than the latter (9/12, 75%). Excluding serogroups, O91 and O121, at least one strain per serogroup was resistant to between three and six antimicrobials. Streptomycin (31%), sulfisoxazole (31%), and tetracycline (25%) resistance was most common and was 35-50% less likely (p < 0.05) in human than animal strains. All non-O157 STEC strains were able to form biofilms on an abiotic surface, with some exhibiting resistance to multiple antimicrobials. Potential as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes may be another hazard of biofilms in food-processing plants. As a result, future strategies to control these pathogens may include measures to prevent biofilms. PMID:27023165

  1. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Work during the past three years has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution and the increased crosslinking of the Coflon material using Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a plethora of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed on powdered PVDF in a modified Fluid A, which we will call A-2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures.

  2. Prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Lewis, Tom; Freeman, Julia; de Stefani, Alberta; Matiasek, Lara; Blott, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness (CSD) and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie. Entire litters of Border Collies that presented to the Animal Health Trust (1994-2008) for assessment of hearing status by brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) at 4-10 weeks of age were included. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using residual maximum likelihood (REML). Of 4143 puppies that met the inclusion criteria, 97.6% had normal hearing status, 2.0% were unilaterally deaf and 0.4% were bilaterally deaf. Heritability of deafness as a trichotomous trait (normal/unilaterally deaf/bilaterally deaf) was estimated at 0.42 using multivariate analysis. Genetic correlations of deafness with iris colour and merle coat colour were 0.58 and 0.26, respectively. These results indicate that there is a significant genetic effect on CSD in Border Collies and that some of the genes determining deafness also influence pigmentation phenotypes. PMID:20570536

  3. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-01-01

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks. PMID:26729123

  5. Survival analysis of cementless grit-blasted titanium total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, C; Kapandji, A I

    2001-04-01

    Although about 200000 cementless Zweymüller-Alloclassic total hip arthroplasties (THAs) were carried out worldwide in the last decade, the survival analysis of these prostheses was not available in the 2000 report of the Swedish national hip arthroplasty registry. We report a prospective survivorship analysis of 200 consecutive grit-blasted cementless Alloclassic primary THAs carried out since 1988. Using surgical, clinical and radiological endpoints for the stem and the threaded cup the ten-year survivorship was 91.5% for reoperation for any cause, 96.4% for hip pain (Merle d'Aubigné score < 5 points, clinical failure), 99.4% for definite aseptic loosening (radiological failure) and 99.3% for revision for aseptic loosening. Using the Swedish registry criteria of primary osteoarthritis and revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint, the survival rate of 99.1% at ten years for the subgroup of 157 Alloclassic THAs in osteoarthritis compares favourably with that of the best modern cemented hip replacements reported in the Swedish arthroplasty registry. PMID:11341429

  6. Custom Cementless Stem Improves Hip Function in Young Patients at 15-year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Flecher, Xavier; Pearce, Oliver; Parratte, Sebastien; Aubaniac, Jean-Manuel

    2009-01-01

    THA in young patients is challenging regarding restoration and survival because patients are young, active, and tend to have disturbed anatomy. We asked whether a three-dimensional custom cementless stem could restore hip function, decrease osteolysis and wear, and enhance stem survival in young patients. We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients (233 hips) younger than 50 years (mean, 40 years) at a followup of 5 to 16 years (mean, 10 years). The Merle D’Aubigné-Postel and Harris hip scores improved at last followup. No thigh pain was recorded for any of the patients; 187 of the 212 patients (88%) had full activity recovery, 206 had full range of motion, and 151 had a score greater than 80 points for all five categories of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome score. Five patients had femoral osteolysis not associated with pain. With revision for any reason as an end point, the survivorship was 87% (range, 77%–97%) at 15 years, and considering stem revision only, the survivorship was 93% (confidence interval, 90%–97%) at 15 years. Our data compare favorably with those from series using standard cementless stems at the same followup with a high percentage of patients achieving functional restoration and a low rate of complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19690930

  7. Long-term results of the Wagner cone prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schraml, Annemarie; Hohenberger, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    The Wagner cone prosthesis is indicated in uncemented total hip replacement of cases with cylinder-shaped femurs, deformed femurs, femurs with increased antetorsion, and in conditions of intramedullary bony scar tissue after previous osteotomies. The objective of this study is to present long-term results. From January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1995, 132 implantations were made with the Wagner cone prosthesis. We report the clinical and radiographic results of 94 cone prostheses with a mean observation period of 11.5 years. The Merle d’Aubigné score improved from a preoperative mean value of 8.8 to a postoperative mean of 16.3. The radiographic evaluation revealed 32 cases with cortical hypertrophy, 73 cases with atrophy of the proximal femur, and 18 cases with complete pedestal formation. Radiolucencies over Gruen zones 1 and 7 occurred in 42 cases; only zone 1 was affected in 24 cases. Complications included three deep infections, three acetabular revisions, five total joint revisions, one recurrent luxation, and three heterotopic ossifications. In spite of the fact that the examined cohort often included patients who had undergone multiple previous operations (a maximum of six) of the proximal femur or the acetabulum, the long-term results of the Wagner cone prostheses were very promising. PMID:17932669

  8. [Metal spongiosa endoprostheses for surgical revision of the hip joint].

    PubMed

    Lütten, C; Lorenz, H; Thomas, W

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of 60 revision operations which were carried out on hip joints with mainly aseptic loosened cemented endoprosthesis and which also had, to some extent, distinct macrophagic induced osteolysis zones, it could be shown that implants with a metal spongiosa surface structure offer a good chance of an enduring revitalisation in the anchorage position and, thereby, are able to achieve a permanently stable endoprosthesis fixation. The expansion defects could be filled by means of homologous or autologous spongiosa transplantation. The post-operative X-ray check-up showed a vital inward-growing healing. All the endoprosthesis remained in situ during the follow-up examination period of, on average, 12.1 months. In accordance with the Merle D'Aubigne hip evaluation scheme, 43.3% showed an excellent result; 40% a good one; 13.3% were satisfactory; and only 3.4% showed a bad result. Major complications which occurred were: two intra-operative femoral stem fractures which had to be taken care of osteosynthetically; a repeat operation which had to take place during the first post-operative week because of a dislocation of the socket cup; and a luxation which was revised under narcosis. In spite of an increased periarticular ossification's ratio in revision operations, second-class ossification only occurred in 16.7% of all cases and third-class ossification did not occur at all. PMID:2140646

  9. [Results of surgical treatment of pelvic fractures in polytraumatized patients].

    PubMed

    Roder, J D; Stübinger, B; Gmeinwieser, J; Müller, E; Claudi, B F

    1988-06-01

    High-speed accidents involving automobiles and two-wheeled vehicles with resultant entrapment and crush injuries have led to an ever-increasing incidence of pelvic fracture within the realm of multiple trauma. Between the years 1982 and 1986 ninety-eight cases of pelvic fracture were operatively stabilised by the Department of Surgery and the Outpatient Department of the Technical University, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich, West Germany. This paper is a report on fifty-five of these patients who were discovered to have suffered additional multitrauma. Independent from those patients found to have sustained multitraumatisation, twenty-four cases of isolated acetabulum fracture as well as four instances of pelvic ring fracture and one fracture of the pelvic brim were also documented. Combinations of the above mentioned fractures were uncovered in twenty-six patients. With fifty-four of the fracture injuries, osteosynthesis was carried out while in one case primary alloarthroplasty was deemed necessary. Following a mean post-treatment period of twenty-six months forty-five of the patients were objectively evaluated for results of treatment according to the methodology of Merle d'Aubigne. 70% of those patients assessed were rated with a "good" result. At the time of follow-up thirty-five (78%) of the forty-five reexamined individuals reported to be once again employed. Early operative treatment along with internal stabilisation and prompt initiation of physiotherapy have proved decisive in obtaining a favourable postoperative result. PMID:2900595

  10. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  11. Asymptotic Stability of High-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côte, Raphaël; Muñoz, Claudio; Pilod, Didier; Simpson, Gideon

    2016-05-01

    We prove that solitons (or solitary waves) of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, a physically relevant high dimensional generalization of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation appearing in Plasma Physics, and having mixed KdV and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) dynamics, are strongly asymptotically stable in the energy space. We also prove that the sum of well-arranged solitons is stable in the same space. Orbital stability of ZK solitons is well-known since the work of de Bouard [Proc R Soc Edinburgh 126:89-112, 1996]. Our proofs follow the ideas of Martel [SIAM J Math Anal 157:759-781, 2006] and Martel and Merle [Math Ann 341:391-427, 2008], applied for generalized KdV equations in one dimension. In particular, we extend to the high dimensional case several monotonicity properties for suitable half-portions of mass and energy; we also prove a new Liouville type property that characterizes ZK solitons, and a key Virial identity for the linear and nonlinear part of the ZK dynamics, obtained independently of the mixed KdV-NLS dynamics. This last Virial identity relies on a simple sign condition which is numerically tested for the two and three dimensional cases with no additional spectral assumptions required. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and different nonlinearities could be obtained after a suitable local well-posedness theory in the energy space, and the verification of a corresponding sign condition.

  12. Modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy in the management of nonunion of a femoral neck fracture following failed osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Magu, N K; Singla, R; Rohilla, R; Gogna, P; Mukhopadhyay, R; Singh, A

    2014-09-01

    We report the outcome of 39 patients who underwent a modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy for nonunion of a femoral neck fracture following failed osteosynthesis. There were 31 men and eight women with a mean age of 47.2 years (34 to 59). By Pauwels' classification, there were 11 Type II fractures and 28 Type III fractures. The mean follow-up was 7.9 years (2 to 19). In the 11 patients whose initial treatment had been osteotomy, union was achieved in nine (81.8%). In 28 patients whose initial treatment had been with a lag screw or a dynamic hip screw, union was achieved in 27 (96.4%). Limb lengths were equalised in 14 of 16 patients (87.5%) with pre-operative shortening. The mean neck-shaft angle improved significantly from 100.5° (80° to 120°) to 131.6° (120° to 155°) (p = 0.004). The mean modified Harris hip score was 85.6 points (70 to 97) and the mean modified Merle d'Aubigné score was 14.3 (11 to 18). Good to excellent functional outcomes were achieved in 32 patients (88.8%). A modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy is a reliable method of treating ununited fractures of the femoral neck following failed osteosynthesis: coxa vara and shortening can also simultaneously be addressed. PMID:25183590

  13. College Industrial Park : An Innovative Approach to Energy Conservation Through the Use of Geothermal Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon Institute of Technology . Geo-Heat Center; William E. Nork, Inc.

    1986-11-18

    Geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology campus and Merle West Medical Center has been discharged to an open drainage ditch adjacent to the City's College Industrial Park since 1964. Over the past few years there has been increasing concern for conservation and preservation of the geothermal aquifers in Klamath Falls, Oregon. An effective way of improving the energy utilization is to cascade the approximately 130/sup 0/F effluent for heating buildings in the industrial park and disposal of the effluent in an existing injection well. An aquifer stress test was performed using the 1500 foot well in the industrial park. Based on the specific capacity, data indicate that the well is capable of accepting an injection rate of at least 700 gpm of the thermal effluent. A plume of degraded water will develop down-gradient of the well. However, the plume is expected to bypass nearby water supply wells and will have no impact on OIT and MWMC space heating wells.

  14. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.; Thornton, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    Work has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution of the Coflon material using a dual detector Gel Permeation Analysis. Again these changes may result in variation in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-Ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed in a modified Fluid G, which we will call G2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures, 70 C, 110 C, and 130 C. The primary purpose of the pressure tests in Fluid G2 was to further elucidate the aging mechanism of PVDF degradation.

  15. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  16. Comparison of 10-year clinical wear of annealed and remelted highly cross-linked polyethylene: A propensity-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hamai, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Mashima, Naohiko; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Kamada, Tomomi; Motomura, Goro; Imai, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Miura, Hiromasa; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-06-01

    No previous studies comparing the clinical wear rates of the two different kinds of cross-linked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (XLPE), annealed and remelted, are available. We compared the creep and steady wear rates of 36 matched pairs (72 hips in total) adjusting for baseline characteristics with propensity score matching techniques. Zirconia femoral heads with 26-mm diameter were used in all cases. The femoral-head cup penetration was measured digitally on radiographs. Significantly greater creep (p=0.006) was detected in the remelted (0.234mm) than annealed (0.159mm) XLPE. However, no significant difference (p=0.19) was found between the steady wear rates (0.003 and 0.008mm/year, respectively) of the annealed and remelted XLPE. Multiple regression analyses showed that remelted XLPE is significant independent variable (p<0.001) that is positively associated with creep. However, the patient age and body weight, cup size, the liner thickness, cup inclination, follow-up periods, and postoperative Merle d'Aubigné hip score had no significant effects (p>0.05) on the steady wear rates. No patients exhibited above the osteolysis threshold of 0.1mm/year, progressive radiolucencies, osteolysis, or polyethylene fracture. This propensity-matched cohort study document no significant difference in wear resistant performances of annealed and remelted XLPE over an average period of 10 years. PMID:26751705

  17. Cementless bulk alumina socket: preliminary results at 6 years.

    PubMed

    Hamadouche, M; Nizard, R S; Meunier, A; Bizot, P; Sedel, L

    1999-09-01

    To avoid polyethylene wear observed in total hip replacement, an alumina-alumina combination has been used since 1977. The aim of this study is to report the results of a hybrid alumina-alumina total hip arthroplasty with a cementless press-fit bulk alumina socket and a cemented titanium alloy stem in 55 patients (62 hips) operated on between 1982 and 1990. The bearing surfaces were a 32-mm alumina head articulating within the alumina socket. Four failures occurred: 3 aseptic loosenings of the socket and 1 femoral head fracture. Considering aseptic loosening as the endpoint, the survival rate was 93.2% after 6 years. At a mean of 72.1 months' follow-up, 92.4% of the surviving hips were graded as very good or good using the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel hip score. Radiolucent lines were observed on the acetabular side in 68.1 of the hips. The future of this interface, which is probably fibrous, remains questionable. With the exception of 1 femoral head fracture, all revisions were related to failure of the bony fixation of the socket, and no problem was encountered related to the alumina-alumina friction coupling. Alumina sockets with other types of cementless fixation have therefore been designed and are presently under clinical investigation. PMID:10512442

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE SEGMENTAL IMPACTION OF FEMORAL HEAD FOLLOWING AN ACETABULAR FRACTURE SURGICALLY MANAGED

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Carina; Daniachi, Daniel; Keiske Ono, Nelson; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Riccioli, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Correlate the postoperative radiographic evaluation with variables accompanying acetabular fractures in order to determine the predictive factors for segmental impaction of femoral head. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medial files of patients submitted to open reduction surgery with internal acetabular fixation. Within approximately 35 years, 596 patients were treated for acetabular fractures; 267 were followed up for at least two years. The others were excluded either because their follow up was shorter than the minimum time, or as a result of the lack of sufficient data reported on files, or because they had been submitted to non-surgical treatment. The patients were followed up by one of three surgeons of the group using the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel clinical scales as well as radiological studies. Results: Only tow studied variables-age and amount of postoperative reductionshowed statistically significant correlation with femoral head impaction. Conclusions: The quality of reduction-anatomical or with up to 2mm residual deviation-presents a good radiographic evolution, reducing the potential for segmental impaction of the femoral head, a statistically significant finding. PMID:27004191

  19. A Unifying Concept of Uveal Pigment Cell Distribution and Dissemination Based on an Animal Model: Insights into Ocular Melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Christoph; Wackernagel, Werner; Grinninger, Petra; Mayer, Christoph; Schwab, Katharina; Langmann, Gerald; Richtig, Erika; Wedrich, Andreas; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Zalaudek, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented cells are derived from neural crest cells, which migrate along the peripheral nerve sheets into their specific final region. During their migration, cells progressively acquire pigment-producing capabilities, maturation, and the shape of melanocytes. These insights, along with specific clinical characteristics of melanocytic nevi, have led to new concepts of cutaneous, periocular, and iris nevogenesis. To further elucidate the specific ocular embryogenic melanoblast distribution and dissemination - that could explain the distinct distribution of uveal melanocytic neoplasms - we investigated the ocular pigmentation of dogs affected by a specific mutation called Merle, which results in either pigment- (wild type) or non-pigment- (mutated type) producing cells. Based on our observations, we propose a unifying concept of uveal pigment cell distribution and dissemination, which postulates melanoblast migration and maturation following the trigeminal V1 branch and, later, their entrance into the eye along the ciliary nerves and their finest iris branches. Our concept provides an explanation not only for the specific distribution of ocular melanocytic lesions, including uveal and iris nevi, but also for the different locations depending on the metastatic potential of the ocular melanoma. Though speculative, the higher metastatic potential of posterior uveal melanomas compared to iris melanomas may be related to a less differentiated stage in the maturation of migrating melanocytes in the posterior segment compared to the anterior segment of the eye. However, there is a need of further studies focusing on cell differentiation markers of melanocytes at different locations in the eye. PMID:27002320

  20. Changes in the radiological measurements of the tibiofibular syndesmal area in patients with Weber C ankle fractures who were treated with open reduction, internal fixation, and transyndesmal screw.

    PubMed

    Jasqui-Remba, S; Torres-Gómez, A; Salas-Morales, G A; Hernández-Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    The tibiofibular syndesmosis provides stability to the ankle mortise. The ankle syndesmosis is compromised in all Weber C type injuries. The radiographic method described by Merle DAubigné considers the bony relationships as a measure of syndesmotic widening. We sought to investigate whether the patients with a C type ankle fracture treated with ORIF and placement of a transyndesmal screw have an increment of the tibiofibular space and decrease of the tibiofibular overlap after the transyndesmal screw is removed. Our sample included 52 patients with Weber C ankle fractures treated by ORIF and transyndesmal screw at a level II trauma center. We measured the tibiofibular clear space and tibiofibular overlap in each phase of the treatment. The transyndesmal screw was removed at day 55.56 (± 21.83). We found an increase of the tibiofibular overlap of 0.20 mm (± 2.29, p = 0.532); and 0.21 mm (± 0.97, p = 0.146) in the tibiofibular clear space. The changes of 2.38% in the tibiofibular overlap and 5.29% in the tibiofibular clear space between the postoperative and post-removal periods were not statistically significant. After removal of the syndesmal screw, there is a slight radiographic broadening of the syndesmosis; however, it is small and statistically not significant. PMID:27403518

  1. A review of the New Caledonian Arpactophilus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae).

    PubMed

    Breitkreuz, Laura C V; Ohl, Michael; Engel, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The diverse and unique fauna of the apoid wasp genus Arpactophilus Smith (Pemphredoninae: Stigmini: Spilomenina) occurring in New Caledonia is reviewed. The previously documented diversity of 17 species is expanded to a total of 48, with 31 new species described and figured from across the main island. The new species proposed here are: Arpactophilus arha, A. arhoe, A. bwatoo, A. caac, A. cemuhi, A. drehu, A. drubea, A. fagauvea, A. futuna, A. fwai, A. haveke, A. iaai, A. jawe, A. kumak, A. merle, A. nemi, A. nengone, A. nere, A. numee, A. nyelayu, A. orowe, A. paici, A. pije, A. pwaamei, A. pwapwa, A. tayo, A. tiri, A. vamale, A. xaracuu, A. xaragure, and A. yuanga, spp. nov. Diagnoses are provided for those previously described species and a key to the fauna presented, although six species are considered of uncertain identity: A. arboreus Bohart, A. dolichocara Bohart, A. kraussi Bohart, A. nemoralis Bohart, A. nigripes Bohart, and A. sylvaticus Bohart. Brief comments are made regarding the unique species radiation occurring in New Caledonia and the potential for future discoveries in the systematics and biology of Australasian Arpactophilus. PMID:27395524

  2. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-01-01

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks. PMID:26729123

  3. Code Validation Utilizing Spectral Data Analysis of ICF Implosion Experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderson, Mark; Haynes, Donald, Jr.; Delamater, Norman; Regan, Sean

    2003-10-01

    Time-resolved spectral data from recent ICF implosion experiments of plastic microballoons containing deuterium fuel doped with argon is proving quite useful in checking the corresponding 1D and 2D simulation results from the multi-dimensional hydrocode RAGE [1]. Comparisons with experimental density and temperature determined by fitting theoretical argon line shapes generated by MERL [2] to experimental data show that the simulated density and temperature in the fuel are too large unless some seed for mixing is incorporated. We use a nonuniform drive as a seed for mix. The need for mix is further supported through simulations using the 1D Lagrangian code HYADES (no mix) that give neutron yields an order of magnitude larger than that seen in experiment. This work was performed under NLUF grant DE-FG03-01SF22224 and DOE contract No. W-7405-ENG-36. [1] Gittings, M.L., SAIC's adaptive grid Eulerian hydrocode, DNA Numerical Methods Symposium, Apr 1992. [2] Mancini, R.C., Kilcrease, D.P., Woltz, L.A., and Hooper Jr., C.F., Comput. Phy. Commun. 63, 314-322 (1991).

  4. Effects of Zoledronate on Mortality and Morbidity after Surgical Treatment of Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Ömer; Polat, Gökhan; Karademir, Gökhan; Tunç, Oytun Derya; Erdil, Mehmet; Tuncay, İbrahim; Şen, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of intertrochanteric femoral fractures on mortality, morbidity, and cost of zoledronate treatment in elderly patients treated by osteosynthesis. Based on Evans classification, 114 patients with unstable intertrochanteric femoral fractures were treated with osteosynthesis. After the surgical treatment of intertrochanteric fractures, the treatment group (M/F, 24/32; mean age, 76.7 ± SD years) received zoledronate infusion, and the control group (M/F, 20/38; mean age, 80.2 ± SD years) received placebo. Postoperative control visits were performed at 6-week, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month time points. Functional level of patients was evaluated by the modified Harris hip score and Merle d'Aubigné hip score. By 12 months, the mean HHS in treatment and control groups was 81.93 and 72.9, respectively. For time of death of the patients, mortality was found to be 57.1% (16/28) on the first 3 months and 92.9% (26/28) on the first six months. The mortality rate in the treatment and control groups was 14.3% (8/56) and 34.5% (20/58), respectively. The use of zoledronic acid after surgical treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients is a safe treatment modality which helps to reduce mortality, improves functional outcomes, and has less side effects with single dose use per year. PMID:27092280

  5. Good short-term outcome of primary total hip arthroplasty with cementless bioactive glass ceramic bottom-coated implants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Cementless total hip arthroplasty is currently favored by many orthopedic surgeons. The design of the porous surface is critically important for long-term fixation. We examined the clinical and radiographic outcome of the cementless titanium hip implant with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 109 hips (92 patients) that had undergone primary cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive glass ceramic bottom-coated implants. The mean follow-up period was 7 (3–9) years. Hip joint function was evaluated with the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel hip score, and radiographic changes were determined from anteroposterior radiographs. Results The mean hip score improved from 9.7 preoperatively to 17 at the final follow-up. The overall survival rate was 100% at 9 years, when radiographic loosening or revision for any reason was used as the endpoint. 3 stems in 2 patients subsided more than 3 mm vertically within 1 year after implantation. Radiographs of the interface of the stem and femur were all classified as bone ingrowth fixation. Conclusions The short-term results of this study show good outcome for cementless implants with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic. PMID:23043270

  6. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data for the Environmental Ageing of Tefzel (ETFE). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    In a similar approach to that used for the previously issued correlation report for Coflon (CAPP/M.10), this report aims to identify any correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological changes for Tefzel, using information supplied in other MERL and TRI project reports. Differences identified with Coflon behaviour will be of scientific interest as well as appropriate to project applications, as Tefzel and Coflon are chemical isomers. Owing to the considerable chemical resistance of Tefzel, much of its testing so far has been based on mechanical properties. Where changes have occurred, chemical analysis can now be targeted more effectively. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity, some crack growth resistance measurements, and other observations where significant. Fluids based on methanol and amine (Fluid G), a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases plus an aqueous amine solution (Fluid F), and an aromatic oil mix of heptane, cyclohexane, toluene and 1-propanol (Fluid I) have affected Tefzel to varying degrees, and are discussed in some detail herein.

  7. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data for the Environmental Ageing of Tefzel (ETFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    In a similar approach to that used for the previously issued correlation report for Coflon (CAPP/M.10), this report aims to identify any correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological changes for Tefzel, using information supplied in other MERL and TRI project reports (plus latest data which will be included in final reports for Phase 1). Differences identified with Coflon behaviour will be of scientific interest as well as appropriate to project applications, as Tefzel and Coflon are chemical isomers. Owing to the considerable chemical resistance of Tefzel, much of its testing so far has been based on mechanical properties. Where changes have occurred, chemical analysis can now be targeted more effectively. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity, and other observations where significant. Fluids based on methanol and amine (Fluid G), a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases plus an aqueous amine solution (Fluid F), and an aromatic oil mix of heptane, cyclohexane, toluene and I-propanol (Fluid 1) have affected Tefzel to varying degrees, and are discussed in some detail herein.

  8. Ten-year results with the Morscher press-fit cup: an uncemented, non-modular, porous-coated cup inserted without screws.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Guido; Lübbeke, Anne; Barea, Christophe; Roussos, Constantinos; Peter, Robin; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) with well designed cementless acetabular implants has shown excellent results. The purpose of this study was to assess our clinical and radiological outcomes using an uncemented cup. We conducted a prospective cohort study including all consecutive primary THAs performed with the Morscher press-fit cup, an uncemented non-modular acetabular component, between March 1996 and December 1998. Patients were evaluated at ten years with clinical and radiological follow-up, patient satisfaction and questionnaire assessment using the Harris hip score (HHS), Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, the UCLA score, the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12) and a visual analog scale. Five hundred sixty-one THAs were performed in 518 patients. At 120 months (± 7.3 months), 303 patients with 335 THAs were still available for follow-up. None of the patients had required cup revision for aseptic loosening. At ten years, the cup survivorship was 98.8% (95% CI 97.4-99.5) with cup revision for any cause as an endpoint. No radiolucencies were seen around the cups, but osteolytic defects involved 21 stems (8.3%). Mean total linear polyethylene wear was 0.9 mm. The Morscher acetabular replacement cup provides excellent results at ten years. There were no revisions for aseptic loosening of the cup, and no osteolytic defects were found around the cup. Patient satisfaction was high and the clinical results were very good. PMID:20524114

  9. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Adhesins.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Brian D; Torres, Alfredo G

    2014-06-01

    Adhesins are a group of proteins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) that are involved in the attachment or colonization of this pathogen to abiotic (plastic or steel) and biological surfaces, such as those found in bovine and human intestines. This review provides the most up-to-date information on these essential adhesion factors, summarizing important historical discoveries and analyzing the current and future state of this research. In doing so, the proteins intimin and Tir are discussed in depth, especially regarding their role in the development of attaching and effacing lesions and in EHEC virulence. Further, a series of fimbrial proteins (Lpf1, Lpf2, curli, ECP, F9, ELF, Sfp, HCP, and type 1 fimbria) are also described, emphasizing their various contributions to adherence and colonization of different surfaces and their potential use as genetic markers in detection and classification of different EHEC serotypes. This review also discusses the role of several autotransporter proteins (EhaA-D, EspP, Saa and Sab, and Cah), as well as other proteins associated with adherence, such as flagella, EibG, Iha, and OmpA. While these proteins have all been studied to varying degrees, all of the adhesins summarized in this article have been linked to different stages of the EHEC life cycle, making them good targets for the development of more effective diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:26103974

  10. Molecular structure, chemical synthesis, and antibacterial activity of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from drury (Hyphantria cunea).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Xiaolong; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous efforts to develop new antibiotics with new modes of actions. In this paper, cDNA encoding cecropin A was amplified from drury (Hyphantria cunea) (dHC) pupa fatbody total RNA using RT-PCR. The full-length dHC-cecropin A cDNA encoded a protein of 63 amino acids with a predicted 26-amino acid signal peptide and a 37-amino acid functional domain. We synthesized the antibacterial peptide (ABP) from the 37-amino acid functional domain (ABP-dHC-cecropin A), and amidated it via the C-terminus. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed its molecular weight to be 4058.94. The ABP-dHC-cecropin A was assessed in terms of its protein structure using bioinformatics and CD spectroscopy. The protein's secondary structure was predicted to be α-helical. In an antibacterial activity analysis, the ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli K12D31 and Agrobacterium EHA105. PMID:25241628

  11. Production of herbicide-resistant medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza transformed with the bar gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Yang, Shi Xin; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Dong Qing; Zhang, Yong; Deng, Ke Jun; Zheng, Xue Lian

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we successfully performed Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Salvia miltiorrhiza and produced herbicide-resistant transformants. Leaf discs of S. miltiorrhiza were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 harboring pCAMBIA 3301. The pCAMBIA 3301 includes an intron-containing gus reporter and a bar selection marker. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed which consists of herbicide resistance and gus expression. Here, we put more attention to the screening step of herbicide resistance. The current study provides an efficient screening system for the transformed plant of S. miltiorrhiza harboring bar gene. To determine the most suitable phosphinothricin concentration for plant selection, non-transformed leaf discs were grown on selection media containing six different phosphinothricin concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mg/l). Based on the above results of non-transformed calluses, the sensitivity of phosphinothricin (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 mg/l) was tested in the screening of transgenic S. miltiorrhiza. We identified that 0.6 mg/l phosphinothricin should be suitable for selecting putatively transformed callus because non-transformed callus growth was effectively inhibited under this concentrations. When sprayed with Basta, the transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants were tolerant to the herbicide. Hence, we report successful transformation of the bar gene conferring herbicide resistance to S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26364310

  12. Disruption of the Operon Encoding Ehb Hydrogenase Limits Anabolic CO2 Assimilation in the Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Porat, Iris; Kim, Wonduck; Hendrickson, Erik L.; Xia, Qiangwei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tiansong; Taub, Fred; Moore, Brian C.; Anderson, Iain J.; Hackett, Murray; Leigh, John A.; Whitman, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a mesophilic archaeon that reduces CO2 to methane with H2 or formate as an energy source. It contains two membrane-bound energy-conserving hydrogenases, Eha and Ehb. To determine the role of Ehb, a deletion in the ehb operon was constructed to yield the mutant, strain S40. Growth of S40 was severely impaired in minimal medium. Both acetate and yeast extract were necessary to restore growth to nearly wild-type levels, suggesting that Ehb was involved in multiple steps in carbon assimilation. However, no differences in the total hydrogenase specific activities were found between the wild type and mutant in either cell extracts or membrane-purified fractions. Methanogenesis by resting cells with pyruvate as the electron donor was also reduced by 30% in S40, suggesting a defect in pyruvate oxidation. CO dehydrogenase/acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthase and pyruvate oxidoreductase had higher specific activities in the mutant, and genes encoding these enzymes, as well as AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase, were expressed at increased levels. These observations support a role for Ehb in anabolic CO2 assimilation in methanococci. PMID:16452419

  13. Heuristics for multiobjective optimization of two-sided assembly line systems.

    PubMed

    Jawahar, N; Ponnambalam, S G; Sivakumar, K; Thangadurai, V

    2014-01-01

    Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems. PMID:24790568

  14. Development of antibiotic marker-free creeping bentgrass resistance against herbicides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Won; Kim, Ki-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Seog; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass plants (Agrostis stolonifera L.) without antibiotic-resistant markers were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Embryogenic callus tissues were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105, harboring the bar and the CP4-EPSPS genes for bialaphos and glyphosate resistance. Phosphinothricin-resistant calli and plants were selected. Soil-grown plants were obtained at 14-16 weeks after transformation. Genetic transformation of the selected, regenerated plants was validated by PCR. Southern blot analysis revealed that at least one copy of the transgene was integrated into the genome of the transgenic plants. Transgene expression was confirmed by Northern blot. CP4-EPSPS protein was detected by ELISA. Transgenic plants remained green and healthy when sprayed with Basta, containing 0.5% glufosinate ammonium or glyphosate. The optimized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method resulted in an average of 9.4% transgenic plants. The results of the present study suggest that the optimized marker-free technique could be used as an effective and reliable method for routine transformation, which may facilitate the development of varieties of new antibiotic-free grass species. PMID:21173055

  15. Transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, M; Ishizaki, T; Sato, H

    2004-03-01

    An efficient procedure is described for the transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens via callus regeneration. Calli derived from ovules were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA101 and LBA4404, which harbored the binary vector plasmids pIG121Hm and pTOK233, respectively. These plasmids contain the beta-glucuronidase gene ( gusA) as a reporter gene and the hygromycin phosphotransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase II ( nptII) genes as selective markers. Inoculated calli were first plated for 4 weeks on medium containing cefotaxime to eliminate bacteria, following which time transformed cells were selected on medium that contained 20 mg/l hygromycin. A histochemical assay for GUS activity revealed that hygromycin-based selection was completed after 8 weeks. The integration of the T-DNA of pIG121Hm and pTOK233 into the genome of the cells was confirmed by PCR analysis. Efficient shoot regeneration from the transformed calli was observed on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine after about 5 months of culture. The presence of the gusA and nptII genes in the genomic DNA of regenerated plants was detected by means of PCR and PCR-Southern hybridization, and the expression of these transgenes was verified by reverse transcription-PCR. PMID:14615906

  16. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India. PMID:19243636

  17. In vivo assessment of closantel ovicidal activity in Fasciola hepatica eggs.

    PubMed

    Solana, María Victoria; Mera y Sierra, Roberto; Scarcella, Silvana; Neira, Gisela; Solana, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites is currently a worldwide problem. Fasciola hepatica is a cosmopolitan parasite which causes considerable loss in sheep and cattle production systems all over the world. Chemotherapy is currently the main tool available for its control. The intensive use of triclabendazole, the drug of choice for more than 20 years, has resulted in the development of resistant strains. The therapeutic options are adulticides such as closantel (salicylanilide anthelmintic that binds extensively to plasma albumin) to treat chronic fascioliasis in sheep, and cattle. In the present work, an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and morphometric studies were used to evaluate in vivo the ovicidal activity and morphology F. hepatica eggs, recovered from closantel treated sheep collected at different time intervals post treatment. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed in egg morphometry between the control and the treated groups in all the parameters studied. Eggs recovered from treated animals tend to be narrower and longer. Significant differences were found in the embryonation and hatching of eggs between 36 h post treatment (32, 5%) vs. approximately 85% in control, 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Our results confirm that closantel affects in vivo the normal development of the eggs. As one of the first effects, this drug affects the performance of the trematode's reproductive physiology. Even though closantel treated animals may still eliminate eggs in the first days post treatment, these are not viable. PMID:26551411

  18. Methods to sustain drug efficacy in helminth control programmes.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M

    2003-05-01

    Assessment of the efficacy of anthelminthic treatment in public health is a broad concept, which goes beyond parasitological methods and should be clearly defined according to several indicators of morbidity. Several factors may influence the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs. The quality of drug is an issue of great importance, especially when produced locally as a generic product and used in large-scale chemotherapy-based control programmes. Other factors include the drug-patient interaction, the host-parasite relationship, the diagnostic method used, genetic variations between parasite strains and induced drug resistance. Veterinary scientists have warned that drug resistance can be selected through frequent mass treatment of sheep and goats and have developed a body of knowledge on evaluation of efficacy and detection of resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. In soil-transmitted nematodes infections of humans, the egg reduction rate (ERR), the egg hatch assay (EHA) and novel molecular biological techniques may be used to monitor drug efficacy in helminth control programmes and to detect early occurrence of resistance. Evidence of reduced drug efficacy of some anthelminthics has been suggested by recent studies and strategies to prevent or delay the emergence of drug resistance in human soil-transmitted nematodes. PMID:12745140

  19. Integrating terrestrial sequestration into a greenhouse gas management plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joel R.; Sampson, Neil

    Terrestrial sequestration has the potential to contribute to national and global greenhouse gas management strategies. However, spatial and temporal variability in sequestration potential and in the implementation of sequestering technologies introduces serious questions about how to resolve uncertainties and raise the credibility of terrestrial sequestration. Carbon flux in terrestrial ecosystems without land use change generally is less than one ton CO2e/ha and driven primarily by precipitation. Land use and management changes are relatively common and are driven by economics and social considerations both in the private and public sectors. Implementing a credible greenhouse gas management program that integrates terrestrial sequestration along with other sources and sinks requires a systematic approach to identify and quantitatively monitor changes in the drivers of terrestrial sequestration. A credible terrestrial sequestration monitoring program will require close attention to integrating direct measurement of soils and vegetation, statistically valid scaling, remote sensing, and computer modeling. Predicting changes at a level of confidence useful to policy development will also require an understanding of how land owners and managers respond to private sector price signals and government conservation initiatives.

  20. Determination of adhesin gene sequences in, and biofilm formation by, O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from different sources.

    PubMed

    Biscola, Franciele Tafarello; Abe, Cecilia Mari; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina Cabilio

    2011-04-01

    Biofilm formation by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been associated with the expression of different adhesins (type 1 fimbria, curli, Ag43, Cah, and EhaA). In this study, biofilm formation and the presence of adhesin-related gene sequences were determined by PCR in 18 O157 strains and 33 non-O157 strains isolated from different sources (human, animal, food, and water). The expression of different adhesins was also assessed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Congo red agar plates, and mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA) assay. Biofilm formation occurred in 5/18 (28%) O157 STEC strains and 17/33 (51%) non-O157 STEC strains from different serotypes and sources, when the assays were performed at 28°C for 48 h. Among the non-O157 biofilm-producing isolates, 12/17 (71%) expressed type 1 fimbriae and 11/17 (65%) expressed curli and produced cellulose, while 8/17 (47%) were considered to be Ag43(+) by RT-PCR. Among O157 strains, a close correlation was observed between biofilm formation and expression of curli and cellulose. In non-O157 strains, it seems that, in addition to the presence of curli, the ability to form biofilm is associated with the presence of other factors such as type 1 fimbriae and autotransporter proteins, which may contribute to the persistence of these organisms in the environment. PMID:21317257

  1. Supramolecular complexes of multivalent cholesterol-containing polymers to solubilize carbon nanotubes in apolar organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Nguendia, Jules Zeuna; Zhong, Weiheng; Fleury, Alexandre; De Grandpré, Guillaume; Soldera, Armand; Sabat, Ribal Georges; Claverie, Jerome P

    2014-05-01

    Copolymers of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and cholesteryloxycarbonyl-2-hydroxymethacrylate (CEM) were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Supramolecular complexes of these copolymers with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were soluble in THF, toluene, and isooctane. The colloidal solutions remained stable for months without aggregation. The rationale for the choice of CEM was based on the high adsorption energy of cholesterol on the CNT surface, as computed by DFT calculations. Adsorption isotherms were experimentally measured for copolymers of various architectures (statistical, diblock, and star copolymers), thereby demonstrating that 2-5 cholesterol groups were adsorbed per polymer chain. Once the supramolecular complex had dried, the CNTs could be easily resolubilized in isooctane without the need for high-power sonication and in the absence of added polymer. Analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the CNTs were devoid of bundles. The supramolecular complexes could also be employed in an inverse emulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) in isooctane and dodecane, thereby leading to the formation of a continuous polymeric sheath around the CNTs. Thus, this technique leads to the formation of very stable dispersions in non-polar organic solvents, without altering the fundamental properties of the CNTs. PMID:24596341

  2. [Construction of transgenic tobacco expressing popW and analysis of its biological phenotype].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Liu, Hongxia; Cao, Jing; Wang, Chao; Guo, Jianhua

    2014-04-01

    In a previous study, we cloned popW from Ralstonia solanacearum strain ZJ3721, coding PopW, a new harpin protein. The procaryotically expressed PopW can induce resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), enhance growth and improve quality of tobacco, when sprayed onto tobacco leaves. Here, we constructed an expression vector pB- popW by cloning popW into the bionary vector pBI121 and transformed it into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 via freeze-thaw method. Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum cv. Xanthi nc.) transformation was conducted by infection of tobacco leaf discs with recombinant A. tumefaciens. After screening on MS medium containing kanamycin, PCR and RT-PCR analysis, 21 T3 lines were identified as positive transgenic. Genomic intergration and expression of the transferred gene were determined by PCR and RT-PCR. And GUS staining analysis indicated that the protein expressed in transgenic tobacco was bioactive and exhibited different expression levels among lines. Disease bioassays showed that the transgenic tobacco had enhanced resistance to TMV with biocontrol efficiency up to 54.25%. Transgenic tobacco also exhibited enhanced plant growth, the root length of 15 d old seedlings was 1.7 times longer than that of wild type tobacco. 60 d after transplanting to pots, the height, fresh weight and dry weight of transgenic tobacco were 1.4, 1.7, 1.8 times larger than that of wild type tobacco, respectively. PMID:25195247

  3. Rural telemedicine infrastructure and services in the Department of Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez, Andrés; Dulcey, María F; Seoane, Joaquín; Shoemaker, Richard G; Villarroel, Valentín; López, Diego M; Simó, Javier

    2005-08-01

    The development of telemedicine programs for the public health network of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, (Department is the major political and territorial division of the country. The Department of Cauca is located on the Pacific coast in the southwest of the country.) would make it possible to satisfy many identified needs such as medical coordination, continuing education, epidemiologic surveillance, patient referral and counterreferral, and an end to the feeling of isolation among professionals who work in rural health centers. Nevertheless, geographic, economic, and social difficulties, and the lack of a telecommunication infrastructure in areas with these characteristics present a challenge of such magnitude that the majority of existing telemedicine projects in Colombia have been centered in urban or other areas which present fewer difficulties. In the municipality of Silvia, the University of Cauca has established a prototype network using the "Hispano-American Health Link" (EHAS in Spanish) program technologies, which uses very high frequency (VHF) and wireless fidelity, (WiFi, a set of standards for wireless local area networks) radio systems for the deployment of low-cost voice and data networks. Over this network information access and exchange services have been developed, in order to meet the needs identified above. The objectives were to obtain information about the development of the project's activities and their possible impact. Project telecommunication network and information services are described, and the results and conclusions of the first evaluation are presented. PMID:16149891

  4. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed. PMID:18639982

  5. Impacts of Land Cover Change on the Carbon Dynamics in Indonesian Tropical Forested Wetlands- Mangroves and Peat Swamp Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Arifanti, V. B.; Basuki, I.; Kurnianto, S.; Novita, N.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical wetland forests including mangroves and lowland peat swamp forests contain among the highest carbon stocks of any ecosystem on the planet. This is largely due to the accumulation of deep organic rich soils which have been sequestering carbon for millennia. Depth of organic layers (peats) can exceed 3 m in mangrove and 10 m in the peat swamp forests. The ecosystem carbon stocks may exceed 2000 Mg/ha in mangroves and 5000 Mg/ha in peat swamp forests. Ironically, rates of deforestation of these tropical forests are among the highest in the tropics. With land cover change comes dramatic shifts in carbon stocks, net ecosystem productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. Land cover change results in carbon losses of practically all aboveground pools as well as losses arising from soil pools. Based upon studies where we have compared stock changes due to land use the carbon emissions arising from land cover change to shrimp ponds and oil palm have ranged from 800-3000 Mg CO2e/ha. The lowered carbon sequestration rates coupled with increased or similar emissions from decomposition results in an ecosystem shift from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Clearly the large carbon stocks, high rates of deforestation, and large emissions resulting from their degradation suggest that these ecosystems should receive great consideration in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  6. Bacterial Transposons Are Co-Transferred with T-DNA to Rice Chromosomes during Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Ryul; An, Gynheung

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely utilized for delivering a foreign gene into a plant’s genome. We found the bacterial transposon Tn5393 in transgenic rice plants. Analysis of the flanking sequences of the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) identified that a portion of the Tn5393 sequence was present immediately next to the end of the T-DNA. Because this transposon was present in A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, but not in EHA105 and GV3101, our findings indicated that Tn5393 was transferred from LBA4404 into the rice genome during the transformation process. We also noted that another bacterial transposon, Tn5563, is present in transgenic plants. Analyses of 331 transgenic lines revealed that 26.0% carried Tn5393 and 2.1% contained Tn5563. In most of the lines, an intact transposon was integrated into the T-DNA and transferred to the rice chromosome. More than one copy of T-DNA was introduced into the plants, often at a single locus. This resulted in T-DNA repeats of normal and transposon-carrying T-DNA that generated deletions of a portion of the T-DNA, joining the T-DNA end to the bacterial transposon. Based on these data, we suggest that one should carefully select the appropriate Agrobacterium strain to avoid undesirable transformation of such sequences. PMID:22570148

  7. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Fouche, Gerda; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Pauw, Elizabeth; Leboho, Tlabo; Wellington, Kevin W; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-01

    The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA). The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3%) at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%). The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cellular assay. PMID:27543148

  8. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Hooper, Sean; Lykidis, A; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla L.; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  9. Transformation of pecan and regeneration of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, G H; Leslie, C A; Dandekar, A M; Uratsu, S L; Yates, I E

    1993-09-01

    A gene transfer system developed for walnut (Juglans regia L.) was successfully applied to pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang] K. Koch). Repetitively embryogenic somatic embryos derived from open-pollinated seed of 'Elliott', 'Wichita', and 'Schley' were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain EHA 101/pCGN 7001, which contains marker genes for beta-glucuronidase activity and resistance to kanamycin. Several modifications of the standard walnut transformation techniques were tested, including a lower concentration of kanamycin and a modified induction medium, but these treatments had no measurable effect on efficiency of transformation. Nineteen of the 764 viable inoculated embryos produced transgenic subclones; 13 of these were from the line 'Elliott'6, 3 from 'Schley'5/3, and 3 from 'Wichita'9. Transgenic embryos of 'Wichita'9 germinated most readily and three subclones were successfully micropropagated. Three transgenic plants of one of these subclones were obtained by grafting the tissue cultured shoots to seedling pecan rootstock in the greenhouse. Gene insertion, initially detected by GUS activity, was confirmed by detection of integrated T-DNA sequences using Southern analysis. PMID:24201878

  10. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic plant and somaclone production through direct and indirect regeneration from leaves in Stevia rebaudiana with their glycoside profile.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Ur Rahman, Laiq; Shanker, Karuna; Singh, Manju

    2014-05-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA-105 harboring pCAMBIA 1304)-mediated transgenic plant production via direct regeneration from leaf and elite somaclones generation through indirect regeneration in Stevia rebaudiana is reported. Optimum direct regeneration frequency along with highest transformation frequency was found on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 1 mg/l NAA, while indirect regeneration from callus was obtained on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 2 mg/l NAA. Successful transfer of GUS-positive (GUS assay and PCR-based confirmation) transgenic as well as four somaclones up to glasshouse acclimatization has been achieved. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) profiling of transgenic and somaclonal plants showed a total of 113 bands, out of which 49 were monomorphic (43.36 %) and 64 were polymorphic (56.64 %). Transgenic plant was found to be closer to mother plant, while on the basis of steviol, stevioside, and rebaudioside A profile, somaclone S2 was found to be the best and showed maximum variability in ISSR profiling. PMID:24154495

  11. Studies on hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    YAGI, Tatsuhiko; HIGUCHI, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogenases are microbial enzymes which catalyze uptake and production of H2. Hydrogenases are classified into 10 classes based on the electron carrier specificity, or into 3 families, [NiFe]-family (including [NiFeSe]-subfamily), [FeFe]-family and [Fe]-family, based on the metal composition of the active site. H2 is heterolytically cleaved on the enzyme (E) to produce EHaHb, where Ha and Hb have different rate constants for exchange with the medium hydron. X-ray crystallography unveiled the three-dimensional structures of hydrogenases. The simplest [NiFe]-hydrogenase is a heterodimer, in which the large subunit bears the Ni-Fe center buried deep in the protein, and the small subunit bears iron-sulfur clusters, which mediate electron transfer between the Ni-Fe center and the protein surface. Some hydrogenases have additional subunit(s) for interaction with their electron carriers. Various redox states of the enzyme were characterized by EPR, FTIR, etc. Based on the kinetic, structural and spectroscopic studies, the catalytic mechanism of [NiFe]-hydrogenase was proposed to explain H2-uptake, H2-production and isotopic exchange reactions. PMID:23318679

  12. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  13. Effect of Various Acaricides on Hatchability of Eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Haque, M.; Jyoti; Singh, N. K.; Rath, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of commonly used acaricides (amitraz, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, and flumethrin) on the eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Ludhiana, Punjab, was evaluated by egg hatch assay (EHA). The regression graph of probit hatchability and per cent inhibition of hatching (IH%) of eggs was plotted against log values of concentration of various acaricides. All concentrations of flumethrin and amitraz caused complete inhibition of hatching, whereas a hatchability of 31.0 ± 6.1, 40.0 ± 5.2 and 19.3 ± 1.7% was only recorded at the highest concentration of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenvalerate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of the acaricide showed a significant effect on the IH% of eggs for cypermethrin (P < 0.01) and deltamethrin (P < 0.05) but was nonsignificant for fenvalerate. The slope of the regression curve of IH% was utilized for the calculation of the dose of various acaricides causing inhibition of hatching for 95% eggs (LC95) and the discriminating dose (DD). Results indicated that maximum DD was recorded for fenvalerate (2.136%), followed by cypermethrin (0.214%) and deltamethrin (0.118%). The results of the current study will be helpful in formulating effective control strategies against ticks. PMID:25057486

  14. Novel A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits carotid artery restenosis in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen-hua; Peng, Jing; Meng, Zhao-you; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jia-Lu; Huang, He-qing; Li, Li; Zeng, Wen; Wei, Yong; Zhu, Chu-Hong; Chen, Kang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although carotid angioplasty and stenting using an embolic protection device has been introduced as a less invasive carotid revascularization approach, in-stent restenosis limits its long-term efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to test the anti-restenosis effects of local stent-mediated delivery of the A20 gene in a porcine carotid artery model. Materials and methods The pCDNA3.1EHA20 was firmly attached onto stents that had been collagen coated and treated with N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol)propionate solution and anti-DNA immunoglobulin fixation. Anti-restenosis effects of modified vs control (the bare-metal stent and pCDNA3.1 void vector) stents were assessed by Western blot and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by morphological and inflammatory reaction analyses. Results Stent-delivered A20 gene was locally expressed in porcine carotids in association with significantly greater extent of re-endothelialization at day 14 and of neointimal hyperplasia inhibition at 3 months than stenting without A20 gene expression. Conclusion The A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits neointimal hyperplasia while promoting re-endothelialization and therefore constitutes a novel potential alternative to prevent restenosis while minimizing complications. PMID:27540277

  15. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.; Footen, K.J. ); Ravelonandro, M. . Station de Pathologie Vegetale)

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The number of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).

  16. Modelling metal accumulation using humic acid as a surrogate for plant roots.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Swartjes, Frank; Römkens, Paul; Groenenberg, Jan E; Wang, Peng; Lofts, Stephen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in roots was modelled with WHAM VII using humic acid (HA) as a surrogate for root surface. Metal accumulation was simulated as a function of computed metal binding to HA, with a correction term (E(HA)) to account for the differences in binding site density between HA and root surface. The approach was able to model metal accumulation in roots to within one order of magnitude for 95% of the data points. Total concentrations of Mn in roots of Vigna unguiculata, total concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd in roots of Pisum sativum, as well as internalized concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots of Lolium perenne, were significantly correlated to the computed metal binding to HA. The method was less successful at modelling metal accumulation at low concentrations and in soil experiments. Measured concentrations of Cu internalized in L. perenne roots were not related to Cu binding to HA modelled and deviated from the predictions by over one order of magnitude. The results indicate that metal uptake by roots may under certain conditions be influenced by conditional physiological processes that cannot simulated by geochemical equilibrium. Processes occurring in chronic exposure of plants grown in soil to metals at low concentrations complicate the relationship between computed metal binding to HA and measured metal accumulation in roots. PMID:25482978

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of corn (Zea mays L.) multiple shoots

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shi-liang; Masilamany, Pathmalojiny; Li, Wen-bin; Pauls, K. Peter

    2014-01-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated corn transformation method based on multiple shoot tissue cultures was developed, which is effective with a variety of corn inbred lines and standard binary vectors. Six factors that affected the success of corn transformation were tested, including A. tumefaciens strain, corn genotype, tissue culture growth stage, medium composition, co-culture temperature and surfactant treatment. Agropine-type bacteria (EHA 101 and AGL 1) were eightfold more effective than octopine-type strain for corn multi-shoot tissues transformation. The average frequency of Glucuronidase (GUS)-positive explants obtained from 14 corn genotypes ranged from 36% to 76%. L-proline (0.7 g L−1) in the co-culture medium apparently improved the frequency of transformation. The newly initiated multi-shoot tissues were most responsive to Agrobacterium infection. A positive correlation was found between multi-shoot tissue susceptibility to Agrobacterium and the proportion of cells in G1 phase. Transformants were identified by reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and by southern blot hybridization assays. The frequency of transformants was approximately 2% based on the number of multi-shoot explants co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. PMID:26019506

  18. A Context-Aware Interactive Health Care System Based on Ontology and Fuzzy Inference.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Wen-Hua

    2015-09-01

    In the present society, most families are double-income families, and as the long-term care is seriously short of manpower, it contributes to the rapid development of tele-homecare equipment, and the smart home care system gradually emerges, which assists the elderly or patients with chronic diseases in daily life. This study aims at interaction between persons under care and the system in various living spaces, as based on motion-sensing interaction, and the context-aware smart home care system is proposed. The system stores the required contexts in knowledge ontology, including the physiological information and environmental information of the person under care, as the database of decision. The motion-sensing device enables the person under care to interact with the system through gestures. By the inference mechanism of fuzzy theory, the system can offer advice and rapidly execute service, thus, implementing the EHA. In addition, the system is integrated with the functions of smart phone, tablet PC, and PC, in order that users can implement remote operation and share information regarding the person under care. The health care system constructed in this study enables the decision making system to probe into the health risk of each person under care; then, from the view of preventive medicine, and through a composing system and simulation experimentation, tracks the physiological trend of the person under care, and provides early warning service, thus, promoting smart home care. PMID:26265236

  19. EHEC Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Brian D.; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesins are a group of proteins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) that are involved in the attachment or colonization of this pathogen to abiotic (plastic or steel) and biological surfaces, such as those found in bovine and human intestines. This review provides the most up-to-date information on these essential adhesion factors, summarizing important historical discoveries and analyzing the current and future state of this research. In doing so, the proteins intimin and Tir are discussed in depth, especially regarding their role in the development of attaching and effacing lesions and in EHEC virulence. Further, a series of fimbrial proteins (Lpf1, Lpf2, curli, ECP, F9, ELF, Sfp, HCP, and type 1 fimbriae) are also described, emphasizing their various contributions to adherence and colonization of different surfaces and their potential use as genetic markers in detection and classification of different EHEC serotypes. This review also discusses the role of several autotransporter proteins (EhaA-D, EspP, Saa and Sab, and Cah), as well as other proteins associated with adherence, such as flagella, EibG, Iha, and OmpA. While these proteins have all been studied to varying degrees, all of the adhesins summarized in this chapter have been linked to different stages of the EHEC life cycle, making them good targets for the development of more effective diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25635238

  20. Acrylic-acid-functionalized PolyHIPE scaffolds for use in 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam S; Sano, Naoko; Przyborski, Stefan A; Cameron, Neil R

    2013-12-01

    This study describes the development of a functional porous polymer for use as a scaffold to support 3D hepatocyte culture. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) is prepared containing the monomers styrene (STY), divinylbenzene (DVB), and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) in the external oil phase and the monomer acrylic acid (Aa) in the internal aqueous phase. Upon thermal polymerization with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), the resulting porous polymer (polyHIPE) is found to have an open-cell morphology and a porosity of 89%, both suitable characteristics for 3D cell scaffold applications. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy reveals that the polyHIPE surface contained 7.5% carboxylic acid functionality, providing a useful substrate for subsequent surface modifications and bio-conjugations. Initial bio-compatibility assessments with human hepatocytes show that the acid functionality does not have any detrimental effect on cell adhesion. It is therefore believed that this material can be a useful precursor scaffold towards 3D substrates that offer tailored surface functionality for enhanced cell adhesion. PMID:24243821

  1. Heuristics for Multiobjective Optimization of Two-Sided Assembly Line Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jawahar, N.; Ponnambalam, S. G.; Sivakumar, K.; Thangadurai, V.

    2014-01-01

    Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems. PMID:24790568

  2. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation. PMID:25786575

  3. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data For the Environment Ageing of Coflon (PVDF). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    This report aims to identify correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological structure changes for Coflon. It is intended both to illustrate the overall methodology and to indicate the testing that needs to be undertaken in order to obtain correlations. Many fluid exposures have now been carried out on Coflon during the project and many data generated as a result. The report summarises the changes observed in mechanical and physical properties and relates these as well as possible to the chemistry thought to be occurring during ageing. For this purpose, data have been collated from already-issued MERL and TRI technical and progress reports. Most of the mechanical testing of aged testpieces has been performed soon after the completion of the exposure; however, there is of necessity a delay in obtaining chemical analysis of the same testpieces, so that more physical than chemical data are shown. Three fluids have so far caused measurable deterioration of Coflon, these being: methanol (Fluid A), a methanol and amine mixture (Fluid G), and a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide gas and hydrogen sulphide gas plus aqueous amine (Fluid F). Only the effects of these fluids will be dealt with in any detail in this report, although other fluids are assessed to give relevant background information. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, mode of sample failure at break, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate and resistance, stress relaxation rate, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity and molecular weight distributions together with changes in fluorine levels, and other observations where appropriate. However, not all of these were obtained for every ageing condition. Because of the wide range of tests employed, and the different ways in which their results are obtained, the following section has been included to serve as a background for making comparisons.

  4. [Experience with dynamic hip screw in retrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures of upper femur.].

    PubMed

    Weissinger, M; Helmreich, C; Bösel, A

    1995-01-01

    From 1st January 1988 to 31st December 1994, 105 patients were given 106 dynamic hip-screws in the Orthopaedic Department of the Public General Hospital, Zwettl. The average age at the time of operation was 77.6 years and the time lapse between the accident occuring and the operation performed was on average 31 hours. In 94.3% of the cases we could perform a closed reduction and in 88.7% we used a 135 degree-DHS. The four-hole plate dominated in 73.6% of the plates used. Internal complications totalled 23.6% out of which 9.5% of the patients died during their hospitalization. Here one must take note that the patients who died were of advanced age and multimorbid. We carried out clinical and radiological postoperative examinations on 54 patients (51.4%) with 55 operations (51.9%). The postoperative examinations took place on an average of 33 months (2 years and 9 months). The clinical postoperative examinations were carried out according to the Merle D'Aubigne system - 29 excellent, 58 good and 13 poor. The radiological postoperative examinations disclosed an ossian consolidation of 100% for 54 patients with 55 operations. Taking into account the classification of fractures according to the AO we find that the DHS is mainly used to treat fractures A 1/1-, A 1/2- and A 2/2-. With the exception of subtrochanteric fractures in which we have lately been using the Gamma-Nail, we have the DHS as a technically relatively simple and inexpensive implant in the treatment of pertrochanteric fractures of the neck of the femur. PMID:20470515

  5. The Comparison of Compression Hip Screw and Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for the Treatment of AO Type A2 Intertrochanteric Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yee-Suk; Hur, Jae-Seung; Hwang, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Il-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of osteosynthesis using compression hip screw fixation versus bipolar hemiarthroplasty in AO type A2 intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods From March 2003 to December 2009, 89 patients were included in this study. They were treated using compression hip screws (43 cases) or bipolar hemiarthroplasty (46 cases). The mean age of patients was 77.7 years (65-94 years) and the mean follow-up period was 5.9 years (1-8.3 years). For comparison of the outcomes in the two groups, statistical analyses were performed with parameters including anesthesia time, operation time, amount of transfusion, hospital stay, general complications, clinical outcome, time of partial weight-bearing using a walker, and radiological failure rate. Results Differences in the amount of transfusion, general complications, and clinical outcome (Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score) were not statistically significant between the two groups. The bipolar hemiarthroplasty group showed better results than the compression hip screw group for anesthesia time and the time of partial weight-bearing using a walker. Radiological failures were observed in hips in one case (2.2%) of bipolar hemiarthroplasty, and in four cases (9.3%) of compression hip screw fixation. Conclusion Among elderly individuals with AO type A2 intertrochanteric fractures, patients treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty were able to perform early ambulation. However, no significant difference in operation time, amount of postoperative transfusion, clinical results, hospital stay, and radiological failure rate was observed between the bipolar hemiarthroplasty and compression hip screw fixation groups.

  6. Identification of the nuclear localization and export signals of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Alixandra A.; McManus, Patrick M.; Bockstall, Katy; Moroianu, Junona

    2009-01-05

    The E7 oncoprotein of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins. Our previous studies suggested that HPV16 E7 enters the nucleus via a novel Ran-dependent pathway independent of the nuclear import receptors (Angeline, M., Merle, E., and Moroianu, J. (2003). The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the nucleus via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway. Virology 317(1), 13-23.). Here, analysis of the localization of specific E7 mutants revealed that the nuclear localization of E7 is independent of its interaction with pRB or of its phosphorylation by CKII. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and 2xEGFP fusions with E7 and E7 domains in HeLa cells revealed that E7 contains a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal domain (aa 1-37). Interestingly, treatment of transfected HeLa cells with two specific nuclear export inhibitors, Leptomycin B and ratjadone, changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear. These data suggest the presence of a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) and a second NLS in the C-terminal domain of E7 (aa 38-98). Mutagenesis of critical amino acids in the putative NES sequence ({sub 76}IRTLEDLLM{sub 84}) changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear suggesting that this is a functional NES. The presence of both NLSs and an NES suggests that HPV16 E7 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus which is consistent with E7 having functions in both of these cell compartments.

  7. Experiences with the Plasmacup--early stability, wear, remodelling, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, J Mark; Gordon, Andrew; Stockley, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Whilst advances in cementing technique have led to improvement in the survival of cemented femoral stems in total hip arthroplasty (THA), cup failure due to aseptic loosening remains a major clinical problem. These observations have led to a move away from cemented cup designs, particularly in young patients, towards uncemented implants. The Plasmacup is a hemispherical, press-fit, cementless, titanium-shelled, acetabular component with a polyethylene liner. In this article we review our experience of its pattern of early migration, wear, bone remodelling, and mid-term survival. In 18 cups followed for 2 years in subjects with a mean age at operation of 58 years, the mean total vectorial cup migration was 0.75 mm, and cup orientation remained stable (EBRA method). The mean polyethylene linear wear rate over this period was 0.21 mm/year. In 27 cups followed for 6 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), average bone loss was -5%, and the pelvic bone-remodelling pattern was consistent with the rim-loading principle of the cup design. In a clinical review of the outcome of 128 cups in 104 patients with a mean age at operation of 51 years and follow-up of 59 months, we found that 82% of patients had a good or very good Merle D'Aubigne score, and cup survival rate was 98% (Kaplan-Meier). Four cups had small radiographic areas of focal osteolysis and three had been revised (two for recurrent dislocation and one for deep sepsis; none were revised for aseptic loosening). The mean linear wear rate in this series was 0.14 mm/year. In conclusion, the Plasmacup shows satisfactory early stability, a wear rate similar to other uncemented cups, and favourable mid-term clinical function and survival rates. PMID:14565679

  8. [15-year results following implantation of a stem type AML hip prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Schwerter, K; Meyenberg, A; Sander, K; Layher, F; Roth, A

    2013-06-01

    The trend in arthroplasty of the hip joint to implement new models is partly based on theoretical considerations. In order to verify to which extent the philosophy of individual models is ultimately successful, the presentation of long-term results is required. In the years 1991 and 1992, 433 patients with primary implantation of an uncemented total hip replacement in primary coxarthrosis with a stem type AML (anatomic medullary locking) were treated surgically. 283 of them got a cementless cup type Duraloc. In 311 (71.8 %) patients the mean survival rate of the prosthesis could be determined at a mean follow-up of 15.5 years. 145 (33.5 %) patients were followed up completely both clinically and radiologically. Radiographically, the stem position, changes of the periprosthetic bone of the stem and the cup, as well as the wear of the cups were examined. The cumulative survival rate of the AML stem after 15.5 years was 97.5 %, of the Duraloc cup 88.2 %. The clinical results of the hip scores according to Harris and Merle d'Aubigné were good and excellent and patient satisfaction was very high. There was no relationship between stem position, stress shielding and surrounding lyses at the femur and the acetabulum and survival of stem or cup. There was no correlation between inlay wear and survival of the Duraloc cup. A subsiding of the stem in 2 cases had no effect on the clinical symptoms and quality of life. The press-fit implanted AML stem and the Duraloc cup revealed very good results during the investigation period. Like other implants, the survival rate is limited at the presented implant mainly by the cup. PMID:23696163

  9. Hydroxyapatite-coated stems with metaphyseal and diaphyseal press-fit. Eleven-year follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Hernández Cortés, P; Nájera Sagastume, O O; Mesa Ramos, F; Pajares López, M; Hernández Hernández, M A

    2002-02-01

    We report the 11-year follow-up results of 52 unilateral primary hip arthroplasties performed with hydroxyapatite-coated stems. The femoral prosthesis used was a collarless titanium alloy implant, with proximal circumferential hydroxyapatite coating and increased distal thickness to fit the proximal diaphyseal region of the femur. Clinical evaluation was performed using the Merle d'Aubigné Hip Score. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were obtained and compared with previous postoperative films. Radiographic evaluation was carried out following Engh's criteria for uncemented implant fixation and using Livermore's method for measurement of polyethylene wear. At the end of the follow-up period, excellent and good clinical results were recorded in 40 arthroplasties (77%). The incidence of thigh pain at one year was 32.7%, but it decreased to 4.2% after the first post-operative year. The 11-year survival rate was 92.3%. Seven arthroplasties were revised because of aseptic loosening of the cup in one case, aseptic loosening of the stem, in one case, septic loosening of the stem in one case, periprosthetic fracture in two cases and polyethylene wear in three cases. Forty-two (87.5%) of the nonrevised stems met the criteria for radiographic osseointegration. Cortical hypertrophy was observed around the mid-part and tip of the stem in 22 patients of the series. This sign tends to be related to thigh pain (p < 0.1). Calcar osteolysis was present in 8 cases. There was only one case of distal femoral osteolysis. We found a strong and significant relationship between long-term wear rates and the occurrence of osteolysis (p < 0.001). We concluded that thigh pain is in relation to the distal diameter of the stems and significantly decreases after the first postoperative year. There was a low incidence of osteolysis in our series in comparison with other series of noncemented implants with 32-mm femoral heads and with similar follow-up. PMID:11915455

  10. [Total arthroplasty of the hip with a screwed titanium ring cup. Follow-up of 446 prostheses over four years].

    PubMed

    Witvoët, J; Darman, Z; Christel, P; Fumery, F

    1993-01-01

    The current decrease of total hip arthroplasty using a cemented polyethylene cup point out that bone-cement interface and polyethylene wear are two weak points responsible for long term loosening. Alumina-alumina combination can avoid one of the weak points. But fixing an alumina cup with cement doesn't avoid the second one. So from 1983 we have been using a cup composed by a titanium alloy threaded ring with an alumina insert. From the 508 prosthesis we fixed in between 1983 and 1989, 446 have been followed up over one year with an average follow-up 4 +/- 1.6 years. The patients mean age was 61.7 +/- 12 years. 368 were primary THA performed mostly for osteoarthrosis, 78 were performed in revision cases of cemented cup. All the femoral stems were cemented, we noted only two loosenings. The clinical results were satisfactory in primary arthroplasties (90.7 per cent satisfactory results in the R. Merle d'Aubigné and M. Postel scoring system), whereas in revision cases of cemented cups the percentage of non satisfactory results (32.8 per cent) was very high. Nevertheless migration rate of the threaded rings was 13 per cent (n = 48/368) in primary operation. 8.11 per cent when no structural graft was needed, 22.8 per cent when grafted. Although only 17/48 have been revised up to now, the future of the last 31 remain uncertain. In our opinion, the threaded cup should not be used in revision cases of cemented cups. The long term fixation of a threaded cup remains a problem for the dysplasic acetabula. For the non dysplasic non operated acetabula the migration factors are statistically: female sex, osteoporosis whatever the aetiology, a wrong primary positioning (cup too vertical, protrusio). For all these reasons, from 1989 we have been using a press-fit titanium cup, with promising results. PMID:8085036

  11. Chemical labeling studies on bovine heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase dispersed in nonionic detergents.

    PubMed

    Estey, L A; Lincoln, A J; Prochaska, L J

    1990-10-16

    In order to investigate the structural interactions of nonionic detergents with bovine heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), a series of hydrophilic chemical modification reagents were used to map regions on COX which are not shielded by dodecyl beta-D-maltoside (DM), Triton X-100 (TX-100), and Tween 80 (TW-80). Low levels of incorporation of the chemical reagents [35S]benzenediazoniumsulfonate (DABS) and N-succinimidyl [3H]propionate (SP) into COX dispersed in TW-80 indicate that the bulky headgroup and hydrophobic moiety of this detergent effectively shield the enzyme from the aqueous environment. Subunits II and Va/Vb [nomenclature of Merle, P., & Kadenbach, B. (1982) Eur. J. Biochem. 125, 239-244] show an increased reactivity to [35S]DABS and [3H]SP in TW-80 and may reflect an increased exposure of these subunits to the aqueous phase in comparison to COX dispersed in TX-100 or DM. More [35S]DABS is incorporated into COX in DM than TX-100-dispersed enzyme; DABS heavily labels subunits III, VIa, and VIb in DM. While COX in TX-100 is more reactive with [3H]SP than DM-dispersed enzyme, there is no difference in the distribution of label (either DABS or SP) within the subunits of COX in DM or TX-100. Increased surface exposure of COX in TX-100 is indicated by an enhanced sensitivity of COX electron-transfer activity in enzyme chemically modified by the cross-linking reagent N-succinimidyl 3-[(4-azidophenyl)dithio]propionate (SADP) in TX-100 as compared to enzyme chemically cross-linked in the other detergents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2176856

  12. Offset fémoral et le fonctionnement de la hanche dans la prothèse totale de la hanche

    PubMed Central

    Rachid, Abdelillah; Moncef, Erraji; Najib, Abbassi; Abdeljaouad, Najib; Abdelkarim, Daudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2014-01-01

    L'offset fémoral est l’élément pronostic le plus important dans l'arthroplastie de la hanche. Sa restauration est devenue de plus en plus une obligation. Toute modification de la valeur native de l'offset retenti sur la qualité du fonctionnement clinique de la hanche. Le but de notre travail était d’évaluer le fonctionnement clinique de la hanche en fonction de la valeur de l'offset fémoral après une arthroplastie. C'est une étude rétrospective effectuée entre 2010 et 2013, comportant 27 patients ayant bénéficiés d'une arthroplastie totale de la hanche. Les patients ayant eu un geste chirurgicale antérieur sur la même hanche ou sur la hanche controlatérale ont été exclus. Les mesures ont été effectuées sur des radiographies standards de la hanche en rotation interne d'environ 15°, avec un agrandissement à 100%. Les résultats cliniques étaient évalués au moyen du score de WOMAC qui était en moyenne de 15,2 points, et le score de Merle d'Aubigné-Postel avec une moyenne de 15 points. Deux autres tests ont été évalués dans notre étude qui sont le step et le hop test. Les meilleurs résultats fonctionnels ont été obtenus chez les patients ayant eu une latéralisation de la tige fémoral avec un offset augmenté. PMID:25400835

  13. Custom-made locked plating for acetabular fracture: a pilot study in 24 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Zhang, Li-Hai; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Li-Cheng; He, Chun-Qing; Wang, Yan; Tang, Pei-Fu

    2014-07-01

    Clinical implementation of site-specific locking plates for acetabular fracture remains untested. Custom-made locking plates were manufactured using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture techniques for acetabular fractures to test this procedure. The 3-dimensional images constructed from computed tomography data of pelvises in patients with acetabular fractures were used for preoperative planning and to design the plates. Data for each plate were input into software for programming, and the generated code was transferred into a computerized numerical control digital milling machine for manufacturing. These plates were clinically implemented, and the implementation parameters, reduction quality, and Postel Merle d'Aubigné score were evaluated. Forty-nine custom-made locking plates were manufactured for 24 unilateral acetabular fractures. The manufacturing process for the plates averaged 6.9±2.2 days. Processing the plates delayed operations by 2.6±1.3 days in one-third of the cases. Plate contouring was avoided in 48 plates. The plates had anatomical shapes, excellently matching reduced bone surface. The screws locked with the obtained plates avoided intra-articular penetration and provided secure fixation that allowed early out-of-bed rehabilitation. No indications of implant failures or observations of screw back-outs were observed during follow-up. The clinical application of such plates is associated with the avoidance of plate contouring, low risk of intra-articular penetration, early out-of-bed rehabilitation, and a low rate of implant failure. Implementing such plates in clinical practice is worthy of further investigation, with a focus on selecting patient population and minimizing the time required for and cost of plate manufacturing. PMID:24992064

  14. Total hip replacement through a posterior approach using a 22 mm diameter femoral head : the role of the transverse acetabular ligament and capsular repair in reducing the rate of dislocation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Sharma, S; James, J; Hodgkinson, J P; Hemmady, M V

    2014-09-01

    Despite a lack of long-term follow-up, there is an increasing trend towards using femoral heads of large diameter in total hip replacement (THR), partly because of the perceived advantage of lower rates of dislocation. However, increasing the size of the femoral head is not the only way to reduce the rate of dislocation; optimal alignment of the components and repair of the posterior capsule could achieve a similar effect. In this prospective study of 512 cemented unilateral THRs (Male:Female 230:282) performed between 2004 and 2011, we aimed to determine the rate of dislocation in patients who received a 22 mm head on a 9/10 Morse taper through a posterior approach with capsular repair and using the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) as a guide for the alignment of the acetabular component. The mean age of the patients at operation was 67 years (35 to 89). The mean follow-up was 2.8 years (0.5 to 6.6). Pre- and post-operative assessment included Oxford hip, Short Form-12 and modified University of California Los Angeles and Merle D'Aubigne scores. The angles of inclination and anteversion of the acetabular components were measured using radiological software. There were four dislocations (0.78%), all of which were anterior. In conclusion, THR with a 22 mm diameter head performed through a posterior approach with capsular repair and using the TAL as a guide for the alignment of the acetabular component was associated with a low rate of dislocation. PMID:25183591

  15. 5′ and 3′ Untranslated Regions Strongly Enhance Performance of Geminiviral Replicons in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Diamos, Andrew G.; Rosenthal, Sun H.; Mason, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a recombinant protein production system based on a geminivirus replicon that yields high levels of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. The bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) replicon generates massive amounts of DNA copies, which engage the plant transcription machinery. However, we noticed a disparity between transcript level and protein production, suggesting that mRNAs could be more efficiently utilized. In this study, we systematically evaluated genetic elements from human, viral, and plant sources for their potential to improve the BeYDV system. The tobacco extensin terminator enhanced transcript accumulation and protein production compared to other commonly used terminators, indicating that efficient transcript processing plays an important role in recombinant protein production. Evaluation of human-derived 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) indicated that many provided high levels of protein production, supporting their cross-kingdom function. Among the viral 5′ UTRs tested, we found the greatest enhancement with the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. An analysis of the 5′ UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. The tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment region inserted downstream from the gene of interest provided significant enhancement, which was correlated with a reduction in plant cell death. Evaluation of Agrobacterium strains found that EHA105 enhanced protein production and reduced cell death compared to LBA4301 and GV3101. We used these improvements to produce Norwalk virus capsid protein at >20% total soluble protein, corresponding to 1.8 mg/g leaf fresh weight, more than twice the highest level ever reported in a plant system. We also produced the monoclonal antibody

  16. Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.

    PubMed

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants. PMID:20552202

  17. Genetic improvement of sugarcane for drought and salinity stress tolerance using Arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tanweer; Uzma; Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Abbas, Zaheer; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Sugarcane plant is a glycophyte, hence its growth and sucrose contents are severely affected by drought and salinity stresses. Bioengineering approaches offer a plausible and rapid solution to mitigate these losses. Therefore for genetic improvement of sugarcane against these stresses, the present study was conceived to transform Arabidopsis Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene--confers tolerance against drought and salinity--into sugarcane through Agrobacterium. For this purpose, highly regenerable apical buds of sugarcane variety CP77-400 were used as explants. EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium harboring pGreen0029 vector containing AVP1 gene driven under 35SCaMV promoter was employed for transformation. The key factors studied include application of acetosyringone, cefotaxime, kanamycin, and co-cultivation period for successful transformation. Maximum regeneration frequency of 77.5 % was achieved on MS media containing 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l Kn, 1 mg/l GA₃, 0.25 mg/l NAA, 50 μM acetosyringone, 500 mg/l cefotaxime, and 150 mg/l kanamycin on 3 days of co-cultivation. The results revealed that apical buds are distinctive viable tissues for sugarcane transformation and regeneration to produce a large number of CP77-400 transgenic plants in shorter period of time without intervening mosaics and chimeras. The AVP1 transcripts expression in transgenic lines at various levels was detected by RT-PCR. Longer and profuse root system was observed in transgenic plants in comparison with control plants. Concomitantly, only transgenic plants were able to withstand higher NaCl salt stress as well as scarcity of water thus, showing tolerance against salinity and drought stresses. PMID:24002911

  18. Protection against H1N1 influenza challenge by a DNA vaccine expressing H3/H1 subtype hemagglutinin combined with MHC class II-restricted epitopes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple subtypes of avian influenza viruses have crossed the species barrier to infect humans and have the potential to cause a pandemic. Therefore, new influenza vaccines to prevent the co-existence of multiple subtypes within a host and cross-species transmission of influenza are urgently needed. Methods Here we report a multi-epitope DNA vaccine targeted towards multiple subtypes of the influenza virus. The protective hemagglutinin (HA) antigens from H5/H7/H9 subtypes were screened for MHC II class-restricted epitopes overlapping with predicted B cell epitopes. We then constructed a DNA plasmid vaccine, pV-H3-EHA-H1, based on HA antigens from human influenza H3/H1 subtypes combined with the H5/H7/H9 subtype Th/B epitope box. Results Epitope-specific IFN-γ ELISpot responses were significantly higher in the multi-epitope DNA group than in other vaccine and control groups (P < 0.05). The multi-epitope group significantly enhanced Th2 cell responses as determined by cytokine assays. The survival rate of mice given the multi-epitope vaccine was the highest among the vaccine groups, but it was not significantly different compared to those given single antigen expressing pV-H1HA1 vaccine and dual antigen expressing pV-H3-H1 vaccine (P > 0.05). No measurable virus titers were detected in the lungs of the multi-epitope immunized group. The unique multi-epitope DNA vaccine enhanced virus-specific antibody and cellular immunity as well as conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) influenza strain in mice. Conclusions This approach may be a promising strategy for developing a universal influenza vaccine to prevent multiple subtypes of influenza virus and to induce long-term protective immune against cross-species transmission. PMID:21134292

  19. 5' and 3' Untranslated Regions Strongly Enhance Performance of Geminiviral Replicons in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves.

    PubMed

    Diamos, Andrew G; Rosenthal, Sun H; Mason, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a recombinant protein production system based on a geminivirus replicon that yields high levels of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. The bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) replicon generates massive amounts of DNA copies, which engage the plant transcription machinery. However, we noticed a disparity between transcript level and protein production, suggesting that mRNAs could be more efficiently utilized. In this study, we systematically evaluated genetic elements from human, viral, and plant sources for their potential to improve the BeYDV system. The tobacco extensin terminator enhanced transcript accumulation and protein production compared to other commonly used terminators, indicating that efficient transcript processing plays an important role in recombinant protein production. Evaluation of human-derived 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) indicated that many provided high levels of protein production, supporting their cross-kingdom function. Among the viral 5' UTRs tested, we found the greatest enhancement with the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. An analysis of the 5' UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. The tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment region inserted downstream from the gene of interest provided significant enhancement, which was correlated with a reduction in plant cell death. Evaluation of Agrobacterium strains found that EHA105 enhanced protein production and reduced cell death compared to LBA4301 and GV3101. We used these improvements to produce Norwalk virus capsid protein at >20% total soluble protein, corresponding to 1.8 mg/g leaf fresh weight, more than twice the highest level ever reported in a plant system. We also produced the monoclonal antibody

  20. Characterization of the β-1,3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L X; Ding, X; Wang, H C; Sui, J M; Wang, J-S

    2014-01-01

    Plant β-1,3-glucanases are commonly involved in disease resistance. This report describes the cloning and genetic transformation of a β-1,3-glucanase gene from peanut. The gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The DNA sequence contained 1471 bp including two exons and one intron, and the coding sequence contained 1047 bp that coded for a 348-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 38.8 kDa. The sequence was registered in NCBI (GenBank accession No. JQ801335) and was designated as Ah-Glu. As determined by BLAST analysis, the Ah-Glu protein has 42-90% homology with proteins from Oryza sativa (BAC83070.1), Zea mays (NP_001149308), Arabidopsis thaliana (NP_200470.1), Medicago sativa (ABD91577.1), and Glycine max (XP_003530515.1). The over-expression vector pCAMBIA1301-Glu containing Ah-Glu was constructed, confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and transformed into peanut variety Huayu22 by Agrobacterium EHA105-mediated transformation. The putative transformed plants (T0) were confirmed by PCR amplification. RT-PCR analysis and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the transferred Ah-Glu was expressed as mRNA and protein. In a laboratory test, the transgenic plants were found to be more resistant to the fungal pathogen Cercospora personata than the non-transgenic plants were. PMID:24668677

  1. Immunocompetent truncated E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) expressed in Nicotiana tabacum plants: a candidate antigen for new generation of veterinary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Guillermo; Marconi, Patricia; Periolo, Osvaldo; La Torre, José; Alvarez, María Alejandra

    2012-06-22

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the etiological agent responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases in cattle. The glycoprotein E2 is the major envelope protein of this virus and the strongest inductor of the immune response. There are several available commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), which show irregular performances. Here, we report the use of tobacco plants as an alternative productive platform for the expression of the truncated version of E2 glycoprotein (tE2) from the BVDV. The tE2 sequence, lacking the transmembrane domain, was cloned into the pK7WG2 Agrobacterium binary vector. The construct also carried the 2S2 Arabidopsis thaliana signal for directing the protein into the plant secretory pathway, the Kozak sequence, an hexa-histidine tag to facilitate protein purification and the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The resulting plasmid (pK-2S2-tE2-His-KDEL) was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 by electroporation. The transformed A. tumefaciens was then used to express tE2 in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum plants. Western blot and ELISA using specific monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of the recombinant tE2 protein in plant extracts. An estimated amount of 20 μg of tE2 per gram of fresh leaves was regularly obtained with this plant system. Injection of guinea pigs with plant extracts containing 20 μg of rtE2 induced the production of BVDV specific antibodies at equal or higher levels than those induced by whole virus vaccines. This is the first report of the production of an immunocompetent tE2 in N. tabacum plants, having the advantage to be free of any eventual animal contaminant. PMID:22554468

  2. How Can a Little Shrimp Do so Much Damage?: Ecosystem Service Losses Associated with Land Cover Change in Mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Bhomia, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves provide a number of ecosystem services including habitats for many species of fish and shellfish, storm protection, influences on water quality, wood, aesthetics, and a source of nutrients and energy for adjacent marine ecosystems. C stocks of mangroves are among the highest of any forest type on Earth. We have measured the ecosystem carbon stocks in mangroves across the world and found them to range from 250 to >2000 Mg C/ha which is a CO2 equivalence of 917 to 7340 Mg/ha. Because the numerous values of mangroves are well known, it is ironic that rates of deforestation largely relating to land use/land cover change are among the highest of any forest type on earth exceeding that of tropical rain forests. Dominant causes of deforestation include conversion to aquaculture (shrimp), agricultural conversion, and coastal development. The carbon emissions arising from conversion of mangroves to other uses is exceptionally high. This is because vulnerability of the soil carbon stocks to losses with conversion. Emissions from conversion of mangrove to shrimp ponds range from about 800 to over 3000 Mg CO2e/ha. This places the carbon footprint of shrimp arising from such ponds as among the highest of any food product available. Of great interest is the potential value of mangroves in carbon marketing strategies and other financial incentives that are derived from the conservation of standing forests. This is because of the combination of high carbon stocks in intact mangroves, the high greenhouse gas emissions arising from their conversion, and the conservation of other valuable ecosystem services provided by intact mangroves.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and plant regeneration of the hardwood tree species Fraxinus profunda.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Micah E; Pijut, Paula M

    2014-06-01

    This transformation and regeneration protocol provides an integral framework for the genetic improvement of Fraxinus profunda (pumpkin ash) for future development of plants resistant to the emerald ash borer. Using mature hypocotyls as the initial explants, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system was successfully developed for pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda). This transformation protocol is an invaluable tool to combat the highly aggressive, non-native emerald ash borer (EAB), which has the potential to eliminate native Fraxinus spp. from the natural landscape. Hypocotyls were successfully transformed with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the pq35GR vector, containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as well as a fusion gene between neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and gusA. Hypocotyls were cultured for 7 days on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 22.2 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA), 4.5 μM thidiazuron (TDZ), 50 mg L(-1) adenine hemisulfate (AS), and 10 % coconut water (CW) prior to transformation. Hypocotyls were transformed using 90 s sonication plus 10 min vacuum infiltration after Agrobacterium was exposed to 100 μM acetosyringone for 1 h. Adventitious shoots were regenerated on MS medium with 22.2 μM BA, 4.5 μM TDZ, 50 mg L(-1) AS, 10 % CW, 400 mg L(-1) timentin, and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin. Timentin at 400 and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin were most effective at controlling Agrobacterium growth and selecting for transformed cells, respectively. The presence of nptII, GUS (β-glucuronidase), and EGFP in transformed plants was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while the expression of EGFP was also confirmed through fluorescent microscopy and reverse transcription-PCR. This transformation protocol provides an integral foundation for future genetic modifications of F. profunda to provide resistance to EAB. PMID:24493252

  4. Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae. PMID:25416252

  5. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  6. Expression and genomic integration of transgenes after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Uçarlı, C; Tufan, F; Gürel, F

    2015-01-01

    Mature embryos in tissue cultures are advantageous because of their abundance and rapid germination, which reduces genomic instability problems. In this study, 2-day-old isolated mature barley embryos were infected with 2 Agrobacterium hypervirulent strains (AGL1 and EHA105), followed by a 3-day period of co-cultivation in the presence of L-cystein amino acid. Chimeric expression of the b-glucuronidase gene (gusA) directed by a viral promoter of strawberry vein banding virus was observed in coleoptile epidermal cells and seminal roots in 5-day-old germinated seedlings. In addition to varying infectivity patterns in different strains, there was a higher ratio of transient b-glucuronidase expression in developing coleoptiles than in embryonic roots, indicating the high competency of shoot apical meristem cells in the mature embryo. A total of 548 explants were transformed and 156 plants developed to maturity on G418 media after 18-25 days. We detected transgenes in 74% of the screened plant leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and 49% of these expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II gene following AGL1 transformation. Ten randomly selected T0 transformants were analyzed using thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and 24 fragments ranged between 200-600 base pairs were sequenced. Three of the sequences flanked with transferred-DNA showed high similarity to coding regions of the barley genome, including alpha tubulin5, homeobox 1, and mitochondrial 16S genes. We observed 70-200-base pair filler sequences only in the coding regions of barley in this study. PMID:25730049

  7. Governing equations for electro-conjugate fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoda, K.; Takemura, K.; Fukagata, K.; Yokota, S.; Edamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    An electro-conjugation fluid (ECF) is a kind of dielectric liquid, which generates a powerful flow when high DC voltage is applied with tiny electrodes. This study deals with the derivation of the governing equations for electro-conjugate fluid flow based on the Korteweg-Helmholtz (KH) equation which represents the force in dielectric liquid subjected to high DC voltage. The governing equations consist of the Gauss's law, charge conservation with charge recombination, the KH equation, the continuity equation and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The KH equation consists of coulomb force, dielectric constant gradient force and electrostriction force. The governing equation gives the distribution of electric field, charge density and flow velocity. In this study, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used in order to get these distribution at arbitrary time. Successive over-relaxation (SOR) method is used in analyzing Gauss's law and constrained interpolation pseudo-particle (CIP) method is used in analyzing charge conservation with charge recombination. The third order Runge-Kutta method and conservative second-order-accurate finite difference method is used in analyzing the Navier-Stokes equations with the KH equation. This study also deals with the measurement of ECF ow generated with a symmetrical pole electrodes pair which are made of 0.3 mm diameter piano wire. Working fluid is FF-1EHA2 which is an ECF family. The flow is observed from the both electrodes, i.e., the flow collides in between the electrodes. The governing equation successfully calculates mean flow velocity in between the collector pole electrode and the colliding region by the numerical simulation.

  8. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs. PMID:25468031

  9. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    PubMed

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  10. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  11. A Novel Phenolic Compound, Chloroxynil, Improves Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Transformation in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Cutler, Sean; Isobe, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a commonly used method for plant genetic engineering. However, the limitations of Agrobacterium host-plant interactions and the complexity of plant tissue culture often make the production of transgenic plants difficult. Transformation efficiency in many legume species, including soybean and the common bean, has been reported to be quite low. To improve the transformation procedure in legumes, we screened for chemicals that increase the transformation efficiency of Lotus japonicus, a model legume species. A Chemical library was screened and chemicals that increase in transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus accession, Miyakojima MG-20 were identified. The transient transformation efficiency was quantified by reporter activity in which an intron-containing reporter gene produces the GUS protein only when the T-DNA is expressed in the plant nuclei. We identified a phenolic compound, chloroxynil, which increased the genetic transformation of L. japonicus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Characterization of the mode of chloroxynil action indicated that it enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the activation of the Agrobacterium vir gene expression, similar to acetosyringone, a phenolic compound known to improve Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency. Transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus with 5 μM chloroxynil was 60- and 6- fold higher than that of the control and acetosyringone treatment, respectively. In addition, transgenic L. japonicus lines were successfully generated by 5 μM chloroxynil treatment.Furthermore, we show that chloroxynil improves L. japonicus transformation by Agrobacterium strain GV3101 and rice transformation. Our results demonstrate that chloroxynil significantly improves Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency of various agriculturally important crops. PMID:26176780

  12. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Associated with Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vogeleer, Philippe; Tremblay, Yannick D. N.; Jubelin, Grégory; Jacques, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Forming biofilms may be a survival strategy of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to enable it to persist in the environment and the food industry. Here, we evaluate and characterize the biofilm-forming ability of 39 isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infection and belonging to seropathotypes A, B, or C. The presence and/or production of biofilm factors such as curli, cellulose, autotransporter, and fimbriae were investigated. The polymeric matrix of these biofilms was analyzed by confocal microscopy and by enzymatic digestion. Cell viability and matrix integrity were examined after sanitizer treatments. Isolates of the seropathotype A (O157:H7 and O157:NM), which have the highest relative incidence of human infection, had a greater ability to form biofilms than isolates of seropathotype B or C. Seropathotype A isolates were unique in their ability to produce cellulose and poly-N-acetylglucosamine. The integrity of the biofilms was dependent on proteins. Two autotransporter genes, ehaB and espP, and two fimbrial genes, z1538 and lpf2, were identified as potential genetic determinants for biofilm formation. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates from seropathotype A to form biofilms was associated with their ability to agglutinate yeast in a mannose-independent manner. We consider this an unidentified biofilm-associated factor produced by those isolates. Treatment with sanitizers reduced the viability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli but did not completely remove the biofilm matrix. Overall, our data indicate that biofilm formation could contribute to the persistence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and specifically seropathotype A isolates in the environment. PMID:26712549

  13. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants. PMID:17551731

  14. Synthesis of Water-Dispersible Molecularly Imprinted Electroactive Nanoparticles for the Sensitive and Selective Paracetamol Detection.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Ma, Qiang; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Ren; Liu, Xiaoya

    2016-08-17

    A novel kind of water-dispersible molecularly imprinted electroactive nanoparticles was prepared combining macromolecular self-assembly with molecularly imprinting technique employing paracetamol (PCM) as template molecule. An amphiphilic electroactive copolymer (P(NVC-EHA-AA), PNEA) containing carbazole group was first synthesized through a one-pot free radical copolymerization. The coassembly of the electroactive copolymers with the template molecules (PCM) in aqueous solution generated nanoparticles embedded with PCM, leading to the formation of molecularly imprinted electroactive nanoparticles (MIENPs). A robust MIP film was formed on the surface of electrode by electrodeposition of MIENPs and subsequent electropolymerization of the carbazole units in MIENPs. After the extraction of PCM molecules, a MIP sensor was successfully constructed. It should be noted that electropolymerization of the electroactive units in MIENPs creates cross-conjugated polymer network, which not only locks the recognition sites but also significantly accelerates the electron transfer and thus enhances the response signal of the MIP sensor. These advantages endowed the MIP sensor with good selectivity and high sensitivity for PCM detection. The MIP sensor could recognize PCM from its possible interfering substances with good selectivity. Under the optimal conditions, two linear ranges from 1 μM to 0.1 mM and 0.1 to 10 mM with a detection limit of 0.3 μM were obtained for PCM detection. The MIP sensor also showed good stability and repeatability, which has been successfully used to analyze PCM in tablets and human urine samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27463123

  15. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions. PMID:25173686

  16. Identifying a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4a Gene and Its Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation in Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Mohan; Hemachandran, Hridya; Anantharaman, Amirtha; Babu, Subramanian; Madrid, Renata Rivera; C, George Priya Doss; Fulzele, Devanand P; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are metabolized to apocarotenoids through the pathway catalysed by carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs). The apocarotenoids are economically important as it is known to have therapeutic as well as industrial applications. For instance, bixin from Bixa orellana and crocin from Crocus sativus are commercially used as a food colourant and cosmetics since prehistoric time. In our present study, CCD4a gene has been identified and isolated from leaves of B. orellana for the first time and named as BoCCD4a; phylogenetic analysis was carried out using CLUSTAL W. From sequence analysis, BoCCD4a contains two exons and one intron, which was compared with the selected AtCCD4, RdCCD4, GmCCD4 and CmCCD4a gene. Further, the BoCCD4a gene was cloned into pCAMBIA 1301, transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain and subsequently transferred into hypocotyledons and callus of B. orellana by agro-infection. Selection of stable transformation was screened on the basis of PCR detection by using GUS and hptII specific primer, which was followed by histochemical characterization. The percent transient GUS expression in hypocotyledons and callus was 84.4 and 80 %, respectively. The expression of BoCCD4a gene in B. orellana was confirmed through RT-PCR analysis. From our results, the sequence analysis of BoCCD4a gene of B. orellana was closely related to the CsCCD4 gene of C. sativus, which suggests this gene may have a role in various processes such as fragrance, insect attractant and pollination. PMID:26922728

  17. Development of Transgenic Cotton Lines Expressing Allium sativum Agglutinin (ASAL) for Enhanced Resistance against Major Sap-Sucking Pests

    PubMed Central

    Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1–2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

  18. Diverse Virulence Gene Content of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Finishing Swine

    PubMed Central

    Fratamico, Pina M.; Bagi, Lori; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Manning, Shannon D.; Funk, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are a critical public health concern because they can cause severe clinical outcomes, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, in humans. Determining the presence or absence of virulence genes is essential in assessing the potential pathogenicity of STEC strains. Currently, there is limited information about the virulence genes carried by swine STEC strains; therefore, this study was conducted to examine the presence and absence of 69 virulence genes in STEC strains recovered previously from finishing swine in a longitudinal study. A subset of STEC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to examine their genetic relatedness. Swine STEC strains (n = 150) were analyzed by the use of a high-throughput real-time PCR array system, which included 69 virulence gene targets. Three major pathotypes consisted of 16 different combinations of virulence gene profiles, and serotypes were determined in the swine STEC strains. The majority of the swine STEC strains (n = 120) belonged to serotype O59:H21 and carried the same virulence gene profile, which consisted of 9 virulence genes: stx2e, iha, ecs1763, lpfAO113, estIa (STa), ehaA, paa, terE, and ureD. The eae, nleF, and nleH1-2 genes were detected in one swine STEC strain (O49:H21). Other genes encoding adhesins, including iha, were identified (n = 149). The PFGE results demonstrated that swine STEC strains from pigs raised in the same finishing barn were closely related. Our results revealed diverse virulence gene contents among the members of the swine STEC population and enhance understanding of the dynamics of transmission of STEC strains among pigs housed in the same barn. PMID:25107960

  19. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus

  20. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles and individual ferromagnetic dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2009-03-01

    The ultrafast magnetization dynamics of magnetic materials can be investigated using femtosecond laser pulses to perform femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr and Faraday measurements [1]. In this talk, we will focus on the magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles which are either ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic at room temperature and on the dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots. In the first case (Co nanoparticles), we will demonstrate that the magnetization dynamics preceding the fluctuations over the anisotropy energy barrier is coherent but exhibits a strongly damped precession [2]. These results, which have been obtained with a three dimensional analysis of the magnetization vector [3] will be discussed in the context of the N'eel-Brown models involving the gyromagnetic character of the magnetization. We will also examine the dynamics of self-organized supra-crystals of cobalt nanoparticles [4]. In the second case, we will present the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots (CoPt3, Permalloy, Nickel) made either by e-beam lithography or induced optically on thin films deposited on sapphire and glass substrates. The technique employed is the magneto-optical pump probe imaging (MOPPI) which allows performing time resolved magneto-optical Kerr images with with spatial and temporal resolutions of 300 nm and 150 fs [5]. The study of the demagnetization of the dots for different laser intensities shows that it is possible to write and read ultrafast monodomains on thin films. [3pt] [1] E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 4250 (1996) [0pt] [2] L.H.F. Andrade, A. Laraoui, M. Vomir, D. Muller, J.-P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 127401 (2006). [0pt] [3] M. Vomir, L. H.F. Andrade, L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 237601 (2005). [0pt] [4] I. Lisiecki, V. Halt'e, C. Petit, M.-P. Pileni, J.-Y. Bigot Adv. Mater., 20, 4176 (2008

  1. Les fractures luxations du cotyle: prise en charge et pronostic à long terme; étude rétrospective portant sur 40 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Hmouri, Ismail; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les fractures luxations du cotyle sont le plus souvent dues à des traumatismes de haute énergie. Elles constituent une urgence thérapeutique, l'association de la luxation à une fracture du cotyle fait apparaître la question du choix thérapeutique entre traitement orthopédique et traitement médical. L'objectif de l’étude est de mettre le point sur l'aspect thérapeutique dans ces lésions mais aussi leurs pronostics à long terme. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 40 cas colligés au service d'orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Rabat. Nous avons évalué les résultats de notre prise en charge mais aussi le pronostic à court et à long terme. Dans notre série, vingt cinq patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement orthopédique alors que les quinze restants ont été opérés, la voie d'abord la plus utilisée est la voie postérieure. Les résultats fonctionnels ont été évalués, après un recul de 3 à 8 ans, selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné. Nous avons obtenu 90% de résultats satisfaisants. La comparaison de nos résultats à ceux de la littérature montre que le résultat des traitements orthopédiques et chirurgicaux dépend essentiellement du type de fracture. Le pronostic à long terme reste imprévisible. La survenue des complications tardives telle que la nécrose céphalique et de l'arthrose reste toujours imprévisible, ce qui impose un suivi régulier et prolongé des patients. PMID:25722763

  2. La pseudarthrose du col fémoral traitée par prothèse totale de la hanche: à propos de 15 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Bassir, Réda Allah; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Saleh Berrada, Mohammed; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    La pseudarthrose du col fémoral est une complication redoutée de la facture du col fémoral, elle est due soit à une négligence thérapeutique, soit à une ostéosynthèse imparfaite. Plusieurs facteurs sont incriminés dans sa genèse, l’âge, les caractéristiques de la fracture, l’état de la tête fémorale, et une ostéosynthèse non solide. Le diagnostic des pseudarthroses est essentiellement radiologique. Le traitement reste encore difficile et mal codifié, les limites entre traitement conservateur et arthroplastie de la hanche ne sont pas encore bien définies. Nous rapportons une série de 15 cas de pseudarthrose du col fémoral traités par arthroplastie de la hanche au service de traumato-orthopédie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rabat de 2008 à 2014 soit un recul de 40 mois en moyenne. Nos patients ont bénéficié d'une évaluation clinique et radiologique. L’âge de nos patients varie entre 48 et 81 ans, avec une moyenne de 69,2 ans. 85% d'entre eux sont âgés de plus de 60 ans. Nous avons dans notre série une prédominance féminine, soit 8 femmes pour 7 hommes. La négligence thérapeutique est la cause de la majorité des pseudarthroses du col du fémur traitées dans notre série. Par ailleurs, nous avons utilisé exclusivement la voie d'abord postéro externe de Moore. Nous avons mis en place une prothèse totale de couple polyéthylène-métal chez tous les patients, ces prothèses étaient cimentées chez 12 patients. Le résultat fonctionnel a été coté selon la classification de Merle d'Aubigné. Nos résultats ont été jugés bons selon cette cotation. L'arthroplastie totale de la hanche a une place importante dans le traitement des pseudarthroses du col fémoral et peut donner des résultats satisfaisants en permettant de récupérer une hanche mobile et indolore. PMID:25667720

  3. Perspective of an Artist Inspired by Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanborn, Jim

    2010-02-01

    Institution in Washington DC. This was the first time uranium had been fissioned using a particle accelerator and it was demonstrated for an audience including, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr and Merle Tuve. )

  4. Analogue modelling of strike-slip fault propagation across a rheological/morphological crustal anisotropy: implications for the morphotectonic evolution of the Gloria Fault - Tore Madeira Rise area in NE Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, Ricardo; Rosas, Filipe M.; Duarte, João C.; Terrinha, Pedro; Kullberg, Maria C.; Almeida, Jaime; Barata, Frederico; Carvalho, Bruno; Almeida, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The Gloria Fault (GF) marks the E-W dextral transcurrent plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa in NE Atlantic, displaying complying high magnitude (historical and instrumental) seismic activity (e.g. M=7.1 in 1939 and M=8.4 in 1941, Bufforn et al., 1988), and cutting across a NNE-SSW 1000 km long bathymetric ridge: the so called Tore-Madeira Rise - TMR (rising in average 3km above the abyssal plain). The precise origin and tectono-magmatic evolution of the TMR is still not fully understood, although reported wide-angle refraction data points to a rheological configuration comprising an isostatically compensated thickened oceanic crust, possibly formed during a period of high accretion in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Pierce and Barton, 1991). Widespread evidence for volcanic activity has also been recognized, spanning from late Cretaceous to Present (Geldmacher et al. 2006, Merle et al. 2009), noticeably with the most recent volcanism (~500 Ky) occurring as tectonically aligned volcanic plugs, distributed along the E-W tectonic trend of the GF-related structures. To better understand the complex interference at play in this key area between the tectonic structures (essentially determined by the Gloria Fault system), the present and past magmatic activity and the resulting seafloor morphology, a series of dynamically scaled analogue modelling experiments have been conceived and carried out. The main focus of this experimental work was to decipher the potential influence of a rheological vs. morphological anisotropy (accounting for the TMR) on the lateral propagation of a major right-lateral strike-slip fault (representing the GF). The preliminary comparison of the obtained experimental results with the natural morphotectonic pattern in the study area reveals, not only a strong tectonic control of the ongoing volcanism, manifested by the observed preferred directions of aligned volcanic plugs, but also a so far unsuspected deflection/distributed pattern of several

  5. Les reconstructions acétabulaires dans les prothèses totales de hanche

    PubMed Central

    Zejjari, Hassane; Louaste, Jamal; Cherrad, Taoufik; Bousbae, Hicham; Kasmaoui, Housseine; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La chirurgie de reconstruction acétabulaire est une technique qui consiste à combler les pertes de substance osseuse siégeant au niveau du cotyle. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 15 patients (16 cotyles), sur une période de 6 ans (2006- 2012). Dans douze cas il s'agissait de prothèse totales de la hanche de première intention et dans quatre cas il s'agissait de reprise cotyloïdienne de PTH. L’évaluation clinique préopératoire et postopératoire de tous nos patients a été effectuée par le score de Postel et Merle d'Aubigné. L’évaluation des pertes de substances osseuse du cotyle a été classée selon la classification de Paprosky. L’âge moyen de nos patients au moment de l'intervention a été de 57 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans à 76 ans. La greffe osseuse a été utilisée chez 12 de nos patients. La reconstruction prothétique a été utilisée chez 8 patients (anneau de Kerboul dans six cas et anneau de Burch-Schneider dans deux cas). Recul post opératoire moyen a été de 56 mois. L’évaluation radiologique a été basée sur les clichés radiologiques du bassin de face strict ainsi que des radiographies de la hanche opérée de face prenant la totalité de la prothèse. Nos résultats cliniques et radiologiques ont été jugé bon à très bon dans la majorité des cas. Pour nous, nous optant pour le recentrage-reconstruction car c'est lui qui s'approche le plus de l'anatomie et de la biomécanique normale de la hanche. PMID:26955415

  6. Influence of calculation error of total field anomaly in strongly magnetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaoyu; Yao, Changli; Zheng, Yuanman; Li, Zelin

    2016-04-01

    An assumption made in many magnetic interpretation techniques is that ΔTact (total field anomaly - the measurement given by total field magnetometers, after we remove the main geomagnetic field, T0) can be approximated mathematically by ΔTpro (the projection of anomalous field vector in the direction of the earth's normal field). In order to meet the demand for high-precision processing of magnetic prospecting, the approximate error E between ΔTact and ΔTpro is studied in this research. Generally speaking, the error E is extremely small when anomalies not greater than about 0.2T0. However, the errorE may be large in highly magnetic environments. This leads to significant effects on subsequent quantitative inference. Therefore, we investigate the error E through numerical experiments of high-susceptibility bodies. A systematic error analysis was made by using a 2-D elliptic cylinder model. Error analysis show that the magnitude of ΔTact is usually larger than that of ΔTpro. This imply that a theoretical anomaly computed without accounting for the error E overestimate the anomaly associated with the body. It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that the error E is obvious and should not be ignored. It is also shown that the curves of ΔTpro and the error E had a certain symmetry when the directions of magnetization and geomagnetic field changed. To be more specific, the Emax (the maximum of the error E) appeared above the center of the magnetic body when the magnetic parameters are determined. Some other characteristics about the error Eare discovered. For instance, the curve of Emax with respect to the latitude was symmetrical on both sides of magnetic equator, and the extremum of the Emax can always be found in the mid-latitudes, and so on. It is also demonstrated that the error Ehas great influence on magnetic processing transformation and inversion results. It is conclude that when the bodies have highly magnetic susceptibilities, the error E can

  7. Development of efficient catharanthus roseus regeneration and transformation system using agrobacterium tumefaciens and hypocotyls as explants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As a valuable medicinal plant, Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) produces many terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), such as vindoline, ajamlicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vinblastine and vincristine et al. Some of them are important components of drugs treating cancer and hypertension. However, the yields of these TIAs are low in wild-type plants, and the total chemical synthesis is impractical in large scale due to high-cost and their complicated structures. The recent development of metabolic engineering strategy offers a promising solution. In order to improve the production of TIAs in C. roseus, the establishment of an efficient genetic transformation method is required. Results To develop a genetic transformation method for C. roseus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was employed which harbors a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 containing a report β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and a selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (NTPII). The influential factors were investigated systematically and the optimal transformation condition was achieved using hypocotyls as explants, including the sonication treatment of 10 min with 80 W, A. tumefaciens infection of 30 min and co-cultivation of 2 d in 1/2 MS medium containing 100 μM acetosyringone. With a series of selection in callus, shoot and root inducing kanamycin-containing resistance media, we successfully obtained stable transgenic regeneration plants. The expression of GUS gene was confirmed by histochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and genomic southern blot analysis. To prove the efficiency of the established genetic transformation system, the rate-limiting gene in TIAs biosynthetic pathway, DAT, which encodes deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase, was transferred into C. roseus using this established system and 9 independent transgenic plants were obtained. The results of metabolite analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that

  8. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (< 3 m) were relatively high due to the presence of carbon-rich soils as deep as 2 m. Carbon stocks of abandoned shrimp ponds were 95 Mg/ha or approximately 11% that of the mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions

  9. In vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation in asakura-sanshoo (Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC. F. inerme Makino) an important medicinal plant

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaofang; Zhao, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Context: Asakura-sanshoo (Zanthoxylum piperitum [L.] DC. f. inerme Makino) is an important medicinal plant in East Asia. Transgenic technique could be applied to improve plant traits and analyze gene function. However, there is no report on regeneration and genetic transformation in Asakura-sanshoo. Aims: To establish a regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system in Asakura-sanshoo, which could be used for cultivar improvement and gene function analysis. Settings and Design: The various combinations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were explored for the optimal plant regeneration from petiole and stem of Asakura-sanshoo. The half-strength woody plant medium (WPM) with different concentrations of NAA and IBA was used to induce root. For genetic transformation, A. tumefaciens strain EHA-105 harboring the plasmid pBin-Ex-H-ipt which carries the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene, β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and kanamycin resistance gene neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) were used. The transformation efficiency was detected by the kanamycin resistant frequency. Materials and Methods: Petioles and stems were obtained from the in vitro cultured Asakura-sanshoo. The petiole and stem segments were precultured for 3 days, and then inflected using the bacterium at the concentration of OD600 0.5–0.8 for 10 min, followed by 3 days co-cultivation. Selection of the transgenic plants was carried out after 7 days the regeneration using gradient kanamycin at 30 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Successful transformed plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and Southern blotting analysis. Results: The highest shoots regeneration was obtained on WPM supplement with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L NAA. The optimal rooting medium was half strength macro-element WPM. The kanamycin resistant frequency of petiole and

  10. Role of Endoproteolytic Dibasic Proprotein Processing in Maturation of Secretory Proteins in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Goller, Sabine P.; Schoisswohl, Doris; Baron, Michel; Parriche, Martine; Kubicek, Christian P.

    1998-01-01

    Cell extracts of Trichoderma reesei exhibited dibasic endopeptidase activity toward the carboxylic side of KR, RR, and PR sequences. This activity was stimulated by the presence of Ca2+ ions and localized in vesicles of low bouyant density; it therefore exhibited some similarity to yeast Kex2. Analytical chromatofocusing revealed a single peak of activity. The dibasic endopeptidase activity was strongly and irreversibly inhibited in vitro as well as in vivo by 1 mM p-amidinophenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (pAPMSF) but not by PMSF at concentrations up to 5 mM. We therefore used pAPMSF to study the role of the dibasic endopeptidase in the secretion of protein by T. reesei. Secretion of xylanase I (proprotein processing sequence -R-R-↓-R-↓-A-) and xylanase II (-K-R-↓-Q-) was strongly inhibited by 1 mM pAPMSF, and a larger, unprocessed enzyme form was detected intracellularly under these conditions. Secretion of cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II; -E-R-↓-Q-) was only slightly inhibited by pAPMSF, and no accumulation of unprocessed precursors was detected. In contrast, secretion of CBH I (-R-A-↓-Q-) was stimulated by pAPMSF addition, and a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of intracellular CBH I was detected. Similar experiments were also carried out with a single heterologous protein, ShBLE, the phleomycin-binding protein from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus, fused to a series of model proprotein-processing sequences downstream of the expression signals of the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter. Consistent with the results obtained with homologous proteins, pAPMSF inhibited the secretion of ShBLE with fusions containing dibasic (RK and KR) target sequences, but it even stimulated secretion in fusions to LR, NHA, and EHA target sequences. Addition of 5 mM PMSF, a nonspecific inhibitor of serine protease, nonspecifically inhibited the secretion of heterologous proteins from fusions bearing the NHA and LR targets. These data point to the existence of different

  11. In vitro susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins towards acetone:water extracts of two tannin rich plants.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Vilarem, G; Mathieu, C

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in the in vitro susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins using respective egg hatch assays (EHA) with acetone:water extracts of two tannin containing plants, chimay (Acacia pennatula) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). Fresh eggs were incubated in PBS with different concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400, 3600, 5000 and 8000 μg/ml PBS). Additional concentrations were tested for O. viciifolia (75, 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml PBS). Effective concentrations 50% (EC50), with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI), were calculated for every isolate with both extracts. Moreover, a resistance ratio (RR) was calculated to compare the isolates, using the most susceptible isolate for each extract as the respective reference. A second set of incubations were made using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) (0, 5000 μg/ml, 5000 μg/ml+PVPP) to determine the influence of polyphenols on the AH effect. The proportion of morulated eggs, eggs with L1 larvae failing eclosion (%LFE), and emerged larvae were estimated at different extract concentrations. Data of each isolate was used to calculate the effective concentration 50% (EC50) for each extract. The EC50 of each isolate was used to determine resistance ratio (RR) for the different isolates. For the 2 extracts, a susceptibility variation in egg hatching was observed for the different H. contortus isolates. The EC50 values for A. pennatula ranged from 2203 to 14106 μg (RR from 2.01 to 6.40). The O. viciifolia extract showed higher variability with EC50 values ranging from 104 to 4783 μg (RR from 3.66 to 45.74). The main AH effects of the two extracts tested on the ten isolates consisted in blocking the emergence of L1 larvae (higher% LFE). Additional observations on emerged larvae showed that extract exposure caused alterations in the internal structure, separating the cuticle from the pharynx, bulb and intestinal

  12. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  13. Humic Acid Complexation of Th, Hf and Zr in Ligand Competition Experiments: Metal Loading and Ph Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of metals in soils and subsurface aquifers is strongly affected by sorption and complexation with dissolved organic matter, oxyhydroxides, clay minerals, and inorganic ligands. Humic substances (HS) are organic macromolecules with functional groups that have a strong affinity for binding metals, such as actinides. Thorium, often studied as an analog for tetravalent actinides, has also been shown to strongly associate with dissolved and colloidal HS in natural waters. The effects of HS on the mobilization dynamics of actinides are of particular interest in risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Here, we present conditional equilibrium binding constants (Kc, MHA) of thorium, hafnium, and zirconium-humic acid complexes from ligand competition experiments using capillary electrophoresis coupled with ICP-MS (CE- ICP-MS). Equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange (EDLE) experiments using size exclusion via a 1000 Damembrane were also performed to validate the CE-ICP-MS analysis. Experiments were performed at pH 3.5-7 with solutions containing one tetravalent metal (Th, Hf, or Zr), Elliot soil humic acid (EHA) or Pahokee peat humic acid (PHA), and EDTA. CE-ICP-MS and EDLE experiments yielded nearly identical binding constants for the metal- humic acid complexes, indicating that both methods are appropriate for examining metal speciation at conditions lower than neutral pH. We find that tetravalent metals form strong complexes with humic acids, with Kc, MHA several orders of magnitude above REE-humic complexes. Experiments were conducted at a range of dissolved HA concentrations to examine the effect of [HA]/[Th] molar ratio on Kc, MHA. At low metal loading conditions (i.e. elevated [HA]/[Th] ratios) the ThHA binding constant reached values that were not affected by the relative abundance of humic acid and thorium. The importance of [HA]/[Th] molar ratios on constraining the equilibrium of MHA complexation is apparent when our estimated Kc, MHA values

  14. Comparison of Surfactant Distributions in Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive Films Dried from Dispersion under Lab-Scale and Industrial Drying Conditions.

    PubMed

    Baesch, S; Siebel, D; Schmidt-Hansberg, B; Eichholz, C; Gerst, M; Scharfer, P; Schabel, W

    2016-03-01

    Film-forming latex dispersions are an important class of material systems for a variety of applications, for example, pressure-sensitive adhesives, which are used for the manufacturing of adhesive tapes and labels. The mechanisms occurring during drying have been under intense investigations in a number of literature works. Of special interest is the distribution of surfactants during the film formation. However, most of the studies are performed at experimental conditions very different from those usually encountered in industrial processes. This leaves the impact of the drying conditions and the resulting influence on the film properties unclear. In this work, two different 2-ethylhexyl-acrylate (EHA)-based adhesives with varying characteristics regarding glass transition temperature, surfactants, and particle size distribution were investigated on two different substrates. The drying conditions, defined by film temperature and mass transfer in the gas phase, were varied to emulate typical conditions encountered in the laboratory and industrial processes. Extreme conditions equivalent to air temperatures up to 250 °C in a belt dryer and drying rates of 12 g/(m(2)·s) were realized. The surfactant distributions were measured by means of 3D confocal Raman spectroscopy in the dry film. The surfactant distributions were found to differ significantly with drying conditions at moderate film temperatures. At elevated film temperatures the surfactant distributions are independent of the investigated gas side transport coefficients: the heat and mass transfer coefficient. Coating on substrates with significantly different surface energies has a large impact on surfactant concentration gradients, as the equilibrium between surface and bulk concentration changes. Dispersions with higher colloidal stability showed more homogeneous lateral surfactant distributions. These results indicate that the choice of the drying conditions, colloidal stability, and substrates is crucial

  15. Epitope specificity of anti‐HA2 antibodies induced in humans during influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Staneková, Zuzana; Mucha, Vojtech; Sládková, Tatiana; Blaškovičová, Hana; Kostolanský, František; Varečková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Stanekováet al. (2012) Epitope specificity of anti‐HA2 antibodies induced in humans during influenza infection. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(6), 389–395. Background  The conserved, fusion‐active HA2 glycopolypeptide (HA2) subunit of influenza A hemagglutinin comprises four distinct antigenic sites. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing three of these sites are broadly cross‐reactive and protective. Objectives  This study aimed to establish whether antibodies specific to these three antigenic sites were elicited during a natural influenza infection or by vaccination of humans. Methods  Forty‐five paired acute and convalescent sera from individuals with a confirmed influenza A (subtype H3) infection were examined for the presence of HA2‐specific antibodies. The fraction of antibodies specific to three particular antigenic sites (designated IIF4, FC12, and CF2 here) was investigated using competitive enzyme immunoassay. Results  Increased levels of antibodies specific to an ectodomain of HA2 (EHA2: N‐terminal residues 23–185 of HA2) were detected in 73% of tested convalescent sera (33/45), while an increased level of antibodies specific to the HA2 fusion peptide (N‐terminal residues 1–38) was induced in just 15/45 individuals (33%). Competitive assays confirmed that antibodies specific to the IIF4 epitope (within HA2 residues 125–175) prevailed in 86% (13/15) over those specific to the other two epitopes during infection. However, only a negligible increase in HA2‐specific antibodies was detectable following vaccination with a current subunit vaccine. Conclusions  We observed that the antigenic site localized within N‐terminal HA2 residues 125–175 was more immunogenic than that within residues 1–38 (HA2 fusion protein), although both are weak natural immunogens. We suggest that new anti‐influenza vaccines should include HA2 (or specific epitopes localized within this

  16. From Farm to Table: Follow-Up of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Throughout the Pork Production Chain in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colello, Rocío; Cáceres, María E.; Ruiz, María J.; Sanz, Marcelo; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Padola, Nora L.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are important reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The entrance of these strains into the food chain implies a risk to consumers because of the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC throughout the pork production chain. From 764 samples, 31 (4.05%) were stx positive by PCR screening. At farms, 2.86% of samples were stx positive; at slaughter, 4.08% of carcasses were stx positive and at boning rooms, 6% of samples were stx positive. These percentages decreased in pork meat ready for sale at sales markets (4.59%). From positive samples, 50 isolates could be characterized. At farms 37.5% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2 genes, 37.5% possessed stx2e and 25%, carried only stx2. At slaughter we detected 50% of isolates positive for stx2, 33% for stx2e, and 16% for stx1/stx2. At boning rooms 59% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2, 14% stx2e, and 5% stx1/stx2/stx2e. At retail markets 66% of isolates were positive for stx2, 17% stx2e, and 17% stx1/stx2. For the other virulence factors, ehxA and saa were not detected and eae gene was detected in 12% of the isolates. Concerning putative adhesins, agn43 was detected in 72%, ehaA in 26%, aida in 8%, and iha in 6% of isolates. The strains were typed into 14 E. coli O groups (O1, O2, O8, O15, O20, O35, O69, O78, O91, O121, O138, O142, O157, O180) and 10 H groups (H9, H10, H16, H21, H26, H29, H30, H32, H45, H46). This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC strains through the chain pork suggesting the vertical transmission. STEC contamination originates in the farms and is transferred from pigs to carcasses in the slaughter process and increase in meat pork at boning rooms and sales markets. These results highlight the need to implement an integrated STEC control system based on good management practices on the farm and critical control point systems in the food chain. PMID:26903972

  17. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme fvtox1 mutants revealed that the FvTox1 toxin is involved in foliar sudden death syndrome development in soybean.

    PubMed

    Pudake, Ramesh N; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Sahu, Binod B; Leandro, Leonor F; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2013-08-01

    The soil borne fungus, Fusarium virguliforme, causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean, which is a serious foliar and root rot disease. The pathogen has never been isolated from the diseased foliar tissues; phytotoxins produced by the pathogen are believed to cause foliar SDS symptoms. One of these toxins, a 13.5-kDa acidic protein named FvTox1, has been hypothesized to interfere with photosynthesis in infected soybean plants and cause foliar SDS. The objective of this study is to determine if FvTox1 is involved in foliar SDS development. We created and studied five independent knockout fvtox1 mutants to study the function of FvTox1. We conducted Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to accomplish homologous recombination of FvTox1 with a hygromycin B resistance gene, hph, to generate the fvtox1 mutants. Approximately 40 hygromycin-resistant transformants were obtained from 10(6) conidial spores of the F. virguliforme Mont-1 isolate when the spores were co-cultivated with the A. tumefaciens EHA105 but not with LBA4044 strain carrying a recombinant binary plasmid, in which the hph gene encoding hygromycin resistance was flanked by 5'- and 3'-end FvTox1 sequences. We observed homologous recombination-mediated integration of hph into the FvTox1 locus among five independent fvtox1 mutants. In stem-cutting assays using cut soybean seedlings fed with cell-free F. virguliforme culture filtrates, the knockout fvtox1 mutants caused chlorophyll losses and foliar SDS symptoms, which were over twofold less than those caused by the virulent F. virguliforme Mont-1 isolate. Similarly, in root inoculation assays, more than a twofold reduction in foliar SDS development and chlorophyll losses was observed among the seedlings infected with the fvtox1 mutants as compared to the seedlings infected with the wild-type Mont-1 isolate. These results suggest that FvTox1 is a major virulence factor involved in foliar SDS development in soybean. It is expected that

  18. The efficacy of a combined oral formulation of derquantel-abamectin against anthelmintic resistant gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep in the UK.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Hodge, Andrew; Noé, Laura; Winstanley, Dana; Bartley, David J; Taylor, Mike; Morgan, Colin; Fraser, Sarah J; Maeder, Steven; Bartram, David

    2012-10-26

    The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the efficacy of a combined formulation (Startect(®) Dual Active Oral Solution for Sheep, Pfizer Animal Health) of derquantel (DQL) and abamectin (ABA) for the treatment of: (1) sheep experimentally infected with a moxidectin (MOX)-resistant isolate of Teladorsagia circumcincta, and (2) multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematode parasites under UK field conditions. In the first study, a total of 40 animals were allocated into 4 treatment groups, and were either left untreated or treated with DQL+ABA, MOX or ABA. Faecal samples were collected on days 1-5 and on day 7 after treatment to examine the reduction in faecal egg excretion and to evaluate the egg viability. On day 14 post treatment all animals were euthanised for abomasal worm counts. There was a 100% reduction in geometric mean worm counts for the DQL+ABA treated animals compared to the untreated control animals (P<0.0001), whereas the percentage reduction in worm counts for the MOX- (P>0.05) and ABA-treated (P=0.0004) animals was 12.4% and 71.8%, respectively. The data from the egg hatch assay (EHA) indicated that in the MOX-treated and the ABA-treated animals, the majority of the eggs hatched after treatment. In the field study, performed on four farms, animals were allocated into 6 groups of 11-15 animals each in order to conduct a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), based on arithmetic mean egg counts. One group of animals remained untreated, whereas the other animals were treated with DQL+ABA, MOX, fenbendazole (FBZ), levamisole (LV) or ivermectin (IVM). On each of the farms the reduction in egg excretion after treatment with FBZ, LV or IVM was below 95.0%, indicating anthelmintic resistance. The efficacy of DQL+ABA ranged from 99.1 to 100%, yielding significantly lower egg counts compared to the untreated control group (P ≤ 0.003). For MOX the egg counts were significantly (P ≤ 0.003) lower compared to the untreated group at each farm

  19. A review on the patterns of river material fluxes, coastal plume dispersal, shelf sediment facies, and anthropogenic impacts of the Tropical Land-Sea Interface, Sergipe/Alagoas, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoppers, B.; Medeiros, P. R. P.; de Souza, W. F. L.; Oliveira, E. N.; Fontes, L. C. da S.; do Carmo, M. S.; Carvalho, I. S.; Silva, M. C.; Brandini, N.; Carneiro, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    plume lost its original turbidity and unimodal seasonal pattern of pulsation upon the shelf as indicated by In Situ sampling and Satellite imagery series (LANDSAT TM 2-5 and MODIS). The coastal plume is largely fed with suspended matter from resupension processes and coastal erosion. C- The Japaratuba river fan. The inner-mid shelf harbors relict muddy and sandy siliclastic sediments and the shelf margin biodetritic carbonates. Riverine inputs have become insignificant. D- The southern shelf of Sergipe. The muddy, sandy and carbonate Merl sediments are heterogeneously distributed,and the coast is affected by diffuse small riverine inputs and wash out by the SEC. Sedimentation rates (210Pbex chronology with the CRS model) of Domains B and C ranged between 0.7 and 0.1 cm year-1, being similar to those of the eastern Brazilian shelf.

  20. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  1. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH <3. W Mata was host to shrimp similar to those found at several other

  2. X-1A impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Kay. Other crewmembers included flight engineer Rex Cook, X-1A crew chief Richard Payne, launch crewmwmbers Jack Moise and Charles Littleton, and scanners Merle Woods and Richard DeMore. Joe Walker entered the X-1A and began launch preparations. At an altitude of 22,000 feet, a sudden explosion rocked the X-1A. Walker egressed the craft unhurt although it was extensively damaged. Unsuccessful attempts were made to jettison the rocket plane's fuel, and it was found that the X-1A's landing gear had deployed and locked. Landing the mated configuration would therfore be unsafe. It was then decided to drop the unmanned X-1A onto the Edwards AFB bombing range. The X-1A was jettisoned from an altitude of 6,500 feet. It was completely destroyed on impact.

  3. OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF TRANSVERSE ACETABULAR FRACTURES: IS IT REALLY NECESSARY TO FIX BOTH COLUMNS?

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Vincenzo; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro; Pallottino, Alexandre; Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires e; Franklin, Carlos Eduardo; Labronici, Pedro José

    2009-01-01

    Objective: we prospectively evaluated clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients with displaced combined transverse-posterior wall acetabular fractures managed at our Institution over a period of seven years by posterolateral single approach, direct posterior wall and posterior column reduction and plating, and indirect reduction of anterior column controlled by fluoroscopic images with or without lag-screw fixation. The aim was to identify if the obtained immediate postoperative Matta radiographic roof-arc angles after fracture reduction and fixation alters in the postoperative period when comparing posterior plating alone versus posterior plate and anterior column lag-screw fixation. Patients and Methods: 35 skeletally mature patients (31 male and four female, with mean age of 39.9 years old [range, 23.3 to 66.7 y/o]) with combined transverse-posterior wall acetabular fractures surgically treated by a posterolateral single approach were enrolled in this prospective investigation. Nineteen patients had associated orthopaedic injuries. The first part of the acetabular fracture management was similar to all patients and consisted in anatomical reduction and fixation of the transverse posterior component followed by anatomical reduction and fixation of the posterior wall component. The transverse anterior component reduction was controlled by fluoroscopic images (anteroposterior (AP), iliac oblique, and obturator oblique views) and digital palpation through the greater sciatic notch. Fifteen of the 35 patients had an additional lag-screw fixation from the posterior to the anterior columns with an extra-long small-fragment cortical screw. AP and Judet oblique radiographic views were taken at the end of the procedure and roof-arc angles were measured. Clinical results were assigned according to the grading system of Merle D'Aubigne´ and Postel as modified by Matta et al. Radiographic roof-arc angles were checked and compared between the two groups of patients to

  4. Ares I and Ares V First Stage - Powering Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex S.; Williams, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Stage activity in 2007 has focused on a series of preliminary design (PDR) activities associated with each booster subsystem. These events will culminate in a formal preliminary design review in 2008, where subsystems and component specifications will be developed and associated analyses and drawings will be evaluated for technical adequacy. The first stage also has been undergoing a series of trade studies to determine means for upgrading booster performance and reducing operational costs. Performance improvement studies have included changing from polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant to hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB); replacing aluminum with composite motor casings; and optimizing or upgrading the propellant grain and nozzle structures. Some or all of these changes could result in a block upgrade to the Ares I first stage, after becoming the standard configuration for the Ares V. The cost reduction studies included a change from reusable or recoverable boosters to completely expendable boosters; changing from hydrazine-powered to more environmentally friendly electrohydrostatic actuators (EHAs) on the thrust vector control (TVC) system; and changing the location of the separation plane to reduce the likelihood of recontact upon booster separation. The expendability trade study resulted in a decision to keep the recoverable boosters, as the new hardware costs significantly outweighed the potential operational cost savings due to reduced ground operations. Likewise, due to cost considerations, the team continued using existing hydrazine-powered actuators for the TVC system. The separation plane location for Ares I is still being studied, with results to be announced in 2008. In short, the Ares launch vehicles' first stage is building upon NASA's close familiarity with this Shuttle-derived system, while continuing to seek out improvements for long-term exploration.

  5. Late-stage orogenic processes: How to link surface motion with distinct lithospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, F.; Heberer, B.

    2009-04-01

    -stage orogenic processes are temporal-spatial variations of vertical surface motion, kinematics and magmatism. A close inspection of the models shows that only a combination of observations in the foreland basin and within the orogenic wedge is distinctive for specific models, and solutions are not necessarily unique. However, lateral migration of magmatism and subsidence in the foreland basin and lateral migration of surface uplift are distinct for slab break-off and STEP faults, whereby the proposed migration direction is opposite. Consequently, a combination of various methods, e.g. low-temperature geochronology, kinematic studies and dating of volcanic rocks, is needed to distinguish between tectonic processes in question. References Beaumont, C., Ellis, S., Hamilton, J., Fullsack, P., 1996. Mechanical model for subduction-collision tectonics of Alpine-type compressional orogens. Geology, 24, 675-678. Cloetingh, S., Ziegler, P.A., 2007. Tectonic models of sedimentary basins. In: A.B. Watts (ed.). Treatise on Geophysics, v. 6, Elsevier, pp. 485-611. Govers, R., Wortel, M.J.R., 2005. Lithosphere tearing at STEP faults: response to edges of subduction zones. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 236, 505-523. Molnar, P., Tapponier, 1975. Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: effects of continental collision. Science, 189, 144-154. Platt, J.P., Whitehouse, M.J., Kelley, S.P., Carter, A., Hollick, L., 2003. Simultaneous extensional exhumation across the Alboran Basin: Implications for the causes of late orogenic extension. Geology, 31, 251-254. Ratschbacher, L., Frisch, W., Linzer, G. , Merle, 0., 1991. Lateral extrusion in the Eastern Alps, part 2: Structural analysis. Tectonics 10, 257-271. von Blanckenburg, F., Davies, J.H., 1995. Slab breakoff: A model for syncollisional magmatism and tectonics in the Alps. Tectonics 14, 120-131. Wortel, M.J.R., Spakman, W., 2000. Subduction and slab detachment in the Mediterranean-Carpathian region. Science 290, 1910-1017.

  6. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2004-12-01

    Astronomer Royal in 1956, but soon left England for greater opportunities in the United States. He spent two years (1957-58) at Harvard, first as a professor and then as the Robert Wheeler Willson Professor of Applied Astronomy before accepting positions as chairman of astronomy and Director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell University in 1959. He took great pride in the astronomy department that blossomed into greatness under his leadership. The department, which only had one other faculty member when he was appointed, reflected Tommy's strengths, ranging from radio astronomy and the Arecibo dish, to infrared, theoretical and planetary astronomy. His many distinguished hires included Carl Sagan. At Cornell, he was Assistant Vice President for Research from 1969-71 and the John L.Wetherill Professor from 1971 until his retirement in 1987. His many honors included Fellow of the Royal Society (London); Member of the National Academy of Sciences (US); Gold Medal and George Darwin Lecture, Royal Astronomical Society, London; and Honorary Doctor of Science, Cambridge University. He also served on the US President's Science Advisory Committee, although he came to be a strong critic of NASA and the Shuttle program. Tommy was a handsome, charming and generous man and a loyal colleague who formed many long-lasting friendships. A witty and articulate speaker, he was regarded by some as a scientific maverick who delighted in controversy. In reality, he was an iconoclast whose strength was in penetrating analysis of the assumptions on which some of our most important theories are based. He is survived by his second wife, Carvel (nee Beyer) Gold of Ithaca whom he married in 1972, and by the couple's daughter, Lauren Gold of West Palm Beach, Florida, as well as by three daughters from his first marriage to Merle Eleanor Tuberg in 1947: Lindy Bryant of Philadelphia, Lucy Gold of Ithaca and Tanya Vanesse of Carmel, N.Y., and by six grandchildren. He was

  7. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  8. Modelling of the impact of the Rhone River N:P ratios over the NW Mediterranean planktonic food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Baklouti, Melika; Carlotti, François

    2016-04-01

    , Charrière B, Dachs J, Doxaran D, Dutay J-C, Elbaz-Poulichet F, Eléaume M, Eyrolles F, Fernandez C, Fowler S, Francour P, Gaertner JC, Galzin R, Gasparini S, Ghiglione J-F, Gonzalez J-L, Goyet C, Guidi L, Guizien K, Heimbürger L-E, Jacquet SHM, Jeffrey WH, Joux F, Le Hir P, Leblanc K, Lefèvre D, Lejeusne C, Lemé R, Loÿe-Pilot M-D, Mallet M, Méjanelle L,Mélin F, Mellon C, Mérigot B, Merle P-L, Migon C, Miller WL, Mortier L, Mostajir B, Mousseau L, Moutin T, Para J, Pérez T, Petrenko A, Poggiale J-C, Prieur L, Pujo-Pay M, Pulido-Villena, Raimbult P, Rees AP, Ridame C, Rontani J-F, Ruiz Pino D, Sicre MA, Taillandier V, Tamburini C, Tanaka T, Taupier-Letage I, Tedetti M, Testor P, Thébault H, Thouvenin B, Touratier F, Tronczynski J, Ulses C, Van Wambeke F, Vantrepotte V, Vaz S, Verney R (2011) Marine ecosystems' responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcings in the Mediterranean. Prog Oceanogr 91:97-166

  9. Control of the geomorphic evolution of an active crater: Popocatpetl (Mexico) 1994-2003.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, N.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.; Macias, J. L.; Sanjosé, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    . References.- Cruz-Reyna, S. de la; Meli, R.; Macías, J.L.; Castillo, F.; & Cabrera, B., 1998. Cyclical dome extrusions that by late 1997 filled one-third of crater capacity, In Smithsonian-GVP Monthly Reports, Popocatépetl, Smithsonian Institution. Bull. Glob. Volcanism Netw, (GVN) 23 (2), 2 - 4. Donnadieu, F.; Kelfoun, K.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Decchi, E.; & Merle, O., 2003. Digital photogrammetry as a tool in analogue modelling: applications to volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123 (1-2), 161-180. Macías, J.L. & Siebe, C., 2005. Popocatépetl crater filled to the brim: significance for hazard evaluation, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (141) 327-330. Martín-Del Pozzo, A.L.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Bonifaz, F.; Correa, I.; & Mendiola, I.F., 2003. Timing magma ascent at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research ,125, 107-120. Matiella, M.A.; Watson, I.M.; Delgado, H.; Rose, W.I.; , Cárdenas, L.; & Realmuro, V.J., 2008, Volcanic emissions from Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, quantified using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared data: A case study of the December 2000-January 2001 emissions, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 170, 1-2, 76-85. Procter, J.N.; Platz, T.; & Cronin, S.J., 2006. A remnant summit lava dome and its influence on future eruptive hazards, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 10211. Schilling, S.P.; Ramsey, D.W.; Messerich, J.A.; & Thompson, R.A., 2006. Map: Rebuilding Mount St. Helens. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2928. Tanarro, L. M.; Zamorano, J.J.; & Palacios, D., 2005. Glacier degradation and lahar formation on the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico) during the last eruptive period (1994-2003), Zeitschrift Geomorphologie (140) 73-92. Zamorano, J.J., Gómez, A. 1996 "Análisis geomorfoloógico a detalle,1:10 000 del cráter del volcán Popocatépetl (1989-1996)" IV Reuni

  10. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    : "The Changing Atmosphere: A Global Challenge" (1990), and, with his wife Judith Jacobsen "The Crowded Greenhouse: Population, Climate Change and Creating a Sustainable World" (2002). After ASP, he continued his focus on environmental issues as a member of the Environmental and Societal Impacts group at NCAR. John retired from NCAR in 2005. John had many active pursuits beyond his professional work. He was an accomplished pilot, with licenses for flying single and multiengine aircraft, sailplanes, and balloons. He piloted a sailplane in at least one meteorological field program. He also was an avid river rafter. John faced the disease that took his life as he did all events in his life, with grace and dignity. He endured the loss of two spouses to cancer, Merle Jenkins Firor in 1979, and Judith Jacobsen in 2004. John is survived by his four children with his first wife, Daniel Firor of Seattle, Washington; Kay Firor of Cove, Oregon; James Firor of Hotchkiss, Colorado, and Susan Firor of Moscow, Idaho; a sister; a brother; and three grandchildren. His children and his many friends in Boulder and elsewhere gave him loving support during his days battling Alzheimer's. John used to define a 'southern gentleman' as a man dressed in white linen suit on a hot dusty summer day in a small Georgia town who could cross the street without breaking a sweat. John and his intellect and his management ability were like that; he could deal gracefully and successfully with almost anything that came his way. A man of great accomplishment, he rarely showed an ego to match. In the darkest days following the JEC Report, he almost single-handedly invented a new NCAR scientific appointment system. He chose the first cadre of 'senior scientists' to populate the top rank. There were about eighteen members in this group, but there was one name conspicuously absent - his own. This 'error' was quietly corrected by the UCAR Board.