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Sample records for mesencephalic dopamine-rich cultures

  1. Culture conditions affect the cholinergic development of an isolated subpopulation of chick mesencephalic neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Barald, K F

    1989-10-01

    Although neural crest cells are known to be very responsive to environmental cues during their development, recent evidence indicates that at least some subpopulations may be committed to a specific differentiation program prior to migration. Because the neural crest is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of cells that contributes to many vertebrate cell lineages, assessing the properties of specific subpopulations and the effect of the environment on their development has been difficult. To address this problem, we have isolated a pure subpopulation of chick mesencephalic neural crest cells by fluorescence no-flow cytometry after labeling them with monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to a 75-kDa cell surface antigen that is associated with high affinity choline uptake. When cultures of chick mesencephalic neural crest cells are labeled with these Mabs and a fluorescent second step antibody, approximately 5% of the cells are antigen-positive (A+). After sorting, 100% of the resulting cultured mesencephalic neural crest cells are A+. The Mabs we used also label all of the neurons of the embryonic chick and quail ciliary ganglion in vivo and in vitro. We have compared the effect of various cell culture media on the isolated neural crest subpopulation and the heterogeneous chick mesencephalic neural crest from which it was derived. A+ cells were passaged and grown in a variety of media, each of which differently affected its characteristics and development. A+ cells proliferated in the presence of 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and high concentrations (10-15%) of chick embryo extract, but did not differentiate, although they retained basal levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity. However, in chick serum and high (25 mM as opposed to 7 mM) K+, and heart-, iris-, or lung-conditioned medium, all of which are known to promote survival and/or cholinergic development of ciliary ganglion neurons, the cells ceased to proliferate and all of the cells in the culture became

  2. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson’s disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation. PMID:26729090

  3. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation. PMID:26729090

  4. Effects of Forskolin on Trefoil factor 1 expression in cultured ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R; Meyer, M

    2015-12-01

    Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) belongs to a family of secreted peptides that are mainly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Notably, TFF1 has been suggested to operate as a neuropeptide, however, its specific cellular expression, regulation and function remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that TFF1 is expressed in developing and adult rat ventral mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons. Here, we investigated the expression of TFF1 in rat ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons (embryonic day 14) grown in culture for 5, 7 or 10 days in the absence (controls) or presence of either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Forskolin or the combination. No TFF1-ir cells were identified at day 5 and only a few at day 7, whereas TH was markedly expressed at both time points. At day 10, several TFF1-ir cells were detected, and their numbers were significantly increased after the addition of GDNF (2.2-fold) or Forskolin (4.1-fold) compared to controls. Furthermore, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin had an additive effect and increased the number of TFF1-ir cells by 5.6-fold compared to controls. TFF1 expression was restricted to neuronal cells, and the percentage of TH/TFF1 co-expressing cells was increased to the same extent in GDNF and Forskolin-treated cultures (4-fold) as compared to controls. Interestingly, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin resulted in a significantly increased co-expression (8-fold) of TH/TFF1, which could indicate that GDNF and Forskolin targeted different subpopulations of TH/TFF1 neurons. Short-term treatment with Forskolin resulted in an increased number of TFF1-ir cells, and this effect was significantly reduced by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 or the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89, suggesting that Forskolin induced TFF1 expression through diverse signaling pathways. In conclusion, distinct populations of cultured dopaminergic neurons express TFF1, and their numbers can be

  5. Catalpol protects dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neurotoxicity in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan-Yuan; An, Li-Jia; Jiang, Lan; Duan, Yan-Long; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Bo

    2006-12-23

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Microglia, the resident immune cells in the central nervous system, are pivotal in the inflammatory reaction. Activated microglia can induce expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and release significant amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-alpha, which can damage the dopaminergic neurons. Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside, contained richly in the roots of Rehmannia glutinosa, was found to be neuroprotective in gerbils subjected to transient global cerebral ischemia. But the effect of catalpol on inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration has not been examined. In this study, microglia in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the aim of the study was to examine whether catalpol could protect dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that catalpol significantly reduced the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), TNF-alpha and NO after LPS-induced microglial activation. Further, catalpol attenuated LPS-induced the expression of iNOS. As determined by immunocytochemical analysis, pretreatment by catalpol dose-dependently protected dopaminergic neurons against LPS-induced neurotoxicity. These results suggest that catalpol exerts its protective effect on dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting microglial activation and reducing the production of proinflammatory factors. Thus, catalpol may possess therapeutic potential against inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17049947

  6. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity of homocysteine and its derivatives in primary mesencephalic cultures.

    PubMed

    Heider, I; Lehmensiek, V; Lenk, Th; Müller, Th; Storch, A

    2004-01-01

    Levodopa and dopamine are metabolized to 3-O-methyldopa and 3-methoxytyramine, respectively, by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) leading to the production of the demethylated cofactor S-adenosylhomo-cysteine (SAH) and subsequently homocysteine (HC). Indeed, treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with levodopa leads to increased HC blood levels. Therefore, HC is discussed to be involved in the pathogenesis of PD as well as in enhanced progression of PD in patients treated with levodopa. Here we investigated the toxicity of HC and its derivatives SAH, homocysteic acid (HCA) and cysteic acid (CA) on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures from rat in vitro. Furthermore, we evaluated the toxicity of HC on cultures stressed with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Incubation with HC or HCA did not result in significant effects on TH-positive neuron survival with concentrations up to 1 mM, but led to morphological changes of TH-positive cells with significantly fewer and shorter neurites at concentrations of > or = 100 microM after 48 h. In contrast, SAH and CA were toxic at concentrations of >100 microM after 48h. Furthermore, MPP+ showed strong toxicity towards TH-positive cells after 48 h (half-maximal toxic concentration: 20 microM), whereas co-incubation with HC for 24 or 48 h did not further alter TH-positive cell survival. Taken together, our results do not demonstrate relevant dopaminergic toxicity of HC in vitro, and therefore HC is most likely not involved in the pathogenesis of PD or in accelerating the progression of PD by levodopa. PMID:15354384

  7. Estrogen protects against dopamine neuron toxicity in primary mesencephalic cultures through an indirect P13K/Akt mediated astrocyte pathway.

    PubMed

    Bains, Mona; Roberts, James L

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes regulate neuronal homeostasis and have been implicated in affecting the viability and functioning of surrounding neurons under stressed and injured conditions. Previous data from our lab suggests indirect actions of estrogen through ERα in neighboring astroglia to protect dopamine neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) toxicity in mouse mesencephalic cultures. We further evaluate estrogen signaling in astrocytes and the mechanism of estrogen's indirect neuroprotective effects on dopamine neurons. Primary mesencephalic cultures pre-treated with 17β-estradiol and the membrane impermeable estrogen, E2-BSA, were both neuroprotective against MPP(+) -induced dopamine neuron toxicity, suggesting membrane-initiated neuroprotection. ERα was found in the plasma membrane of astrocyte cultures and colocalized with the lipid raft marker, flotillin-1. A 17β-estradiol time course revealed a significant increase in Akt, which was inhibited by the PI3 kinase inhibitor, LY294004. Estrogen conditioned media collected from pure astrocyte cultures rescued glial deficient mesencephalic cultures from MPP(+). This indirect estrogen-mediated neuroprotective effect in mesencephalic cultures was significantly reduced when PI3 kinase signaling in astrocytes was blocked prior to collecting estrogen-conditioned media using the irreversible PI3 kinase inhibitor, Wortmannin. Estrogen signaling via astrocytes is rapidly initiated at the membrane level and requires PI3 kinase signaling in order to protect primary mesencephalic dopamine neurons from MPP(+) neurotoxicity. PMID:26520464

  8. Both the antioxidant and D3 agonist actions of pramipexole mediate its neuroprotective actions in mesencephalic cultures.

    PubMed

    Ling, Z D; Robie, H C; Tong, C W; Carvey, P M

    1999-04-01

    Pramipexole (PPX) is a full intrinsic activity, direct-acting dopamine (DA) agonist possessing 7-fold higher affinity for D3 than for D2 receptors. It also is a potent antioxidant. PPX was previously shown to be neuroprotective because it dose dependently attenuated the DA neuron loss produced by levodopa in mesencephalic cultures. Several different drugs with properties similar to PPX were studied here to better understand the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for this neuroprotective effect. The D3-preferring agonist 7-hydroxy-diphenylaminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT) and the D3 antagonist U99194, respectively, increased and decreased the neuroprotective effects of PPX in a dose-dependent fashion. Addition of the selective D2 agonist U95666 or the D2/D3 antagonists domperidone or raclopride did not affect PPX's neuroprotective effect. Interestingly, 7-OH-DPAT by itself did not attenuate the DA neuron loss produced by levodopa. However, when 7-OH-DPAT was combined with a low dose of the antioxidants U101033E or alpha-tocopherol, the toxic effects of levodopa were attenuated. Similar results were observed when the D3-preferring agonist PD128, 907 was studied. In addition, media conditioned by exposure of mesencephalic cultures incubated with all D3-preferring agonists studied was shown to enhance the growth of DA neurons in freshly harvested recipient cultures implicating a D3-mediated trophic activity in the neuroprotective effect. These data suggest that PPX's neuroprotective actions in the levodopa toxicity model are a consequence of its combined actions as a D3 receptor agonist and an antioxidant. PMID:10087005

  9. The lazaroid U-83836E improves the survival of rat embryonic mesencephalic tissue stored at 4 degrees C and subsequently used for cultures or intracerebral transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grasbon-Frodl, E M; Nakao, N; Brundin, P

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the effects of addition of the lazaroid U-83836E to a preservation medium on the survival of rat dopamine neurons stored before culturing or intracerebral transplantation. Embryonic ventral mesencephalic tissue was preserved at 4 degrees C for 8 days with or without the addition of 0.3 mu M of U-83836E to a chemically defined "hibernation" medium. Freshly dissected mesencephalic tissue was used in control groups. For culture experiments, the mesencephalic tissue was dissociated and grown in serum-containing medium. Following 24-48 h in vitro, the number of dopamine neurons in cultures derived from tissue hibernated without the lazaroid was 40% of fresh control, compared with 67% of control in cultures prepared from tissue stored in the presence of U-83836E. When mesencephalic tissue was transplanted to the dopamine-depleted striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats following 8 days storage at 4 degrees C in a medium without U-83836E, the mean number of surviving dopamine neurons in the grafts was significantly reduced to 40% of control. In contrast, grafts of tissue which had been hibernated in U-83836E-containing medium contained as many dopamine neurons as transplants of freshly dissected tissue. High yields of surviving grafted dopamine neurons were correlated to a significantly faster onset of functional recovery of amphetamine-induced motor asymmetry. We conclude that the storage period for rat mesencephalic tissue can be prolonged up to 8 days when using lazaroid-supplemented hibernation medium. As lazaroids have undergone clinical safety testing, the application of lazaroids for tissue storage in clinical transplantation trials can be envisaged. PMID:9138743

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition protects against 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) toxicity in primary mesencephalic cultures: new insights into levodopa toxicity.

    PubMed

    Blessing, Heike; Bareiss, Markus; Zettlmeisl, Heinz; Schwarz, Johannes; Storch, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has protective effects on levodopa (L-DOPA), but not D-DOPA toxicity towards dopamine (DA) neurons in rat primary mesencephalic cultures [Mol. Pharmacol. 57 (2000) 589]. Here, we extend our recent studies to elucidate the mechanisms of these protective effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of all main L-DOPA/DA metabolites on survival of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons in primary rat mesencephalic cultures. 3-O-Methyldopa, homovanillic acid, dihydroxyphenyl acetate and 3-methoxytyramine had no effects at concentrations up to 300 micro M after 24h, whereas DA was more toxic than L-DOPA with toxicity at concentrations of >or=1 micro M. The coenzyme of COMT, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), and its demethylated product S-adenosylhomocystein caused no relevant alteration of THir neuron survival or L-DOPA toxicity. In contrast, inhibition of SAM synthesis by selenomethionine showed time- and dose-dependent increase of THir neuron survival, but did not affect L-DOPA toxicity. L-DOPA-induced lipid peroxidation in mesencephalic cultures was not modified by the COMT inhibitor Ro 41-0960 (1 micro M). Increased contamination of the cultures with glial cells attenuated L- and D-DOPA toxicity, but caused significant enhancement of protection by COMT inhibitors against L-DOPA toxicity only. Investigations of L-DOPA uptake in rat striatal cultures using HPLC revealed a significant reduction of extracellular L-DOPA concentrations by Ro 41-0960. Our data confirm that L-DOPA toxicity towards DA neurons is mediated by an autooxidative process, which is attenuated by glial cells. In addition, we demonstrate a second mechanism of L-DOPA toxicity in vitro mediated by a COMT- and glia-dependent pathway, which is blocked by COMT inhibitors, most likely due to enhanced glial uptake of L-DOPA. PMID:12421594

  11. Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures.

    PubMed

    Moldzio, Rudolf; Pacher, Thomas; Krewenka, Christopher; Kranner, Barbara; Novak, Johannes; Duvigneau, Johanna Catharina; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2012-06-15

    Cannabinoids derived from Cannabis sativa demonstrate neuroprotective properties in various cellular and animal models. Mitochondrial impairment and consecutive oxidative stress appear to be major molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Therefore we studied some major cannabinoids, i.e. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in mice mesencephalic cultures for their protective capacities against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)) toxicity. MPP(+) is an established model compound in the research of parkinsonism that acts as a complex I inhibitor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in excessive radical formation and cell degeneration. MPP(+) (10 μM) was administered for 48 h at the 9th DIV with or without concomitant cannabinoid treatment at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 μM. All cannabinoids exhibited in vitro antioxidative action ranging from 669 ± 11.1 (THC), 16 ± 3.2 (THCA) to 356 ± 29.5 (CBD) μg Trolox (a vitamin E derivative)/mg substance in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Cannabinoids were without effect on the morphology of dopaminergic cells stained by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreaction. THC caused a dose-dependent increase of cell count up to 17.3% at 10 μM, whereas CBD only had an effect at highest concentrations (decrease of cell count by 10.1-20% at concentrations of 0.01-10 μM). It influenced the viability of the TH immunoreactive neurons significantly, whereas THCA exerts no influence on dopaminergic cell count. Exposure of cultures to 10 μM of MPP(+) for 48 h significantly decreased the number of TH immunoreactive neurons by 44.7%, and shrunken cell bodies and reduced neurite lengths could be observed. Concomitant treatment of cultures with cannabinoids rescued dopaminergic cells. Compared to MPP(+) treated cultures, THC counteracted toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner. THCA and CBD treatment at a concentration of 10

  12. Cryopreservation, Culture, and Transplantation of Human Fetal Mesencephalic Tissue into Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, D. E.; Naftolin, F.; Collier, T. J.; Leranth, C.; Robbins, R. J.; Sladek, C. D.; Roth, R. H.; Sladek, J. R.

    1988-11-01

    Studies in animals suggest that fetal neural grafts might restore lost neurological function in Parkinson's disease. In monkeys, such grafts survive for many months and reverse signs of parkinsonism, without attendant graft rejection. The successful and reliable application of a similar transplantation procedure to human patients, however, will require neural tissue obtained from human fetal cadavers, with demonstrated cellular identity, viability, and biological safety. In this report, human fetal neural tissue was successfully grafted into the brains of monkeys. Neural tissue was collected from human fetal cadavers after 9 to 12 weeks of gestation and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Viability after up to 2 months of storage was demonstrated by cell culture and by transplantation into monkeys. Cryopreservation and storage of human fetal neural tissue would allow formation of a tissue bank. The stored cells could then be specifically tested to assure their cellular identity, viability, and bacteriological and virological safety before clinical use. The capacity to collect and maintain viable human fetal neural tissue would also facilitate research efforts to understand the development and function of the human brain and provide opportunities to study neurological diseases.

  13. Maneb-induced dopaminergic neuronal death is not affected by loss of mitochondrial complex I activity: Results from primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons cultured from individual Ndufs4+/+ and Ndufs4-/- mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Xia, Zhengui

    2014-01-01

    Primary cultures from embryonic mouse ventral mesencephalon are widely used for investigating the mechanisms of dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease models. Specifically, single mouse or embryo cultures from littermates can be very useful for comparative studies involving transgenic mice when the neuron cultures are to be prepared before genotyping. However, preparing single mouse embryo culture is technically challenging because of the small number of cells present in the mesencephalon of each embryo (150,000-300,000), of which only 0.5-5% are tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) -positive, dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we optimized the procedure for preparing primary mesencephalic neuron cultures from individual mouse embryos. Mesencephalic neurons that are dissociated delicately, plated on Aclar film coverslips, and incubated in DMEM supplemented with FBS for 5 days and then N2 supplement for 1 day resulted in the best survival of dopaminergic neurons from each embryo. Using this optimized method, we prepared mesencephalic neuron cultures from single Ndufs4+/+ or Ndufs4-/- embryos, and investigated the role of mitochondrial complex I in maneb-induced dopamine neuron death. Our results suggest that maneb toxicity to dopamine neurons is not affected by loss of mitochondrial complex I activity in Ndufs4-/- cultures. PMID:25275677

  14. Increased neurotrophic factor levels in ventral mesencephalic cultures do not explain the protective effect of osteopontin and the synthetic 15-mer RGD domain against MPP+ toxicity.

    PubMed

    Broom, Lauren; Jenner, Peter; Rose, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic 15-mer arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) domain of osteopontin (OPN) is protective in vitro and in vivo against dopaminergic cell death and this protective effect may be mediated through interaction with integrin receptors to regulate neurotrophic factor levels. We now examine this concept in rat primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) exposure reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell number and activated glial cells as shown by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), oxycocin-42 (OX-42) and ectodermal dysplasia 1 (ED-1) immunoreactivity. Both OPN and the RGD domain of OPN were equally protective against MPP+ toxicity in VM cultures and both increased glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. The effects of OPN and the RGD domain were accompanied by a decrease in numbers of activated microglia but with no change in astrocyte number. However, full-length OPN and the RGD domain of OPN remained protective against MPP+ toxicity in the presence of a GDNF neutralising antibody. This suggests that increased GDNF levels do not underlie the protective effect observed with OPN. Rather, OPN's protective effect may be mediated through decreased glial cell activation. PMID:25218309

  15. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid collaborates with the isthmic organizer to regulate mesencephalic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Martín, Cristina; Alonso, María I; Moro, José A; Bueno, David; Gato, Angel

    2005-11-01

    Early in development, the behavior of neuroepithelial cells is controlled by several factors acting in a developmentally regulated manner. Recently it has been shown that diffusible factors contained within embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) promote neuroepithelial cell survival, proliferation, and neurogenesis in mesencephalic explants lacking any known organizing center. In this paper, we show that mesencephalic and mesencephalic+isthmic organizer explants cultured only with basal medium do not express the typically expressed mesencephalic or isthmic organizer genes analyzed (otx2 and fgf8, respectively) and that mesencephalic explants cultured with embryonic CSF-supplemented medium do effect such expression, although they exhibit an altered pattern of gene expression, including ectopic shh expression domains. Other trophic sources that are able to maintain normal neuroepithelial cell behavior, i.e., fibroblast growth factor-2, fail to activate this ectopic shh expression. Conversely, the expression pattern of the analyzed genes in mesencephalic+isthmic organizer explants cultured with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid-supplemented medium mimics the pattern for control embryos developed in ovo. We demonstrate that embryonic CSF collaborates with the isthmic organizer in regulation of the expression pattern of some characteristic neuroectodermal genes during early stages of central nervous system (CNS) development, and we suggest that this collaboration is not restricted to the maintenance of neuroepithelial cell survival. Data reported in this paper corroborate the hypothesis that factors contained within embryonic CSF contribute to the patterning of the CNS during early embryonic development. PMID:16180222

  16. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonists induce neurotrophic effects on mesencephalic dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Li, Rui; Huang, Yuangui; Li, Xuping; Le, Weidong

    2005-11-01

    Anti-parkinsonian agents, pramipexole (PPX) and ropinirole (ROP), have been reported to possess neuroprotective properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underlying neuroprotection afforded by the D3-preferring receptor agonists remain poorly understood. The present study demonstrates that incubation of primary mesencephalic cultures with PPX and ROP or the conditioned medium from PPX- or ROP-treated primary cultures induced a marked increase in the number of dopamine (DA) neurons in the cultures. Similar effects can be observed after incubating with the conditioned medium derived from PPX- and ROP-treated substantia nigra astroglia. Meanwhile, PPX and ROP can protect the primary cells from insult of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the active metabolite of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Furthermore, the neurotrophic effects of PPX and ROP on mesencephalic dopamine neurons could be significantly blocked by D3 receptor antagonist, but not by D2 receptor antagonist. Moreover, we found that the levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the conditioned medium of mesencephalic cultures treated with PPX and ROP were significantly increased. Blocking GDNF and BDNF with the neutralizing antibodies, the neurotrophic effects of PPX and ROP were greatly diminished. These results suggest that D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonists, PPX and ROP, exert neurotrophic effects on cultured DA neurons by modulating the production of endogenous GDNF and BDNF, which may participate in their neuroprotection. PMID:16307585

  17. Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia: A Novel Recessive Brain Malformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Maha S.; Saleem, Sahar N.; Dobyns, William B.; Barkovich, A. James; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M.; Ashtari, Manzar; Akizu, Naiara; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Grijalvo-Perez, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with a characteristic "butterfly"-like contour of the midbrain on…

  18. Differences between high-affinity forskolin binding sites in dopamine-riche and other regions of rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Poat, J.A.; Cripps, H.E.; Iversen, L.L.

    1988-05-01

    Forskolin labelled with (/sup 3/H) bound to high- and low-affinity sites in the rat brain. The high-affinity site was discretely located, with highest densities in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercule, substantia nigra, hippocampus, and the molecular layers of the cerebellum. This site did not correlate well with the distribution of adenylate cyclase. The high-affinity striatal binding site may be associated with a stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Thus, the number of sites was increased by the addition of Mg/sup 2 +/ and guanylyl imidodiphosphate. Cholera toxin stereotaxically injected into rat striatum increased the number of binding sites, and no further increase was noted following the subsequent addition of guanyl nucleotide. High-affinity forskolin binding sites in non-dopamine-rich brain areas (hippocampus and cerebullum) were modulated in a qualitatively different manner by guanyl nucleotides. In these areas the number of binding sites was significantly reduced by the addition of guanyl nucleotide. These results suggest that forskolin may have a potential role in identifying different functional/structural guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

  19. Effects of Ex Vivo Transduction of Mesencephalic Reaggregates with Bcl-2 on Grafted Dopamine Neuron Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sortwell, Caryl E.; Bowers, William J.; Counts, Scott E.; Pitzer, Mark R.; Fleming, Matthew F.; McGuire, Susan O.; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.; Federoff, Howard J.; Collier, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Survival rates of dopamine (DA) neurons grafted to the denervated striatum are extremely poor (5-20%). Gene transfer of survival promoting factors, such as the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2, to mesencephalic DA neurons prior to transplantation (ex vivo transduction) offers a novel approach to increase graft survival. However, specific criteria to assess the efficacy of various vectors must be adhered to in order to reasonably predict successful gene transfer with appropriate timing and levels of protein expression. Cell culture results utilizing three different herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to deliver the reporter ß-galactosidase gene (lacZ) indicate that transduction of mesencephalic cells with a helper virus-free HSV amplicon (HF HSVTH9lac) that harbors the 9-kb tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter to drive lacZ gene expression elicits the transduction of the highest percentage (≈50%) of TH-immunoreactive (THir) neurons without significant cytotoxic effects. This transduction efficiency and limited cytotoxicity was superior to that observed following transduction with helper virus-containing HSV (HC HSVlac) and helper virus-free HSV amplicons (HF HSVlac) expressing lacZ under the transcriptional control of the HSV immediate-early 4/5 gene promoter. Subsequently, we assessed the ability of HSV-TH9lac and the bcl-2 expressing HSV-TH9bcl-2 amplicon to transduce mesencephalic reaggregates. Although an increase in bcl-2 and ß-galactosidase protein was induced by transduction, amplicon-mediated overexpression of bcl-2 did not lead to an increase in grafted THir neuron number. Even with highly efficient viral vector-mediated transduction, our results demonstrate that ex vivo gene transfer of bcl-2 to mesencephalic reaggregates is ineffective in increasing grafted DA neuron survival. PMID:17196186

  20. Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia: a novel recessive brain malformation.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Maha S; Saleem, Sahar N; Dobyns, William B; Barkovich, A James; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M; Ashtari, Manzar; Akizu, Naiara; Gleeson, Joseph G; Grijalvo-Perez, Ana Maria

    2012-08-01

    We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with a characteristic 'butterfly'-like contour of the midbrain on axial sections. Additional imaging features included variable degrees of supratentorial ventricular dilatation and hypoplasia to complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging showed diffuse hypomyelination and lack of an identifiable corticospinal tract. All patients displayed severe cognitive impairment, post-natal progressive microcephaly, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriparesis and seizures. Autistic features were noted in older cases. Talipes equinovarus, non-obstructive cardiomyopathy and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous were additional findings in two families. One of the patients required shunting for hydrocephalus; however, this yielded no change in ventricular size suggestive of dysplasia rather than obstruction. We propose the term 'diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia' to characterize this autosomal recessive malformation. PMID:22822038

  1. Chemokine-Mediated Migration of Mesencephalic Neural Crest Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rezzoug, Francine; Seelan, Ratnam S.; Bhattacherjee, Vasker; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2011-01-01

    Clefts of the lip and/or palate are among the most prevalent birth defects affecting approximately 7000 newborns in the United States annually. Disruption of the developmentally programmed migration of neural crest cells (NCCs) into the orofacial region is thought to be one of the major causes of orofacial clefting. Signaling of the chemokine SDF-1 (Stromal Derived Factor-1) through its specific receptor, CXCR4, is required for the migration of many stem cell and progenitor cell populations from their respective sites of emergence to the regions where they differentiate into complex cell types, tissues and organs. In the present study, “transwell” assays of chick embryo mesencephalic (cranial) NCC migration and ex ovo whole embryo “bead implantation” assays were utilized to determine whether SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling mediates mesencephalic NCC migration. Results from this study demonstrate that attenuation of SDF-1 signaling, through the use of specific CXCR4 antagonists (AMD3100 and TN14003), disrupts the migration of mesencephalic NCCs into the orofacial region, suggesting a novel role for SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in the directed migration of mesencephalic NCCs in the early stage embryo. PMID:22015108

  2. Diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia: a novel recessive brain malformation

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sahar N.; Dobyns, William B.; Barkovich, A. James; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M.; Ashtari, Manzar; Akizu, Naiara; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Grijalvo-Perez, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction with a characteristic ‘butterfly’-like contour of the midbrain on axial sections. Additional imaging features included variable degrees of supratentorial ventricular dilatation and hypoplasia to complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging showed diffuse hypomyelination and lack of an identifiable corticospinal tract. All patients displayed severe cognitive impairment, post-natal progressive microcephaly, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriparesis and seizures. Autistic features were noted in older cases. Talipes equinovarus, non-obstructive cardiomyopathy and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous were additional findings in two families. One of the patients required shunting for hydrocephalus; however, this yielded no change in ventricular size suggestive of dysplasia rather than obstruction. We propose the term ‘diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia’ to characterize this autosomal recessive malformation. PMID:22822038

  3. Voltage-dependent potassium currents in developing neurones from quail mesencephalic neural crest.

    PubMed Central

    Bader, C R; Bertrand, D; Dupin, E

    1985-01-01

    Neurones in explants cultured from quail mesencephalic neural crest were studied at different stages of their development using the voltage-clamp technique. A voltage-dependent outward current activated by membrane depolarization was identified as a potassium current by the sensitivity of its reversal potential to extracellular potassium. The voltage-dependent potassium current is made up of two components which differ in their sensitivity to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA). The component most sensitive to 4-AP has fast activation kinetics and inactivates quickly at sustained depolarized voltages. By analogy with a current described in other preparations, this current was called IA. The component most sensitive to TEA has slower activation kinetics and inactivates more slowly at sustained depolarized voltages. This current was called IK. IA and IK were already present in neurones cultured for 24 h. The ratio between the peak of IK and that of IA increased significantly between 24 h and 4 days in culture. This means that the two components of the voltage-dependent potassium current follow a different time course during development. Images Plate 1 PMID:2414432

  4. Prothrombin kringle-2 induces death of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in vivo and in vitro via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Ryong; Chung, Eun Sook; Bok, Eugene; Baik, Hyung Hwan; Chung, Young Cheul; Won, So Yoon; Joe, Eunhye; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kim, Soung Soo; Jin, Min Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Jin, Byung Kwan

    2010-05-15

    We have shown that prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), a domain of human prothrombin distinct from thrombin could activate cultured rat brain microglia in vitro. However, little is known whether pKr-2-induced microglial activation could cause neurotoxicity on dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vivo. To address this question, pKr-2 was injected into the rat substantia nigra (SN). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate significant loss of DA neurons seven days after injection of pKr-2. In parallel, pKr-2-activated microglia were detected in the SN with OX-42 and OX-6 immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcription PCR and double-label immunohistochemistry revealed that activated microglia in vivo exhibit early and transient expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and several proinflammatory cytokines. The pKr-2-induced loss of SN DA neurons was partially inhibited by the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, and the COX-2 inhibitor DuP-697. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were activated in the SN as early as 1 hr after pKr-2 injection, and localized within microglia. Inhibition of these kinases led to attenuation of mRNA expression of iNOS, COX-2 and several proinflammatory cytokines, and rescue of DA neurons in the SN. Intriguingly, following treatment with pKr-2 in vitro, neurotoxicity was detected exclusively in co-cultures of mesencephalic neurons and microglia, but not microglia-free neuron-enriched mesencephalic cultures, indicating that microglia are required for pKr-2 neurotoxicity. Our results strongly suggest that microglia activated by endogenous compound(s), such as pKr-2, are implicated in the DA neuronal cell death in the SN. PMID:20025058

  5. Neuroprotection with methylaminochroman and lazaroid of embryonic ventral mesencephalic tegmental dopaminergic neurons in cold storage.

    PubMed

    Thajeb, Peterus; Kuo, Jon-Son; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic ventral mesencephalic tegmental (EVMT) neurons die off over time in cold storage at 4 degrees C in hibernation buffers (HB). Manipulation of HB conditions may improve the survival of neurons in cold storage. We examined the effect of lipid peroxidation inhibitors, a methylaminochroman (U83836E) and a lazaroid (U74389G) on the viability and survival of embryonic dopaminergic neurons in the co-culture system of embryonic striatal target (EST) cells and EVMT neurons that had been stored for 3 days at 4 degrees C in HB with or without U83836E or U74389G. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for analysis of data. The density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THIR)-positive neurons was significantly higher in the groups stored in supplemented HB than in the control (HB alone; P < 0.001). The neuroprotective effect was concentration-dependent. We conclude that either U83836E or U74389G-conditioned HB exerted a concentration-dependent neuroprotective effect on embryonic dopaminergic neurons in cold storage for 3 days. Supplementation of U83836E and U74389G or other methylaminochromans and lazaroids in HB may be important for cold storage of donor neuronal cells. PMID:16678726

  6. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A; Madrigal, M Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  7. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  8. Mesencephalic representations of recent experience influence decision making

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John A; Costabile, Jamie D; Felsen, Gidon

    2016-01-01

    Decisions are influenced by recent experience, but the neural basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. Here, we address this question in the context of action selection. We focused on activity in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), a mesencephalic region that provides input to several nuclei in the action selection network, in well-trained mice selecting actions based on sensory cues and recent trial history. We found that, at the time of action selection, the activity of many PPTg neurons reflected the action on the previous trial and its outcome, and the strength of this activity predicted the upcoming choice. Further, inactivating the PPTg predictably decreased the influence of recent experience on action selection. These findings suggest that PPTg input to downstream motor regions, where it can be integrated with other relevant information, provides a simple mechanism for incorporating recent experience into the computations underlying action selection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16572.001 PMID:27454033

  9. A central mesencephalic reticular formation projection to the supraoculomotor area in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Martin O; Warren, Susan; May, Paul J

    2016-05-01

    The central mesencephalic reticular formation is physiologically implicated in oculomotor function and anatomically interwoven with many parts of the oculomotor system's premotor circuitry. This study in Macaca fascicularis monkeys investigates the pattern of central mesencephalic reticular formation projections to the area in and around the extraocular motor nuclei, with special emphasis on the supraoculomotor area. It also examines the location of the cells responsible for this projection. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine were stereotaxically placed within the central mesencephalic reticular formation to anterogradely label axons and terminals. These revealed bilateral terminal fields in the supraoculomotor area. In addition, dense terminations were found in both the preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nuclei. The dense terminations just dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus overlap with the location of the C-group medial rectus motoneurons projecting to multiply innervated muscle fibers suggesting they may be targeted. Minor terminal fields were observed bilaterally within the borders of the oculomotor and abducens nuclei. Injections including the supraoculomotor area and oculomotor nucleus retrogradely labeled a tight band of neurons crossing the central third of the central mesencephalic reticular formation at all rostrocaudal levels, indicating a subregion of the nucleus provides this projection. Thus, these experiments reveal that a subregion of the central mesencephalic reticular formation may directly project to motoneurons in the oculomotor and abducens nuclei, as well as to preganglionic neurons controlling the tone of intraocular muscles. This pattern of projections suggests an as yet undetermined role in regulating the near triad. PMID:25859632

  10. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-10

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist.

  11. Mesencephalic origin of the rostral Substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, M Pilar; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A; Martínez-López, Jesús E; Martínez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    In embryonic development, the neurons that will constitute a heterogeneous nucleus may have distinct origins. The different components of these populations reach their final location by radial and tangential migrations. The Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) presents a high level of neuronal heterogeneity. It is composed by GABAergic neurons located in the mes-diencephalic basal plate. These inhibitory neurons usually display tangential migrations and it has been already described that the caudal SNR is colonized tangentially from rhombomere 1. Our aim is to unveil the origin of the rostral SNR. We have localized a Nkx6.2 positive ventricular domain located in the alar midbrain. Nkx6.2 derivatives' fate map analysis showed mainly a rostral colonization of this GABAergic neuronal population. We confirmed the mesencephalic origin by the expression of Six3. Both transcription factors are sequentially expressed along the differentiation of these neurons. We demonstrated the origin of the rostral SNR; our data allowed us to postulate that this nucleus is composed by two neuronal populations distributed in opposite gradients with different origins, one from rhombomere 1, caudal to rostral, and the other from the midbrain, rostral to caudal. We can conclude that the SNR has multiple origins and follows complex mechanisms of specification and migration. Our results support vital information for the study of genetic modifications in these extremely complex processes that result in devastating behavioral alterations and predisposition to psychiatric diseases. Understanding the development, molecular identity and functional characteristics of these diverse neuronal populations might lead to better diagnosis and treatment of several forms of neurological and psychiatric disease. PMID:25579066

  12. Enhanced proliferation and dopaminergic differentiation of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells by synergistic effect of FGF2 and reduced oxygen tension

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Pia; Gramsbergen, Jan-Bert; Zimmer, Jens; Widmer, Hans R.; Meyer, Morten

    2011-07-15

    Effective numerical expansion of dopaminergic precursors might overcome the limited availability of transplantable cells in replacement strategies for Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and FGF8 on expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic neuroblasts cultured at high (20%) and low (3%) oxygen tension. More cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine in cultures expanded at low as compared to high oxygen tension, and after 6 days of differentiation there were significantly more neuronal cells in low than in high oxygen cultures. Low oxygen during FGF2-mediated expansion resulted also in a significant increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons as compared to high oxygen tension, but no corresponding effect was observed for dopamine release into the culture medium. However, switching FGF2-expanded cultures from low to high oxygen tension during the last two days of differentiation significantly enhanced dopamine release and intracellular dopamine levels as compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the short-term exposure to high oxygen enhanced in situ assessed TH enzyme activity, which may explain the elevated dopamine levels. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of oxygen tension is a recognizable factor for in vitro expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic midbrain precursor cells.

  13. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES GENERATION BY THE ETHYLENE-BIS-DITHIOCARBAMATE (EBDC) FUNGICIDE MANCOZEB AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO NEURONAL TOXICITY IN MESENCEPHALIC CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Domico, Lisa M.; Cooper, Keith R.; Bernard, Laura P.; Zeevalk, Gail D.

    2007-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies in our laboratory have shown that mancozeb (MZ) and maneb (MB), both widely used EBDC fungicides, are equipotent neurotoxicants that produce cell loss in mesencephalic dopaminergic and GABAergic cells after an acute 24 h exposure. Mitochondrial uncoupling and inhibition were associated with fungicide exposure. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration is known to increase free radical production. Here the mechanism(s) of neuronal damage associated with MZ exposure was further explored by determining the role that reactive oxygen species (ROS) played in toxicity. Damage to mesencephalic dopamine and GABA cell populations were significantly attenuated when carried out in the presence of ascorbate or SOD indicative of a free radical mediated contribution to toxicity. ROS generation monitored by H2O2 production using Amplex Red increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to MZ. Inhibition of intracellular catalase with aminotriazole had little effect on H2O2 generation, whereas exogenously added catalase significantly reduced H2O2 production demonstrating a large extracellular contribution to ROS generation. Conversely, cells preloaded with the ROS indicator dye DCF showed significant MZ-induced ROS production, demonstrating an increase in intracellular ROS. Both the organic backbone of MZ as well as its associated Mn ion, but not Zn ion were responsible and required for H2O2 generation. The functionally diverse NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium chloride, apocynin, and 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene- sulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride significantly attenuated H2O2 production by MZ. In growth medium lacking cells, MZ produced little H2O2, but enhanced H2O2 generation when added with xanthine plus xanthine oxidase whereas, in cultured cells, allopurinol partially attenuated H2O2 production by MZ. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, modestly reduced H2O2 formation in mesencephalic cells. In contrast, neuronal enriched

  14. Role of two sequence motifs of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor in its survival-promoting activity

    PubMed Central

    Mätlik, K; Yu, Li-ying; Eesmaa, A; Hellman, M; Lindholm, P; Peränen, J; Galli, E; Anttila, J; Saarma, M; Permi, P; Airavaara, M; Arumäe, U

    2015-01-01

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a prosurvival protein that protects the cells when applied intracellularly in vitro or extracellularly in vivo. Its protective mechanisms are poorly known. Here we studied the role of two short sequence motifs within the carboxy-(C) terminal domain of MANF in its neuroprotective activity: the CKGC sequence (a CXXC motif) that could be involved in redox reactions, and the C-terminal RTDL sequence, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. We mutated these motifs and analyzed the antiapoptotic effect and intracellular localization of these mutants of MANF when overexpressed in cultured sympathetic or sensory neurons. As an in vivo model for studying the effect of these mutants after their extracellular application, we used the rat model of cerebral ischemia. Even though we found no evidence for oxidoreductase activity of MANF, the mutation of CXXC motif completely abolished its protective effect, showing that this motif is crucial for both MANF's intracellular and extracellular activity. The RTDL motif was not needed for the neuroprotective activity of MANF after its extracellular application in the stroke model in vivo. However, in vitro the deletion of RTDL motif inactivated MANF in the sympathetic neurons where the mutant protein localized to Golgi, but not in the sensory neurons where the mutant localized to the ER, showing that intracellular MANF protects these peripheral neurons in vitro only when localized to the ER. PMID:26720341

  15. [In vitro viability and glutathione levels in mesencephalic neurons after seven days hibernation].

    PubMed

    De La Cuétara-Bernal, K; Castillo-Díaz, L; Cruz-Aguado, R; González-Mena, Y; García-Varona, A Y

    In embryonic mesencephalic transplant in patients with Parkinson s disease dopaminergic survival is low (5 10%), and for this reason the use of multiple donors has been considered. The difficulty of obtaining more tissue determines the need for a procedure that enables human nigral tissue to be stored for a time without affecting its physiological state in any significant way. This study was designed to determine whether hibernation of tissue fragments has any influence on viability, how the viability of the mesencephalic cells behaves after 7 days hibernation and the glutathione levels in the hibernated tissue (HT). The viability of the HT in pieces (82.37 2.12) was found to be higher than the value for the whole mesencephalon (70.29 3.43). Viability of the HT, seven days at 4 C, at different post dissociation times, did not differ significantly. Despite the significant differences found between hibernated and fresh tissue at t= 0, this procedure does not seem to affect the mesencephalic tissue in any significant way, as it conserved a 94% viability after hibernation. No evidence was found of increased glutathione content as an antioxidizing response to the damage that might be caused by hibernation. These results suggest that since hibernation does not have any significant effect on the state of the cells it could be considered a useful procedure for conserving tissue to be used in clinical transplants. Moreover, further research is needed on survival and functionality of hibernated cells after being transplanted into animal models in order to evaluate their potential for use in cell therapy. PMID:12134300

  16. Recurrent Isolated Oculomotor Nerve Palsy after Radiation of a Mesencephalic Metastasis. Case Report and Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    Grabau, Olga; Leonhardi, Jochen; Reimers, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent oculomotor nerve palsies are extremely rare clinical conditions. Case report: Here, we report on a unique case of a short-lasting recurrent unilateral incomplete external and complete internal oculomotor nerve palsy. The episodic palsies were probably caused by an ipsilateral mesencephalic metastasis of a breast carcinoma and occurred after successful brain radiation therapy. Discussion: While the pathogenic mechanism remains unclear, the recurrent sudden onset and disappearance of the palsies and their decreasing frequency after antiepileptic treatment suggest the occurrence of epilepsy-like brainstem seizures. A review of case reports of spontaneous reversible oculomotor nerve palsies is presented. PMID:25104947

  17. The effect of different durations of morphine exposure on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in morphine dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weibo; Ma, Chunling; Qi, Qian; Liu, Lizhe; Bi, Haitao; Cong, Bin; Li, Yingmin

    2015-12-01

    Mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons are heavily involved in the development of drug dependence. Thyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, plays an important role in the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, this study investigated TH changes in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), as well as the morphine effects on dopaminergic neurons induced by different durations of morphine dependence. Models of morphine dependence were established in rats, and paraffin-embedded sections, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to observe the changes in the expression of TH protein. Fluoro-Jade B staining was used to detect degeneration and necrosis, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) detected the apoptosis of mesencephalic dopaminergic nerve cells. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed that the number of TH positive cells and the protein levels in the VTA and SN were significantly decreased in the rats with a long period of morphine dependency. With prolonged morphine exposure, the dopaminergic nerve cells in the VTA and SN showed degeneration and necrosis, while apoptotic cells were not observed. The number of VTA and SN dopaminergic nerve cells decreased with increasing periods of morphine dependence, which was most likely attributable to the degeneration and necrosis of nerve cells induced by morphine toxicity. PMID:26386147

  18. Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to pattern the midbrain-hindbrain and diencephalic-mesencephalic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Timothy; Scholpp, Steffen; Brand, Michael; Moens, Cecilia B; Waskiewicz, Andrew Jan

    2007-01-15

    Pbx proteins are a family of TALE-class transcription factors that are well characterized as Hox co-factors acting to impart segmental identity to the hindbrain rhombomeres. However, no role for Pbx in establishing more anterior neural compartments has been demonstrated. Studies done in Drosophila show that Engrailed requires Exd (Pbx orthologue) for its biological activity. Here, we present evidence that zebrafish Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to compartmentalize the midbrain by regulating the maintenance of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and the diencephalic-mesencephalic boundary (DMB). Embryos lacking Pbx function correctly initiate midbrain patterning, but fail to maintain eng2a, pax2a, fgf8, gbx2, and wnt1 expression at the MHB. Formation of the DMB is also defective as shown by a caudal expansion of diencephalic epha4a and pax6a expression into midbrain territory. These phenotypes are similar to the phenotype of an Engrailed loss-of-function embryo, supporting the hypothesis that Pbx and Engrailed act together on a common genetic pathway. Consistent with this model, we demonstrate that zebrafish Engrailed and Pbx interact in vitro and that this interaction is required for both the eng2a overexpression phenotype and Engrailed's role in patterning the MHB. Our data support a novel model of midbrain development in which Pbx and Engrailed proteins cooperatively pattern the mesencephalic region of the neural tube. PMID:16959235

  19. The atypical homeoprotein Pbx1a participates in the axonal pathfinding of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pre B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (Pbx1) genes belong to the three amino acid loop extension family of homeodomain proteins that form hetero-oligomeric complexes with other homeodomain transcription factors, thereby modulating target specificity, DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity of their molecular associates. Results Here, we provide evidence that Pbx1 is expressed in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from embryonic day 11 into adulthood and determines some of the cellular properties of this neuronal population. In Pbx1-deficient mice, the mesencephalic dopaminergic axons stall during mid-gestation at the border between di- and telencephalon before entering the ganglionic eminence, leading to a loose organization of the axonal bundle and partial misrouting. In Pbx1-deficient dopaminergic neurons, the high affinity netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colon cancer (DCC), is down-regulated. Interestingly, we found several conserved Pbx1 binding sites in the first intron of DCC, suggesting a direct regulation of DCC transcription by Pbx1. Conclusions The expression of Pbx1 in dopaminergic neurons and its regulation of DCC expression make it an important player in defining the axonal guidance of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons, with possible implications for the normal physiology of the nigro-striatal system as well as processes related to the degeneration of neurons during the course of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22748019

  20. Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to pattern the midbrain-hindbrain and diencephalic-mesencephalic boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Timothy; Scholpp, Steffen; Brand, Michael; Moens, Cecilia B.; Waskiewicz, Andrew Jan

    2007-01-01

    Pbx proteins are a family of TALE-class transcription factors that are well characterized as Hox co-factors acting to impart segmental identity to the hindbrain rhombomeres. However, no role for Pbx in establishing more anterior neural compartments has been demonstrated. Studies done in Drosophila show that Engrailed requires Exd (Pbx orthologue) for its biological activity. Here, we present evidence that zebrafish Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to compartmentalize the midbrain by regulating the maintenance of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and the diencephalic-mesencephalic boundary (DMB). Embryos lacking Pbx function correctly initiate midbrain patterning, but fail to maintain eng2a, pax2a, fgf8, gbx2, and wnt1 expression at the MHB. Formation of the DMB is also defective as shown by a caudal expansion of diencephalic epha4a and pax6a expression into midbrain territory. These phenotypes are similar to the phenotype of an Engrailed loss-of-function embryo, supporting the hypothesis that Pbx and Engrailed act together on a common genetic pathway. Consistent with this model, we demonstrate that zebrafish Engrailed and Pbx interact in vitro, and that this interaction is required for both the eng2a overexpression phenotype and Engrailed’s role in patterning the MHB. Our data support a novel model of midbrain development in which Pbx and Engrailed proteins cooperatively pattern the mesencephalic region of the neural tube. PMID:16959235

  1. Regenerative medicine in Parkinson's disease: generation of mesencephalic dopaminergic cells from embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Hannah; Minger, Stephen L

    2005-10-01

    Cell replacement therapy has been proposed as a means of replacing specific populations of cells lost through trauma, disease or ageing. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Intrastriatal transplants of human foetal mesencephalic tissue in Parkinson's patients have demonstrated clinical efficacy, but the limited availability of tissue precludes systematic use of this treatment. Human embryonic stem cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and can differentiate into cells representative of all three germ layers, including cells of the central nervous system. These cells may thus provide a relatively unlimited source of cells for transplantation, if appropriate differentiation protocols to generate highly enriched and specific populations of neural cells can be developed. PMID:16143504

  2. The lifelong maintenance of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by Nurr1 and engrailed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Specific vulnerability and degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. A number of transcription factors regulate the birth and development of this set of neurons and some remain constitutively expressed throughout life. These maintenance transcription factors are closely associated with essential neurophysiological functions and are required ultimately for the long-term survival of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The current review describes the role of two such factors, Nurr1 and engrailed, in differentiation, maturation, and in normal physiological functions including acquisition of neurotransmitter identity. The review will also elucidate the relationship of these factors with life, vulnerability, degeneration and death of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in the context of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24685177

  3. Non-dopaminergic neurons in ventral mesencephalic transplants make widespread axonal connections in the host brain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lachlan H; Kirik, Deniz; Björklund, Anders

    2008-09-01

    Motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be effectively alleviated through intra-striatal transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue. The success of this approach is dependent on the survival, axonal outgrowth and synaptic integration of newly grafted dopamine neurons with the host striatum. The functional outcome of transplantation therapy has, however, been highly variable, particularly in PD patients, but also in animal models of PD, and thus there is a need for a deeper understanding of possible mechanisms underlying this variability such as graft composition and the resulting graft-host connectivity. Here we describe a series of transplantation experiments whereby mouse VM tissue has been grafted into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Six weeks after grafting immunohistochemical analysis using the mouse specific 'M2M6' antibodies revealed both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic components of graft-derived fibre outgrowth into the host brain. We report here that while dopaminergic outgrowth was predominately confined to the striatum, there was also a significant degree of non-dopaminergic outgrowth to extra-striatal structures including the thalamus, cortex and midbrain. Retrograde tracing experiments showed that grafted neurons of GABAergic identity contribute to this non-dopaminergic outgrowth. In line with our recent findings on the function of serotonergic neurons in fetal VM grafts, these results further underscore the potential impact that non-dopaminergic neurons may have on the functional outcome of intrastriatal fetal VM grafts. PMID:18602916

  4. Mesencephalic and third ventricle cysts: diagnosis and management in four cases.

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, V T; Reul, J; Siller, V; Thron, A

    1994-01-01

    Four infants with obstructive hydrocephalus caused by space occupying third ventricle and mesencephalic cysts are reported. Despite immediate shunt insertion in all patients, there was either lack of clinical improvement or late onset of clinical deterioration. Neuroimaging (CT, MRI, and ventriculography) diagnosed the presence of non-communicating midline outpouchings of the CSF pathways causing obstruction of aqueductal CSF flow and brainstem signs. The cysts were of different origin. In one patient it was caused by a previous thalamic haemorrhage, in another patient by neonatal Escherichia coli meningoventriculitis. In two cases with obstructive hydrocephalus at birth, the aetiology is unclear. Direct puncture and drainage of the cysts led to clinical improvement. The cysts were poorly visualised on CT and could be misinterpreted as an enlarged third ventricle, simulating congenital aqueduct stenosis. Careful neuroradiological investigation is necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis and neurosurgical management. In such cases with hydrocephalus and persisting ventricular enlargement despite shunting, CT ventriculography is a useful tool. Images PMID:7931383

  5. Increased circulating concentrations of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor in children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Galli, Emilia; Härkönen, Taina; Sainio, Markus T; Ustav, Mart; Toots, Urve; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo; Lindahl, Maria; Knip, Mikael; Saarma, Mart; Lindholm, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) was recently shown to be essential for the survival and proliferation of pancreatic β-cells in mice, where deletion of MANF resulted in diabetes. The current study aimed at determining whether the concentration of circulating MANF is associated with the clinical manifestation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). MANF expression in T1D or MANF levels in serum have not been previously studied. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MANF and measured serum MANF concentrations from 186 newly diagnosed children and adolescents and 20 adults with longer-term T1D alongside with age-matched controls. In healthy controls the mean serum MANF concentration was 7.0 ng/ml. High MANF concentrations were found in children 1-9 years of age close to the diagnosis of T1D. The increased MANF concentrations were not associated with diabetes-predictive autoantibodies and autoantibodies against MANF were extremely rare. Patients with conspicuously high MANF serum concentrations had lower C-peptide levels compared to patients with moderate MANF concentrations. Our data indicate that increased MANF concentrations in serum are associated with the clinical manifestation of T1D in children, but the exact mechanism behind the increase remains elusive. PMID:27356471

  6. The proteome of the differentiating mesencephalic progenitor cell line CSM14.1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weiss, B; Haas, S; Lessner, G; Mikkat, S; Kreutzer, M; Glocker, M O; Wree, A; Schmitt, O

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of Parkinson's disease by transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from human embryonic mesencephalic tissue is a promising approach. However, the origin of these cells causes major problems: availability and standardization of the graft. Therefore, the generation of unlimited numbers of DA neurons from various types of stem or progenitor cells has been brought into focus. A source for DA neurons might be conditionally immortalized progenitor cells. The temperature-sensitive immortalized cell line CSM14.1 derived from the mesencephalon of an embryonic rat has been used successfully for transplantation experiments. This cell line was analyzed by unbiased stereology of cell type specific marker proteins and 2D-gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to characterize the differentially expressed proteome. Undifferentiated CSM14.1 cells only expressed the stem cell marker nestin, whereas differentiated cells expressed GFAP or NeuN and tyrosine hydroxylase. An increase of the latter cells during differentiation could be shown. By using proteomics an explanation on the protein level was found for the observed changes in cell morphology during differentiation, when CSM14.1 cells possessed the morphology of multipolar neurons. The results obtained in this study confirm the suitability of CSM14.1 cells as an in vitro model for the study of neuronal and dopaminergic differentiation in rats. PMID:24592386

  7. Classification of phthalates based on an in vitro neurosphere assay using rat mesencephalic neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ishido, Masami; Suzuki, Junko

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to environmental neurotoxic chemicals both in utero and during the early postnatal period can cause neurodevelopmental disorders. To evaluate the disruption of neurodevelopmental programming, we previously established an in vitro neurosphere assay system using rat mesencephalic neural stem cells that can be used to evaluate. Here, we extended the assay system to examine the neurodevelopmental toxicity of the endocrine disruptors butyl benzyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, di-n-pentyl phthalate, and dihexyl phthalate at a range of concentrations (0-100 μM). All phthalates tested inhibited cell migration with a linear or non-linear range of concentrations when comparing migration distance to the logarithm of the phthalate concentrations. On the other hand, some, but not all, phthalates decreased the number of proliferating cells. Apoptotic cells were not observed upon phthalate exposure under any of the conditions tested, whereas the dopaminergic toxin rotenone induced significant apoptosis. Thus, we were able to classify phthalate toxicity based on cell migration and cell proliferation using the in vitro neurosphere assay. PMID:24418706

  8. Increased circulating concentrations of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor in children with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Emilia; Härkönen, Taina; Sainio, Markus T.; Ustav, Mart; Toots, Urve; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo; Lindahl, Maria; Knip, Mikael; Saarma, Mart; Lindholm, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) was recently shown to be essential for the survival and proliferation of pancreatic β-cells in mice, where deletion of MANF resulted in diabetes. The current study aimed at determining whether the concentration of circulating MANF is associated with the clinical manifestation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). MANF expression in T1D or MANF levels in serum have not been previously studied. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MANF and measured serum MANF concentrations from 186 newly diagnosed children and adolescents and 20 adults with longer-term T1D alongside with age-matched controls. In healthy controls the mean serum MANF concentration was 7.0 ng/ml. High MANF concentrations were found in children 1–9 years of age close to the diagnosis of T1D. The increased MANF concentrations were not associated with diabetes-predictive autoantibodies and autoantibodies against MANF were extremely rare. Patients with conspicuously high MANF serum concentrations had lower C-peptide levels compared to patients with moderate MANF concentrations. Our data indicate that increased MANF concentrations in serum are associated with the clinical manifestation of T1D in children, but the exact mechanism behind the increase remains elusive. PMID:27356471

  9. Generation and properties of a new human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Ana; Liste, Isabel; Courtois, Elise T.; Seiz, Emma G.; Ramos, Milagros; Meyer, Morten; Juliusson, Bengt; Kusk, Philip

    2009-07-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. Several epigenetic and genetic strategies have been tested for long-term maintenance and expansion of these cells in vitro. Here we report the generation of a new stable cell line of human neural stem cells derived from ventral mesencephalon (hVM1) based on v-myc immortalization. The cells expressed neural stem cell and radial glia markers like nestin, vimentin and 3CB2 under proliferation conditions. After withdrawal of growth factors, proliferation and expression of v-myc were dramatically reduced and the cells differentiated into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. hVM1 cells yield a large number of dopaminergic neurons (about 12% of total cells are TH{sup +}) after differentiation, which also produce dopamine. In addition to proneural genes (NGN2, MASH1), differentiated cells show expression of several genuine mesencephalic dopaminergic markers such as: LMX1A, LMX1B, GIRK2, ADH2, NURR1, PITX3, VMAT2 and DAT, indicating that they retain their regional identity. Our data indicate that this cell line and its clonal derivatives may constitute good candidates for the study of development and physiology of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro, and to develop tools for Parkinson's disease cell replacement preclinical research and drug testing.

  10. Effects of GDNF pretreatment on function and survival of transplanted fetal ventral mesencephalic cells in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Andereggen, Lukas; Meyer, Morten; Guzman, Raphael; Ducray, Angélique D; Widmer, Hans Rudolf

    2009-06-18

    Transplantation of fetal dopaminergic (DA) neurons offers an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The low availability and the poor survival and integration of transplanted cells in the host brain are major obstacles in this approach. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor with growth- and survival-promoting capabilities for developing DA neurons. In the present study, we examined whether pretreatment of ventral mesencephalic (VM) free-floating roller tube (FFRT) cultures with GDNF would improve graft survival and function. For that purpose organotypic cultures of E14 rat VM were grown for 2, 4 or 8 days in the absence (control) or presence of GDNF [10 ng/ml] and transplanted into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. While all groups of rats showed a significant reduction in d-amphetamine-induced rotations at 6 weeks posttransplantation a significantly improved graft function was observed only in the days in vitro (DIV) 4 GDNF pretreated group compared to the control group. In addition, no statistical significant differences between groups were found in the number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons assessed at 9 weeks posttransplantation. However, a tendency for higher TH-ir fiber outgrowth from the transplants in the GDNF pretreated groups as compared to corresponding controls was observed. Furthermore, GDNF pretreatment showed a tendency for a higher number of GIRK2 positive neurons in the grafts. In sum, our findings demonstrate that GDNF pretreatment was not disadvantageous for transplants of embryonic rat VM with the FFRT culture technique but only marginally improved graft survival and function. PMID:19389387

  11. The mesencephalic locomotor region sends a bilateral glutamatergic drive to hindbrain reticulospinal neurons in a tetrapod.

    PubMed

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Auclair, Francois; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-05-01

    In vertebrates, stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) on one side evokes symmetrical locomotor movements on both sides. How this occurs was previously examined in detail in a swimmer using body undulations (lamprey), but in tetrapods the downstream projections from the MLR to brainstem neurons are not fully understood. Here we examined the brainstem circuits from the MLR to identified reticulospinal neurons in the salamander Notophthalmus viridescens. Using neural tracing, we show that the MLR sends bilateral projections to the middle reticular nucleus (mRN, rostral hindbrain) and the inferior reticular nucleus (iRN, caudal hindbrain). Ca(2+) imaging coupled to electrophysiology in in vitro isolated brains revealed very similar responses in reticulospinal neurons on both sides to a unilateral MLR stimulation. As the strength of MLR stimulation was increased, the responses increased in size in reticulospinal neurons of the mRN and iRN, but the responses in the iRN were smaller. Bath-application or local microinjections of glutamatergic antagonists markedly reduced reticulospinal neuron responses, indicating that the MLR sends glutamatergic inputs to reticulospinal neurons. In addition, reticulospinal cells responded to glutamate microinjections and the size of the responses paralleled the amount of glutamate microinjected. Immunofluorescence coupled with anatomical tracing confirmed the presence of glutamatergic projections from the MLR to reticulospinal neurons. Overall, we show that the brainstem circuits activated by the MLR in the salamander are organized similarly to those previously described in lampreys, indicating that the anatomo-physiological features of the locomotor drive are well conserved in vertebrates. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1361-1383, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26470600

  12. Physiological and theoretical analysis of K+ currents controlling discharge in neonatal rat mesencephalic trigeminal neurons.

    PubMed

    Del Negro, C A; Chandler, S H

    1997-02-01

    Whole cell voltage- and current-clamp recordings were obtained from mesencephalic trigeminal sensory (Mes 5) neurons identified visually in thin brain stem slices of neonatal rats with the use of infrared video microscopy. These cells exhibited accommodation in spike discharge responses to depolarizing current injection protocols whose duration differed as a function of holding potential (-50 vs. -65 mV). Several spikes were elicited before the membrane response accommodated from -50 mV, whereas from -65 mV only single action potentials were evoked. In response to similar protocols, application of the K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (50 microM to 2 mM) caused sustained repetitive spiking whereas tetraethylammonium (TEA) (10-30 mM) did not cause repetitive spiking. In voltage clamp, 4-AP application (100 microM) revealed a sustained outward current (I4-AP) that was active between -60 and -30 mV. I4-AP was responsible for suppressing sustained repetitive spiking behavior, producing accommodation under normal circumstances. TEA application in voltage clamp revealed a sustained outward current evoked positive to -40 mV. Two transient outward currents (TOCs) were identified by prepulse protocols typically used to characterize A-type currents: a 4-AP-insensitive fast TOC, and a slow TOC (ITOC-S) sensitive to 4-AP (> 500 microM). A Ca(2+)-dependent outward current that activated positive to -30 mV was also characterized. A mathematical model of a Mes 5 neuron was assembled from our voltage-clamp records to simulate the dynamic interaction of outward currents during membrane excitation. We conclude that in Mes 5 neurons, the 4-AP-sensitive currents ITOC-S and I4-AP determine the duration of spike trains. In particular, the noninactivating I4-AP determines whether cells exhibit sustained repetitive discharge or accommodate in response to depolarizing current. Neurotransmitter modulation of this current or modulation of the resting membrane potential could modify

  13. Functional characterization of 5-HT1D autoreceptors on the modulation of 5-HT release in guinea-pig mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex.

    PubMed Central

    el Mansari, M.; Blier, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aims of the present study were (i) to characterize further the pharmacology of 5-HT1D autoreceptors modulating 5-HT release in guinea-pig mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex; (ii) to determine whether 5-HT1D receptors in the mesencephalic raphe are located on 5-HT neurones; (iii) to determine whether 5-HT1D autoreceptors are coupled to G proteins; and (iv) to assess their sensitivity following long-term 5-HT reuptake blockade and inhibition of type-A monoamine oxidase. 2. In mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex slices, the 5-HT1D/1B receptor agonist, sumatriptan and the 5-HT1 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) but not the 5-HT1B receptor agonist, CP93129, inhibited electrically the evoked release of [3H]-5-HT in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was antagonized by the 5-HT1D/1B receptor antagonist GR127935 in the three structures, but not by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (+)-WAY100635 in mesencephalic raphe slices. These results confirm the presence of functional 5-HT1D autoreceptors controlling 5-HT release within the mesencephalic raphe as well as in terminal regions. 3. The inhibitory effect of sumatriptan on K(+)-evoked release of [3H]-5-HT was not reduced by the addition of the Na+ channel blocker, tetrodotoxin to the superfusion medium, suggesting that these 5-HT1D receptors in the mesencephalic raphe are located on 5-HT neurones and may be considered autoreceptors. 4. The in vitro treatment with the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was used to determine whether these 5-HT1D autoreceptors are coupled to G proteins. The inhibitory effect of sumatriptan on electrically evoked release of [3H]-5-HT was attenuated in NEM-pretreated slices from mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex, indicating that the 5-HT1D autoreceptors activated by sumatriptan are coupled to G proteins in these three structures. Taken together with our previous results, this suggests that, in addition to the 5

  14. Biphasic response of a tecto-mesencephalic pilocytic astrocytoma after Gamma Knife surgery--A case report.

    PubMed

    Tuleasca, C; Negretti, L; Magaddino, V; Maeder, P; Lhermitte, B; Borruat, F-X; Levivier, M

    2015-08-01

    Biphasic response (shrinkage-regrowth-shrinkage) of tumors has never previously been reported in the postoperative course, neither after microsurgery, nor after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). We present the case of an adult with dorsal midbrain syndrome resulting from a pilocytic astrocytoma centered on the mesencephalic tectum. The tumor extended to the third ventricle and the thalamus. Initially, due to tumor growth, a biopsy was performed and histology established. Later, a ventriculocisternostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus was performed. Finally, GKS was performed, as the tumor continued to grow. After GKS, the lesion exhibited a biphasic response, with a major shrinkage at 3 months, regrowth within the target volume at 6 and 9 months and a second phase of important shrinkage at 12 months, which persisted for the next two years. The possible mechanisms for this particular response pattern are discussed. PMID:26072229

  15. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor reduces cell apoptosis via upregulating GRP78 in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Chen, Changyan; Gu, Hua; Li, Chen; Fu, Xing; Jiang, Ming; Sun, Hui; Xu, Jun; Fang, Jianmin; Jin, Lingjing

    2016-07-01

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protects dopaminergic neurons from damage. In this study, we used MTT, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining to investigate the protective effect of MANF in SH-SY5Y cells treated with 6-OHDA or overexpressed α-synuclein. Cleaved caspase-3 levels significantly increased in cells treated with 6-OHDA or overexpressed α-synuclein. 6-OHDA or α-synuclein overexpression that induced cleaved caspase-3 levels to increase was reduced by MANF treatment. In addition, MANF treatment upregulated GRP78 expressions in cells treated with 6-OHDA or overexpressed α-synuclein, and RNAi knockdown for GRP78 could block the MANF induced cell survival from 6-OHDA treatment. Furthermore, GRP78 overexpression inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that MANF inhibits apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA and overexpressed α-synuclein in SH-SY5Y cells via upregulating GRP78 in the transcriptional pattern. PMID:27145383

  16. Calcium regulation in mouse mesencephalic neurons-Differential roles of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Chun; Kao, Lung-Sen

    2016-06-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons are the key to finely tune the voluntary movement, habit and motivation. The progressive and selective degeneration of these neurons is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). The susceptibility of DA neurons in the SNpc may result from differences in how Ca(2+) is handled. However, very little information is available about the mechanisms involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in DA neurons. In this study, the relative contributions of various Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers and their interplay with internal Ca(2+) stores, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria, in the regulation of the [Ca(2+)]i of mouse mesencephalic neurons were characterized. Both the K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCKX) and the K(+)-independent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) can be detected and are functional in DA and non-DA neurons. NCX accounts for the larger component of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange activity. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis showed each individual neuron expressed a distinct set of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers. Furthermore, the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers play prominent roles in removing [Ca(2+)]i induced by glutamate but not [Ca(2+)]i induced by depolarization. The mitochondria serve as a major Ca(2+) sink and are functionally located close to NCX. In contrast, the ER is functionally located close to NCKX and acts primarily as a Ca(2+) source with marginal effects. This study reveals that the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, the ER and the mitochondria, which cooperate interactively, act similarly when regulating [Ca(2+)]i in mesencephalic DA and non-DA neurons. The heterogeneous expression of multiple types of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers and the quantitative differences found in [Ca(2+)]i regulation, together with other risk factors specific to DA neurons such as dopamine oxidation resulting in oxidative stress, may drive these cells to undergo selective degeneration. PMID:27020658

  17. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures.

    PubMed

    Lepsch, Lucilia B; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Scavone, Critoforo

    2015-01-01

    To study cocaine's toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN) staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mechanism, confirmed by TUNEL assay. Therefore, the present paper shows that cocaine causes apoptotic cell death and inhibition of the neurite prolongation in striatal and mesencephalic cell culture. These data suggest that if similar neuronal damage could be produced in the developing human brain, it could account for the qualitative or quantitative defects in neuronal pathways that cause a major handicap in brain function following prenatal exposure to cocaine. PMID:26295051

  18. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lepsch, Lucilia B.; Planeta, Cleopatra S.; Scavone, Critoforo

    2015-01-01

    To study cocaine's toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN) staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mechanism, confirmed by TUNEL assay. Therefore, the present paper shows that cocaine causes apoptotic cell death and inhibition of the neurite prolongation in striatal and mesencephalic cell culture. These data suggest that if similar neuronal damage could be produced in the developing human brain, it could account for the qualitative or quantitative defects in neuronal pathways that cause a major handicap in brain function following prenatal exposure to cocaine. PMID:26295051

  19. Regional vulnerability of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons prone to degenerate in Parkinson's disease: a post-mortem study in human control subjects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lixia; Neff, Frauke; Fischer, Daniel Alvarez; Henze, Carmen; Hirsch, Etienne C; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Schlegel, Jürgen; Hartmann, Andreas

    2006-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the human midbrain, which varies greatly among mesencephalic subregions. The genetic expression profiles of mesencephalic DA neurons particularly prone to degenerate during PD (nigrosome 1 within the substantia nigra pars compacta-SNpc) and those particularly resistant in the disease course (central grey substance-CGS) were compared in five control subjects by immuno-laser capture microdissection followed by RNA arbitrarily primed PCR. 8 ESTs of interest were selected for analysis by real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. DA neurons in the CGS preferentially expressed implicated in cell survival (7 out of 8 genes selected), whereas SNpc DA neurons preferentially expressed one gene making them potentially susceptible to undergo cell death in PD. We propose that factors making CGS DA neurons more resistant may be helpful in protecting SNpc DA neurons against a pathological insult. PMID:16753304

  20. Role of the cyclooxygenase 2-thromboxane pathway in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced decrease in mesencephalic vein blood flow in the zebrafish embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Teraoka, Hiroki Kubota, Akira; Dong, Wu; Kawai, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Koji; Mori, Chisato; Harada, Yoshiteru; Peterson, Richard E.; Hiraga, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we reported that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) evoked developmental toxicity required activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2), using zebrafish embryos. However, the downstream molecular targets of AHR2 activation are largely unknown and are the focus of the present investigation. TCDD induces cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin synthesis in certain cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of the COX2-thromboxane pathway in causing a specific endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in the zebrafish embryo, namely, a decrease in regional blood flow in the dorsal midbrain. It was found that the TCDD-induced reduction in mesencephalic vein blood flow was markedly inhibited by selective COX2 inhibitors, NS-398 and SC-236, and by a general COX inhibitor, indomethacin, but not by a selective COX1 inhibitor, SC-560. Gene knock-down of COX2 by two different types of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, but not by their negative homologs, also protected the zebrafish embryos from mesencephalic vein circulation failure caused by TCDD. This inhibitory effect of TCDD on regional blood flow in the dorsal midbrain was also blocked by selective antagonists of the thromboxane receptor (TP). Treatment of control zebrafish embryos with a TP agonist also caused a reduction in mesencephalic vein blood flow and it too was blocked by a TP antagonist, without any effect on trunk circulation. Finally, gene knock-down of thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS) with morpholinos but not by the morpholinos' negative homologs provided significant protection against TCDD-induced mesencephalic circulation failure. Taken together, these results point to a role of the prostanoid synthesis pathway via COX2-TBXS-TP in the local circulation failure induced by TCDD in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo.

  1. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  2. Anatomical Location of the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region and Its Possible Role in Locomotion, Posture, Cataplexy, and Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, David; Fuller, Patrick M.; Marcus, Jacob; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Ping; Chamberlin, Nancy L.; Saper, Clifford B.; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The mesencephalic (or midbrain) locomotor region (MLR) was first described in 1966 by Shik and colleagues, who demonstrated that electrical stimulation of this region induced locomotion in decerebrate (intercollicular transection) cats. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) cholinergic neurons and midbrain extrapyramidal area (MEA) have been suggested to form the neuroanatomical basis for the MLR, but direct evidence for the role of these structures in locomotor behavior has been lacking. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the MLR is composed of non-cholinergic spinally projecting cells in the lateral pontine tegmentum. Our results showed that putative MLR neurons medial to the PPT and MEA in rats were non-cholinergic, glutamatergic, and express the orexin (hypocretin) type 2 receptors. Fos mapping correlated with motor behaviors revealed that the dorsal and ventral MLR are activated, respectively, in association with locomotion and an erect posture. Consistent with these findings, chemical stimulation of the dorsal MLR produced locomotion, whereas stimulation of the ventral MLR caused standing. Lesions of the MLR (dorsal and ventral regions together) resulted in cataplexy and episodic immobility of gait. Finally, trans-neuronal tracing with pseudorabies virus demonstrated disynaptic input to the MLR from the substantia nigra via the MEA. These findings offer a new perspective on the neuroanatomic basis of the MLR, and suggest that MLR dysfunction may contribute to the postural and gait abnormalities in Parkinsonism. PMID:26157418

  3. CURCUMIN ENHANCES PARAQUAT-INDUCED APOPTOSIS OF N27 MESENCEPHALIC CELLS VIA THE GENERATION OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Ortiz, Miguel A.; Morán, José M.; Bravosanpedro, Jose M.; González-Polo, Rosa A.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Soler, Germán; Fuentes, José M.

    2009-01-01

    Curcumin, the active compound of the rhizome of Curcuma longa has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This agent has been shown to regulate numerous transcription factors, cytokines, protein kinases, adhesion molecules, redox status and enzymes that have been linked to inflammation. While curcumin has been identified as an activator of apopotosis in several cell lines, the mechanism by which it initiates apoptosis, however, remains poorly understood. We considered curcumin from the point of view of its ability to protect against oxidative stress, the latter being one factor strongly implicated in the development of Parkinson’s disease. Althougth the etiology of Parkinson’s disease remains unknown, epidemiological studies have linked exposure to pesticides such paraquat to an increased risk of developing the condition. Analysis of the neurotoxic properties of these pesticide compounds has been focused on their ability to induce oxidative stress in neural cells. Given curcumin’s capacity to protect against oxidative stress, it has been considered as a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease that involve an oxidative stress component. In the present report we describe the effect of curcumin in paraquat-mediated apoptosis of N27 mesencepahlic cells. We show that subtoxic concentrations of curcumin sensitize N27 mesencephalic cells to paraquat-mediated apoptosis. PMID:19660496

  4. Evidence for a trigeminal mesencephalic-hypoglossal nuclei loop involved in controlling vibrissae movements in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Ombretta; Caria, Marcello Alessandro; Pellitteri, Rosalia; Russo, Antonella; Saccone, Salvatore; Stanzani, Stefania

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies performed in rats showed that the whisker-pad motor innervation involves not only the facial nerve, but also some hypoglossal neurons whose axons travel within the trigeminal infraorbital nerve (ION) and target the extrinsic muscles surrounding the whisker-pad macrovibrissae. Furthermore, the electrical stimulation of the ION induced an increase in the EMG activity of these muscles, while the hypoglossal nucleus stimulation elicited evoked potentials and single motor unit responses. However, the existence of a neural network able to involve the XIIth nucleus in macrovibrissae whisking control was totally unknown until now. Since other recent experiments demonstrated that: (1) the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5) neurons respond to both spontaneous and artificial movements of macrovibrissae, and (2) the Me5 peripheral terminals provide a monosynaptic sensory innervation to the macrovibrissae, the present study was aimed at analyzing a possible role of the Me5 nucleus as a relay station in the sensory-motor loop that involves the XIIth nucleus neurons in rhythmic whisking control. Two tracers were used in the same animal: Fluoro Gold, which was injected into the whisker pad to retrogradely label the hypoglossal whisker-pad projection neurons, and Dil, which was instead injected into the Me5 to label its projections to these hypoglossal neurons. Results demonstrated that terminals of the Me5 neurons monosynaptically target the hypoglossal whisker-pad projection neurons. The functional role of this sensory-motor connection is discussed, with particular regard to a hypothesized proprioceptive reflex in whisker-pad extrinsic muscles that can be elicited by the activation of the Me5 macrovibrissae receptors. PMID:26645304

  5. Role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 CYP1C genes in the reduced mesencephalic vein blood flow caused by activation of AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Harano, Ryo; Peterson, Richard E.; Hiraga, Takeo; Teraoka, Hiroki

    2011-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various signs of toxicity in early life stages of vertebrates through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We previously reported a sensitive and useful endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in zebrafish, namely a decrease in blood flow in the dorsal midbrain, but downstream genes involved in the effect are not known. The present study addressed the role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 1C (CYP1C) genes in association with a decrease in mesencephalic vein (MsV) blood flow. The CYP1C subfamily was recently discovered in fish and includes the paralogues CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, both of which are induced via AHR2 in zebrafish embryos. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO or morpholino) to block initiation of translation of the target genes. TCDD-induced mRNA expression of CYP1Cs and a decrease in MsV blood flow were both blocked by gene knockdown of AHR2. Gene knockdown of CYP1C1 by two different morpholinos and CYP1C2 by two different morpholinos, but not by their 5 nucleotide-mismatch controls, was effective in blocking reduced MsV blood flow caused by TCDD. The same CYP1C-MOs prevented reduction of blood flow in the MsV caused by {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF), representing another class of AHR agonists. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 was induced by TCDD most strongly in branchiogenic primordia and pectoral fin buds. In situ hybridization using head transverse sections showed that TCDD increased the expression of both CYP1Cs in endothelial cells of blood vessels, including the MsV. These results indicate a potential role of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in the local circulation failure induced by AHR2 activation in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo. - Research Highlights: > We examine the roles of zebrafish CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in TCDD developmental toxicity. > TCDD induces mRNA expression of both CYP1Cs in the mesencephalic vein. > Knockdown of each

  6. A tract-tracing study of the central projections of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminus in the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus, teleostei), with some observations on the descending trigeminal tract.

    PubMed

    Pombal, M A; Alvarez-Otero, R; Rodicio, M C; Anadón, R

    1997-01-01

    We studied the central projections of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (MesV) in the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus), after application of horseradish peroxidase or fluorescein dextran amine into the eye orbit. A small number (1 to 13) of large mesencephalic trigeminal neurons were solid labeled in the ipsilateral rostral mesencephalon. At the level of the trigeminal nerve entrance, the united process of each mesencephalic trigeminal cell bifurcates, giving rise to a peripheral branch that exits in the trigeminal nerve and a descending branch that runs caudally in a medial bundle separated from the descending trigeminal tract. This bundle passes close to the visceromotor nuclei of the medulla oblongata. Descending processes give rise to short collaterals to the descending nucleus of the trigeminus and the ventrolateral reticular area. Most MesV descending fibres terminate in this ventrolateral field at the transition of the medulla to the spinal cord, but one or two fibres could be followed to the C6 level, where they give rise to collaterals to the dorsal funicular nucleus. No collaterals directed to the trigeminal motor nucleus, the cerebellum, or the mesencephalic tegmentum were observed. These projections were also compared with those of the descending trigeminal tract. PMID:8971415

  7. A Wnt1 regulated Frizzled-1/β-Catenin signaling pathway as a candidate regulatory circuit controlling mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron-astrocyte crosstalk: Therapeutical relevance for neuron survival and neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dopamine-synthesizing (dopaminergic, DA) neurons in the ventral midbrain (VM) constitute a pivotal neuronal population controlling motor behaviors, cognitive and affective brain functions, which generation critically relies on the activation of Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt)/β-catenin pathway in their progenitors. In Parkinson's disease, DA cell bodies within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) progressively degenerate, with causes and mechanisms poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that Wnt signaling via Frizzled (Fzd) receptors may play a role in different degenerative states, but little is known about Wnt signaling in the adult midbrain. Using in vitro and in vivo model systems of DA degeneration, along with functional studies in both intact and SN lesioned mice, we herein highlight an intrinsic Wnt1/Fzd-1/β-catenin tone critically contributing to the survival and protection of adult midbrain DA neurons. Results In vitro experiments identifie Fzd-1 receptor expression at a mRNA and protein levels in dopamine transporter (DAT) expressing neurons, and demonstrate the ability of exogenous Wnt1 to exert robust neuroprotective effects against Caspase-3 activation, the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons and [3H] dopamine uptake induced by different DA-specific insults, including serum and growth factor deprivation, 6-hydroxydopamine and MPTP/MPP+. Co-culture of DA neurons with midbrain astrocytes phenocopies Wnt1 neuroprotective effects, whereas RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Wnt1 in midbrain astrocytes markedly reduces astrocyte-induced TH+ neuroprotection. Likewise, silencing β-catenin mRNA or knocking down Fzd-1 receptor expression in mesencephalic neurons counteract astrocyte-induced TH+ neuroprotection. In vivo experiments document Fzd-1 co-localization with TH+ neurons within the intact SNpc and blockade of Fzd/β-catenin signaling by unilateral infusion of a Fzd/β-catenin antagonist within the SN

  8. Distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the pigeon visual thalamic centers and related pretectal and mesencephalic nuclei. Phylogenetic and functional determinants.

    PubMed

    Belekhova, Margarita G; Chudinova, Tatiana V; Rio, Jean-Paul; Tostivint, Hérve; Vesselkin, Nikolai P; Kenigfest, Natalia B

    2016-01-15

    Multichannel processing of environmental information constitutes a fundamental basis of functioning of sensory systems in the vertebrate brain. Two distinct parallel visual systems - the tectofugal and thalamofugal exist in all amniotes. The vertebrate central nervous system contains high concentrations of intracellular calcium-binding proteins (CaBPrs) and each of them has a restricted expression pattern in different brain regions and specific neuronal subpopulations. This study aimed at describing the patterns of distribution of parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) in the visual thalamic and mesencephalic centers of the pigeon (Columba livia). We used a combination of immunohistochemistry and double labeling immunofluorescent technique. Structures studied included the thalamic relay centers involved in the tectofugal (nucleus rotundus, Rot) and thalamofugal (nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars dorsalis, GLd) visual pathways as well as pretectal, mesencephalic, isthmic and thalamic structures inducing the driver and/or modulatory action to the visual processing. We showed that neither of these proteins was unique to the Rot or GLd. The Rot contained i) numerous PV-immunoreactive (ir) neurons and a dense neuropil, and ii) a few CB-ir neurons mostly located in the anterior dorsal part and associated with a light neuropil. These latter neurons partially overlapped with the former and some of them colocalized both proteins. The distinct subnuclei of the GLd were also characterized by different patterns of distribution of CaBPrs. Some (nucleus dorsolateralis anterior, pars magnocellularis, DLAmc; pars lateralis, DLL; pars rostrolateralis, DLAlr; nucleus lateralis anterior thalami, LA) contained both CB- and PV-ir neurons in different proportions with a predominance of the former in the DLAmc and DLL. The nucleus lateralis dorsalis of nuclei optici principalis thalami only contained PV-ir neurons and a neuropil similar to the interstitial pretectal/thalamic nuclei of the

  9. Cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator muscle are located in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kenya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kawagishi, Kyutaro; Moriizumi, Tetsuji

    2012-12-01

    Since the levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles despite being antigravity mixed muscles to involuntarily sustain eyelid opening and eyebrow lifting, this study has proposed a hypothetical mechanism to compensate for this anatomical defect. The voluntary contraction of fast-twitch fibres of the levator muscle stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to evoke proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study confirmed the presence of cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator and frontalis muscles. After confirming that severing the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induced ipsilateral eyelid ptosis, Fluorogold was applied as a tracer to the proximal stump of the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve in rats. Fluorogold labelled the cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons, not in any regions of the rat brain including the trigeminal ganglion, but in the ipsilateral mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neighbouring the locus ceruleus. Some Fluorogold particles accumulated in the area of the locus ceruleus. The trigeminal proprioceptive neurons could be considered centrally displaced ganglion cells to transmit afferent signal from the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to the mesencephalon, where they may be able to make excitatory synaptic connections with both the oculomotor neurons and the frontalis muscle motoneurons for the involuntary coordination of the eyelid and eyebrow activities, and potentially to the locus ceruleus. PMID:23157498

  10. Curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-stimulated mesencephalic astrocytes by interference with TLR4 and downstream signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Song; Wang, Xu; He, Xingliang; Wang, Yue; Gao, Sujie; Ren, Lu; Shi, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Neuroinflammation is closely associated with the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent evidence indicates that astrocytes also play pro-inflammatory roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by activation with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Therefore, targeting anti-inflammation may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for PD. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound isolated from Curcuma longa root, has been commonly used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the details of how curcumin exerts neuroprotection remain uncertain. Here, we investigated the protective effect of curcumin on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-(MPP(+)-) stimulated primary astrocytes. Our results showed that MPP(+) stimulation resulted in significant production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL-6), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in primary mesencephalic astrocytes. Curcumin pretreatment decreased the levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines while increased IL-10 expression in MPP(+)-stimulated astrocytes. In addition, curcumin increased the levels of antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and reduced ROS production. Our results further showed that curcumin decreased the levels of TLR4 and its downstream effectors including NF-κB, IRF3, MyD88, and TIRF that are induced by MPP(+) as well as inhibited the immunoreactivity of TLR4 and morphological activation in MPP(+)-stimulated astrocytes. Together, data suggest that curcumin might exert a beneficial effect on neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:27164829

  11. 6-OHDA-Induced Changes in Parkinson's Disease-Related Gene Expression are not Affected by the Overexpression of PGAM5 in In Vitro Differentiated Embryonic Mesencephalic Cells.

    PubMed

    Stępkowski, Tomasz Maciej; Wasyk, Iwona; Grzelak, Agnieszka; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    LUHMES cells, a recently established line of immortalized embryonic mesencephalic cells, are the novel in vitro model for studying Parkinson's disease (PD) and dopaminergic neuron biology. Phosphoglyceromutase 5 (PGAM5) is a mitochondrial protein involved in mitophagy, mitochondria dynamics, and other processes important for PD pathogenesis. We tested the impact of lentiviral overexpression of PGAM5 protein in LUHMES cells on their differentiation and expression of 84 PD-related genes. LUHMES cells were transduced with PGAM5 or mock and treated with 100 μM 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a model PD neurotoxin. Real-Time PCR analysis revealed that the treatment with 6-OHDA-induced changes in expression of 44 PD-related genes. PGAM5 transduction alone did not cause alternations in PD-related genes expression, nor it affected changes in gene expression mediated by 6-OHDA. The 6-OHDA-induced PD-related gene expression profile of LUHMES cells is presented for the first time and widely discussed. PMID:25986246

  12. The Mesencephalic Reticular Formation as a Conduit for Primate Collicular Gaze Control: Tectal Inputs to Neurons Targeting the Spinal Cord and Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Eddie; Warren, Susan; May, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC), which directs orienting movements of both the eyes and head, is reciprocally connected to the mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF), suggesting the latter is involved in gaze control. The MRF has been provisionally subdivided to include a rostral portion, which subserves vertical gaze, and a caudal portion, which subserves horizontal gaze. Both regions contain cells projecting downstream that may provide a conduit for tectal signals targeting the gaze control centers which direct head movements. We determined the distribution of cells targeting the cervical spinal cord and rostral medullary reticular formation (MdRF), and investigated whether these MRF neurons receive input from the SC by the use of dual tracer techniques in Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Either biotinylated dextran amine or Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was injected into the SC. Wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase was placed into the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord or medial MdRF to retrogradely label MRF neurons. A small number of medially located cells in the rostral and caudal MRF were labeled following spinal cord injections, and greater numbers were labeled in the same region following MdRF injections. In both cases, anterogradely labeled tectoreticular terminals were observed in close association with retrogradely labeled neurons. These close associations between tectoreticular terminals and neurons with descending projections suggest the presence of a trans-MRF pathway that provides a conduit for tectal control over head orienting movements. The medial location of these reticulospinal and reticuloreticular neurons suggests this MRF region may be specialized for head movement control. PMID:19645020

  13. Repulsive Apoptosis During Exposure of Mesencephalic Neural Stem Cells to Silver Nanoparticles in a Neurosphere Assay In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ishido, Masami; Shimaya, Eiko; Usu, Rumiko; Kurokawa, Yoshika; Hirano, Seishiro

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) remains largely unknown. In this study, we applied a neurosphere assay for neurodevelopmental effects of AgNPs. The neural stem cells were isolated from rat mesencephalon. They were cultured as a sphere. In an assay with coated plates, cells appeared by anchoraging on the dish and then started to migrate along the radial axis from the neurosphere. AgNPs inhibited cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. There was a linear correlation between the inhibition of migration and the logarithm of the particle concentration (1.25-10 μg/ml); the half-maximal inhibitory concentration was 0.41 μg/ml for 16-h exposure. Preceding migrated cells were retarded and/or collapsed by exposure to AgNPs: lower doses of AgNPs (0.31-1.2 μg/ml) caused a 42% retardation for 48 h, while higher doses of AgNPs (2.5-10 μg/ml) collasped migrating cells. Furthermore, collapsed cells were TUNEL-positive and showed a defect in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Thus, we showed the neurodevelopmental toxicity of AgNPs using an in vitro neurosphere assay system. PMID:26033231

  14. Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. PMID:20600981

  15. Fetal exposure to (+/-)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in utero enhances the development and metabolism of serotonergic neurons in three-dimensional reaggregate tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Won, Lisa; Bubula, Nancy; Heller, Alfred

    2002-07-30

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a potent psychomotor stimulant with neurotoxic potential which is widely abused by females of childbearing age raising serious public health concerns in terms of exposure of the fetus to the drug. The current study was conducted using the three-dimensional reaggregate tissue culture system as an approach to the assessment of risk to fetal brain cells following exposure to MDMA during early to mid-gestation. In this culture system, the serotonergic and dopaminergic mesencephalic-striatal projections are reconstructed and develop with a time course similar to that observed in vivo. Pregnant C57Bl/6J mice were injected twice daily with 40 mg/kg MDMA or saline from gestational day 6 to 13. On gestational day 14, mesencephalic and striatal cells from MDMA- and saline-exposed embryos were used to prepare reaggregate cultures. Levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the reaggregates and culture medium were assessed at 22 and 36 days of culture. There was a long-term enhancement of serotonergic development and metabolism by fetal exposure to MDMA as evidenced by increased reaggregate serotonin levels as well as the elevated production and release of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cultures prepared from MDMA-exposed embryos which persisted for up to 36 days of culture. Dopaminergic neurons in such cultures also exhibited increased metabolism as indicated by elevated levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in reaggregate tissue and culture medium. The data obtained suggest that exposure to MDMA in utero during early to mid-gestation may result in more active serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. PMID:12128255

  16. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and N27 mesencephalic neurones induces changes in cell morphology via ephrin-B2 and Akt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, M G; Saldanha, M; Mistry, R J; Dexter, D T; Ramsden, D B; Parsons, R B

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT, E.C. 2.1.1.1) N-methylates nicotinamide to produce 1-methylnicotinamide (MeN). We have previously shown that NNMT expression protected against neurotoxin-mediated cell death by increasing Complex I (CxI) activity, resulting in increased ATP synthesis. This was mediated via protection of the NDUFS3 subunit of CxI from degradation by increased MeN production. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of NNMT expression on neurone morphology and differentiation. Expression of NNMT in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and N27 rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurones increased neurite branching, synaptophysin expression and dopamine accumulation and release. siRNA gene silencing of ephrin B2 (EFNB2), and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation using LY294002, demonstrated that their sequential activation was responsible for the increases observed. Incubation of SH-SY5Y with increasing concentrations of MeN also increased neurite branching, suggesting that the effects of NNMT may be mediated by MeN. NNMT had no significant effect on the expression of phenotypic and post-mitotic markers, suggesting that NNMT is not involved in determining phenotypic fate or differentiation status. These results demonstrate that NNMT expression regulates neurone morphology in vitro via the sequential activation of the EFNB2 and Akt cellular signalling pathways. PMID:23764850

  17. Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides protect against MPP+ and rotenone-induced apoptosis in primary dopaminergic cell cultures through inhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD) which is responsible for disabling motor abnormalities in more than 6.5 million people worldwide. Polysaccharides are the main active constituents from Ganoderma lucidum which is characterized with anti-oxidant, antitumor and immunostimulant properties. In the present study, primary dopaminergic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by the neurotoxins methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) and rotenone. Results revealed that GLP can protect dopamine neurons against MPP+ and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in primary mesencephalic cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, either with or without neurotoxin treatment, GLP treatment elevated the survival of THir neurons, and increased the length of neurites of dopaminergic neurons. The Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) of GLP was determined to be 199.53 μmol Trolox/g extract, and the decrease of mitochondrial complex I activity induced by MPP+ and rotenone was elevated by GLP treatment (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/ml) in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, GLP dramatically decreased the relative number of apoptotic cells and increased the declining mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by MPP+ and rotenone in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GLP treatment reduced the ROS formation induced by MPP+ and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Our study indicates that GLP possesses neuroprotective properties against MPP+ and rotenone neurotoxicity through suppressing oxidative stress in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic cell culture owning to its antioxidant activities. PMID:27335703

  18. Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides protect against MPP(+) and rotenone-induced apoptosis in primary dopaminergic cell cultures through inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) which is responsible for disabling motor abnormalities in more than 6.5 million people worldwide. Polysaccharides are the main active constituents from Ganoderma lucidum which is characterized with anti-oxidant, antitumor and immunostimulant properties. In the present study, primary dopaminergic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by the neurotoxins methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+)) and rotenone. Results revealed that GLP can protect dopamine neurons against MPP(+) and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in primary mesencephalic cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, either with or without neurotoxin treatment, GLP treatment elevated the survival of THir neurons, and increased the length of neurites of dopaminergic neurons. The Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) of GLP was determined to be 199.53 μmol Trolox/g extract, and the decrease of mitochondrial complex I activity induced by MPP(+) and rotenone was elevated by GLP treatment (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/ml) in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, GLP dramatically decreased the relative number of apoptotic cells and increased the declining mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by MPP(+) and rotenone in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GLP treatment reduced the ROS formation induced by MPP(+) and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Our study indicates that GLP possesses neuroprotective properties against MPP(+) and rotenone neurotoxicity through suppressing oxidative stress in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic cell culture owning to its antioxidant activities. PMID:27335703

  19. Neuronal-enriched cultures from embryonic rat ventral mesencephalon for pharmacological studies of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Pardo, B; Paíno, C L; Casarejos, M J; Mena, M A

    1997-05-01

    The method described herein provides a convenient and rapid procedure to obtain enriched neuronal cultures containing reproducible numbers of dopamine (DA) cells. These cultures allow experimental paradigms designed to study the effect of drugs on DA neurons without astroglial mediation. Neuronal-enriched cultures are prepared from the mesencephalon of rat embryos at the 14th day of gestation (E14). At that moment, DA cells of the developing substantia nigra are located ventrally at the level of the mesencephalic flexure. Because the neurons of the pars compacta are mostly born between E12 and E15, E14 corresponds to an optimal stage for obtaining a high survival of DA cells. A defined medium (EF12) allows the maturation of DA neurons and reduces drastically the number of astrocytes. After 7 days in vitro (DIV) in EF12, the cultures contain 2-5% astrocytes (GFAP+ cells) and DA neurons represent 0.5-2% of the cells, as assessed by immunostaining to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The function of DA neurons is assessed by [3H]DA uptake and of those non-DA neurons by the high affinity [3H]GABA uptake. Cell survival is assessed by Trypan blue dye exclusion. PMID:9385075

  20. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  1. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, stool Related tests: Ova and Parasite Exam , ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Widal Test , Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  2. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  3. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  4. Functional and ultrastructural neuroanatomy of interactive intratectal/tectonigral mesencephalic opioid inhibitory links and nigrotectal GABAergic pathways: involvement of GABAA and mu1-opioid receptors in the modulation of panic-like reactions elicited by electrical stimulation of the dorsal midbrain.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S J; Ciscato, J G; de Oliveira, R; de Oliveira, R C; D'Angelo-Dias, R; Carvalho, A D; Felippotti, T T; Rebouças, E C C; Castellan-Baldan, L; Hoffmann, A; Corrêa, S A L; Moreira, J E; Coimbra, N C

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, the functional neuroanatomy of nigrotectal-tectonigral pathways as well as the effects of central administration of opioid antagonists on aversive stimuli-induced responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the midbrain tectum were determined. Central microinjections of naloxonazine, a selective mu(1)-opiod receptor antagonist, in the mesencephalic tectum (MT) caused a significant increase in the escape thresholds elicited by local electrical stimulation. Furthermore, either naltrexone or naloxonazine microinjected in the substantia nigra, pars reticulata (SNpr), caused a significant increase in the defensive thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the continuum comprised by dorsolateral aspects of the periaqueductal gray matter (dlPAG) and deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC), as compared with controls. These findings suggest an opioid modulation of GABAergic inhibitory inputs controlling the defensive behavior elicited by MT stimulation, in cranial aspects. In fact, iontophoretic microinjections of the neurotracer biodextran into the SNpr, a mesencephalic structure rich in GABA-containing neurons, show outputs to neural substrate of the dlSC/dlPAG involved with the generation and organization of fear- and panic-like reactions. Neurochemical lesion of the nigrotectal pathways increased the sensitivity of the MT to electrical (at alertness, freezing and escape thresholds) and chemical (blockade of GABA(A) receptors) stimulation, suggesting a tonic modulatory effect of the nigrotectal GABAergic outputs on the neural networks of the MT involved with the organization of the defensive behavior and panic-like reactions. Labeled neurons of the midbrain tectum send inputs with varicosities to ipsi and contralateral dlSC/dlPAG and ipsilateral substantia nigra, pars reticulata and compacta, in which the anterograde and retrograde tracing from a single injection indicates that the substantia nigra has reciprocal connections with

  5. Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    Adult and continuing education in the arts can and does play a role in the development of cultural identity. Dimensions of culture include ethnicity, location, age, social class, and time. This definition of culture leads to the conclusion that cultures are generally small and are dynamic rather than static. Research shows that individuals in what…

  6. Culture matters.

    PubMed

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169

  7. Deficits in a lateralized associative learning task in dopamine-depleted rats with functional recovery by dopamine-rich transplants.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Eilís; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2004-10-01

    Experimental therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) are commonly validated in unilateral animal models using simple tests of motor asymmetry such as rotation, stepping and cylinder tests. However, the human disorder is considerably more complex than this, and alternative tests that permit a more complete evaluation of the efficacy and mechanism of action of novel treatments are needed. In this study, an operant task that assesses the selection, initiation and execution of lateralized movements was used to investigate the effects of embryonic dopamine cell transplants in the unilateral medial forebrain bundle (MFB) lesion model of PD. Lesioned Lister Hooded rats had a pronounced contralateral selection and initiation deficit, as well as an impairment in execution of movements bilaterally. They also attempted fewer trials and made more procedural errors than unlesioned rats. Transplantation of fetal dopaminergic neurons to the striatum led to a marked improvement in specific parameters and a more modest improvement in others. The graft improved the contralateral selection deficit and the execution of movements bilaterally, but had no effect on the initiation of contralateral movements. Transplanted rats also attempted more trials and made fewer errors. In contrast, the more commonly used stepping and cylinder tests revealed no functional effect of the graft. This data suggests that this operant task may be a powerful tool for validating and elucidating the mechanism of action of experimental brain repair therapies prior to entering the clinic. PMID:15380018

  8. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  9. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  10. Repellent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  11. Culture Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Bridget Fitzgerald

    1998-01-01

    One way to break down barriers and promote understanding among English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and mainstream students is to establish culture clubs. Culture clubs involve frequent exchange of information about social, academic, and cultural topics in extracurricular settings. They are a critical component of ESL programs. The article explains…

  12. Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas R.

    The study of a foreign language is the study of another culture. Cultural involvement begins as learners progress from grammar to the actual use of language. Culture includes the ideas, customs, skills, arts, and tools of a people and influences both cognitive and affective behavior. It should be introduced as part of the total language…

  13. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  14. Cultural Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  15. Ryukyuan Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafton, Terry

    The Ryukyu Islands of Japan, of which Okinawa is the best known, possess a lengthy history and a sophisticated cultural background, an exploration of which helps to shed light on this area and on mainland Japan. This document is an exposition of Ryukuan culture. Divided into eight sections, the areas covered include: (1) Historical perspective;…

  16. Bronchoscopic culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue or fluid from the lungs for infection-causing germs. ... Culture - bronchoscopic ... used to get a sample ( biopsy ) of lung tissue or fluid. The sample ... a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ...

  17. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  18. Differences in receptor binding affinity of several phytocannabinoids do not explain their effects on neural cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rosenthaler, Sarah; Pöhn, Birgit; Kolmanz, Caroline; Huu, Chi Nguyen; Krewenka, Christopher; Huber, Alexandra; Kranner, Barbara; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter; Moldzio, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids are potential candidates for neurodegenerative disease treatment. Nonetheless, the exact mode of action of major phytocannabinoids has to be elucidated, but both, receptor and non-receptor mediated effects are discussed. Focusing on the often presumed structure-affinity-relationship, Ki values of phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), THC acid (THCA) and THC to human CB1 and CB2 receptors were detected by using competitive inhibition between radioligand [(3)H]CP-55,940 and the phytocannabinoids. The resulting Ki values to CB1 range from 23.5 nM (THCA) to 14711 nM (CBDV), whereas Ki values to CB2 range from 8.5 nM (THC) to 574.2 nM (CBDV). To study the relationship between binding affinity and effects on neurons, we investigated possible CB1 related cytotoxic properties in murine mesencephalic primary cell cultures and N18TG2 neuroblastoma cell line. Most of the phytocannabinoids did not affect the number of dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, whereas propidium iodide and resazurin formation assays revealed cytotoxic properties of CBN, CBDV and CBG. However, THC showed positive effects on N18TG2 cell viability at a concentration of 10 μM, whereas CBC and THCA also displayed slightly positive activities. These findings are not linked to the receptor binding affinity therewith pointing to another mechanism than a receptor mediated one. [Corrected] PMID:25311884

  19. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... for infection-causing germs in a sample of tissue from the esophagus. ... Culture - esophageal ... A sample of tissue from your esophagus is needed. The sample is ... or viruses. Other tests may be done to determine what medicine ...

  20. Endocervical culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... There, they are placed in a special dish (culture). They are then watched to see if bacteria, virus, or fungus grow. Further tests may be done to identify the specific organism and determine the best treatment.

  1. Bile culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, ... bacteria, virus, or fungus grew in the laboratory dish. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ...

  2. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched for the growth of bacteria, ... means that no germs grew in the laboratory dish. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...

  3. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  4. Gastric culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your provider will ...

  5. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  6. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  7. Hydroponic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  8. Cultural Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

  9. Culture Theory and American Cultural Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, John J.

    This paper addresses three questions related to cultural geography--(1) do cultural geographers have a serious interest in culture theory? (2) is there some indication in the ways in which cultural geographers have traditionally approached their subject which has given rise to an apparent lack of concern with the implications of culture theory?…

  10. Cultural neurolinguistics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2010-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research — cultural neurolinguistics — that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area. PMID:19874968

  11. Culture et medias (Culture and the Media).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abastado, Claude

    1982-01-01

    The traditional conception of pluralistic culture is contrasted with a new, separate form of culture: mass media culture. Its components are noted: medium, message, "mosaic," and strategy, and methodology for its study is discussed. (MSE)

  12. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  13. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  14. Culture collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. PMID:22569518

  15. Potential environmental neurotoxins related to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: Selective toxicity of 1-methyl-4-(4'-acetamidophenyl)-pyridinium and 1-methyl-4-cyclohexylpyridinium for dopaminergic neurons in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, P.P.; Dandapani, B.K.; Efange, S.M.; Hefti, F. )

    1990-05-01

    Mesencephalic cells in culture were exposed to various compounds which we hypothesized to be selective toxins for dopaminergic neurons. The culture system was previously shown suitable for assessing selective dopaminergic neurotoxicity, since 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+), the active metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinium, destroyed dopaminergic neurons without affecting other cells. Some compounds tested were selected to fulfill two criteria believed to underly the selective dopaminergic neurotoxicity of MPP+, i.e., to be a potential substrate for the uptake carrier for dopamine and to possess a strong delocalized positive charge to inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory system. Other compounds were chosen on the basis of clinical or anecdotal evidence linking them to Parkinson's disease. Among the tested compounds two pyridinium analogs, 1-methyl-4-(4'-acetamidophenyl)pyridinium (MACPP+) and 1-methyl-4-cyclohexylpyridinium (MCP+) were found to be selectively toxic toward dopaminergic neurons. Incubation of cultures with both MACPP+ and MCP+ produced a dramatic reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells and the uptake of (3H)dopamine without reducing the number of cells visualized by phase-contrast microscopy or the uptake of (3H)aminobutyric acid. Besides MACPP+ and MCP+ none of the tested compounds exhibited any selective dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Together with earlier findings, these data suggest that the structural requirements are rather strict for a chemical to be a selective dopaminergic neurotoxin and make it unlikely that there is a wide spectrum of environmental dopaminergic toxins.

  16. Opening the Culture Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Barbara; Rasminsky, Judy Sklar

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that child care providers must collaborate with children's families in order to better understand their culture and their child, and to successfully deal with challenging behavior issues. Addresses: (1) culture definition; (2) culture and identity; (3) cultural differences; (4) seeing culture; (5) child care and school culture; (6) moving…

  17. Marketing across Cultures: Tools for Cultural Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    The concept of cultural universals, the basic needs shared by people around the world, is a critical concept in assessing the impact of culture on decisions about the international marketing of goods and services. In most cases, international marketers have little need to understand all the ways in which their culture differs from the culture of…

  18. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  19. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  20. Revisiting cultural awareness and cultural relevancy.

    PubMed

    Abi-Hashem, Naji

    2015-10-01

    Comments on the original article by Christopher et al. (see record 2014-20055-001) regarding critical cultural awareness. The more insights and exploration of the meaning and influence of culture we receive, the better. There is no single treatment of any personal or collective culture(s) that can be inherently complete or totally exhaustive. New hermeneutics and skills are always needed, appreciated, and refreshing. PMID:26436315

  1. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  2. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  3. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  4. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  5. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  6. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  7. Teaching Culturally Diverse Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian; Tulbert, Beth

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of culturally diverse students are discussed in terms of language, culture, and socioeconomic factors. Meeting the educational needs of culturally diverse students can involve interactive teaming of professionals; parent involvement; and providing appropriate services, assessment, curriculum, and instruction. (JDD)

  8. Popular Culture and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Hilary Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Explores the origins and elements of popular culture--noting that English instruction and popular culture need not be mutually exclusive, and that selected materials from popular culture may serve goals of the English curriculum without compromising them. (NKA)

  9. Cultural Energy & Grassroots Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleymeyer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…

  10. Developing Cultural Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matikainen, Tiina; Duffy, Carolyn B.

    2000-01-01

    Provides ways of developing students' awareness of cultural patterns among the different cultures of the world. Describes a lesson in which students learn about basic attitudes different cultures have toward three cultural value dimensions: the role of the individual in society, power distance, and time orientation. (Author/VWL)

  11. The Concept of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, John

    1987-01-01

    National identity and schooling are predicated on a particular yet ill-defined view of culture. To counter "popular" and "high" culture polarizations and arguments for cultural pluralism, this paper proposes that curricula be designed for student access to forms and symbols defining Australian culture through discourse and artistic…

  12. HPT: The Culture Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

  13. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally…

  14. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  15. Does Culture Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Objects to current preoccupations with culture (particularly race) in psychology and education, suggesting that it is unethical to let culture influence decision making. Notes the paucity of empirical evidence of statistical interactions between treatment and culture in psychotherapy or teaching and culture in education. Concludes that without…

  16. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  17. Mesencephalic stimulation elicits inhibition of phrenic nerve activity in cat.

    PubMed

    Gallman, E A; Lawing, W L; Millhorn, D E

    1991-05-01

    1. Previous work from this laboratory has indicated that the mesencephalon is the anatomical substrate for a mechanism capable of inhibiting central respiratory drive in glomectomized cats for periods of up to 1 h or more following brief exposure to systemic hypoxia; phrenic nerve activity was used as an index of central respiratory drive. 2. The present study was undertaken to further localize the region responsible for the observed post-hypoxic inhibition of respiratory drive. We studied the phrenic nerve response to stimulations of the mesencephalon in anaesthetized, paralysed peripherally chemo-denervated cats with end-expired PCO2 and body temperature servo-controlled. 3. Stimulations of two types were employed. Electrical stimulation allowed rapid determination of sites from which phrenic inhibition could be elicited. Microinjections of excitatory amino acids were used subsequently in order to confine excitation to neuronal cell bodies and not axons of passage. 4. Stimulation of discrete regions of the ventromedial aspect of the mesencephalon in the vicinity of the red nucleus produced substantial inhibition of phrenic activity which lasted up to 45 min. Stimulation of other areas of the mesencephalon either produced no phrenic inhibition or resulted in a slight stimulation of phrenic activity. 5. The results are discussed in the context of the central respiratory response to hypoxia. PMID:1676420

  18. Subependymal glioneuronal hamartoma in the mesencephalic aqueduct of a giraffe.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Jennifer; Cox, Nancy; Passler, Thomas; Wolfe, Dwight

    2012-09-01

    A 1-day-old male giraffe calf (Giraffa camelopardalis) was submitted for necropsy examination after sustaining postnatal head trauma from the cow. In addition to the expected findings of severe cerebral edema and epidural and subarachnoid hemorrhage, there also was present an incidental finding of a subependymal glioneuronal aqueductal hamartoma. Reports of this type of congenital lesion are rare in the human literature, and the lesion has not, to the authors' knowledge, previously been reported in this or any other veterinary species. PMID:23082530

  19. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

  20. Cultural Molding: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to cultural molding, the idea that most human behavior can be traced to enculturation and exposure rather than to a socio-biological explanation of human behavior. Following a brief description of socialization,…

  1. Cultural Literacy: Negotiating Language, Culture, and Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ellen Riojas; Flores, Belinda Bustos

    2007-01-01

    Our schools see increasing numbers of students who reflect the wide diversity of this country's population, but too often these differences--culture, language, socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicity are viewed from negative or deficit perspectives when they are, in fact, the cultural capital that enriches discussion, broadens viewpoints, and…

  2. Bile culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract. A specimen of bile is placed in culture media and observed for growth of microorganisms. If there ... no infection. If there is growth in the culture media, the growth is then isolated and identified to ...

  3. Rectal culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  4. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  5. Science, Magic, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangler, David G.

    1974-01-01

    The differences which appear when a heavily scientific culture comes in contact with a culture whose basic orientation toward nature and man is of a religious, magical character are briefly investigated. (NQ)

  6. Cultural changes in aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobl, Bill

    1991-01-01

    Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  7. Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  8. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  9. Teaching Culture: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Discusses seven books on cultural awareness: (1) "Culture Learning" (Damen); (2) "Beyond the Language Classroom" (Fantini and others); (3) "Culturally Speaking" (Genzel and Cummings); (4) "Across Cultures" (Lim and Smalzer); (5) "Teaching Culture" (Seelye); (6) "Cultural Awareness" (Tomalin and Stempleski); and (7) "Culture Connection" (Wegmann…

  10. Frozen cultural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr; Novakova, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We discuss cultural group selection under the view of the frozen plasticity theory and the different explanatory power and predictions of this framework. We present evidence that cultural adaptations and their influence on the degree of cooperation may be more complex than presented by Richerson et al., and conclude with the gene-environment-culture relationship and its impacts on cultural group selection. PMID:27561647

  11. Reconstituted Thymus Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zimu; Liu, Haifeng; Rui, Jinxiu; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Reconstituted thymus organ culture is based on fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC). Purified thymocyte populations, from genetically modified mice or even from other species, are cultured in vitro with thymic lobes depleted of their endogenous thymocytes (by 2'-deoxyguanosine treatment) to form a new thymus. This potent and timesaving method is distinct from FTOC, which assesses development of unmodified thymic lobes, and reaggregate thymic organ culture, in which epithelial cells are separately purified before being aggregated with thymocytes. PMID:26294406

  12. Why Teach Visual Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…

  13. Problems Confronting Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efland, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…

  14. Language, Culture and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candlin, Christopher N.

    1992-01-01

    Paper seeks a principled way to integrate second and foreign language teaching with a study of the cultures of those languages and the learners' cultures within the curriculum framework of purposes, content, and evaluation. It examines current contexts in language education then discusses integrating language, culture, and curriculum. (SM)

  15. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  16. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  17. The Two Cultures Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultberg, John

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the work of British writer, C. P. Snow, and examines the differences in scientific and literary cultures. Discusses post-World War II professionalization of science and the rebellious literary culture; the scientific revolution; the lack of communication between the two cultures; the generalization of science through sociology; the need…

  18. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  19. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  20. Transcending Cultural Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert; Murphy, Kris; Jaworski, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Cultural diversity presents many challenges to the art educator. Teaching children to be tolerant and to appreciate differences is particularly important in a world that is characterized by polarization, embittered cultural divisions, and prejudice. Students' knowledge and attitudes are mediated by popular culture, which often reduces cultural…

  1. Literacy: "Kultur" and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, W. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the work of Paulo Freire for understanding cultural literacy. Points out that Freire differentiates between "kultur" (stable, immutable cultural institutions) and "culture" (something that is always becoming or being made), and that the difference has important implications for education. (SKC)

  2. Language, Culture, and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus in Change, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue, devoted to the relationship between language, culture, and identity, contains three articles, all by Anne Turnbaugh Lockwood, and a commentary by Florence L. Johnson. The first article, entitled "The Heart of Culture," reports on an interview with Henry T. Trueba, an educator specializing in the roles of language, culture, and…

  3. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  4. Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ulyssa

    2012-01-01

    Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…

  5. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. PMID:22625856

  6. Preparing culturally competent practitioners.

    PubMed

    St Clair, A; McKenry, L

    1999-05-01

    Preparing culturally competent practitioners is critical, and evaluating the effect of experiences intended to move students toward cultural competence is important. This research study explored the relationship among short-term international nursing clinical immersion experiences, cultural self-efficacy, and cultural competence. A triangulated research design was used to explore the relationship among the variables with 200 senior undergraduate and graduate nursing students from a university in New England. Quantitative analysis found statistically significant differences in the achievement of cultural self-efficacy for the participants who completed the international clinical experiences versus those who remained in the United States. Qualitative analysis, used to further explain the quantitative results, found that the differences were related to international students' ability to overcome their ethnocentrism, experience a transformative perspective about being culturally aware and sensitive, as well as understand and integrate the patients' cultural practices and beliefs into the students' Western health care practices. It became apparent that something other than cultural self-efficacy had occurred for participants in the international immersion experiences. The students believed they had entered the arena of cultural competence. Short-term clinical cultural immersion experiences have relevance for assisting faculty to move nursing students toward an understanding and achievement of cultural competence in ways currently not possible with nonimmersion community cultural experiences. PMID:10438097

  7. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-06-01

    Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.

  8. Cultural Exploration through Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

  9. Resource Guide: Cultural Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Joyce A.; Peacock, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Offers resources for the study of cultural resilience. This term, used in American Indian culture theory, suggests that traditional culture can help to overcome oppression, abuse, poverty, and other social ills. Offers annotated reference to 19 books, articles, Internet sites, and other publications. (NB)

  10. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  11. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    PubMed

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. PMID:26529195

  12. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  13. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  14. Culture, Culture Learning and New Technologies: Towards a Pedagogical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership;…

  15. Astronomy in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2010-07-01

    Which is more appropriate? “Astronomy in culture,” or “Astronomy and culture,” or “Culture without astronomy?” These are only few variants, each with its own sense. I guess the last question is the most pertinent. Does culture really exist without astronomy? The existence and evolution of the human civilization answer NO! But what “culture” means? When we are thinking of a culture (the Hellenistic one, for instance), we mean a set of customs, artistic, religious, intellectual manifestations that differentiate one group or society from another. On the other hand, we often use the notion of culture in a different sense: shared beliefs, ways of regarding and doing, which orient more or less consciously the behavior of an individual or a group. An example would be the laic culture. Moreover, the set of knowledge acquired in one or several domains also constitutes a culture, for instance the scientific culture of an individual or a group. Finally, the set of cultures is nothing else but the civilization. Now, if we come back in time into the history of civilization, we find a permanent component, which was never missing and often played a decisive part in its evolution: the Astronomy.

  16. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

  17. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis –composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress—as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

  18. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory. PMID:21560270

  19. Cultural Learning Redux.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and affiliate with others in their cultural group, children learn from pedagogy not just episodic facts but the generic structure of their cultural worlds, and children collaboratively co-construct with those in their culture normative rules for doing things. In all, human children do not just culturally learn useful instrumental activities and information, they conform to the normative expectations of the cultural group and even contribute themselves to the creation of such normative expectations. PMID:27189393

  20. Culture and math.

    PubMed

    Tcheang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample. PMID:24090438

  1. Culture and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Intelligence cannot be fully or even meaningfully understood outside its cultural context. Work that seeks to study intelligence acontextually risks the imposition of an investigator's view of the world on the rest of the world. Moreover, work on intelligence within a single culture mayfail to do justice to the range of skills and knowledge that may constitute intelligence broadly defined and risks drawing false and hasty generalizations. This article considers the relevance of culture to intelligence, as well as its investigation, assessment, and development. Studies that show the importance of understanding intelligence in its cultural context are described; the author concludes that intelligence must be understood in such context. PMID:15511120

  2. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688

  3. Cultural change that sticks.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain. PMID:22852451

  4. Cultural Legacies: Operationalizing Chicano Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordaz, Maricela; Anda, Diane de

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…

  5. Arachidonic acid activation of a new family of K+ channels in cultured rat neuronal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D; Sladek, C D; Aguado-Velasco, C; Mathiasen, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. The presence and properties of K+ channels activated by arachidonic acid were studied in neuronal cells cultured from the mesencephalic and hypothalamic areas of rat brain. 2. Arachidonic acid produced a concentration-dependent (5-50 microM) and reversible activation of whole-cell currents. 3. In excised membrane patches, arachidonic acid applied to the cytoplasmic or extracellular side of the membrane caused opening of three types of channels whose current-voltage relationships were slightly outwardly rectifying, inwardly rectifying and linear, and whose single channel slope conductances at +60 mV were 143, 45 and 52 pS, respectively. 4. All three currents were K+ selective and blocked by 2 mM Ba2+ but not by other K+ channel blockers such as tetraethylammonium chloride, 4-aminopyridine and quinidine. The outwardly and inwardly rectifying currents were slightly voltage dependent with higher channel activity at more depolarized potentials. 5. Arachidonic acid activated the K+ channels in cells treated with cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid), indicating that arachidonic acid itself can directly activate the channels. Alcohol and methyl ester derivatives of arachidonic acid failed to activate the K+ channels, indicating that the charged carboxyl group is important for activation. 6. Certain unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids), but not saturated fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, stearic acids), also reversibly activated all three types of K+ channel. 7. All three K+ channels were activated by pressure applied to the membrane (i.e. channels were stretch sensitive) with a half-maximal pressure of approximately 18 mmHg. The K+ channels were not blocked by 100 microM GdCl3. 8. A decrease in intracellular pH (over the range 5.6-7.2) caused a reversible, pH-dependent increase in channel activity whether the channel was initially activated by arachidonic acid or stretch. 9. Glutamate

  6. Assessing Knowledge of Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Robert

    The procedures used in a study to determine how well a group of American Indian college students understood their traditional and modern cultures and a college Caucasian culture were explained in this paper. The sample consisted of 111 Indian students enrolled in the University of New Mexico. The students were tested in the areas of knowledge of…

  7. Developing Culturally Competent Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue examines multicultural aspects of services provided by agencies concerned with children's mental health. The lead article is titled "Developing Culturally Competent Organizations" by James L. Mason. This article uses the cultural competence model to discuss an organization's self-evaluation and its planning in the areas of…

  8. Culture and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2008-01-01

    Social support is one of the most effective means by which people can cope with stressful events. Yet little research has examined whether there are cultural differences in how people utilize their social support networks. A review of studies on culture and social support presents evidence that Asians and Asian Americans are more reluctant to…

  9. Cultural Discontinuities and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbu, John U.

    1982-01-01

    Attempts to define the cultural discontinuity (between schools and students) hypothesis by distinguishing between universal, primary, and secondary discontinuities. Suggests that each of these is associated with a distinct type of school problem, and that secondary cultural discontinuities commonly affect minority students in the United States.…

  10. Cultural Policies in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaigne, Jacques

    The booklet presents a synopsis of reports on national cultural policies by government officials of nations belonging to the Council of Europe. The main purpose of the document is to provide an overview of institutional facilities, financial resources, and goals of cultural policy. The document is presented in five major sections. Section I…

  11. Culture and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Gayle; And Others

    Developed by the Texas Department of Human Resources' Child Development Division, this guide supports and encourages the integration of cultural diversity into children's programs; furnishes basic information related to race, ethnicity, and culture; and briefly considers some issues associated with the concepts. While not dealing in depth with all…

  12. Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, Professor Geneva Gay wrote that culturally responsive teaching connects students' cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles to academic knowledge and intellectual tools in ways that legitimize what students already know. By embracing the sociocultural realities and histories of students through what is taught and how,…

  13. Introduction to Cambodian Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhim, Sun-Him

    This booklet about the cultural background of Cambodia is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Cambodia, or Kampuchea, has a population of about 7,000,000 and is located in mainland Southeast Asia. Its history is divided into the…

  14. Cultural Pluralism on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E.; And Others

    This book is addressed primarily to higher education personnel responsible for campus programming that promotes a culturally plural environment. These chapters are included: (1) "Affirming Affirmative Action" (Harold E. Cheatham); (2) "Identity Development in a Pluralistic Society" (Harold E. Cheatham); (3) "The Minority Cultural Center on a…

  15. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  16. Pop Culture in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David Manning, Ed.

    The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

  17. Crusade for Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayre, Ruth W.

    1995-01-01

    Reprints an article originally published in 1961. Describes the "culture crusade" at William Penn High School for Girls in midcity Philadelphia, part of Project WINGS, an overall program of educational incentive and motivation. Notes that over a 2-year period, more than 1,000 girls went on at least 1 cultural trip. (RS)

  18. A School Culture Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2009-01-01

    Educators know that something needs to change; they analyze data, build a plan, and provide professional development, yet little changes. Often that is because they fail to take into account the culture of their schools. Culture reflects the complex set of values, traditions, assumptions, and patterns of behavior that are present in a school.…

  19. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

  20. Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Te, Huynh Dinh

    This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the…

  1. The Popular Culture Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B.; Madden, David

    Popular culture is defined here as anything produced by and/or dissembled by the mass media or mass production or transportation, either directly or indirectly, and that reaches the majority of the people. This sampler from mass magazines, intended for use in the study of popular culture, includes fiction from "Playboy"; articles on cars, Johnny…

  2. Building Culturally Responsive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

  3. ARS Culture Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The internationally recognized Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Culture Collection will be described to include the microorganisms maintained by the collection, preservation methods and worldwide distribution of cultures. The impact of the germplasm will be described to include discovery of the f...

  4. Outline of World Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, George Peter

    This outline supplements the topical classification of the "Outline of Cultural Materials" with a new outline organizing and classifying the known cultures of the world. The new system: (1) expedites the beginning of actual processing of information into the Human Relations Area Files, (2) permits excerpting of sources processed that pertain to…

  5. Research: A Cultural Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Roger J.; Tchacos, E.

    An ongoing qualitative cross-cultural research project, using ethnographic methods of immersion and reference to the lived experience, is addressing the high rates of Indigenous youth suicide in remote Kimberley (Western Australia) communities. To ensure that cultural sensitivities are observed and work toward valid data collection and analysis,…

  6. Cultural Competence Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garran, Ann Marie; Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) adopted 10 discrete standards of culturally competent practice which undergird our commitment to diversity and social justice. The concept of intersectionality is newly emerging in social work, though, causing us to reflect on our current conceptualizations of cultural competence.…

  7. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  8. Grounding Evaluations in Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Maurice; Ryan, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of and the attention given to culture in the evaluation field over the last decade has created a heightened awareness of and need for evaluators to understand the complexity and multidimensionality of evaluations within multicultural, multiracial, and cross-cultural contexts. In this article, the authors discuss how cultural…

  9. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Provides references to the work of cross-cultural psychologists that can be integrated into regular undergraduate psychology courses. Discusses methodological problems, benefits, and difficulties of cross-cultural research. Reviews contributions of this field to the study of perception, cognition, motivation, interpersonal interaction, and group…

  10. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  11. Check your cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R

    1998-08-01

    Intrapersonal reactions such as ethnocentrism, prejudice, anxiety, stereotyping, and our comfort zone with the familiar can influence our interactions with culturally diverse people. Here, we explore these stumbling blocks, the dynamics behind these reactions, and strategies nurse managers can employ to enhance their cultural competence. PMID:9807388

  12. Preparing Culturally Competent Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Anita; McKenry, Leda

    1999-01-01

    Compared to 120 controls, 80 nursing students participating in international clinical-immersion experiences showed a significant increase in cultural self-efficacy and awareness, ability to overcome ethnocentrism, and ability to integrate patients' cultural beliefs into health-care practices. (SK)

  13. Cultural Collage Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  14. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  15. Introduction: transnational lesbian cultures.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heike; Mahn, Churnjeet

    2014-01-01

    This special issue examines the transnational shape and shaping of lesbian lives and cultures in and across China, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It uses the expression "transnational lesbian cultures" to suggest that despite sometimes radically different sociopolitical and cultural contexts, the lived experiences of same-sex desire and their emotional attachments create particular affinities between women who love women, affinities that reach across the distinct cultural and social contexts that shape them. The articles brought together explore lesbian subcultures, film, graphic novels, music, and online intimacies. They show that as a cultural and political signifier and as an analytical tool, lesbian troubles and complicates contemporary sexual politics, not least by revealing some of the gendered structures that shape debates about sexuality in a range of critical, cultural and political contexts. While the individual pieces cover a wide range of issues and concerns-which are often highly specific to the historical, cultural, and political contexts they discuss-together they tell a story about contemporary transnational lesbian culture: one that is marked by intricate links between norms and their effects and shaped by the efforts to resist denial, discrimination, and sometimes even active persecution. PMID:24972280

  16. Cultural Awareness for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judy; And Others

    This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…

  17. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  18. Pop Goes the Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurlansky, Mark J.

    1977-01-01

    Popular culture is defended as a solid academic entry that is a new approach to sociology, art, and literature. The contributions and theories of three professors are discussed: Arthur Asa Berger, Leslie Fiedler, and Alan Gowans. They illustrate the range and diversity in the pop culture field. (LBH)

  19. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  20. Complexity in Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

  1. Culture and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Intelligence cannot be fully or even meaningfully understood outside its cultural context. Work that seeks to study intelligence acontextually risks the imposition of an investigator's view of the world on the rest of the world. Moreover, work on intelligence within a single culture may fail to do justice to the range of skills and knowledge that…

  2. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  3. Cultural dimensions of learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyford, Glen A.

    1990-06-01

    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  4. Infusing Culture in Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the culture-infused career counselling (CICC) model. Six principles are foundational to a tripartite model emphasizing cultural self-awareness, awareness of client cultural identities, and development of a culturally sensitive working alliance. The core competencies ensure the cultural validity and relevance of career…

  5. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2010-01-01

    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  6. Cultural Factors in Clinical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Examines special issues in cross-cultural psychopathology, including culture-bound syndromes, variable distribution of psychopathology across cultures, and cultural distinctions between belief and delusion and between trance and hallucination. Offers suggestions for educating clinicians about cross-cultural conceptual issues and teaching the…

  7. Optimizing stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-11-01

    Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness, and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh's plane. PMID:20803548

  8. Cultural Evolution and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.

  9. Organizational climate and culture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research. PMID:22856467

  10. [Cultural diversity reflexive learning].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, Ma José Morera; Caparà, Núria Roca

    2007-10-01

    Recent international migration trends contribute to set up new social scenarios where an increasing cultural diversity becomes self-evident. From a global diversity on a planetary scale, we enter into a local diversity comprised by persons, groups and emerging cultures with whom we share our daily life experiences. In this context, social relationships are not always easy and we may note difficulties due to the ethnocentrism each group has and due to a lack of knowledge, or distrust or prejudices among persons or groups having diverse cultural origins. PMID:18274398

  11. a Cultural Market Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  12. Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

  13. Activities for Exploring Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Susan K.

    1992-01-01

    Presents topics for parents to use when discussing cultural diversity with their children (basic needs, cultural attitudes, body language, the arts, and language). Activities for exploring cultural diversity are suggested, and a list of multicultural resources is included. (SM)

  14. Enterprise, Culture and Anarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    Britain's proposed plans for reform of higher education are criticized for lack of historical perspective on the nature and cultivation of culture and intellect, removal of institutional autonomy, and irresponsible government intervention. (MSE)

  15. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... special dish and watched to see if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. ... result is considered normal if no organisms (bacteria, fungi, or viruses) grow in the laboratory dish. Normal ...

  16. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  17. Art and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robin

    1975-01-01

    The art department at Fremont Junior High School in Mesa, Arizona, developed a project in which Indian, Mexican-American, and White-Anglo American students learned about their different cultural values and tradititions. (Author/RK)

  18. Blood Culture Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to detect the presence of bacteria or fungi in the blood, to identify the type present, ... blood cultures to detect and identify bacteria and fungi. Other related tests that may be performed include: ...

  19. Culture, personality and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Varma, V K

    1988-01-01

    Conventional Western-model psychotherapy is based on a number of premises regarding its rationale and technique. The increasing experience in psychotherapy globally is questioning the universality of these premises, suggesting that these could be to a large extent culture-specific, having developed in a particular culture at a particular time. Hence, the need to move from a dogmatic approach to psychotherapy to a flexible approach taking into account the socio-cultural reality. The paper identifies a number of cultural variables involving the intrapsychic mechanisms (e.g. cognitive and expressive), social relatedness (e.g. autonomy, social distance) and religious-philosophical belief systems (concept of sin, and belief in fatalism and after-life/reincarnation) and discusses their role in the approach to and process of psychotherapy, illustrating it with the situation in the Indian setting. PMID:3410660

  20. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration ... normal result means there was no growth of microorganisms on the lab dish. Normal value ranges may ...

  1. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  2. Embracing cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Casady, W M

    2001-01-01

    Healthcare providers from all backgrounds are taught the Western medicine approach with little consideration given to cultural-specific care. Yet, today it is difficult to ignore that approximately 33 percent of Americans originate from ethnically diverse groups. As our population continues to become more diversified, it is imperative that healthcare professionals become more sensitive to cultural differences. Effectively managing cultural diversity in the workplace requires a complex set of skills as well as an understanding of the concept. Communication skills will be challenged in a complex and diverse work environment. Managers must learn to listen. Embracing cultural diversity is a two-step process. The first step begins with personal self-interest and self-examination. The second step in the process is the "awakening." Tomorrow's successful managers will take an active role today in creating an environment that views diversity as an asset to the work force. PMID:11302066

  3. Envisioning cultural practices

    PubMed Central

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Graphic visualization has demonstrated its value for organizing transactional data and modeling complex phenomena in a wide variety of fields, from theoretical physics to medicine. Behavior analysts have historically used a variety of graphic tools not only for presentation but also for analysis and teaching. As they turn increasingly to the analysis and design of cultural practices, the phenomena behavior analysts study are becoming increasingly complicated. Many cultural practices of interest are embedded in extensive webs of interlocking practices and contingencies that can be difficult to grasp comprehensively. Building on contingency diagrams, which have proven to be useful for the analysis of operant behavior, and graphic tools developed for object-oriented systems analysis, this paper suggests graphic tools for capturing the interlocking contingencies that constitute cultures. These diagrams offer a broad-bandwidth technology for analyzing and designing cultural practices. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:22478262

  4. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

  5. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  6. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  7. Cultural Astronomy of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2004-06-01

    Like people all over the world, Africans have a long history of observing and trying to understand the workings of the heavens. Though many African cultures did not have writing systems, their understandings of the night sky have been preserved and passed on through stories, art, dance, and artifacts, sometimes in unexpected and complex ways. Focusing on specific ethnic groups, this talk is a survey of some of the ways that Africans have woven their knowledge of the night sky into their cultures.

  8. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  9. Astronomy in Aboriginal culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2006-10-01

    In all probability, long before other civilizations had named the celestial objects in the night sky, the indigenous people of Australia had not only given them names but had also built an astronomical knowledge system which they incorporated into their social, cultural and religious life. Their socio-cultural astronomical knowledge system both assists and clashes with Australia's legal system, which is based on English law.

  10. Astronomy and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

  11. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

  12. Scientific Culture and School Culture: Epistemic and Procedural Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar; Diaz de Bustamante, Joaquin; Duschl, Richard A.

    This paper discusses the elaboration and application of "scientific culture" categories to the analysis of students' discourse while solving problems in inquiry contexts. Scientific culture means the particular domain culture of science, the culture of science practitioners. The categories proposed include both epistemic operations and procedural…

  13. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  14. Creating Cultural Consumers: The Dynamics of Cultural Capital Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisida, Brian; Greene, Jay P.; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The theories of cultural reproduction and cultural mobility have largely shaped the study of the effects of cultural capital on academic outcomes. Missing in this debate has been a rigorous examination of how children actually acquire cultural capital when it is not provided by their families. Drawing on data from a large-scale experimental study…

  15. The Culture Based Model: Constructing a Model of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends reveal that models of culture aid in mapping the design and analysis of information and communication technologies. Therefore, models of culture are powerful tools to guide the building of instructional products and services. This research examines the construction of the culture based model (CBM), a model of culture that evolved…

  16. From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2012-01-01

    Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

  17. Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projections

    PubMed Central

    ALARCÓN, RENATO D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide conceptual justifications for the inclusion of culture and cultural factors in psychiatric diagnosis, and logistic suggestions as to the content and use of this approach. A discussion of the scope and limitations of current diagnostic practice, criticisms from different quarters, and the role and relevance of culture in the diagnostic encounter, precede the examination of advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The cultural content of psychiatric diagnosis should include the main, well-recognized cultural variables, adequate family data, explanatory models, and strengths and weaknesses of every individual patient. The practical aspects include the acceptance of “cultural discordances” as a component of an updated definition of mental disorder, and the use of a refurbished cultural formulation. Clinical “telescoping” strategies to obtain relevant cultural data during the diagnostic interview, and areas of future research (including field trials on the cultural formulation and on “culture bound syndromes”), are outlined. PMID:19812742

  18. Culture and personality: toward an integrated cultural trait psychology.

    PubMed

    Church, A T

    2000-08-01

    Two theoretical perspectives currently dominate research on culture and personality, the cross-cultural trait psychology approach, in which the trait concept is central, and the cultural psychology approach, in which the trait concept is questioned. Here I review theory and research from both perspectives and propose that the tenets of cultural psychology, at least in their more moderate forms, can be synthesized with the trait psychology approach, resulting in an integrated cultural trait psychology perspective. PMID:10934686

  19. Uterine culture in mares.

    PubMed

    Brook, D

    1984-05-01

    A guarded, sterile swab is used to obtain samples for uterine culture. With the mare in stocks, the tail bandage and the perineum washed, the culture rod is introduced into the vagina with a gloved hand. After the rod is guided through the cervix, the guard cap is dislodged and the swab is rubbed along the endometrium, after which the rod is extracted. Samples for uterine culture should only be obtained during full estrus. Swabs should be directly plated onto agar within 2 hours of collection. Blood agar is appropriate for initial screening, but use of specialized types of agar expedites identification of microbes. Plates are incubated at 37 C and inspected for growth every 12 hours. The type and number of bacterial colonies should be coupled with the history and clinical signs in deciding on the necessity and type of treatment. Pure, heavy bacterial growth is usually accompanied by clinical signs of infection. Interpretation of the significance of moderate bacterial growth may be aided by cytologic examination of endometrial smears, made by rolling the swab onto a glass slide and staining with Diff - Quik . Large numbers of neutrophils indicate the need for antibiotic therapy. Mixed bacterial growth and variable numbers of neutrophils usually indicate faulty sampling technic. Microaerophilic or anaerobic cultures may aid diagnosis in cases of equivocal aerobic culture results. PMID:6377040

  20. [Psychotherapy as cultural discourse].

    PubMed

    Józefik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space. PMID:22220490

  1. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  2. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  3. Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

  4. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  5. Cultural Bias in Testing ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill-Power, C.

    Although cultural content is unavoidable as a backdrop for good language testing, cultural bias in testing English as a second language presents many dangers. A picture cue calling for a correct grammatical response may evoke an incorrect answer if the pictorial content is culturally coded. The cultural background behind a test must be accurately…

  6. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  7. Culture, context, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David

    2007-12-01

    In this article I propose a model that posits three major sources of influence on behavior-basic human nature (via universal psychological processes), culture (via social roles), and personality (via individual role identities) and argue that individual behaviors are the products of the interaction between the three. I discuss how culture emerges from the interaction of basic human nature and the ecological contexts in which groups exist, and how social roles are determined by culture-specific psychological meanings attributed to situational contexts. The model further suggests that situational context moderates the relative contributions of the three sources in influencing behavior. I provide examples of apparent contradictory findings in the study of emotion that can be explained by the model proposed. PMID:17995466

  8. Digital Microfluidic Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Li, Bingyu Betty; Chamberlain, M Dean; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a droplet-based liquid-handling technology that has recently become popular for cell culture and analysis. In DMF, picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets are manipulated on a planar surface using electric fields, thus enabling software-reconfigurable operations on individual droplets, such as move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Using this technique, multistep cell-based processes can be carried out using simple and compact instrumentation, making DMF an attractive platform for eventual integration into routine biology workflows. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in DMF cell culture, and describe design considerations, types of DMF cell culture, and cell-based applications of DMF. PMID:26643019

  9. Accelerating the culture change!

    PubMed

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

    1996-11-01

    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance. PMID:10162360

  10. Low frequency cultural noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Jin Soo; Kang, Tae-Seob; Baag, Chang-Eob

    2009-09-01

    Abnormal cultural seismic noise is observed in the frequency range of 0.01-0.05 Hz. Cultural noise generated by human activities is generally observed in frequencies above 1 Hz, and is greater in the daytime than at night. The low-frequency noise presented in this paper exhibits a characteristic amplitude variation and can be easily identified from time domain seismograms in the frequency range of interest. The amplitude variation is predominantly in the vertical component, but the horizontal components also show variations. Low-frequency noise is markedly periodic, which reinforces its interpretation as cultural noise. Such noise is observed world-wide, but is limited to areas in the vicinity of railways. The amplitude variation in seismograms correlates strongly with railway timetables, and the waveform shows a wavelength shift associated with the Doppler effect, which indicates that the origin of seismic background noise in the frequency range 0.01-0.05 Hz is railways.

  11. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

  12. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  13. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  14. Hydroponics or soilless culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, H. D.

    1963-01-01

    Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

  15. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  16. The Culture of Migrancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGilvra, Bridget

    Approximately 360,000 people in Florida are migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Although this group includes a wide array of ethnicities with their own cultural characteristics, the shared experience of migrancy lends some common threads to an otherwise diverse population. This publication explores these commonalities, as they relate to educators'…

  17. Humanism in Black Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschenbrenner, Joyce C.

    We can identify black culture in terms of certain institutions and values which they share as members of an ethnic group, while recognizing that individual families and communities identify in important respects with other groups. The ascription of a humanistic character--defined as those values and institutions which black Americans have in…

  18. Counseling and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Juan; And Others

    This booklet, developed for school counselors, explores basic considerations for effective counseling of Lau students, defined as those from distinct language and cultural backgrounds, whose home language is other than English and who are not performing conceptually and linguistically at a level equal to district standards. Following a brief…

  19. Leadership and School Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    Present attempts to transform the meaning and purposes of schooling through a radically reformed notion of leadership are examined in this paper. The first part presents a framework that explains the mechanisms through which school cultures are produced, reproduced, and transformed: pedagogy, curriculum, assessment, and discipline. The first…

  20. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  1. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  2. Becoming Culturally Proficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Ernest Everett Just Middle School, located in Mitchellville, Maryland, has a student population that is almost homogenous. In fact, 98% of the students are Black. As a veteran principal, the author's greatest fear has been not being able to provide students with a broad spectrum of ethnic, cultural, and religious experiences--experiences that they…

  3. On Studying Organizational Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Andrew M.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the values of the concepts of symbol, language, ideology, belief, ritual, and myth in understanding the creation of new cultures and in unraveling the related processes by which entrepreneurs give energy, purpose, and commitment to the organizations they are bringing into being. (Author/IRT)

  4. Bone culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  5. Rethinking Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews three books that provide complementary and thought-provoking insights. The three books under review are: (1) "Reproducing class: education, neoliberalism, and the rise of the new middle class in Istanbul," by Henry J. Rutz and Erol M. Balkan; (2) "Technology, culture, family: influences on home life," by Elizabeth B. Silva; and…

  6. Pop Culture Peeps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruszewski, Julie; Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom activity called Pop Culture Peep. In this particular activity, students are required to first research famous artists and/or famous artworks to have an image to use as a reference. Students then plan out how they would decorate the Peep, deciding what materials they would use to create the Peep in…

  7. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a lab and placed on a special dish (culture media). The lab team checks the dish every day to see if bacteria, fungi, or ... Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD ...

  8. Cultural Issues in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on cultural issues in organizations. "Emotion Management and Organizational Functions: A Study of Action in a Not-for-Profit Organization" (Jamie Callahan Fabian) uses Hochschild's emotion systems theory and Parsons' social systems theory to explain why members of an organization managed their…

  9. Cultural practices in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alabi, E M

    1990-05-01

    Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

  10. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  11. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  12. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-11-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  13. Public Knowledge Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…

  14. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  15. Children Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Margy Burns

    1988-01-01

    Junior high school pupils from Cambodia drew pictures to teach Americans about Cambodia. The efforts were organized into a project in which many types of media were used to present cultural shows. This helped the immigrants share information about their native country as they improved their English skills. Photographs are included. (VM)

  16. Understanding Quality Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Ulf Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…

  17. Quality, Culture and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, J. F.; Zulu, N.; Murray, L.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in South Africa has been grappling with the issue of quality assurance since the early 1990s. This paper investigates the relationships or tensions between quality, culture and change as a result of the introduction of quality assurance systems in higher education institutions in South Africa. The imperatives for the introduction…

  18. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  19. Cultural and Linguistic Ambidexterity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2007-01-01

    It might sound like a no-brainer that being bilingual or multilingual helps students planning engineering and just about any other career. But it is certainly true and is becoming more important as the economies of nations become more intertwined. What's more, being able to go beyond mere language ability and understand cultural distinctions are…

  20. Cultural Literacy & Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A., Ed.

    Thirteen experts in the visual arts, literature, music, dance, and theater responded to the arguments of E. D. Hirsch's "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know", focusing particularily on his alarm at the serious slippage that has occurred in the background knowledge and information prerequisite for effective communication. These…

  1. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  2. Assessing Culturally Competent Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendias, Elnora P.; Guevara, Edilma B.

    2001-01-01

    Eight criteria for culturally competent scholarship (contextuality, relevance, communication styles, awareness of identity and power differences, disclosure, reciprocation, empowerment, time) were applied to an international education/research nursing program. Appropriate measures for each were developed and ways to improve the program were…

  3. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…

  4. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  5. Literacy: "Kultur" and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, W. Ross

    For those who consider themselves teachers, "cultural literacy" is an issue worth pondering. In "Education for Critical Consciousness," Paulo Freire deplores the "banking concept" of education, in which a teacher "pours" knowledge into "passive receptacles," because Freire believes that texts have no single, stable meaning. He defines "Kultur" as…

  6. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  7. Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Donna Ah; Maidment, Debra; Hayes-Hampton, Margie

    The Institute for Aboriginal Development (IAD) is an Aboriginal-controlled language resource center and adult education center serving the Aboriginal communities of central Australia. Its activities include education programs, which range from literacy and numeracy to vocational and tertiary-level courses; an Aboriginal language and culture center…

  8. Weather and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

    This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

  9. Complicating Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiello, Vicki; Hathaway, Kevin; Rhoades, Mindi; Walker, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    Arguing for complicating the study of visual culture, as advocated by James Elkins, this article explicates and explores Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and pedagogy in view of its implications for art education practice. Subjectivity, a concept of import for addressing student identity and the visual, steers the discussion informed by pedagogical…

  10. California Cultural Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patricia M.; Francisco, Grace; Keller, Shelly G.

    2007-01-01

    This document is designed for readers who have an interest in developing cultural community partnerships but who may not have an in-depth understanding of the concept or process. It provides a focus for partnership and joint venture discussions within agencies, community organizations or communities at large. Seven public library community…

  11. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  12. Cultural practices updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practice updates from 2013 included the effects of shredding in spring, residue management, periodic flooding, no-till fertilizer applications, and billet planting on cane tonnage and sugar yield. Shredding, whether high or low, had little impacts in 2013. However, burning following shreddi...

  13. Encountering an Alien Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Lee S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Applies a cultural perspective to the problem of introducing novices to computing. Presents a model of initial socialization composed of reality shock, confusion, and attempts at control. Describes a survey of college students' first encounters with computers and suggests that the social contexts of introductory courses encourage feelings of…

  14. Creating a Collaborative Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey; Fisher, Alice; Brown, Genevieve; Irby, Beverly; Lunenburg, Fred; Creighton, Ted; Czaja, Marion; Merchant, Jimmy; Christianson, Judy

    More and more research is focusing on the importance of a healthy work environment and its impact on workers' well-being and productivity. A culture of collaboration has been shown to have an important impact on school-reform efforts and is recognized by several authors as an effective platform for progress within an organization. A collaborative…

  15. Computers, Culture, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Carol; Atencio, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Opinions vary regarding the impact of computers on children and value of using computers in the education of children. This article discusses the impact of technology on culture, attitudes about technological change, the nature of literacy in a technological society, and frameworks for thinking about teaching and learning with technology.…

  16. It Takes a Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Martha; Mausbach, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, the graduation rate for the Council Bluffs Community School District was, at 68 percent, the lowest in Iowa. District leaders knew that to improve, they needed to create a cultural change throughout the community. They began by getting community members involved in creating a strategic plan and mission statement that included a guarantee…

  17. Cultural Learning Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  18. Respectful Youth Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner…

  19. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…

  20. Understanding Learning Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Biesta, Gert; James, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…

  1. Culture and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    Representing a refereed selection of papers from the 1994 JALT Kansai Conference, this collection of 25 papers contains formal presentations, teaching experiences, research projects, and ideas for effective teaching. The papers and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Culturally Influenced Communication Patterns: Overview, Implications and…

  2. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  3. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  4. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  5. Culturing Uveal Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Angi, Martina; Versluis, Mieke; Kalirai, Helen

    2015-04-01

    A major challenge in cancer research is the use of appropriate models with which to study a specific biological question. Cell lines have long been used to study cellular processes and the effects of individual molecules because they are easy to use, grow rapidly, produce reproducible results and have a strong track record in research. In uveal melanoma in particular, the absence of animal models that faithfully replicate the behavior of the human disease has propagated the generation and use of numerous cell lines by individual research groups. This in itself, however, can be viewed as a problem due to the lack of standardization when characterizing these entities to determine how closely they reflect the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of this disease. The alternative is to use in vitro primary cultures of cells obtained directly from uveal melanoma patient samples, but this too has its difficulties. Primary cell cultures are difficult to use, hard to obtain and can show considerable heterogeneity. In this article, we review the following: (1) the uveal melanoma cell lines that are currently available, discussing the importance of establishing a bank of those that represent the molecular heterogeneity of uveal melanoma; (2) the methods used to isolate and perform short-term cultures of primary uveal melanoma cells, and (3) the establishment of 3D tissue culture models that bridge the gap between 2D in vitro systems and in vivo models with which to dissect cancer biology and perform therapeutic screens. PMID:27171555

  6. Supervision as Cultural Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a framework for "culturally responsive supervision." An understanding of analogic or iconic metaphors reveals the power of language to shape what are regarded as matters of fact. Kinesics, proxemics, and prosody bring into focus channels of nonverbal communication. The concept of "framing" calls attention to the metamessages of verbal…

  7. Culture and Imperialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Edward W.

    Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

  8. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. PMID:26429110

  9. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients. PMID:18371580

  10. Culturally Relevant Physical Education in Urban Schools: Reflecting Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    Using a three-part theoretical framework, the cultural relevance cycle--which consists of (a) knowing community dynamics, (b) knowing how community dynamics influence educational processes, and (c) implementing strategies that reflect cultural knowledge of the community--we examined teachers' and students' perspectives on culturally relevant…

  11. Cultural Diversity and the Changing Culture of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    The paper will examine the change in schools brought about by cultural diversity and examines the theories that surround the topic. I will evaluate and examine ways in which schools can accommodate cultural diversity. References will be made to cultural and social changes in our schools and how education is affected by such changes. The issue of…

  12. Cultural Borderlands: Cultural Dissonance in the International School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an investigation into the process of intercultural learning in an international school. Reports that cultural dissonance among students, between students and teachers, and in relation to the school culture, seemed to be the catalyst by which intercultural learning took place. Describes Hofstede's study of national cultural dimensions in…

  13. Managing Culture--Making Culture Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of culture in organisations can offer insights into individual and group behaviour, and leadership. It can help to explain not just what happens in an organisation, but why it happens. However, many people are concerned not just with understanding culture, and hence organisational life. They see culture as something to be…

  14. Cultural Education--Iroquois Cultural Study for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    Presenting a sequenced cultural education program, this curriculum guide for an Iroquois cultural study for elementary grades concentrates on providing a supplemental classroom program to an existing social studies curriculum, though it is also aimed at teaching culture in Native American classes. Program objectives are to provide students with…

  15. The Reaffirmation of Cultural Identity in Cross-cultural Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmitzki, Corinne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between cultural contact and cultural identity as conceptualized in two research approaches: social identity theory and acculturation. The groups studied were German and Americans who either lived in their nonnative culture or had no direct contact. Comparisons between bicultural and monocultural groups revealed a…

  16. Contemporary Culture: A Model for Teaching a Culture's Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Tom

    Current approaches to teaching culture which have adapted the anthropological model to contemporary life situations can serve as a guide to the organization of traditional civilization course material, from which exercises can be developed. Culture instruction should incorporate a cross-cultural dimension, be authentically contemporary, and be…

  17. Ethnic Culture and Corporate Culture: Using Black Styles in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foeman, Anita Kathy; Pressley, Gary

    A review of the literature reveals obvious cultural differences between black and white members of American society. Further analysis indicates that the culture of black Americans has fostered the development of a number of characteristics that would help them to function in corporate cultures that are populated primarily by white Americans.…

  18. Cultural Policy in Poland. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balicki, Stanislaw Witold; And Others

    A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…

  19. Teaching Culture Perception: Documenting and Transforming Institutional Teaching Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kustra, Erika; Doci, Florida; Gillard, Kaitlyn; Hondzel, Catharine Dishke; Goff, Lori; Gabay, Danielle; Meadows, Ken N.; Borin, Paola; Wolf, Peter; Ellis, Donna; Eiliat, Hoda; Grose, Jill; Dawson, Debra L.; Hughes, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    An institutional culture that values teaching is likely to lead to improved student learning. The main focus of this study was to determine faculty, graduate and undergraduate students' perception of the teaching culture at their institution and identify indicators of that teaching culture. Themes included support for teaching development; support…

  20. Teaching Culture as a Second Language: Private Culture and Kinesics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, James

    Culture-specific non-verbal communication is regarded here as an essential "language" that has been neglected in modern language teaching pedagogy, though the substance of culture is often referred to in the curriculum. A distinction is drawn between the public aspects of culture commonly experienced by the second language learner and the private…

  1. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values." PMID:2318624

  2. Tissue Culture in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

  3. Culture and conservation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeely, J.A.; Pitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    The threat posed by human activity in the natural environment is one of the major global problems of the present time. Much has been done throughout the world to promote conservation, but one theme that has generally been neglected is the contribution that local culture can make to conservation. Many people pass on from one generation to the next traditional lore and customs which amount to effective conservation policies. This book identifies such traditional conservation measures, examines their extent, and judges their effectiveness.

  4. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  5. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  6. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  7. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - gastric tissue; Biopsy - gastric tissue ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be considered normal if it does not show certain bacteria. Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  8. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  9. Crowdsourcing Lost Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulou, E. K.; Georgopoulos, A.; Panagiotopoulos, G.; Kaliampakos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural Heritage all over the world is at high risk. Natural and human activities endanger the current state of monuments and sites, whereas many of them have already been destroyed especially during the last years. Preventive actions are of utmost importance for the protection of human memory and the prevention of irreplaceable. These actions may be carried out either in situ or virtually. Very often in situ preventive, or protective or restoration actions are difficult or even impossible, as e.g. in cases of earthquakes, fires or war activity. Digital preservation of cultural heritage is a challenging task within photogrammetry and computer vision communities, as efforts are taken to collect digital data, especially of the monuments that are at high risk. Visit to the field and data acquisition is not always feasible. To overcome the missing data problem, crowdsourced imagery is used to create a visual representation of lost cultural heritage objects. Such digital representations may be 2D or 3D and definitely help preserve the memory and history of the lost heritage. Sometimes they also assist studies for their reconstruction. An initiative to collect imagery data from the public and create a visual 3D representation of a recently destroyed stone bridge almost 150 years old is being discussed in this study. To this end, a crowdsourcing platform has been designed and the first images collected have been processed with the use of SfM algorithms.

  10. Culture and gambling fallacies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li-Jun; McGeorge, Kayla; Li, Ye; Lee, Albert; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Euro-Canadians and Chinese typically hold different theories about change; Euro-Canadians often engage in linear thinking whereas Chinese often engage in non-linear thinking. The present research investigated the effects of culture-specific theories of change in two related gambling fallacies: the gambler's fallacy (GF; the belief that one is due for a win after a run of losses) and the hot-hand fallacy (HHF; the belief that one's winning streak is likely to continue). In Study 1, participants predicted the outcome of a coin toss following a sequence of tosses. Study 2 involved predicting and betting on the outcome of a basketball player's shot following a sequence of shots. In Study 1, Asians (mainly Chinese) were significantly more likely than Euro-Canadians to believe that they would win (correctly predict the coin toss) after a series of losses (a non-linear thinking pattern), suggesting greater susceptibility to the gambler's fallacy. In Study 2, Euro-Canadians were more likely than Chinese to predict outcomes consistent with a basketball player's streaks (a linear thinking pattern), suggesting greater susceptibility to the hot hand fallacy. By illustrating the role of cultural differences in cognition, these findings contribute to our understanding of why certain cultural groups, such as Chinese, are more susceptible to gambling. PMID:26405630

  11. Culturally Competent School Nurse Practice.

    PubMed

    Carr, Bette; Knutson, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    School nurses are among the professional specialty disciplines in the school environment that have the unique opportunity of exploring and building upon effective practices when working and providing service to diverse populations. As such, school nurses must not only acquire the skills to survive in the culture of education; they must also develop cultural competence by engaging in self-identity and reflection, understanding cultural differences, being culturally responsive, identifying social injustices, and engaging in life-long learning experiences. PMID:26515571

  12. Cultural changes within the NHS.

    PubMed

    Oakley, P

    The NHS is in the throes of profound change. How much of it is cultural? Indeed, what do we mean when we talk about the culture of an organisation? And if we succeed in defining culture, how does an understanding of this concept help us to manage the service better? This article sets out to answer these questions and argues that an understanding of organisational culture is a necessary part of good human resource management. PMID:7551487

  13. Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study examines interviews with 46 undergraduates to explore if participants with differing language and cultural backgrounds view plagiarism or textual appropriation primarily as a) a language problem because of a lack of words of one's own, or b) a cultural challenge as a result of either some first language (L1) cultural training to…

  14. Creativity and the Culturally Different.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Dormalee H.

    This document deals with nurturing creativity in the culturally different. It begins by pointing out that every person has a unique set of experiences and could therefore be considered "culturally different". The same methods are used to encourage creativity in those commonly labelled "culturally different" as are used with any individual. If…

  15. Reading, Writing, and Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damen, Louise

    Considerations for identifying the stages of cultural learning of individual students of English as a second language (ESL) are discussed. It is suggested that culture shock, or the shock of the new, is a common experience for those learning a second language in a second culture, and that anger, unhappiness, frustration, and even illness may…

  16. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  17. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Wound Drainage Culture Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de heridas What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as ...

  18. Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…

  19. Adolescent Maturation in Transitioning Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.

    This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…

  20. Cultural Adaptation in Outdoor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrizio, Sheila M.; Neill, James

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor programs often intentionally provide a different culture and the challenge of working out how to adapt. Failure to adapt, however, can cause symptoms of culture shock, including homesickness, negative personal behavior, and interpersonal conflict. This article links cross-cultural and outdoor programming literature and provides case…

  1. Culture-Orientated Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

  2. Linguistic Relativity and Cultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhifang, Zhu

    2002-01-01

    A culture is usually with the bias of universalization. Each culture has its ultimate concern, and its answers to the concern make up a worldview. And each culture is inclined to see its worldview as universal. The Christian thinks that Jehovah God is the creator and law-maker of the whole universe; Chinese think that the sage's teaching sheds…

  3. Is cultural group selection enough?

    PubMed

    Read, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. propose cultural group selection (CGS) as the basis for understanding the evolution of cultural systems. Their proposal does not take into account the nature of cultural idea systems as being constituted at an organizational, rather than an individual level. The sealing partners of the Netsilik Inuit exemplify the problem with their account. PMID:27562228

  4. Cultural Literacy and Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Aniello, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of library reference services in the enhancement of cultural literacy. The discussion covers the relationship between the extent of cultural literacy possessed by reference librarians and the quality of librarian patron interactions, and the role of reference sources in the cultural literacy of librarians and patrons. (53…

  5. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  6. Creating a Collaborative Campus Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Crystal

    2004-01-01

    Organizational culture influences whether or not community colleges maintain local support as well as overall institutional effectiveness. This paper discusses culture and the context of culture at River Parishes Community College (RPCC) a new institution within the Louisiana Community and Technical College System, currently in its fifth academic…

  7. Cultural Reproduction, Cultural Mobility, Cultural Resources, or Trivial Effect? A Comparative Approach to Cultural Capital and Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jun; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    We assess explanations for the associations between cultural capital (especially cultural activities and cultural possessions) and educational performance of schooled adolescents in 22 Western industrialized countries based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We further ascertain variations in the effect of…

  8. Complicating the Concept of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues against a simple, reified view of culture as a set of ideas and norms belonging to a group or nation, and considers the implications of a more complicated concept for discussion of world culture and the global/local nexus. Most anthropologists define culture as the making of meaning, with an emphasis on the process itself as…

  9. Socioemotional Development in Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin, Ed.; Rubin, Kenneth H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Filling a significant gap in the literature, this book examines the impact of culture on the social behaviors, emotions, and relationships of children around the world. It also explores cultural differences in what is seen as adaptive or maladaptive development. Eminent scholars discuss major theoretical perspectives on culture and development and…

  10. Framework for Culturally Proactive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, Lisa A.; Chattaraj, Samantha; Sullivan-Lytle, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework for connecting family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs to the culturally diverse communities of children, youth, and families served. The framework consists of components for achieving culturally inclusive organizations and culturally proactive programs that will lead to more positive outcomes for…

  11. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  12. CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGICALLY INFORMED CONCEPTIONS OF CULTURE

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley; López, Steven R.; Garro, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply two contemporary notions of culture to advance the conceptual basis of cultural competence in psychotherapy: Kleinman’s (1995) definition of culture as what is at stake in local, social worlds, and Mattingly and Lawlor’s (2001) concept of shared narratives between practitioners and patients. The authors examine these cultural constructs within a clinical case of an immigrant family caring for a young boy with an autism-spectrum disorder. Their analysis suggests that the socially based model of culture and the concept of shared narratives have the potential to broaden and enrich the definition of cultural competence beyond its current emphasis on the presumed cultural differences of specific racial and ethnic minority groups. PMID:22122131

  13. From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-10-21

    Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators. PMID:24928150

  14. Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

  15. Perspectives on culture and concepts.

    PubMed

    ojalehto, Bethany l; Medin, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    The well-respected tradition of research on concepts uses cross-cultural comparisons to explore which aspects of conceptual behavior are universal versus culturally variable. This work continues, but it is being supplemented by intensified efforts to study how conceptual systems and cultural systems interact to modify and support each other. For example, cultural studies within the framework of domain specificity (e.g., folkphysics, folkpsychology, folkbiology) are beginning to query the domains themselves and offer alternative organizing principles (e.g., folksociology, folkecology). Findings highlight the multifaceted nature of both concepts and culture: Individuals adopt distinct conceptual construals in accordance with culturally infused systems such as language and discourse, knowledge and beliefs, and epistemological orientations. This picture complicates questions about cognitive universality or variability, suggesting that researchers may productively adopt a systems-level approach to conceptual organization and cultural epistemologies. Related implications for diversity in cognitive science are discussed. PMID:25251487

  16. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  17. Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.

    PubMed

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals. PMID:25037305

  18. Manuals of Cultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballonoff, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Ethnography often studies social networks including empirical descriptions of marriages and families. We initially concentrate on a special subset of networks which we call configurations. We show that descriptions of the possible outcomes of viable histories form a manual, and an orthoalgebra. We then study cases where family sizes vary, and show that this also forms a manual. In fact, it demonstrates adiabatic invariance, a property often associated with physical system conservation laws, and which here expresses conservation of the viability of a cultural system.

  19. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  20. 'Two cultures' turns 50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-05-01

    Half a century ago this month, the physicist and author Charles Percy Snow (1905-1980) delivered the annual Rede Lecture in the Senate House of the University of Cambridge. (Usually referred to as C P Snow, he was later made a life peer and enjoyed appearing in the House of Lords as Baron Snow, despite being a self-professed socialist.) Its title - "The Two Cultures" - referred to a gulf Snow diagnosed between "literary intellectuals" and "natural scientists", and it elaborated themes he had mentioned in the New Statesman three years earlier. The talk was published in Encounter in June and July 1959, and then as a book.

  1. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  2. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology. PMID:26264787

  3. Citrus Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Einset, John W.

    1978-01-01

    In vitro growth of explant (juice vesicle or albedo tissues) cultures from citron (Citrus medica), lemon (C. limon), grapefruit (C. paradisi), sweet orange (C. sinensis), and mandarin (C. reticulata) fruits was stimulated by addition of orange juice (10% v/v optimum) to a basal medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts, 50 grams per liter sucrose, 100 milligrams per liter myo-inositol, 5 milligrams per liter thiamine·HCl, 2 milligrams per liter 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 milligrams per liter kinetin. In analyzing this effect of orange juice on citron explant cultures, we failed to obtain increased yields by addition of appropriate concentrations of citric acid to the basal medium but obtained growth stimulation when the medium was supplemented with juice from an “acidless” orange variety (cv. Lima). These facts suggest that some component(s) other than citric acid is involved. Addition of the inorganic ash corresponding to 10% (v/v) orange juice to the basal medium had no effect on yields. Similarly, the stimulatory effect of orange juice could not be explained based on its content of sucrose or of organic growth factors already present in the basal medium. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:16660631

  4. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671

  5. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  6. Sociality influences cultural complexity

    PubMed Central

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W.; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:24225461

  7. Cultural Adaptations: A Complex Interplay between Clinical and Cultural Issues.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei-Chin

    2011-09-01

    Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice. PMID:21966098

  8. Organisational culture and consultant nurse outcomes: Part 1--Organisational culture.

    PubMed

    Manley, K

    2000-01-01

    Organisational culture is presented as a complex concept underpinned by specific values, beliefs and assumptions that account for the way things are done. Strong organisational cultures and a number of other attributes are highlighted as having influence on performance. The role of leadership is recognised as key to facilitating cultural change, as is the use of approaches which clarify values and highlight contradictions between espoused culture and culture in practice. A three-year study in which a consultant nurse post in critical care was operationalised demonstrated the achievement of an organisational culture with positive impact on the unit in which it was based, on practitioners and their practice, and also on the trust. Transformational leadership combined with other facilitative processes, expertise in the practice of nursing, and other subroles of the consultant nurse are further highlighted as influential. PMID:11235414

  9. Cultural Adaptations: A Complex Interplay between Clinical and Cultural Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice. PMID:21966098

  10. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. PMID:25979371

  11. [Bacteriocidal activity of Streptomyces cultures].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, L V; Bambura, O I; Luk'ianchuk, V V

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocidal activity of metabolites synthesized by 17 plasmid-containing cultures of Streptomyces has been studied. These cultures were isolated from soils of Ukraine with different anthropogenic contamination. The cultures, in their majority (85.3%), synthesized bioactive metabolites, which suppressed growth of microorganisms of different taxonomical groups, pathogenic for people, animals or plants. None of 17 Streptomyces cultures was able to suppress growth of yeasts or Escherichia coli. All 17 investigated cultures of Streptomyces were polyresistant to antibiotics, which were used in medicine and veterinary: makrolide, aminoglycoside, beta-lactam and other groups. Resistance of 8 cultures to the antibiotic thiostrepton, which was widely used in some branches of science, was found. PMID:23088099

  12. Cultural Humility in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    PubMed

    Hook, Joshua N; Watkins, C Edward; Davis, Don E; Owen, Jesse; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Ramos, Marciana J

    2016-01-01

    As a core component of multicultural orientation, cultural humility can be considered an important attitude for clinical supervisees to adopt and practically implement. How can cultural humility be most meaningfully incorporated in supervision? In what ways can supervisors stimulate the development of a culturally humble attitude in our supervisees? We consider those questions in this paper and present a model for addressing cultural humility in clinical supervision. The primary focus is given to two areas: (a) modeling and teaching of cultural humility through interpersonal interactions in supervision, and (b) teaching cultural humility through outside activities and experiences. Two case studies illustrating the model are presented, and a research agenda for work in this area is outlined. PMID:27329404

  13. Cognition is … Fundamentally Cultural

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2013-01-01

    A prevailing concept of cognition in psychology is inspired by the computer metaphor. Its focus on mental states that are generated and altered by information input, processing, storage and transmission invites a disregard for the cultural dimension of cognition, based on three (implicit) assumptions: cognition is internal, processing can be distinguished from content, and processing is independent of cultural background. Arguing against each of these assumptions, we point out how culture may affect cognitive processes in various ways, drawing on instances from numerical cognition, ethnobiological reasoning, and theory of mind. Given the pervasive cultural modulation of cognition—on all of Marr’s levels of description—we conclude that cognition is indeed fundamentally cultural, and that consideration of its cultural dimension is essential for a comprehensive understanding. PMID:25379225

  14. The biology of cultural conflict

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Atran, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives—how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour—but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment. PMID:22271779

  15. The culture ready brain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I examine two hypotheses of language origins: the extended mirror system hypothesis and the vocal grooming hypothesis. These conflict in several respects, partly because their authors were trained in different disciplines and influenced by different kinds of evidence. I note some ethnographic/linguistic and psychological issues which, in my view, have not been sufficiently considered by these authors, and present a ‘play and display’ hypothesis which aims to explain the evolution, not of language, but of the ‘culture ready brain’—with apologies to Arbib for so extending his original concept. In the second half of the article, I will test all three hypotheses against the available fossil, archaeological and neuroimaging evidence. PMID:20558409

  16. Sublimation, culture, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Emily; Zeppenfeld, Veronika; Cohen, Dov

    2013-10-01

    Combining insights from Freud and Weber, this article explores whether Protestants (vs. Catholics and Jews) are more likely to sublimate their taboo feelings and desires toward productive ends. In the Terman sample (Study 1), Protestant men and women who had sexual problems related to anxieties about taboos and depravity had greater creative accomplishments, as compared to those with sexual problems unrelated to such concerns and to those reporting no sexual problems. Two laboratory experiments (Studies 2 and 3) found that Protestants produced more creative artwork (sculptures, poems, collages, cartoon captions) when they were (a) primed with damnation-related words, (b) induced to feel unacceptable sexual desires, or (c) forced to suppress their anger. Activating anger or sexual attraction was not enough; it was the forbidden or suppressed nature of the emotion that gave the emotion its creative power. The studies provide possibly the first experimental evidence for sublimation and suggest a cultural psychological approach to defense mechanisms. PMID:23834638

  17. Mineralogy and cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed. PMID:21138159

  18. Culture and demoralization in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. PMID:23816865

  19. Biotransformations with plant tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Carew, D P; Bainbridge, T

    1976-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus, Apocynum cannabinum and Conium maculatum were examined for their capacity to transform aniline, anisole, acetanilide, benzoic acid and coumarin. None of the cultures transformed acetanilide but each produced acetanilide when fed aniline. All three cultures converted benzoic acid to its para-hydroxy derivative. Coumarin was selectively hydroxylated at the 7-position by Catharanthus and Conium and anisole was O-demethylated only by older Catharanthus tissue. PMID:1084950

  20. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. PMID:22478201

  1. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  2. How Darwinian is cultural evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Claidière, Nicolas; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Sperber, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction. PMID:24686939

  3. Preparing Science Teachers for Culturally Diverse Students: Developing Cultural Literacy Through Cultural Immersion, Cultural Translators and Communities of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2006-09-01

    This three year study of P-12 professional development is grounded in sociocultural theories that hold that building knowledge and relationships among individuals from different cultural backgrounds entails joint activity toward common goals and cultural dialogues mediated by cultural translators. Sixty P-12 pre and in-service teachers in a year long interdisciplinary science curriculum course shared the goal of developing culturally relevant, standards-based science curricula for Native Hawai'ian students. Teachers and Native Hawai'ian instructors lived and worked together during a five day culture-science immersion in rural school and community sites and met several times at school, university, and community sites to build knowledge and share programs. Teachers were deeply moved by immersion experiences, learned to connect cultural understandings, e.g., a Hawai'ian sense of place and curriculum development, and highly valued collaborating with peers on curriculum development and implementation. The study finds that long term professional development providing situated learning through cultural immersion, cultural translators, and interdisciplinary instruction supports the establishment of communities of practice in which participants develop the cross-cultural knowledge and literacy needed for the development of locally relevant, place and standards-based curricula and pedagogy.

  4. Toward a genealogy of culture.

    PubMed

    Rendon, M

    2001-12-01

    Using psychoanalytic theory, this paper attempts to trace the natural history of the phenomenon designated as Culture. It postulates that psychoanalysis, a product of the Hegelian philosophical revolution, is still one of the best instruments to understand Culture. It traces the origins of culture as postulated by Freud and the pioneer anthropologists and its course from early and evolved religion through humanism, science, and finally postmodernism. It emphasizes the dialectical concepts in psychoanalysis and reviews summarily those psychoanalysts that, according to the author, have had a major impact on the study of culture: Freud, Horney, and Lacan. PMID:11760661

  5. Cross-cultural organizational behavior.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele J; Erez, Miriam; Aycan, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces. PMID:17044797

  6. Multi-cultural network security

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-04-01

    Education and awareness are widely acknowledged to be among the fundamental issues of Internet security, but only in the sense of making Internet users more security conscious. For the Internet to achieve its promise as an information highway, however, a complementary education effort is needed. If adequate Internet security is to be achieved, we must also increase the awareness of the professional security community of the requirements, attitudes, and habits of the many different cultures that participate in the Internet. Discussions of {open_quotes}the Internet{close_quotes} encourage the misapprehension that there is a single, uniform user community instead of a loose alliance of many cultures that differ in many fundamental aspects. This is true even if we limit our consideration to ethical cultures. At this Workshop alone we have representatives of administrative and military cultures, Governmental and commercial cultures, profit-cultures and non-profit cultures, research and operational cultures. Internet cultures are united in their desire to exploit the connectivity, flexibility, and rapidity of communication provided by the net, but differ greatly in their motivations, their attitudes towards authority, their willingness to cooperate within their own communities, their interest in technical arcana, and the patience with which they will put up with - or the enthusiasm with which they will embrace - the growing list of procedures deemed necessary for acceptable security. They even differ in how they define {open_quotes}acceptable security{close_quotes}.

  7. The cultural contagion of conflict.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y; Bruss, C Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  8. The cultural contagion of conflict

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  9. Cell Culture, Technology: Enhancing the Culture of Diagnosing Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Alshrari, Ahmed Subeh; Syahida, Ahmad; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture involves a complex of processes of cell isolation from their natural environment (in vivo) and subsequent growth in a controlled environmental artificial condition (in vitro). Cells from specific tissues or organs are cultured as short term or established cell lines which are widely used for research and diagnosis, most specially in the aspect of viral infection, because pathogenic viral isolation depends on the availability of permissible cell cultures. Cell culture provides the required setting for the detection and identification of numerous pathogens of humans, which is achieved via virus isolation in the cell culture as the “gold standard” for virus discovery. In this review, we summarized the views of researchers on the current role of cell culture technology in the diagnosis of human diseases. The technological advancement of recent years, starting with monoclonal antibody development to molecular techniques, provides an important approach for detecting presence of viral infection. They are also used as a baseline for establishing rapid tests for newly discovered pathogens. A combination of virus isolation in cell culture and molecular methods is still critical in identifying viruses that were previously unrecognized. Therefore, cell culture should be considered as a fundamental procedure in identifying suspected infectious viral agent. PMID:27134874

  10. Cultural Capital: Objective Probability and the Cultural Arbitrary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to explicate and locate the concept of 'cultural capital' in terms of Pierre Bourdieu's more general theory of the forms of capital and their transubstantiations. It examines the manner in which the relationship between the economic field, and its relations of inequality and power, and the cultural field involves a process of…

  11. Cultural Leadership: The Culture of Excellence in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William G.; Gresso, Donn W.

    Changing the system of rules, roles, and relationships that determine how the components of school redesign are addressed is the challenge that confronts administrators who seek to create a culture of excellence in schools. This book examines the role of effective leadership in achieving significant educational improvement, arguing that culture,…

  12. International Students' Culture Learning and Cultural Adaptation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ran; Chiang, Shiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This article examines international students' cultural adaptation at a major national university in China. A survey was designed to measure international students' adaptation to the Chinese sociocultural and educational environments in terms of five dimensions: (1) cultural empathy, (2) open-mindedness, (3) emotional stability, (4) social…

  13. Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative cultural evolution is what ‘makes us odd’; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as ‘cultural learning’ because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only ‘grist’ but also ‘mills’ that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make ‘fact inheritance’ possible (mills). PMID:22734061

  14. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of Quebec…

  15. Accommodating Culture and Cultural Diversity in Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, Annegret; Craig, Annemieke; Coldwell, Jo

    2007-01-01

    The term "culture" has been in common use for a long time. However there is no universally accepted definition and hence it is important to define clearly what culture means in a particular research context. The research reported here is part of a project undertaken at a large Australian university in late 2005. The overall aim of the project was…

  16. Does Cultural Capital Matter?: Cultural Divide and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seoyong; Kim, Hyesun

    2009-01-01

    Since the remarkable work of Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital has gained wide popularity along with theoretical and conceptual debates. This trend represents the social-structural change from materialism to postmaterialism. However, there are few empirical studies which find the cause and effect of cultural capital. Based on…

  17. Determining Accuracy of Cultural Perceptions of Oriental Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gary L.; Skelton, Sarah C.

    Do social studies textbooks used in U.S. schools provide an unbiased view of other cultures? This research study analyzes five social studies textbook series and 26 children's literature books used as supplementary materials for teaching about Oriental cultures. The instrument used was the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECA) with the focus on…

  18. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  19. Complicating Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Unpacking West African Immigrants' Cultural Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…

  20. Council for Cultural Cooperation and Cultural Fund. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This report summarizes programs, studies, and symposia conducted by the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) to enhance communication and interaction on educational and cultural matters between the members of the Council of Europe. The first section describes activities undertaken to promote European interaction. These include (1) exchange…

  1. Cultural Descriptions as Political Cultural Acts: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Interculturality may be something normal which everyone possesses to a degree. However, dominant neo-essentialist theories of culture give the impression that we are too different to easily cross-cultural boundaries. These theories support the development of academic disciplines and the need for professional certainty in intercultural training.…

  2. Cultural Relativism: As Strategy for Teaching the "Culturally-Different."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Cecelia Nails

    "Cultural relativism" exists when individuals can choose the values and responsible life styles that afford the natural and best vehicles of productive and positive expression. This paper suggests a strategy for accomplishing this kind of cultural acceptance in the present educational system. It calls for the transmission of basic, unbiased data…

  3. Culture in the Classroom: A Cultural Enlightenment Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loridas, Laura

    This manual provides a basic understanding of cultural differences that teachers are likely to encounter among exceptional children in their classrooms. The manual aims to create an atmosphere where children respect individual differences in themselves and in others. Several cultures are introduced, including Arabic Lebanese, Hispanic, Native…

  4. Cell Culture, Technology: Enhancing the Culture of Diagnosing Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hudu, Shuaibu Abdullahi; Alshrari, Ahmed Subeh; Syahida, Ahmad; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2016-03-01

    Cell culture involves a complex of processes of cell isolation from their natural environment (in vivo) and subsequent growth in a controlled environmental artificial condition (in vitro). Cells from specific tissues or organs are cultured as short term or established cell lines which are widely used for research and diagnosis, most specially in the aspect of viral infection, because pathogenic viral isolation depends on the availability of permissible cell cultures. Cell culture provides the required setting for the detection and identification of numerous pathogens of humans, which is achieved via virus isolation in the cell culture as the "gold standard" for virus discovery. In this review, we summarized the views of researchers on the current role of cell culture technology in the diagnosis of human diseases. The technological advancement of recent years, starting with monoclonal antibody development to molecular techniques, provides an important approach for detecting presence of viral infection. They are also used as a baseline for establishing rapid tests for newly discovered pathogens. A combination of virus isolation in cell culture and molecular methods is still critical in identifying viruses that were previously unrecognized. Therefore, cell culture should be considered as a fundamental procedure in identifying suspected infectious viral agent. PMID:27134874

  5. Improved survival of young donor age dopamine grafts in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, E M; Monville, C; Gates, M A; Bagga, V; Dunnett, S B

    2007-06-01

    In an attempt to improve the survival of implanted dopamine cells, we have readdressed the optimal embryonic donor age for dopamine grafts. In a rat model of Parkinson's disease, animals with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the median forebrain bundle received dopamine-rich ventral mesencephalic grafts derived from embryos of crown to rump length 4, 6, 9, or 10.5 mm (estimated embryonic age (E) 11, E12, E13 and E14 days post-coitus, respectively). Grafts derived from 4 mm embryos survived poorly, with less than 1% of the implanted dopamine cells surviving. Grafts derived from 9 mm and 10.5 mm embryos were similar to those seen in previous experiments with survival rates of 8% and 7% respectively. The best survival was seen in the group that received 6 mm grafts, which were significantly larger than all other graft groups. Mean dopamine cell survival in the 6 mm group (E12) was 36%, an extremely high survival rate for primary, untreated ventral mesencephalic grafts applied as a single placement, and more than fivefold larger than the survival rate observed in the 10.5 mm (E14) group. As E12 ventral mesencephalic tissues contain few, if any, differentiated dopamine cells we conclude that the large numbers of dopamine cells seen in the 6 mm grafts must have differentiated post-implantation. We consider the in vivo conditions which allow this differentiation to occur, and the implications for the future of clinical trials based on dopamine cell replacement therapy. PMID:17478050

  6. Cultural neuroscience: biology of the mind in cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejung S; Sasaki, Joni Y

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review of how cultural contexts shape and are shaped by psychological and neurobiological processes. We propose a framework that aims to culturally contextualize behavioral, genetic, neural, and physiological processes. Empirical evidence is presented to offer concrete examples of how neurobiological processes underlie social behaviors, and how these components are interconnected in larger cultural contexts. These findings provide some understanding of how the meanings shared by cultural experiences trigger a neurobiological, psychological, and behavioral chain of events, and how these events may be coordinated and maintained within a person. The review concludes with a reflection on the current state of cultural neuroscience and questions for the field to address. PMID:24050186

  7. Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoffe, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

  8. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-OHDA induces oxidative damage through proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2011-11-15

    The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 {mu}M) for 24 h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the free radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 {mu}M) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 {mu}M). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKC{delta}{sup D327A} and kinase dead PKC{delta}{sup K376R} or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC{delta} protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKC{delta} expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKC{delta} cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKC{delta}{sup D327A} protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKC{delta} activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value for

  9. Peace Lifestyle and Peace Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Peace lifestyles are possible in social environments that endorse peace activism. This discussion of community change processes provides an outline of mechanisms needed for successful community activism working at the cultural level. The Community Peace Cultures Program (CPCP) is an approach to building supportive environments for peace…

  10. Creating a winning organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert James

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture. PMID:19910709

  11. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  12. Cultural Warping of Childbirth, Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education revisits Doris Haire's classic 1972 article, “The Cultural Warping of Childbirth,” and describes the birth culture of today. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  13. New Swedish Cultural Environment Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural…

  14. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Marlene G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Federal employees (N=242) completed 102-item questionnaire on work environment, job satisfaction, and career development. Results suggest that men, women, and people of color do not share a common organizational culture. Instead, each group defines and organizes its experience in different ways. Viewing gender and race as cultures provides a basis…

  15. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  16. Principals Influence Culture of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sophia

    2000-01-01

    Three New American High Schools (in Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Greenbelt, Maryland) have successfully replaced the special-education culture of separation with a culture of inclusion. A large part of moving from self-contained practices to inclusion was helping students become self-advocates, so that the world outside school and home would not…

  17. An Elementary Language Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, Valerie

    A five-year course sequence focusing on the relationship of language and culture in world history is described. The program, beginning in grade 3, prepares students for later study of foreign and classical languages, develops English language skills, and cultivates general cultural interest. At the first level, students are introduced to some…

  18. Cultural Resources Handbook. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Dorothy

    Designed to ensure proper application of environmental and other laws which protect Native American cultural resources, this handbook summarizes the laws that protect cultural resources, describes the proper application of those laws, and offers suggestions to aid Native Americans in taking an active role in ensuring that laws are effective. Part…

  19. Developing Culturally Competent Family Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrar, Amy; Xiong, Dao

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates several key cultural perspectives that must be considered in order to overcome communication barriers when providing culturally competent family services. Describes the challenges encountered by Hmong and other Southeast Asian families at a parent center. Presents an account of a Hmong father's experiences seeking care for his child…

  20. Cultural Collision in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachum, Floyd D.; McCray, Carlos R.

    2004-01-01

    Young African Americans face several critical issues such as dire economic circumstances, peer pressure, random violence, and feelings of alienation from the cultural mainstream in America. Black popular culture for these youth creates a value system born out of these same issues. This analysis will address the influence of Black popular culture…

  1. Culture and Text: Equivalence Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisafulli, Edoardo

    1993-01-01

    Discusses two English translations of an identical passage from "The Divine Comedy" by Dante Alighieri. Considers the different approaches manifested by these two translators. Argues that cultural elements exert great influence on the work of translators and that culture must become central to any theory of translation. (HB)

  2. The Spectacle of Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoian, Charles R.; Gaudelius, Yvonne M.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we characterize the ideology of visual culture as "spectacle pedagogy" in that images teach us what and how to see and think and, in doing so, they mediate the ways in which we interact with one another as social beings. Given that we are always immersed in visual culture, an understanding of its impact on social relations enables…

  3. Music Education and Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Renewed interest in the relationship between music education and cultural identity draws its vigor from strongly divergent sources. Globalized education and globalized musical culture supply new paradigms for understanding the central tasks of music education and their responsibility to a multicultural ethic of diversity, hybridity and difference.…

  4. Teacher Evaluation and School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Dyann Renee

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluation and school culture have been identified as powerful shaping forces in the quality of education. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study, based on a constructivist theoretical framework, was to determine the relationship between teacher evaluation and school culture in a suburban school in the northeastern part of…

  5. American Civilization--Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol F.

    This syllabus introduces the purposes and organization of a course on Popular Culture as evidence of American civilization offered at Meramec Community College. The guide first presents a rationale for the study of popular culture and then lists course requirements; discusses techniques such as comparative analysis and psychoanalytic investigation…

  6. A Comparison of the Cultural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    As a critical unit for identifying family-constructed meanings of education, a deeper contextual understanding of Korean immigrant parents' cultural/ethnic perceptions in relation to educational beliefs should be central to culturally responsive education designed to support Korean immigrant families. It is necessary for educators to examine…

  7. Building a Culture of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Marc R.

    2009-01-01

    Culture is the social and intergenerational glue that defines, connects, sustains, and enriches the members of successful communities--including schools and classrooms. A classroom culture is a psychological atmosphere that nurtures and shapes students' attitudes about their own identity, classes, school, and learning in general. Classroom culture…

  8. Educational Leadership: Culture and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    2005-01-01

    The aim in writing this book is to explore the relationships between school leadership and culture. Educational leadership is a socially bounded process. It is subject to the cultural traditions and values of the society in which it is exercised. In this it is no different from other social processes. It thus manifests itself in different ways in…

  9. Preschool in Three Cultures Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    When "Preschool in Three Cultures" was published in 1989, it attracted great attention, as a result of the insights into the three cultures explored as well as the methodology that anchored the research. What made the book so intriguing to many scholars, regardless of their geographical areas of interest, however, was the unique methodology…

  10. Establishing a Culture of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Wendy F.

    2009-01-01

    College representatives typically start accreditation visits by talking to the visiting team about their institution's culture of assessment. Too often, however, the speakers lack an understanding of what that truly means. To determine whether an assessment culture exists--that is, whether the predominating attitudes and behaviors that…

  11. Frugal Fun with Fungal Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Marshall D.

    2001-01-01

    A home kitchen can serve as a stockroom to provide the supplies needed to culture fungi for classroom use. Provides some alternative media and cultural techniques along with two alternative classroom investigations that can be employed in elementary through college-level classrooms. (Author/SAH)

  12. Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

    A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

  13. Identity, Culture and Cosmopolitan Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the policy notion of multiculturalism, and suggests that it is no longer adequate for understanding contemporary forms of interculturality that span across the globe, and are deeply affected by the processes of cultural globalization. Cultural identities can no longer be assumed as static and nation-bound, and are created…

  14. Art Museum of World Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Proposes an activity that acts as an end-of-the-year review for seventh-grade history in which the students demonstrate their knowledge by applying for a position in an art museum. Explains that the students choose one display and culture presented in the student-created museum and advertise their culture in a three minute presentation. (CMK)

  15. Culture Regions in Geography Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehn, Dieter L.

    One of the demands imposed on geography instruction is to inform about the world, but there is some disagreement on how this is to be achieved. Criticism is most frequently directed at the regional geography approach of subdividing the world into culture regions. This paper addresses the question of whether global subdivision by culture regions…

  16. Cultural Practices, Oppression, and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turiel, Elliot

    1998-01-01

    Argues that contested meanings, multiple judgments, and conflicts are part of cultures and the individual's thoughts and actions. Contends that people make moral judgments that may affirm or contradict cultural norms and practices, and sometimes invoke concepts of welfare, justice, and rights. Notes that some key aspects of Baumrind's neo-Marxist…

  17. Huanglongbing and psyllid cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We successfully established cell cultures of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera), DcHH-1. The cell culture also supported growth of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. This bacterial pathogen is associated with Huanglongbing, known as citrus greening disease. Research on...

  18. An Analysis of School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    This study offers an exploratory account of school climate, culture, and Black identity as posited by Milliones' (1980) Four Stages of Black Consciousness model. According to the literature schools having high populations of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are considered problematic. Culture and climate significantly impact school…

  19. Cultural Awareness: A Resource Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Velma E.; McNeill, Earldene

    This annotated bibliography cites books for children and resource materials such as books and articles, bibliographies, catalogs, and periodicals for adults which deal with various aspects of different cultures. Posters, pictures, records, films, filmstrips, slides, dolls, and museums which pertain to particular cultures are also listed. Separate…

  20. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  1. Cultural Contacts, Attitudes and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Carol; Purbhoo, Mary

    To investigate the effects of contacts with people from other cultures, students in nine Canadian secondary schools with differing ethnic population densities were compared. The first focus of the study was the development of cross-cultural understanding. Three measurement instruments were administered to eleventh grade English and history classes…

  2. Cultural competence in patient education.

    PubMed

    Garity, J

    2000-03-01

    As a community health nurse, have you tested your cultural consideration quotient in patient education recently? Can you define the difference between ethnocentrism and multiculturalism? Do you find that you and your colleagues work with more or less transcultural nursing in your daily practice? Find out why cultural competence is vital to nurses' success in the 21st century. PMID:11009778

  3. Culture: Copying, Compression, and Conventionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, 2008; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, 2013). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning…

  4. Race, Culture, and Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article criticizes the view that, if cultural factors within the black community explain poor educational outcomes for blacks, then blacks should bear all of the disadvantages that follow from this. Educational outcomes are the joint, iterated product of schools' responses to students' and parents' culturally conditioned conduct. Schools are…

  5. Cherokee Culture across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larch, Lillie

    1993-01-01

    A teacher describes how she integrated Cherokee culture and folklore with the required curriculum at Cherokee Elementary School (Cherokee, North Carolina). Includes an annotated list of 22 Native American cultural resources and a list of 30 books and journal articles on folk games and toys and their uses in education. (LP)

  6. In Pursuit of Cultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Edgar

    1989-01-01

    A person does not need to be culturally literate (as defined by E.D. Hirsch) to read American contemporary fiction. This article explores alternative definitions, barriers to cultural literacy, and suggestions for change: building on students' interests, providing out-of-classroom learning experiences, sharing anecdotal material, and emphasizing…

  7. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  8. Careers in a Cultural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Arbona, Consuelo

    1994-01-01

    Gives overview of research on Super's theory across cultures within United States and internationally. Notes that research indicates that theory has some cross-cultural validity, yet there seem to be measurement concerns. Discusses two areas for future investigation: development of ethnic identity as vocational task and research on developmental…

  9. Japan: Geography, Cuisine, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Karen

    These materials are designed as four modules: geography, foods, the kitchen, and culture and are to be used singly or jointly as a unit on Japanese food and culture. Common ingredients of Japanese food, nutritional information, methods of preparation, and illustrations of utensils and eating implements are given in conjunction with cultural…

  10. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  11. (Inter)Culturing the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Phyllis, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This journal issue presents four major articles on cultural diversity issues in the education of gifted students. The first article is "An Alternative Approach to the Identification of Gifted Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners" by Carol S. Lidz and Sheila L. Macrine. It evaluates a dynamic assessment approach to identification of…

  12. Africa in World Cultures Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Maintains that many world geography and culture textbooks that deal with Africa present misinformation and misleading generalities. Reviews three recent textbooks--"Insights: Sub-Saharan Africa," by Ella C. Leppert, "People and Progress: A Global History," by Milton Finkelstein, and "World Cultures," by Clarence L. Van Steeg. (DB)

  13. Bargaining within the School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul

    2007-01-01

    School culture is unique, which has a lot to do with the unpredictable and sometimes irrational behavior that can occur at the bargaining table. When confronting the uniqueness of school cultures, the key to understanding and leading through the trials and tribulations of collective bargaining is to recognize the uniqueness of the people who enter…

  14. Does Culture Affect Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1986-01-01

    Culture influences how and what people learn. When recalling what they read about an unfamiliar event, readers distorted information to render its meaning more familiar. Suggestions to help teachers be aware of culture incompatibility and to include a variety of perspectives in classroom materials and instruction are presented. (MT)

  15. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  16. Optimum culture in the cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamori, Hisaaki

    1987-01-01

    Even with the same program and objectives, if the culture is different, there will be different approaches to the goal of flight safety. However, the cockpit environment is culture-free so it is not as important to think of a person's cultural background as it is to think of the approach to the goal of ultimate safety. Crew members can look at their individual safety goals and compare them to their own performance to see if their behavior matches their own safety goals. The cockpit environment must be culture-free in order to obtain the ultimate safety goal. One must first realize how their culture affects their behavior before they can begin to change their attitude and actions in the cockpit.

  17. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  18. The Culture of Care.

    PubMed

    Affleck, Ewan

    2016-01-01

    The obstacle to achieving meaningful healthcare transformation may not be a function of the integrity of reform models such as Triple Aim, but rather a by-product of the nature of healthcare stewardship. Classical definitions of health stewardship - as a governmental mandate - may be more aspirational than a reflection of reality in Canada. In Canada, healthcare is not organized as an intelligible system, but it is a disjoint matrix of services, that is governed by actions of a variety of "stewards" or power brokers - professional, governmental, non-governmental and corporate interests - that are often at odds. The complex relationships between the power brokers form the organizational culture of healthcare and informs the dynamic interplay of the power brokers that jockey for control, resulting in system disintegration that is an anathema to any healthcare reform. As a macro-level reform tool, Triple Aim is unlikely to succeed because the fundamental problem with healthcare has not yet been addressed: healthcare is ungoverned. Perhaps in the context of grassroots reform projects, the nascent principles of Triple Aim could grow, be replicated and be gently disseminated, and, by a process of reverse engineering, a model of health stewardship that is best suited to sound principles of quality care can evolve. PMID:27009584

  19. Bim for Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, M.; Osello, A.

    2013-07-01

    When you think about the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry people tend to refers to new buildings, but nowadays the recovery of existing ones is increasingly the subject of the research. The current historical context raises this issue at the center of numerous thought due both to economic and environmental conditions. So, the need to refurbish the cultural heritage is becoming more important than the construction of new buildings. Modern technologies allow professionals to do this to turn the buildings into structures capable to meet the users' confort with a considerable energy saving. Italy is trying to make a change to the construction industry through the national InnovANCE project, which aims to develop the first national database able to share information among professionals through the help of Building Information Modeling (BIM). In this way the subject involved in a construction process can update their way of working, with a consequent time and cost saving. This paper aims to present the way in which the InnovANCE project can be considered as the key for Italy to change the way to conceive the building industry, using a case study such as the old thermal power of Politecnico di Torino, starting from the survey step. The methodology followed to obtain the 3D model will be described, starting from the data of a topographic and a laser scanner survey and from an archival documents research.

  20. Cultural horizons for mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kay; Paraides, Patricia; Jannok Nutti, Ylva; Johansson, Gunilla; Bennet, Maria; Doolan, Pat; Peckham, Ray; Hill, John; Doolan, Frank; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Murray, Libbey; Logan, Patricia; McNair, Melissa; Sunnari, Vappu; Murray, Beatrice; Miller, Alissa; Nolan, John; Simpson, Alca; Ohrin, Christine; Doolan, Terry; Doolan, Michelle; Taylor, Paul

    2011-06-01

    As a result of a number of government reports, there have been numerous systemic changes in Indigenous education in Australia revolving around the importance of partnerships with the community. A forum with our local Dubbo community established the importance of working together and developed a model which placed the child in an ecological perspective that particularly noted the role of Elders and the place of the child in the family. However, there was also the issue of curriculum and mathematics education to be addressed. It was recognised that a colonised curriculum reduces the vision of what might be the potential for Indigenous mathematics education. This paper reports on the sharing that developed between our local community and some researchers and teachers from Sweden, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. It has implications for recognising the impact of testing regimes, the teaching space, understanding the ways children learn, the curriculum, and teacher education. As a result of these discussions, a critical pedagogy that considers culture and place is presented as an ecocultural perspective on mathematics education. This perspective was seen as critical for the curriculum and learning experiences of Indigenous children.

  1. Children who cross cultures.

    PubMed

    Ory, F G; Simons, M; Verhulst, F C; Leenders, F R; Wolters, W H

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this study is the effects of transcultural sojourn and culture shock on the psycho-social development and school achievement of Dutch children. One hundred and three Dutch children in the age range 6-17 years who stayed abroad with their parents for at least two years and returned to Holland were compared with 81 Dutch classmates of the same age and sex. The class teacher and parent(s) were the informants. The transcultural group showed more behavioural problems on the Dutch version of the Child Behavior Checklist developed by Achenbach. Parents of the transcultural group regarded their children on a modified Graham & Rutter questionnaire as less happy than the control parents. However, no differences were found for academic achievement or problem behaviour at school as assessed by the teacher version of the CBCL, the 'Teacher's Report Form' (TRF). Organizations which send their employees abroad should direct more attention to employees' children. Attention given by parents and teachers to language problems and school performance should not pre-empt close attention to the psycho-social development of children. PMID:2008618

  2. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. Surveys of organizational culture and safety culture in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Walter S.

    2000-07-30

    The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on ''high-reliability organizations''. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure ''safety culture'' did not distinguished among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

  4. Why does human culture increase exponentially?

    PubMed

    Enquist, M; Ghirlanda, S; Jarrick, A; Wachtmeister, C-A

    2008-08-01

    Historical records show that culture can increase exponentially in time, e.g., in number of poems, musical works, scientific discoveries. We model how human capacities for creativity and cultural transmission may make such an increase possible, suggesting that: (1) creativity played a major role at the origin of human culture and for its accumulation throughout history, because cultural transmission cannot, on its own, generate exponentially increasing amounts of culture; (2) exponential increase in amount of culture can only occur if creativity is positively influenced by culture. The evolution of cultural transmission is often considered the main genetic bottleneck for the origin of culture, because natural selection cannot favor cultural transmission without any culture to transmit. Our models suggest that an increase in individual creativity may have been the first step toward human culture, because in a population of creative individuals there may be enough non-genetic information to favor the evolution of cultural transmission. PMID:18571686

  5. Cultural energy grassroots and development.

    PubMed

    Kleymeyer, C D

    1992-01-01

    The importance of culture in economic development is discussed based on 10 years of case reports in the publication, Grassroots Development. Cultural energy is considered important for the launching, sustainment, and expansion of programs; yet, only 10% of IAF Foundation grants over 20 years have focused on cultural energy as a tool for development. By the late 1960s development theorists blamed the lack of progress on "backward looking traditional cultures." In Latin America culture was seen as an obstacle to be overcome rather than an opportunity. The debt and environmental crisis of the 1980s has opened the doors to new methods. A recent study of the Aymara and Mapuche in Chile found that uprooting local culture meant loss of land, cultural roots, and social relationships, as well as loss of stewardship of the environment. The Kuna is Panama were seen as successful in combining traditional ways with Western ideas in formation of an ecological park; this was accomplished through self-confidence and self-will in grassroots development. However, the Kuna have also undergone changes and the ancestral view of nature and humanity's place in it is being undermined. The acculturation of the young may leave an emptiness that is neither Panamanian nor Kuna. The Chimborazo Indians in the highlands of Ecuador have only achieved moderate success in eliminating poverty in spite of international efforts which imposed development schemes onto the community. The Feria Educativa (Educational Fair) was formed among indigenous volunteers working with the Serviceo Ecuatoriano de Voluntarios-Chimborazo to promote culture and self-help. Members enter the community only when invited; the program uses puppets and sociodramas to portray common problems such as illiteracy and stimulate group participation. Their efforts have been successful in establishing literacy, reforestation, and economic activity programs. The Kuna shopped among Western ideas to chose ones appropriate to their

  6. Introduction to Cambodian Culture; Laos Culturally Speaking; Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhim, Sun-Him; And Others

    This document comprises three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Each booklet reviews the country's history and geography. "Introduction to Cambodian Culture" (S. Chhim) discusses the following topics: (1) the Khmer concept of individual worth; (2)…

  7. International HPT: Rx for Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Clare Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Examines the cultural adaptation process experienced by people working in foreign environments. Reviews current organizational gaps in managing cross-cultural challenges; examines the phenomenon of culture shock; and presents a model for applying HPT (human performance technology) strategies to change culture shock to cross-cultural competence.…

  8. The Need for an Ecological Cultural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Robert N.; Busch, John A.

    This paper discusses social and cultural change, deep ecology, and systems thinking in relation to the maintenance of Indigenous cultures and languages. All cultures change, and the current crisis in language loss for Native communities is related to cultural change. From a systems perspective, culture is a way of thinking about one's social…

  9. Transcending Cultural Borders: Implications for Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Aikenhead, Glen S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews collateral learning theory as a cognitive explanation for how pupils cope with disparate worldviews mediated by transcending cultural borders between their everyday culture and the culture of science. Proposes a new pedagogy in which teachers assume the role of culture broker in the classroom to achieve culturally sensitive curriculum and…

  10. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally relevant teaching methods in dance…

  11. Providing leadership in a culturally diverse workplace.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Geraldine

    2007-08-01

    Cultural diversity is an increasingly important characteristic of the work force. Occupational health nurses with sensitivity to the influence of culture on behavior and knowledge of strategies to deliver culturally competent services can lead to and/or help develop a culturally sensitive health care environment and influence corporate culture and policies. PMID:17847627

  12. EGCG Protects against 6-OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity in a Cell Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dan; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Reddy, Manju B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes severe brain dopamine depletion. Disruption of iron metabolism may be involved in the PD progression. Objective. To test the protective effect of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced neurotoxicity by regulating iron metabolism in N27 cells. Methods. Protection by EGCG in N27 cells was assessed by SYTOX green assay, MTT, and caspase-3 activity. Iron regulatory gene and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Intracellular iron uptake was measured using 55Fe. The EGCG protection was further tested in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by immunocytochemistry. Results. EGCG protected against 6-OHDA-induced cell toxicity. 6-OHDA treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and hepcidin and decreased ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) level, whereas pretreatment with EGCG counteracted the effects. The increased 55Fe (by 96%, p < 0.01) cell uptake confirmed the iron burden by 6-OHDA and was reduced by EGCG by 27% (p < 0.05), supporting the DMT1 results. Pretreatment with EGCG and 6-OHDA significantly increased (p < 0.0001) TH+ cell count (~3-fold) and neurite length (~12-fold) compared to 6-OHDA alone in primary mesencephalic neurons. Conclusions. Pretreatment with EGCG protected against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by regulating genes and proteins involved in brain iron homeostasis, especially modulating hepcidin levels. PMID:26770869

  13. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-10-06

    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  14. Urban Cultural Heritage Endangerment: Degradation of historico-cultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Eric; Cabral, Pedro; Caetano, Mário; Painho, Marco; Nijkamp, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable development has become one of the great debates of policy-making of the XXI century. The world, is facing unprecedented change following the anthropocentrism of socio-economic growth. However, the commitment of man to ‘transmit to future generations at least the same as had' (ref) seems to be a narrowing, given extensive urban growth, population increase and climate change. However, over the last twenty years, the usage of spatial information systems have brought a positive contribution for better acknowledging the problem of environmental change, and bringing more constructive approaches to planning. Prompted by much research interest in Europe, a broad specter of biodiversity loss models, pollution and environmental degradation algorithms as well as climate change models, have become important tools under the European umbrella. Recognizing the essence of sustainable development, historico-cultural and archaeological regions have a remarkable role in the transformation of landscapes and maintenance of cultural and regional identity. Furthermore, the socio-economic, political-geographic and cultural-scientific history of the dynamics of places and localities on our earth is reflected in their historico-cultural heritage. This patrimony comprises cultural assets, such as old churches, palaces, museums, urban parks, historical architecture of cities, or landscapes of historical interest. Historico-cultural heritage also includes archaeological sites, which sometimes not only have a local value but may have a worldwide significance (e.g. Pompeii). However, massive urban growth is affecting directly the existing historico-cultural resources throughout the European region, and little attention is given to this juxtaposing reality of peri-urban growth and cultural / archaeological heritage preservation. Also, the settling patterns within historico-cultural local clusters follow a similar pattern as current growth tendencies, given the physical conditions of

  15. Culture-specific familiarity equally mediates action representations across cultures.

    PubMed

    Umla-Runge, Katja; Fu, Xiaolan; Wang, Lamei; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that we need to distinguish between means and end information about actions. It is unclear how these two subtypes of action information relate to each other with theoretical accounts postulating the superiority of end over means information and others linking separate means and end routes of processing to actions of differential meaningfulness. Action meaningfulness or familiarity differs between cultures. In a cross-cultural setting, we investigated how action familiarity influences recognition memory for means and end information. Object directed actions of differential familiarity were presented to Chinese and German participants. Action familiarity modulated the representation of means and end information in both cultures in the same way, although the effects were based on different stimulus sets. Our results suggest that, in the representation of actions in memory, end information is superordinate to means information. This effect is independent of culture whereas action familiarity is not. PMID:24168196

  16. Convergence of Culture and ICTs: E-Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drigas, Athanasios; Koukianakis, Lefteris

    In modern society where digital technology prevails, the combination of Information and Communication technology (ICT) and the various human activities created the term e-services. This paper presents an e-culture services portal, focusing on e-culture applications like e-literature, e-gallery and music servers. The user-visitor has the opportunity to navigate through its pages which contain a large amount of information about Greek literature, galleries and music in the form of text, images and sound. Although it started as an early e-culture application, today it has been updated with new web-based technologies, in order to be accessible by people with visual disabilities, using dynamical techniques for content management. Its goals are mainly to make the so-called "Information for All" scheme a palpable reality and secondly to spread the aforementioned Greek cultural heritage aspects to a global level.

  17. Cultural competence models in nursing.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G Rumay

    2008-12-01

    A fundamental change is needed in the way clinicians provide care to patients, including the way the workforce is educated for the demographic challenges of meeting the needs of a diverse nation. Health disparities exist for many reasons, including the failure to prepare providers for mastery of a cultural competency skill set. There are many cultural competency frameworks available to provide intentional direction and intentional vision for the development, implementation, and actualization of providing culturally appropriate care. This article highlights prevalent frameworks and the needs that theoretic models address as health care providers deal with the nuances and necessary understandings to meet their contracts with society. PMID:19007707

  18. Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room. PMID:23130617

  19. Creativity and Culture: A Two Way Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudowicz, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Discusses different manifestations of the impact of culture on creativity and reviews empirical studies. Makes the case that creative expression is a universal human phenomenon that is grounded in culture and has impact on culture itself. (SLD)

  20. Type Culture Collections and Their Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial culture collections, also known as Biological Resource Centers, are primary suppliers of microbial cultures (germplasm) for medical, agricultural and biotechnological research and development. Many countries have one or more culture collections, which may specialize in certain microbial g...