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1

Effect of pore morphology of mesoporous carbons on the electrocatalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles for fuel cell reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, the role of the pore morphology of mesoporous carbons in the electrocatalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles for fuel cell reactions has been successfully revealed by adopting ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 and disordered wormhole-like mesoporous carbon (WMC) as the support material, respectively. Both materials possess very similar pore characteristics (pore volume, BET surface area, mesopore size) except

Shuqin Song; Yeru Liang; Zhenghui Li; Yi Wang; Ruowen Fu; Dingcai Wu; Panagiotis Tsiakaras

2010-01-01

2

Influence of mesopore volume and adsorbate size on adsorption capacities of activated carbons in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid-phase adsorption of phenol, iodine and tannic acid onto commercial grade granular activated carbons and activated carbon fabric was conducted to explore the influence of the mesopore volume and the size of adsorbates on the adsorption capacity. These carbons have different mesopore volumes, while possessing similar surface areas and micropore volumes, which are believed to determine the adsorption capacity in

Chien-To Hsieh; Hsisheng Teng

2000-01-01

3

Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon  

SciTech Connect

We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

Saha, Dipendu [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Yunchao [ORNL] [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL] [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL] [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL] [ORNL; Grappe, Hippolyte A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)] [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

4

Adsorption of lignite-derived humic acids on coal-based mesoporous activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption by a coal-based mesoporous activated carbon of humic acids (HAs) isolated from two Polish lignites was studied. For comparison, a commercial Aldrich humic acid was also included into this study. The differences in chemical structure and functional groups of HAs were determined by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy DRIFT. Two activated carbons used differed in terms of mesopore

Ewa Lorenc-Grabowska; Gra?yna Gryglewicz

2005-01-01

5

Preparation of titania\\/silica mesoporous composites with activated carbon template in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titania\\/silica mesoporous composites have been prepared with nanoscale casting process using activated carbon as template in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2). The composite precursor of tetrabutyl titanate and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were dissolved in supercritical CO2, and then coated on activated carbon in the desired supercritical condition. After removal of activated carbon template by calcinations in air at 600°C, TiO2\\/SiO2

Qun Xu; Haijuan Fan; Yiqun Guo; Yanxia Cao

2006-01-01

6

Preparation of Coal Tar Pitch Based Mesoporous Activated Carbon by Template and KOH Activation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous activated carbons (MACs) were prepared by template synthesis and KOH activation, using modified coal tar pitch and nanosized silica respectively as carbon precursor and imprinting template. The effects of the dispersion of the nanosized silica template in coal tar pitch, the washing procedures, and the mixing ratio of coal tar pitch to template(C\\/T) on the porous properties of MACs

Lei Mao; Shitang Tong; Xiaohua Zhang; Mingxia Fan; Liu Wan; Charles Q. Jia

2011-01-01

7

Preparation and characteristics of agricultural waste activated carbon by physical activation having micro- and mesopores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro–mesoporous activated carbons were prepared from various agricultural wastes by physical activation. Agricultural wastes such as macadamia nut-shell, corncob, bagasse bottom ash, sawdust fly ash and rice husk fly ash, were optimized and processed to obtain the highest surface area. The effects of the amount of volatile matter in char, the activating agent, the activating temperature and kind of raw

Amphol Aworn; Paitip Thiravetyan; Woranan Nakbanpote

2008-01-01

8

Nanoconfinement in activated mesoporous carbon of calcium borohydride for improved reversible hydrogen storage.  

PubMed

Mesoporous carbon frameworks were synthesized using the soft-template method. Ca(BH(4))(2) was incorporated into activated mesoporous carbon by the incipient wetness method. The activation of mesoporous carbon was necessary to optimize the surface area and pore size. Thermal programmed absorption measurements showed that the confinement of this borohydride into carbon nanoscaffolds improved its reversible capacity (relative to the reactive portion) and performance of hydrogen storage compared to unsupported borohydride. Hydrogen release from the supported hydride started at a temperature as low as 100 °C and the dehydrogenation rate was fast compared to the bulk borohydride. In addition, the hydrogen pressure necessary to regenerate the borohydride from the dehydrogenation products was reduced. PMID:22948563

Com?nescu, Cezar; Capurso, Giovanni; Maddalena, Amedeo

2012-09-28

9

Nanoconfinement in activated mesoporous carbon of calcium borohydride for improved reversible hydrogen storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous carbon frameworks were synthesized using the soft-template method. Ca(BH4)2 was incorporated into activated mesoporous carbon by the incipient wetness method. The activation of mesoporous carbon was necessary to optimize the surface area and pore size. Thermal programmed absorption measurements showed that the confinement of this borohydride into carbon nanoscaffolds improved its reversible capacity (relative to the reactive portion) and performance of hydrogen storage compared to unsupported borohydride. Hydrogen release from the supported hydride started at a temperature as low as 100?°C and the dehydrogenation rate was fast compared to the bulk borohydride. In addition, the hydrogen pressure necessary to regenerate the borohydride from the dehydrogenation products was reduced.

Com?nescu, Cezar; Capurso, Giovanni; Maddalena, Amedeo

2012-09-01

10

Mesoporous carbon materials  

DOEpatents

The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-02-14

11

Mesoporous carbon materials  

DOEpatents

The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

2013-08-20

12

Adsorption and structural properties of soft-templated mesoporous carbons obtained by carbonization at different temperatures and KOH activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two series of phenolic resin-based mesoporous carbons were prepared by soft-templating strategy, which involves the formation of thermosetting carbon precursor by polymerization of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde in hydrophilic mesodomains of a thermally decomposable triblock copolymer used as a soft-template. It was shown that the volumes of mesopores and micropores in the resulting carbons can be tuned by varying carbonization temperature of phenolic resins in the range from 400 to 1000 °C followed by the post-synthesis KOH activation at 700 °C. The highly microporous carbons were obtained by KOH activation of phenolic resins pyrolyzed at lower temperature (˜500 °C), while high temperature KOH activation (˜800 °C) afforded microporous carbons with preserved mesoporosity.

Górka, Joanna; Zawislak, Aleksandra; Choma, Jerzy; Jaroniec, Mietek

2010-06-01

13

New route toward building active ruthenium nanoparticles on ordered mesoporous carbons with extremely high stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creating highly active and stable metal catalysts is a persistent goal in the field of heterogeneous catalysis. However, a real catalyst can rarely achieve both of these qualities simultaneously due to limitations in the design of the active site and support. One method to circumvent this problem is to fabricate firmly attached metal species onto the voids of a mesoporous support formed simultaneously. In this study, we developed a new type of ruthenium catalyst that was firmly confined by ordered mesoporous carbons through the fabrication of a cubic Ia3d chitosan-ruthenium-silica mesophase before pyrolysis and silica removal. This facile method generates fine ruthenium nanoparticles (ca. 1.7 nm) that are homogeneously dispersed on a mesoporous carbonaceous framework. This ruthenium catalyst can be recycled 22 times without any loss of reactivity, showing the highest stability of any metal catalysts; this catalyst displays a high activity (23.3 molLAh-1gmetal-1) during the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) when the metal loading is 6.1 wt%. Even at an ultralow loading (0.3 wt%), this catalyst still outperforms the most active known Ru/C catalyst. This work reveals new possibilities for designing and fabricating highly stable and active metal catalysts by creating metal sites and mesoporous supports simultaneously.

Yang, Ying; Sun, Chengjun; Ren, Yang; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang

2014-04-01

14

New route toward building active ruthenium nanoparticles on ordered mesoporous carbons with extremely high stability.  

PubMed

Creating highly active and stable metal catalysts is a persistent goal in the field of heterogeneous catalysis. However, a real catalyst can rarely achieve both of these qualities simultaneously due to limitations in the design of the active site and support. One method to circumvent this problem is to fabricate firmly attached metal species onto the voids of a mesoporous support formed simultaneously. In this study, we developed a new type of ruthenium catalyst that was firmly confined by ordered mesoporous carbons through the fabrication of a cubic Ia3d chitosan-ruthenium-silica mesophase before pyrolysis and silica removal. This facile method generates fine ruthenium nanoparticles (ca. 1.7?nm) that are homogeneously dispersed on a mesoporous carbonaceous framework. This ruthenium catalyst can be recycled 22 times without any loss of reactivity, showing the highest stability of any metal catalysts; this catalyst displays a high activity (23.3?mol(LA)h(-1)g(metal)(-1)) during the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) when the metal loading is 6.1?wt%. Even at an ultralow loading (0.3?wt%), this catalyst still outperforms the most active known Ru/C catalyst. This work reveals new possibilities for designing and fabricating highly stable and active metal catalysts by creating metal sites and mesoporous supports simultaneously. PMID:24687047

Yang, Ying; Sun, Chengjun; Ren, Yang; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang

2014-01-01

15

Surface functionalization of mesoporous and microporous activated carbons by immobilization of diamine.  

PubMed

The introduction of amino groups on HNO3-treated microporous (AC(micro)-At) and mesoporous (AC(meso)-At) activated carbon, which was followed by thionyl chloride (SOCl2) treatment, by immobilization of diamine compounds was investigated in terms of change in pore characteristics. The immobilization was improved by treatment with SOCl2. The BET surface area of AC(micro)-At largely decreased by immobilization of ethylenediamine (EDA) and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA). Decreases in BET surface area and pore volume of AC(meso)-At by immobilization of EDA and HMDA were scarcely observed. These results suggest that amino groups introduced to mesoporous activated carbon are effective as functional groups for additional reactions. PMID:16140315

Tamai, Hisashi; Shiraki, Katsumi; Shiono, Takeshi; Yasuda, Hajime

2006-03-01

16

Ammonia-Activated Mesoporous Carbon Membranes for Gas Separations  

SciTech Connect

Porous carbon membranes, which generally show improved chemical and thermal stability compared to polymer membranes, have been used in gas separations for many years. In this work, we show that the post-synthesis ammonia treatment of porous carbon at elevated temperature can improve the permeance and selectivity of these membranes for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons from permanent gases. Hierarchically structured porous carbon membranes were exposed to ammonia gas at temperatures ranging from 850 C to 950 C for up to 10 min and the N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} permeances were measured for these different membranes. Higher treatment temperatures and longer exposure times resulted in higher gas permeance values. In addition, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}/N{sub 2} selectivities increased by a factor of 2 as the treatment temperature and time increased up to a temperature and time of 900 C, 10 min. Higher temperatures showed increased permeance but decreased selectivity indicating excess pore activation. Nitrogen adsorption measurements show that the ammonia treatment increased the porosity of the membrane while elemental analysis revealed the presence of nitrogen-containing surface functionalities in the treated carbon membranes. Thus, ammonia treatment at high temperature provides a controlled method to introduce both added microporosity and surface functionality to enhance gas separations performance of porous carbon membranes.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Lee, Jeseung [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2011-01-01

17

N2 and H2 adsorption behavior of KOH-activated ordered mesoporous carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordered mesoporous carbon, referred to as CMK-3, was synthesized by replication from SBA-15. Activated CMK-3 with developed pore structures provided a large surface area and higher hydrogen adsorption capacities after KOH activation at 1073-1223 K. To characterize the pore structure of the activated samples, N2 and H2 adsorption were measured at 77 K. The hydrogen adsorption of activated CMK-3 increased to 2.26 wt.% at an activation temperature of 1173 K due to the formation of micropores. Thus, KOH activation was not only one of the most effective methods for developing porosity, but also raised the hydrogen storage capacity of CMK-3.

Lee, Sang Moon; Lee, Soon Chang; Hong, Won G.; Kim, Hae Jin

2012-12-01

18

Superior electric double layer capacitors using ordered mesoporous carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports for the first time superior electric double layer capacitive properties of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMCs) with varying ordered pore symmetries and mesopore structure. Compared to commercially used activated carbon electrode, Maxsorb, these OMC carbons have superior capacitive behavior, power output and high-frequency performance in EDLCs due to the unique structure of their mesopore network, which is more

W. Xing; S. Z. Qiao; R. G. Ding; F. Lid; G. Q. Lu; Z. F. Yan; H. M. Cheng

2006-01-01

19

Activated graphene-based carbons as supercapacitor electrodes with macro- and mesopores.  

PubMed

Electric double layer capacitors (or supercapacitors) store charges through the physisorption of electrolyte ions onto porous carbon electrodes. The control over structure and morphology of carbon electrode materials is therefore an effective strategy to render them high surface area and efficient paths for ion diffusion. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of highly porous graphene-derived carbons with hierarchical pore structures in which mesopores are integrated into macroporous scaffolds. The macropores were introduced by assembling graphene-based hollow spheres, and the mesopores were derived from the chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. The unique three-dimensional pore structures in the produced graphene-derived carbons give rise to a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area value of up to 3290 m(2) g(-1) and provide an efficient pathway for electrolyte ions to diffuse into the interior surfaces of bulk electrode particles. These carbons exhibit both high gravimetric (174 F g(-1)) and volumetric (~100 F cm(-3)) specific capacitance in an ionic liquid electrolyte in acetonitrile. The energy density and power density of the cell assembled with this carbon electrode are also high, with gravimetric values of 74 Wh kg(-1) and 338 kW kg(-1) and volumetric values of 44 Wh L(-1) and 199 kW L(-1), respectively. The supercapacitor performance achieved with these graphene-derived carbons is attributed to their unique pore structure and makes them potentially promising for diverse energy storage devices. PMID:23829569

Kim, Taeyoung; Jung, Gyujin; Yoo, Seonmi; Suh, Kwang S; Ruoff, Rodney S

2013-08-27

20

Aggregation-free gold nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbons: toward highly active and stable heterogeneous catalysts.  

PubMed

A coordination-assisted synthetic approach is reported here for the synthesis of highly active and stable gold nanoparticle catalysts in ordered mesoporous carbon materials using triblock copolymer F127 as a structure-directing agent, thiol-containing silane as a coordination agent, HAuCl4 as a gold source, and phenolic resin as a carbon source. Upon carbonization, the gold precursor becomes reduced to form monodispersed Au nanoparticles of ca. 9.0 nm, which are entrapped or confined by the "rigid" mesoporous carbonaceous framework. Nanoparticle aggregation is inhibited even at a high temperature of 600 °C. After removal of the silica component, the materials possess the ordered mesostructure, high surface area (~1800 m(2)/g), large pore volume (~1.19 cm(3)/g), and uniform bimodal mesopore size (<2.0 and 4.0 nm). The monodispersed gold nanoparticles are highly exposed because of the interpenetrated bimodal pores in the carbon framework, which exhibit excellent catalytic performance. A completely selective conversion of benzyl alcohol in water to benzoic acid can be achieved at 90 °C and 1 MPa oxygen. Benzyl alcohol can also be quantitatively converted to benzoic acid at 60 °C even under an atmospheric pressure, showing great advantages in green chemistry. The catalysts are stable, poison resistant, and reusable with little activity loss due to metal leaching. The silane coupling agent played several functions in this approach: (1) coordinating with gold species by the thiol group to benefit formation of monodispersed Au nanoparticles; (2) reacting with phenolic resins by silanol groups to form relatively "rigid" composite framework; (3) pore-forming agent to generate secondary pores in carbon pore walls, which lead to higher surface area, larger pore volumes, and higher accessibility to to the gold nanoparticles. Complete removal of the silica component proves to have little effect on the catalytic performance of entrapped Au nanoparticles. PMID:23865622

Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Qingfei; Wei, Huimin; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Cho, Minhyung; Cho, Hae Sung; Terasaki, Osamu; Wan, Ying

2013-08-14

21

Comparative study on the oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalytic activities of iron phthalocyanines supported on reduced graphene oxide, mesoporous carbon vesicle, and ordered mesoporous carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron phthalocyanine (FePc) is combined with different carbon matrixes (reduced graphene oxide (RGO), mesoporous carbon vesicle (MCV), and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)) through non-covalent ?-? interaction. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms display that their specific surface areas obey an order of OMC > MCV > RGO. Raman spectroscopy reveals that OMC contains the most surface active sites. Meanwhile, SEM images show that the FePc monomers are more evenly dispersed on OMC than on MCV or RGO. Electrochemical measurements also display that oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is catalyzed more easily on the FePc/OMC than on the FePc, FePc/MCV, and FePc/RGO, undoubtedly testifying the importances of specific surface area and surface active sites of OMC matrix for uniformly dispersing FePc molecules and then improving the ORR performances. Particularly, experiment results reveal that the FePc/OMC catalyst displays an enhanced 4-electron pathway in ORR either in acid or in alkaline media. Meanwhile, the FePc/OMC also shows better durability and superior stability towards methanol crossover than the Pt/OMC catalyst in both acid and alkaline media, potentially making the FePc/OMC a non-precious metal catalyst for ORR in fuel cells.

Li, Mian; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Yufan; Han, Ce; Guo, Liping

2014-10-01

22

Template-free fabrication of mesoporous carbons from carbon quantum dots and their catalytic application to the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Mesoporous carbons (pore size 5 nm) were successfully synthesized without templates from carbon quantum dots. As catalysts, both mesoporous carbons and Cu nanoparticles on mesoporous carbons show superior catalytic activity and stability for the selective oxidation of cyclooctene. PMID:24752389

Zhou, Lei; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xing; Liu, Ruihua; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

2014-06-01

23

Characterization of mesoporous carbon prepared from date stems by H3PO4 chemical activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work was focused on the determination of texture, morphology, crystanillity and oxygenated surface groups characteristics of an activated carbon prepared from date stems. Chemical activation of this precursor at different temperatures (450, 550 and 650 °C) was adopted using phosphoric acid as dehydrating agent at (2/1) impregnation ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study was carried out to identify surface groups in date stems activated carbons. The microscopic structure was examined by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The interlayer spacing (d200 and d100), stack height (Lc), stack width (La) and effective dimension L of the turbostratic crystallites (microcrystallite) in the date stems activated carbons were estimated from X-ray diffraction data (XRD). Results yielded a surface area, SBET, and total pore volume of 682, 1455, 1319 m2/g and 0,343, 1,045 and 0.735 cm3/g, for the carbon prepared at 450, 550 and 650 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy exhibits a highly developed porosity which is in good agreement with the porous texture derived from gas adsorption data and these results confirm that the activated carbon is dominated by network of slit-shaped mesopores morphology and in some cases by varied micropores morphologies.

Hadoun, H.; Sadaoui, Z.; Souami, N.; Sahel, D.; Toumert, I.

2013-09-01

24

Highly basic CaO nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon materials and their excellent catalytic activity.  

PubMed

Highly basic CaO nanoparticles immobilized mesoporous carbon materials (CaO-CMK-3) with different pore diameters have been successfully prepared by using wet-impregnation method. The prepared materials were subjected to extensive characterization studies using sophisticated techniques such as XRD, nitrogen adsorption, HRSEM-EDX, HRTEM and temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD of CO2). The physico-chemical characterization results revealed that these materials possess highly dispersed CaO nanoparticles, excellent nanopores with well-ordered structure, high specific surface area, large specific pore volume, pore diameter and very high basicity. We have also demonstrated that the basicity of the CaO-CMK-3 samples can be controlled by simply varying the amount of CaO loading and pore diameter of the carbon support. The basic catalytic performance of the samples was investigated in the base-catalyzed transesterification of ethylacetoacetate by aryl, aliphatic and cyclic primary alcohols. CMK-3 catalyst with higher CaO loading and larger pore diameter was found to be highly active with higher conversion within a very short reaction time. The activity of 30% CaO-CMK3-150 catalyst for transesterification of ethylacetoacetate using different alcohols increases in the following order: octanol > butanol > cyclohexanol > benzyl alcohol > furfuryl alcohol. PMID:22905508

Raja, Pradeep Kumar; Chokkalingam, Anand; Priya, Subramaniam V; Balasubramanian, Veerappan V; Benziger, Mercy R; Aldeyab, Salem S; Jayavell, Ramasamy; Ariga, Katsukiho; Vinu, Ajayan

2012-06-01

25

Ordered-mesoporous-carbon-bonded cobalt phthalocyanine: a bioinspired catalytic system for controllable hydrogen peroxide activation.  

PubMed

The chemistry of enzymes presents a key to understanding the catalysis in the world. In the pursuit of controllable catalytic oxidation, researchers make extensive efforts to discover and develop functional materials that exhibit various properties intrinsic to enzymes. Here we describe a bioinspired catalytic system using ordered-mesoporous-carbon (OMC)-bonded cobalt tetraaminophthalocyanine (CoTAPc-OMC) as a catalyst that could mimic the space environment and reactive processes of metalloporphyrin-based heme enzymes and employing linear dodecylbenzenesulfonate as the fifth ligands to control the activation of H2O2 toward the peroxidase-like oxidation. The generation of nonselective free hydroxyl radicals was obviously inhibited. In addition, functional modification of OMC has been achieved by a moderate method, which can reduce excessive damage to the structure of OMC. Because of its favorable and tunable pore texture, CoTAPc-OMC provides a suitable interface and environment for the accessibility and oxidation of C.I. Acid Red 1, the model compound, and exhibits significantly enhanced catalytic activity and sufficient stability for H2O2 activation. The high-valent cobalt oxo intermediates with high oxidizing ability have been predicted as the acceptable active species, which have been corroborated by the results from the semiempirical quantum-chemical PM6 calculations. PMID:24673711

Li, Nan; Lu, Wangyang; Pei, Kemei; Yao, Yuyuan; Chen, Wenxing

2014-04-23

26

Preparation of High Surface Area Mesoporous Activated Carbon: Kinetics and Equilibrium Isotherm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon prepared from palm shell by phosphoric acid impregnation, at significantly favorable experimental conditions is characterized for the porous nature and adsorption of methylene blue dye molecules. The activation is carried out using a 2-stage activation process with the activation in a self generated atmosphere. An activation temperature of 500 °C, with an activation time of 75 minutes using

W. C. Lim; C. Srinivasakannan; V. Doshi

2012-01-01

27

Low-Temperature Fluorination of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons for a High-Power Lithium\\/Carbon Fluoride Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft-templated mesoporous carbons and activated mesoporous carbons were fluorinated using elemental fluorine between room temperature and 235 C. The mesoporous carbons were prepared via self-assembly synthesis of phloroglucinol formaldehyde as a carbon precursor in the presence of triblock ethylene oxide propylene oxide ethylene oxide copolymer BASF Pluronic F127 as the template. The F\\/C ratios ranged from 0.15 to 0.75 according

Pasquale F Fulvio; Sheng Dai; Bingkun Guo; Shannon Mark Mahurin; Richard T Mayes; Xiao-Guang Sun; Gabriel M Veith; Suree Brown; Jamie Adcock

2011-01-01

28

Remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity of ordered mesoporous carbon/g-C3N4 composite photocatalysts under visible light.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous carbon/g-C3N4 (OMC/g-C3N4) composites with efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation were prepared by a facile heating method. The as-prepared OMC/g-C3N4 composites were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses, transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by degrading Rhodamine B dye, and OMC/g-C3N4 composites exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities than pristine g-C3N4. Moreover, the catalysts retained good stability and the photodegradation efficiency hardly changed after five cycles. The degradation rate of the OMC/g-C3N4 photocatalyst was almost 10 times as high as that of the pristine g-C3N4, which indicated that OMC played an important role in the remarkable improvement of photocatalytic activity. The significant enhancement in photodegradation activity over the OMC/g-C3N4 catalyst could be ascribed to the combined effects coming from the enhanced visible light adsorption, enriched adsorption of the dye on the catalyst and subsequent efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. In addition, a possible mechanism for the photodegradation process was proposed on the basis of active species scavenging experiments. PMID:24681708

Shi, Lei; Liang, Lin; Ma, Jun; Wang, Fangxiao; Sun, Jianmin

2014-05-21

29

Development of Microporosity in Mesoporous Carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monolithic carbons with uniform and spherical mesopores can be easily obtained by filling the pores of colloidal silica monoliths\\u000a with carbon precursors followed by carbonization and silica dissolution. In this study three different phenolic resin blends:\\u000a resorcinol and crotonaldehyde (MC-RC), phenol and paraformaldehyde (MC-PP), and resorcinol and furfural (MC-RF) were used\\u000a as carbon precursors. Subsequent heating and carbonization of the

Jerzy Choma; Joanna Górka; Mietek Jaroniec; Aleksandra Zawislak

2010-01-01

30

Preparation of highly developed mesoporous activated carbon fiber from liquefied wood using wood charcoal as additive and its adsorption of methylene blue from solution.  

PubMed

Activated carbon fiber (C-WACF) with super high surface area and well-developed small mesopores were prepared by liquefied wood and uses wood charcoal (WC) as additive. The characterization and properties of C-WACF were investigated by XRD, XPS and N2 adsorption. Results showed the pore development was significant at temperatures >750°C, and reached a maximum BET surface area (2604.7m(2)/g) and total pore volume (1.433cm(3)/g) at 850°C, of which 86.8% was from the contribution of the small mesopores of 2-4nm. It was also found that the mesopore volume and methylene blue adsorption of C-WACF were highly increased as the temperature increases from 750 to 850°C. Additionally, the reduction of graphitic layers, the obvious changes of functional groups and the more unstable carbons on the surface of C-WACF, which played important roles in the formation of mesopores, were also observed. PMID:24814396

Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Junyan; Yu, Lili; Liu, Xinyan

2014-07-01

31

Adsorption characteristics of arsenic from micro-polluted water by an innovative coal-based mesoporous activated carbon.  

PubMed

An innovative coal-based mesoporous activated carbon (NCPAC) was prepared by re-agglomeration, oxidation and two-step activation using coal-blending as precursor. Adsorption capacities of As(III) and As(V) ions (<0.5mg/L) onto NCPAC as a function of pH, adsorbent dose, initial arsenic concentrations, contact time, and adsorption isotherms at 7°C was investigated. The innovative methods promoted total pore volume (1.087cm(3)/g), mesoporosity (64.31%), iodine numbers (1104mg/g), methylene blue (251.8mg/g) and ash contents (15.26%). The adsorption capacities of NCPAC for As(III) and As(V) were found to be strongly dependent on pH and contact time. The optimal pH value was 6. The equilibrium time was 60min for adsorption of As(III) and As(V) by NCPAC. The Langmuir model fitted the experimental data well for both As(III) (R(2)=0.9980) and As(V) (R(2)=0.9988). Maximum adsorption capacities of As(III) and As(V) (C0=0.50mg/L) by NCPAC were 1.491 and 1.760mg/g, respectively. PMID:24631151

Li, Wei-Guang; Gong, Xu-Jin; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Xin-Ran; Fan, Wen-Biao

2014-08-01

32

Adsorption of inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin by mesoporous polymers and activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and an inflammatory cytokine TNF-? from model solutions on uncoated ‘hyper-crosslinked’ polystyrene polymers MN200 and MN500 and activated carbons Carboxen 1003 and Carboxen 1010 has been studied. It has been shown that TNF? can be efficiently removed by both non-functionalised MN200 and MN500 functionalised with cation exchange functional groups. On the contrary, surface chemistry

M. C. Murphy; S. Patel; G. J. Phillips; J. G. Davies; A. W. Lloyd; V. M. Gun'ko; S. V. Mikhalovsky

2002-01-01

33

Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Mesoporous Silica Templates  

SciTech Connect

Well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on mesoporous silica films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Ethylene was used as the carbon source and CVD was performed at 1023 K and atmospheric pressure. The films were doped with Fe during gelation, and three different structure directing agents were used for mesoporous silica synthesis: polyoxyethylene (10) cetyl ether (C16EO10), Pluronic tri-block copolymer (P123), and cetyltriethylammonium chloride (CTAC). A high degree of CNT alignment on C16EO10-mesoporous silica films was produced at Fe:Si molar ratio of 1.80. Similar alignment of CNTs was achieved on the other two types of films but on CTAC-mesoporous silica films, CNTs only grew parallel to the substrate surface from the cracks in the films because of the in-plane arrangement of the mesopores in such films. Considerable progress has been made in producing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by catalytic CVD techniques. If CNTs are to be integrated into certain useful devices, it is critical to be able to grow highly aligned arrays of CNTs with narrow size distribution and at specific locations on a substrate. Long-range alignment normal to the substrate results from steric crowding if the initial catalyst sites are sufficiently dense. Alignment may be improved with better control of the density of catalytic sites by means of a template of appropriate pore structure. The confinement of CNTs by the pores during the initial growth may also help align CNTs.

Zheng, Feng; Liang, Liang; Gao, Yufei; Sukamto, Johanes H.; Aardahl, Chris L.

2002-07-01

34

Acid dye removal: comparison of surfactant-modified mesoporous FSM-16 with activated carbon derived from rice husk.  

PubMed

Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified mesoporous molecular sieve FSM-16, prepared by a hydrothermal process (373 K, 3 days), was tested as an adsorbent for acid dye (acid yellow, AY, and acid blue, AB) removal in comparison with as-prepared FSM-16 and activated carbon (AC) derived from rice husk (50 vol% H3PO4, 773 K, 2.5 h). The adsorption isotherms, sorption kinetics, and pH effects upon acid dyes sorption on the adsorbents were thoroughly investigated. The structures of different adsorbents were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption measurements, and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. It was found that the ultimate capacity of the adsorbents varied in the order FSM-16 > modified FSM-16 > AC and followed first-order rate kinetics. The adsorption isotherm of acid dyes on FSM-16 is of type IV, according to the IUPAC classification, drastically different from that of CTAB/FSM-16, which showed a type I isotherm. The latter sample had better adsorption performance at low concentration of acid dyes than the former. As compared to activated carbon of microporous character, the CTAB/FSM-16 sample achieved higher performance at low concentrations. This was due to the successful narrowing of the pore opening of FSM-16 using CTAB with maintenance of a considerable portion of the pore volume. Powder XRD and N2 adsorption studies of the CTAB/FSM-16 material indicated that the textural properties of the support were preserved during the hydrothermal synthesis and that the channels remained accessible, despite a significant reduction in surface area (ca. 26%). TG studies, on the other hand, confirmed that the modified material presented a higher hydrophobicity than that of the CTAB-free FSM-16 sample. PMID:14985019

Mohamed, Mohamed Mokhtar

2004-04-01

35

Mesoporous carbon nanomaterials as environmental adsorbents.  

PubMed

The transportation and diffusion of the guest objects or molecules in the porous carbon nanomaterials can be facilitated by reducing the pathway and resistance. The reduced pathway depends on the porous nature of carbon nanomaterials. Classification of porous carbon materials by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has given a new opportunity to design the pores as per their applicability and to understand the mobility of ions, atoms, and molecules in the porous network of carbon materials and also advanced their countless applicability. However, synthesis of carbon nanomaterials with a desired porous network is still a great challenge. Although, remarkable developments have taken place in the recent years, control over the pores size and/or hierarchical porous architectures, especially in the synthesis of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMCs) is still intriguing. The micro and mesoporous CNSs and OMCs have been prepared by a variety of procedures and over a wide range of compositions using various different surfactant templates and carbon precursors etc. The mechanisms of formation of micromesopore in the CNSs and OMCs are still evolving. On the other hand, the urge for adsorbents with very high adsorption capacities for removing contaminants from water is growing steadily. In this review, we address the state-of-the-art synthesis of micro and mesoporous CNSs and OMCs, giving examples of their applications for adsorptive removals of contaminants including our own research studies. PMID:24749459

Tripathi, Pranav K; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian; Rao, Nageswara N

2014-02-01

36

Adsorption of malachite green on micro- and mesoporous rice husk-based active carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of malachite green (MG) from aqueous medium by rice husk-based porous carbons (RHCs) were studied. The extent of adsorption was studied as a function of pH, contact time, contact temperature, adsorbate concentration, ion strength and adsorbent with different pore structural. The comparison of adsorption of MG on oxidized carbons and their heat-treated derivatives were studied. The results obtained

Yupeng Guo; Shaofeng Yang; Wuyou Fu; Jurui Qi; Renzhi Li; Zichen Wang; Hongding Xu

2003-01-01

37

Highly dispersed iron oxides on mesoporous carbon for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen.  

PubMed

Highly dispersed iron oxide supported catalysts, prepared using HNO3-treated CMK-3 mesoporous carbons as supports, exhibit relatively high catalytic activity in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with oxygen. PMID:24409455

Geng, Longlong; Zhang, Xiuyan; Zhang, Wenxiang; Jia, Mingjun; Liu, Gang

2014-03-18

38

Control of mesoporous structure of organic and carbon aerogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels were synthesized via the sol-gel polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde in a slightly basic aqueous solution and followed by supercritical drying with carbon dioxide. Mesoporous carbon aerogels were then obtained by pyrolyzing the RF aerogels in an inert atmosphere. The control of mesoporous structure of the aerogels was studied by changing the amount of resorcinol (R), formaldehyde

H. Tamon; H. Ishizaka; T. Araki; M. Okazaki

1998-01-01

39

Phosphorylated Mesoporous Carbon as a Solid Acid Catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous carbon catalyst supports are attractive due to their wide chemical stability while potentially increasing masstransport through and providing a path for larger molecules to access catalytic sites. Herein we report the synthesis of a 10 phosphorylated mesoporous carbon solid-acid catalyst characterized by NH3-TPD and isopropanol dehydration.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Ma, Zhen [ORNL

2011-01-01

40

Preparation of free-standing high quality mesoporous carbon membranes  

SciTech Connect

Flat-sheet mesoporous carbon membranes with uniform pore size (e.g., 6.4 nm) and controllable thickness were prepared by pyrolysis of polymeric composite films, which were formed by self-assembly of phenolic resin and block copolymer under acidic conditions. Hexamethylenetetramine was selected as a solid cross-linker to control the rheology of polymeric carbon precursors so that the flat-sheet polymeric films could undergo carbonization without deformation, ensuring the preparation of mesoporous carbon membranes on a large scale with high quality. Gas transport properties through these mesoporous carbon membranes are also reported.

Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Zhu, Qing [ORNL

2010-01-01

41

The oriented growth of tungsten oxide in ordered mesoporous carbon and their electrochemical performance.  

PubMed

Electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation and methanol oxidation are the heart of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. In spite of tremendous efforts, developing low-cost anodic electrocatalysts with high catalytic activity and corrosion resistance is still a great challenge. Here, we report a nanocomposite consisting of oriented WO3 nanorods grown in ordered mesoporous carbon as a high-performance functional catalyst carrier for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. As a result of the catalytic graphitization effect of tungsten compounds, the degree of graphitization and conductivity of mesoporous carbon film were improved even at a low temperature. Furthermore, compared with ordered mesoporous carbon, ordered mesoporous C-WO3 nanocomposites possess favorable hydrophilicity, excellent corrosion resistance and notable electrocatalytic activities. The unusual electrocatalytic activities arise from the ideal physical properties of the carrier and synergetic catalysis between Pt and WO3. PMID:24733640

Wang, Tao; Tang, Jing; Fan, Xiaoli; Zhou, Jianhua; Xue, Hairong; Guo, Hu; He, Jianping

2014-05-21

42

Low-Temperature Fluorination of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons for a High-Power Lithium/Carbon Fluoride Battery  

SciTech Connect

Soft-templated mesoporous carbons and activated mesoporous carbons were fluorinated using elemental fluorine between room temperature and 235 C. The mesoporous carbons were prepared via self-assembly synthesis of phloroglucinol formaldehyde as a carbon precursor in the presence of triblock ethylene oxide propylene oxide ethylene oxide copolymer BASF Pluronic F127 as the template. The F/C ratios ranged from 0.15 to 0.75 according to gravimetric, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Materials have mesopore diameters up to 11 nm and specific surface areas as high as 850 m2 g 1 after fluorination as calculated from nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 196 C. Furthermore, the materials exhibit higher discharge potentials and energy and power densities as well as faster reaction kinetics under high current densities than commercial carbon fluorides with similar fluorine contents when tested as cathodes for Li/CFx batteries.

Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Adcock, Jamie [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

43

The oriented growth of tungsten oxide in ordered mesoporous carbon and their electrochemical performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation and methanol oxidation are the heart of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. In spite of tremendous efforts, developing low-cost anodic electrocatalysts with high catalytic activity and corrosion resistance is still a great challenge. Here, we report a nanocomposite consisting of oriented WO3 nanorods grown in ordered mesoporous carbon as a high-performance functional catalyst carrier for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. As a result of the catalytic graphitization effect of tungsten compounds, the degree of graphitization and conductivity of mesoporous carbon film were improved even at a low temperature. Furthermore, compared with ordered mesoporous carbon, ordered mesoporous C-WO3 nanocomposites possess favorable hydrophilicity, excellent corrosion resistance and notable electrocatalytic activities. The unusual electrocatalytic activities arise from the ideal physical properties of the carrier and synergetic catalysis between Pt and WO3.Electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation and methanol oxidation are the heart of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. In spite of tremendous efforts, developing low-cost anodic electrocatalysts with high catalytic activity and corrosion resistance is still a great challenge. Here, we report a nanocomposite consisting of oriented WO3 nanorods grown in ordered mesoporous carbon as a high-performance functional catalyst carrier for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. As a result of the catalytic graphitization effect of tungsten compounds, the degree of graphitization and conductivity of mesoporous carbon film were improved even at a low temperature. Furthermore, compared with ordered mesoporous carbon, ordered mesoporous C-WO3 nanocomposites possess favorable hydrophilicity, excellent corrosion resistance and notable electrocatalytic activities. The unusual electrocatalytic activities arise from the ideal physical properties of the carrier and synergetic catalysis between Pt and WO3. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional structural characterizations and electrochemical measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00396a

Wang, Tao; Tang, Jing; Fan, Xiaoli; Zhou, Jianhua; Xue, Hairong; Guo, Hu; He, Jianping

2014-04-01

44

Macro–mesoporous silicas complex and the carbon replica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel macroporous silicas with ordered mesoporous wall structures (?15nm in pore size) have been synthesized by finely balancing the emulsification of the oil phase with the self-assembly of the amphiphilic block copolymers. The nanocasting method was used to produce hierarchically ordered macro–mesoporous carbon materials. These porous materials have potential applications in catalysis, sorption, separation, etc.

Junming Sun; Ding Ma; He Zhang; Xinhe Bao; Gisela Weinberg; Dangsheng Su

2007-01-01

45

Direct synthesis of mesoporous carbon from the carbonization of hydroxypropyl- ?-cyclodextrin/silica composite and its catalytic performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and efficient route is reported for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon materials by directly carbonizing hydroxypropyl- ?-cyclodextrin-silica composites. The resulting carbon materials, with uniform wormlike mesoporous structure and certain degree graphitic phase characteristics in porous wall, possess narrow pore size distribution, high surface area (>1000 m 2 g -1) and pore volume (>1.2 cm 3 g -1). It is worth mentioning that the carbon materials have high catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrotoluene using hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent; moreover, the catalytic activity is not reduced notably after being reused for six times.

Wang, Hui Chun; Li, Bao Lin; Li, Jiang Tao; Lin, Pei; Bian, Xiao Bing; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Bo; Wan, Zhuan Xin

2011-02-01

46

Mesoporous Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water  

SciTech Connect

Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration.

Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Sharma, Ms. Ketki [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2011-01-01

47

Mesoporous carbon for capacitive deionization of saline water.  

PubMed

Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration. PMID:22032802

Tsouris, C; Mayes, R; Kiggans, J; Sharma, K; Yiacoumi, S; DePaoli, D; Dai, S

2011-12-01

48

Ordered mesoporous carbons obtained by a simple soft template method as sulfur immobilizers for lithium-sulfur cells.  

PubMed

Carbon materials with ordered mesoporous structures were synthesized using soft template methods and then activated by CO2 treatment. Sulfur was incorporated in these carbons via a simple chemical deposition method in aqueous solutions and the resulting composites were tested as electrodes in Li-S cells. The electrochemical results showed that well-ordered mesoporous carbons perform better than those with a random mesopore arrangement (wormhole-like mesoporous structure). The mesopore ordering yields a framework of well-connected empty sites that results in an enhancement of both the charge carrier mobility and the reversibility of the electrochemical reaction. Although the activation with CO2 partially destroys the mesopore arrangement, which adversely affects the electrode performance, it notably increases the surface area and the micropore content which improves the connectivity between the mesopores. The final observation was an irrelevant effect of the activation process at low current densities. However, at higher rates the activated carbon composite delivered higher capacities. The hierarchical pore structure formed by micro- and mesopores should guarantee the required fast mobility of the Li(+). PMID:25019261

Moreno, Noelia; Caballero, Alvaro; Hernán, Lourdes; Morales, Julián; Canales-Vázquez, Jesús

2014-07-23

49

Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing concerns for the escalating issues activated by the effect of carbon dioxide emissions on the global climate from extensive use of fossil fuels and the limited amount of fossil resources has led to an in-depth search for alternative energy systems, primarily based on nuclear or renewable energy sources. Recent innovations in the production of more efficient devices for energy harvesting, storage, and conversion are based on the incorporation of nanostructured materials into electrochemical systems. The aforementioned nano-electrochemical energy systems hold particular promise for alternative energy transportation related technologies including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical supercapacitors. In each of these devices, nanostructured materials can be used to increase the surface area where the critical chemical reactions occur within the same volume and mass, thereby increasing the energy density, power density, electrical efficiency, and physical robustness of the system. Durable corrosion resistant carbon support materials for fuel cells have been designed by adding conductive low cost carbon materials with chemically robust ceramic materials. Since a strict control of the pore size is mandatory to optimize properties for improved performance, chemical activation agents have been utilized as porogens to tune surface areas, pore size distributions, and composition of carbon-based mesoporous materials. Through the use of evaporative self-assembly methods, both randomly disordered and surfactant-templated, ordered carbon-silica nanocomposites have been synthesized with controlled surface area, pore volume, and pore size ranging from 50-800 m2/g, 0.025-0.75 cm3/g, and 2-10 nm, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) ranging from 0.05-1.0 wt. % were added to the aforementioned carbon-silica nanocomposites, which provided an additional increase in surface area and improved conductivity. Initially, a conductivity value of 0.0667 S/cm was measured for the composite without carbon nanotubes and the conductivity value improved by over an order of magnitude to 1 S/cm with the addition of 0.5 wt.% CNTs. Triggered by dispersion issues, the agglomeration of MWNTs during the drying process prevented each nanotube from being loaded over a maximum interfacial area. In order to improve the dispersion of carbon nanotubes within the carbon-silica network, electrospinning was explored as a method to improve the alignment of the carbon nanotubes. The electrospun fibers produced with the highest concentration of MWNTs at 1.0 wt.% produced the largest surface area and electrical conductivity values of 333.36 m2/g and 2.09 S/cm, respectively. Capacitance measurements were calculated to examine if improved conductivity results in higher capacitance values. The best capacitance performance was 148 F/g from a carbon-based mesoporous composite with 0.5 wt. % MWNTs in an aqueous electrolyte with a 2.0 mV/s scan rate. An 80% increase in capacitance occurs with the addition of 0.5 wt. % MWNTs. This is in the range of capacitance values produced by hierarchically ordered mesoporous-microporous carbons, reported at 180 F/g. Fibrous carbon tubes assembled from hydrofluoric acid etched perylenetetracarboxylic diimide bridged silsesquioxane (PDBS) were capable of hydrogen adsorption on the order of 1.3-2.5 wt. % at 77K. Lastly chemically activated phenol-formaldehyde resins produced microporous carbon with 1500 m3/g surface areas and pore sizes ranging from 0.3-0.5 nm, which has potential for asymmetric super-capacitor electrodes. Judicious control over the composition and pore structure of carbon-based nanocomposites can lead to improved performance of various alternative energy materials.

Cross, Kimberly Michelle

50

Template method synthesis of mesoporous carbon spheres and its applications as supercapacitors  

PubMed Central

Mesoporous carbon spheres (MCS) have been fabricated from structured mesoporous silica sphere using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with ethylene as a carbon feedstock. The mesoporous carbon spheres have a high specific surface area of 666.8?m2/g and good electrochemical properties. The mechanism of formation mesoporous carbon spheres (carbon spheres) is investigated. The important thing is a surfactant hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), which accelerates the process of carbon deposition. An additional advantage of this surfactant is an increase the yield of product. These mesoporous carbon spheres, which have good electrochemical properties is suitable for supercapacitors.

2012-01-01

51

Simple synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanofibers with hierarchical nanostructure for ultrahigh lithium storage.  

PubMed

In this study, a simple and reproducible synthesis strategy was developed to fabricate mesoporous carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) by using dual hard templates, a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, and colloidal silica (Ludox TM-40). By using commercial templates, and removing AAO and the silica simultaneously, the synthesis procedures for MCNFs are greatly simplified without the need for separate preparation or the removal of templates in sequence. With phenol resin as a carbon precursor, the as-prepared MCNFs material reveals not only high surface area and mesoporous volume but also hierarchical nanostructure composed of hollow macrochannels derived from the AAO template, large mesopores (ca. 22 nm) from the removal of silica particles and micropores from the carbonization of phenol resin. Such unique surface and structural characteristics could provide a large quantity of active sites for Li storage and facilitate fast mass transport. Moreover, a one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanofiber (CNF) nanostructure favors fast electron transfer. The as-prepared MCNF anode demonstrates ultrahigh lithium storage capacity particularly at high rates, which is much higher than that reported for the commercial graphite and also significantly higher than other nanostructured carbon materials, such as ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 and ordered multimodal porous carbon (OMPC). PMID:24490802

Xing, Yalan; Wang, Yanjie; Zhou, Chungen; Zhang, Shichao; Fang, Baizeng

2014-02-26

52

Influence of the thermal process of carbon template removal in the mesoporous boron nitride synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of the thermal process involved in the carbon template elimination during the synthesis of mesoporous boron nitride\\u000a by using nanocasting process of a mesoporous CMK-3 carbon with a borazinic precursor is presented. The borazinic precursor,\\u000a the tri(methylamino)borazine (MAB), is converted to boron nitride (BN) inside the mesopores of a CMK-3 mesoporous carbon template\\u000a by ceramization under nitrogen or under

P. Dibandjo; L. Bois; F. Chassagneux; J. M. Letoffe; P. Miele

2008-01-01

53

Structural influence of ordered mesoporous carbon supports for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to alcohols.  

PubMed

A series of ordered mesoporous carbon materials (OMCs) possessing well-ordered nanoporosity with different mesopore structures were synthesized by the template-synthesis route. Two different pore strucutes (2-dimensional hexagonal and 3-dimensional cubic structures) and two different framework-configurations (rod-type and hollow-type carbon frameworks) are prepared by using the two different silica templates and synthetic conditions. The ordered mesoporous carbon supported promoted-rhodium catalysts were preparted by an incipient wetness method. The promoted Rh-OMC catalysts are tested by a fixed bed reactor for the catalytic conversion of syngas-to-alcohols. The characteristics of the promoted Rh-OMCs catalysts were scrutinized through a series of different techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and N2 sorption analysis, and the catalytic performance was tested in a fixed-bed reactor. It was found that the promoted Rh-OMC catalysts exhibited the different catalytic activity and selectivity of alcohols, which could be attributed to the size of metal nanoparticles being confined by the different mesostructure of OMCs. PMID:24245283

Kim, Min-Ji; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Ha, Kyoung Su; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Kim, Tae-Wan

2013-11-01

54

EPR study of the adsorption of dioxin vapours onto microporous carbons and mesoporous silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer aided analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of tetrachloro-dibenzodioxin labelled with a nitroxide radical (TCDD-T) was employed to investigate the adsorption of dioxin vapours onto two carbons, the activated carbon (AC) NORIT GL50 and a carbon directly taken from a waste incinerator (WI) plant, termed EVN.2, and a low-polar micelle-templated mesoporous silica, termed lpMTS. Several experimental conditions were

M. Francesca Ottaviani; Roberto Mazzeo; Nicholas J. Turro; Xuegong Lei

2011-01-01

55

Nanostructured sp2-carbon infiltration of mesoporous silicon layers.  

PubMed

The preparation of composite layers made of porous silicon (PS) infiltrated with nanostructured carbon is reported. These composite layers were obtained by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of mesoporous silicon under process conditions normally employed to grow diamond films by Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD). Micro-Raman spectroscopy and Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM) techniques showed that diamond nucleation density was very low whilst sp2 carbon permeated completely, even after 1 h deposition, the thickness of the PS layers that preserved their mesoporous columnar structure. PMID:19504943

Polini, Riccardo; Valentini, Veronica; Mattei, Giorgio

2009-06-01

56

Three-dimensional coherent titania-mesoporous carbon nanocomposite and its lithium-ion storage properties.  

PubMed

Mesoporous, micro/nanosized TiO2/C composites with uniformly dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in a carbon matrix have been rationally designed and synthesized. In brief, TiO2 precursor was infiltrated into the channels of surface-oxidized mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) by means of electrostatic interaction, followed by in situ hydrolysis and growth of TiO2 nanocrystallites, resulting in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticle confined inside the channels of mesopores carbon. After chemical lithiation and post-annealing, TiO2 nanoparticles were transformed in situ into Li4Ti5O12 to form highly conductivity mesoporous Li4Ti5O12/C composite, as confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen sorption isotherms. By combining high electronic conductivity, open mesoporosity, and nanosized active material, coherent mesoporous TiO2/C and Li4Ti5O12/C nanocomposites demonstrated high rate capability and good cycling properties. PMID:22630038

Shen, Laifa; Uchaker, Evan; Yuan, Changzhou; Nie, Ping; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Xiaogang; Cao, Guozhong

2012-06-27

57

Low-temperature fabrication of mesoporous solid strong bases by using multifunction of a carbon interlayer.  

PubMed

Mesoporous solid strong bases are highly promising for applications as environmentally benign catalysts in various reactions. Their preparation attracts increasing attention for the demand of sustainable chemistry. In the present study, a new strategy was designed to fabricate strong basicity on mesoporous silica by using multifunction of a carbon interlayer. A typical mesoporous silica, SBA-15, was precoated with a layer of carbon prior to the introduction of base precursor LiNO3. The carbon interlayer performs two functions by promoting the conversion of LiNO3 at low temperatures and by improving the alkali-resistant ability of siliceous host. Only a tiny amount of LiNO3 was decomposed on pristine SBA-15 at 400 °C; for the samples containing >8 wt % of carbon, however, LiNO3 can be entirely converted to strongly basic sites Li2O under the same conditions. The guest-host redox reaction was proven to be the answer for the conversion of LiNO3, which breaks the tradition of thermally induced decomposition. More importantly, the residual carbon layer can prevent the siliceous frameworks from corroding by the newly formed strongly basic species, which is different from the complete destruction of mesostructure in the absence of carbon. Therefore, materials possessing both ordered mesostructure and strong basicity were successfully fabricated, which is extremely desirable for catalysis and impossible to realize by conventional methods. We also demonstrated that the resultant mesoporous basic materials are active in heterogeneous synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and the yield of DMC can reach 32.4%, which is apparently higher than that over the catalysts without a carbon interlayer (<12.9%) despite the same lithium content. The strong basicity, in combination with the uniform mesopores, is believed to be responsible for such a high activity. PMID:24020837

Liu, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Lin-Bing; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Li, Ai-Guo; Lu, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Qin

2013-10-01

58

Soft-templated synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres and hollow carbon nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using coal tar pitch based amphiphilic carbonaceous materials (ACMs) as the precursor and amphiphilic triblock copolymer Plutonic P123 as the only soft template, carbon nanospheres with partially ordered mesopores and hollow carbon nanofibers were synthesized. The concentration of P123, cp, and the mass ratio of P123 to ACM, r, are the key parameters of controlling the shape of the as-prepared products. Mesoporous carbon nanospheres with diameter of 30-150 nm were prepared under the condition of cp = 13.3 g/L and r = 1.2. When cp = 26.7 g/L and r = 2, hollow carbon nanofibers with diameters of 50-200 nm and mesopores/macropores were obtained. Carbon nanospheres and hollow carbon fibers were amorphous materials. The mesoporous carbon nanospheres show good stability in the cyclic voltammograms and their specific capacitance at 10 mV s-1 is 172.1 F/g.

Cheng, Youliang; Li, Tiehu; Fang, Changqing; Zhang, Maorong; Liu, Xiaolong; Yu, Ruien; Hu, Jingbo

2013-10-01

59

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for active corrosion protection.  

PubMed

This work presents the synthesis of monodisperse, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application as nanocontainers loaded with corrosion inhibitor (1H-benzotriazole (BTA)) and embedded in hybrid SiOx/ZrOx sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy. The developed porous system of mechanically stable silica nanoparticles exhibits high surface area (?1000 m2·g(-1)), narrow pore size distribution (d?3 nm), and large pore volume (?1 mL·g(-1)). As a result, a sufficiently high uptake and storage of the corrosion inhibitor in the mesoporous nanocontainers was achieved. The successful embedding and homogeneous distribution of the BTA-loaded monodisperse silica nanocontainers in the passive anticorrosive SiOx/ZrOx film improve the wet corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA2024 in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. The enhanced corrosion protection of this newly developed active system in comparison to the passive sol-gel coating was observed during a simulated corrosion process by the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). These results, as well as the controlled pH-dependent release of BTA from the mesoporous silica nanocontainers without additional polyelectrolyte shell, suggest an inhibitor release triggered by the corrosion process leading to a self-healing effect. PMID:21344888

Borisova, Dimitriya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G

2011-03-22

60

A 3D mesoporous polysulfone-carbon nanotube anode for enhanced bioelectricity output in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

A facile fabrication method was developed to construct a three-dimensional (3D) mesoporous anode by coating single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on a mesoporous polysulfone matrix (MPPS) for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Owing to highly active surface areas and efficient extracellular electron transfer between Shewanella cells and the anode, the MFC achieved an electricity output of 1410 mW m(-2), being one of the highest among the reported Shewanella-based MFCs. PMID:24108240

Nguyen, Tien-Hoa; Yu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Song, Hao

2013-11-25

61

One-Pot synthesis of phosphorylated mesoporous carbon heterogeneous catalysts with tailored surface acidity  

SciTech Connect

Soft-templated phosphorylated mesoporous carbons with homogeneous distributions of phosphate groups were prepared by a 'one-pot' synthesis method using mixtures of phosphoric acid with hydrochloric, or nitric acids in the presence of Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer. Adjusting the various ratios of phosphoric acid used in these mixtures resulted in carbons with distinct adsorption, structural and surface acidity properties. The pore size distributions (PSDs) from nitrogen adsorption at -196 C showed that mesoporous carbons exhibit specific surface areas as high as 551 m{sup 2}/g and mesopores as large as 13 nm. Both structural ordering of the mesopores and the final phosphate contents were strongly dependent on the ratios of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in the synthesis gels, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The number of surface acid sites determined from temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) were in the range of 0.3-1.5 mmol/g while the active surface areas are estimated to comprise 5-54% of the total surface areas. Finally, the conversion temperatures for the isopropanol dehydration were lowered by as much as 100 C by transitioning from the least acidic to the most acidic catalysts surface.

Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Bauer, Christopher [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01

62

Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction  

SciTech Connect

We report the facile synthesis of an extremely durable electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with highly graphitized mesoporous carbon (GMPC) as support (Pt/GMPC). GMPC is prepared through graphitizing the self-assembled soft-template mesoporous carbon (MPC) under high temperature. Most of the mesoporous structures and the specific surface area of MPC are retained even after 2800 °C heat-treatment, and the graphitization degree is greatly improved. GMPC is then noncovalently functionalized with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and then coated with Pt nanoparticles with ethylene glycol reduction method. Pt nanoparticles of ~3.0 nm in diameter are uniformly dispersed on GMPC. Pt/GMPC exhibits a higher activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than Pt nanoparticles supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/XC-72). The durability of Pt/GMPC is improved by a factor of ~2 compared with Pt/XC-72. The enhanced activity and durability of Pt/GMPC are attributed to the graphitic structure of GMPC which makes GMPC more resistant to corrosion and the interaction between Pt nanoparticles and GMPC stronger. GMPC is promising as catalyst support. This provides a facile, eco-friendly promising strategy, avoiding the usually used chemical functionalization of carbon support with oxidizing strong acid, to synthesize electrocatalysts with high durability and activity for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. This strategy can be widely applied in synthesizing metal nanoparticles on hydrophobic support materials.

Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Kou, Rong; Wang, Xiqing; Wang, Chong M.; Dai, Sheng; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe

2010-01-01

63

Electrochemical capacitance of self-ordered mesoporous carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacitance properties of the self-ordered mesoporous carbons (CMK-3), from a template of hexagonal self-ordered mesoporous SiO 2 (SBA15) using sucrose as the carbon source, have been investigated. The pore distribution was narrow with a diameter of 3.90 nm and a surface area of 900 m 2/g. Rectangular shape of the cyclic voltammetry was observed even if the scan rate is increased to about 5×10 -2 V/s. Self-ordered mesoporous carbon exhibited a electrochemical double-layer capacitance of 60-90 F/g in scan rate from 5×10 -4 to 5×10 -2 V/s between 1.5 and 3.4 V (Li/Li +). The specific capacitance of 10 ?F/cm 2 was similar to that of the typical value of EDLC. After the 100th cycle, the capacity decreased 20% in comparing with that of the first one.

Zhou, Haoshen; Zhu, Shenmin; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Honma, Itaru

64

Adsorption of pharmaceutical antibiotics on template-synthesized ordered micro- and mesoporous carbons.  

PubMed

The presence of pharmaceutical antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential human health and ecological risks. We synthesized ordered micro- and mesoporous carbons, and further conducted batch experiments to systematically examine their adsorption properties toward three antibiotics, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and tylosin, in aqueous solution. In comparison, nonporous graphite, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and two commercial microporous activated carbons were included as additional adsorbents. Adsorption of low-sized sulfamethoxazole was stronger on the activated carbons than on other carbonaceous adsorbents resulting from the pore-filling effect; in contrast, due to the size-exclusion effect adsorption of bulky tetracycline and tylosin was much lower on the activated carbons, especially for the more microporous one, than on the synthesized carbons. After normalizing for adsorbent surface area, adsorption of tetracycline and tylosin on the synthesized carbons was similar to that on nonporous graphite, reflecting complete accessibility of the adsorbent surface area in adsorption. Additionally, compared with other porous adsorbents the synthesized carbons showed faster adsorption kinetics of tetracycline and tylosin, which was attributed to their regular-shaped, open and interconnected three-dimensional pore structure. The findings indicate that template-synthesized micro- and mesoporous carbons are promising adsorbents for the removal of antibiotics, particularly, the bulky and flexible-structured compounds, from aqueous solution. PMID:20201519

Ji, Liangliang; Liu, Fengling; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

2010-04-15

65

High-performance titanium dioxide photocatalyst on ordered mesoporous carbon support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatase TiO 2 photocatalysts supported with the ordered mesoporous carbon, CMK-3, were synthesized by the incorporation of TiO 2 into CMK-3 followed by heating at 700 °C. The structural properties of the TiO 2 on CMK-3 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption and electron microscopy techniques. In particular, TiO 2 was observed both inside and the external surface of CMK-3. The photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 on CMK-3 under UV-light exhibited higher efficiency in removing the Rhodamine 6G dye solution than the commercial photocatalyst P25 and TiO 2 on activated carbon. It was attributed to the synergistic effect of large surface area adsorption provided by mesoporous CMK-3 and the distinctive location of TiO 2 on the external surface of CMK-3.

Park, In-Soo; Choi, Sun Young; Ha, Jeong Sook

2008-05-01

66

Production of biohydrogen by aqueous phase reforming of polyols over platinum catalysts supported on three-dimensionally bimodal mesoporous carbon.  

PubMed

Now in 3D! Three-dimensionally bimodal carbons (3D-BMC) with mesopores of tunable size (controlled through the polymerization of the carbon precursor) are synthesized. After loading with platinum, the catalysts are used in aqueous phase reforming of polyols, and show superior performance in terms of carbon conversion, hydrogen yield, selectivity, and hydrogen production rate compared to platinum catalysts supported on activated carbon or two-dimensional CMK-3. PMID:22415941

Park, Hyun Ju; Kim, Ho-Dong; Kim, Tae-Wan; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Chung, Young-Min; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Chul-Ung

2012-04-01

67

Synthesis of white light emitting mesoporous carbon-silica nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White light emitting mesoporous carbon-silica (MPCS) was synthesized by serially adding triblock copolymer (Pluronic, F127), ethanol (EtOH), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), hydrochloric acid aqueous (HCl) and phenol-formaldehyde resin (resol) followed by the heat treatments of carbonization and oxidation. The PL intensity of MPCS showed a tendency to be strong with increasing of HCl concentration in >= 0.2 M. The pore size of MPCS that emits white light was 8 ~ 9 nm and the specific surface area was 320 ~ 418 m2 / g.

Sato, Koji; Ishikawa, Yukari; Matsumura, Akihiro; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji

2011-05-01

68

Microporosity development in phenolic resin-based mesoporous carbons for enhancing CO2 adsorption at ambient conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soft-templating method was used to prepare mesoporous carbons. The synthesis in the presence of hydrochloric and citric acids involved resorcinol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors and triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as a template. The as-synthesized samples underwent carbonization in flowing nitrogen at various temperatures; namely 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C. Two routes were used to develop microporosity in the mesoporous carbons studied. The first one involved introduction of tetraethyl orthosilicate to the reaction system. After silica dissolution with NaOH, an increase in microporosity was observed. The second method, chemical activation with KOH at 700 °C, was explored as an alternative approach to create microporosity. It is noteworthy that the TEOS addition not only led to the development of microporosity but also to some improvement of mesoporosity. The post-synthesis KOH activation resulted in more significant increase in the microporosity as compared to the samples obtained by TEOS-assisted synthesis. The mesopore volume was somewhat lower for activated carbons as compared to that in mesoporous carbons. Both methods resulted in micro-mesoporous carbons with good adsorption properties; for instance, in the case of carbons prepared in the presence of TEOS, the best sample exhibited BET surface area of 1463 m2/g and the total pore volume of 1.31 cm3/g. For the KOH activated carbons the best adsorption parameters were as follows: the specific surface area = 1906 m2/g, and the total pore volume = 0.98 cm3/g. Both procedures used for microporosity development afforded carbons with good adsorption properties that can be useful for applications such as CO2 adsorption, air and water purification.

Choma, Jerzy; Jedynak, Katarzyna; Fahrenholz, Weronika; Ludwinowicz, Jowita; Jaroniec, Mietek

2014-01-01

69

Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction  

SciTech Connect

We report a durable electrocatalyst support, highly graphitized mesoporous carbon (GMPC), for oxygen reduction in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. GMPC is prepared through graphitizing the self-assembled soft-template mesoporous carbon (MPC) under high temperature. Heat-treatment at 2800 C greatly improves the degree of graphitization while most of the mesoporous structures and the specific surface area of MPC are retained. GMPC is then noncovalently functionalized with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and loaded with Pt nanoparticles by reducing Pt precursor (H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}) in ethylene glycol. Pt nanoparticles of {approx}3.0 nm in diameter are uniformly dispersed on GMPC. Compared to Pt supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black (Pt/XC-72), Pt/GMPC exhibits a higher mass activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the mass activity retention (in percentage) is improved by a factor of {approx}2 after 44 h accelerated degradation test under the potential step (1.4-0.85 V) electrochemical stressing condition which focuses on support corrosion. The enhanced activity and durability of Pt/GMPC are attributed to the graphitic structure of GMPC which is more resistant to corrosion. These findings demonstrate that GMPC is a promising oxygen reduction electrocatalyst support for PEM fuel cells. The approach reported in this work provides a facile, eco-friendly promising strategy for synthesizing stable metal nanoparticles on hydrophobic support materials.

Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Engelhard, Mark H [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Congmin [ORNL; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); YANG, ZHENGUO [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lin, Yuehe [ORNL; Shao, Yuyan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2010-01-01

70

Direct Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis of Hemoglobin at Mesoporous Carbon Modified Electrode  

PubMed Central

The novel highly ordered mesoporous carbon (known as FDU-15), prepared by the organic-organic self-assembly method was been used for first time for the immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) and its bioelectrochemical properties were studied. The resulting Hb/FDU-15 film provided a favorable microenvironment for Hb to perform direct electron transfers at the electrode. The immobilized Hb also displayed its good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The results demonstrate that mesoporous carbon FDU-15 can improve the Hb loading with retention of its bioactivity and greatly promote the direct electron transfer, which can be attributed to its high specific surface area, uniform ordered porous structure, suitable pore size and biocompatibility. Our present study may provide an alternative way for the construction of nanostructure biofunctional surfaces and pave the way for its application to biosensors.

Pei, Supeng; Qu, Song; Zhang, Yongming

2010-01-01

71

Nitrogen-rich mesoporous carbon derived from melamine with high electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melamine-derived N-doped mesoporous carbon (MNMC) is synthesized by the pyrolysis of lysine and melamineunder at nitrogen atmosphere using ferric chloride as a dopant and SiO2 nanoparticles as hard templates to form mesoporous architecture. The N content in the bulk of carbon materials is as high as 11.3% and ca. 40.6% of N is in the form of pyridinic-N. The surface area of MNMC is ca. 650 m2 g-1 with a pore size distribution in the range of 2.2-34.5 nm. Compared to commercial Pt/C (20 wt%), MNMC exhibits much better electrocatalytic activity, better durability, and higher methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium. Particularly, the onset ORR potential and half-wave ORR potential of MNMC are 1.059 and 0.871 V vs. RHE respectively, which are higher than those of commercial Pt/C.

Wang, Rongfang; Zhou, Tiaobao; Li, Hao; Wang, Hui; Feng, Hanqing; Goh, Jonathan; Ji, Shan

72

Manganese monoxide nanoparticles adhered to mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbons for nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese monoxide nanoparticles adhered to mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbons (MnO-m-N-C) have been synthesized and their influence on cycle performance of nonaqueous lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries is investigated. It is found that the MnO-m-N-C composites promote both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions. They lead to reduced charge overpotentials through early decomposition of the Li2O2 particles formed on discharge, especially at the limited depth of discharge during the initial several ten cycles. Such superior activity is attributed to the good coupling between the nanosized MnO particles and the conductive mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbons, which is helpful for improving kinetics of both charge and mass transport during the cathode reactions.

Cui, Z. H.; Guo, X. X.

2014-12-01

73

Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

2012-11-01

74

Nanocrystalline intermetallics on mesoporous carbon for direct formic acid fuel cell anodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape- and size-controlled supported metal and intermetallic nanocrystallites are of increasing interest because of their catalytic and electrocatalytic properties. In particular, intermetallics PtX (X = Bi, Pb, Pd, Ru) are very attractive because of their high activity as fuel-cell anode catalysts for formic acid or methanol oxidation. These are normally synthesized using high-temperature techniques, but rigorous size control is very challenging. Even low-temperature techniques typically produce nanoparticles with dimensions much greater than the optimum <6 nm required for fuel cell catalysis. Here, we present a simple and robust, chemically controlled process for synthesizing size-controlled noble metal or bimetallic nanocrystallites embedded within the porous structure of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). By using surface-modified ordered mesoporous carbon to trap the metal precursors, nanocrystallites are formed with monodisperse sizes as low as 1.5 nm, which can be tuned up to ~3.5 nm. To the best of our knowledge, 3-nm ordered mesoporous carbon-supported PtBi nanoparticles exhibit the highest mass activity for formic acid oxidation reported to date, and over double that of Pt-Au.

Ji, Xiulei; Lee, Kyu Tae; Holden, Reanne; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Couillard, Martin; Nazar, Linda F.

2010-04-01

75

Nanocrystalline intermetallics on mesoporous carbon for direct formic acid fuel cell anodes.  

PubMed

Shape- and size-controlled supported metal and intermetallic nanocrystallites are of increasing interest because of their catalytic and electrocatalytic properties. In particular, intermetallics PtX (X = Bi, Pb, Pd, Ru) are very attractive because of their high activity as fuel-cell anode catalysts for formic acid or methanol oxidation. These are normally synthesized using high-temperature techniques, but rigorous size control is very challenging. Even low-temperature techniques typically produce nanoparticles with dimensions much greater than the optimum <6 nm required for fuel cell catalysis. Here, we present a simple and robust, chemically controlled process for synthesizing size-controlled noble metal or bimetallic nanocrystallites embedded within the porous structure of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). By using surface-modified ordered mesoporous carbon to trap the metal precursors, nanocrystallites are formed with monodisperse sizes as low as 1.5 nm, which can be tuned up to ?3.5 nm. To the best of our knowledge, 3-nm ordered mesoporous carbon-supported PtBi nanoparticles exhibit the highest mass activity for formic acid oxidation reported to date, and over double that of Pt-Au. PMID:21124509

Ji, Xiulei; Lee, Kyu Tae; Holden, Reanne; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun; Botton, Gianluigi A; Couillard, Martin; Nazar, Linda F

2010-04-01

76

Platinum catalyst on ordered mesoporous carbon with controlled morphology for methanol electrochemical oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordered mesoporous carbons CMK-3 with various morphologies are synthesized by using various mesoporous silica SBA-15 as template and then support to prepare Pt/CMK-3 catalyst. The obtained catalysts are compared in terms of the electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation in sulfuric acidic solutions. The structure characterizations and electrochemical analysis reveal that Pt catalysts with the CMK-3 support of large particle size and long channel lengths possess larger electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) and higher activity toward methanol oxidation than those with the other two supports. The better performance of Pt/CMK-3 catalyst may be due to the larger area of electrode/electrolyte interface and larger ECSA value of Pt catalyst, which will provide better structure in favor of the mass transport and the electron transport.

Kong, Ling-Bin; Li, Heng; Zhang, Jing; Luo, Yong-Chun; Kang, Long

2010-09-01

77

Bimodal mesoporous carbon synthesized from large organic precursor and amphiphilic tri-block copolymer by self assembly  

SciTech Connect

Owing to several disadvantages of traditional hard template based synthesis, soft-template or self-assembly was adopted to synthesize mesoporous carbon. In this work, we have introduced hexaphenol as a new and large organic precursor for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon by self-assembly with pluronic P123 as structure dictating agent. The resultant mesoporous carbon is bimodal in nature with median pore widths of 29 and 45 and BET surface area of 312 m2/g. Unlike previously synthesized mesoporous carbon, this carbon possesses negligible micropore volume. This mesoporous carbon is very suitable candidate for several applications including membrane separation, chemical sensor or selective sorption of larger molecules.

Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL

2012-01-01

78

Activated carbon aerogels  

SciTech Connect

Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-12-25

79

A simple method to ordered mesoporous carbons containing nickel nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

A series of ordered mesoporous carbons containing magnetic Ni nanoparticles (Ni-OMCs) with a variety of Ni loadings was made by a simple one-pot synthetic procedure through carbonization of phenolic resin-Pluronic block copolymer composites containing various amount of nickel nitrate. Such composite materials were characterized by N{sub 2} sorption, XRD, and STEM. Ni-OMCs exhibited high BET surface area, uniform pore size, and large pore volume without obvious pore blockage with a Ni loading as high as 15 wt%. Ni nanoparticles were crystalline with a face-center-cubic phase and observed mainly in the carbon matrix and on the outer surface as well. The average particle size of Ni nanoparticles was dependent on the preparation (carbonization) temperature and Ni loading; the higher the temperature was used and the more the Ni was incorporated, the larger the Ni nanoparticles were observed. One of the applications of Ni-OMCs was demonstrated as magnetically separable adsorbents.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL

2009-01-01

80

Preparation of mesoporous activated carbon from palm-date pits: optimization study on removal of bentazon, carbofuran, and 2,4-D using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Palm-date pits were used to prepare activated carbon by physiochemical activation method, which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gasification. The effects of variable parameters, activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation ratios (KOH: char by weight) on the preparation of activated carbon and for removal of pesticides: bentazon, carbofuran and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD), two factor interaction (2FI) and quadratic models were respectively employed to correlate the effect of variable parameters on the preparation of activated carbon used for removal of pesticides with carbon yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from palm-date pits were found to be: activation temperature of 850 °C, activation time of 3 h and chemical impregnation ratio of 3.75, which resulted in an activated carbon yield of 19.5% and bentazon, carbofuran, and 2,4-D removal of 84, 83, and 93%, respectively. PMID:24135098

Salman, J M; Abid, F M

2013-01-01

81

Template Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Cubic Ordered Mesoporous Carbon With Tunable Pore Sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional cubic ordered mesoporous carbons with tunable pore sizes have been synthesized by using cubic Ia3d mesoporous KIT-6 silica as the hard template and boric acid as the pore expanding agent. The prepared ordered mesoporous carbons were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The results show that the pore sizes of the prepared ordered mesoporous carbons with three-dimensional cubic structure can be regulated in the range of 3.9-9.4 nm. A simplified model was proposed to analyze the tailored pore sizes of the prepared ordered mesoporous carbons on the basis of the structural parameters of the silica template.

Dai, Weijie; Zheng, Mingbo; Zhao, Yu; Liao, Shutian; Ji, Guangbin; Cao, Jieming

2010-01-01

82

Combining nitrogen, argon, and water adsorption for advanced characterization of ordered mesoporous carbons (CMKs) and periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs).  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous CMK carbons and periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials have been characterized by combining nitrogen (77.4 K) and argon (87.3 K) adsorption with recently developed quenched solid density functional theory (QSDFT). Systematic, high-resolution water adsorption experiments have been performed in the temperature range from 298 to 318 K in order to ascertain the effect of surface chemistry (using periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) of given pore size) and pore size/pore geometry (using CMK-3, CMK-8 carbons) on the adsorption, pore filling, condensation and hysteresis behavior. These data reveal how the interplay between confined geometry effects and the strength of the adsorption forces influence the adsorption, wetting, and phase behavior of pore fluids. Further, our results indicate that water adsorption is quite sensitive to both small changes in pore structure and surface chemistry, showing the potential of water adsorption as a powerful complementary tool for the characterization of nanoporous solids. PMID:24188008

Thommes, Matthias; Morell, Jürgen; Cychosz, Katie A; Fröba, Michael

2013-12-01

83

Mesoporous carbon nanofibers with a high surface area electrospun from thermoplastic polyvinylpyrrolidone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been synthesized from thermoplastic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using electrospinning in combination with a novel three-step heat treatment process, which successfully stabilizes the fibrous morphology before carbonization that was proven to be difficult for thermoplastic polymers other than polyacrylonitrile (PAN). These CNFs are both mesoporous and microporous with high surface areas without subsequent activation, and thus overcome the limitations of PAN based CNFs, and are processed in an environmentally friendly and more cost effective manner. The effects of heat treatment parameters and precursor concentration on the morphologies and porous properties of CNFs have been investigated, and their application as anodes for lithium ion batteries has also been demonstrated.

Wang, Peiqi; Zhang, Dan; Ma, Feiyue; Ou, Yun; Chen, Qian Nataly; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Jiangyu

2012-10-01

84

Hydrogenation of succinic acid to 1,4-butanediol over rhenium catalyst supported on copper-containing mesoporous carbon.  

PubMed

Copper-containing mesoporous carbon (Cu-MC) was prepared by a single-step surfactant-templating method. For comparison, copper-impregnated mesoporous carbon (Cu/MC) was also prepared by a surfactant-templating method and a subsequent impregnation method. Rhenium catalysts supported on copper-containing mesoporous carbon and copper-impregnated mesoporous carbon (Re/Cu-MC and Re/Cu/MC, respectively) were then prepared by an incipient wetness method, and they were applied to the liquid-phase hydrogenation of succinic acid to 1,4-butanediol (BDO). It was observed that copper in the Re/Cu-MC catalyst was well incorporated into carbon framework, resulting in higher surface area and larger pore volume than those of Re/Cu/MC catalyst. Therefore, Re/Cu-MC catalyst showed higher copper dispersion than Re/Cu/MC catalyst, although both catalysts retained the same amounts of copper and rhenium. In the liquid-phase hydrogenation of succinic acid to BDO, Re/Cu-MC catalyst showed a better catalytic activity than Re/Cu/MC catalyst. Fine dispersion of copper in the Re/Cu-MC catalyst was responsible for its enhanced catalytic activity. PMID:24245272

Hong, Ung Gi; Park, Hai Woong; Lee, Joongwon; Hwang, Sunhwan; Kwak, Jimin; Yi, Jongheop; Song, In Kyu

2013-11-01

85

Phosphorylated mesoporous carbon as effective catalyst for the selective fructose dehydration to HMF  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorylated mesoporous carbons (PMCs) have been synthesized using an already reported one pot methodology. These materials have been applied as acidic catalysts in the dehydration of fructose to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). PMCs showed better selectivity to HMF compared to sulfonated carbon catalyst (SC) despite lower activity. The concentration of P-O groups correlates to the activity/selectivity of the catalysts; the higher the P-O concentration the higher the activity. However, the higher the P-O content the lower the selectivity to HMF. Indeed a lower concentration of the P-O groups (and even the acidic groups) minimized the degradation of HMF to levulinic acid and the formation of by-products, such as humines. Stability tests showed that these systems deactivate due to the formation of humines, water insoluble by-products derived from the dehydration of fructose, blocking the active site of the catalyst. Increasing the amount of P-O groups, higher amount of humines are formed; therefore carbons containing lower amount of phosphorylated groups, such as P/N-0.25, are less prone to deactivation. Keywords: Phosphorylated mesoporous carbons; fructose dehydration; HMF

Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Schiavoni, Marco [University of Milan and INFN, Milano, Italy; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

2013-01-01

86

Morphology-dependent Li storage performance of ordered mesoporous carbon as anode material.  

PubMed

Rod-shaped ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) with different lengths, prepared by replication method using the corresponding size-tunable SBA-15 silicas with the same rodlike morphology as templates, are explored as anode material for Li-ion battery. All of the as-synthesized OMCs exhibit much higher Li storage capacity and better cyclability along with comparable rate capability as compared with commercial graphite. Particularly, the OMC-3 with the shortest length demonstrates the highest reversible discharge capacity of 1012 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and better cyclability with 86.6% retention of initial capacity after 100 cycles. Although the Coulombic efficiencies of all the OMCs are relatively low at the beginning, they improve promptly and after 10 cycles reach the level comparable to commercial graphite. Based on their specific capacity, cycle efficiency, and rate capability, the OMC-3 outperforms considerably its carbon peers, OMC-1 and OMC-2 with longer length. This behavior is mainly attributed to higher specific surface area, which provides more active sites for Li adsorption and storage along with the larger mesopore volume and shorter mesopore channels, which facilitate fast Li ion diffusion and electrolyte transport. The enhancement in reversible Li storage performance with decrease in the channel length is also supported by low solid electrolyte interphase resistance, contact resistance, and Warburg impedance in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. PMID:23688326

Kim, Min-Sik; Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Fang, Baizeng; Yang, Dae-Soo; Bae, Tae-Sung; Yu, Jong-Sung

2013-06-01

87

Dual-pore mesoporous carbon@silica composite core-shell nanospheres for multidrug delivery.  

PubMed

Monodispersed mesoporous phenolic polymer nanospheres with uniform diameters were prepared and used as the core for the further growth of core-shell mesoporous nanorattles. The hierarchical mesoporous nanospheres have a uniform diameter of 200?nm and dual-ordered mesopores of 3.1 and 5.8?nm. The hierarchical mesostructure and amphiphilicity of the hydrophobic carbon cores and hydrophilic silica shells lead to distinct benefits in multidrug combination therapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel for the treatment of human ovarian cancer, even drug-resistant strains. PMID:24764082

Fang, Yin; Zheng, Gengfeng; Yang, Jianping; Tang, Haosha; Zhang, Yafeng; Kong, Biao; Lv, Yingying; Xu, Congjian; Asiri, Abdullah M; Zi, Jian; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Dongyuan

2014-05-19

88

Optimization of mesoporous carbons for efficient adsorption of berberine hydrochloride from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Sixteen mesoporous carbon adsorbents were synthesized by varying the ratio of soft to hard templates in order to optimize the pore textural properties of these adsorbents. The mesoporous carbon adsorbents have a high BET specific surface area (1590.3-2193.5m(2)/g), large pore volume (1.72-2.56cm(3)/g), and uniform pore size distribution with a median pore diameter ranging from 3.51nm to 4.52nm. It was observed that pore textural properties of the carbon adsorbents critically depend on the molar ratio of carbon sources to templates, and the hard template plays a more important role than the soft template in manipulating the pore textures. Adsorption isotherms of berberine hydrochloride at 303K were measured to evaluate the adsorption efficacy of these adsorbents. The adsorption of berberine hydrochloride from aqueous solutions on the sixteen mesoporous carbon adsorbents synthesized in this work is very efficient, and the adsorption equilibrium capacities on all samples are more than double the adsorption capacities of berberine hydrochloride of the benchmark adsorbents (polymer resins and spherical activated carbons) at similar conditions. It was observed from the adsorption experiments that the equilibrium adsorption amounts of berberine hydrochloride are strongly correlated with the BET specific surface area and pore volume of the adsorbents. The adsorbent with the highest BET of 2193.5m(2)/g displayed the largest adsorption capacity of 574mg/g at an equilibrium concentration of 0.10mg/mL of berberine hydrochloride in an aqueous solution. PMID:24767505

Li, Yin; Fu, Jie; Deng, Shuguang; Lu, Xiuyang

2014-06-15

89

Development of amperometric glucose biosensor through immobilizing enzyme in a Pt nanoparticles\\/mesoporous carbon matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pt nanoparticles were deposited on mesoporous carbon material CMK-3. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized in the resulting Pt nanoparticles\\/mesoporous carbon (Pt\\/CMK-3) matrix, and then the mixture was cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using gelatin as a binder. The glucose biosensor exhibited excellent current response to glucose after cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. At 0.6V (vs. SCE) the response current was

Jingjing Yu; Donglei Yu; Tian Zhao; Baizhao Zeng

2008-01-01

90

Influence of pore structure on electric double-layer capacitance of template mesoporous carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of two types of mesoporous carbons with different pore structures (i.e. unimodal and bimodal) as electrode material in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor has been analyzed. The carbon samples were prepared using mesostructured silica materials (MSM) as templating agents. The unimodal mesoporous carbon has a BET surface area of 1550m2g?1, and a pore volume of 1.03cm3g?1; the porosity is

Antonio B Fuertes; Fernando Pico; Jose M Rojo

2004-01-01

91

Ion-selective electrodes with colloid-imprinted mesoporous carbon as solid contact.  

PubMed

A new type of solid-contact ion-selective electrode (SC-ISE) has been developed that uses colloid-imprinted mesoporous (CIM) carbon with 24 nm diameter, interconnected mesopores as the intermediate layer between a gold electrode and an ionophore-doped ISE membrane. For a demonstration, valinomycin was used as K(+) ionophore, and a good Nernstian response with a slope of 59.5 mV/decade in the range from 10(-5.2) to 10(-1.0) M was observed. The high purity, low content of redox-active surface functional groups and intrinsic hydrophobic characteristics of CIM carbon prepared from mesophase pitch lead to outstanding performance of these sensors, with excellent resistance to the formation of a water layer and no interference caused by light, O2, and CO2. When a redox couple is introduced as an internal reference species, calibration-free SC-ISEs can be made with a standard deviation of E° as low as 0.7 mV. Moreover, the interconnected mesopore structure of ISE membrane-infused CIM carbon facilitates both ion and electron conduction and provides a large interfacial area with good ion-to-electron transduction. Because of the large double layer capacitance of CIM carbon, CIM carbon-based SC-ISEs exhibit excellent potential stability, as shown by chronopotentiometry and continuous potentiometric measurements. The capacitance of these electrodes as determined by chronopotentiometry is 1.0 mF, and the emf drift over 70 h is as low as 1.3 ?V/h, making these electrodes the most stable SC-ISEs reported so far. PMID:24983327

Hu, Jinbo; Zou, Xu U; Stein, Andreas; Bühlmann, Philippe

2014-07-15

92

Enhanced capacitive deionization of graphene/mesoporous carbon composites.  

PubMed

Capacitive deionization (CDI) with low-energy consumption and no secondary waste is emerging as a novel desalination technology. Graphene/mesoporous carbon (GE/MC) composites have been prepared via a direct triblock-copolymer-templating method and used as CDI electrodes for the first time. The influences of GE content on the textural properties and electrochemical performance were studied. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis indicate that mesoporous structures are well retained and the composites display improved specific surface area and pore size distribution, as well as pore volume. Well dispersed GE nanosheets are deduced to be beneficial for enhanced electrical conductivity. The electrochemical performance of electrodes in an NaCl aqueous solution was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrodes perform better on the capacitance values, conductive behaviour, rate performance and cyclic stability. The desalination capacity of the electrodes was evaluated by a batch mode electrosorptive experiment and the amount of adsorbed ions can reach 731 ?g g?¹ for the GE/MC composite electrode with a GE content of 5 wt%, which is much higher than that of MC alone (590 ?g g?¹). The enhanced CDI performance of the composite electrodes can be attributed to the better conductive behaviour and higher specific surface area. PMID:22836788

Zhang, Dengsong; Wen, Xiaoru; Shi, Liyi; Yan, Tingting; Zhang, Jianping

2012-09-01

93

An ordered mesoporous carbon\\/didodecyldimethylammonium bromide composite and its application in the electro-catalytic reduction of nitrobenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) material was prepared. This material was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2-adsorption isotherms. For the application of OMC, an OMC\\/didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) composite was prepared and used as electrode modification material. The glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with this composite exhibit electro-catalytic activity toward the reduction of nitrobenzene (NB), which

Bin Qi; Fanyun Lin; Jing Bai; Lin Liu; Liping Guo

2008-01-01

94

Synthesis, characterization and magnetic performance of Co-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbons  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile one-pot aqueous self-assembly strategy for the synthesis Co-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbons (Co-OMCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-OMCs exhibit typical ferromagnetic characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Saturation magnetization strength can be easily adjusted by changing the content of cobalt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization temperatures have significant effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Co-OMCs. -- Abstract: Co-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbon (Co-OMC) with magnetic frameworks has been synthesized via a one-pot self-assembly strategy. The effects of cobalt loading on carbon matrix, adsorption properties and magnetic properties of the resultant mesostructured cobalt/carbon composites were investigated by nitrogen sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and magnetometer measurements. The results show that the mesoporous composites with a high cobalt content (such as 18.0 wt%) possess an ordered and uniform mesoporous structure (5.3 nm), high surface areas (up to 687 m{sup 2}/g) and high pore volumes (up to 0.54 cm{sup 3}/g). Cobalt nanoparticles of size 4-9 nm are confined inside the mesopores or walls of the mesoporous carbon. These materials exhibit typical ferromagnetic characteristics. The saturation magnetization strength can be easily adjusted by changing the content of cobalt. The carbonization temperatures have significant effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Co-OMC also.

Liu, Zhi, E-mail: zhiliu@lnnu.edu.cn [Institute of Chemistry for Functionalized Materials, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [Institute of Chemistry for Functionalized Materials, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Song, Yan; Yang, Yuan; Mi, Junhua; Deng, Liping [Institute of Chemistry for Functionalized Materials, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [Institute of Chemistry for Functionalized Materials, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)

2012-02-15

95

Template-assisted synthesis of mesoporous tubular carbon nanostructure by chemical vapor infiltration method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel synthesis route for fabrication of tubule mesoporous carbon by chemical vapor infiltration method using a mesoporous silica template is reported. Powder X-ray diffraction and pore size analysis revealed that the nano-sized carbon material consists of three-dimensional framework structure and possesses a bimodal pore distribution with average pore diameters of 1.5 and 3.3 nm. The formation of the former

A. Y. Lo; S. J. Huang; W. H. Chen; Y. R. Peng; C. T. Kuo; S. B. Liu

2006-01-01

96

Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon for Carbon Capture A Molecular Simulation Study  

SciTech Connect

Using molecular simulation, we investigate the effect of nitrogen doping on adsorption capacity and selectivity of CO{sub 2} versus N{sub 2} in model mesoporous carbon. We show that nitrogen doping greatly enhances CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity; with a 7 wt % dopant concentration, the adsorption capacity at 1 bar and 298 K increases from 3 to 12 mmol/g (or 48% uptake by weight). This great enhancement is due to the preferred interaction between CO{sub 2} and the electronegative nitrogen. The nitrogen doping coupled with the mesoporosity also leads to a much higher working capacity for adsorption of the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. In addition, the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity is almost 5 times greater than in nondoped carbon at ambient conditions. This work indicates that nitrogen doping is a promising strategy to create mesoporous carbons for high-capacity, selective carbon capture.

Babarao, Ravichandar [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

2012-01-01

97

Enhanced capacitive deionization of graphene/mesoporous carbon composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capacitive deionization (CDI) with low-energy consumption and no secondary waste is emerging as a novel desalination technology. Graphene/mesoporous carbon (GE/MC) composites have been prepared via a direct triblock-copolymer-templating method and used as CDI electrodes for the first time. The influences of GE content on the textural properties and electrochemical performance were studied. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis indicate that mesoporous structures are well retained and the composites display improved specific surface area and pore size distribution, as well as pore volume. Well dispersed GE nanosheets are deduced to be beneficial for enhanced electrical conductivity. The electrochemical performance of electrodes in an NaCl aqueous solution was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrodes perform better on the capacitance values, conductive behaviour, rate performance and cyclic stability. The desalination capacity of the electrodes was evaluated by a batch mode electrosorptive experiment and the amount of adsorbed ions can reach 731 ?g g-1 for the GE/MC composite electrode with a GE content of 5 wt%, which is much higher than that of MC alone (590 ?g g-1). The enhanced CDI performance of the composite electrodes can be attributed to the better conductive behaviour and higher specific surface area.Capacitive deionization (CDI) with low-energy consumption and no secondary waste is emerging as a novel desalination technology. Graphene/mesoporous carbon (GE/MC) composites have been prepared via a direct triblock-copolymer-templating method and used as CDI electrodes for the first time. The influences of GE content on the textural properties and electrochemical performance were studied. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis indicate that mesoporous structures are well retained and the composites display improved specific surface area and pore size distribution, as well as pore volume. Well dispersed GE nanosheets are deduced to be beneficial for enhanced electrical conductivity. The electrochemical performance of electrodes in an NaCl aqueous solution was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrodes perform better on the capacitance values, conductive behaviour, rate performance and cyclic stability. The desalination capacity of the electrodes was evaluated by a batch mode electrosorptive experiment and the amount of adsorbed ions can reach 731 ?g g-1 for the GE/MC composite electrode with a GE content of 5 wt%, which is much higher than that of MC alone (590 ?g g-1). The enhanced CDI performance of the composite electrodes can be attributed to the better conductive behaviour and higher specific surface area. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details. XRD patterns, TEM image and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms of the samples. Cyclic voltammograms and galvanostatic charge-discharge curves of the GE/MC electrodes. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31154b

Zhang, Dengsong; Wen, Xiaoru; Shi, Liyi; Yan, Tingting; Zhang, Jianping

2012-08-01

98

Transition metal ion capture using functional mesoporous carbon made with 1,10-phenanthroline?  

PubMed Central

Functional mesoporous carbon has been built using 1,10-phenanthroline as the fundamental building block, resulting in a nanoporous, high surface area sorbent capable of selectively binding transition metal ions. This material had a specific surface area of 870 m2/g, an average pore size of about 30 Å, and contained as much as 8.2 wt% N. Under acidic conditions, where the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand is protonated, this material was found to be an effective anion exchange material for transition metal anions like PdCl42- and H2VO41-. 1,10-Phenanthroline functionalized mesoporous carbon (“Phen-FMC”) was found to have a high affinity for Cu(II), even down to a pH of 1. At pHs above 5, Phen-FMC was found to bind a variety of transition metal cations (e.g. Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), etc.) from filtered ground water, river water and seawater. Phen-FMC displayed rapid sorption kinetics with Co(II) in filtered river water, reaching equilibrium in less than an hour, and easily lowering the [Co(II)] to sub-ppb levels. Phen-FMC was found to be more effective for transition metal ion capture than ion-exchange resin or activated carbon.

Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Yantasee, Wassana; Shin, Yongsoon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.

2012-01-01

99

Transition metal ion capture using functional mesoporous carbon made with 1,10-phenanthroline  

SciTech Connect

Functional mesoporous carbon has been built using 1,10-phenanthroline as the fundamental building block, resulting in a nanoporous, high surface area sorbent capable of selectively binding transition metal ions. This material had a specific surface area of 870 m2/g, an average pore size of about 30Å, and contained as much as 8.2 weight percent N. Under acidic conditions, where the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand is protonated, this material was found to be an effective anion exchange material for transition metal anions like PdCl4-2 and H2VO4-1. 1,10-phenanthroline functionalized mesoporous carbon (“Phen-FMC”) was found to have a high affinity for Cu(II), even down to a pH of 1. At pHs above 5, Phen-FMC was found to bind a variety of transition metal cations (e.g. Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), etc.) from filtered ground water, river water and seawater. Phen-FMC displayed rapid sorption kinetics with Co(II) in filtered river water, reaching equilibrium in less than an hour, and easily lowering the [Co(II)] to sub-ppb levels. Phen-FMC was found to be more effective for transition metal ion capture than ion exchange resin or activated carbon.

Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Yantasee, Wassana; Shin, Yongsoon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.

2009-11-01

100

Transition metal ion capture using functional mesoporous carbon made with 1,10-phenanthroline.  

PubMed

Functional mesoporous carbon has been built using 1,10-phenanthroline as the fundamental building block, resulting in a nanoporous, high surface area sorbent capable of selectively binding transition metal ions. This material had a specific surface area of 870 m(2)/g, an average pore size of about 30 Å, and contained as much as 8.2 wt% N. Under acidic conditions, where the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand is protonated, this material was found to be an effective anion exchange material for transition metal anions like [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. 1,10-Phenanthroline functionalized mesoporous carbon ("Phen-FMC") was found to have a high affinity for Cu(II), even down to a pH of 1. At pHs above 5, Phen-FMC was found to bind a variety of transition metal cations (e.g. Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), etc.) from filtered ground water, river water and seawater. Phen-FMC displayed rapid sorption kinetics with Co(II) in filtered river water, reaching equilibrium in less than an hour, and easily lowering the [Co(II)] to sub-ppb levels. Phen-FMC was found to be more effective for transition metal ion capture than ion-exchange resin or activated carbon. PMID:23762013

Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Yantasee, Wassana; Shin, Yongsoon; Grudzien, Rafal M; Fryxell, Glen E

2009-11-01

101

Influence of pore structure on electric double-layer capacitance of template mesoporous carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of two types of mesoporous carbons with different pore structures (i.e. unimodal and bimodal) as electrode material in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor has been analyzed. The carbon samples were prepared using mesostructured silica materials (MSM) as templating agents. The unimodal mesoporous carbon has a BET surface area of 1550 m 2 g -1, and a pore volume of 1.03 cm 3 g -1; the porosity is mainly made up of structural mesopores of ca. 3 nm that exhibit a narrow pore size distribution (PSD). The bimodal carbon shows larger surface area (1730 m 2 g -1) and larger pore volume (1.50 cm 3 g -1); the porosity is composed of two types of mesopores: structural (size around 3 nm) and complementary (size around 16 nm) mesopores. Both carbons show a disordered 3-D pore structure. Heat treatments at high temperatures (1000 °C) for long times (11 h) do not significantly change the pore structure with respect to the two synthesised carbons (800 °C). From the synthesized and heat-treated carbons, electrodes were processed as composites in which the carbons, polivinilidene fluoride (PVDF) and carbon black (CB) were the components. The effect of the heat treatment and relative CB content on specific capacitance, energy density and power density were studied. We found a specific capacitance of 200 F g -1 for low current density (1 mA cm -2) and 110 F g -1 for high current density (150 mA cm -2 ). Moreover, the curve of the specific capacitance versus current density shows three regimes, which are related to the three types of pore: micropores, structural mesopores and complementary mesopores. An energy density of 3 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 300 W kg -1 was obtained in some particular cases.

Fuertes, Antonio B.; Pico, Fernando; Rojo, Jose M.

102

Synthesis and microwave absorbing properties of FeNi alloy incorporated ordered mesoporous carbon-silica nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordered mesoporous carbon-silica/FeNi nanocomposite were prepared by a sol-gel method and following sintering process. The electromagnetic parameters were measured in the 0.5-18 GHz range. Compared with ordered mesoporous carbon-silica composite, the permittivity of ordered mesoporous carbon-silica/FeNi nanocomposite decreases, while the permeability almost remains unchanged. The optimal reflection loss of ordered mesoporous carbon-silica/FeNi nanocomposite can reach -45.6 dB at 11.1 GHz for a layer thickness of 3.0 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption of the mesoporous carbon-silica/FeNi nanocomposite is due to better balance between the complex permittivity and permeability, geometrical effect, as well as multiple reflections by the ordered mesoporous structure.

Li, Guoxian; Guo, Yunxia; Sun, Xin; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Jianhua; He, Jianping

2012-11-01

103

A facile synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous carbon monolith with mechanically stable mesostructure and superior conductivity from SBA15 powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly ordered mesoporous carbon monolith has been successfully synthesized from the template of SBA-15 powder. Interestingly, not only the size and shape of the mesoporous carbon monolith could be simply tailored by controlling the size and shape of a vessel, but also macrocracks on the carbon monolith could be avoided. X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM),

Lifeng Wang; Sen Lin; Kaifeng Lin; Chengyang Yin; Desheng Liang; Yan Di; Peiwei Fan; Dazhen Jiang; Feng-Shou Xiao

2005-01-01

104

Influence of spatial configurations on electromagnetic interference shielding of ordered mesoporous carbon/ordered mesoporous silica/silica composites.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs), obtained by nanocasting using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) as hard templates, exhibit unique arrangements of ordered regular nanopore/nanowire mesostructures. Here, we used nanocasting combined with hot-pressing to prepare 10 wt% OMC/OMS/SiO2 ternary composites possessing various carbon mesostructure configurations of different dimensionalities (1D isolated CS41 carbon nanowires, 2D hexagonal CMK-3 carbon, and 3D cubic CMK-1 carbon). The electric/dielectric properties and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency (SE) of the composites were influenced by spatial configurations of carbon networks. The complex permittivity and the EMI SE of the composites in the X-band frequency range decreased for the carbon mesostructures in the following order: CMK-3-filled > CMK-1-filled > CS41-filled. Our study provides technical directions for designing and preparing high-performance EMI shielding materials. Our OMC-based silica composites can be used for EMI shielding, especially in high-temperature or corrosive environments, owing to the high stability of the OMC/OMS fillers and the SiO2 matrix. Related shielding mechanisms are also discussed. PMID:24248277

Wang, Jiacheng; Zhou, Hu; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

2013-01-01

105

Influence of spatial configurations on electromagnetic interference shielding of ordered mesoporous carbon/ordered mesoporous silica/silica composites  

PubMed Central

Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs), obtained by nanocasting using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) as hard templates, exhibit unique arrangements of ordered regular nanopore/nanowire mesostructures. Here, we used nanocasting combined with hot-pressing to prepare 10 wt% OMC/OMS/SiO2 ternary composites possessing various carbon mesostructure configurations of different dimensionalities (1D isolated CS41 carbon nanowires, 2D hexagonal CMK-3 carbon, and 3D cubic CMK-1 carbon). The electric/dielectric properties and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency (SE) of the composites were influenced by spatial configurations of carbon networks. The complex permittivity and the EMI SE of the composites in the X-band frequency range decreased for the carbon mesostructures in the following order: CMK-3-filled > CMK-1-filled > CS41-filled. Our study provides technical directions for designing and preparing high-performance EMI shielding materials. Our OMC-based silica composites can be used for EMI shielding, especially in high-temperature or corrosive environments, owing to the high stability of the OMC/OMS fillers and the SiO2 matrix. Related shielding mechanisms are also discussed.

Wang, Jiacheng; Zhou, Hu; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

2013-01-01

106

Methane gas storage in self-ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized one kind of hexagonal mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) using hexagonal SBA-15 mesoporous silica as a template. The surface area of the CMK-3 is about 950 m 2/g, and pore is uniform with a size of 3.90 nm according to the N 2 isotherm curve. The amount of adsorbed methane gas is 81.35 mg/g {= 117.33 ml (STP)/g} at the high pressure 35 kg/cm 2 at room temperature 298 K. The experimental results satisfy an extended Dubinin-Radushkevitch (DR) {ln N = ln NL - (? G/ ?E0) 2} plot even in the mesopore range.

Zhou, Haoshen; Zhu, Shenmin; Honma, Itaru; Seki, Kenji

2004-10-01

107

Highly ordered magnetic mesoporous silicas for effective elimination of carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalysts based on crystalline nanoparticles of Fe metal supported on mesoporous silica have been developed. The synthetic process involves hydrogen reduction processing for high abundant Fe metal nanoparticles within the mesopores, in which impregnated Fe salt in the inner nanopores of mesoporous silica is thermally treated under hydrogen at 500 °C. Detailed characterization was achieved by XRD, XPS, BET, and HR-TEM techniques. The catalytic efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the used amounts and reaction time. The results show that more than 90% of the carbon monoxide was eliminated at room temperature during a period 80 min with 0.5 g of catalyst.

Lee, Jiho; Ho Chang, Jeong

2012-04-01

108

Synthesis of nanocast ordered mesoporous carbons and their application as electrode materials for supercapacitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various nanocast ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) were synthesized using mesoporous silicas such as SBA-15, SBA-16, KIT-6,\\u000a SBA-3 and MCM-48 as templates via nanocasting pathway. The structures of OMCs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission\\u000a electron microscope and nitrogen sorption technique. These OMCs with well-defined pore structure were used as model electrode\\u000a materials for investigating the influence of pore structure on

Wen-Cui Li; Gu-Zhen Nong; An-Hui Lu; Hao-Quan Hu

2011-01-01

109

Adsorption of carbon dioxide from gas streams via mesoporous spherical-silica particles.  

PubMed

A relatively new mesoporous silica sorbent for environmental protection applications (i.e., mesoporous spherical-silica particles [MSPs]), was modified by N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (EDA) solution and was tested for its potential in the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas. The CO2 adsorption capacity of MSP and MSP (EDA) increased with temperature from 20 to 60 degrees C but decreased with temperature from 60 to 100 degrees C. The mechanism of CO2 adsorption on both samples is mainly attributed to physical interaction regardless of temperature change. The MSP (EDA) have good adsorption performance as compared with EDA-modified zeolite or granular activated carbon conducted in this study and many types of silica sorbents reported in the literature. The cyclic CO2 adsorption showed that spent MSP (EDA) could be effectively regenerated at 120 degrees C for 25 min and CO2 adsorption capacity of MSP (EDA) was preserved during 16 cycles of adsorption and thermal regeneration. These results suggests that MSP (EDA) are efficient CO2 sorbents and can be stably used in the prolonged cyclic operation. PMID:20437784

Lu, Chungsying; Bai, Hsunling; Su, Fengsheng; Chen, Wenfa; Hwang, Jyh Feng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia

2010-04-01

110

Hollow carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres with mesoporous structure: hydrothermal fabrication and drug delivery property.  

PubMed

Hollow carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres with mesoporous structure (HCHAs) have been fabricated by using calcium carbonated microspheres as sacrificial templates according to the following routes: (i) the in situ deposit of carbonated hydroxyapatite on the surfaces of CaCO3 microspheres by hydrothermal method and (ii) the removal of CaCO3 by chemical etching. The HCHAs consist of a hollow core and a mesoporous shell. Interestingly, the shell of the microspheres is constructed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanoplates as building blocks. Moreover, these nanoplates are composed of many smaller nanoparticles with different crystal orientations, and the mesopores exist among these nanoparticles. The HCHAs exhibit the high drug-loading capacity and sustained drug release property, suggesting that the hierarchically porous microspheres have great potentials for bone-implantable drug-delivery applications. PMID:23706197

Guo, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Ting; Wei, Yi-Ting; Chu, Lian-Feng; Guo, Ya-Ping

2013-08-01

111

Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Isobutane on Phosphorous-Modified Graphitic Mesoporous Carbon  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorous heteroatoms were added in order to tune the selectivity and investigate the roles of different oxygen species in graphitic mesoporous carbons for the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of isobutane to isobutene. Small changes in the apparent isobutane activation energy are consistent with the notion that the phosphorous groups do not change the nature of the active sites but they interfere with the availability of the sites. Our results show that the improvement on selectivity is not proportional to the amount of phosphorous added. Small phosphorous content improved the selectivity by suppressing the combustion of isobutane. However, a higher amount of phosphorous groups lead to coverage of selective quinone sites and/or creation of active sites favorable to total oxidation.

Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Xie, Hong [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

2011-01-01

112

Colloidal RBC-Shaped, Hydrophilic, and Hollow Mesoporous Carbon Nanocapsules for Highly Efficient Biomedical Engineering.  

PubMed

A facile and versatile synthetic route (templated framework pyrolysis) toward the construction of a new colloidal carbon nanosystem based on red blood cell (RBC)-shaped, hydrophilic, and hollow mesoporous carbon nanocapsules (HMCNs) is developed for highly efficient biomedical engineering, including stimuli-responsive drug release, inhibiting the metastasis, and circumventing the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. PMID:24687452

Chen, Yu; Xu, Pengfei; Wu, Meiying; Meng, Qingshuo; Chen, Hangrong; Shu, Zhu; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Yaping; Shi, Jianlin

2014-07-01

113

Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications  

SciTech Connect

Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications Sheng Dai Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6201 Porous carbon materials are ubiquitous in separation, catalysis, and energy storage/conversion. Well-defined mesoporous carbon materials are essential for a number of the aforementioned applications. Ordered porous carbon materials have previously been synthesized using colloidal crystals and presynthesized mesoporous silicas as hard templates. The mesostructures of these carbon materials are connected via ultrathin carbon filaments and can readily collapse under high-temperature conditions. Furthermore, these hard-template methodologies are extremely difficult to adapt to the fabrication of large-scale ordered nanoporous films or monoliths with controlled pore orientations. More recently, my research group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several others around the world have developed alternative methods for synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous carbons via self-assembly. Unlike the mesoporous carbons synthesized via hard-template methods, these mesoporous carbons are highly stable and can be graphitized at high temperature (>2800?C) without significant loss of mesopores. The surface properties of these materials can be further tailored via surface functionalization. This seminar will provide an overview and perspective of the mesoporous carbon materials derived from soft-template synthesis and surface functionalization and their fascinating applications in catalysis, separation, and energy storage devices. Dr. Sheng Dai got his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Zhejiang University in 1984 and 1986, respectively. He subsequently obtained a PhD degree from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in 1990. He is currently a Senior Staff Scientist and Group Leader of Nanomaterials Group and Center for Nanophase Materials Science of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and is also affiliated with the University of Tennessee as an adjunct professor. He is a co-author of more than 200 publications. His research interests include porous materials and their functionalization, new ionic liquids for chemical separation and materials synthesis, sol-gel synthesis and molecular imprinting of inorganic materials, and catalysis by nanomaterials especially gold nanocatalysts.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

114

Hierarchical nanostructured hollow spherical carbon with mesoporous shell as a unique cathode catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.  

PubMed

Hierarchical nanostructured spherical carbon with hollow macroporous core in combination with mesoporous shell has been explored to support Pt cathode catalyst with high metal loading in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The hollow core-mesoporous shell carbon (HCMSC) has unique structural characteristics such as large specific surface area and mesoporous volume, ensuring uniform dispersion of the supported high loading (60 wt%) Pt nanoparticles with small particle size, and well-developed three-dimensionally interconnected hierarchical porosity network, facilitating fast mass transport. The HCMSC-supported Pt(60 wt%) cathode catalyst has demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared with carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones. Furthermore, the HCMSC-supported Pt(40 wt%) or Pt(60 wt%) outperforms the HCMSC-supported Pt(20 wt%) even at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2) in the cathode, which is completely different from the VC-supported Pt catalysts. The capability of supporting high loading Pt is supposed to accelerate the commercialization of PEMFC due to the anticipated significant reduction in the amount of catalyst support required, diffusion layer thickness and fabricating cost of the supported Pt catalyst electrode. PMID:19224039

Fang, Baizeng; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minsik; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung

2009-03-01

115

Soft-template-carbonization route to highly textured mesoporous carbon-TiO? inverse opals for efficient photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical applications.  

PubMed

Hierarchically organized mesoporous carbon-TiO2 inverse opal nanostructures were synthesized by complementary colloid and block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly, where the triblock copolymer P123 acts simultaneously as the template and the carbon source. Highly ordered mesoporous inverse opal nanostructures with a nano-textured surface morphology and multiple-length scale nanopores provide increased light-activated surface area and scattering effects, leading to enhanced photoabsorption efficiency and the transport of matter. UV-vis absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky measurement studies show that incorporation of carbon moieties into TiO2via direct conversion of BCPs creates a new energy level above the valence band of TiO2, resulting in an effective decrease in the band gap. A significantly enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity was demonstrated for the mesoporous carbon-TiO2 inverse opals in terms of the degradation of p-nitrophenol (~79%) and photoelectrochemical water splitting (~0.087%). PMID:24695759

Quan, Li Na; Jang, Yoon Hee; Stoerzinger, Kelsey A; May, Kevin J; Jang, Yu Jin; Kochuveedu, Saji Thomas; Shao-Horn, Yang; Kim, Dong Ha

2014-05-21

116

Spherical carbon capsules with hollow macroporous core and mesoporous shell structures as a highly efficient catalyst support in the direct methanol fuel cell.  

PubMed

Carbon capsules with hollow core and mesoporous shell (HCMS) structures were used as a support material for Pt(50)-Ru(50) catalyst, and the catalytic performance of the HCMS supported catalyst in the direct methanol fuel cell was described; the HCMS carbon supported catalysts exhibited much higher specific activity for methanol oxidation than the commonly used E-TEK catalyst by about 80%, proving that the HCMS carbon capsules are an excellent support for electrode catalysts in DMFC. PMID:15568107

Chai, Geun Seok; Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Jung Ho; Yu, Jong-Sung

2004-12-01

117

Thermodynamic and neutron scattering study of hydrogen adsorption in two mesoporous ordered carbons.  

PubMed

Two mesoporous ordered carbon materials (MOCs) have been synthesized from silica templates by using sucrose as the carbon precursor. The textural characterization using Ar, N2, and CO2 adsorption combined with neutron diffraction showed that the two samples exhibit a significant microporous volume close to 0.5 cm3/g and an ordered network of mesopores. For both MCM48 and SBA15 templated carbons, adsorption first proceeds with the filling of micropores and then by the filling of mesopores with an adsorption energy close to the enthalpy of vaporization of bulk hydrogen. The hydrogen isosteric heat of adsorption in the micropores (6-8 kJ/mol) is significantly larger than that on the graphite surface (approximately 4 kJ/mol) but still too small for a reasonable use of these MOCs as hydrogen adsorbents for storage at room temperature. The neutron scattering study showed that the structure at 10 K of the adsorbed deuterium phase is poorly organized; it exhibits short and medium range orders of about 13 angstroms in micropores and about 20 angstroms in mesopores, respectively. The average distance between adsorbed molecules decreases with coverage by about 10%. In the mesopores, the diffracted line is consistent with a pseudohexagonal packing. PMID:16649772

Roussel, T; Pellenq, R J-M; Bienfait, M; Vix-Guterl, C; Gadiou, R; Béguin, F; Johnson, M

2006-05-01

118

Hierarchical carbon foams with independently tunable mesopore and macropore size distributions.  

PubMed

Hierarchical carbon foams with independently tunable mesopore and macropore size distributions were formed in a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) template. The HIPE consists of an internal oil phase that controls the macropore dimensions and an aqueous resorcinol-formaldehyde precursor solution external phase that directs the mesopore size distribution. Once the emulsion is formed, the precursor solution is cured, fluid elements are extracted from the monolith via solvent exchange, and then the sample is pyrolyzed to create a hierarchical open-cell foam consisting of macropores with mesoporous carbon xerogel walls. Both mesopore and macropore size distributions may be independently tuned by changing the synthesis parameters. These samples have a peak in the mesopore size distribution that may be tuned to between 5 and 8 nm and macropore average diameters that may be tuned to between 0.7 and 2.1 microm. Furthermore, the 0.7 and 2.1 microm average diameter macropores have 0.18 and 0.53 microm diameter macropore windows between adjacent pores, respectively. Pore volumes up to 5.26 cm(3)/g and electrical conductivities as high as 0.34 S/cm are observed after 1200 degrees C carbonization of the framework. These foams may have potential applications as 3-D current collectors in batteries and as fuel cell catalyst supports. PMID:20491463

Gross, Adam F; Nowak, Andrew P

2010-07-01

119

New mesoporous silica\\/carbon composites by in situ transformation of silica template in carbon\\/silica nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard template-based fabrication of mesoporous carbon unavoidably goes through the removal process of the template to generate template-free carbon replica, including troublesome disposal of template waste often accompanied by toxic etchant, which not only increases the fabrication cost of materials but also raises serious environmental concerns. As a novel strategy to overcome such problem, a direct in situ synthesis approach

Suk Bon Yoon; Byung-Seon Choi; Kuen-Woo Lee; Jei-Kwon Moon; Yong Suk Choi; Jong-Yun Kim; Hyunjin Cho; Jung Ho Kim; Min-Sik Kim; Jong-Sung Yu

2012-01-01

120

Synthesis of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by the pyrolysis of ethanol on Fe\\/MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordered hexagonal arrangement MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves were synthesized by the traditional hydrothermal method, and Fe-loaded MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves (Fe\\/MCM-41) were prepared by the wet impregnation method. Their mesoporous structures were testified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the N2 physical adsorption technique. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method via the pyrolysis of ethanol

Qian Zhao; Yanhui Li; Xuping Zhou; Tingshun Jiang; Changsheng Li; Hengbo Yin

2010-01-01

121

A novel low-temperature dendritic cyclotrimerization of 2,6-diacetyl pyridine leading to mesoporous carbon containing pyridine rings  

SciTech Connect

A simple, direct synthesis of a mesoporous carbon containing pyridine rings is described. This synthesis utilizes the SiCl4 induced cyclotrimerization of 2,6-diacetylpyridine to make a dendritic polymer, built of alternating benzene and pyridine rings. The cyclotrimerization allows for a high degree of crosslinking to take place at low temperatures stabilizing the mesostructure and allowing the carbonization to be carried out at only 600°C, the lowest temperature reported to date for an N-doped mesoporous carbon. The functional mesoporous carbon so formed was found to have a surface area of 1275 m2/g, 35Å pores, and contain 6.8% N.

Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Chong M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Fryxell, Glen E.

2009-07-01

122

Properties of a three-dimensionally ordered macro-mesoporous carbon-doped TiO2 composite catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to develop an effective, environmentally benign composite catalyst composed of carbon materials and titanium dioxide (TiO2). Carbon-doped titanium dioxide (C-TiO2) was prepared by coating TiO2 onto macro-mesoporous carbon (MMC). The structure, morphology and surface chemistry states of the C-TiO2 were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, UV-vis and FTIR. The photocatalytic activity of C-TiO2 was evaluated based on the decomposition of an aqueous methyl orange solution in visible light. C-TiO2 significantly improved photocatalytic activity. A possible mechanism for the improvement of the photocatalytic activity of C-TiO2 in visible light was proposed. The results of the analysis suggested that MMC played key roles as the support, absorbent, location of photo-generated electron transfer, and carbon-doping source during methyl orange photodegradation.

Sui, Wubin; Zheng, Jingtang; Pittman, Charles U.; Bensalah, Nasr; Wu, Mingbo; Zhao, Yucui

2014-11-01

123

Magnetic mesoporous carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres with hierarchical nanostructure for drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Magnetic mesoporous carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres have been fabricated hydrothermally by using CaCO(3)/Fe(3)O(4) microspheres as sacrificial templates. The high drug-loading capacity and sustained drug release property suggest that the multifunctional microspheres have great potentials for bone-implantable drug-delivery applications. PMID:21998826

Guo, Ya-Ping; Guo, Li-Hua; Yao, Yong-bo; Ning, Cong-Qin; Guo, Ya-Jun

2011-11-28

124

Comprehensive study of mesoporous carbon functionalized with carboxylate groups and magnetic nanoparticles as a promising adsorbent.  

PubMed

Highly ordered mesoporous carbon functionalized with carboxylate groups and magnetic nanoparticles has been successfully synthesized. By oxidative treatment using (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) and H(2)SO(4) mixed solution, numerous hydrophilic groups were created in the mesopores without destroying the ordered mesostructure of CMK-3. Through the in situ reduction in Fe(3+), magnetic nanoparticles were successfully introduced into the mesopores, resulting in the multifunctional mesoporous carbon Fe-CMK-3. The obtained hybrid carbon material possesses ordered mesostructure, high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area up to 1013 m(2)/g, large pore volume of about 1.16 cm(3)/g, carboxylic surface, and excellent magnetic property. When used as an adsorbent, Fe-CMK-3 exhibits excellent performances for removing toxic organic compounds from waster-water, with a high adsorption capacity, an extremely rapid adsorption rate, and an easy magnetically separable process. In the case of requiring emergency removal of large amount of organic pollutants in aqueous, the hybrid carbon adsorbent would be an ideal choice. PMID:22236608

Chi, Yue; Geng, Wangchang; Zhao, Liang; Yan, Xiao; Yuan, Qing; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaotian

2012-03-01

125

Ordered mesoporous carbon nanochannel reactors for high-performance Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.  

PubMed

A hexagonally ordered mesoporous carbon, CMK-3, was utilized as a support for a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. Each array of elongated pore structures with Co nanoparticles can be regarded as a nanochannel reactor. Due to the pore confinement and the hydrophobic nature of the support, this catalyst demonstrated excellent catalytic performance. PMID:23482917

Ha, Kyoung-Su; Kwak, Geunjae; Jun, Ki-Won; Hwang, Jongkook; Lee, Jinwoo

2013-06-01

126

Mesoporous silica coating on carbon nanotubes: layer-by-layer method.  

PubMed

It is of great interest to develop a simple, general, and easy-handling procedure for mesoporous silica coating. A facile, single-step method to coat iron oxide nanoparticles has been reported by Hyeon's group. However, up to present, this method only successfully applied to those zero-dimensional nanostructures heavily capped by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB); no others are reported. It is unknown how this simple method is feasible in coating those nanostructures not capped by CTAB. Herein, using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the model, through an analogous layer-by-layer assembly method, many more CTAB molecules were found to anchor to CNTs, on which uniform mesoporous silica shells can successfully be formed by Hyeon's coating method. We believe that this contribution will pave the way for advancing the single-step method to become a general protocol in the mesoporous silica coating field. PMID:23672683

Deng, Xiaoyong; Qin, Ping; Luo, Man; Shao, Erlei; Zhao, Hui; Yang, Xing; Wang, Yanwen; Shen, Haifa; Jiao, Zheng; Wu, Minghong

2013-06-11

127

Zeolite materials prepared using silicate waste from template synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon.  

PubMed

Significant amount of silica waste is generated in the preparation of porous carbon materials using template synthesis. Industrial production of such porous carbon not only creates waste chemicals, but also poses significant environmental concerns and high waste treatment cost. Recycling is proposed as the best solution for tackling such chemical wastes. In this study, etched silica waste released from template synthesis of mesoporous carbon is recycled to produce precious functional microporous zeolite materials. The solid silica template is etched out with NaOH solution to produce silica-free mesoporous carbon. The collected silica waste is recycled to generate zeolites such as LTA and MFI type silica materials. The formation of zeolites is confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, (29)Si NMR, (27)Al NMR, and SEM. This straight forward green chemistry route not only recycles the waste chemicals, but also decreases environmental pollution for better improvement of our living. PMID:23792927

Kim, Yun Kyung; Rajesh, Kizhakke Palleeri; Yu, Jong-Sung

2013-09-15

128

Electrochemical properties of boron-doped ordered mesoporous carbon as electrocatalyst and Pt catalyst support.  

PubMed

The electrochemical properties of boron-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (BOMC) as an electrode material and Pt catalyst support were investigated. The BOMC was synthesized and its structure was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). More defective sites were introduced into OMC by the doping of boron. Six electroactive compounds were employed to investigate their electrochemical responses on BOMC and OMC modified glassy carbon electrodes. The BOMC, with more defective sites, exhibited high activity toward the electroactive compounds. The property of BOMC of supporting platinum nanoparticle catalyst was examined. Pt nanoparticles were loaded onto BOMC and OMC, and this was confirmed by TEM, XPS and thermogravimetric analysis. Pt nanoparticles with an average diameter of 2.62nm were deposited on BOMC. The doping of boron into OMC facilitates the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. Pt nanoparticles supported on BOMC (Pt-BOMC) and Pt nanoparticles supported on OMC (Pt-OMC) were electrochemically characterized. The electrocatalytic activity of Pt-BOMC toward methanol oxidation reaction was compared with that of Pt-OMC and commercial Pt-C catalyst. The results show that the electrocatalytic activity of BOMC is significantly higher than that of other used catalysts. PMID:24910045

Nsabimana, Anaclet; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Yufan; Li, Mian; Han, Ce; Guo, Liping

2014-08-15

129

Pyrolytic Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes from Sucrose on a Mesoporous Silicate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiwall carbon nanotubes were synthesized from sucrose by a pyrolytic technique using mesoporous MCM-41 silicate templates without transition metal catalysts. The Nanotubes were examined in the carbon/silicate composite and after dissolution of the silicate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy study of the multiwall nanotubes showed them to be 15 nm in diameter, 200 nm in length and close-ended. There was variation in crystallinity with some nanotubes showing disordered wall structures.

Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Siochi, Mia; Crooks, Roy

2005-01-01

130

Preparation of porous diatomite-templated carbons with large adsorption capacity and mesoporous zeolite K-H as a byproduct.  

PubMed

In this study, KOH activation was performed to enhance the porosity of the diatomite-templated carbon and to increase its adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB). In addition to serving as the activation agent, KOH was also used as the etchant to remove the diatomite templates. Zeolite K-H was synthesized as a byproduct via utilization of the resultant silicon- and potassium-containing solutions created from the KOH etching of the diatomite templates. The obtained diatomite-based carbons were composed of macroporous carbon pillars and tubes, which were derived from the replication of the diatomite templates and were well preserved after KOH activation. The abundant micropores in the walls of the carbon pillars and tubes were derived from the break and reconfiguration of carbon films during both the removal of the diatomite templates and KOH activation. Compared with the original diatomite-templated carbons and CO2-activated carbons, the KOH-activated carbons had much higher specific surface areas (988m(2)/g) and pore volumes (0.675cm(3)/g). Moreover, the KOH-activated carbons possessed larger MB adsorption capacity (the maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity: 645.2mg/g) than those of the original carbons and CO2-activated carbons. These results showed that KOH activation was a high effective activation method. The zeolite K-H byproduct was obtained by utilizing the silicon- and potassium-containing solution as the silicon and potassium sources. The zeolite exhibited a stick-like morphology and possessed nanosized particles with a mesopore-predominant porous structure which was observed by TEM for the first time. PMID:24767493

Liu, Dong; Yuan, Weiwei; Deng, Liangliang; Yu, Wenbin; Sun, Hongjuan; Yuan, Peng

2014-06-15

131

Production of Activated Carbon from Athabasca Oilsands Bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbonization process of the pentane insoluble (end-cut) fraction from Athabasca oilsands bitumen in the presence NaOH has been investigated. Chemical activation produced carbon with a well-developed mesoporous structure and a much reduced sulfur content. The yield of the activated carbon increased, whereas sulfur content decreased with an increase in the NaOH load. Physical activation with carbon dioxide resulted in

S. Koutcheiko; T. McCracken; J. Kung; L. Kotlyar

2007-01-01

132

Preparation, phase transformation and photocatalytic activities of cerium-doped mesoporous titania nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerium-doped mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticles with high surface area and thermal stable anatase wall were synthesized via hydrothermal process in a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/Ti(SO 4) 2/Ce(NO 3) 4/H 2O system. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption and DRS spectra. Experimental results indicated that the doping of cerium not only increased the surface area of mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticles, but also inhibited the mesopores collapse and the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation. Moreover, the undoped, doped anatase mesoporous nanoparticles exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than commercial photocatalyst (Degussa, P25), but the maximum photodegradation rate corresponds to the undoped mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticles. The lower photocatalytic activities of cerium-doped samples compared with undoped one may be ascribed to that the doped cerium partially blocks titania's surface sites available for the photodegradation and absorption of Rhodamine B (RB).

Xiao, Jiangrong; Peng, Tianyou; Li, Ran; Peng, Zhenghe; Yan, Chunhua

2006-04-01

133

Facile Ionothermal Synthesis of Microporous and Mesoporous Carbons from Task Specific Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

An expedient, template-free, high-yield, and solventless route to nitrogen-rich micro- and mesoporous carbons is reported based on direct, atmospheric-pressure carbonization of task-specific ionic liquids bearing one or more nitrile side chains. The resulting textural properties (pore regime, surface area) are highly dependent upon the structural motifs of the ions comprising the corresponding parent ionic liquid, and uniform carbon films are routinely deposited with this novel methodology, highlighting excited new opportunities in the development of advanced functional carbon composites.

Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Lee, Jeseung [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Wanigasekara, Eranda P [ORNL

2009-01-01

134

Facile Ionothermal Synthesis of Microporous and Mesoporous Carbons from Task Specific Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

An expedient, template-free, high-yield and solventless route to nitrogen-rich micro- and mesoporous carbons is reported based on direct, atmospheric-pressure carbonization of task-specific ionic liquids bearing one or more nitrile side chains. The resulting textural properties (pore regime, surface area) are highly dependent upon the structural motifs of the ions comprising the corresponding parent ionic liquid and uniform carbon films are routinely deposited with this novel methodology, highlighting excited new opportunities in the development of advanced functional carbon composites.

Lee, Jeseung [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2009-01-01

135

Development of amperometric laccase biosensor through immobilizing enzyme in copper-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (Cu-OMC)\\/chitosan matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functionalized copper-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (Cu-OMC) which shows good electrical properties was synthesized by carbonization of sucrose in the presence of cupric acetate inside SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor by entrapping laccase into the Cu-OMC\\/chitosan (CS) film was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of Cu-OMC\\/chitosan (CS)

Xinhua Xu; Meiqing Guo; Ping Lu; Rui Wang

2010-01-01

136

Numerical Study of Thermal Conductivities of Carbon-Based Mesoporous Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivities of ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 filled with Al nanoclusters were studied in this article. CMK-3 is a typical example of carbon rods which are arranged in a relatively regular two-dimensional hexagonal array. The initial structure of CMK-3 was generated from the amorphous carbon and validated by XRD simulation which is coincident with experimental data. The thermal conductivities of carbon rods in CMK-3 and Al nanoclusters with 133 atoms were simulated by an equilibrium molecular dynamics method. Then, the effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of a mesoporous composite, CMK-3 filled with {Al}_{133} , was obtained via one-dimensional heat conduction analysis. The influences of the substrate porosity, nanocluster filling ratio, and temperature were discussed. As an anisotropic material, ETCs along the X and Y directions are extremely poor, due to the overwhelming effect of the air thermal resistance. However, in the Z direction, the ETC improves almost linearly as the porosity decreases, and the value is much higher than those of X and Y directions. In the case of a 70 % filling ratio, when the porosity is below 59.7 %, the ETC in the Z direction exceeds the thermal conductivity of Al nanoclusters and approaches a peak value around the melting temperature of {Al}_{133} nanoclusters. The results indicate that the carbon-based mesoporous CMK-3 filled with Al nanoclusters might become a promising phase change material.

Feng, Daili; Feng, Yanhui; Zhang, Xinxin

2014-04-01

137

Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) as supports of electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC): Effect of carbon precursors of OMC on DMFC performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the effect of graphitic character of ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) on the performances of OMC supported catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Two OMC samples with hexagonal mesostructure were prepared from phenanthrene and sucrose by nano-replication method using mesoporous silica as a template. Structural characterizations revealed that both OMCs exhibited large BET surface area and uniform

Sang Hoon Joo; Chanho Pak; Dae Jong You; Seol-Ah Lee; Hyung Ik Lee; Ji Man Kim; Hyuk Chang; Doyoung Seung

2006-01-01

138

Microwave synthesis and electrochemical characterization of mesoporous carbon@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: An efficient and quick microwave method has been employed to prepare worm-like mesoporous carbon@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites for the first time. The electrochemical measurement shows the worm-like mesoporous carbon@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites exhibits excellent capacitance performance and the maximum specific capacitance is up to 386 F g{sup -1}. Research highlights: {yields} An efficient and quick microwave method has been employed. {yields} A worm-like mesoporous carbon@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites have been successfully prepared. {yields} This composite exhibits excellent capacitance performance. {yields} This composite could be a potential electrode material for the supercapacitors. -- Abstract: An efficient and quick microwave method has been employed to prepare worm-like mesoporous carbon@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites for the first time. As-prepared products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The electrochemical measurement shows the worm-like mesoporous carbon@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites exhibits excellent capacitance performance and the maximum specific capacitance reaches 386 F g{sup -1}, three times more than the pure worm-like mesoporous carbon.

Xia, Nannan [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yuan, Dingsheng, E-mail: tydsh@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Tianxiang; Chen, Jingxing; Mo, Shanshan; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

2011-05-15

139

Mesoporous carbon as a novel drug carrier of fenofibrate for enhancement of the dissolution and oral bioavailability.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop mesoporous carbon loaded with a poorly watersoluble drug to enhance the drug dissolution and improve the oral bioavailability. Mesoporous carbon was synthesized using Pluronic 127 triblock polymer (F127), TEOS and phenolic resins. Fenofibrate (FFB) was chosen as a model drug and loaded onto mesoporous carbon using three different loading methods involving incipient wetness impregnation, and the solvent and melting methods. The effect of the physical state and the specific surface area were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that the physicochemical properties of the drug as well as the drug loading methods had critical effects on the drug release rate. In vitro drug release studies showed that incorporation of FFB in mesoporous carbon greatly enhanced the dissolution rate in comparison with that of the pure crystalline drug. Moreover, the oral bioavailability of the drug from mesoporous carbon was higher than that of FFB commercial capsules. Furthermore, mesoporous carbon produced no irritation of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract as shown by gastric mucosa irritation test. PMID:23688621

Niu, Xia; Wan, Long; Hou, Zhong; Wang, Tianyi; Sun, Changshan; Sun, Jin; Zhao, Peng; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

2013-08-16

140

Development of activated carbon pore structure via physical and chemical activation of biomass fibre waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass waste in the form of biomass flax fibre, produced as a by-product of the textile industry was processed via both physical and chemical activation to produce activated carbons. The surface area of the physically activated carbons were up to 840m2g?1 and the carbons were of mesoporous structure. Chemical activation using zinc chloride produced high surface area activated carbons up

Paul T. Williams; Anton R. Reed

2006-01-01

141

Europium-doped mesoporous anatase with enhanced photocatalytic activity toward elimination of gaseous methanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous anatase doped with various amounts of Eu were synthesized via a sol-gel route using Pluronic P123 as template. The XRD and TEM results show that Eu doping favors the formation of anatase with smaller crystal size. The photocatalytic activity of the mesoporous anatase was tested in photocatalytic elimination of gaseous methanol. The photocatalysts exhibited higher activity than that of the commercial photocatalyst (Degussa, P25) under either ultraviolet or visible light irradiation. The superior activity of the mesoporous anatase may be attributed to the synergic effects of the surface area, crystal size and doped Eu species.

Tang, Jianting; Chen, Xiaomiao; Liu, Yu; Gong, Wei; Peng, Zhenshan; Cai, Tiejun; Jin, Liangwen; Deng, Qian

2012-02-01

142

Mesoporous Carbons from Poly(acrylonitrile)-b-poly(E-caprolactone) Block Copolymers  

SciTech Connect

A series of degradable block copolymers, poly(acrylonitrile)-b-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PAN-PCL), have been synthesized by sequential living polymerization in this study. Well-defined, microphase-separated PAN-PCL microdomains can be efficiently achieved in the bulk by using appropriate solvents. The microphase-separated lamellar samples were then used as templates to produce mesoporous carbons at which large amounts of porous texture in carbonized PAN matrix were formed after degradation of PCL due to randomly oriented lamellar texture (namely, interconnection of PCL microdomains). The thermal profiles for efficient stabilization were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Consequently, mesoporous carbon materials might be prepared as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. The formation of carbonized materials was identified in accordance with the presence of carbon diffractions by wide-angle X-ray diffraction. In contrast to the thermal stability of the carbonization of PAN homopolymers, it is noted that the carbonization procedure can be achieved in the PAN-PCL system regardless of the stretching process (that is an essential process to improve the thermal stability of PAN carbonization). We speculate that this unique feature for the carbonization of PAN copolymers might be attributed to the stretched chains of PAN under nanoscale confined environment.

Ho,R.; Wang, T.; Lin, C.; Yu, T.

2007-01-01

143

Mesoporous carbon@silicon-silica nanotheranostics for synchronous delivery of insoluble drugs and luminescence imaging.  

PubMed

A hierarchical theranostic nanostructure with carbon and Si nanocrystals respectively encapsulated in the mesopores and within the framework of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CS-MSNs) was constructed by a bottom-up self-assembly strategy combining an in situ one-step carbonization/crystallization approach. CS-MSNs exhibited narrow size distribution, high payload of insoluble drugs and unique NIR-to-Vis luminescence imaging feature. The bio-conjugated CS-MSNs with a PEGylated phospholipid compound and hyaluronic acid showed excellent dispersivity and could specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44, deliver insoluble drugs into these cells and consequently kill them effectively, and also fluorescently image them simultaneously in a unique and attractive NIR-to-Vis luminescence imaging fashion, providing a promising opportunity for cancer theranostics. PMID:22425026

He, Qianjun; Ma, Ming; Wei, Chenyang; Shi, Jianlin

2012-06-01

144

Ionic liquid\\/mesoporous carbon\\/protein composite microelectrode and its biosensing application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional composite was prepared by mixing mesoporous carbon, glucose oxidase (GOD) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, an ionic liquid, and characterized by SEM and RA-IR. The composite was filled in a microcavity to fabricate a paste microelectrode, demonstrating direct electrochemistry of GOD with a pair of well-defined redox peaks. The composite microelectrode was used as a glucose microsensor, showing good sensitivity

Wei Sun; Chun Xian Guo; Zhihong Zhu; Chang Ming Li

2009-01-01

145

Production of micro- and mesoporous carbons by pyrolysis of the lithium salts of aromatic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new process for the production of micro- and mesoporous carbon materials, the thermal decomposition of the lithium salts of aromatic acids (terephthalic acid, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid) was followed by TGA, MS, SEM, TEM, elemental analysis, and N2 adsorption. The lithium salt of terephthalic acid was decomposed at temperatures above 550°C and then converted into a composite

Katsumi Kamegawa; Masaya Kodama; Keiko Nishikubo; Hiroshi Yamada; Yoshio Adachi; Hisayoshi Yoshida

2005-01-01

146

A fluorescent sensor for selective detection of cyanide using mesoporous graphitic carbon(IV) nitride.  

PubMed

A turn-on fluorescence sensor, Cu(2+)-c-mpg-C(3)N(4), was developed for detection of CN(-) in aqueous solution by simply mixing cubic mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (c-mpg-C(3)N(4)) and aqueous solution of Cu(NO(3))(2). The highly sensitive detection of CN(-) with a detection limit of 80 nM is not only possible in aqueous solution but also in human blood serum. PMID:22422044

Lee, Eun Zoo; Lee, Sun Uk; Heo, Nam-Su; Stucky, Galen D; Jun, Young-Si; Hong, Won Hi

2012-04-25

147

Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of dichloroacetic acid from aqueous solution using mesoporous carbon.  

PubMed

The presence of disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in water, is believed to be harmful to human health. In this work, mesoporous carbon was synthesized with the evaporation-induced self-assembly method and employed to evaluate the effects of initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature on the removal of dichloroacetic acid in batch experiments. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 480 min and the maximum adsorption (350mg/g) of dichloroacetic acid on the mesoporous carbon was observed to occur at 308 K and pH 3.0. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to analyse the equilibrium data at different temperatures; kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models and found that the adsorption capacity, mass transfer coefficient and diffusivity of dichloroacetic acid were directly affected by the physical and chemical parameters. In addition, the various thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy (Delta G), enthalpy (Delta H = 54.35 kJmol-1) and entropy (Delta S = 258.36 Jmol-1 K-1) were calculated to analyse the adsorption process. The experimental results indicated that the mesoporous carbon was an excellent adsorbent for dichloroacetic acid removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:24956790

Ding, Ying; Zhu, Jianzhong; Cao, Yang; Chen, Shenglu

2014-08-01

148

Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of CO2, CH4, N2O, and NH3 on ordered mesoporous carbon.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous carbon was synthesized by a self-assembly technique and characterized with TEM, Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption for its physical and pore textural properties. The high BET specific surface area (798 m(2)/g), uniform mesopore-size distribution with a median pore size of 62.6 Å, and large pore volume (0.87 cm(3)/g) make the ordered mesoporous carbon an ideal adsorbent for gas separation and purification applications. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ammonia on the ordered mesoporous carbon were measured at 298 K and gas pressures up to 800 Torr. The adsorption equilibrium capacities on the ordered mesoporous carbon at 298 K and 800 Torr for ammonia, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane were found to be 6.39, 2.39, 1.5, and 0.53 mmol/g, respectively. Higher adsorption uptakes of methane (3.26 mmol/g at 100 bar) and carbon dioxide (2.21 mmol/g at 13 bar) were also observed at 298 K and elevated pressures. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Toth adsorption equilibrium models were used to correlate all the adsorption isotherms, and a simplified gas diffusion model was applied to analyze the adsorption kinetics data collected at 298 K and four different gas pressures up to 800 Torr. PMID:20185144

Saha, Dipendu; Deng, Shuguang

2010-05-15

149

Mesoporous silica nanospheres decorated with CdS nanocrystals for enhanced photocatalytic and excellent antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

Uniform SiO2@CdS mesoporous nanospheres with an average diameter of 300 nm have been synthesized successfully by a facile process. The as-prepared mesoporous composite nanospheres have a BET-specific surface area of 640 m(2) g(-1) and an average pore size of 2.82 nm. The results demonstrated that more than 60% Rhodamine B (RhB) dye in solution (4.8 mg L(-1), 50 mL) could be removed by adsorption in the dark for 30 min using the as-prepared SiO2@CdS mesoporous nanospheres (40 mg). The as-prepared SiO2@CdS mesoporous nanospheres have a mesoporous nanostructure, suggesting a higher specific surface area and resulting in a strong adsorption ability. In addition, the mesoporous silica was decorated with ca. 5 nm CdS nanocrystals, which showed excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light and could rapidly remove most of the RhB molecules from a pollutant solution under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the mesoporous SiO2@CdS nanospheres synthesized by the present protocol exhibited excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:23760602

Hu, Jin-Lin; Yang, Qi-Hao; Lin, He; Ye, Yu-Pei; He, Qiao; Zhang, Jie-Ni; Qian, Hai-Sheng

2013-07-21

150

Ordered mesoporous tin oxide and tin phosphate synthesized by nanocasting strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordered mesoporous tin oxide and tin phosphate were successfully synthesized via two-step nanocasting route. The SBA-15 silica\\u000a and CMK-3 carbon were used as hard templates. Powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and transmission electron microscopy\\u000a confirmed hexagonal mesoporous structure of resulted products. Mesoporous tin oxide indicated crystalline walls (cassiterite).\\u000a The mesoporous products showed considerable catalytic activity in propan-2-ol decomposition. The tin

Paulina Pó?rolniczak; Stanis?aw Kowalak

151

Unidirectional self-assembly of soft templated mesoporous carbons by zone annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surfactant or block copolymer-templated mesoporous films have been extensively explored, but achieving mesostructure coherence and unidirectional orientation over macroscopic dimensions has remained quite challenging for these self-assembled systems. Here, we extend the concepts associated with zone refinement of crystalline materials to soft templated mesoporous carbon films based on the cooperative assembly of commercial non-ionic surfactants (block copolymers) and phenolic resin oligomers (resol) to provide macroscopic alignment of both cubic (FDU-16) and hexagonal (FDU-15) mesostructures. The average orientation of these mesophases is determined from rotation grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. For FDU-15 templated by Pluronic P123, the orientation factor for the zone-annealed film is 0.98 based on the average of the second Legendre polynomial, but this orientation deteriorates significantly during carbonization. Notably, a thermal stabilization step following zone annealing preserves the orientation of the mesostructure during carbonization. The orientation factor for an isotropic cubic structure (FDU-16 templated by Pluronic F127) is only 0.48 (based on the 111 reflection with incident angle 0.15°) for the same zone annealing protocol, but this illustrates the versatility of zone annealing to different mesostructures. Unexpectedly, zone annealing of FDU-15 templated by Pluronic F127 leads to stabilization of the mesostructure through carbonization, whereas this structure collapses fully during carbonization even after extended oven annealing; despite no clear macroscopic orientation of the cylindrical mesostructure from zone annealing. Thermal zone annealing provides a simple methodology to produce highly ordered and macroscopically oriented stable mesoporous carbon films, but the efficacy is strongly tied to the mobility of the template during the zone annealing.Surfactant or block copolymer-templated mesoporous films have been extensively explored, but achieving mesostructure coherence and unidirectional orientation over macroscopic dimensions has remained quite challenging for these self-assembled systems. Here, we extend the concepts associated with zone refinement of crystalline materials to soft templated mesoporous carbon films based on the cooperative assembly of commercial non-ionic surfactants (block copolymers) and phenolic resin oligomers (resol) to provide macroscopic alignment of both cubic (FDU-16) and hexagonal (FDU-15) mesostructures. The average orientation of these mesophases is determined from rotation grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. For FDU-15 templated by Pluronic P123, the orientation factor for the zone-annealed film is 0.98 based on the average of the second Legendre polynomial, but this orientation deteriorates significantly during carbonization. Notably, a thermal stabilization step following zone annealing preserves the orientation of the mesostructure during carbonization. The orientation factor for an isotropic cubic structure (FDU-16 templated by Pluronic F127) is only 0.48 (based on the 111 reflection with incident angle 0.15°) for the same zone annealing protocol, but this illustrates the versatility of zone annealing to different mesostructures. Unexpectedly, zone annealing of FDU-15 templated by Pluronic F127 leads to stabilization of the mesostructure through carbonization, whereas this structure collapses fully during carbonization even after extended oven annealing; despite no clear macroscopic orientation of the cylindrical mesostructure from zone annealing. Thermal zone annealing provides a simple methodology to produce highly ordered and macroscopically oriented stable mesoporous carbon films, but the efficacy is strongly tied to the mobility of the template during the zone annealing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: GISAXS profiles for the FDU-15-F127 at ? = 0° and ? = 90° is included along with 2D GISAXS data for all azimuthal data associated with FDU-15-P123 to illustrate th

Xue, Jiachen; Singh, Gurpreet; Qiang, Zhe; Karim, Alamgir; Vogt, Bryan D.

2013-08-01

152

Carbon monoxide and methanol oxidation at platinum catalysts supported on ordered mesoporous carbon: the influence of functionalization of the support.  

PubMed

The influence of different functionalization treatments of the support on the electrocatalytic activity towards CO and methanol oxidation at platinum nanoparticles deposited on ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) has been studied for the first time. Before deposition of the metal, the carbon support was functionalized applying several procedures, with the purpose to generate oxygenated groups for anchoring the Pt nanoparticles by the formic acid (FM) and borohydride (BM) reduction methods. Good dispersion of the catalyst was obtained in all cases. It has been shown that particle size, and consequently the lattice parameter and metal surface area, depends on the functionalization treatment employed. CO and methanol electrooxidation was studied at all prepared catalysts applying cyclic voltammetry. It was observed that CO stripping occurs at more negative potentials (around 0.10-0.15 V) with these supports with respect to Vulcan XC-72 supported catalysts, and the best results for both methods were achieved with OMC functionalized with concentrated nitric acid for 0.5 h. This carbon support presents a higher amount of oxygenated groups without the loss of the ordered structure. In situ infrared studies have been performed for the first time with this type of catalyst, showing that the effect of the carbon support on the CO oxidation potential is similar to the presence of a second metal as Ru under the same experimental conditions. Methanol electrooxidation is also dependent on the nature of the support, as proved from both cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. In this case, results depend on the method of nanoparticles preparation and seem to be better for BM. PMID:19015783

Salgado, J R C; Quintana, J J; Calvillo, L; Lázaro, M J; Cabot, P L; Esparbé, I; Pastor, E

2008-12-01

153

A co-confined carbonization approach to aligned nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon nanofibers and its application as an adsorbent.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) with an aligned mesoporous structure were synthesized by a co-confined carbonization method using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as co-confined templates and ionic liquids as the precursor. The as-synthesized MCNFs with the diameter of 80-120nm possessed a bulk nitrogen content of 5.3wt% and bimodal mesoporous structure. The nitrogen atoms were mostly bound to the graphitic network in two forms, i.e. pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen, providing adsorption sites for acidic gases like SO2 and CO2. Cyclic experiments revealed a considerable stability of MCNFs over 20 runs of SO2 adsorption and 15 runs for CO2 adsorption. The MCNFs also have a preferable adsorption performance for Cd(2+). PMID:24887121

Chen, Aibing; Liu, Chao; Yu, Yifeng; Hu, Yongqi; Lv, Haijun; Zhang, Yue; Shen, Shufeng; Zhang, Jian

2014-07-15

154

Platelet CMK-5 as an excellent mesoporous carbon to enhance the pseudocapacitance of polyaniline.  

PubMed

A high-performance supercapacitor electrode consisting of platelet ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-5 and polyaniline (PANi) was prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of CMK-5. The PANi with uniform size of 2-5 nm was primarily confined in the mesochannels of CMK-5 at low PANi loadings (40 and 51 wt %), whereas at a high loading of 64 wt %, additional PANi thin films with thicknesses of 5-10 nm were coated on the surface of the CMK-5 particles. Such CMK-5-PANi composites afforded a high electrochemical active surface area for surface Faradic redox reactions, leading to a more than 50% utilization efficiency when considering the theoretical capacitance of PANi of about 2000 F/g. As a result, a specific capacitance of 803 F/g and an energy density of 27.4 Wh/kg were achieved for CMK-5-PANi composite electrode with 64 wt % PANi, showing substantial improvement as compared with symmetric capacitors configured with CMK-5 electrodes (10.1 Wh/kg) or pure PANi electrodes (16.4 Wh/kg). Moreover, an excellent rate capability and a substantially enhanced electrochemical stability with 81% capacitance retention as compared with 68% of pure PANi were also observed over 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current density of 4.0 A/g. PMID:23848251

Lei, Zhibin; Sun, Xiuxia; Wang, Huanjing; Liu, Zonghuai; Zhao, X S

2013-08-14

155

Nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets with size-defined mesopores as highly efficient metal-free catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets (NDCN) with size-defined mesopores are reported as highly efficient metal-free catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A uniform and tunable mesoporous structure of NDCN is prepared using a templating approach. Such controlled mesoporous structure in the NDCN exerts an essential influence on the electrocatalytic performance in both alkaline and acidic media for the ORR. The NDCN catalyst with a pore diameter of 22?nm exhibits a more positive ORR onset potential than that of Pt/C (-0.01?V vs. -0.02?V) and a high diffusion-limited current approaching that of Pt/C (5.45 vs. 5.78?mA?cm(-2) ) in alkaline medium. Moreover, the catalyst shows pronounced electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability towards the ORR under acidic conditions. The unique planar mesoporous shells of the NDCN provide exposed highly electroactive and stable catalytic sites, which boost the electrocatalytic activity of metal-free NDCN catalyst. PMID:24459087

Wei, Wei; Liang, Haiwei; Parvez, Khaled; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

2014-02-01

156

Oxidation and EDX elemental mapping characterization of an ordered mesoporous carbon: Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of the metallic ions Cd(II) and Pb(II) onto the surface of the mesoporous activated carbon CMK-3 is presented. The carbon was synthesized from a SBA-15 template by the method of nanocasting and oxidized in an aqueous solution with nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of temperature and oxidation time was studied. The presence of the functional groups, formed during the oxidation, onto the carbon surface was confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The structural and textural properties of activated carbon were obtained by nitrogen adsorption, SEM, EDX and HTEM. The surface area of the CMK-3 is 1170 m2/g, and it contains 96.7% of carbon and 3.3% of oxygen, whereas the oxidized CMK-3-O exhibits a surface area of 944 m2/g and contains 85.2% of carbon and 14.8% of oxygen. The adsorption isotherms follow the Langmuir model and the maximum amount of adsorbed ions was 40.4 mg/g for Cd(II) and 94 mg/g for Pb(II) at pH 5 and 25 °C. The spatial distribution and amount of oxygen and adsorbed metal ions were determined by elemental mapping and line scanning EDX. It was confirmed that the amount of oxygen is directly related with the amount of adsorbed ions.

Moreno-Tovar, R.; Terrés, E.; Rangel-Mendez, J. Rene

2014-06-01

157

A direct and quantitative three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal structure of disordered mesoporous carbon with tailored pore size.  

PubMed

A new technique that allows direct three-dimensional (3D) investigations of mesopores in carbon materials and quantitative characterization of their physical properties is reported. Focused ion beam nanotomography (FIB-nt) is performed by a serial sectioning procedure with a dual beam FIB-scanning electron microscopy instrument. Mesoporous carbons (MPCs) with tailored mesopore size are produced by carbonization of resorcinol-formaldehyde gels in the presence of a cationic surfactant as a pore stabilizer. A visual 3D morphology representation of disordered porous carbon is shown. Pore size distribution of MPCs is determined by the FIB-nt technique and nitrogen sorption isotherm methods to compare both results. The obtained MPCs exhibit pore sizes of 4.7, 7.2, and 18.3 nm, and a specific surface area of ca. 560 m(2)/g. PMID:23534911

Balach, Juan; Soldera, Flavio; Acevedo, Diego F; Mücklich, Frank; Barbero, César A

2013-06-01

158

Mesoporous SnO2@carbon core-shell nanostructures with superior electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries.  

PubMed

SnO2@carbon nanostructure composites are prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The composite exhibits unique structure, which consists of a mesoporous SnO2 core assembled of very small nanoparticles and a carbon shell with 10 nm thickness. The mesoporous SnO2@carbon core-shell nanostructures manifest superior electrochemical performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The reversible specific capacity of the composite is about 908 mAh g(-1) for the first cycle and it can retain about 680 mAh g(-1) after 40 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 0.3 C. Moreover, it shows excellent rate capability even at the high rate of 4.5 C. The enhanced performance was attributed to the mesoporous structure and a suitable carbon coating. PMID:22173372

Chen, L B; Yin, X M; Mei, L; Li, C C; Lei, D N; Zhang, M; Li, Q H; Xu, Z; Xu, C M; Wang, T H

2012-01-27

159

Double-layer capacitance of waste coffee ground activated carbons in an organic electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ZnCl2 activation we prepared a series of carbon electrodes from waste coffee grounds to study the effect of mesopores on double-layer capacitance in a tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate\\/acetonitrile electrolyte. The activated carbon with the largest mesopore volume achieved an energy density of 34Whkg?1 at low current loads, and significantly retained an energy density of 16.5Whkg?1 and specific capacitance of more

Thomas E. Rufford; Denisa Hulicova-Jurcakova; Erika Fiset; Zhonghua Zhu; Gao Qing Lu

2009-01-01

160

Production of activated carbon cloth with controlled structure and porosity from a new precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of micro and mesoporous activated carbon cloth (ACC) from commercial acrylic textile fibres by physical activation\\u000a with carbon dioxide and the addition of boric acid and sodium hydrogen phosphate as impregnants is reported. The use of sodium\\u000a hydrogen phosphate leads to samples with greater mesopore volume whereas other ACC production conditions studied mainly result\\u000a in microporous materials. This

J. M. Valente Nabais; T. Canário; P. J. M. Carrott; M. M. L. Ribeiro Carrott

2007-01-01

161

Control of ordering and structure in soft templated mesoporous carbon films by use of selective solvent additives.  

PubMed

The structure of ordered mesoporous carbons fabricated using poly(styrene-block-N,N,-dimethyl-n-octadecylamine p-styrenesulfonate) (PS-b-PSS-DMODA) as the template and phenolic resin (resol) as the carbon source can be easily manipulated by inclusion of low concentrations of low volatility selective solvents in the casting solution. Casting from neat methyl ethyl ketone yields a disordered structure even upon thermal annealing. However, addition of both dioctyl phthalate (DOP, PS selective) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, resol and PSS-DMODA selective) at modest concentrations to this casting solution provides sufficient mobility to produce highly ordered films with cylindrical mesopores. The DOP acts to swell the hydrophobic domain and can more than double the mesopore size, while the DMSO acts to swell the resol phase. Moreover, the surface area of the mesoporous carbons increases significantly as the meosopore size increases. This is a result of the decrease in wall thickness, which can be ascertained by the constant d-spacing of the mesostructure as the pore size increases. This behavior is counter to the typical effect of pore swelling agents that increase the pore size and decrease the surface area. Moreover, with only 4 wt % DOP/DMSO in the solution (20 wt % relative to solids), the scattering profiles exhibit many orders of diffraction, even upon carbonization, which is not typically observed for soft templated films. Variation in the concentration of DOP and DMSO during casting enables facile tuning of the structure of mesoporous carbon films. PMID:23738851

Qiang, Zhe; Xue, Jiachen; Stein, Gila E; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Vogt, Bryan D

2013-07-01

162

Mesoporous carbon encapsulated with SrO nanoparticles for the transesterification of ethyl acetoacetate.  

PubMed

Highly basic active sites were introduced by the encapsulation of SrO nanoparticles inside the porous channels of highly ordered mesoporous carbon using wet-impregnation method. The samples prepared were thoroughly investigated employing various physico-chemical characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and elemental mapping. The basic sites located inside the nanochannels were quantified by the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of CO2. XRD, N2 adsorption and HRTEM results revealed that the structural order of the parent CMK-3 support is retained even after higher loading of SrO nanoparticles. TPD of CO2 profiles confirmed that the number of basic active sites can be controlled by varying the SrO loading and the pore diameter of the CMK-3 support. The catalytic potential of the prepared samples was investigated on the transesterification of ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) as a probe reaction. Among the catalysts studied, CMK-3-150 loaded with 30 wt% of SrO nanoparticles exhibited the highest catalytic activity. The effect of various alcohols such as aryl (benzyl alcohol), aliphatic (1-butanol and 1-octanol) and cyclic alcohols (cyclohexanol and furfuryl alcohol) affecting the activity of the catalyst was also investigated. It was found that the catalyst offers maximum conversion when linear aliphatic alcohols especially, 1-butanol with shorter chain length are used. The amount of SrO loading, pore diameter of the CMK-3 support and the weight of the catalyst affecting the catalytic performance of the samples were investigated and discussed in accordance with the physico-chemical characterization data of the catalysts. PMID:23421232

Raja, Pradeep Kumar; Chokkalingam, Anand; Priya, Subramaniam V; Abdul Wahab, Mohammad; Dhawale, Dattatray S; Lawrence, Geoffrey; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Jayavel, Ramasamy; Vinu, Ajayan

2012-11-01

163

A new mechanism about the process of preparing nanoporous silica with activated carbon mold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluids can be used to proceed nanoscale casting, during which silica precursor dissolved in supercritical CO2 and the supercritical CO2 was in contact with the active carbon templates. After removal of active carbon templates by calcinations, microporous and mesoporous silica samples replicating not only mesostructures, but also macroscopic of active carbon molds were obtained and the product have better

Qun Xu; Kunlun Ding; Liumin He; Jianbo Li; Yiqun Guo; Haijuan Fan

2005-01-01

164

Microporous and mesoporous carbide-derived carbons for strain modification of electromechanical actuators.  

PubMed

Low-voltage stimuli-responsive actuators based on carbide-derived carbon (CDC) porous structures were demonstrated. Bending actuators showed a differential electromechanical response defined by the porosity of the CDC used in the electrode layer. Highly porous CDCs prepared from TiC (mainly microporous), B4C (micromesoporous), and Mo2C (mainly mesoporous) precursors were selected to demonstrate the influence of porosity parameters on the electromechanical performance of actuators. CDC-based bending-type actuators showed a porosity-driven displacement response over a frequency range of 200 to 0.005 Hz at an applied excitation voltage of ±2 V. The displacement response of the CDC actuators increased with an increasing number of mesopores in the electrode layer, and the generated strain of the bending actuators was proportional to the total porosity (micropores and mesopores) of the CDC. The modifiable electromechanical response that arises from the precise porosity control attained through tailoring the CDC architecture demonstrates that these actuators hold great promise for smart, low-voltage-driven actuation devices. PMID:24580143

Torop, Janno; Arulepp, Mati; Sugino, Takushi; Asaka, Kinji; Jänes, Alar; Lust, Enn; Aabloo, Alvo

2014-03-18

165

Preparation of novel mesoporous carbons for the adsorption of an inflammatory cytokine (IL-1 beta).  

PubMed

Mesoporous carbons derived from two types of sulphonated styrene divinylbenzene copolymers (Macronet MN500HS and CT275, Purolite International Ltd) were produced and their adsorptive capacity for the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 beta (MW 14.4 kDa) determined. The carbons produced had surface areas from 400 to 1200 m(2)g(-1) and pore volume between 0.2 and 1.4 cm(3)g(-1). The mechanical strength of the carbon beads with surface area values up to 800 m(2)g(-1) were robust. The highest adsorption value of IL-1 beta was 150 ng g(-1) for a mesoporous carbon with surface area around 900 m(2)g(-1) and pore volume around 1.3 cm(3)g(-1). However, there was a trade-off between adsorptive capacity and mechanical strength. When used in conjunction with existing treatment modalities, the materials produced have the potential to enhance the removal of uraemic toxins. PMID:14967525

Malik, D J; Warwick, G L; Venturi, M; Streat, M; Hellgardt, K; Hoenich, N; Dale, J A

2004-07-01

166

Hierarchical Porous Carbon Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical porous carbon is prepared by a combination of self-organization and chemical activation and explored as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Pore structure analysis shows that micropores generated within the mesopore wall and the pristine mesopore structure of mesoporous carbon are preserved during KOH activation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies demonstrate a relatively high electrocatalytic activity of hierarchical porous carbon

Gui-Qiang Wang; Cong-Cong Huang; Wei Xing; Shu-Ping Zhuo

2011-01-01

167

A covalent route for efficient surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon as high performance microwave absorbers.  

PubMed

A covalent route has been successfully utilized for the surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) CMK-3 by in situ polymerization and grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the absence of any solvent. The modified CMK-3 carbon particles have a high loading of 19 wt% poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), named PMMA-g-CMK-3, and also maintain their high surface area and mesoporous structure. The in situ polymerization technique endows a significantly enhanced electric conductivity (0.437 S m(-1)) of the resulting PMMA-g-CMK-3/PMMA composite, about two orders of magnitude higher than 1.34 × 10(-3) S m(-1) of PMMA/CMK-3 obtained by the solvent mixing method. A minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -27 dB and a broader absorption band (over 3 GHz) with RL values <-10 dB are obtained for the in situ polymerized PMMA-g-CMK-3/PMMA in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band), implying its great potential as a microwave absorbing material. The maximum absorbance efficiency for the in situ polymerized sample increases remarkably compared to that (-10 dB) of CMK-3/PMMA prepared by the solvent mixing method. Changing the thickness of the absorber can efficiently adjust the frequency corresponding to the best microwave absorbance ability. The enhanced microwave absorption by the surface modified CMK-3 is ascribed to high dielectric loss. This in situ polymerization for the surface modification of mesoporous carbons opens up a new method and idea for developing light-weight and high-performance microwave absorbing materials. PMID:24170288

Zhou, Hu; Wang, Jiacheng; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

2013-12-21

168

A covalent route for efficient surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon as high performance microwave absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A covalent route has been successfully utilized for the surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) CMK-3 by in situ polymerization and grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the absence of any solvent. The modified CMK-3 carbon particles have a high loading of 19 wt% poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), named PMMA-g-CMK-3, and also maintain their high surface area and mesoporous structure. The in situ polymerization technique endows a significantly enhanced electric conductivity (0.437 S m-1) of the resulting PMMA-g-CMK-3/PMMA composite, about two orders of magnitude higher than 1.34 × 10-3 S m-1 of PMMA/CMK-3 obtained by the solvent mixing method. A minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -27 dB and a broader absorption band (over 3 GHz) with RL values <-10 dB are obtained for the in situ polymerized PMMA-g-CMK-3/PMMA in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band), implying its great potential as a microwave absorbing material. The maximum absorbance efficiency for the in situ polymerized sample increases remarkably compared to that (-10 dB) of CMK-3/PMMA prepared by the solvent mixing method. Changing the thickness of the absorber can efficiently adjust the frequency corresponding to the best microwave absorbance ability. The enhanced microwave absorption by the surface modified CMK-3 is ascribed to high dielectric loss. This in situ polymerization for the surface modification of mesoporous carbons opens up a new method and idea for developing light-weight and high-performance microwave absorbing materials.

Zhou, Hu; Wang, Jiacheng; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

2013-11-01

169

Synthesis and characteristics of continuous mesoporous carbon films by a rapid solvent evaporation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon films with a well-developed meso-porosity were synthesized directly by the carbonization of sulfuric-acid-treated P123 triblock copolymer/silica nanocomposite films, which were prepared from dip-coating technique through an association of sol-gel and evaporation-induced self-assembly process, and the residual silica was removed subsequently via HF-etching. P123 was employed as both structuring agent for self-assembly of tetraethyl orthosilicate and carbon precursor. The sulfuric acid solution was used as a catalyst for cross-linking of P123/silica in order to improve the carbon yield for the continuity of carbon films. Investigations by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the hybrid carbon/silica mesoporous films are preserved perfectly after the carbonization. When the silica is removed by acid treatment, continuous carbon films with an ordered symmetric structure are still kept well. The carbon films obtained are composed of carbon nanotubes with the diameter of around 6 nm, and the lengths of nanotubes affiliating with each other vary from about 100 nm to several micrometers, which were measured by FESEM and TEM.

Wang, Xiaoxian; Li, Tiehu; Ji, Yongbin; Ai, Yanling; Lin, Qilang

2008-12-01

170

N-butyl Mercaptan Adsorption on Activated Carbon in Aqueous Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of aqueous n-butyl mercaptan on Granular\\/Powder Activated Carbon is studied at pH 5-12.4 and 301 K\\/313 K. In GAC mercaptan blocks micropores and mesopores whereas in PAC the broader mesopores remain intact providing access to micropores. Mercaptan is transformed into isomer disulfides and non-extractable sulfur forms following acid-base or oxidation-reduction reaction depending on carbon surface groups and iron, and dissolved oxygen.

Vassileios M. Matsis; Helen P. Grigoropoulou

2011-01-01

171

Preparation and drug release behavior of temperature-responsive mesoporous carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature-responsive composite based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) has been successfully prepared by a simple wetness impregnation technique. The structures and properties of the composite were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 sorption, thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the inclusion of PNIPAAm had not greatly changed the basic ordered pore structure of the OMCs. Ibuprofen (IBU) was selected as model drug, and in vitro test of IBU release exhibited a temperature-responsive controlled release delivery.

Wang, Xiufang; Liu, Ping; Tian, Yong

2011-06-01

172

Synthesis of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by Ni-substituted (loading) MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve catalyzed pyrolysis of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ni-loading MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve (Ni\\/MCM-41) and Ni-substituted MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve (Ni-MCM-41) were synthesized by wet impregnation method and hydrothermal method, respectively. Their mesoporous structures were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 physical adsorption technique. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was employed to catalytically synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using Ni-MCM-41 or Ni\\/MCM-41 as catalyst via pyrolysis of ethanol at

Qian Zhao; Tingshun Jiang; Changsheng Li; Hengbo Yin

2011-01-01

173

Graphitic Mesoporous Carbon as a Support of Promoted Rh Catalysts for Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide to Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Graphitic mesoporous carbon (GMC), prepared through high-temperature graphitization of soft-templated amorphous mesoporous carbon (AMC), was used as the support for Mn, Li, and Fe triple-promoted Rh catalysts for CO hydrogenation to ethanol. The use of GMC results in C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH selectivity and formation rate comparable to nonporous SiO{sub 2} support along with a significant inhibition on the formation of undesired CH{sub 4} and light hydrocarbons at the expense of appreciable amounts of CO{sub 2} produced. The better catalytic performance of promoted-Rh/GMC than those supported on other carbon allotropes (AMC and non-porous graphitic carbon black) seems to be associated with the specific graphitic structure and mesoporosity of GMC. The surface modification of GMC by wet oxidation leads to considerable increases in C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH selectivity and formation rate. The modified GMC as a support shows substantially greater CO{sub 2}-free selectivity for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH than the SiO{sub 2}.

Chai, Songhai [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Golden, Melissa L [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

2012-01-01

174

CO2 adsorption by activated templated carbons.  

PubMed

Highly porous carbons have been prepared by the chemical activation of two mesoporous carbons obtained by using hexagonal- (SBA-15) and cubic (KIT-6)-ordered mesostructured silica as hard templates. These materials were investigated as sorbents for CO(2) capture. The activation process was carried out with KOH at different temperatures in the 600-800°C range. Textural characterization of these activated carbons shows that they have a dual porosity made up of mesopores derived from the templated carbons and micropores generated during the chemical activation step. As a result of the activation process, there is an increase in the surface area and pore volume from 1020 m(2)g(-1) and 0.91 cm(3)g(-1) for the CMK-8 carbon to a maximum of 2660 m(2)g(-1) and 1.38 cm(3)g(-1) for a sample activated at 800°C (KOH/CMK-8 mass ratio of 4). Irrespective of the type of templated carbon used as precursor or the operational conditions used for the synthesis, the activated samples exhibit similar CO(2) uptake capacities, of around 3.2 mmol CO(2)g(-1) at 25°C. The CO(2) capture capacity seems to depend on the presence of narrow micropores (<1 nm) rather than on the surface area or pore volume of activated carbons. Furthermore, it was found that these porous carbons exhibit a high CO(2) adsorption rate, a good selectivity for CO(2)-N(2) separation and they can be easily regenerated. PMID:21999954

Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B

2012-01-15

175

Influence of heat-treatment on lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Mesoporous carbons possess unique nanosheet-like pore walls which can be changed by heat treatment. ? Lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons could be influenced by the nanosheet-like walls. ? Mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties LIBs. -- Abstract: Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with nanosheet-like walls have been prepared as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries by a simple one-step infiltrating method under the action of capillary flow. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the surface topography, pore/phase structure and anode performances of as-prepared materials has been investigated. The results reveal that melted liquid-crystal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be anchored on liquid/silica interfaces by molecule engineering. After carbonization, the nanosheets are formed as the pore walls of MCs and are perpendicular to the long axis of pores. The anode properties demonstrate that C-1200 displays higher reversible capacitance than those treated in higher temperature. The rate performances of C-1200 and C-1800 are similar and more excellent than that of C-2400. These improved lithium ion anode properties could be attributed to the nanosheet-like walls of MCs which can be influenced by the heat treatment temperature.

Zeng, Fanyan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hou, Zhaohui, E-mail: zhqh96@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); He, Binhong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Ge, Chongyong; Cao, Jianguo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Kuang, Yafei, E-mail: yafeik@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

2012-08-15

176

Mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping as superior cathode materials for lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals further co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping (G/LFMP) were synthesized by a modified rheological phase method to improve the speed of lithium storage as well as cycling stability. The mesoporous structure of LiFePO4 nanocrystals was designed and realized by introducing the bead milling technique, which assisted in forming sucrose-pyrolytic carbon nanoparticles as the template for generating mesopores. For comparison purposes, samples modified only with graphene (G/LFP) or Mg2+ doping (LFMP) as well as pure LiFePO4 (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the mesoporous morphologies of the as-prepared composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement data demonstrated that the Mg-doped LiFePO4 is a single olivine-type phase and well crystallized with shortened Fe-O and P-O bonds and a lengthened Li-O bond, resulting in an enhanced Li+ diffusion velocity. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the as-prepared composites as the cathode active materials. Remarkably, the G/LFMP composite has exhibited the best electrochemical properties, including fast lithium storage performance and excellent cycle stability. That is because the modification of graphene provided active sites for nuclei, restricted the in situ crystallite growth, increased the electronic conductivity and reduced the interface reaction current density, while, Mg2+ doping improved the intrinsically electronic and ionic transfer properties of LFP crystals. Moreover, in the G/LFMP composite, the graphene component plays the role of ``cushion'' as it could quickly realize capacity response, buffering the impact to LFMP under the conditions of high-rate charging or discharging, which results in a pre-eminent rate capability and cycling stability.In this work, mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals further co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping (G/LFMP) were synthesized by a modified rheological phase method to improve the speed of lithium storage as well as cycling stability. The mesoporous structure of LiFePO4 nanocrystals was designed and realized by introducing the bead milling technique, which assisted in forming sucrose-pyrolytic carbon nanoparticles as the template for generating mesopores. For comparison purposes, samples modified only with graphene (G/LFP) or Mg2+ doping (LFMP) as well as pure LiFePO4 (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the mesoporous morphologies of the as-prepared composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement data demonstrated that the Mg-doped LiFePO4 is a single olivine-type phase and well crystallized with shortened Fe-O and P-O bonds and a lengthened Li-O bond, resulting in an enhanced Li+ diffusion velocity. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the as-prepared composites as the cathode active materials. Remarkably, the G/LFMP composite has exhibited the best electrochemical properties, including fast lithium storage performance and excellent cycle stability. That is because the modification of graphene provided active sites for nuclei, restricted the in situ crystallite growth, increased the electronic conductivity and reduced the interface reaction current density, while, Mg2+ doping improved the intrinsically electronic and ionic transfer properties of LFP crystals. Moreover, in the G/LFMP composite, the graphene component plays the role of ``cushion'' as it could quickly realize capacity response, buffering the impact to LFMP under the conditions of high-rate charging or discharging, which results in a pre-eminent rate capability and cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04611g

Wang, Bo; Xu, Binghui; Liu, Tiefeng; Liu, Peng; Guo, Chenfeng; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiuming; Xiong, Zhigang; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X. S.

2013-12-01

177

Switchable fluorescent imaging of intracellular telomerase activity using telomerase-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticle.  

PubMed

This work designs a telomerase-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) to realize in situ "off-on" imaging of intracellular telomerase activity. In the wrapping DNA (O1) sealed MSN probe, a black hole fluorescence quencher is covalently immobilized on the inner walls of the mesopores, while fluorescein is loaded in the mesopores. In the presence of telomerase and dNTPs, the designed O1 can be extended and then moves away from the MSN surface via forming a rigid hairpin-like DNA structure. Thus the O1 can act as a "biogate" to block and release fluorescein for "off-on" switchable fluorescent imaging. The MSN probe exhibits good performance for sensitive in situ tracking of telomerase activity in living cells. The practicality of this protocol has been verified by monitoring the change of cellular telomerase activity in response to telomerase-related drugs. PMID:23978191

Qian, Ruocan; Ding, Lin; Ju, Huangxian

2013-09-11

178

Adsorption removal of acid black 1 from aqueous solution using ordered mesoporous carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 and synthetic CMK-3 containing nitrogen functional groups by ammonia-treated were applied for acid black 1(AB1) dye adsorption. The ammonia-treated(chemical vapor deposition method) before and after CMK-3 were characterized by using a Micrometitics ASAP 2020 surface area analyzer (ASAP 2020), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and equilibrium studies. This result indicates that the prepared CMK-3 and modified CMK-3 were almost uniform, as rope-like domains and their uniform mesopore with diameter centered at 3.2 nm and 3.7 nm. The FIIR analysis depicted that the presence of a variety of new basic functional groups on the modified CMK-3 surface. Several effect variables of pH, dye concentration and temperature were studied. The pseudo second-order model showed the ?tter well to agree with the kinetic data. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, with the latter found to closely the isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results show that CMK-3 using ammonia gas modified by thermal treatment system is an effective method to improvement capacity as it shows the highest adsorption capacity of AB1, as compared to the unmodified CMK-3 and the bamboo-based carbon, respectively.

Peng, Xiaoming; Hu, Xijun; Fu, Dafang; Lam, Frank L. Y.

2014-03-01

179

Bactericidal property and biocompatibility of gentamicin-loaded mesoporous carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres.  

PubMed

Implant-associated infection is a serious problem in orthopaedic surgery. One of the most effective ways is to introduce a controlled antibiotics delivery system into the bone filling materials, achieving sustained release of antibiotics in the local sites of bone defects. In the present work, mesoporous carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres (MCHMs) loaded with gentamicin have been fabricated according to the following stages: (i) the preparation of the MCHMs by hydrothermal method using calcium carbonate microspheres as sacrificial templates, and (ii) loading gentamicin into the MCHMs. The MCHMs exhibit the 3D hierarchical nanostructures constructed by nanoplates as building blocks with mesopores and macropores, which make them have the higher drug loading efficiency of 70-75% than the conventional hydroxyapatite particles (HAPs) of 20-25%. The gentamicin-loaded MCHMs display the sustained drug release property, and the controlled release of gentamicin can minimize significantly bacterial adhesion and prevent biofilm formation against S. epidermidis. The biocompatibility tests by using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) as cell models indicate that the gentamicin-loaded MCHMs have as excellent biocompatibility as the HAPs, and the dose of the released gentamicin from the MCHMs has no toxic effects on the hBMSCs. Hence, the gentamicin-loaded MCHMs can be served as a simple, non-toxic and controlled drug delivery system to treat bone infections. PMID:23910253

Guo, Ya-Jun; Long, Teng; Chen, Wei; Ning, Cong-Qin; Zhu, Zhen-An; Guo, Ya-Ping

2013-10-01

180

Novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials wi...

T. D. Burchell J. W. Klett C. E. Weaver

1995-01-01

181

Preparation, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Lanthanum Doped Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lanthanum doped mesoporous titanium dioxide photocatalysts with different La content were synthesized by template method using tetrabutyltitanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) as precursor and Pluronic P123 as template. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Vis adsorption spectroscopy. The effect of La3+ doping concentration from 0.1% to 1% on the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 was investigated. The characterizations indicated that the photocatalysts possessed a homogeneous pore diameter of about 10 nm with high surface area of 165 m2/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicated the presence of C in the doped samples in addition to La. Compared with pure mesoporous TiO2, the La-doped samples extended the photoabsorption edge into the visible light region. The results of phenol photodecomposition showed that La-doped mesoporous TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than pure mesoporous TiO2 under UV and visible light irradiation.

Shi, Zhong-liang; Lai, Hong; Yao, Shu-hua; Wang, Shao-feng

2012-02-01

182

Synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with mesoporous anatase wall and high photocatalytic activity.  

PubMed

Mesoporous titanium dioxide nanosized powder with high specific surface area and anatase wall was synthesized via hydrothermal process by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant-directing agent and pore-forming agent. The resulting materials were characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, FESEM, TEM, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The as-synthesized mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles have mean diameter of 17.6 nm with mean pore size of 2.1 nm. The specific surface area of the as-synthesized mesoporous nanosized TiO2 exceeded 430 m2/g and that of the samples after calcination at 600 degrees C still have 221.9 m2/g. The mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles show significant activities on the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RB). The large surface area, small crystalline size, and well-crystallized anatase mesostructure can explain the high photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles calcined at 400 degrees C. PMID:16863152

Peng, Tianyou; Zhao, De; Dai, Ke; Shi, Wei; Hirao, Kazuyuki

2005-03-24

183

Preparation, phase transformation and photocatalytic activities of cerium-doped mesoporous titania nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Cerium-doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with high surface area and thermal stable anatase wall were synthesized via hydrothermal process in a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/Ti(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}/Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption and DRS spectra. Experimental results indicated that the doping of cerium not only increased the surface area of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, but also inhibited the mesopores collapse and the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation. Moreover, the undoped, doped anatase mesoporous nanoparticles exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than commercial photocatalyst (Degussa, P25), but the maximum photodegradation rate corresponds to the undoped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The lower photocatalytic activities of cerium-doped samples compared with undoped one may be ascribed to that the doped cerium partially blocks titania's surface sites available for the photodegradation and absorption of Rhodamine B (RB)

Xiao Jiangrong [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Peng Tianyou [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.cn; Li Ran [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Peng Zhenghe [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yan Chunhua [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2006-04-15

184

Hierarchical mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoneedle/carbon cloth arrays as superior flexible electrodes for supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchical mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays on carbon cloth have been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal approach combined with a post-annealing treatment. Such unique array nanoarchitectures exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life at high rates. When evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays supported on carbon cloth was able to deliver high specific capacitance of 660 F g-1 at current densities of 2 A g-1 in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. In addition, the composite electrode shows excellent mechanical behavior and long-term cyclic stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 3,000 cycles). The fabrication method presented here is facile, cost-effective, and scalable, which may open a new pathway for real device applications.

Zhang, Deyang; Yan, Hailong; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Kangwen; Wang, Chunlei; Tang, Chengchun; Zhang, Yihe; Cheng, Chuanwei; Luo, Yongsong

2014-03-01

185

Hierarchical mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoneedle/carbon cloth arrays as superior flexible electrodes for supercapacitors.  

PubMed

Hierarchical mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays on carbon cloth have been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal approach combined with a post-annealing treatment. Such unique array nanoarchitectures exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life at high rates. When evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays supported on carbon cloth was able to deliver high specific capacitance of 660 F g-1 at current densities of 2 A g-1 in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. In addition, the composite electrode shows excellent mechanical behavior and long-term cyclic stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 3,000 cycles). The fabrication method presented here is facile, cost-effective, and scalable, which may open a new pathway for real device applications. PMID:24661431

Zhang, Deyang; Yan, Hailong; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Kangwen; Wang, Chunlei; Tang, Chengchun; Zhang, Yihe; Cheng, Chuanwei; Luo, Yongsong

2014-01-01

186

A novel glucose sensor based on ordered mesoporous carbon-Au nanoparticles nanocomposites.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous carbon-Au nanoparticles (OMC-Au) nanocomposites were synthesized by a one-step chemical reduction route. Due to the large surface area and high conductivity of OMC, good biocompatibility of OMC and Au nanoparticles, a mediator-free glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on the OMC-Au nanocomposites modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Direct electron transfer between GOD and the electrode was achieved and the electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) was calculated to be 5.03 s(-1). The Michalis-Menten constant (K(M)(app)) value of GOD immobilized on the OMC-Au/GC electrode surface was found to be 0.6 mM. The glucose biosensor exhibits a linear range from 0.05 to 20.0 mM. This biosensor also shows good reproducibility, excellent stability and the negligible interferences from ascorbic acid and uric acid. PMID:21238726

Wang, Lixia; Bai, Jing; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Guo, Liping

2011-02-15

187

Electrochemical control of ion transport through a mesoporous carbon membrane  

SciTech Connect

The transport of fluids through nanometer scale channels typically on the order of 1 -100 nm often exhibit unique properties compared to the bulk fluid. These phenomena occur because the channel dimensions and molecular size become comparable to the range of several important forces including electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Small changes in properties such as the electric double layer or surface charge can significantly affect molecular transport through the channels. Based on these emerging properties, a variety of nanofluidic devices such as nanofluidic transistors, nanofluidic diodes or lab-on-a-chip devices have been developed3-7 with a diverse range of applications including water purification, biomolecular sensing, DNA separation, and rectified ion transport. Nanofluidic devices are typically fabricated using expensive lithography techniques or sacrificial templates. Here we report a carbon-based, three-dimensional nanofluidic transport membrane that enables gated, or on/off, control of the transport of organic molecular species and metal ions using an applied electrical potential. In the absence of an applied potential, both cationic and anionic molecules freely diffuse across the membrane via a concentration gradient. However, when an electrochemical potential is applied, the transport of ions through the membrane is inhibited.

Surwade, Sumedh P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chai, Songhai [ORNL] [ORNL; Choi, Jai-Pil [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, Jeseung [ORNL] [ORNL; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL] [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

188

Applicability of adsorption equations to argon, nitrogen and volatile organic compound adsorption onto activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluates adsorption equations for argon, nitrogen, and volatile organic compound adsorption onto several commercially available activated carbons that represented a broad range of pore volume character, from predominantly microporous to predominantly mesoporous. For all these carbons, both the recently introduced (Paulson PD, Cannon FS, submitted to Carbon) Modified Freundlich equation and the Dubinin–Astakhov equation accurately characterized adsorption behavior

Paul D. Paulsen; Brian C. Moore; Fred S. Cannon

1999-01-01

189

Preparation and photocatalytic activity of strontium titanate nanocube-dispersed mesoporous silica.  

PubMed

Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanocube-dispersed mesoporous silica was prepared. Oleate-modified SrTiO3 nanocubes with diameter of ca. 10nm were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The nanocubes were embedded into mesoporous silica, aided by the high affinity of surface oleyl groups with surfactants employed as templates of the mesoporous silica. Nanocubes within the nanocomposite maintained their shape and size without fusion or sintering, even after calcination at 1073 K. Oleate groups on the surface of SrTiO3 nanocubes burned out together with CTAB during the calcination process. Nitrogen adsorption behavior of the nanocomposites was comparable to that of conventional mesoporous silica. The nanocomposite exhibited high photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of methylene blue because of the combination of preferential molecular adsorption by mesoporous silica and photocatalysis by SrTiO3. The methylene blue decomposition rate by the nanocomposite was larger than that of the composite prepared with conventional SrTiO3. PMID:23891265

Katagiri, Kiyofumi; Miyoshi, Yuki; Inumaru, Kei

2013-10-01

190

Tailoring micro-mesoporosity in activated carbon fibers to enhance SO2 catalytic oxidation.  

PubMed

Enhanced SO2 adsorption of activated carbon fibers is obtained by tailoring a specific micro-mesoporous structure in the fibers. This architecture is obtained via metal catalytic activation of the fibers with a novel precursor, cobalt naphthenate, which contrary to other precursors, also enhances spinnability and carbon fiber yield. In the SO2 oxidation, it is demonstrated that the combination of micropores and large mesopores is the main factor for an enhanced catalytic activity which is superior to that observed in other similar microporous activated carbon fibers. This provides an alternative way for the development of a new generation of catalytic material. PMID:24910032

Diez, Noel; Alvarez, Patricia; Granda, Marcos; Blanco, Clara; Gryglewicz, Gra?yna; Wróbel-Iwaniec, Iwona; Sliwak, Agata; Machnikowski, Jacek; Menendez, Rosa

2014-08-15

191

Capacitive performance of ordered mesoporous carbons with tunable porous texture in ionic liquid electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordered mesoporous carbons with tunable pore size and surface chemical properties are prepared by doping boric acid using a hard-templating method. The capacitive performance of these carbons is investigated in two common ionic liquids of EMImBF 4 and EMImTSFI. As demonstrated by the structure analysis, the pore size increases from 3.3 to 5.7 nm and the content of oxygenated groups on the carbon surface increases from 2.0 to 5.2 mol% with the increase of the boron doping from 0 to 50 mol%. In ionic liquid electrolyte, the carbons mainly show typical electric double layer capacitance, and the capacitance retention ratio and ion diffusion in the carbon channels is determined to the surface chemical property. The prepared carbons present visible pseudo-capacitance due to the rapid redox reactions of the oxygenated groups in hydrophilic EMImBF 4, reflecting by the increasing of the specific surface capacitance, while no visible pseudo-capacitive behavior was observed in hydrophobic EMImTSFI.

Zhou, Jin; Xing, Wei; Zhuo, Shuping; Zhao, Yi

2011-11-01

192

Formation and decomposition of ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide hydrates in silica gel mesopores under high pressure.  

PubMed

The experimental data on decomposition temperatures for the gas hydrates of ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide dispersed in silica gel mesopores are reported. The studies were performed at pressures up to 1 GPa. It is shown that the experimental dependence of hydrate decomposition temperature on the size of pores that limit the size of hydrate particles can be described on the basis of the Gibbs-Thomson equation only if one takes into account changes in the shape coefficient that is present in the equation; in turn, the value of this coefficient depends on a method of mesopore size determination. A mechanism of hydrate formation in mesoporous medium is proposed. Experimental data providing evidence of the possibility of the formation of hydrate compounds in hydrophobic matrixes under high pressure are reported. Decomposition temperature of those hydrate compounds is higher than that for the bulk hydrates of the corresponding gases. PMID:17004842

Aladko, E Ya; Dyadin, Yu A; Fenelonov, V B; Larionov, E G; Manakov, A Yu; Mel'gunov, M S; Zhurko, F V

2006-10-01

193

Nanocomposite of LiFePO4 and mesoporous carbon prepared by microwave heating for rechargeable lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nanocomposite of LiFePO4 and mesoporous carbon was synthesized from MgO-templated mesoporous carbon by microwave heating for use as a cathode material in rechargeable Li batteries. Our research group reported a composition method using a porous template in the a previous paper.[1] Despite its low carbon content, the present composite shows better electrochemical performance than our previously reported version. The LiFePO4 nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in the template because of the suppressed growth of LiFePO4 crystals in the template pores and small thermal gradient resulting from microwave heating. The three-dimensional conducting carbon network between the LiFePO4 nanoparticles led to excellent cycling stability and rate capability. No decrease in discharge capacity was observed up to 100 cycles, and 85% of the reversible capacity at a Crate of 0.1 was retained at a C-rate of 30.

Roh, Kwang Chul; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Jae-Won

2013-11-01

194

Facile control of long range orientation in mesoporous carbon films with thermal zone annealing velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordered mesoporous carbons exhibit appealing properties for many applications, but their function and performance can depend critically on their structure. The in-plane orientation of 2D cylinders from the cooperative assembly of Pluronic P123 and resol has been controlled by application of cold zone annealing (CZA). By varying the moving rate, the preferential in-plane orientation of the self-assembled cylinders can be tuned through the entire 180° range possible from ? = 50° to ? = -130° (relative to the moving direction). At a moving rate of 2 ?m s-1, this simple and easy CZA process leads to cylinders that are well aligned parallel to the moving direction with a high orientational factor of S = 0.98. Moreover, the in-plane oriented cylinders can be nearly perfectly aligned transverse to the moving direction (S = 0.95) by simply decreasing the moving velocity to 0.5 ?m s-1. We attribute the parallel alignment to the flow that develops from the motion of the thermal gradients, while the transverse alignment is related to flow cessation (inertial effect). The preferential orientation is retained through the carbonization process, but there is some degradation in orientation due to insufficient crosslinking of the resol during CZA; this effect is most prominent for the higher moving rates (less time for crosslinking), but can be overcome by post-CZA annealing at uniform elevated temperatures to further crosslink the resol. CZA is a simple and powerful method for fabricating well-aligned and self-assembled mesoporous carbon films over large areas.Ordered mesoporous carbons exhibit appealing properties for many applications, but their function and performance can depend critically on their structure. The in-plane orientation of 2D cylinders from the cooperative assembly of Pluronic P123 and resol has been controlled by application of cold zone annealing (CZA). By varying the moving rate, the preferential in-plane orientation of the self-assembled cylinders can be tuned through the entire 180° range possible from ? = 50° to ? = -130° (relative to the moving direction). At a moving rate of 2 ?m s-1, this simple and easy CZA process leads to cylinders that are well aligned parallel to the moving direction with a high orientational factor of S = 0.98. Moreover, the in-plane oriented cylinders can be nearly perfectly aligned transverse to the moving direction (S = 0.95) by simply decreasing the moving velocity to 0.5 ?m s-1. We attribute the parallel alignment to the flow that develops from the motion of the thermal gradients, while the transverse alignment is related to flow cessation (inertial effect). The preferential orientation is retained through the carbonization process, but there is some degradation in orientation due to insufficient crosslinking of the resol during CZA; this effect is most prominent for the higher moving rates (less time for crosslinking), but can be overcome by post-CZA annealing at uniform elevated temperatures to further crosslink the resol. CZA is a simple and powerful method for fabricating well-aligned and self-assembled mesoporous carbon films over large areas. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: GISAXS patterns for additional azimuthal angles, individual Gaussian fits of the azimuthal dependence on the primary diffraction intensity, ellipsometry data for CZA films and ellipsometry line scan illustrating the thicknesses associated with the static thermal gradient exposure. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03591c

Xue, Jiachen; Singh, Gurpreet; Qiang, Zhe; Yager, Kevin G.; Karim, Alamgir; Vogt, Bryan D.

2013-11-01

195

The electrochemical performance of ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composite material for supercapacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of high performance ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composites have been synthesized by a combination of incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method for the first time. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the composites derived at the hydrothermal temperature of 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 275 and 300 °C. The formation of nanosized nickel compounds, fully inside the mesopore system, was confirmed with XRD and TEM. An N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms measurements still revealed mesoporosity for the host/guest compounds. It is noteworthy that an OMC/nickel nitrate hydroxide hydrate composite (OMCN-150) exhibits more excellent performance. Based on the various hydrothermal temperatures of the composite, the capacitance of an OMCN-150 delivering the best electrochemical performance is about 2.4 (5 mV s -1) and 1.5 (50 mV s -1) times of the pristine OMC. The capacitance retention of an OMCN-150 is 96.1%, which indicates that the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor is improved greatly, and represents novel research and significant advances in the field of electrode composite materials for supercapacitor.

Feng, Jicheng; Zhao, Jiachang; Tang, Bohejin; Liu, Ping; Xu, Jingli

2010-12-01

196

Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, XP (gH3PO4\\/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000m2\\/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19cm3\\/g) can

Sandro Altenor; Betty Carene; Evens Emmanuel; Jacques Lambert; Jean-Jacques Ehrhardt; Sarra Gaspard

2009-01-01

197

Synthesis of hierarchical macro-/mesoporous solid-solution photocatalysts by a polymerization-carbonization-oxidation route: the case of Ce(0.49)Zr(0.37)Bi(0.14)O(1.93).  

PubMed

A hierarchical macro-/mesoporous Ce(0.49)Zr(0.37)Bi(0.14)O(1.93) solid-solution network has been synthesized on a large scale by means of a simple and general polymerization-carbonization-oxidation synthetic route. The as-prepared product has been characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, BET surface area measurement, UV/Vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and photoelectrochemistry measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the product has been demonstrated through the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. Structural characterization has indicated that the hierarchical macro-/mesoporous solid-solution network not only contains numerous macropores, but also possesses an interior mesoporous structure. The mesopore size and BET surface area of the network have been measured as 2-25 nm and 140.5 m(2) g(-1), respectively. The hierarchical macro-/mesoporous solid-solution network with open and accessible pores was found to be well-preserved after calcination at 800 degrees C, indicating especially high thermal stability. Due to its high specific surface area, the synergistic effect of the coupling of macropores and mesopores, and its high crystallinity, the Ce(0.49)Zr(0.37)Bi(0.14)O(1.93) solid-solution material shows a strong structure-induced enhancement of visible-light harvest and exhibits significantly improved visible-light photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methyl orange compared with those of its other forms, such as mesoporous hollow spheres and bulk particles. PMID:20575115

Xi, Guangcheng; Ye, Jinhua

2010-08-01

198

Adsorption process of methyl orange dye onto mesoporous carbon material-kinetic and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

The mesoporous carbon CMK-3 adsorbent was prepared, characterized, and used for the removal of anionic methyl orange dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption experiments were carried out as batch studies at different contact time, pH, initial dye concentration, and salt concentration. The dye adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 60 min of contact time. Removal of dye in acidic solutions was better than in basic solutions. The adsorption of dye increased with increasing initial dye concentration and salt concentration. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, which revealed that Langmuir model was more suitable to describe the methyl orange adsorption than Freundlich model. Experimental data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. It was found that kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order equation. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. PMID:21798549

Mohammadi, Nourali; Khani, Hadi; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Amereh, Ehsanollah; Agarwal, Shilpi

2011-10-15

199

Nitrogen-containing mesoporous carbons prepared from melamine formaldehyde resins with CaCl2 as a template.  

PubMed

Melamine formaldehyde resins were synthesized with encapsulated CaCl(2) as a template. Carbonization at high temperatures led to the formation of carbon materials containing N atoms. Washing with de-ionized water removed encapsulated CaCl(2), resulting in the formation of mesopores (3-30 nm) with the high surface areas (770-1300 m(2)/g). The template can be recycled and the method is simple and cost effective as compared to the hard template techniques. The mesoporous carbons containing nitrogen (NMC) thus prepared exhibited the amphipathic surfaces (both hydrophilic and lipophilic) and adsorbed great amount of water and benzene. In addition, the incorporated N atoms exhibited quite strong basicity for the adsorption of great amount of SO(2). PMID:21840533

Huang, Yu'an; Yang, Feng; Xu, Zheng; Shen, Jianyi

2011-11-01

200

Nano-scaled silver vanadates loaded on mesoporous silica: Characterization and photocatalytic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible-light active silver vanadates (SVOs) loaded on mesoporous silica (SBA-15) were synthesized using a wetness impregnation procedure. All the SVO\\/SBA-15 composites inherit the higher photocatalytic activities and larger mineralization yields than those of P-25 (commercial TiO2) and plain SVO. Moreover, the sample loaded with 51% of SVO (51SVO\\/SBA-15) exhibits the best photocatalytic activity. Morphology results show that the addition of

Guan-Ting Pan; Chao-Ming Huang; Po-Yang Peng; Thomas C.-K. Yang

2011-01-01

201

Electrochemical immunosensor based on hydrophilic polydopamine-coated prussian blue-mesoporous carbon for the rapid screening of 3-bromobiphenyl.  

PubMed

A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for 3-bromobiphenyl (3-BBP) detection was constructed by employing a new polydopamine coated prussian blue-mesoporous carbon (PDOP/PB/CMK-3) nanocomposite as the substrate platform and multi-horseradish peroxidase-double helix carbon nanotubes-secondary antibody (multi-HRP-DHCNTs-Ab2) as the signal label. PB/CMK-3 was firstly successfully in-situ synthesized with the aid of the CMK-3 reduction, which was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. By using PDOP/PB/CMK-3 as the substrate, it can effectively enhance the specific surface for antigen loading due to the three-dimensional structure of the nanocomposites, while large amount of PB that fixed inside or outside the pore of CMK-3 successfully improved the electrochemical response and the PDOP film can provide a biocompatible environment to maintain the activity of antigen availability. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor shows a good current response to 3-BBP in a linear range from 5pM to 2nM with a detection limit of 2.25pM. In addition, the specificity, reproducibility and stability of the immunosensor were also proved to be acceptable, indicating its potential application in environmental monitoring. PMID:24709325

Sun, Zihong; Luo, Zhigang; Gan, Cuifen; Fei, Shidong; Liu, Yingju; Lei, Hongtao

2014-09-15

202

Efficient optical resolution of amino acid by alanine racemaze chiral analogue supported on mesoporous carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically pure D-amino acids are industrially important chiral building blocks for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, food ingredients, and drug intermediates. Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic-resolution processes have recently been developed for deracemization of amino acids. S-ARCA would be a good candidate for the selective adsorption of D amino acid through the imine formation reaction. The organic phase containing S-ARCA adsorbent, TPPC or Ionic Liquid (as a phase transfer catalyst) in MC were coated on the surfaces of mesoporous carbon C-SBA-15(CMK). The aqueous solution of racemic D/L-amino acid and NaOH were added to the carbon support coated with ARCA. The D/L ratios on ARCA and in solution were determined with increasing reaction time. S-ARCA has a unique property for the selective adsorption of D- amino acid (up to 90% selcetivity) in the racemic mixture. The fixed bed reactor containing ARCA/carbon support was also adopted successfully for the selective separation of amino acid.

Jang, D.; Kim, K.; Park, D.; Kim, G.

2012-09-01

203

Preparation and drug release behavior of temperature-responsive mesoporous carbons  

SciTech Connect

A temperature-responsive composite based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) has been successfully prepared by a simple wetness impregnation technique. The structures and properties of the composite were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} sorption, thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the inclusion of PNIPAAm had not greatly changed the basic ordered pore structure of the OMCs. Ibuprofen (IBU) was selected as model drug, and in vitro test of IBU release exhibited a temperature-responsive controlled release delivery. - Graphical abstract: The bands located at 1650 and 1549 cm{sup -1} could be assigned to C=O stretching and N-H bending vibrations for polymer PNIPAAm (a). The bands at 1388 and 1369 cm{sup -1} were due to isopropyl group, and the band at 1459 cm{sup -1} was related to the bending vibration of C-H (a). For the PNIPAAm/OMCs composite, the characteristic bands of polymer were still observed besides those for carbon materials and the bands at around 1585 cm{sup -1} and a broad band at about 1100 cm{sup -1} were characteristics for the carbon materials(c). In addition, little shifts of C=O and N-H bands compared to the pure PNIPAAm were also observed (b), indicating a weak interaction between the polymer and carbon material. These results could be a proof that the PNIPAAm has been incorporated into the carbon material. Highlights: > A temperature-responsive PNIPAAm/OMCs composite was successfully synthesized by a simple wetness impregnation technique for the first time. > The inclusion of PNIPAAm had not greatly changed the basic ordered pore structure of the OMCs. > In vitro test of IBU release exhibited a temperature-responsive controlled release delivery.

Wang Xiufang [College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu Ping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Tian Yong, E-mail: fengshoutian@hotmail.com [College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

2011-06-15

204

Facile synthesis of yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres for efficient enrichment of low abundance peptides.  

PubMed

Magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres with a yolk-shell structure (YSMMCS) have been prepared via a new in situ carbon source strategy. The material was fabricated by two shells coated onto the Fe3O4 particles; the inner dense and thick silica shell could protect the magnetic core from harsh acidic solvents as well as induce the void between the core and the outer shell for the yolk-shell structure, while the outer organosilica shell was used as the template and carbon source for in situ preparation of a carbon shell with mesoporous structure. A C18-alkyl chain was incorporated in situ as the carbon precursor efficiently, avoiding the conventional infiltration step, which was very difficult to manipulate and time-consuming with the possibility of losing the carbon precursor. The resulting yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres exhibited a high surface area (273.15 m(2) g(-1)), a large pore volume (0.31 cm(3) g(-1)), and a strong magnetic response (a saturation magnetization value of 34.57 emu g(-1)). As a result of the void between the core and the outer shell and the ?-? stacking effect, adsorption capacity reached 191.64 mg g(-1) by using Rhodamine B as a standard analyte, indicating the great potential application of the material as drug carriers. Owing to the inherent hydrophobicity and high surface area, the composite material showed better performance in the enrichment of peptides than a magnetic mesoporous silica material (Fe2O3@nSiO2@mSiO2). According to the LC-MS/MS results, about 51 and 29 nonredundant peptides were identified from tryptic digests of 5 nM BSA. Additionally, taking advantage of the mesoporous structure and strong magnetic response, the material was utilized to selectively extract low abundance endogenous peptides from human serum in the presence of high abundance proteins. Based on the LC-MS/MS results, 962 endogenous peptides were obtained by 2.5 mg YSMMCS relative to 539 endogenous peptides by 5 mg Fe2O3@nSiO2@mSiO2, confirming the outstanding performance of YSMMCS in peptidome analysis. PMID:24061763

Wan, Hao; Qin, Hongqiang; Xiong, Zhichao; Zhang, Weibing; Zou, Hanfa

2013-11-21

205

Nano-sized cobalt oxide\\/mesoporous carbon sphere composites as negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of nano-sized cobalt oxide compounded with mesoporous carbon spheres (MCS) as negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries was synthesized. The composite containing about 20wt.% cobalt oxide exhibits a reversible capacity of 703mAh\\/g at a constant current density of 70mA\\/g between 0.01 and 3.0V (vs. Li+\\/Li), and remains a capacity retention of 77% after the 30th cycle. The

Hai-jing Liu; Shou-hang Bo; Wang-jun Cui; Feng Li; Cong-xiao Wang; Yong-yao Xia

2008-01-01

206

Removal of methyl–ethyl ketone vapour on polyacrylonitrile-derived carbon\\/mesoporous silica nanocomposite adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous silica supports (MCM-41, SBA-15 and silica gel) were modified by the introduction of controlled amounts of polymer-derived carbon. Precipitation polymerization of polyacrylonitrile in the aqueous suspension of a silica material was used as a deposition method. The samples of PAN\\/silica composites were studied by thermal analysis, performed in air and inert atmosphere, in order to determine the amount of

Rafa? Janus; Piotr Ku?trowski; Barbara Dudek; Zofia Piwowarska; Andrzej Kochanowski; Marek Michalik; Pegie Cool

2011-01-01

207

Effect of Hydrothermal Temperature on the Structure and Electrochemical Performance of Manganese Compound\\/Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Composites for Supercapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese compound\\/ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) composites with host-guest structure were prepared by a novel technique named as incipient wetness impregnation-hydrothermal method, which combines incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method, and the effect of hydrothermal temperature on the structure and electrochemical performance of the composites was investigated. The structure of the composites was characterized by XRD, adsorption\\/desorption isotherms and TEM, and

Jiachang Zhao; Bohejin Tang; Jian Cao; Jicheng Feng; Pimg Liu; Jingli Xu

2011-01-01

208

Effect of Hydrothermal Temperature on the Structure and Electrochemical Performance of Manganese Compound\\/Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Composites for Supercapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese compound\\/ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) composites with host-guest structure were prepared by a novel technique named as incipient wetness impregnation-hydrothermal method, which combines incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method, and the effect of hydrothermal temperature on the structure and electrochemical performance of the composites was investigated. The structure of the composites was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), adsorption\\/desorption isotherms and

Jiachang Zhao; Bohejin Tang; Jian Cao; Jicheng Feng; Ping Liu; Jie Zhao; Jingli Xu

2012-01-01

209

Effects of CO 2 activation on porous structures of coconut shell-based activated carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, textural characterization of an activated carbon derived from carbonized coconut shell char obtained at carbonization temperature of 600 °C for 2 h by CO 2 activation was investigated. The effects of activation temperature, activation time and flow rate of CO 2 on the BET surface area, total volume, micropore volume and yield of activated carbons prepared were evaluated systematically. The results showed that: (i) enhancing activation temperature was favorable to the formation of pores, widening of pores and an increase in mesopores; (ii) increasing activation time was favorable to the formation of micropores and mesopores, and longer activation time would result in collapsing of pores; (iii) increasing flow rate of CO 2 was favorable to the reactions of all active sites and formation of pores, further increasing flow rate of CO 2 would lead carbon to burn out and was unfavorable to the formation of pores. The degree of surface roughness of activated carbon prepared was measured by the fractal dimension which was calculated by FHH (Frenkel-Halsey-Hill) theory. The fractal dimensions of activated carbons prepared were greater than 2.6, indicating the activated carbon samples prepared had very irregular structures, and agreed well with those of average micropore size.

Guo, Shenghui; Peng, Jinhui; Li, Wei; Yang, Kunbin; Zhang, Libo; Zhang, Shimin; Xia, Hongying

2009-07-01

210

Direct tri-constituent co-assembly of highly ordered mesoporous carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Controlling over ordered porosity by self-assembly is challenging in the area of materials science. Materials with highly ordered aperture are favorable candidates in catalysis and energy conversion device. Here we describe a facile process to synthesize highly ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by direct tri-constituent co-assembly method, which uses resols as the carbon precursor, tri-block copolymer F127 as the soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the inorganic precursor. The obtained products are characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorption-desorption measurement and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicate that the OMC possesses high surface areas of 1209 m(2) g(-1), homogeneous pore size of 4.6 nm and a large pore volume of 1.65 cm(3) g(-1). The advantages of high electrochemical active surface area and favorable accessible porosity of OMC benefit the catalysis of I(3)(-) to I(-). As a result, the OMC counter electrode displays a remarkable property when it was applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, carbon black (CB) counter electrode and Pt counter electrode have also been prepared. When these different counter electrodes were applied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power-conversion efficiency (?) of the DSSCs with CB counter electrode are measured to be 5.10%, whereas the corresponding values is 6.39% for the DSSC with OMC counter electrode, which is comparable to 6.84% of the cell with Pt counter electrode under the same experimental conditions. PMID:23165970

Peng, Tao; Sun, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Huang, Niu; Liu, Yumin; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

2013-01-01

211

Direct tri-constituent co-assembly of highly ordered mesoporous carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling over ordered porosity by self-assembly is challenging in the area of materials science. Materials with highly ordered aperture are favorable candidates in catalysis and energy conversion device. Here we describe a facile process to synthesize highly ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by direct tri-constituent co-assembly method, which uses resols as the carbon precursor, tri-block copolymer F127 as the soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the inorganic precursor. The obtained products are characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorption-desorption measurement and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicate that the OMC possesses high surface areas of 1209 m2 g-1, homogeneous pore size of 4.6 nm and a large pore volume of 1.65 cm3 g-1. The advantages of high electrochemical active surface area and favorable accessible porosity of OMC benefit the catalysis of I3- to I-. As a result, the OMC counter electrode displays a remarkable property when it was applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, carbon black (CB) counter electrode and Pt counter electrode have also been prepared. When these different counter electrodes were applied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power-conversion efficiency (?) of the DSSCs with CB counter electrode are measured to be 5.10%, whereas the corresponding values is 6.39% for the DSSC with OMC counter electrode, which is comparable to 6.84% of the cell with Pt counter electrode under the same experimental conditions.

Peng, Tao; Sun, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Huang, Niu; Liu, Yumin; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

2012-12-01

212

One-pot generation of mesoporous carbon supported nanocrystalline calcium oxides capable of efficient CO2 capture over a wide range of temperatures.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous carbon-supported calcium oxide materials have been rationally synthesized for the first time. Large specific surface area, high content of nanosized calcium oxides can be easily obtained and tuned. The structure, porosity and the particle size evolution as a function of calcium content and carbonization temperature are extensively characterized and well correlated with their CO(2) sorption properties. The composite materials are of significance for CO(2) physisorption at ambient temperatures with high capacity and selectivity over N(2). Meanwhile, the nanocrystalline calcium oxides are highly active for CO(2) chemisorption, with tuneable and high CO(2) capacity at 200-500 °C. An almost complete initial conversion and fast reaction kinetics at a low temperature (450 °C) and low CO(2) pressure can be achieved within minutes. Cyclic stability is also substantially improved due to the confinement effect of the CaO nanoparticles within the mesopores. These materials would be suitable for CO(2) separation over a wide range of temperatures. PMID:21132180

Wu, Zhangxiong; Hao, Na; Xiao, Gongkui; Liu, Liying; Webley, Paul; Zhao, Dongyuan

2011-02-21

213

Facile synthesis of yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres for efficient enrichment of low abundance peptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres with a yolk-shell structure (YSMMCS) have been prepared via a new in situ carbon source strategy. The material was fabricated by two shells coated onto the Fe3O4 particles; the inner dense and thick silica shell could protect the magnetic core from harsh acidic solvents as well as induce the void between the core and the outer shell for the yolk-shell structure, while the outer organosilica shell was used as the template and carbon source for in situ preparation of a carbon shell with mesoporous structure. A C18-alkyl chain was incorporated in situ as the carbon precursor efficiently, avoiding the conventional infiltration step, which was very difficult to manipulate and time-consuming with the possibility of losing the carbon precursor. The resulting yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres exhibited a high surface area (273.15 m2 g-1), a large pore volume (0.31 cm3 g-1), and a strong magnetic response (a saturation magnetization value of 34.57 emu g-1). As a result of the void between the core and the outer shell and the ?-? stacking effect, adsorption capacity reached 191.64 mg g-1 by using Rhodamine B as a standard analyte, indicating the great potential application of the material as drug carriers. Owing to the inherent hydrophobicity and high surface area, the composite material showed better performance in the enrichment of peptides than a magnetic mesoporous silica material (Fe2O3@nSiO2@mSiO2). According to the LC-MS/MS results, about 51 and 29 nonredundant peptides were identified from tryptic digests of 5 nM BSA. Additionally, taking advantage of the mesoporous structure and strong magnetic response, the material was utilized to selectively extract low abundance endogenous peptides from human serum in the presence of high abundance proteins. Based on the LC-MS/MS results, 962 endogenous peptides were obtained by 2.5 mg YSMMCS relative to 539 endogenous peptides by 5 mg Fe2O3@nSiO2@mSiO2, confirming the outstanding performance of YSMMCS in peptidome analysis.Magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres with a yolk-shell structure (YSMMCS) have been prepared via a new in situ carbon source strategy. The material was fabricated by two shells coated onto the Fe3O4 particles; the inner dense and thick silica shell could protect the magnetic core from harsh acidic solvents as well as induce the void between the core and the outer shell for the yolk-shell structure, while the outer organosilica shell was used as the template and carbon source for in situ preparation of a carbon shell with mesoporous structure. A C18-alkyl chain was incorporated in situ as the carbon precursor efficiently, avoiding the conventional infiltration step, which was very difficult to manipulate and time-consuming with the possibility of losing the carbon precursor. The resulting yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres exhibited a high surface area (273.15 m2 g-1), a large pore volume (0.31 cm3 g-1), and a strong magnetic response (a saturation magnetization value of 34.57 emu g-1). As a result of the void between the core and the outer shell and the ?-? stacking effect, adsorption capacity reached 191.64 mg g-1 by using Rhodamine B as a standard analyte, indicating the great potential application of the material as drug carriers. Owing to the inherent hydrophobicity and high surface area, the composite material showed better performance in the enrichment of peptides than a magnetic mesoporous silica material (Fe2O3@nSiO2@mSiO2). According to the LC-MS/MS results, about 51 and 29 nonredundant peptides were identified from tryptic digests of 5 nM BSA. Additionally, taking advantage of the mesoporous structure and strong magnetic response, the material was utilized to selectively extract low abundance endogenous peptides from human serum in the presence of high abundance proteins. Based on the LC-MS/MS results, 962 endogenous peptides were obtained by 2.5 mg YSMMCS relative to 539 endogenous peptides by 5 mg Fe2O3@nSiO2@mSiO2, confirming the outstanding performance of YSMMCS in peptido

Wan, Hao; Qin, Hongqiang; Xiong, Zhichao; Zhang, Weibing; Zou, Hanfa

2013-10-01

214

Mesoporous MgTa2O6 thin films with enhanced photocatalytic activity: On the interplay between crystallinity and mesostructure  

PubMed Central

Summary Ordered mesoporous, crystalline MgTa2O6 thin films with a mesoscopic nanoarchitecture were synthesized by evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) in combination with a sol–gel procedure. Utilization of novel templates, namely the block copolymers KLE (poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide)) and PIB6000 (CH3C(CH3)2(CH2C(CH3)2)107CH2C(CH3)2C6H4O(CH2CH2O)100H), was the key to achieving a stable ordered mesoporous structure even upon crystallization of MgTa2O6 within the mesopore walls. The effect of the calcination temperature on the ability of the mesoporous films to assist the photodegradation of rhodamine B in water was studied. As a result, two maxima in the photocatalytic activity were identified in the calcination temperature range of 550–850 °C, peaking at 700 °C and 790 °C, and the origin of this was investigated by using temperature-dependent X-ray scattering. Optimal activity was obtained when the mesoporous film was heated to 790 °C; at this temperature, crystallinity was significantly high, with MgTa2O6 nanocrystals of 1.6 nm in size (averaged over all reflections), and an ordered mesoporous structure was maintained. When considering the turnover frequency of such photocatalysts, the optimized activity of the present nanoarchitectured MgTa2O6 thin film was ca. four times that of analogous anatase TiO2 films with ordered mesopores. Our study demonstrated that high crystallinity and well-developed mesoporosity have to be achieved in order to optimize the physicochemical performance of mesoporous metal-oxide films.

Wu, Jin-Ming; Djerdj, Igor; von Graberg, Till

2012-01-01

215

Lanthanum cobaltite perovskite supported onto mesoporous zirconium dioxide: nature of active sites of VOC oxidation.  

PubMed

Novel catalytic nano-sized materials based on LaCoO(x) perovskite nanoparticles incapsulated in the mesoporous matrix of zirconia were prepared, characterized by physicochemical methods and tested in complete methanol oxidation. LaCoO(x) nanoparticles were prepared inside the mesopores of ZrO(2) by decomposition of bimetallic La-Co glycine precursor complexes. The catalysts have been studied by diffuse-reflectance FTIR-spectroscopy using such probe molecules as CO, CD(3)CN and CDCl(3) to test low-coordinated metal ions. At low temperatures of decomposition of complexes (up to 400°C), low-coordinated Co(3+) ions predominate in the LaCoO(x) nanoparticles, whereas basically Co(2+) ions are found upon increasing the decomposition temperature to 600°C. The novel nano-sized perovskite catalysts exhibit a very high catalytic activity in the abatement of volatile organic compounds present in air, like methanol and light hydrocarbons. PMID:21665054

Kustov, Alexander L; Tkachenko, Olga P; Kustov, Leonid M; Romanovsky, Boris V

2011-08-01

216

Sorption of uranium(VI) using oxime-grafted ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-5.  

PubMed

A new sorbent for uranium(VI) has been developed by functionalizing ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-5 with 4-acetophenone oxime via thermally initiated diazotization. The sorption of U(VI) ions onto the functionalized CMK-5 (Oxime-CMK-5) was investigated as a function of sorbent dosage, pH value, contact time, ionic strength and temperature using batch sorption techniques. The results showed that U(VI) sorption onto Oxime-CMK-5 was strongly dependent on pH, but to a lesser extent, on ionic strength. Kinetic studies revealed that the sorption process achieved equilibrium within 30 min and followed a pseudo-first-order rate equation. The isothermal data correlated with the Langmuir model better than the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic data indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. Under current experimental conditions, a maximum U(VI) sorption capacity was found to be 65.18 mg/g. Quantitative recovery of uranium was achieved by desorbing the U(VI)-loaded Oxime-CMK-5 with 1.0 mol/L HCl and no significant decrease in U(VI) sorption capability of Oxime-CMK-5 was observed after five consecutive sorption-desorption cycles. The sorption study performed in a simulated nuclear industry effluent demonstrated that the new sorbent showed a desirable selectivity for U(VI) ions over a range of competing metal ions. PMID:21497013

Tian, Gan; Geng, Junxia; Jin, Yongdong; Wang, Chunli; Li, Shuqiong; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Hang; Zhao, Yongsheng; Li, Shoujian

2011-06-15

217

A nano-fibrillated mesoporous carbon as an effective support for palladium nanoparticles in the aerobic oxidation of alcohols "on pure water".  

PubMed

A novel nano-fibrillated mesoporous carbon (IFMC) was successfully prepared via carbonization of the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-phenethyl-1H-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (1) in the presence of SBA-15. The material was shown to be an efficient and unique support for the palladium nanoparticle (PdNP) catalyst Pd@IFMC (2) in aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic, benzylic, and heteroatom containing alcohols on pure water at temperatures as low as 40 °C for the first time and giving almost consistent activities and selectivities within more than six reaction runs. The catalyst has also been employed as an effective catalyst for the selective oxidation of aliphatic and allylic alcohols at 70-80 °C. The materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N(2) adsorption-desorption analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography (ET). Our compelling XPS and ET studies showed that higher activity of 2 compared to Pd@CMK-3 and Pd/C in the aerobic oxidation of alcohols on water might be due to the presence of nitrogen functionalities inside the carbon structure and also the fibrous nature of our materials. The presence of a nitrogen heteroatom in the carboneous framework might also be responsible for the relatively uniform and nearly atomic-scale distribution of PdNPs throughout the mesoporous structure and the inhibition of Pd agglomeration during the reaction, resulting in high durability, high stability, and recycling characteristics of 2. This effect was clearly confirmed by comparing the TEM images of the recovered 2 and Pd@CMK-3. PMID:22707318

Karimi, Babak; Behzadnia, Hesam; Bostina, Mihnea; Vali, Hojatollah

2012-07-01

218

Comprehensive study of pore evolution, mesostructural stability, and simultaneous surface functionalization of ordered mesoporous carbon (FDU-15) by wet oxidation as a promising adsorbent.  

PubMed

Fuctionalization of porous carbon materials through chemical methods orientates the development of new hybrid materials with specific functions. In this paper, a comprehensive study of pore evolution, mesostructural oxidation resistance, and simultaneous surface functionalization of ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 under various oxidation conditions is presented for the first time. The mesostructure and pore evolution with increasing oxidative strength are retrieved from XRD, TEM, and N(2) sorption techniques. The textural properties can be conveniently manipulated by changing the oxidation parameters, including different oxidative solution, temperature, and duration. It is revealed that the mesoporous carbon FDU-15 shows excellent structural stability under severe oxidation treatments by acidic (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8), HNO(3), and H(2)O(2) solutions, much more stable than the mesostructural analogue CMK-3 carbon prepared by the nanocasting method. The surface area and porosity deteriorate to a large extent compared to the pristine carbon, with the micropores/small mesopores as the major contribution to the deterioration. The micropore/small mesopore can be blocked by the attached surface oxides under mild oxidation, while reopened with more carbon layer dissolution under more severe conditions. Simultaneously, high densities of surface oxygen complexes, especially carboxylic groups, can be generated. The contents and properties of the surface oxygen-containing groups are extensively studied by FTIR, TG, elemental analyses, and water and ammonia adsorption techniques. Such surface-functionalized mesoporous carbons can be used as a highly efficient adsorbent for immobilization of heavy metal ions as well as functional organic and biomolecules, with high capacities and excellent binding capabilities. Thus, we believe that the functionalized mesoporous carbon materials can be utilized as a promising solid and stable support for water treatment and organic/biomolecules immobilization and may be applicable in drug delivery, separation, adsorption technology, and columns for GC and HPLC systems in the near future. PMID:20392120

Wu, Zhangxiong; Webley, Paul A; Zhao, Dongyuan

2010-06-15

219

Carbon Nanocapsules: Colloidal RBC-Shaped, Hydrophilic, and Hollow Mesoporous Carbon Nanocapsules for Highly Efficient Biomedical Engineering (Adv. Mater. 25/2014).  

PubMed

On page 4294, J. L. Shi, Y. P. Li, H. R. Chen, and co-workers demonstrate a facile and versatile synthetic route (templated framework pyrolysis) toward the construction of red blood cellsshaped hydrophilic and hollow mesoporous carbon nanocapsules (HMCNs) for highly efficient biomedical engineering. These HMCNs exhibit high performance with regard to stimuliresponsive drug release, anti-metastasis, and reversal of the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. PMID:24986031

Chen, Yu; Xu, Pengfei; Wu, Meiying; Meng, Qingshuo; Chen, Hangrong; Shu, Zhu; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Yaping; Shi, Jianlin

2014-07-01

220

Thin-Layer Polymer Wrapped Enzymes Encapsulated in Hierarchically Mesoporous Silica with High Activity and Enhanced Stability  

PubMed Central

A novel soft-hard cooperative approach was developed to synthesize bioactive mesoporous composite by pre-wrapping Penicillin G amidase with poly(acrylaimde) nanogel skin and subsequently incorporating such Penicillin G amidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica. The as-received bioactive mesoporous composite exhibited comparable activity and extraordinarily high stability in comparison with native Penicillin G amidase and could be used repetitively in the water-medium hydrolysis of penicillin G potassium salt. Furthermore, this strategy could be extended to the synthesis of multifunctional bioactive mesoporous composite by simultaneously introducing glucose oxidase nanocapsules and horseradish peroxidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica, which demonstrated a synergic effect in one-pot tandem oxidation reaction. Improvements in the catalytic performances were attributed to the combinational unique structure from soft polymer skin and hard inorganic mesoporous silica shell, which cooperatively helped enzyme molecules to retain their appropriate geometry and simultaneously decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass transfer limitation under heterogeneous conditions.

Zhang, Fang; Wang, Meitao; Liang, Chao; Jiang, Huangyong; Shen, Jian; Li, Hexing

2014-01-01

221

Challenges in Fabrication of Mesoporous Carbon Films with Ordered Cylindrical Pores via Phenolic Oligomer Self-Assembly with Triblock Copolymers  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous phenol formaldehyde (PF) polymer resin and carbon films are prepared by a solution self-assembly of PF oligomers with amphiphilic triblock copolymers. After thermopolymerization of the PF to cross-link the network, the films show an ordered morphology as determined by X-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Our results show that the amphiphilic triblock copolymer template greatly influences the stability of the final porous mesostructures. The pyrolysis of the two-dimensional (2-D) hexagonal films with p6mm symmetry templated by Pluronic F127 yields a disordered porous structure following the template removal. Conversely, films templated by Pluronic P123 can exhibit well-ordered cylindrical pores after the template removal, but the solution composition range to yield ordered cylindrical mesopores is significantly reduced (nearly 70%) for thin films in comparison to bulk powders. We propose two dominant difficulties in fabricating well-ordered cylindrical mesopores in films: first, the stress from contraction during the pyrolysis can lead to a collapse of the mesostructure if the wall thickness is insufficient, and second, the surface wetting behavior in thin films leads to a small compositional range.

Song, Lingyan; Feng, Dan; Fredin, Nathaniel J.; Yager, Kevin G.; Jones, Ronald L.; Wu, Quanyan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Vogt, Bryan D. (On Semi); (AZU); (NIST); (Fudan)

2010-06-22

222

Carbon nanocage: super-adsorber of intercalators for DNA protection.  

PubMed

In this research, we report the binding behaviors of two kinds of intercalators, methyl violet and 3,6-diaminoacridine hydrochloride, to various mesoporous materials, carbon nanocage, mesoporous carbon CMK-3, activated carbon, and mesoporous silica SBA-15. Due to its unique cage type structure, carbon nanocage shows greater adsorption capacity than the other adsorbents. In addition, competitive adsorption of methyl violet between DNA and mesoporous materials confirmed that carbon nanocage can very efficiently inhibit intercalation of methyl violet by DNA. Carbon nanocage might then be useful for entrapment of harmful aromatic molecules. PMID:21776674

Datta, K K R; Vinu, Ajayan; Mandal, Saikat; Al-Deyab, Salem; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

2011-04-01

223

Structural sorption characteristics of active carbons obtained from wastes  

SciTech Connect

The high cost and shortage of activated carbons have created a search for cheap adsorbents for treatment or final purification of wastewaters. The structural characteristics of solid wastes from pyrolysis of town wastes (AC-1) and activated sludge from treatment plants (AC-2) were investigated. The possibilities of using them for final purification of wastewaters from phosphate ore treatment plants were examined. The test carbons were inferior to commercial samples in micropore volume, but they were at the same level as the commercial samples or better with regard to the volumes of supermicropores and mesopores and the limiting volume of the adsorption space. It was shown that the carbons studied were close to the commercial carbon AG-3 in adsorption activity. These carbons were suitable for use in final purification of biologically purified wastewaters containing oxidation-resistant organic substance.

Petrova, L.A.; Mukhlenov, I.P.; Tubolkin, A.F.; Galutkina, K.A.

1983-04-01

224

Fabrication of 2D ordered mesoporous carbon nitride and its use as electrochemical sensing platform for H2O2, nitrobenzene, and NADH detection.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional ordered mesoporous carbon nitride (OMCN) has been successfully prepared for the first time using SBA-15 mesoporous silica and melamine as template and precursor respectively, by a nano hard-templating approach. A series of OMCN-x samples with different pyrolysis temperatures have been reported. The formation of these composite materials was verified by detailed characterization (e.g., Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy). The results showed that the materials were structurally well ordered with two-dimensional porous structure, high surface area and large pore volume. The influence of BET surface area and different amounts of N-bonding configurations formed at different pyrolysis temperatures of OMCN-x for the electrocatalysis towards hydrogen peroxide, nitrobenzene, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were investigated in detail. Results indicated that OMCN treated at 800°C with largest BET surface area and highest amounts of pyrindinic N showed improved electrocatalytic activity for H2O2, nitrobenzene, and NADH in neutral solution. PMID:24144555

Zhang, Yufan; Bo, Xiangjie; Nsabimana, Anaclet; Luhana, Charles; Wang, Guang; Wang, Huan; Li, Mian; Guo, Liping

2014-03-15

225

High psedocapacitance of MnO2 nanoparticles in graphitic disordered mesoporous carbon at high scan rates  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposites composed of MnO{sub 2} and graphitic disordered mesoporous carbon (MnO{sub 2}/C) were synthesized for high total specific capacitance and redox pseudocapacitance (C{sub MnO{sub 2}}) at high scan rates up to 200 mV s{sup -1}. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) demonstrated that MnO{sub 2} nanodomains were highly dispersed throughout the mesoporous carbon structure. According to HRTEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the MnO{sub 2} domains are shown to be primarily amorphous and less than 5 nm in size. For these composites in aqueous 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, C{sub MnO{sub 2}} reached 500 F/g{sub MnO{sub 2}} at 2 mV s{sup -1} for 8.8 wt% MnO{sub 2}. A capacitance fade of only 20% over a 100-fold change in scan rate was observed for a high loading of 35 wt% MnO{sub 2} with a C{sub MnO{sub 2}} of 310 F/g{sub MnO{sub 2}} at the highest scan rate of 200 mV s{sup -1}. The high electronic conductivity of the graphitic 3D disordered mesoporous carbon support in conjunction with the thin MnO{sub 2} nanodomains facilitate rapid electron and ion transport offering the potential of improved high power density energy storage pseudocapacitors.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Patel, Mehul [University of Texas, Austin; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Slanac, Daniel A [ORNL; Ferrer, Domingo [University of Texas, Austin; Johnston, Keith [University of Texas, Austin; Stevenson, Keith J [ORNL

2012-01-01

226

High pseudocapacitance of MnO2 nanoparticles in graphitic disordered mesoporous carbon at high scan rates  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposites composed of MnO{sub 2} and graphitic disordered mesoporous carbon (MnO{sub 2}/C) were synthesized for high total specific capacitance and redox pseudocapacitance (C{sub MnO{sub 2}}) at high scan rates up to 200 mV s{sup -1}. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) demonstrated that MnO{sub 2} nanodomains were highly dispersed throughout the mesoporous carbon structure. According to HRTEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the MnO{sub 2} domains are shown to be primarily amorphous and less than 5 nm in size. For these composites in aqueous 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, C{sub MnO{sub 2}} reached 500 F/g{sub MnO{sub 2}} at 2 mV s{sup -1} for 8.8 wt% MnO{sub 2}. A capacitance fade of only 20% over a 100-fold change in scan rate was observed for a high loading of 35 wt% MnO{sub 2} with a C{sub MnO{sub 2}} of 310 F/g{sub MnO{sub 2}} at the highest scan rate of 200 mV s{sup -1}. The high electronic conductivity of the graphitic 3D disordered mesoporous carbon support in conjunction with the thin MnO{sub 2} nanodomains facilitate rapid electron and ion transport offering the potential of improved high power density energy storage pseudocapacitors.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Patel, Mehul [University of Texas, Austin; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Slanac, Daniel A [ORNL; Ferrer, Domingo [University of Texas, Austin; Johnston, Keith [University of Texas, Austin

2012-01-01

227

Iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in activated carbons prepared from hydrothermally treated waste biomass.  

PubMed

Particles of iron oxide (Fe3O4 ; 20–40 nm) were embedded within activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2. Four different HTC biomass samples (horse manure, grass cuttings, beer production waste, and biosludge) were used as precursors for the activated carbons. Nanoparticles of iron oxide formed from iron catalyst included in the HTC biomasses. After systematic optimization, the activated carbons had specific surface areas of about 800 m2g1. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons depended strongly on the degree of carbonization of the precursors. Activated carbons prepared from highly carbonized precursors had mainly micropores, whereas those prepared from less carbonized precursors contained mainly mesopores. Given the strong magnetism of the activated carbon–nano-Fe3O4 composites, they could be particularly useful for water purification. PMID:24678001

Hao, Wenming; Björkman, Eva; Yun, Yifeng; Lilliestråle, Malte; Hedin, Niklas

2014-03-01

228

Ordered mesoporous polymer-silica and carbon-silica nanocomposites co-templated by amphiphilic polydimethylsiloxane-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polydimethylsiloxane-poly(ethylene oxide) (PDMS-PEO) has been successfully used as the co-template to prepare ordered mesoporous\\u000a polymer-silica and carbon-silica nanocomposites with diverse mesostructures by using Pluronic F127 or P123 as main templates\\u000a and phenolic resol polymer as a carbon precursor via the strategy of evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). The structures\\u000a of resulting mesoporous materials have been characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission

Yurong liu

229

Water and small organic molecules as probes for geometric confinement in well-ordered mesoporous carbon materials.  

PubMed

Mesoporous carbon materials were synthesized employing polymers and silica gels as structure directing templates. The basic physico-chemical properties of the synthetic mesoporous materials were characterized by (1)H and (13)C MAS solid-state NMR, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption measurements. The confinement effects on small guest molecules such as water, benzene and pyridine and their interactions with the pore surface were probed by a combination of variable temperature (1)H-MAS NMR and quantum chemical calculations of the magnetic shielding effect of the surface on the solvent molecules. The interactions of the guest molecules depend strongly on the carbonization temperature and the pathway of the synthesis. All the guest-molecules, water, benzene and pyridine, exhibited high-field shifts by the interaction with the surface of carbon materials. The geometric confinement imposed by the surface causes a strong depression of the melting point of the surface phase of water and benzene. The theoretical calculation of (1)H NICS maps shows that the observed proton chemical shifts towards high-field values can be explained as the result of electronic ring currents localized in aromatic groups on the surface. The dependence on the distance between the proton and the aromatic surface can be exploited to estimate the average diameter of the confinement structures. PMID:24715202

Xu, Yeping; Watermann, Tobias; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Gutmann, Torsten; Sebastiani, Daniel; Buntkowsky, Gerd

2014-05-28

230

Adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes on ferromagnetic ordered mesoporous carbon from aqueous solution: Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetics.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-CMK-3) with iron magnetic nanoparticles was prepared by a casting process via SBA-15 silica as template and anthracene as carbon source, was used as a magnetic adsorbent for the removal of anionic dye Orange II (O II) and cationic dye methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. TEM and magnetometer images showed that the iron magnetic nanoparticles were successfully embedded in the interior of the mesoporous carbon. The effect of various process parameters such as temperature (25-45°C), initial concentration (100-500mgL(-1)) and pH (2-12) were performed. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were also studied. The equilibrium experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich-Peterson model. The equilibrium data for two dyes adsorption was fitted to the Langmuir, and the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for O II and MB dyes were 269 and 316mgg(-1), respectively. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic and intraparticle diffusion model were used to evaluate the adsorption kinetic data. The kinetic data of two dyes could be better described by the pseudo second-order model. Thermodynamic data of the adsorption process were also obtained. It was found that the adsorption process of the two dyes were spontaneous and exothermic. PMID:24973701

Peng, Xiaoming; Huang, Dengpo; Odoom-Wubah, Tareque; Fu, Dafang; Huang, Jiale; Qin, Qingdong

2014-09-15

231

One-pot template-free preparation of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres and their photocatalytic activity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres were prepared in a one-pot process. ? The process does not involve any templates and surfactants. ? The TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres display high photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres were prepared in a solvothermal process, which did not involve any templates and surfactants. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres was studied using methyl orange as a probe. The results indicate that the anatase TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with mesoporous walls and high specific surface area (141 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}) can be obtained using this simple method. The mean diameter and wall thickness of spheres are about 700 nm and 90 nm, respectively. Moreover, the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres display high photocatalytic activity with 98% of degradation ratio of methyl orange after 30 min irradiation.

Kang, Shizhao; Yin, Dieer; Li, Xiangqing; Li, Liang [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China)] [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China); Mu, Jin, E-mail: mujin@sit.edu.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China)] [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China)

2012-11-15

232

Mesoporous carbon originated from non-permanent porous MOFs for gas storage and CO2/CH4 separation  

PubMed Central

Four nanoporous carbons prepared by direct carbonization of non-permanent highly porous MOF [Zn3(BTC)2·(H2O)3]n without any additional carbon precursors. The carbonization temperature plays an important role in the pore structures of the resultant carbons. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of four carbon materials vary from 464 to 1671?m2 g?1 for different carbonization temperature. All the four carbon materials showed a mesoporous structure centered at ca. 3?nm, high surface area and good physicochemical stability. Hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide sorption measurements indicated that the C1000 has good gas uptake capabilities. The excess H2 uptake at 77?K and 17.9 bar can reach 32.9?mg g?1 and the total uptake is high to 45?mg g?1. Meanwhile, at 95 bar, the total CH4 uptake can reach as high as 208?mg g?1. Moreover the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) prediction exhibited exceptionally high adsorption selectivity for CO2/CH4 in an equimolar mixture at 298?K and 1 bar (Sads = 27) which is significantly higher than that of some porous materials in the similar condition.

Wang, Wenjing; Yuan, Daqiang

2014-01-01

233

Mesoporous carbon originated from non-permanent porous MOFs for gas storage and CO2/CH4 separation.  

PubMed

Four nanoporous carbons prepared by direct carbonization of non-permanent highly porous MOF [Zn3(BTC)2·(H2O)3]n without any additional carbon precursors. The carbonization temperature plays an important role in the pore structures of the resultant carbons. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of four carbon materials vary from 464 to 1671?m(2) g(-1) for different carbonization temperature. All the four carbon materials showed a mesoporous structure centered at ca. 3?nm, high surface area and good physicochemical stability. Hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide sorption measurements indicated that the C1000 has good gas uptake capabilities. The excess H2 uptake at 77?K and 17.9 bar can reach 32.9?mg g(-1) and the total uptake is high to 45?mg g(-1). Meanwhile, at 95 bar, the total CH4 uptake can reach as high as 208?mg g(-1). Moreover the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) prediction exhibited exceptionally high adsorption selectivity for CO2/CH4 in an equimolar mixture at 298?K and 1 bar (Sads = 27) which is significantly higher than that of some porous materials in the similar condition. PMID:25026895

Wang, Wenjing; Yuan, Daqiang

2014-01-01

234

Ordered mesoporous mixed metal oxides: remarkable effect of pore size on catalytic activity.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of ordered mesoporous NiAl mixed metal oxides (MMOs) from NiAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) through a soft template method using pluronic-F127 as the structure-directing agent. Ordered mesopores were obtained by the thermal decomposition of as-synthesized LDHs at different temperatures. The effects of the pluronic-F127 amount and the calcination temperature on the pore size distribution of the MMO were investigated. NiAl MMOs exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the Knoevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde with acidic methylene group-containing malononitrile. Finally, the dependence of the catalytic activity on the surface properties of NiAl MMOs was investigated. The pore diameter and the pore volume of NiAl MMOs were well correlated with the performance of the catalysts. MMO obtained from the calcination of NiAl-F1273%LDH at 750 °C for 5 h gave the highest conversion (>99%) in the Knoevenagel condensation in 30 min. The optimum pore diameter for the model reaction described here was 7.7 nm, which gave rise to more than 99% conversion with 100% selectivity. Ethanol gave the best conversion at 60 °C. The regenerated catalyst showed 93.0 and 89.0% of the initial catalytic activity after the first and the second regeneration cycles, respectively. PMID:24956493

Pahalagedara, Madhavi N; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R; Kuo, Chung-Hao; Dharmarathna, Saminda; Suib, Steven L

2014-07-15

235

Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M?1 with a detection limit of 0.31 ?M and a linear detection range from 0.39 ?M to 8.98 ?M for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis–Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis–Menten \\left( K_{M}^{app} \\right) was 6.28 ?M. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

2014-06-01

236

Promoting immobilization and catalytic activity of horseradish peroxidase on mesoporous silica through template micelles.  

PubMed

New concept on the promotion of immobilization and catalytic activity of enzyme on mesoporous silica through template micelles is proposed and realized in this paper. Proper P123 templates are controllable retained in the as-synthesized SBA-15, not only to anchor the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) guest, but also to establish the crowding-like microenvironment around the enzyme. The influence of retaining templates on the pore structure of SBA-15, immobilization, and catalytic activity of HRP is studied, and the possible process of template removal is proposed. Ethanol refluxing of 6 h is conformable to prepare the optimal mesoporous support characterized with the retained templates of about 8%. With the assistance of retained templates in SBA-15, up to 49 mg g(-1) of HRP can be immobilized, 100% more than that on calcined SBA-15. Furthermore, the thermal stability, the resistance of pH variation and denaturing agent urea, and the recycle usage of HRP immobilized are obviously elevated, paving a novel and low-cost route to develop enzyme catalysts. PMID:22507401

Wan, Mi Mi; Lin, Wei Gang; Gao, Ling; Gu, Hui Cheng; Zhu, Jian Hua

2012-07-01

237

Characterization of copper and zinc containing MCM-41 and MCM-48 mesoporous molecular sieves by temperature programmed reduction and carbon monoxide adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper and zinc containing mesoporous molecular sieves have been investigated by nitrogen and carbon monoxide adsorption and temperature programmed reduction. MCM-48 and MCM-41 materials with different pore diameters can be synthesized in the presence of copper and zinc salts. While the addition of copper acetate to the synthesis gel has no influence on the quality of the materials, the introduction

Martin Hartmann; Sandrine Racouchot; Christian Bischof

1999-01-01

238

Polymer/Ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposite platelets as superior sensing materials for gas detection with surface acoustic wave devices.  

PubMed

We have prepared nanocomposites of polymers and platelet CMK-5-like carbon and have demonstrated their superior performance for gravimetric gas detection. The zirconium-containing platelet SBA-15 was used as hard template to prepare CMK-5-like carbon, which was then applied as a lightweight and high-surface-area scaffold for the growth of polymers by radical polymerization. Mesoporous nanocomposites composed of four different polymers were used as sensing materials for surface acoustic wave devices to detect ppm-level ammonia gas. The sensors showed much better sensitivity and reversibility than those coated with dense polymer films, and the sensor array could still generate a characteristic pattern for the analyte with a concentration of 16 ppm. The results show that the nanocomposite sensing materials are promising for highly sensitive gravimetric-type electronic nose applications. PMID:22835071

Ku, Pei-Hsin; Hsiao, Chen-Yun; Chen, Mei-Jing; Lin, Tai-Hsuan; Li, Yi-Tian; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Tang, Kea-Tiong; Yao, Da-Jeng; Yang, Chia-Min

2012-08-01

239

In Situ intercalating expandable graphite for mesoporous carbon/graphite nanosheet composites as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.  

PubMed

Mesoporous-carbon-coated graphite nanosheet (GNS@MC) composites have been synthesized by the intercalation of resol prepolymer into the interlayers of expandable graphite (EG) under vacuum-assisted conditions, followed by the exfoliation of EG through in situ polymerization, the growth of resol under hydrothermal conditions, and carbonization under Ar. The GNS@MC composites exhibit enhanced capacitive performance compared to mesoporous carbon (MC), microwaved EG after thermal treatment (T-EG), and the physical mixture of MC and T-EG (MC+T-EG). In particular, the GNS@MC-35-800 composite carbonized at 800 °C, which has a graphite-nanosheet content of 35 % and a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (S(BET) ) of 432.3 m(2) ?g(-1) , exhibits the highest capacitance of 203 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, the GNS@MC-35-800 composite exhibits a good cyclic stability with 95 % capacitance retention and a high columbic efficiency of 99 % after 5000 cycles. The energy density of the symmetric supercapacitor GNS@MC-35-800/GNS@MC-35-800 achieved was as high as 11.5 Wh kg(-1) at a high power density of 10 kW kg(-1) . This good performance is attributable to the GNSs in the GNS@MC composite facilitating electron transport owing to its excellent conductivity; moreover, the MC in GNS@MC favors the rapid diffusion of ions by providing low-resistance pathways. The GNS@MC composite may find application in high-performance energy storage and conversion devices. PMID:23081877

Wang, Lei; Mu, Guang; Tian, Chungui; Sun, Li; Zhou, Wei; Tan, Taixing; Fu, Honggang

2012-12-01

240

Bottom-up catalytic approach towards nitrogen-enriched mesoporous carbons/sulfur composites for superior Li-S cathodes.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a sustainable and efficient approach to produce high performance sulfur/carbon composite cathodes via a bottom-up catalytic approach. The selective oxidation of H2S by a nitrogen-enriched mesoporous carbon catalyst can produce elemental sulfur as a by-product which in-situ deposit onto the carbon framework. Due to the metal-free catalytic characteristic and high catalytic selectivity, the resulting sulfur/carbon composites have almost no impurities that thus can be used as cathode materials with compromising battery performance. The layer-by-layer sulfur deposition allows atomic sulfur binding strongly with carbon framework, providing efficient immobilization of sulfur. The nitrogen atoms doped on the carbon framework can increase the surface interactions with polysulfides, leading to the improvement in the trapping of polysulfides. Thus, the composites exhibit a reversible capacity of 939 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.2 C and an excellent rate capability of 527 mAh g(-1) at 5 C after 70 cycles. PMID:24084754

Sun, Fugen; Wang, Jitong; Chen, Huichao; Qiao, Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Long, Donghui

2013-01-01

241

Influences of urea–glycerol mixtures as mixed mesopore-controlling agents on tailoring physicochemical properties and photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity of sol–gel-derived mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized by modified sol–gel process. ? Urea–glycerol mixtures were applied as mixed mesopore-controlling agents. ? Urea and glycerol contents affected physicochemical properties of synthesized TiO{sub 2}. ? Photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity also depended on urea and glycerol contents. ? 75 mol% urea and 25 mol% glycerol yielded the most photocatalytically active TiO{sub 2}. -- Abstract: In this work, the mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a sol–gel process with the aid of urea–glycerol mixtures used as mixed mesopore-controlling agents. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalysts was investigated for hydrogen production from the water splitting reaction using methanol as a hole scavenger under UV light irradiation. The synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalysts were systematically characterized by TG–DTA, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, SEM, high resolution TEM, and XRD analyses. The characterization results showed that the well-controlled contents of urea and glycerol in a urea–glycerol mixture at 75 mol% urea and 25 mol% glycerol resulted in not only the most highly porous network (i.e. the highest specific surface area and total pore volume, and the smallest mean mesopore diameter), but also the smallest crystallite size of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalyst. The photocatalytic reaction results, hence, revealed a much superior photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of the mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal synthesized with 75 mol% urea and 25 mol% glycerol to the other synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals, also being much higher than those of the commercially available P-25 TiO{sub 2} and ST-01 TiO{sub 2} powders.

Sreethawong, Thammanoon, E-mail: sreethawongt@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai, E-mail: wonone@hotmail.com [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Susumu [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2013-01-15

242

Mesoporous carbon-containing MoS{sub 2} materials formed from the in situ decomposition of tetraalkylammonium thiomolybdates  

SciTech Connect

Molybdenum disulfide with unique mesoporous structure was synthesized from tetraalkylammonium thiometallate precursors in situ decomposed in a batch reactor in the presence of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The precursors used in this study were tetraalkylammonium thiomolybdates with alkyl groups ranging from propyl to octyl. Molybdenum disulfide thus prepared presents high surface area (from 255 up to 329 m{sup 2}/g), high content of carbon (C/Mo=2.7-4.0) and type IV nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms when decomposed from tetrahexyl-, tetraheptyl- or tetraoctylammonium thiomolybdates. The as-formed materials are poorly crystallized with a very weak intensity of the (0 0 2) peak of the 2H-MoS{sub 2} structure. Such diffraction patterns are characteristic of exfoliated samples. Characterization by TEM shows a disordered layered structure with no long range order for the MoS{sub 2} catalysts. Therefore, the nature of the alkyl group in the precursor affects both the surface area and the pore size distribution of the final MoS{sub 2} catalysts with a progressive morphological modification up to a mesoporous organization.

Alonso, Gabriel; Berhault, Gilles; Paraguay, Francisco; Rivera, Eric; Fuentes, Sergio; Chianelli, Russell R

2003-05-26

243

Carboxylated mesoporous carbon microparticles as new approach to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble carvedilol.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to develop carboxylated ordered mesoporous carbon microparticles (c-MCMs) loaded with a poorly water-soluble drug, intended to be orally administered, able to enhance the drug loading capacity and improve the oral bioavailability. A model drug, carvedilol (CAR), was loaded onto c-MCMs via a procedure involving a combination of adsorption equilibrium and solvent evaporation. The physicochemical properties of the drug-loaded composites were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and HPLC. It was found that c-MCM has a high drug loading level up to 41.6%, and higher than that of the mesoporous silica template. Incorporation of CAR in both drug carriers enhanced the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug, compared to the pure crystalline drug. After loading CAR into c-MCMs, its oral bioavailability was compared with the marketed product in dogs. The results showed that the bioavailability of CAR was improved 179.3% compared with that of the commercial product when c-MCM was used as the drug carrier. We believe that the present study will help in the design of oral drug delivery systems for enhanced oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:23850816

Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhi, Zhizhuang; Li, Xue; Gao, Jian; Song, Yaling

2013-09-15

244

Mesoporous silica-encapsulated gold nanoparticles as artificial enzymes for self-activated cascade catalysis.  

PubMed

A significant challenge in chemistry is to create synthetic structures that mimic the complexity and function of natural systems. Here, a self-activated, enzyme-mimetic catalytic cascade has been realized by utilizing expanded mesoporous silica-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (EMSN-AuNPs) as both glucose oxidase- and peroxidase-like artificial enzymes. Specifically, EMSN helps the formation of a high degree of very small and well-dispersed AuNPs, which exhibit an extraordinarily stability and dual enzyme-like activities. Inspired by these unique and attractive properties, we further piece them together into a self-organized artificial cascade reaction, which is usually completed by the oxidase-peroxidase coupled enzyme system. Our finding may pave the way to use matrix as the structural component for the design and development of biomimetic catalysts and to apply enzyme mimics for realizing higher functions. PMID:23352119

Lin, Youhui; Li, Zhenhua; Chen, Zhaowei; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

2013-04-01

245

Study on the effect of different acids on the structure and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline mesoporous titania was synthesized via a combined sol-gel process with surfactant-assisted templating method using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the structure-directing agent. The process was catalyzed by different acid (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, or phosphoric acid). The prepared samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET and FT-IR. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was determined by degradation of phenol in aqueous solution. Results showed that different acid had different effect on the structure and crystal phase of the samples. The sample adjusted by phosphoric acid showed highest surface area and photocatalytic activity. The formation mechanism of the samples catalyzed by different acid was also discussed.

Ao, Yanhui; Xu, Jingjing; Fu, Degang

2009-10-01

246

Sulfur-functionalized mesoporous carbons as sulfur hosts in li-s batteries: increasing the affinity of polysulfide intermediates to enhance performance.  

PubMed

The Li-S system offers a tantalizing battery for electric vehicles and renewable energy storage due to its high theoretical capacity of 1675 mAh g(-1) and its employment of abundant and available materials. One major challenge in this system stems from the formation of soluble polysulfides during the reduction of S8, the active cathode material, during discharge. The ability to deploy this system hinges on the ability to control the behavior of these polysulfides by containing them in the cathode and allowing for further redox. Here, we exploit the high surface areas and good electrical conductivity of mesoporous carbons (MC) to achieve high sulfur utilization while functionalizing the MC with sulfur (S-MC) in order to modify the surface chemistry and attract polysulfides to the carbon material. S-MC materials show enhanced capacity and cyclability trending as a function of sulfur functionality, specifically a 50% enhancement in discharge capacity is observed at high cycles (60-100 cycles). Impedance spectroscopy suggests that the S-MC materials exhibit a lower charge-transfer resistance compared with MC materials which allows for more efficient electrochemistry with species in solution at the cathode. Isothermal titration calorimetry shows that the change in surface chemistry from unfunctionalized to S-functionalized carbons results in an increased affinity of the polysulfide intermediates for the S-MC materials, which is the likely cause for enhanced cyclability. PMID:24524220

See, Kimberly A; Jun, Young-Si; Gerbec, Jeffrey A; Sprafke, Johannes K; Wudl, Fred; Stucky, Galen D; Seshadri, Ram

2014-07-23

247

Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes.

Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

2011-05-01

248

Chemical Vapor Deposition of ?-SiC Nanowires on Granular Active Carbon Cylinders Loaded with Iron Nanoparticles Inside the Pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for chemical vapor deposition of ?-SiC nanowires on granular active carbon loaded with iron nanoparticles inside the pores is developed. In this process, mesoporous active carbon was used as both a carbon source material and a template to generate nanometer-diameter catalyst particles that define the size of wires produced by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Transmission electron microscopy reveals

Meng Guo-wen; Zhang Li-de; Qin Yong; F Phillipp; Qiao Sheng-ru; Guo Hai-ming; Zhang Shu-yuan

1998-01-01

249

Synthesis, Characterization and Gas Permeability of an Activated Carbon-Loaded PEBAX 2533 Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBAX-2533) was used as a polymer matrix and micro-mesoporous activated carbon (AC) particles were chosen as the inorganic fillers in fabricating mixed matrix membranes. Performance of the novel composite membranes, in terms of selectivity towards CO2, was investigated as a function of feed pressure and carbon loading. Membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their surface

S. Sridhar; B. Smitha; R. Suryamurali; T. M. Aminabhavi

2008-01-01

250

In-Situ Observation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Ordered Mesoporous Hard Carbon by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to better understand the electrochemical processes occurring during the cycling of a lithium-ion half-cell containing ordered mesoporous hard carbon using time-resolved in situ small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Utilizing electrolytes containing mixtures of deuterated (2H) and non-deuterated (1H) carbonates, we have addressed the challenging task of monitoring the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. An evolution occurs in the SEI layer during discharge from a composition dominated by a higher scattering length density (SLD) lithium salt, to a lower SLD lithium salt for the ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC) mixture employed. By comparing half-cells containing different solvent deuteration levels, we show that it is possible to observe both SEI formation and lithium intercalation occurring concurrently at the low voltage region in which lithium intercalates into the hard carbon. These results demonstrate that SANS can be employed to monitor complicated electrochemical processes occurring in rechargeable batteries, in a manner that simultaneously provides information on the composition and microstructure of the electrode.

Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Zhao, Jinkui [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01

251

GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON INSTALLATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a compilation and summary of design criteria, performance, and cost data from 22 operating municipal and industrial granular activated carbon (GAC) installations that treat water and wastewater or process food and beverage products. Guidance for using this inf...

252

Mesoporous poly(melamine-formaldehyde) solid sorbent for carbon dioxide capture.  

PubMed

Feed the pore: A highly mesoporous melamine-formaldehyde resin is synthesized through a simple, one-step polycondensation reaction by using inexpensive and abundant common industrial chemicals. The material is demonstrated to have a high surface area and a well-defined pore structure. Its high density of CO2 binding pockets with low CO2 binding energy facilitates rapid and reversible CO2 sorption. PMID:23757327

Tan, Mei Xuan; Zhang, Yugen; Ying, Jackie Y

2013-07-01

253

Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: Effect of pore size on carbon dioxide capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three mesoporous silica materials with different pore sizes (33Å for small pore size MCM-41; 38Å for SBA-12; 71Å for large pore size SBA-15) and pore connectivity (2D for MCM-41 and SBA-15-type materials; 3D for SBA-12 material) were prepared and functionalized with aminopropyl (AP) ligands by post-synthesis treatment. The materials were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy

V. Zele?ák; M. Badani?ová; D. Halamová; J. ?ejka; A. Zukal; N. Murafa; G. Goerigk

2008-01-01

254

Properties of pyrolytic chars and activated carbons derived from pilot-scale pyrolysis of used tires.  

PubMed

Used tires were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale quasi-inert rotary kiln. Influences of variables, such as time, temperature, and agent flow, on the activation of obtained char were subsequently investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed bed. Mesoporous pores are found to be dominant in the pore structures of raw char. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surfaces of activated chars increased linearly with carbon burnoff. The carbon burnoff of tire char achieved by carbon dioxide (CO2) under otherwise identical conditions was on average 75% of that achieved by steam, but their BET surfaces are almost the same. The proper activation greatly improved the aqueous adsorption of raw char, especially for small molecular adsorbates, for example, phenol from 6 to 51 mg/g. With increasing burnoff, phenol adsorption exhibited a first-stage linear increase followed by a rapid drop after 30% burnoff. Similarly, iodine adsorption first increased linearly, but it held as the burnoff exceeded 40%, which implied that the reduction of iodine adsorption due to decreasing micropores was partially made up by increasing mesopores. Both raw chars and activated chars showed appreciable adsorption capacity of methylene-blue comparable with that of commercial carbons. Thus, tire-derived activated carbons can be used as an excellent mesoporous adsorbent for larger molecular species. PMID:16259427

Li, S Q; Yao, Q; Wen, S E; Chi, Y; Yan, J H

2005-09-01

255

Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Carbamoylphosphonic Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Silica: A New Mercury-Free Sensor for Uranium Detection  

SciTech Connect

This study reports a new approach for developing a uranium (U(VI)) electrochemical sensor that is mercury-free, solid-state, and has less chance for ligand depletion than existing sensors. A carbon-paste electrode modified with carbamoylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica was developed for uranium detection based on an adsorptive square-wave stripping voltammetry technique. Voltammetric responses for U(VI) detection are reported as a function of pH, preconcentration time, and aqueous phase U(VI) concentration. The uranium detection limit is 25 ppb after 5 minutes preconcentration and improved to 1 ppb after 20 minutes preconcentration. The relative standard deviations are normally less than 5%.

Yantasee, Wassana; Lin, Yuehe; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wang, Zheming

2004-05-20

256

Importance of structural and chemical heterogeneity of activated carbon surfaces for adsorption of dibenzothiophene  

SciTech Connect

The performance of various activated carbons obtained from different carbon precursors (i.e., plastic waste, coal, and wood) as adsorbents for the desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels was evaluated. To increase surface heterogeneity, the carbon surface was modified by oxidation with ammonium persulfate. The results showed the importance of activated carbon pore sizes and surface chemistry for the adsorption of dibenzothiophene (DBT) from liquid phase. Adsorption of DBT on activated carbons is governed by two types of contributions: physical and chemical interactions. The former include dispersive interactions in the microporous network of the carbons. While the volume of micropores governs the amount physisorbed, mesopores control the kinetics of the process. On the other hand, introduction of surface functional groups enhances the performance of the activated carbons as a result of specific interactions between the acidic centers of the carbon and the basic structure of DBT molecule as well as sulfur-sulfur interactions.

Ania, C.O.; Bandosz, T.J. [CUNY City College, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

2005-08-16

257

Effects of pyrolysis conditions on the porous structure construction of mesoporous charred carbon from used cigarette filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-step pyrolysis was applied to synthesize mesoporous charred carbon from used cigarette filters. Proximate analysis suggested that cigarette filters are decent carbon precursors due to their moderate carbon (around 11 %) and low ash (around 0.1 %) contents. To investigate the effects of pyrolysis parameters on porous surface area, a full factorial design of experiment including heating rate, soaking time and pyrolysis temperature was used with each factor at three levels. The analysis of variance revealed that the temperature and heating rate had the most significant effects on total surface area of the synthesized carbon. Response surface model (RSM) was applied to best fit a surface through the experimental data. It was seen that the quadratic RSM model with a reasonable R 2 value of 63 % was the best developed model. The maximum BET surface area (597 m2/g) was reached at a pyrolysis temperature of 900 °C when the precursor was heated at 5 °C/min and hold at this temperature for 3 h. The produced N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm showed a certain degree of mesoporosity in the charred carbon with an average pore size of 3.32 nm calculated by Barrett-Joyner-Halenda method. Scanning electron microscopy also showed the presence of macroporosity on the charred carbon surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of acidic surface functional groups such as carboxyl and phenol which were accordingly confirmed by Boehm titration. In addition, Boehm titration showed that the produced carbon's surface was more acidic than basic in nature.

Masoudi Soltani, Salman; Yazdi, Sara Kazemi; Hosseini, Soraya

2013-05-01

258

Effects of pyrolysis conditions on the porous structure construction of mesoporous charred carbon from used cigarette filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-step pyrolysis was applied to synthesize mesoporous charred carbon from used cigarette filters. Proximate analysis suggested that cigarette filters are decent carbon precursors due to their moderate carbon (around 11 %) and low ash (around 0.1 %) contents. To investigate the effects of pyrolysis parameters on porous surface area, a full factorial design of experiment including heating rate, soaking time and pyrolysis temperature was used with each factor at three levels. The analysis of variance revealed that the temperature and heating rate had the most significant effects on total surface area of the synthesized carbon. Response surface model (RSM) was applied to best fit a surface through the experimental data. It was seen that the quadratic RSM model with a reasonable R 2 value of 63 % was the best developed model. The maximum BET surface area (597 m2/g) was reached at a pyrolysis temperature of 900 °C when the precursor was heated at 5 °C/min and hold at this temperature for 3 h. The produced N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm showed a certain degree of mesoporosity in the charred carbon with an average pore size of 3.32 nm calculated by Barrett-Joyner-Halenda method. Scanning electron microscopy also showed the presence of macroporosity on the charred carbon surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of acidic surface functional groups such as carboxyl and phenol which were accordingly confirmed by Boehm titration. In addition, Boehm titration showed that the produced carbon's surface was more acidic than basic in nature.

Masoudi Soltani, Salman; Yazdi, Sara Kazemi; Hosseini, Soraya

2014-06-01

259

Sorption Properties of Activated Carbon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined experimentally at several temperatures for GB, GA, and GF on BPL activated carbon and a a super activated coconut carbon. Prediction of these isotherms using experimental DMMP, CC14 and benzene adsorption d...

E. D. Tolles

1968-01-01

260

Solvent-Regenerated Activated Carbon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activated carbon has long been used to remove undesired organic chemicals from aqueous solutions such as wastewaters, public water supplies and contaminated groundwaters. The major problem with the use of activated carbon is the high cost of regenerating ...

H. McLaughlin

1988-01-01

261

Adsorption of aromatic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: a comparative study on granular activated carbon, activated carbon fiber, and carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Adsorption of three aromatic organic compounds (AOCs) by four types of carbonaceous adsorbents [a granular activated carbon (HD4000), an activated carbon fiber (ACF10), two single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT, SWNT-HT), and a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)] with different structural characteristics but similar surface polarities was examined in aqueous solutions. Isotherm results demonstrated the importance of molecular sieving and micropore effects in the adsorption of AOCs by carbonaceous porous adsorbents. In the absence of the molecular sieving effect, a linear relationship was found between the adsorption capacities of AOCs and the surface areas of adsorbents, independent of the type of adsorbent. On the other hand, the pore volume occupancies of the adsorbents followed the order of ACF10 > HD4000 > SWNT > MWNT, indicating that the availability of adsorption site was related to the pore size distributions of the adsorbents. ACF10 and HD4000 with higher microporous volumes exhibited higher adsorption affinities to low molecular weight AOCs than SWNT and MWNT with higher mesopore and macropore volumes. Due to their larger pore sizes, SWNTs and MWNTs are expected to be more efficient in adsorption of large size molecules. Removal of surface oxygen-containing functional groups from the SWNT enhanced adsorption of AOCs. PMID:20704238

Zhang, Shujuan; Shao, Ting; Kose, H Selcen; Karanfil, Tanju

2010-08-15

262

Activity enhancement of mesoporous silica (FSM-16) by modification with iron (II) sulphate for the isomerization of 1-butene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic activity of mesoporous silica (FSM-16) for the isomerization of 1-butene was remarkably enhanced by modification with iron (II) sulphate. The enhancement of the activity of FSM-16 was attributed to the transformation of the silanol groups on FSM-16 into Brønsted acid sites by the inductive effect of FeSO4 and\\/or sulphate species formed by the decomposition of FeSO4.

J. K. A Dapaah; Y Uemichi; A Ayame; H Matsuhashi; M Sugioka

1999-01-01

263

Voltammetric detection of lead (II) and mercury (II) using a carbon paste electrode modified with thiol self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (SAMMS)  

SciTech Connect

The anodic stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode modified with thiol terminated self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (SH-SAMMS) provides a new sensor for simultaneous detection of lead (Pb2+) and mercury (Hg2+) in aqueous solutions. The overall analysis involved a two-step procedure: an accumulation step at open circuit, followed by medium exchange to a pure electrolyte solution for the stripping analysis. Factors affecting the performance of the SH-SAMMS modified electrodes were investigated, including electrode activation and regeneration, electrode composition, preconcentration time, electrolysis time, and composition of electrolysis and stripping media. The most sensitive and reliable electrode contained 20% SH-SAMMS and 80% carbon paste. The optimal operating conditions were a sequence with a 2-5 minute preconcentration period, then a 60-second electrolysis period of the preconcentrated species in 0.2 M nitric acid, followed by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry from –1.0 V to 0.6 V in 0.2 M nitric acid. The areas of the peak responses were linear with respect to metal ion concentrations in the ranges of 10-1500 ppb Pb2+ and 20-1600 ppb Hg2+. The detection limits for Pb2+ and Hg2+ were 0.5 ppb Pb2+ and 3 ppb Hg2+ after a 20-minute preconcentration period.

Yantasee, Wassana; Lin, Yuehe; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Fryxell, Glen E.

2003-05-02

264

Regeneration of spent activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to this patent application, spent activated carbon is regenerated by contacting it with formaldehyde in an amount sufficient to restore its activation. Following the treatment the regenerated carbon is rinsed to remove residual formaldehyde and is then ready for use. When the activated carbon has lost its reductive and sorbant properties through use, i.e., when it has become 'spent,'

K. Popper; W. M. Camirand; G. S. Williams; E. P. Mecchi

1976-01-01

265

Ammonia-treated Ordered Mesoporous Carbons as Catalytic Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reaction  

SciTech Connect

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been considered as promising alternative power sources for many mobile and stationary applications. Compared to the fast hydrogen oxidation at the anode, the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode requires high-performance catalysts. Currently, platium (Pt) nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbons remain the best catalysts for ORR. However, both instability and high cost of Pt-based catalysts represent two main obstacles limiting the commercial applications of PEMFCs. The instability of supported Pt catalysts is mainly due to the corrosion of carbon support under operation conditions and the agglomation and detachment of Pt particles, leading to a decrease in catalytic surface areas. Development of corrosion resistant supports and enhancement of the interactions between Pt and supports are two strategies to improve the cathode long-term activity.

Wang, Xiqing; Lee, Je Seung; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Dai, Sheng

2010-04-13

266

Simultaneous Determination of Copper, Lead, and Cadmium at Hexagonal Mesoporous Silica Immobilized Quercetin Modified Carbon Paste Electrode  

PubMed Central

A new method was developed for simultaneous determination of copper, lead, and cadmium, based on their voltammetric response at a carbon paste electrode modified with hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) immobilized quercetin (HMS-Qu/CPE). Compared with quercetin modified carbon paste electrode (Qu/CPE) and quercetin ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (Qu-IL/CPE), the HMS-Qu/CPE exhibited improved selectivity and high sensitivity toward the detection of copper, lead, and cadmium. The properties of the HMS-Qu/CPE in 0.1?M HCOONa-HCl buffer solution (pH4.7) were investigated by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (ASV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of copper, lead, and cadmium at the modified electrodes and factors affecting the preconcentration procedures were also investigated. Detection limits of 5.0, 0.8, 1.0?nM for copper, lead, and cadmium were obtained, respectively. The method is simple, fast, sensitive, and selective, and is successfully applied to soil sample.

Xia, Fangquan; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Changli; Sun, Danzi; Dong, Yanmin; Liu, Zhen

2010-01-01

267

Investigation of CH 4 Reforming with CO 2 on Meso-Porous Al 2 O 3 -Supported Ni Catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meso-porous Al2O3-supported Ni catalysts exhibited the highest activity, stability and excellent coke-resistance ability for CH4 reforming with CO2 among several oxide-supported Ni catalysts (meso-porous Al2O3 (Yas1-2, Yas3-8), ?-Al2O3, a-Al2O3, SiO2, MgO, La2O3, CeO2 and ZrO2). The properties of deposited carbons depended on the properties of the supports, and on the meso-porous Al2O3-supported Ni catalyst, only the intermediate carbon of the

Zhaoyin Hou; Osamu Yokota; Takumi Tanaka; Tatsuaki Yashima

2003-01-01

268

Rayon-based activated carbon fibers treated with both alkali metal salt and Lewis acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rayon precursors marinated by mixture aqueous solution containing NaCl and H3PO4 are activated by steam for manufacture of activated carbon fibers (ACF) in this work. It is interesting to find that mesopores (2nm50nm) are greatly developed on ACF surface, which indicates that NaCl+H3PO4 aqueous solution is an effectual pore size-enlarging impregnant. The influences of

Yuhan Chen; Qilin Wu; Pan Ning; Gong Jinghua; Pan Ding

2008-01-01

269

Fabrication of thermally stable and active bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles stabilized on inner wall of mesoporous silica shell.  

PubMed

A general method has been developed for the fabrication of highly dispersed and thermally stable bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized on the inner wall of a mesoporous silica shell. In our approach, gold particles were formed in the first step on carbon spheres decorated with Sn(2+) cations. Upon Ag(+) adsorption and reduction by l-ascorbic acid in the second step, specific nanoparticles with a gold-silver alloy core and a silver nanoshell have been formed. Important evidence of the core-shell configurations of the bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles were clearly characterized by UV-vis, TEM and HAADF-STEM observations combined with elemental mapping and line scans. The mesoporous silica outer shell was obtained through the hydrolysis and condensation of the precursors tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in a basic condition and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a structure-directing agent. On this basis, the nanoreactors were fabricated after calcination, which further serves as a nanoreactor for the reduction of p-nitrophenol. Furthermore, such particles have been found to be thermally stable and their sizes remain substantially unchanged even upon calcination in air at 500 °C and a reduction treatment in H2. Potentially, the method can be developed into a general approach to synthesize other highly dispersed and thermally stable bimetallic nanoparticles stabilized on the inner wall of a mesoporous silica shell. PMID:23925801

Chen, Yu; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

2013-10-14

270

Stabilisation of amorphous ibuprofen in Upsalite, a mesoporous magnesium carbonate, as an approach to increasing the aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs.  

PubMed

One attractive approach to increase the aqueous solubility and thus the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs is to formulate them in their amorphous state since amorphous compounds generally exhibit higher apparent solubilities than their crystalline counterparts. In the current work, mesoporous magnesium carbonate was used to stabilise the amorphous state of the model substance ibuprofen. Crystallisation of the drug was completely supressed in the formulation, resulting in both a higher apparent solubility and a three times faster dissolution rate of the drug where the drug release was shown to be diffusion controlled. It was also shown that the formulation is stable for at least three months when stored at 75% relative humidity. The simple synthesis together with a high loading capacity and narrow pore size distribution of the mesoporous magnesium carbonate is foreseen to offer great advantages in formulations of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:24950364

Zhang, Peng; Forsgren, Johan; Strømme, Maria

2014-09-10

271

Adsorption characterisation of different volatile organic compounds over alumina, zeolites and activated carbon using inverse gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption parameters (enthalpy of adsorption, free energy of adsorption) of several alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated compounds on different adsorbents (alumina, zeolites 13X and 5A, and activated carbon) were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Dispersive surface energy interaction and specific interaction parameters were determined for each solute–adsorbent system. It was found that mesoporous alumina presents lower enthalpy of

Eva Díaz; Salvador Ordóñez; Aurelio Vega; José Coca

2004-01-01

272

Thermo-catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde: a novel approach to produce mesoporous ZnO for enhanced photocatalytic activities.  

PubMed

A novel method, thermo-catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde, is used to synthesize mesoporous ZnO crystals with enhanced photocatalytic activities. The mechanism of the mesoporous formation is investigated by synthesizing a series of samples at various systems and characterizing them with FT-IR, EDS, XRD, SEM, and TEM. The results show that formaldehyde can be adsorbed on the crystal planes of ZnO during the crystal growth and can then be catalytically decomposed into CO, CO2 and H2 during a sintering process. Because of the formation and the escape of these gases, which act as templates, the crystalline particles of ZnO are forced to rearrange consistently, and pores are formed in the internal crystal. Also, porous TiO2 crystals have been obtained via the same approach. Photocatalytic tests indicate that a porous ZnO crystal has higher activity than that of a nonporous one. PMID:24897060

Lei, Jian F; Li, Li B; Du, Kai; Ni, Jing; Zhang, Shao F; Zhao, Ling Z

2014-06-27

273

Thermo-catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde: a novel approach to produce mesoporous ZnO for enhanced photocatalytic activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method, thermo-catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde, is used to synthesize mesoporous ZnO crystals with enhanced photocatalytic activities. The mechanism of the mesoporous formation is investigated by synthesizing a series of samples at various systems and characterizing them with FT-IR, EDS, XRD, SEM, and TEM. The results show that formaldehyde can be adsorbed on the crystal planes of ZnO during the crystal growth and can then be catalytically decomposed into CO, CO2 and H2 during a sintering process. Because of the formation and the escape of these gases, which act as templates, the crystalline particles of ZnO are forced to rearrange consistently, and pores are formed in the internal crystal. Also, porous TiO2 crystals have been obtained via the same approach. Photocatalytic tests indicate that a porous ZnO crystal has higher activity than that of a nonporous one.

Lei, Jian F.; Li, Li B.; Du, Kai; Ni, Jing; Zhang, Shao F.; Zhao, Ling Z.

2014-06-01

274

Lanthanum cobaltite perovskite supported onto mesoporous zirconium dioxide: Nature of active sites of VOC oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel catalytic nano-sized materials based on LaCoOx perovskite nanoparticles incapsulated in the mesoporous matrix of zirconia were prepared, characterized by physicochemical methods and tested in complete methanol oxidation. LaCoOx nanoparticles were prepared inside the mesopores of ZrO2 by decomposition of bimetallic La–Co glycine precursor complexes. The catalysts have been studied by diffuse-reflectance FTIR-spectroscopy using such probe molecules as CO, CD3CN

Alexander L. Kustov; Olga P. Tkachenko; Leonid M. Kustov; Boris V. Romanovsky

2011-01-01

275

Preparation of mesoporous TiO2/CNT nanocomposites by synthesis of mesoporous titania via EISA and their photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stabilized mesoporous TiO2 was synthesized by evaporation induced self assembly (EISA) method and mechanically incorporated into single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with different ratios. The physicochemical properties of the nanocomposites (mesoporous TiO2/SWCNT) materials were investigated by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy measurements. The catalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 and nanocomposites were assessed by examining the degradation of rhodamine B as model aqueous solution under visible light. CNTs are facilitating the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 in the degradation of rhodamine B efficiently.

Rajasekar, K.; Thennarasu, S.; Rajesh, R.; Abirami, R.; Balkis Ameen, K.; Ramasubbu, A.

2013-12-01

276

Taguchi optimization approach for Pb(II) and Hg(II) removal from aqueous solutions using modified mesoporous carbon.  

PubMed

Using the Taguchi method, this study presents a systematic optimization approach for removal of lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) by a nanostructure, zinc oxide-modified mesoporous carbon CMK-3 denoted as Zn-OCMK-3. CMK-3 was synthesized by using SBA-15 and then oxidized by nitric acid. The zinc oxide was loaded to the modified CMK-3 by the equilibrium adsorption of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution followed by calcination to convert zinc nitrate to zinc oxide. The CMK-3 had porous structure and high specific surface area which can accommodate zinc oxide in a spreading manner, the zinc oxide connects to the carbon surface via oxygen atoms. The controllable factors such as agitation time, initial concentration, temperature, dose and pH of solution have been optimized. Under optimum conditions, the pollutant removal efficiency (PRE) was 97.25% for Pb(II) and 99% for Hg(II). The percentage contribution of each controllable factor was also determined. The initial concentration of pollutant is the most influential factor, and its value of percentage contribution is up to 31% and 43% for Pb and Hg, respectively. Our results show that the Zn-OCMK-3 is an effective nanoadsorbent for lead and mercury pollution remediation. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were used to model the equilibrium adsorption data for Pb(II) and Hg(II). PMID:21733626

Zolfaghari, Ghasem; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Anbia, Mansoor; Younesi, Habibollah; Amirmahmoodi, Shahram; Ghafari-Nazari, Ali

2011-09-15

277

Preparation of activated carbons from cherry stones by activation with potassium hydroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using cherry stones, the preparation of activated carbon has been undertaken in the present study by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. A series of KOH-activated products was prepared by varying the carbonisation temperature in the 400 900 °C range. Such products were characterised texturally by gas adsorption (N2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and helium and mercury density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. The carbons prepared as a rule are microporous and macroporous solids. The degree of development of surface area and porosity increases with increasing carbonisation temperature. For the carbon heated at 900 °C the specific surface area (BET) is 1624 m2 g-1, the micropore volume is 0.67 cm3 g-1, the mesopore volume is 0.28 cm3 g-1, and the macropore volume is 1.84 cm3 g-1.

Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Macías-García, A.; Gómez-Serrano, V.

2006-06-01

278

Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

Rohatgi, N. K.

1984-01-01

279

Activated carbon from vetiver roots: gas and liquid adsorption studies.  

PubMed

Large quantities of lignocellulosic residues result from the industrial production of essential oil from vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) roots. These residues could be used for the production of activated carbon. The yield of char obtained after vetiver roots pyrolysis follows an equation recently developed [A. Ouensanga, L. Largitte, M.A. Arsene, The dependence of char yield on the amounts of components in precursors for pyrolysed tropical fruit stones and seeds, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 59 (2003) 85-91]. The N(2) adsorption isotherm follows either the Freundlich law K(F)P(alpha) which is the small alpha equation limit of a Weibull shaped isotherm or the classical BET isotherm. The surface area of the activated carbons are determined using the BET method. The K(F) value is proportional to the BET surface area. The alpha value increases slightly when the burn-off increases and also when there is a clear increase in the micropore distribution width. PMID:17092643

Gaspard, S; Altenor, S; Dawson, E A; Barnes, P A; Ouensanga, A

2007-06-01

280

Simple fabrication of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.  

PubMed

N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by a modified and facile sol-gel approach without any templates. Ammonium nitrate was used as a raw source of N dopants, which could produce a lot of gasses such as N2, NO2, and H2O in the process of heating samples. These gasses were proved to be vitally important to form the special mesoporous structure. The samples were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The average length and the cross section diameter of the as-prepared samples were ca. 1.5 ?m and ca. 80 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods showed an excellent photocatalytic activity, which may be attributed to the enlarged surface area (106.4 m2 g-1) and the narrowed band gap (2.05 eV). Besides, the rod-like photocatalyst was found to be easy to recycle. PMID:24428848

Zhou, Xiufeng; Lu, Juan; Jiang, Jingjing; Li, Xiaobin; Lu, Mengna; Yuan, Guotao; Wang, Zuoshan; Zheng, Min; Seo, Hyo Jin

2014-01-01

281

Activated carbons developed from surplus sewage sludge for the removal of dyes from dilute aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surplus biological sludge from wastewater treatment plants was pyrolysed at 700°C in the presence of H2SO4. Sludge-based (SB) activated carbon (AC) was mainly mesoporous in nature, with a surface area of 253m2\\/g and an average pore diameter of 2.3nm. Chemviron GW, an AC commercial reference, was mainly microporous with a surface area of 1026m2\\/g and an average diameter of 1.8nm.

Maria J. Martin; Adriana Artola; M. Dolors Balaguer; Miquel Rigola

2003-01-01

282

Activation of snap-top capped mesoporous silica nanocontainers using two near-infrared photons.  

PubMed

Photoactivation of "snap-top" stoppers over the pore openings of mesoporous silica nanoparticles releases intact cargo molecules from the pores. The on-command release can be stimulated by either one UV photon or two coherent near-IR photons. Two-photon activation is particularly desirable for use in biological systems because it enables good tissue penetration and precise spatial control. Stoppers were assembled by first binding photolabile coumarin-based molecules to the nanoparticle surface. Then, after the particles were loaded with cargo, bulky ?-cyclodextrin (CD) molecules were noncovalently associated with the substituted coumarin molecule, blocking the pores and preventing the cargo from escaping. One-photon excitation at 376 nm or two-photon excitation at 800 nm cleaves the bond holding the coumarin to the nanopore, releasing both the CD cap and the cargo. The dynamics of both the cleavage of the cap and the cargo release was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. This system traps intact cargo molecules without the necessity of chemical modification, releases them with tissue-penetrating near-IR light, and has possible applications in photostimulated drug delivery. PMID:24015927

Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Sudha Devi, Lekshmi; Russell, Melissa M; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Zink, Jeffrey I

2013-09-25

283

Engineering of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Remarkably Enhanced Tumor Active Targeting Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticle (HMSN) has recently gained increasing interests due to their tremendous potential as an attractive nano-platform for cancer imaging and therapy. However, possibly due to the lack of efficient in vivo targeting strategy and well-developed surface engineering techniques, engineering of HMSN for in vivo active tumor targeting, quantitative tumor uptake assessment, multimodality imaging, biodistribution and enhanced drug delivery have not been achieved to date. Here, we report the in vivo tumor targeted positron emission tomography (PET)/near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dual-modality imaging and enhanced drug delivery of HMSN using a generally applicable surface engineering technique. Systematic in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed to investigate the stability, tumor targeting efficacy and specificity, biodistribution and drug delivery capability of well-functionalized HMSN nano-conjugates. The highest uptake of TRC105 (which binds to CD105 on tumor neovasculature) conjugated HMSN in the 4T1 murine breast cancer model was ~10%ID/g, 3 times higher than that of the non-targeted group, making surface engineered HMSN a highly attractive drug delivery nano-platform for future cancer theranostics.

Chen, Feng; Hong, Hao; Shi, Sixiang; Goel, Shreya; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Hernandez, Reinier; Theuer, Charles P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

2014-01-01

284

Intracellular redox-activated anticancer drug delivery by functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoreservoirs with tumor specificity.  

PubMed

In this study, a type of intracellular redox-triggered hollow mesoporous silica nanoreservoirs (HMSNs) with tumor specificity was developed in order to deliver anticancer drug (i.e., doxorubicin (DOX)) to the target tumor cells with high therapeutic efficiency and reduced side effects. Firstly, adamantanamine was grafted onto the orifices of HMSNs using a redox-cleavable disulfide bond as an intermediate linker. Subsequently, a synthetic functional molecule, lactobionic acid-grafted-?-cyclodextrin (?-CD-LA), was immobilized on the surface of HMSNs through specific complexation with the adamantyl group, where ?-CD served as an end-capper to keep the loaded drug within HMSNs. ?-CD-LA on HMSNs could also act as a targeting agent towards tumor cells (i.e., HepG2 cells), since the lactose group in ?-CD-LA is a specific ligand binding with the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on HepG2 cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that DOX-loaded nanoreservoirs could be selectively endocytosed by HepG2 cells, releasing therapeutic DOX into cytoplasm and efficiently inducing the apoptosis and cell death. In vivo investigations further confirmed that DOX-loaded nanoreservoirs could permeate into the tumor sites and actively interact with tumor cells, which inhibited the tumor growth with the minimized side effect. On the whole, this drug delivery system exhibits a great potential as an efficient carrier for targeted tumor therapy in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24930850

Luo, Zhong; Hu, Yan; Cai, Kaiyong; Ding, Xingwei; Zhang, Quan; Li, Menghuan; Ma, Xing; Zhang, Beilu; Zeng, Yongfei; Li, Peizhou; Li, Jinghua; Liu, Junjie; Zhao, Yanli

2014-09-01

285

Engineering of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles for remarkably enhanced tumor active targeting efficacy.  

PubMed

Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticle (HMSN) has recently gained increasing interests due to their tremendous potential as an attractive nano-platform for cancer imaging and therapy. However, possibly due to the lack of efficient in vivo targeting strategy and well-developed surface engineering techniques, engineering of HMSN for in vivo active tumor targeting, quantitative tumor uptake assessment, multimodality imaging, biodistribution and enhanced drug delivery have not been achieved to date. Here, we report the in vivo tumor targeted positron emission tomography (PET)/near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dual-modality imaging and enhanced drug delivery of HMSN using a generally applicable surface engineering technique. Systematic in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed to investigate the stability, tumor targeting efficacy and specificity, biodistribution and drug delivery capability of well-functionalized HMSN nano-conjugates. The highest uptake of TRC105 (which binds to CD105 on tumor neovasculature) conjugated HMSN in the 4T1 murine breast cancer model was ~10%ID/g, 3 times higher than that of the non-targeted group, making surface engineered HMSN a highly attractive drug delivery nano-platform for future cancer theranostics. PMID:24875656

Chen, Feng; Hong, Hao; Shi, Sixiang; Goel, Shreya; Valdovinos, Hector F; Hernandez, Reinier; Theuer, Charles P; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

2014-01-01

286

Controlled synthesis and structure tunability of photocatalytically active mesoporous metal-based stannate nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of stannate nanostructures have been fabricated for UV photocatalysis, including zinc- and cadmium-based stannates. As the template nanostructures, high surface-area mesoporous metal hydroxystannate [ZnSn(OH)6 and CdSn(OH)6] nanoparticles (>100 m2/g) have been synthesized using a simple, low-temperature substitution chemical process with controlled porosity, morphology and crystallinity. Post-synthetic thermal treatments were employed to obtain amorphous ZnSnO3, CdSnO3, ilmenite CdSnO3, and crystalline Zn2SnO4-SnO2 nanoparticles. As a result, the band gaps can be tuned from 5.4 eV to 3.3 eV and from 4.9 eV to 2.1 eV for Zn-based and Cd-based stannates, respectively. Amorphous ZnSnO3 porous nanoparticles showed highest activity toward dye degradation under UV illumination followed by the Zn2SnO4-SnO2 and ilmenite CdSnO3 nanostructures due to their beneficial band structure alignment, high conductivities, and high specific surface areas. This study may provide an important strategy for high throughput synthesis and screening of functional complex metal oxide nanomaterials, while the enabled stannate nanomaterials could be utilized in various applications.

Liu, Caihong; Chen, Haiyan; Ren, Zheng; Dardona, Sameh; Piech, Martin; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian

2014-03-01

287

Real-time monitoring of enzyme activity in a mesoporous silicon double layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity of certain proteolytic enzymes is often an indicator of disease states such as cancer, stroke and neurodegeneracy, so there is a need for rapid assays that can characterize the kinetics and substrate specificity of enzymatic reactions. Nanostructured membranes can efficiently separate biomolecules, but coupling a sensitive detection method to such a membrane remains difficult. Here, we demonstrate a single mesoporous nanoreactor that can isolate and quantify in real time the reaction products of proteases. The reactor consists of two layers of porous films electrochemically prepared from crystalline silicon. The upper layer, with large pore sizes (~100 nm in diameter), traps the protease and acts as the reactor. The lower layer, with smaller pore sizes (~6 nm), excludes the proteases and other large proteins and captures the reaction products. Infiltration of the digested fragments into the lower layer produces a measurable change in optical reflectivity, and this allows label-free quantification of enzyme kinetics in real time within a volume of ~5 nl.

Orosco, Manuel M.; Pacholski, Claudia; Sailor, Michael J.

2009-04-01

288

Probing Mechanisms for Enzymatic Activity Enhancement of Organophosphorus Hydrolase in Functionalized Mesoporous Silica  

SciTech Connect

We have previously reported that organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) can be spontaneously entrapped in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) with HOOC - as the functional groups and the entrapped OPH in HOOC-FMS showed enhanced enzyme specific activity. This work is to study the mechanisms that why OPH entrapped in FMS displayed the enhanced activity in views of OPH-FMS interactions using spectroscopic methods. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra show that, comparing to the secondary structure of OPH free in solution, OPH in HOOC-FMS displayed increased a-helix/b-strand transition of OPH with increased OPH loading density. The fluorescence emission spectra of Trp residues were used to assess the tertiary structural changes of the enzyme. There was a 42% increase in fluorescence. This is in agreement with the fact that the fluorescence intensity of OPH was increased accompanying with the increased OPH activity when decreasing urea concentrations in solution. The steady-state anisotropy was increased after OPH entrapping in HOOC-FMS comparing to the free OPH in solution, indicating that protein mobility was reduced upon entrapment. The solvent accessibility of Trp residues of OPH was probed by using acrylamide as a collisional quencher. Trp residues of OPH-FMS had less solvent exposure comparing with free OPH in solution due to its electrostatical binding to HOOC-FMS thereby displaying the increased fluorescence intensity. These results suggest the interactions of OPH with HOOC-FMS resulted in the protein immobilization and a favorable conformational change for OPH in the crowded confinement space and accordingly the enhanced activity.

Chen, Baowei; Lei, Chenghong; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun

2009-12-25

289

Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.  

PubMed

In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

2014-07-01

290

Comparison of the surface features of two wood-based activated carbons  

SciTech Connect

The surface features of two carbons of wood origin were compared. One sample was manufactured using phosphoric acid activation and the other using potassium hydroxide activation. To check the susceptibility to oxidation and the stability of the porous structure, the samples were oxidized with ammonium persulfate. Structural properties of carbons and their oxidized counterparts were determined using sorption of nitrogen. Surface acidity was evaluated using Boehm titration, potentiometric titration, inverse gas chromatography, and diffuse reflectance FTIR. It was demonstrated that, despite the same wood origin, the carbons significantly differ in their pore structure and surface chemistry. The carbon obtained using KOH activation is homogeneously microporous with high surface area around 2,300 m{sup 2}/g (BET). On the other hand, the carbon manufactured using phosphoric acid contains a high volume of mesopores and its surface area is significantly lower. The carbons also differ in their surface chemistry and susceptibility to oxidation.

Salame, I.I.; Bandosz, T.J.

2000-02-01

291

Novel Mesoporous Graphite Carbon Nitride/BiOI Heterojunction for Enhancing Photocatalytic Performance Under Visible-Light Irradiation.  

PubMed

A novel organic-inorganic three-dimensional (3D) mesoporous graphite carbon nitride/BiOI (MCN/BiOI) heterojunction photocatalyst with excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance was synthesized by a facile solvothermal method and used for degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in water. After hybridization with MCN, a heterojunction was formed and the photogenerated carriers could be effectively separated by the internal electric field built at the heterojunction interface. The photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performance of BiOI were improved and much higher than pure BiOI and MCN. The best photocatalytic performance was achieved with MCN proportion of 10%, and the kobs was approximately 1.6 times of pure BiOI and 3.4 times of MCN under simulated solar light irradiation, respectively. The photocurrent intensity generated by 10%-MCN/BiOI electrode was about 1.5 and 2.0 times of those induced by BiOI and MCN under visible-light irradiation, respectively. The superoxide radical species were predominant in the reaction system. PMID:24635982

Chang, Chun; Zhu, Lingyan; Wang, Shanfeng; Chu, Xiaolong; Yue, Longfei

2014-04-01

292

Mesoporous carbon nitride based biosensor for highly sensitive and selective analysis of phenol and catechol in compost bioremediation.  

PubMed

Herein, we reported here a promising biosensor by taking advantage of the unique ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) to convert the recognition information into a detectable signal with enzyme firstly, which could realize the sensitive, especially, selective detection of catechol and phenol in compost bioremediation samples. The mechanism including the MCN based on electrochemical, biosensor assembly, enzyme immobilization, and enzyme kinetics (elucidating the lower detection limit, different linear range and sensitivity) was discussed in detail. Under optimal conditions, GCE/MCN/Tyr biosensor was evaluated by chronoamperometry measurements and the reduction current of phenol and catechol was proportional to their concentration in the range of 5.00×10(-8)-9.50×10(-6)M and 5.00×10(-8)-1.25×10(-5)M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and 0.9881, respectively. The detection limits of catechol and phenol were 10.24nM and 15.00nM (S/N=3), respectively. Besides, the data obtained from interference experiments indicated that the biosensor had good specificity. All the results showed that this material is suitable for load enzyme and applied to the biosensor due to the proposed biosensor exhibited improved analytical performances in terms of the detection limit and specificity, provided a powerful tool for rapid, sensitive, especially, selective monitoring of catechol and phenol simultaneously. Moreover, the obtained results may open the way to other MCN-enzyme applications in the environmental field. PMID:24951922

Zhou, Yaoyu; Tang, Lin; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Jun; Cai, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Guide; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chen; Tang, Wangwang

2014-11-15

293

Chemical Vapor Deposition of beta-SiC Nanowires on Granular Active Carbon Cylinders Loaded with Iron Nanoparticles Inside the Pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for chemical vapor deposition of beta-SiC nanowires on granular active carbon loaded with iron nanoparticles inside the pores is developed. In this process, mesoporous active carbon was used as both a carbon source material and a template to generate nanometer-diameter catalyst particles that define the size of wires produced by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Transmission electron microscopy reveals

Guo-wen Meng; Li-de Zhang; Yong Qin; Phillipp F; Sheng-ru Qiao; Hai-ming Guo; Shu-yuan Zhang

1998-01-01

294

Electrochemical performance of highly mesoporous nitrogen doped carbon cathode in lithium–oxygen batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen doped carbon with a high surface area was used as cathode electrode in a solid-state lithium–oxygen battery. Various techniques including the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were employed to evaluate the nitrogen functionality on carbon. The electrochemical properties of nitrogen doped carbon as cathode

Padmakar Kichambare; Jitendra Kumar; Stanley Rodrigues; Binod Kumar

2011-01-01

295

Activated carbon made from cow dung as electrode material for electrochemical double layer capacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cow dung is one of the most abundant wastes generated on earth and has been traditionally used as fertilizer and fuel in most of the developing countries. In this study activated carbon is synthesized from cow dung by a modified chemical activation method, where partially carbonized cow dung is treated with KOH in different ratio. The synthesized activated carbon possesses irregular surface morphology with high surface area in the range of 1500-2000 m2 g-1 with proper amount of micropore and mesopore volume. In particular, we demonstrate that the surface morphology and porosity parameters change with increase in KOH ratio. These activated carbons are tested as electrode material in two-electrode symmetric supercapacitor system in non-aqueous electrolyte and found to exhibit high specific capacitance with excellent retention of it at high current density and for long term operation. In particular, the activated carbon synthesized at 2:1 ratio of KOH and the pre-carbonized char shows the best performance with specific capacitance of 124 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and retains up to 117 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 current density. The performance is attributed to high surface area along with optimum amount of micropore and mesopore volume.

Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Yu, Jong-Sung

2014-09-01

296

Surfactant solubilization and the direct encapsulation of interfacially active phenols in mesoporous silicas.  

PubMed

The solubilization of phenols in micelles of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide leads to microstructural changes from spherical micelles to wormlike micelles and then to vesicles. These microstructures are then used to template silicas. There is a transition from highly ordered hexagonal mesoporous silicas of the M41S family to lamellar structures, as the phenolic dopant concentration is increased. The results have implication to the removal of phenols from aqueous waste streams through the micellar enhanced ultrafiltration process. The entrapment of phenols in mesoporous silicas provides a way to sequester such contaminants in concentrated form. PMID:18189432

Tan, Grace; Ford, Christy; John, Vijay T; He, Jibao; McPherson, Gary L; Bose, Arijit

2008-02-01

297

Ultrahigh porosity in mesoporous MOFs: promises and limitations.  

PubMed

Mesoporous MOFs are currently record holders in terms of the specific surface area with values exceeding 7000 m(2) g(-1), a textural feature unattained by traditional porous solids such as zeolites, carbons and even by graphene. They are promising candidates for high pressure gas storage and also for conversion or separation of larger molecules, whose size exceeds the pore size of zeolites. The rational strategies for synthesis of mesoporous MOF are outlined and the unambiguous consistent assessment of the surface area of such ultrahighly porous materials, as well as present challenges in the exciting research field, of mesoporous MOFs are discussed. The crystallinity, dynamic properties, functional groups, and wide range tunability render these materials as exceptional solids, but for the implementation in functional devices and even in industrial processes several aspects and effective characteristics (such as volumetric storage capacities, recyclability, mechanical and chemical stability, activation) should be addressed. PMID:24722662

Senkovska, Irena; Kaskel, Stefan

2014-06-10

298

Sensitive electrochemical microbial biosensor for p-nitrophenylorganophosphates based on electrode modified with cell surface-displayed organophosphorus hydrolase and ordered mesopore carbons.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical microbial biosensor for the rapid monitoring of p-nitrophenyl-substituted organophosphates (OPs) compounds based on glass carbon electrode (GCE) modified with both ordered mesopore carbons (OMCs) and cell surface-expressed organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) (OPH-bacteria/OMCs/GCE) was described in this paper. The genetically engineered Escherichia coli strain surface displayed mutant OPH (S5) with improved enzyme activity and favorable stability was constructed using a newly identified N-terminal of ice nucleation protein as an anchoring motif, which can be used directly without further time-consuming enzyme-extraction and purification, thereafter greatly improved the stability of the enzyme. Compared to OPH-bacteria modified GCE (OPH-bacteria/GCE), the OPH-bacteria/OMCs/GCE not only significantly enhanced the current response but also reduced the oxidation overpotential towards oxidizable p-nitrophenol (p-NP), which was the hydrolysate of p-nitrophenyl-substituted OPs. Under the optimized experimental conditions, at +0.84V (vs. SCE), the current-time curve was performed with varying OPs concentration. The current response was linear with paraoxon concentration within 0.05-25?M. Similarly, linear range of 0.05-25?M was found for parathion, and 0.08-30?M for methyl parathion. The low limits of detection were evaluated to be 9.0nM for paraoxon, 10nM for parathion and 15nM for methyl parathion (S/N=3). Thus, a highly specific, sensitive and rapid microbial biosensor was established, which holds great promise for on-site detection of trace p-nitrophenyl-substituted OPs. PMID:24794405

Tang, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Tingting; Liang, Bo; Han, Dongfei; Zeng, Lingxing; Zheng, Cheng; Li, Tie; Wei, Mingdeng; Liu, Aihua

2014-10-15

299

A sensitive amperometric sensor for hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide based on palladium nanoparticles/onion-like mesoporous carbon vesicle.  

PubMed

Onion-like mesoporous carbon vesicle (MCV) with multilayer lamellar structure was synthesized by a simply aqueous emulsion co-assembly approach. Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles were deposited on the MCV matrix (Pd/MCV) by chemical reduction of H(2)PdCl(4) with NaBH(4) in aqueous media. Pd(X)/MCV (X wt.% indicates the Pd loading amount) nanocomposites with different Pd loading amount were obtained by adjusting the ratio of precursors. The particular structure of the MCV results in efficient mass transport and the onion-like layers of MCV allows for the obtainment of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles. The introduction of Pd nanoparticles on the MCV matrix facilitates hydrazine oxidation at more negative potential and delivers higher oxidation current in comparison with MCV. A linear range from 2.0 x 10(-8) to 7.1 x 10(-5) M and a low detection limit of 14.9 nM for hydrazine are obtained at Pd(25)/MCV nanocomposite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. A nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for hydrogen peroxide based on the Pd(25)/MCV nanocomposite modified GC electrode is also developed. Compared with MCV modified GC electrode, the Pd(25)/MCV nanocomposite modified GC electrode displays enhanced amperometric responses towards hydrogen peroxide and gives a linear range from 1.0 x 10(-7) to 6.1 x 10(-3) M. The Pd(25)/MCV nanocomposite modified GC electrode achieves 95% of the steady-current for hydrogen peroxide within 1s. The combination of the unique properties of Pd nanoparticles and the porous mesostructure of MCV matrix guarantees the improved analytical performance for hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:20708112

Bo, Xiangjie; Bai, Jing; Ju, Jian; Guo, Liping

2010-08-18

300

Ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for p-nitrophenyl organophosphates based on ordered mesoporous carbons at low potential without deoxygenization.  

PubMed

p-Nitrophenyl organophosphates (OPs) including paraoxon, parathion and methyl parathion, etc, are highly poisonous OPs, for which sensitive and rapid detection method is most needed. In this work, an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for the determination of p-nitrophenyl OPs was developed based on ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) (OMCs/GCE). The electrochemical behavior and reaction mechanism of p-nitrophenyl OPs at OMCs/GCE was elaborated by taking paraoxon as an example. Experimental conditions such as buffer pH, preconcentration potential and time were optimized. By using differential pulse voltammetry, the current response of the sensor at -0.085 V was linear with concentration within 0.01-1.00 ?M and 1.00-20 ?M paraoxon. Similar linear ranges of 0.015-0.5 ?M and 0.5-10 ?M were found for parathion, and 0.01-0.5 ?M and 0.5-10 ?M for methyl parathion. The low limits of detection were evaluated to be 1.9nM for paraoxon, 3.4 nM for parathion and 2.1 nM for methyl parathion (S/N=3). Common interfering species had no interference to the detection of p-nitrophenyl OPs. The sensor can be applicable to real samples measurement. Therefore, a simple, sensitive, reproducible and cost-effective electrochemical sensor was proposed for the fast direct determination of trace p-nitrophenyl OPs at low potential without deoxygenization. PMID:24725744

Zhang, Tingting; Zeng, Lingxing; Han, Lei; Li, Tie; Zheng, Cheng; Wei, Mingdeng; Liu, Aihua

2014-04-25

301

Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons. PMID:24747937

Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

2014-07-01

302

Preparation of activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell by air activation  

SciTech Connect

A novel, three-step process for the production of high-quality activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell charcoals is described. In this process the charcoal is (1) heated to a high temperature (carbonized), (2) oxidized in air following a stepwise heating program from low (ca. 450 K) to high (ca. 660 K) temperatures (oxygenated), and (3) heated again in an inert environment to a high temperature (activated). By use of this procedure, activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1,000 m{sub 2}/g are manufactured with an overall yield of 15% (based on the dry shell feed). Removal of carbon mass by the development of mesopores and macropores is largely responsible for increases in the surface area of the carbons above 600 m{sub 2}/g. Thus, the surface area per gram of activated carbon can be represented by an inverse function of the yield for burnoffs between 15 and 60%. These findings are supported by mass-transfer calculations and pore-size distribution measurements. A kinetic model for gasification of carbon by oxygen, which provides for an Eley-Rideal type reaction of a surface oxide with oxygen in air, fits the measured gasification rates reasonably well over the temperature range of 550--660 K.

Tam, M.S.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

1999-11-01

303

Corn stalks char from fast pyrolysis as precursor material for preparation of activated carbon in fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

Corn stalks char from fast pyrolysis was activated by physical and chemical activation process in a fluidized bed reactor. The structure and morphology of the carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption and SEM. Effects of activation time and activation agents on the structure of activation carbon were investigated. The physically activated carbons with CO2 have BET specific surface area up to 880m(2)/g, and exhibit microporous structure. The chemically activated carbons with H3PO4 have BET specific surface area up to 600m(2)/g, and exhibit mesoporous structure. The surface morphology shows that physically activated carbons exhibit fibrous like structure in nature with long ridges, resembling parallel lines. Whereas chemically activated carbons have cross-interconnected smooth open pores without the fibrous like structure. PMID:24974241

Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jingli; He, Tao; Wu, Jinhu

2014-09-01

304

Activated carbons from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons of different characteristics have been prepared from dried sewage sludge using CO2, air and KOH as activating agents. The adsorption capacity of the resulting materials has been checked using 4-chlorophenol as a target compound in aqueous solution. CO2 and air-activation led to carbons of low BET area which increased with the activation temperature but did not reach 100m2\\/g

Victor Manuel Monsalvo; Angel Fernandez Mohedano; Juan Jose Rodriguez

2011-01-01

305

Adsorption of SO2 and NO from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers.  

PubMed

Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were used to remove SO2 and NO from incineration flue gas. Three types of ACFs in their origin state and after pretreatment with HNO3, NaOH, and KOH were investigated. The removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO were determined experimentally at defined SO2 and NO concentrations and at temperatures of 150, 200 and 260 degrees C. Experimental results indicated that the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO using the original ACFs were < 56% and < 27%, respectively. All ACFs modified with HNO3, NaOH, and KOH solution could increase the removal efficiencies of SO(2) and NO. The mesopore volumes and functional groups of ACFs are important in determining the removal of SO2 and NO. When the mesopore volumes of the ACFs are insufficient for removing SO2 and NO, the functional groups on the ACFs are not important in determining the removal of SO2 and NO. On the contrary, the effects of the functional groups on the removal of SO2 and NO are more important than the mesopore volumes as the amount of mesopores on the ACFs is sufficient to remove SO2 and NO. Moreover, the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO were greatest at 200 degrees C. When the inlet concentration of SO2 increased to 600 ppm, the removal efficiency of SO2 increased slightly and the removal efficiency of NO decreased. PMID:18083361

Liu, Zhen-Shu

2008-11-01

306

ZSM-5 monolith of uniform mesoporous channels.  

PubMed

A ZSM-5 monolith of uniform mesopores(meso-ZSM-5) was synthesized with the template method using carbon aerogel of uniform mesopores of great pore volume. The pore size distribution determined by N2 adsorption showed the presence of mesopores with an average pore width of 11 nm and micropores with an average pore width of 0.51 nm. Field emission scanning electron micrograph observation revealed the presence of uniform mesopores. X-ray diffraction and FT-IR provided evidence that the synthesized meso-ZSM-5 monolith has a highly crystalline ZSM-5 structure. PMID:12785820

Tao, Yousheng; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Katsumi

2003-05-21

307

Nanocasting pathways to create ordered mesoporous solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This account describes the synthesis of ordered mesoporous solids via a nanocasting pathway, using porous silica and porous carbon as hard templates. Non-siliceous mesoporous materials with new compositions, controllable structure, and specific functionality can be created. Structure replication on the length scale of nanometers allows to manipulate materials properties in a controlled manner and opens the road to highly porous

An-Hui Lu; Ferdi Schüth

2005-01-01

308

Bimodal activated carbons derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels prepared at different dilution ratios have been activated with phosphoric acid at 450 °C and compared with their carbonaceous counterparts obtained by pyrolysis at 900 °C. Whereas the latter were, as expected, highly mesoporous carbons, the former cryogels had very different pore textures. Highly diluted cryogels allowed preparation of microporous materials with high surface areas, but activation of initially dense cryogels led to almost non-porous carbons, with much lower surface areas than those obtained by pyrolysis. The optimal acid concentration for activation, corresponding to stoichiometry between molecules of acid and hydroxyl groups, was 2 M l-1, and the acid-cryogel contact time also had an optimal value. Such optimization allowed us to achieve surface areas and micropore volumes among the highest ever obtained by activation with H3PO4, close to 2200 m2 g-1 and 0.7 cm3 g-1, respectively. Activation of diluted cryogels with a lower acid concentration of 1.2 M l-1 led to authentic bimodal activated carbons, having a surface area as high as 1780 m2 g-1 and 0.6 cm3 g-1 of microporous volume easily accessible through a widely developed macroporosity.

Szczurek, Andrzej; Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

2011-06-01

309

Synthesis of non-siliceous mesoporous oxides.  

PubMed

Mesoporous non-siliceous oxides have attracted great interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Since the discovery of mesoporous silicates in 1990s, organic-inorganic assembly processes by using surfactants or block copolymers as soft templates have been considered as a feasible path for creating mesopores in metal oxides. However, the harsh sol-gel conditions and low thermal stabilities have limited the expansion of this method to various metal oxide species. Nanocasting, using ordered mesoporous silica or carbon as a hard template, has provided possibilities for preparing novel mesoporous materials with new structures, compositions and high thermal stabilities. This review concerns the synthesis, composition, and parameter control of mesoporous non-siliceous oxides. Four synthesis routes, i.e. soft-templating (surfactants or block copolymers as templates), hard-templating (mesoporous silicas or carbons as sacrificial templates), colloidal crystal templating (3-D ordered colloidal particles as a template), and super lattice routes, are summarized in this review. Mesoporous metal oxides with different compositions have different properties. Non-siliceous mesoporous oxides are comprehensively described, including a discussion of constituting elements, synthesis, and structures. General aspects concerning pore size control, atomic scale crystallinity, and phase control are also reviewed. PMID:23942521

Gu, Dong; Schüth, Ferdi

2014-01-01

310

Template-free synthesis of ordered mesoporous NiO\\/poly(sodium-4-styrene sulfonate) functionalized carbon nanotubes composite for electrochemical capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first example of a practical and efficient template-free strategy for synthesizing ordered mesoporous NiO\\/poly(sodium-4-styrene\\u000a sulfonate) (PSS) functionalized carbon nanotubes (FCNTs) composites by calcining a Ni(OH)2\\/FCNTs precursor prepared by refluxing an alkaline solution of Ni(NH3)\\u000a x\\u000a \\u000a 2+ and FCNTs at 97 °C for 1 h. The morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy,\\u000a and

Changzhou Yuan; Shenglin Xiong; Xiaogang Zhang; Laifa Shen; Fang Zhang; Bao Gao; Linhao Su

2009-01-01

311

Mesoporous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-Glass Ceramic Cathodes for Solid-State Lithium-Oxygen Batteries (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The composite of nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) blend with lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP) was studied as cathode material in a solid- state lithium-oxygen cell. Composite electrodes exhibit high electrochemical activity toward oxygen reduction. ...

J. Kumar, P. Kichambare, S. Rodrigues

2012-01-01

312

Activated Carbon Fibers for Artificial Kidney Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activated carbon fibers were made by wet-spinning a dispersion of powdered activated carbon in hydroxyethylcellulose solution. The resulting monofilament had 70% (dry basis) of activated carbon encapsulated in a water-swollen cellulosic binder that was qu...

T. A. Davis

1973-01-01

313

Enhanced photocatalytic CO2-reduction activity of electrospun mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers by solvothermal treatment.  

PubMed

Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels using semiconductor photocatalysts is considered as a potential solution to the energy deficiency and greenhouse effect. In this work, mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers with high specific surface areas and abundant surface hydroxyl groups are prepared using an electrospinning strategy combined with a subsequent calcination process, followed by a solvothermal treatment. The solvothermally treated mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers exhibit excellent photocatalytic performance on CO2 reduction into hydrocarbon fuels. The significantly improved photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity and the improved charge separation after solvothermal treatment. The highest activity is achieved for the sample with a 2-h solvothermal treatment, showing 6- and 25-fold higher CH4 production rate than those of TiO2 nanofibers without solvothermal treatment and P25, respectively. This work may also provide a prototype for studying the effect of solvothermal treatment on the structure and photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. PMID:24809306

Fu, Junwei; Cao, Shaowen; Yu, Jiaguo; Low, Jingxiang; Lei, Yongpeng

2014-05-28

314

Mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles containing Ag ion with excellent antimicrobial activity at remarkable low silver concentrations.  

PubMed

Mesoporous Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles with TiO2 homogenous anatase crystalline phase was synthesized using a one-pot sol-gel method. The sample was calcined at 100 degrees C and characterized by XRD, HR TEM, EDAX, IR spectroscopy, DRS, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The BET surface area of the sample was 266 m2/g and the crystallite size as calculated using Scherrer formula was 3.76 nm. The Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cultures and Candida albicans. Complete inhibition of microorganisms was achieved at a very low Ag-TiO2 concentration, in the range of 1.0 to 20 microg/mL (effective Ag concentrations were 11.7 to 234 ppb) in less than 2 h under ambient conditions, without the requirement of photoactivation. Silver ion release studies showed that about 18% of silver ions were present in solution. Thus, it may be inferred that the antimicrobial activity is due to Ag ions released from the TiO2 matrix. The mesoporous nature and antimicrobial activity at low concentrations without photoactivation are important aspects which make this material an excellent candidate for potential application as disinfectant and/or antimicrobial agent. PMID:23621027

Naik, Kshipra; Chatterjee, Amrita; Prakash, Halan; Kowshik, Meenal

2013-04-01

315

Face-centered-cubic lithium crystals formed in mesopores of carbon nanofiber electrodes.  

PubMed

In the foreseeable future, there will be a sharp increase in the demand for flexible Li-ion batteries. One of the most important components of such batteries will be a freestanding electrode, because the traditional electrodes are easily damaged by repeated deformations. The mechanical sustainability of carbon-based freestanding electrodes subjected to repeated electrochemical reactions with Li ions is investigated via nanotensile tests of individual hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs). Surprisingly, the mechanical properties of such electrodes are improved by repeated electrochemical reactions with Li ions, which is contrary to the conventional wisdom that the mechanical sustainability of carbon-based electrodes should be degraded by repeated electrochemical reactions. Microscopic studies reveal a reinforcing mechanism behind this improvement, namely, that inserted Li ions form irreversible face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals within HCNF cavities, which can reinforce the carbonaceous matrix as strong second-phase particles. These FCC Li crystals formed within the carbon matrix create tremendous potential for HCNFs as freestanding electrodes for flexible batteries, but they also contribute to the irreversible (and thus low) capacity of HCNFs. PMID:23730918

Lee, Byoung-Sun; Seo, Jong-Hyun; Son, Seoung-Bum; Kim, Seul Cham; Choi, In-Suk; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

2013-07-23

316

Highly ordered macro-mesoporous carbon nitride film for selective detection of acidic/basic molecules.  

PubMed

Well-ordered meso-macroporous carbon nitride film fabricated via a simple and flexible template replication method by using the P123 block copolymer and polystyrene spheres as dual templates shows selective sensing performance for acetic acid but after treating the surface of the film with UV light and oxygen, the selectivity of sensing can be tuned for basic molecules. PMID:24763940

Jia, Lichao; Wang, Hongqiang; Dhawale, Dattatray; Anand, Chokkalingam; Wahab, Mohammad A; Ji, Qingmin; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Vinu, Ajayan

2014-06-01

317

A cubic ordered, mesoporous carbide-derived carbon for gas and energy storage applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical and highly porous carbide-derived carbon (CDC) was obtained by nanocasting of pre-ceramic precursors into cubic ordered silica (KIT-6) and subsequent chlorination. Resulting CDC replica materials show high methane and n-butane uptake and excellent performance as electrode materials in supercapacitors.

Martin Oschatz; Emanuel Kockrick; Marcus Rose; Lars Borchardt; Nicole Klein; Irena Senkovska; Thomas Freudenberg; Yair Korenblit; Gleb Yushin; Stefan Kaskel

2010-01-01

318

THERMAL REGENERATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecologically, petrochemical wastes constitute a major hazard since waste materials contain relatively large amounts of non-biodegradable and toxic materials which may be discharged continuously. A three-part experimental study of activated carbon adsorption and thermal regenerati...

319

Enhanced Plasmonic Resonance Energy Transfer in Mesoporous Silica-Encased Gold Nanorod for Two-Photon-Activated Photodynamic Therapy  

PubMed Central

The unique optical properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) have recently drawn considerable interest from those working in in vivo biomolecular sensing and bioimaging. Especially appealing in these applications is the plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of GNRs induced by two-photon excitation at infrared wavelengths, owing to the significant penetration depth of infrared light in tissue. Unfortunately, many studies have also shown that often the intensity of pulsed coherent irradiation of GNRs needed results in irreversible deformation of GNRs, greatly reducing their two-photon luminescence (TPL) emission intensity. In this work we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of mesoporous silica-encased gold nanorods (MS-GNRs) that incorporate photosensitizers (PSs) for two-photon-activated photodynamic therapy (TPA-PDT). The PSs, doped into the nano-channels of the mesoporous silica shell, can be efficiently excited via intra-particle plasmonic resonance energy transfer from the encased two-photon excited gold nanorod and further generates cytotoxic singlet oxygen for cancer eradication. In addition, due to the mechanical support provided by encapsulating mesoporous silica matrix against thermal deformation, the two-photon luminescence stability of GNRs was significantly improved; after 100 seconds of 800 nm repetitive laser pulse with the 30 times higher than average power for imaging acquisition, MS-GNR luminescence intensity exhibited ~260% better resistance to deformation than that of the uncoated gold nanorods. These results strongly suggest that MS-GNRs with embedded PSs might provide a promising photodynamic therapy for the treatment of deeply situated cancers via plasmonic resonance energy transfer.

Chen, Nai-Tzu; Tang, Kuo-Chun; Chung, Ming-Fang; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Huang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Chia-Hui; Chou, Pi-Tai; Souris, Jeffrey S.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lo, Leu-Wei

2014-01-01

320

Size-tunable Pt nanoparticles assembled on functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon for the simultaneous and on-line detection of glucose and L-lactate in brain microdialysate.  

PubMed

This study presents a facile electrochemical method for simultaneous and selective on-line detection of glucose and L-lactate in the striatum of anesthetic rats through the integration of selective electrochemical detection with in vivo microdialysis system. A positively-charged polyelectrolyte, (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), was attached onto carbon mesoporous material (CMM) through non-covalent interaction, which provided an ideal environment for the assembling and dispersion of nanoparticle electrocatalysts. Platinum nanoparticles with wide loadings from 5 to 50 wt% were successfully self-assembled on PDDA-functionalized CMM via electrostatic interaction. TEM results showed that with the increase in the Pt loadings, both the size and interconnectivity between particles increased, with particle sizes ranging from 3.2±0.4 to 6.8±1.4 nm. Moreover, the electrocatalytic activities of the as-prepared six Pt/PDDA-CMM hybrid nanocomposites were also observed to show an inverted-V-shaped profile as a function of loading amount of Pt NPs. Integrated with glucose oxidase (GOx), L-lactate oxidase (LOD) and the in vivo microdialysis system, the constructed dual oxidase/Pt/PDDA-CMM/Nafion biosensors were successfully applied for the simultaneous and on-line detection of glucose and L-lactate. After post-calibration, the basal level of glucose and L-lactate in the striatum of anesthetic rats was calculated to be 0.27±0.03 and 0.71±0.05 mM (mean ±s.d., n=3), respectively. What is more important, the dual oxidase biosensors almost suffered from little cross-talk, which is characteristic of an excellent sensor with high performance. This property, along with the good linearity and a high stability substantially enables this method promising application in physiology and pathology. PMID:23089326

Yu, Yanyan; Yang, Yan; Gu, Hui; Zhou, Tianshu; Shi, Guoyue

2013-03-15

321

Immobilization and catalytic activity of lipase on mesoporous silica prepared from biocompatible gelatin organic template  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous silica (MPS) with high surface area (518.8m2\\/g), tunable pore size (3.6–13.7nm) was synthesized using inexpensive sodium silicate as the source of silica and the biodegradable gelatin as the structure directing agent. The amorphous mesostructures of the materials were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized MPS was then utilized as

Xiliang Wang; Guowei Zhou; Huayong Zhang; Shixin Du; Yunqiang Xu; Chunfeng Wang

2011-01-01

322

[Adsorption and desorption of dyes by waste-polymer-derived activated carbons].  

PubMed

Mesoporous activated carbons with high surface area were prepared from three waste polymers, i. e., tire rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), by KOH activation. The adsorption/desorption characteristics of dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) on the carbons were studied. The effects of pH, ionic strength and surface surfactants in the solution on the dye adsorption were also investigated. The results indicated that the carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited high surface area of 2 666 and 2 831 m2 x g(-1). Their mesopore volume were as high as 1.06 and 1.30 cm3 g(-1), respectively. 98.5% and 97.0% of methylene blue and methyl orange were removed in 15 min by PVC carbon, and that of 99.5% and 95.0% for PET carbon. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity to these dyes was more than 2 mmol x g(-1), much higher than that of commercial activated carbon F400. Compared with Freundlich model, the adsorption data was fitted better by Langmiur model, indicating monolayer coverage on the carbons. The adsorption was highly dependent on solution pH, ionic strength and concentration of surface surfactants. The activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption to methylene blue than that of methyl orange, and it was very hard for both of the dyes to be desorbed. The observation in this study demonstrated that activated carbons derived from polymer waste could be effective adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater with dyes. PMID:22452203

Lian, Fei; Liu, Chang; Li, Guo-Guang; Liu, Yi-Fu; Li, Yong; Zhu, Ling-Yan

2012-01-01

323

Ruthenium carbenes supported on mesoporous silicas as highly active and selective hybrid catalysts for olefin metathesis reactions under continuous flow.  

PubMed

In the search for a highly active and selective heterogenized metathesis catalyst, we systematically varied the pore geometry and size of various silica-based mesoporous (i.e., MCM-41, MCM-48, and SBA-15) and microporous (ZSM-5 and MWW) versus macroporous materials (D11-10 and Aerosil 200), besides other process parameters (temperature, dilution, and mean residence time). The activity and, especially, selectivity of such "linker-free" supports for ruthenium metathesis catalysts were evaluated in the cyclodimerization of cis-cyclooctene to form 1,9-cyclohexadecadiene, a valuable intermediate in the flavor and fragrance industry. The optimized material showed not only exceptionally high selectivity to the valuable product, but also turned out to be a truly heterogeneous catalyst with superior activity relative to the unsupported homogeneous complex. PMID:23852995

Bru, Miriam; Dehn, Richard; Teles, J Henrique; Deuerlein, Stephan; Danz, Manuel; Müller, Imke B; Limbach, Michael

2013-08-26

324

Hydrophobic Modification of Pd/SiO2 @Single-Site Mesoporous Silicas by Triethoxyfluorosilane: Enhanced Catalytic Activity and Selectivity for One-Pot Oxidation.  

PubMed

To enhance the catalytic activity in a selective one-pot oxidation using in-situ generated H2 O2 , a hydrophobically modified core-shell catalyst was synthesized by means of a simple silylation reaction using the fluorine-containing silylation agent triethoxyfluorosilane (TEFS, SiF(OEt)3 ). The catalyst consisted of a Pd-supported silica nanosphere and a mesoporous silica shell containing isolated Ti(IV) and F ions bonded with silicon (Si?F bond). Structural analyses using XRD and N2 adsorption-desorption suggested that the mesoporous structure and large surface area of the mesoporous shells were retained even after the modification. During the one-pot oxidation of sulfide, catalytic activity was enhanced significantly by increasing the amount of fluorine in the shell. A hydrophobic surface enhanced adsorption of the hydrophobic reactant into the mesopore, while the less hydrophobic oxygenated products efficiently diffused into the outside of the shell, which improved the catalytic activity and selectivity. In addition, the present methodology can be used to enhance the catalytic activity and selectivity in the one-pot oxidation of cyclohexane by using an Fe-based core-shell catalytic system. PMID:24920164

Nakatsuka, Kazuki; Mori, Kohsuke; Okada, Shusuke; Ikurumi, Shohei; Kamegawa, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromi

2014-07-01

325

In situ synthesis of polymer-modified mesoporous carbon CMK-3 composites for CO2 sequestration.  

PubMed

Here we report carbon-based composites polyethylenimine-mesocarbon (PEI-CMK-3) and polyvinylamine-mesocarbon (PVA-CMK-3) that can be used to capture and rapidly release CO(2). CO(2) uptake by the synthesized composites was determined using a gravimetric method at 30 °C and 1 atm; the 39% PEI-CMK-3 composite had ~12 wt % CO(2) uptake capacity and the 37% PVA-CMK-3 composite had ~13 wt % CO(2) uptake capacity. A desorption temperature of 75 °C was sufficient for regeneration. The CO(2) uptake was the same when using 10% CO(2) in a 90% CH(4), C(2)H(6), and C(3)H(8) mixture, underscoring this composite's efficacy for CO(2) sequestration from natural gas. PMID:22091700

Hwang, Chih-Chau; Jin, Zhong; Lu, Wei; Sun, Zhengzong; Alemany, Lawrence B; Lomeda, Jay R; Tour, James M

2011-12-01

326

Ozonation of aniline promoted by activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of aniline from aqueous solutions by simultaneous use of ozone and activated carbon was investigated at different solution pH. For comparative purposes, single ozonation and adsorption on activated carbon were carried out in the same experimental set-up. In order to evaluate the role of the activated carbon surface chemistry during ozonation, a commercial activated carbon, Norit GAC 1240

P. C. C. Faria; J. J. M. Órfão; M. F. R. Pereira

2007-01-01

327

Dye adsorption onto activated carbons from tyre rubber waste using surface coverage analysis.  

PubMed

Two types of activated carbons from tyre char (with or without sulphuric acid treatment) were produced via carbon dioxide activation with BET surface areas in the range 59-1118 m(2)/g. Other characterisation tests include micropore and mesopore surface areas and volumes, pH, and elemental compositions, particularly heteroatoms such as nitrogen and sulphur. They were correlated to the adsorption capacity which were in the range of 0.45-0.71 mmol/g (untreated) and 0.62-0.84 mmol/g (acid-treated) for Acid Blue 25. In the case of larger-sized molecules like Acid Yellow 117, capacities were in the range of 0.23-0.42 mmol/g (untreated) and 0.29-0.40 mmol/g (acid-treated). Some tyre carbons exhibit a more superior performance than a microporous, commercial activated carbon (Calgon F400). By modelling the dye adsorption equilibrium data, the Redlich-Peterson isotherm is adopted as it has the lowest SSE. Based on the surface coverage analysis, a novel molecular orientation modelling of adsorbed dyes has been proposed and correlated with surface area and surface charge. For the acid dyes used in this study, molecules were likely to be adsorbed by the mesopore areas. PMID:20416883

Mui, Edward L K; Cheung, W H; Valix, Marjorie; McKay, Gordon

2010-07-15

328

Immobilization and enzymatic activity of ?-glucosidase on mesoporous SBA15 silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesoporous silicate SBA-15 has shown to be a good support for the immobilization of ?-glucosidase from almonds, an enzyme\\u000a with high molecular weight (ca. 130 kDa for the dimer). An enzyme loading of 430 mg per gram of support (3.2 ± 0.2 ?mol g?1 of SBA-15) was achieved at 7 h. The optimum pH for the immobilization was 3.5. The electrostatic interactions between the\\u000a surface of

J. M. GomezM; M. D. Romero; T. M. Fernández; S. García

2010-01-01

329

Synthesis of mesoporous silica hollow nanospheres with multiple gold cores and catalytic activity.  

PubMed

The core-shell Au@resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) nanospheres with multiple cores have been successfully synthesized by a modified Stöber method. After coating mesoporous silica and the calcination, the Au@meso-SiO2 hollow nanospheres with multiple gold cores can be obtained, which have a high surface area (?537m(2)/g) and uniform pore size (?2.5nm). The Au@meso-SiO2 hollow nanospheres can be used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH4 into 4-aminophenol, and exhibit excellent catalytic performance. PMID:24935190

Chen, Junchen; Xue, Zhaoteng; Feng, Shanshan; Tu, Bo; Zhao, Dongyuan

2014-09-01

330

Morphological characterization of high surface area mesoporous micropheres of platinum and platinum\\/ruthenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous microspheres of Pt and Pt\\/Ru have been electrodeposited into a carbon black layer on a silicon\\/gold electrode surface and characterized for coulombic deposition efficiency, physical morphology, particle size and dispersion, electrochemically available surface area, and activity toward methanol oxidation. The target applications for these deposits are catalyst materials in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Coulombic efficiency was measured

Trevor Lawrence Knutson

2007-01-01

331

Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous-TiO{sub 2} with enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of chloro-phenol  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous-titania (TiO{sub 2}) photocatalysts have been synthesized using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a template in dilute acetic acid aqueous solution by hydrothermal process. The effect of PEG molecular weights and thermal treatment on the resultant structure and photocatalytic activity are investigated. Structural and phase compositional properties of the resultant photocatalysts are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen sorption analysis. When the molecular weights of PEG vary from 600 to 20,000, the particle sizes of mesoporous structure decrease from 15.1 to 13.3 nm and mean pore sizes increase from 6.9 to 10.6 nm. The chemical reactions of the formation of mesoporous-TiO{sub 2} during its synthesis have been proposed and discussed. The activities of mesoporous-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts are evaluated and compared with Degussa P-25 using chloro-phenol as a testing compound. The reaction mechanism of photodegradation is also described on the basis of high performance liquid chromatography.

Shamaila, Sajjad; Sajjad, Ahmed Khan Leghari; Chen, Feng [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Jinlong, E-mail: jlzhang@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China) [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China)

2010-10-15

332

Production of activated carbon from olive bagasse by physical activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons were produced from olive bagasse and their characteristics were investigated. Olive bagasse was first carbonized at 500°C in N2 atmosphere. Then, the obtained chars were activated with steam. The effects of activation temperature and duration were examined. The resultant activated carbons were characterized by measuring their porosities and pore size distributions. The activated carbons produced had the BET

Hakan Demiral; ?lknur Demiral; Belgin Karabacako?lu; Fatma Tümsek

2011-01-01

333

Paracrystalline structure of activated carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural studies by means of neutron diffraction of activated carbons, prepared from a polymer of phenol formaldehyde resin by carbonization and activation processes, with variable porosity, are presented. The neutron scattering data were recorded over the range of the scattering vector Q from 2.5 to 500 nm-1. The structure of activated carbons has been described in terms of disordered graphite-like layers with very weak interlayer correlations. The model has been generated by computer simulations and its validity has been tested by comparison of the experimental and calculated intensity functions. Modelling studies have shown that the model containing 3-4 layers each about 2 nm in diameter accounts for the experimental data and that graphite layers are randomly translated and rotated, according to the turbostratic structure. Near-neighbour carbon-carbon distances of about 0.139 nm and 0.154 nm have been determined. The Debye-Waller factor exp (-Q2?2/2) with ? = ?0(r)1/2 suggests a paracrystalline structure within a single layer. The value of the interlayer spacing of 0.36 nm has been found from paracrystalline simulations of the layer arrangement in the c-axis direction. The high quality of the experimental data has enabled determination of the coordination numbers, the interatomic distances and their standard deviations using a curve-fitting procedure over the Q-range from 250 nm to 500 nm, providing structural information about short- and intermediate-range ordering.

Szczygielska, A.; Burian, A.; Dore, J. C.

2001-06-01

334

Production of activated carbons from Illinois coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the predominant use of coal is for combustion applications, more beneficial, reasonable and profitable uses may be as a resource for the production of chemicals, and materials, including activated carbon. Activated carbons represent a family of carbonaceous substances manufactured by processes that develop the carbon`s adsorptive properties. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate that an activated

E. J. Hippo; Jian Sun

1996-01-01

335

Immobilized enzymes in ordered mesoporous silica materials and improvement of their stability and catalytic activity in an organic solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme immobilization in mesoporous materials with various pore sizes was studied. The size of the mesopores was controlled by means of the combination of the alkyl chain lengths of surfactants and a swelling agent (triisopropyl benzene). Enzymes were selectively adsorbed to FSM-16 and MCM-41 prepared with a cationic surfactant, whose pore sizes were over the molecular diameters of the enzymes,

Haruo Takahashi; Bo Li; Toshiya Sasaki; Chie Miyazaki; Tsutomu Kajino; Shinji Inagaki

2001-01-01

336

Influence of Preparation Conditions on Structural Stability of Ordered Mesoporous Carbons Synthesized by Evaporation-induced Triconstituent Co-assembly Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) have been prepared by evaporation-induced triconstituent co-assembly method. Their mesostructural stability under different carbon content, aging time and acidity were conveniently monitored by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 sorption isotherms techniques. The results show mesostructural stability of OMCs is enhanced as the carbon content increases from 36% to 46%, further increasing carbon content deteriorates the mesostructural stability. Increasing aging time from 0.5 h to 5.0 h make the mesostructural stability go through an optimum (2.0 h) and gradually reduce framework shrinkage of the OMCs. Highly OMCs can only be obtained in the acidity range of 0.2-1.2 mol/L HCl, when the acidity is near the isoelectric point of silica, the resulting OMCs have the best mesostructure stability. Under the optimum condition, the carbon content of 46%, aging time of 2.0 h, and 0.2 mol/L HCl, the resulting OMCs have the best mesostructure stability and the highest BET surface areas of 2281 m2/g.

You, Bo; Yang, Jun; Yong, Guo-ping; Liu, Shao-min; Xie, Wei; Su, Qing-de

2011-06-01

337

Amine-modified SBA12 mesoporous silica for carbon dioxide capture: Effect of amine basicity on sorption properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

SBA-12 mesoporous silica was modified by 3-aminopropyl (AP), 3-(methylamino)propyl (MAP) and 3-(phenylamino)propyl (PAP) ligands. The electronic effects in AP, MAP and PAP ligands resulted in different surface basicity of the modified silica materials. The materials were characterized by thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen adsorption\\/desorption and transmission electron microscopy. The CO2 sorption\\/desorption experiments performed at 25oC by gravimetric method showed that

V. Zelenak; D. Halamova; L. Gaberova; E. Bloch; P. Llewellyn

2008-01-01

338

Mesoporous and biocompatible surface active silica aerogel synthesis using choline formate ionic liquid.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the preparation and characterization of mesoporous and biocompatible transparent silica aerogel by the sol-gel polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate using ionic liquid. Choline cation based ionic liquid allows the silica framework to form in a non collapsing environment and controls the pore size of the gel. FT-IR spectra reveal the interaction of ionic liquid with surface -OH of the gel. DSC thermogram giving the evidence of confinement of ionic liquid within the silica matrix, which helps to avoid the shrinkage of the gel during the aging process. Nitrogen sorption measurements of gel prepared with ionic liquid exhibit a low surface area of 100.53 m2/g and high average pore size of 3.74 nm. MTT assay proves the biocompatibility and cell viability of the prepared gels. This new nanoporous silica material can be applied to immobilize biological molecules, which may retain their stability over a longer period. PMID:21565470

Meera, Kamal Mohamed Seeni; Sankar, Rajavelu Murali; Jaisankar, Sellamuthu N; Mandal, Asit Baran

2011-09-01

339

Simultaneous Detection of Cadmium, Copper, and Lead using A Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Carbamoylphosphonic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayer on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS)  

SciTech Connect

A new sensor was developed for simultaneous detection of cadmium (Cd2+), copper (Cu2+), and lead (Pb2+), based on the voltammetric response at a carbon paste electrode modified with carbamoylphosphonic acid (acetamide phosphonic acid) self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (Ac-Phos SAMMS). The adsorptive stripping voltammetry technique involves preconcentration of the metal ions onto Ac-Phos SAMMS under an open circuit, then electrolysis of the preconcentrated species, followed by a square wave potential sweep towards positive values. Factors affecting the preconcentration process were investigated. The voltammetric responses increased linearly with the preconcentration time from 1 to 30 minutes or with metal ion concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ppb. The responses also evolved in the same fashion as adsorption isotherm in the pH range of 2-6. The metal detection limits were 10 ppb after 2 minutes preconcentration and improved to 0.5 ppb after 20 minutes preconcentration.

Yantasee, Wassana (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Lin, Yuehe (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Fryxell, Glen E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Busche, Brad J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

2004-01-30

340

Direct carbonization of Al-based porous coordination polymer for synthesis of nanoporous carbon.  

PubMed

Nanoporous carbon (NPC) is prepared by direct carbonization of Al-based porous coordination polymers (Al-PCP). By applying the appropriate carbonization temperature, both high surface area and large pore volume are realized for the first time. Our NPC shows much higher porosity than other carbon materials (such as activated carbons and mesoporous carbons). This new type of carbon material exhibits superior sensing capabilities toward toxic aromatic substances. PMID:22280024

Hu, Ming; Reboul, Julien; Furukawa, Shuhei; Torad, Nagy L; Ji, Qingmin; Srinivasu, Pavuluri; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Kitagawa, Susumu; Yamauchi, Yusuke

2012-02-15

341

Activation of carboplatin by carbonate.  

PubMed

Carboplatin, [Pt(NH3)2(CBDCA-O,O')], 1, where CBDCA is cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate, is in wide clinical use for the treatment of ovarian, lung, and other types of cancer. Because carboplatin is relatively unreactive toward nucleophiles, an important question concerning the drug is the mechanism by which it is activated in vivo. Using [1H,15N] heteronuclear single quantum coherance spectroscopy (HSQC) NMR and 15N-labeled carboplatin, we show that carboplatin reacts with carbonate ion in carbonate buffer to produce ring-opened products, the nature of which depends on the pH of the medium. The assignment of HSQC NMR resonances was facilitated by studying the reaction of carboplatin in strong acid, which also produces a ring-opened product. The HSQC NMR spectra and UV-visible difference spectra show that reaction of carboplatin with carbonate at pH > 8.6 produces mainly cis-[Pt(NH3)2(CO3(-2))(CBDCA-O)]-2, 5, which contains the mono-dentate CBDCA ligand and mono-dentate carbonate. At pH 6.7, the primary product is the corresponding bicarbonato complex, which may be in equilibrium with its decarboxylated hydroxo analogue. The UV-visible absorption data indicate that the pKb for the protonation of 5 is approximately 8.6. Thus, the reaction of carboplatin with carbonate produces a mixture of ring-opened species that are anions at physiological pH. HSQC NMR studies on 15N-labeled carboplatin in RPMI culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum with and without added carbonate suggest that carbonate is the attacking nucleophile in culture media. However, because the rate of reaction of carbonate with carboplatin at physiological pH is small, NMR peaks for ring-opened carboplatin were not detected with HSQC NMR. The rate of disappearance of carboplatin in culture medium containing 9 x 10(8) Jurkat cells is essentially the same as that in carbonate buffer, indicating that the ring-opening reaction is not affected by the presence of cells. This work shows that carbonate at concentrations found in culture media, blood, and the cytosol readily displaces one arm of the CBDCA ligand of carboplatin to give a ring-opened product, which at physiological pH is a mixture of anions. These ring-opened species may be important in the uptake, antitumor properties, and toxicity of carboplatin. PMID:16411667

Di Pasqua, Anthony J; Goodisman, Jerry; Kerwood, Deborah J; Toms, Bonnie B; Dubowy, Ronald L; Dabrowiak, James C

2006-01-01

342

High performance activated carbon for benzene/toluene adsorption from industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

A coal-tar-derived mesophase was chemically activated to produce a high surface area (~3200 m(2)/g) carbon with a porosity made up of both micropores and mesopores. Its adsorption capacities were found to be among the highest ever reported in literature, reaching values of 860 mg/g and 1200 mg/g for the adsorption of benzene and toluene, respectively, and 1200 mg/g for the combined adsorption of benzene and toluene from an industrial wastewater. Such high values imply that the entire pore system, including the mesopore fraction, is involved in the adsorption process. The almost complete pore filling is thought to be due to the high relative concentrations of the tested solutions, resulting from the low saturation concentration values for benzene and toluene, which were obtained by fitting the adsorption data to the BET equation in liquid phase. The kinetics of adsorption in the batch experiments which were conducted in a syringe-like adsorption chamber was observed to proceed in accordance with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The combined presence of micropores and mesopores in the material is thought to be the key to the high kinetic performance, which was outstanding in a comparison with other porous materials reported in the literature. PMID:21782335

Asenjo, Natalia G; Alvarez, Patricia; Granda, Marcos; Blanco, Clara; Santamaría, Ricardo; Menéndez, Rosa

2011-09-15

343

Solvent-regenerated activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a University/Industry research project, sponsored by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and Fluids Design Corporation. The research project studied the solvent regeneration of activated carbon. Activate carbon was used to remove trace organics from aqueous streams, then regenerated by desorbing the adsorbates with organic solvents. The project included a survey of the potential applications in New York State industries, fundamental research on the adsorption/desorption phenomena, and design of a full-scale process. The economics of the full-scale process were evaluated and compared to alternate available technologies. The result of this work is a versatile process with attractive economics. A wide range of adsorbates and solvents were found to be acceptable for this process. The design methodologies are developed and the techniques for evaluating a new application are delineated. 13 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

McLaughlin, H. (Fluids Design Corp., Troy, NY (USA))

1988-07-01

344

Magnetic mesoporous materials for removal of environmental wastes  

SciTech Connect

We have synthesized two different magnetic mesoporous materials that can be easily separated from aqueous solutions by applying a magnetic field. Synthesized magnetic mesoporous materials, Mag-SBA-15 (magnetic ordered mesoporous silica) and Mag-OMC (magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon), have a high loading capacity of contaminants due to high surface area of the supports and high magnetic activity due to the embedded iron oxide particles. Application of surface-modified Mag-SBA-15 was investigated for the collection of mercury from water. The mercury adsorption using Mag-SBA-15 was rapid during the initial contact time and reached a steady-state condition, with an uptake of approximately 97% after 7 hours. Application of Mag-OMC for collection of organics from water, using fluorescein as an easily trackable model analyte, was explored. The fluorescein was absorbed into Mag-OMC within minutes and the fluorescent intensity of solution was completely disappeared after an hour. In another application, Mag-SBA-15 was used as a host of tyrosinase, and employed as recyclable catalytic scaffolds for tyrosinase-catalyzed biodegradation of catechol. Tyrosinase aggregates in Mag-SBA-15, prepared in a two step process of tyrosinase adsorption and crosslinking, could be used repeatedly for catechol degradation with no serious loss of enzyme activity. Considering these results of cleaning up water from toxic inorganic, organic and biochemical contaminants, magnetic mesoporous materials have a great potential to be employed for the removal of environmental contaminants and potentially for the application in large-scale wastewater treatment plants.

Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Jinwoo; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Jaeyun; Joo, Jin; Lee, Jin Hyung; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Changha; Lee, Hongshin; Addleman, Raymond S.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

2011-09-15

345

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for the Analysis of Activated Carbon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technique of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to the characterization and the analysis of several activated carbons. These activated carbons included BPL carbon (a base carbon), ASC carbon (a BPL carbon impregnated with copper,...

L. E. Cameron S. H. Liang

1991-01-01

346

Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, activated sludge was used as a precursor to prepare activated carbon using sulfuric acid as a chemical activation agent. The effect of preparation conditions on the produced activated carbon characteristics as an adsorbent was investigated. The results indicate that the produced activated carbon has a highly porous structure and a specific surface area of 580 m 2

Z. Al-Qodah; R. Shawabkah

2009-01-01

347

Mesoporous titania thin films as efficient enzyme carriers for paraoxon determination/detoxification: effects of enzyme binding and pore hierarchy on the biocatalyst activity and reusability.  

PubMed

In this work we demonstrate the efficient immobilization of histidine 6-tagged organophosphate hydrolase (His6-OPH), an organophosphate-degrading enzyme, on mesoporous titania thin films. This permits the use of the biocatalyst films as efficient tools in the detection/detoxification of paraoxon. His6-OPH was immobilized on mesoporous thin films with uniform (9 nm) and bimodal (13-38 nm) pore size distribution, through covalent attachment and physical adsorption. The biocatalyst films show good activity, and enhanced stability with respect to the free enzyme at extreme conditions of pH and temperature, especially around neutral pH and room temperature. In addition, the bioactive films can be easily separated from the reaction media and reused multiple times without significant loss of activity. PMID:24791279

Fran?i?, N; Bellino, M G; Soler-Illia, G J A A; Lobnik, A

2014-06-21

348

A New Class of Highly Dispersed VOx Catalysts on Mesoporous Silica: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity in the Partial Oxidation of Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The morphology of vanadium oxide supported on a titania-modified mesoporous silica (MCM-41), obtained by means of a careful grafting process through atomic layer deposition, was studied using a variety of characterization techniques. The XRD together with TEM, 51V-NMR, Raman, FTIR and DRS-UV-Vis results showed that the vanadia species are extremely well dispersed onto the surface of the mesoporous support; the dispersion being stable upon thermal treatments up to 400 °C. Studies of the catalytic activity of these materials were performed using the partial oxidation of ethanol as a probe reaction. The results indicate an intrinsic relationship between dispersion, the presence of a TiO2-VOx phase, and catalytic activity for oxidation and dehydration.

Kwak, Ja Hun; Herrera, Jose E.; Hu, Jian Zhi; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

2006-01-26

349

Heat of Adsorption of Pure Sulfur Hexafluoride on Micro-Mesoporous Adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotherms and the isosteric heats of adsorption of pure SF6 were measured on two microporous zeolites (NaX and Silicalite), one mesoporous alumina, and two activated carbons (BPL and PCB) at 305 K. The adsorption isotherms were Type I by Brunauer classification. The PCB carbon adsorbed SF6 most strongly and the alumina adsorbed SF6 most weakly. The adsorption of SF6

D. V. Cao; S. Sircar

2001-01-01

350

Synthesis of mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolite from mesoporous silica materials for methanol to light olefins.  

PubMed

Mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolites were synthesized by using as-prepared mesoporous silica material as both silica source and mesopore tailor. The mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolite materials thus obtained are characterized by a series of different techniques, including poweder X-ray diffraction pattern, nitrogen physisorption analysis, scanning electron micrograph, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The resultant mesoporous SAPO-34 crystals exhibit sphere-like particle with zeolite layer units. The mesopore size distribution and particle size can be changed by amounts of silica source and water. The methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reactions using these mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolites are carried out with a fixed-bed reactor. Catalytic tests exhibit that the mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolite materials show high catalytic activity compared with the conventional SAPO-34 for MTO reaction. The better catalytic activity and longer life time of the mesoporous SAPO-34 catalysts in MTO are mainly due to the existence of the mesoporosity of SAPO-34 with small particle size. PMID:24245281

Kang, Eun A; Kim, Tae-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Min; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong

2013-11-01

351

Activated carbon fibre materials for VOC removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon material has been used for many years in air cleaning applications. Powder form activated carbon has been gradually replaced by activate carbon fibre, which allows much smaller pores - specific area of such material may reach up to 2000 m2\\/g. An experimental dynamic volatile organic compound (VOC) generation system has been developed in order to test new types

P Navarri; D Marchal; A Ginestet

2001-01-01

352

A facile method for synthesis of N-doped ZnO mesoporous nanospheres and enhanced photocatalytic activity.  

PubMed

A facile synthesis route is reported for preparation of N-doped mesoporous ZnO nanospheres by a solvothermal treatment of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O which provides a source of both zinc and nitrogen. A variety of different spectroscopic and analytical techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of catalysts. The photocatalytic activities of the composites were evaluated by the degree of degradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solutions at room temperature with near-UV light irradiation. These nanocomposites exhibit higher photocatalytic activity compared with pure ZnO nanoparticles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of N-doped ZnO nanoparticles is mainly attributed to their absorption of more photons and reduced electron-hole pair recombination. Our one-step, environmentally friendly synthetic method may provide a new means of designing and synthesizing series of N-doped metal oxide semiconductors for use in photo-assisted catalytic reactions. PMID:24068002

Zhang, DongEn; Gong, JunYan; Ma, JuanJuan; Han, GuiQuan; Tong, ZhiWei

2013-12-21

353

Ultrahigh-efficiency photocatalysts based on mesoporous Pt-WO3 nanohybrids.  

PubMed

A reliable nanocasting method has been developed to synthesize mesoporous hybrids of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles decorating tungsten trioxide (WO3). The process began with modification of the SBA-15 template with carbon polymers and Pt nanoparticles accompanied by adsorption of W(6+), which was then converted into m-Pt-WO3 composites by heat treatment and subsequent template removal. The synthetic strategy can be easily extended to prepare other mesoporous nanohybrids with metal oxide loaded precious metal composites. Comprehensive characterizations suggest that the as-developed m-Pt-WO3 nanohybrid exhibits unique properties with mesoporous structure, excellent crystalline structure, and high surface area. When the photocatalytic properties of m-Pt-WO3 nanohybrids were systematically investigated, it was revealed that the m-Pt-WO3 nanohybrids showed great promise for degrading the organic dye under visible light irradiation, which shows an excellent photocatalytic activity that far exceeded those of pure phase mesoporous WO3 and commercial TiO2 (P25), and was 10-fold more active than that of the bulk Pt-WO3 catalyst. The as-developed synthetic route opens up a new avenue for designing mesoporous hybrid materials for various applications benefiting from the unique porous structure, high surface area, and synergistic effects among constituents. PMID:23549423

Wen, Zhenhai; Wu, Wei; Liu, Zhuang; Zhang, Hao; Li, Jinghong; Chen, Junhong

2013-05-14

354

Activated, coal-based carbon foam  

SciTech Connect

An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

Rogers, Darren Kenneth [Wheeling, WV; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw [Glen Dale, WV

2009-06-09

355

Adsorption over polyacrylonitrile based carbon monoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly porous activated carbon monoliths have been prepared from mesoporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) monolith as the carbon precursor. The mesoporous PAN monoliths are fabricated by a unique and facile template-free method which on carbonization gives N-doped activated carbon monoliths. The carbonization is achieved via two step thermal process which includes pretreatment in air leading to cyclization and subsequent aromatization of the PAN moieties followed by carbonization in a mixture of argon and carbon dioxide to give a layered carbon framework. Nitrogen sorption experiments carried over these carbon monoliths revealed high surface area (ca. 2500 m2g-1) for these materials with precise micropore size distribution. The activated carbons show extraordinarily high CO2 capture capacity and the uptake up to 3 bar has been found to be as high as 22.5 and 10.6 mmol/g at 273 K and 298 K, respectively.

Nandi, Mahasweta; Dutta, Arghya; Patra, Astam Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim; Uyama, Hiroshi

2013-02-01

356

Effect of surface phosphorus functionalities of activated carbons containing oxygen and nitrogen on electrochemical capacitance  

PubMed Central

Micro/mesoporous activated carbons containing oxygen and phosphorus heteroatoms were modified by incorporation of nitrogen using melamine and urea precursors. The surface chemistry was analyzed by the means of elemental analysis, XPS, and 31P MAS NMR. The results indicate that upon the incorporation of nitrogen at high temperatures not only new species involving carbon/nitrogen/oxygen are formed but also the phosphorous environment is significantly altered. Both urea and melamine precursors have similar effects on formation of P–N and P–C bonds. These compounds, although present in small but measurable quantities seem to affect the performance of carbons in electrochemical capacitors. With an increase in the heterogeneity of phosphorus containing species and with a decrease in the content pyrophosphates the capacitance increases and the retention ratio of the capacitor is improved.

Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Seredych, Mykola; Lu, Gao Qing; Kodiweera, N.K.A.C.; Stallworth, Phillip E.; Greenbaum, Steven; Bandosz, Teresa J.

2009-01-01

357

Carbon nanotube-loaded mesoporous LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C microspheres as high performance cathodes for lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C composites with different amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been successfully synthesized by introducing MWCNTs to LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4 microspheres during the spray drying process. The as-prepared mesoporous spherical products (5-20 ?m) are composed of primary nanoparticles (?100 nm) and open-mesopores distribute both on the surface and inside the microspheres. XRD patterns and HRTEM images indicate that the as-prepared LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C composites are well crystallized and no impurity phase is observed. As MWCNTs can entangle with the primary particles to form an interconnected conducting network, which can facilitate the electron transference, their existence can greatly enhance the conductivity between particles. Therefore, they can obviously increase the rate capability especially working at high current densities. Among the LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C micro-spherical samples, the composite with 2% MWCNTs loading shows the best electrochemical performance, delivering a capacity of 163.3 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, which is almost 96% of the theoretical capacity (?170 mAh g-1). When discharged at 50 C, the composite still exhibits obviously higher capacity (64.23 mAh g-1) than the LiFe0.6Mn0.4PO4/C without MWCNTs (12.8 mAh g-1). Moreover, the MWCNTs embedded composite shows high cycle stability with no apparent capacity fading or voltage decay after 500 cycles at 45 °C.

Mi, Yingying; Gao, Ping; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Weidong; Zhou, Henghui

2014-12-01

358

Activated carbon adsorption of humic substances  

SciTech Connect

Activated carbon pore-size distribution is an important parameter relative to the carbon's capacity for adsorbing humic substances. The effect of coagulation on adsorption should also be examined wherever granular activated carbon is to be used following coagulation. Experimental investigations using a commercial humic acid and a fulvic acid extracted from peat, and a number of commercial activated carbons, several of which were coal-based, are reported.

Lee, M.C.

1981-08-01

359

Adsorption of pharmaceuticals to microporous activated carbon treated with potassium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, and steam.  

PubMed

Adsorption of sulfapyridine, tetracycline, and tylosin to a commercial microporous activated carbon (AC) and its potassium hydroxide (KOH)-, CO-, and steam-treated counterparts (prepared by heating at 850°C) was studied to explore efficient adsorbents for the removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water. Phenol and nitrobenzene were included as additional adsorbates, and nonporous graphite was included as a model adsorbent. The activation treatments markedly increased the specific surface area and enlarged the pore sizes of the mesopores of AC (with the strongest effects shown on the KOH-treated AC). Adsorption of large-size tetracycline and tylosin was greatly enhanced, especially for the KOH-treated AC (more than one order of magnitude), probably due to the alleviated size-exclusion effect. However, the treatments had little effect on adsorption of low-size phenol and nitrobenzene due to the predominance of micropore-filling effect in adsorption and the nearly unaffected content of small micropores causative to such effect. These hypothesized mechanisms on pore-size dependent adsorption were further tested by comparing surface area-normalized adsorption data and adsorbent pore size distributions with and without the presence of adsorbed antibiotics. The findings indicate that efficient adsorption of bulky pharmaceuticals to AC can be achieved by enlarging the adsorbent pore size through suitable activation treatments. PMID:22031572

Fu, Heyun; Yang, Liuyan; Wan, Yuqiu; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

2011-01-01

360

Preparation of a carbon-based solid acid catalyst by sulfonating activated carbon in a chemical reduction process.  

PubMed

Sulfonated (SO(3)H-bearing) activated carbon (AC-SO(3)H) was synthesized by an aryl diazonium salt reduction process. The obtained material had a SO(3)H density of 0.64 mmol·g-1 and a specific surface area of 602 m2·g-1. The catalytic properties of AC-SO(3)H were compared with that of two commercial solid acid catalysts, Nafion NR50 and Amberlyst-15. In a 10-h esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol, the acid conversion with AC-SO(3)H (78%) was lower than that of Amberlyst-15 (86%), which could be attributed to the fact that the SO(3)H density of the sulfonated carbon was lower than that of Amberlyst-15 (4.60 mmol·g-1). However, AC-SO(3)H exhibited comparable and even much higher catalytic activities than the commercial catalysts in the esterification of aliphatic acids with longer carbon chains such as hexanoic acid and decanoic acid, which may be due to the large specific surface area and mesoporous structures of the activated carbon. The disadvantage of AC-SO(3)H is the leaching of SO(3)H group during the reactions. PMID:20956883

Liu, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Miao; Ma, Hai-Long; Zhang, Zeng-Qiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhu, Yu-Lei; Han, Xiao-Jin; Guo, Xiang-Yun

2010-01-01

361

Carbon-decorated Li?Ti?O??/rutile TiO? mesoporous microspheres with nanostructures as high-performance anode materials in lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Li4Ti5O12/rutile TiO2 (LTO-RT) composites with Li/Ti molar ratios of 3:5, 4:5 and 4.5:5 have been successfully synthesized with TiO2 microspheres as a precursor. Furthermore, C-coated LTO-RT mesoporous microspheres with a molar ratio of 4:5 (C/4-5-LTO-RT) have been prepared based on the LTO-RT composite through a hydrothermal method and high temperature calcination. After various characterizations, it is found that carbon plays a pivotal role in retaining the porous nanostructure of the original as-prepared TiO2 precursor in the overall process. Substantially, C/4-5-LTO-RT still shows a high specific surface area of 63.70 m(2) g(-1) even after high temperature treatment at 800 °C. Since the porous nanostructure offers open and direct channels for the diffusion of Li ions and electrons and carbon decoration also efficiently improves the electrical conductivity, the sample of C/4-5-LTO-RT shows an enhanced electrochemical performance. In addition, the presence of nanosized rutile TiO2 in C/4-5-LTO-RT has an important contribution to the high electrochemical performance, as does the fast lithium ion diffusion along the [001] direction. PMID:24722166

Gao, Lin; Liu, Rujun; Hu, Hao; Li, Guojian; Yu, Ying

2014-05-01

362

Regional Reactivation of Granular Activated Carbon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major portion of the cost of using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a water treatment unit process is associated with spent carbon replacement or reactivation. Regional reactivation or sharing a reactivation furnace among several users, has been propo...

J. Q. Adams R. M. Clark B. W. Lykins D. Kittredge

1986-01-01

363

Active targeting of mesoporous silica drug carriers enhances ?-secretase inhibitor efficacy in an in vivo model for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Aim: In this article, we use an alternative cancer model for the evaluation of nanotherapy, and assess the impact of surface functionalization and active targeting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) on therapeutic efficacy in vivo. Materials & methods: We used the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft assay to investigate the biodistribution and therapeutic efficacy of folate versus polyethyleneimine-functionalized ?-secretase inhibitor-loaded MSNPs in breast and prostate tumor models. Results: ?-secretase inhibitor-loaded MSNPs inhibited tumor growth in breast and prostate cancer xenografts. Folate conjugation improved the therapeutic outcome in folic acid receptor-positive breast cancer, but not in prostate cancer lacking the receptor. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that therapeutic efficacy is linked to cellular uptake of MSNPs as opposed to tumor accumulation, and show that MSNP-based delivery of ?-secretase inhibitors is therapeutically effective in both breast and prostate cancer. In this article, we present a model system for a medium-to-high throughput, cost-effective, quantitative evaluation of nanoparticulate drug carriers. Original submitted 12 November 2012; Revised submitted 8 February 2013. PMID:23898823

Wittig, Rainer; Rosenholm, Jessica M; von Haartman, Eva; Hemming, Jarl; Genze, Felicitas; Bergman, Lotta; Simmet, Thomas; Lindén, Mika; Sahlgren, Cecilia

2014-05-01

364

Production of activated carbons from almond shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of activated carbons from almond shell, using physical activation by CO2 is reported in this work. The used method has produced activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas and micropore volume as high as 1138m2g?1 and 0.49cm3g?1, respectively. The activated carbons produced have essentially primary micropores and only a small volume of wider micropores. By FTIR analysis it

João M. Valente Nabais; Carlos Eduardo C. Laginhas; P. J. M. Carrott; M. M. L. Ribeiro Carrott

2011-01-01

365

Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of co-doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} on Brij98/CTAB composite surfactant template  

SciTech Connect

Using composite surfactant templates, polyoxyethylene (20) oleyl ether (Brij98) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), as structure-directing agents, N and La co-doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} complex photocatalysts were synthesized successfully. The micromorphology of co-doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurements. The results indicated that the complex photocatalyst prepared with a molar ratio of Brij98:CTAB=1:1 showed a uniform pore size of ca. 7 nm and a high specific surface area (S{sub BET}) of 279.0 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for degradation of papermaking wastewater under ultra-violet light irradiation. The chemical oxygen demand (CODc{sub r}) percent degradation was about 73% in 12 h and chroma percent degradation was 100% in 8 h. - Graphical abstract: CODc{sub r} percent degradation of papermaking wastewater is about 73% after 12 h over the co-doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} prepared with a molar ratio of Brij98:CTAB=1:1.

Zhang Xiaotong [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, and Key Laboratory for Fine Chemicals of Shandong Province, Jinan, 250353 Shandong (China); Zhou Guowei, E-mail: guoweizhou@hotmail.co [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, and Key Laboratory for Fine Chemicals of Shandong Province, Jinan, 250353 Shandong (China); Xu Jing; Bai Guangwei; Wang Lei [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, and Key Laboratory for Fine Chemicals of Shandong Province, Jinan, 250353 Shandong (China)

2010-06-15

366

Improving the visible light photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 via the synergetic effects of B doping and Ag loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B-doped together with Ag-loaded mesoporous TiO2 (Ag/B-TiO2) was prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method in the presence of boric acid, triblock copolymer surfactant, and silver nitrate, followed by heat treatment. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. It was revealed that all samples consist of highly crystalline anatase with mesoporous structure. For Ag/B-TiO2, B was doped into TiO2 matrix in the form of both interstitial B and substitutional B while Ag was deposited on the surface of B-TiO2 in the form of metallic silver. Compared with the single B-doped or Ag-loaded TiO2 one, mesoporous Ag/B-TiO2 exhibits much higher visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine 6G, which can be ascribed to the synergistic effects of B doping and Ag loading by narrowing the band gap of the photocatalyst and preventing the fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, respectively.

Tian, Baozhu; Shao, Zhimang; Ma, Yunfei; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Feng

2011-11-01

367

Excellent photocatalytic degradation activities of ordered mesoporous anatase TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposites to various organic contaminants.  

PubMed

Ordered 2-D hexagonal mesoporous TiO(2)-SiO(2) nanocomposites consisted of anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals and amorphous SiO(2) nanoparticles, with large mesochannels and high specific surface areas, have been extensively and detailedly evaluated using various cationic dyes (methylene blue, safranin O, crystal violet, brilliant green, basic fuchsin and rhodamine-6G), anionic dyes (acid fuchsin, orange II, reactive brilliant red X3B and acid red 1) and microcystin-LR. We use mesoporous 80TiO(2)-20SiO(2)-900 for the degradation of cationic dyes and MC-LR, due to the dominant adsorption of SiOH groups and synergistic role of coupled adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation. For anionic dyes, due to the adsorption results predominantly from TiOH groups, our strategy realizes the enhanced photocatalytic oxidation by strong surface acids and larger available specific surface area. Based on this, we prepared 90TiO(2)-10SiO(2)-700 to degrade them. The results show that our samples exhibit excellent degradation activities to all the contaminants, which are much higher than that of P25 photocatalyst. The dyes are not only decolorized promptly but degraded readily as well. It is strongly indicated that our mesoporous nanocomposites are considerably stable and reusable. These results demonstrate that our mesoporous TiO(2)-SiO(2) nanocomposites present extensive and promising application in the fast and highly efficient degradation of various organic pollutants. PMID:22749122

Dong, Weiyang; Sun, Yaojun; Ma, Qingwei; Zhu, Li; Hua, Weiming; Lu, Xinchun; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhang, Shicheng; Guo, Zhigang; Zhao, Dongyuan

2012-08-30

368

Phenobarbital interactions with derivatized activated carbon surfaces.  

PubMed

The interactions between phenobarbital and activated carbon surfaces were studied in detail in this work. This was accomplished by utilizing different reagents to manipulate the surface polar functional group compositions of different activated carbons, and determining how those modifications changed phenobarbital adsorption. Oxidation of an activated carbon surface caused a systematic decrease in the basal carbon surface, resulting in a concurrent systematic decrease in the non-specific adsorption of phenobarbital. Even more interesting, it was shown for the first time that chemical reduction of some of the carbonyl-containing functional groups on the activated carbon surface caused a significant increase in the specific adsorption of phenobarbital without any significant effect on the non-specific adsorption. These results support the notion that the OH groups on activated carbon surfaces are the specific adsorption sites for phenobarbital from aqueous solutions, and that the basal carbon surface is the region where non-specific adsorption takes place. PMID:16150453

Aburub, Aktham; Wurster, Dale Eric

2006-04-01

369

Textural mesoporosity and the catalytic activity of mesoporous molecular sieves with wormhole framework structures  

SciTech Connect

Three different water-alcohol cosolvent systems were used to assemble mesoporous molecular sieve silicas with wormhole framework structures (previously denoted HMS silicas) from an electrically neutral amine surfactant (S{degree}) and a silicon alkoxide precursor (I{degree}). The fundamental particle size and associated textural (interparticle) porosity of the disordered structures were correlated with the solubility of the surfactant in the water-alcohol cosolvents used for the S{degree}I{degree} assembly process. Polar cosolvents containing relatively low volume fractions of C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}OH alcohols (n = 1--3) gave heterogeneous surfactant emulsions that assembled intergrown aggregates of small primary particles with high textural pore volumes (designated HMS-HTx). Conversely, three-dimensional, monolithic particles with little or no textural porosity (designated HMS-LTx) were formed from homogeneous surfactant solutions in lower polarity cosolvents. Aluminum substituted AL-HMS-HTx analogues with high textural porosity and improved framework accessibility also were shown to be much more efficient catalysts than AL-HMS-LTx or monolithic forms of hexagonal AL-MCM-41 for the sterically demanding condensed phase alkylation of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol with cinnamyl alcohol. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies verified the textural differences between wormhole HMS and electrostatically assembled hexagonal MCM-41 and SBA-3 molecular sieves. Power law fits to the scattering data indicated a surface fractal (D{sub s} = 2.76) for HMS-HTx, consistent with rough surfaces. A second power law at lower-q indicated the formation of a mass fractal (D{sub m} = 1.83) consistent with branching of small fundamental particles. Hexagonal MCM-41 and SBA-3 silicas, on the other hand, exhibited scattering properties consistent with moderately rough surfaces (D{sub s} = 2.35 and 2.22, respectively) and large particle diameters ({much{underscore}gt}1 {micro} m). HMS-LTx silicas showed little or no mass fractal character (D{sub m} = 2.87), and no surface fractal scattering.

Pauly, T.R.; Liu, Y.; Pinnavaia, T.J.; Billinge, S.J.L.; Rieker, T.P.

1999-09-29

370

Nanostructural activated carbons for hydrogen storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of nanostructured activated carbons have been synthesized from poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), and its derivatives. These carbons, with surface area exceeding 3000 m2/g and with average pore diameters of ? 20 A, are proven to be superior hydrogen storage materials, with hydrogen storage capacities up to 5.5 wt% at 77 K and 45 atm. The porous texture of these carbons was controlled via optimizing three synthetic steps: thermo-oxidation of PEEK in air, pyrolysis or carbonization of the oxidized PEEK in an inert atmosphere, and activation of the pre-carbonized PEEK with metal hydroxide. Thermo-oxidation of PEEK and carbonization process were thoroughly studied. These processes have been investigated by MDSC, FTIR, TGA and Py-MS. The pyrolysis or carbonization of PEEK involves the degradation of PEEK chains in three stages. Carbon morphology, including crystallinity and porous texture, is readily controlled by adjusting carbonization temperature. Activation of PEEK carbons, using inorganic bases and other activation agents, produces microporous carbons having a very narrow pore size distribution and an average pore diameter of ? 20 A. The activation control parameters including activation agent, activation temperature, time and carbon morphology have been investigated extensively. High surface area activated carbon is obtained by activating a highly amorphous carbon with a high activation agent/carbon ratio at 800°C. Theoretical calculations show that the pores with smaller diameter, especially smaller than 7 A, favor hydrogen adsorption. The experimental results confirm this fact and show that: (1) the hydrogen adsorption capacity per unit surface area at 77 K and 1 bar is larger in the smaller pores, (2) gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (W(H2)) is directly proportional to the ultramicropore (< 7 A) volume; and (3) the volumetric hydrogen storage capacity is directly proportional to the volume fraction of ultramicropores in carbon. Hydrogen adsorption in activated carbons synthesized from PEEK and poly(ether imide) blends, poly(phenylene oxide), polybenzimidazole and lignin show similar trends. In addition, W( H2) progressively increases as surface area increases for the carbons with similar average pore diameters. Keywords. carbon, activated carbon, poly(ether ether ketone), poly(ether imide), poly(phenylene oxide), polybenzimidazole, lignin, gas adsorption, hydrogen storage

Li, Suoding

371

A green and high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on ultrathin MnO2 nanostructures and functional mesoporous carbon nanotube electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A green asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy density has been developed using birnessite-type ultrathin porous MnO2 nanoflowers (UBMNFs) as positive electrode and functional mesoporous carbon nanotubes (FMCNTs) as negative electrode in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. Both of the electrode materials possess excellent electrochemical performances, with high surface areas and narrow pore size distributions. More significantly, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor with optimal mass ratio can be cycled reversibly in the high-potential range of 0-2.0 V and exhibits an excellent energy density as high as 47.4 W h kg-1, which is much higher than those of symmetric supercapacitors based on UBMNFs//UBMNFs and FMCNTs//FMCNTs supercapacitors. Furthermore, our asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device also exhibits a superior cycling stability with 90% retention of the initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles and stable Coulombic efficiency of ~98%. These intriguing results exhibit great potential in developing high energy density ``green supercapacitors'' for practical applications.A green asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy density has been developed using birnessite-type ultrathin porous MnO2 nanoflowers (UBMNFs) as positive electrode and functional mesoporous carbon nanotubes (FMCNTs) as negative electrode in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. Both of the electrode materials possess excellent electrochemical performances, with high surface areas and narrow pore size distributions. More significantly, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor with optimal mass ratio can be cycled reversibly in the high-potential range of 0-2.0 V and exhibits an excellent energy density as high as 47.4 W h kg-1, which is much higher than those of symmetric supercapacitors based on UBMNFs//UBMNFs and FMCNTs//FMCNTs supercapacitors. Furthermore, our asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device also exhibits a superior cycling stability with 90% retention of the initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles and stable Coulombic efficiency of ~98%. These intriguing results exhibit great potential in developing high energy density ``green supercapacitors'' for practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms, SEM image, TG and EDS curves of MnO2, EDS spectrum of FMCNTs. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11542a

Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong; Sun, Ting; Ma, Jan

2012-01-01

372

A facile soft-template synthesis of mesoporous polymeric and carbonaceous nanospheres.  

PubMed

Owing to the weak self-assembly ability of precursor components and the serious crosslinking of neighbouring nanospheres during a hydrothermal process, the synthesis of monodisperse mesoporous polymer nanospheres with diameters below 500 nm remains a great challenge. Here we extend the synthesis method of mesoporous silica nanospheres to enable the preparation of ordered mesoporous resorcinol formaldehyde nanospheres with particle size from 80 to 400 nm and mesopores of ~3.5 nm in diameter. By finely tuning the synthesis parameters, multi-layered mesoporous resorcinol formaldehyde hollow nanospheres can be successfully synthesized. Mesoporous carbon nanospheres and hollow nanospheres with high surface area are further obtained through carbonization of the polymer spheres. The resulting mesoporous carbon nanospheres are demonstrated as the host cathode material for lithium-sulphur batteries. The synthesis strategy provides a benchmark for fabricating well-defined porous carbonaceous nanospheres with potential for energy storage and conversion applications. PMID:24343125

Liu, Jian; Yang, Tianyu; Wang, Da-Wei; Lu, Gao Qing Max; Zhao, Dongyuan; Qiao, Shi Zhang

2013-01-01

373

Silver nanoparticle-mesoporous oxide nanocomposite thin films: a platform for spatially homogeneous SERS-active substrates with enhanced stability.  

PubMed

We introduce a nanoparticle-mesoporous oxide thin film composite (NP-MOTF) as low-cost and straightforward sensing platforms for surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Titania, zirconia, and silica mesoporous matrices templated with Pluronics F-127 were synthesized via evaporation-induced self-assembly and loaded with homogeneously dispersed Ag nanoparticles by soft reduction or photoreduction. Both methods give rise to uniform and reproducible Raman signals using 4-mercaptopyridine as a probe molecule. Details on stability and reproducibility of the Raman enhancement are discussed. Extensions in the design of these composite structures were explored including detection of nonthiolated molecules, such as rhodamine 6-G or salicylic acid, patterning techniques for locating the enhancement regions and bilayered mesoporous structures to provide additional control on the environment, and potential size-selective filtration. These inorganic oxide-metal composites stand as extremely simple, reproducible, and versatile platforms for Raman spectroscopy analysis. PMID:24621107

Wolosiuk, Alejandro; Tognalli, Nicolás G; Martínez, Eduardo D; Granada, Mara; Fuertes, M Cecilia; Troiani, Horacio; Bilmes, Sara A; Fainstein, Alejandro; Soler-Illia, Galo J A A

2014-04-01

374

Powdered activated carbons as effective phases for bar adsorptive micro-extraction (BA?E) to monitor levels of triazinic herbicides in environmental water matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bar adsorptive micro-extraction using three powdered activated carbons (ACs) as adsorbent phases followed by liquid desorption and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (BA?E(ACs)-LD\\/HPLC-DAD), was developed to monitor triazinic herbicides (atrazine, simazine and terbutylazine) in environmental water matrices. ACs used present apparent surface areas around 1000m2g?1 with an important mesoporous volume and distinct surface chemistry characteristics (pHPZC ranging

N. R. Neng; A. S. Mestre; A. P. Carvalho; J. M. F. Nogueira

2011-01-01

375

Studies and characterisations of various activated carbons used for carbon/carbon supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various activated carbons from the PICA Company have been tested in supercapacitor cells in order to compare their performances. The differences measured in terms of specific capacitance and cell resistance are presented. Porosity measurements made on activated carbon powders and electrode allowed a better understanding of the electrochemical behaviour of these activated carbons. In this way, the PICACTIF SC carbon was found to be an interesting active material for supercapacitors, with a specific capacitance as high as 125 F/g.

Gamby, J.; Taberna, P. L.; Simon, P.; Fauvarque, J. F.; Chesneau, M.

376

Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of co-doped mesoporous TiO2 on Brij98\\/CTAB composite surfactant template  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using composite surfactant templates, polyoxyethylene (20) oleyl ether (Brij98) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), as structure-directing agents, N and La co-doped mesoporous TiO2 complex photocatalysts were synthesized successfully. The micromorphology of co-doped mesoporous TiO2 samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The

Xiaotong Zhang; Guowei Zhou; Jing Xu; Guangwei Bai; Lei Wang

2010-01-01

377

Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of co-doped mesoporous TiO 2 on Brij98\\/CTAB composite surfactant template  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using composite surfactant templates, polyoxyethylene (20) oleyl ether (Brij98) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), as structure-directing agents, N and La co-doped mesoporous TiO2 complex photocatalysts were synthesized successfully. The micromorphology of co-doped mesoporous TiO2 samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and N2 adsorption–desorption measurements. The

Xiaotong Zhang; Guowei Zhou; Jing Xu; Guangwei Bai; Lei Wang

2010-01-01

378

Activated carbon mitigates mercury and methylmercury bioavailability in contaminated sediments.  

PubMed

There are few available in situ remediation options for Hg contaminated sediments, short of capping. Here we present the first tests of activated carbon and other sorbents as potential in situ amendments for remediation of mercury and methylmercury (MeHg), using a study design that combined 2 L sediment/water microcosms with 14 day bioaccumulation assays. Our key end points were pore water concentrations, and bioaccumulation of total Hg and MeHg by a deposit-feeding oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Four amendments were tested: an activated carbon (AC); CETCO Organoclay MRM (MRM); Thiol-SAMMS (TS), a thiol-functionalized mesoporous silica; and AMBERSEP GT74, an ion-exchange resin. Amendments were tested in four separate microcosm assays using Hg-contaminated sediments from two freshwater and two estuarine sites. AC and TS amendments, added at 2-7% of the dry weight of sediments significantly reduced both MeHg concentrations in pore waters, relative to unamended controls (by 45-95%) and bioaccumulation of MeHg by Lumbriculus (by between 30 and 90%). Both amendments had only small impacts on microcosm surface water, sediment and pore water chemistry, with the exception of significant reductions in pore water dissolved organic matter. The effectiveness of amendments in reducing bioaccumulation was well-correlated with their effectiveness in increasing sediment:water partitioning, especially of MeHg. Sediments with low native sediment:water MeHg partition coefficients were most effectively treated. Thus, in situ sediment sorbent amendments may be able to reduce the risk of biotic Hg and MeHg uptake in contaminated sediments, and subsequent contamination of food webs. PMID:24156748

Gilmour, Cynthia C; Riedel, Georgia S; Riedel, Gerhardt; Kwon, Seokjoon; Landis, Richard; Brown, Steven S; Menzie, Charles A; Ghosh, Upal

2013-11-19

379

Effects of pore structure on the high-performance capacitive deionization using chemically activated carbon nanofibers.  

PubMed

Capacitive deionization (CDI) electrodes were constructed from activated carbon fibers prepared using electrospinning and chemical activation. The CDI efficiencies of these electrodes were studied as a function of their specific surface areas, pore volumes and pore sizes via salt ion adsorption. The specific surface areas increased approximately 90 fold and the pore volume also increased approximately 26 fold with the use of greater amounts of the chemical activation agent. There was a relative increase in the mesopore fraction with higher porosity. A NaCI solution was passed through a prepared CDI system, and the salt removal efficiency of the CDI system was determined by the separation of the Na+ and Cl- ions toward the anode and cathode. The CDI efficiency increased with greater specific surface areas and pore volumes. In addition, the efficiency per unit pore volume increased with a reduction in the micropore fraction, resulting in the suppressed overlapping effect. In conclusion, the obtained improvements in CDI efficiency were mainly attributed to mesopores, but the micropores also played an important role in the high-performance CDI under conditions of high applied potential and high ion concentrations. PMID:24745222

Im, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Gu; Lee, Young-Seak

2014-03-01

380

Multi-electron redox reaction of an organic radical cathode induced by a mesopore carbon network with nitroxide polymers.  

PubMed

An organic radical based composite cathode comprised of poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate) (PTMA)-Ketjenblack was developed by a simple solvent-less electrode fabrication method. The composite cathode demonstrated a two-electron redox reaction of PTMA that is from an aminoxy anion (n-type) via a radical to an oxoammonium cation (p-type) with the corresponding redox potential at 2.8-3.1 V and 3.5-3.7 V vs. Li/Li(+) when evaluated in lithium half cells. Moreover, the PTMA-Ketjenblack composite electrode exhibits fast electrode reaction kinetics and an enhanced solid electrolyte interface by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. These improved electrochemical properties contribute to increased capacity (300 mA h g(-1)), a high rate (50% capacity retention after 100 C rate excursions) and a long cycle life in the cell performance evaluations. Morphological and compositional characterization indicates a unique mesopore network of Ketjenblack with the PTMA matrix, which highly facilitates the interaction between the conductive media and the radical species, resulting in the performance enhancement of the PTMA-Ketjenblack composite cathode. PMID:24202318

Huang, Qian; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Lemmon, John P

2013-12-28

381

Preparation of diamine modified mesoporous silica on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the adsorption of heavy metals in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective adsorbent of diamine functionalized mesoporous silica on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NN-mSiO2@MWCNTs) has been prepared to remove heavy metals in aqueous solution. Structural characterization was conducted by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption measurement and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which confirmed the successful grafting of organic moiety on mSiO2@MWCNTs. Metals removal from aqueous solution was examined for Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). In addition, Cu(II) adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view. Adsorption kinetics could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and exhibited 3-stage intraparticle diffusion mode. Adsorption isotherms fitted well with Langmuir model, exhibiting high adsorption capacity at low concentration. The thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption of Cu(II) onto NN-mSiO2@MWCNTs was endothermic and spontaneous. The prepared adsorbent is expected to be a new material for the removal and recovery of heavy metals from contaminated water.

Yang, Weijie; Ding, Ping; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Jingang; Chen, Xiaoqing; Jiao, Feipeng

2013-10-01

382

A green and high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on ultrathin MnO2 nanostructures and functional mesoporous carbon nanotube electrodes.  

PubMed

A green asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy density has been developed using birnessite-type ultrathin porous MnO(2) nanoflowers (UBMNFs) as positive electrode and functional mesoporous carbon nanotubes (FMCNTs) as negative electrode in 1 M Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte. Both of the electrode materials possess excellent electrochemical performances, with high surface areas and narrow pore size distributions. More significantly, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor with optimal mass ratio can be cycled reversibly in the high-potential range of 0-2.0 V and exhibits an excellent energy density as high as 47.4 W h kg(-1), which is much higher than those of symmetric supercapacitors based on UBMNFs//UBMNFs and FMCNTs//FMCNTs supercapacitors. Furthermore, our asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device also exhibits a superior cycling stability with 90% retention of the initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles and stable Coulombic efficiency of ~98%. These intriguing results exhibit great potential in developing high energy density "green supercapacitors" for practical applications. PMID:22159343

Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong; Sun, Ting; Ma, Jan

2012-02-01

383

One-step fabrication of integrated disposable biosensor based on ADH/NAD+/meldola's blue/graphitized mesoporous carbons/chitosan nanobiocomposite for ethanol detection.  

PubMed

A novel strategy to simplify the dehydrogenase-based electrochemical biosensor fabrication through one-step drop-coating nanobiocomposite on a screen printed electrode (SPE) was developed. The nanobiocomposite was prepared by successively adding graphitized mesoporous carbons (GMCs), meldola's blue (MDB), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) in chitosan (CS) solution. MDB/GMCs/CS film was prepared. Cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrated that MDB was strongly adsorbed on GMCs. After optimizing the concentration of MDB and the working potential, the MDB/GMCs/CS film presented a fast amperometric response (5s), excellent sensitivity (10.36 nA ?M(-1)), wide linear range (10-410 ?M) toward NADH and without any other interference signals (such as AA, UA, DA, H2O2 and metal ions). Furthermore, concentrations of ADH and NAD(+) in nanobiocomposite and the detection conditions (temperature and pH) were also optimized. The constructed disposable ethanol biosensor showed an excellent linear response ranged from 0.5 to 15 mM with high sensitivity (67.28 nA mM(-1)) and a low limit of detection (80 ?M) and a remarkable long-term stability (40 days). The intra-batch and inter-batch variation coefficients were both less than 5% (n=5). The ethanol recovery test demonstrated that the proposed biosensor offered a remarkable and accurate method for ethanol detection in the real blood samples. PMID:23622540

Hua, Erhui; Wang, Li; Jing, Xiaoying; Chen, Changtao; Xie, Guoming

2013-07-15

384

Catalytic dehydrogenative coupling of methane on active carbon. Effect of metal supported on active carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethane, ethene, ethyne and hydrogen are obtained in good yields via dehydrogenative coupling of methane in the presence of active carbon as a catalyst. The product yield is increased by supporting metal on active carbon.

H. Yagita; A. Ogata; A. Obuchi; K. Mizuno; T. Maeda; K. Fujimoto

1996-01-01

385

Activated carbon catalyst for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulphide: on the influence of pore structure, surface characteristics, and catalytically-active nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) on various activated carbon materials was studied. The effects of pore structure, surface characteristics, and nitrogen content on the activity and selectivity of the carbons towards oxidation of H2S were investigated. It was found that a high volume of both micropores and small mesopores, in combination with a relatively narrow pore size distribution, were crucial for the retention of sulphur dioxide (SO2), a by-product of H2S oxidation. For the retention of carbonyl sulphide (COS), another H2S oxidation by-product, high surface reactivity with a significant amount of basic groups were found to be important. The only carbon with all these characteristics, and consequently the carbon that was able to retain both H2S and COS for an extended period of time, was an experimental product, 'WSC'. This carbon was found to be superior to the other carbons studied, exhibiting high activity and selectivity for oxidation of H2S to sulphur. H2S breakthrough capacities and selectivity values of the carbons were found to be dependent on the nitrogen content of the carbons. In a hydrogen stream, carbons possessing the highest nitrogen contents exhibited the greatest H2S breakthrough capacities but, at the same time, the lowest selectivity with respect to sulphur formation. In reformate streams, the maximum breakthrough capacity and greatest selectivity were exhibited by carbons with a nitrogen content of about 1-1.5 wt%.

Baskova, Svetlana [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Wu, Xianxian [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL

2007-01-01

386

Activated carbons prepared from phosphoric acid activation of grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of activated carbons from grain sorghum with phosphoric acid activation has been studied by means of two processes, i.e., one-stage and two-stage. The former comprises simultaneous carbonization and activation after impregnation; the latter, the carbonization of the precursor at 300 °C for 15 min, followed by the activation of the resultant char after impregnation with phosphoric acid. The

Yulu Diao; W. P Walawender; L. T Fan

2002-01-01

387

Microscopic and mesoscopic structural features of an activated carbon sample, prepared from sorghum via activation by phosphoric acid  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Preparation of a new activated carbon sample from sorghum. ? Characterization by adsorption/desorption methods. ? Determination of the structure by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. ? The sample is amorphous and contains distorted graphene fragments. ? A characteristic nanoscale distance is established from the radial distribution function. -- Abstract: An acidic chemical activation procedure has been used for preparing activated carbon with a surface area exceeding 1000 m{sup 2}/g from sorghum. In order to reveal structural features, synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed. The structure of the material has been characterized by the total scattering structure factor and the radial distribution function describing short-range arrangement of atoms at distances of the order of a few atomic diameters as well as correlations at a longer scale, of the order of nanometers. The atomic arrangement has been found to be consistent with that of amorphous graphite-like carbon. As far as the mesoscopic structure is concerned, the presence of a characteristic distance is suggested on the basis of the clear nanometer scale oscillations of the radial distribution function, which distance may be assigned as the mesopore size in the material. It is suggested that the approach devized here may later be applied routinely for other activated carbon samples, too, for characterizing atomic and nanoscale order simultaneously.

Temleitner, László [SPring-8, JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [SPring-8, JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Pusztai, László, E-mail: pusztai.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)] [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rubio-Arroyo, Manuel F.; Aguilar-López, Sergio [Instituto de Quimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)] [Instituto de Quimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Klimova, Tatiana [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edif. E, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)] [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edif. E, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Pizio, Orest [Instituto de Quimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)] [Instituto de Quimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

2012-12-15

388

Activated carbon for gas separation and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons offer a large spectrum of pore structures and surface chemistry for adsorption of gases, which are being used to design practical pressure swing and thermal swing adsorption processes for separation and purification of gas mixtures. The activated carbons are often preferred over the zeolitic adsorbents in a gas separation process because of their relatively moderate strengths of adsorption

S. Sircar; T. C. Golden; M. B. Rao

1996-01-01

389

ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from

Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

2000-01-01

390

Gallic acid water ozonation using activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ozonation of gallic acid in water in the presence of activated carbon has been studied at pH 5. Hydrogen peroxide, ketomalonic and oxalic acids were identified as by-products. The process involves two main periods of reaction. The first period, up to complete disappearance of gallic acid, during which ozonation rates are slightly improved by the presence of activated carbon.

Fernando J. Beltrán; Juan F. García-Araya; Inés Giráldez

2006-01-01

391

Oxygen reduction activity of carbon nitride supported on carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Fuel cells offer an alternative to burning fossil fuels, but use platinum as a catalyst which is expensive and scarce. Cheap, alternative catalysts could enable fuel cells to become serious contenders in the green energy sector. One promising class of catalyst for electrochemical oxygen reduction is iron-containing, nanostructured, nitrogen-doped carbon. The catalytic activity of such N-doped carbons has improved vastly over the years bringing industrial applications ever closer. Stoichiometric carbon nitride powder has only been observed in recent years. It has nitrogen content up to 57% and as such is an extremely interesting material to work with. The electrochemical activity of carbon nitride has already been explored, confirming that iron is not a necessary ingredient for 4-electron oxygen reduction. Here, we synthesize carbon nitride on a carbon nanotube support and subject it to high temperature treatment in an effort to increase the surface area and conductivity. The results lend insight into the mechanism of oxygen reduction and show the potential for carbon nanotube-supported carbon nitride to be used as a catalyst to replace platinum in fuel cells. PMID:22905547

Lyth, S M; Nabae, Y; Islam, N M; Kuroki, S; Kakimoto, M; Miyata, S

2012-06-01

392

Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb oxides of nitrogen.

Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

2006-01-01

393

Catalytic activity of Co/SiO2 and Co/TiO2 nanosized systems in the oxidation of carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the preparation procedure, active component concentration, and conditions of formation of nanosized cobalt-containing systems based on TiO2 and SiO2 mesoporous powders on their catalytic activity in the oxidation of carbon monoxide were studied. The active phase in the systems was cobalt spinel CoCo2O4 found in all samples. High catalytic activity was found in the samples characterized by relatively high contents of surface active centers (cobalt cations with octahedral surroundings).

Kelyp, A. A.; Smirnova, N. P.; Oleksenko, L. P.; Lutsenko, L. V.; Oranskaya, E. I.; Ripko, A. P.

2013-06-01

394

The effect of carbonization temperature of PAN fiber on the properties of activated carbon fiber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PAN (polyacrylonitrile) based carbon fiber composites were prepared from mixtures of chopped carbon fibers and phenolic resin. Two different carbon fibers were obtained by carbonization of stabilized PAN fiber precursors in nitrogen at 1073 and 1273 K, respectively. Samples of activated carbon fiber composites (ACFCs) were prepared from the carbon fiber composites by activation in carbon dioxide at 1123

J. C. Lee; B. H. Lee; B. G. Kim; M. J. Park; D. Y. Lee; I. H. Kuk; H. Chung; H. S. Kang; H. S. Lee; D. H. Ahn

1997-01-01

395

Catalytic pyrolysis of CHF 3 over activated carbon and activated carbon supported potassium catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic activity of activated carbon (AC) and activated carbon supported potassium for the decomposition of CHF3 was investigated at temperatures between 873 and 1173K and at a space velocity of 4300h?1. It is found that activated carbon supported potassium shows high and relatively stable activity during the pyrolysis of CHF3 under the conditions studied. Compared with the gas phase

Wenfeng Han; Eric M. Kennedy; Huazhang Liu; Ying Li; Adesoji A. Adesina; John C. Mackie; Bogdan Z. Dlugogorski

2010-01-01

396

The shape-stabilized phase change materials composed of polyethylene glycol and various mesoporous matrices (AC, SBA15 and MCM-41)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain stable phase change composites with a high PEG load and enthalpy, a series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) based phase change composites with different mesoporous materials (active carbon and silica molecular sieves) were prepared by a simple approach. Various characterization techniques were carried out to investigate the properties of the composites. It was observed that both the

Lili Feng; Wei Zhao; Jie Zheng; Sarah Frisco; Ping Song; Xingguo Li

2011-01-01

397

Intrinsic Relationship between Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Nanoscale Work Function of Doped Carbons.  

PubMed

Nanostructured carbon materials doped with a variety of heteroatoms have shown promising electrocatalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, understanding of the working principles that underpin the superior ORR activity observed with doped nanocarbons is still limited to predictions based on theoretical calculations. Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the enhanced ORR activity in doped nanocarbons can be correlated with the variation in their nanoscale work function. A series of doped ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) were prepared using N, S, and O as dopants; the triple-doped, N,S,O-OMC displayed superior ORR activity and four-electron selectivity compared to the dual-doped (N,O-OMC and S,O-OMC) and the monodoped (O-OMC) OMCs. Significantly, the work functions of these heteroatom-doped OMCs, measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy, display a strong correlation with the activity and reaction kinetics for the ORR. This unprecedented experimental insight can be used to provide an explanation for the enhanced ORR activity of heteroatom-doped carbon materials. PMID:24911055

Cheon, Jae Yeong; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Goddeti, Kalyan C; Park, Jeong Young; Joo, Sang Hoon

2014-06-25

398

Sorption of elemental mercury by activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of a study of the mechanisms and rate of elemental mercury (Hg) capture by activated carbons, using a bench-scale apparatus. Three types of activated carbons, two thermally activated (PC-100 and FGD) and one impregnated with elemental sulfur (S) (HGR), were used to study the effects of surface area (approximately 550-1000 sq m\\/g), sorption temperature (23-140 C),

S. V. Krishnan; Brian K. Gullett; Wojciech Jozewicz

1994-01-01