Sample records for mesoporous activated carbon

  1. Preparation of activated carbons with mesopores by use of organometallics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Yoshizawa, N.; Furuta, T.; Shiraishi, M. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Mesopore carbons were prepared by steam activation of pitch or coal with metal chelate complexes. Yttrium acetylacetonate dispersed in a coal tar pitch enhanced the mesopore ratio in the activated carbon obtained. When Mike, Taiheiyo or Morwell coal was used in the place of the pitch, titanium oxide acetylacetonate was effective for the formation of the mesopore carbons. The specific surface areas and mesopore ratios were evaluated by measuring the nitrogen adsorption isotherms. In addition, the crystal size and the distribution of metals on the carbon were observed by transmission electron microscope and the formation mechanism of mesopores was estimated from these results.

  2. Influence of mesopore volume and adsorbate size on adsorption capacities of activated carbons in aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-To Hsieh; Hsisheng Teng

    2000-01-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption of phenol, iodine and tannic acid onto commercial grade granular activated carbons and activated carbon fabric was conducted to explore the influence of the mesopore volume and the size of adsorbates on the adsorption capacity. These carbons have different mesopore volumes, while possessing similar surface areas and micropore volumes, which are believed to determine the adsorption capacity in

  3. Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Yunchao [ORNL] [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL] [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL] [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL] [ORNL; Grappe, Hippolyte A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)] [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  4. Preparation of activated mesoporous carbons for electrosorption of ions from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Lee, Jeseung [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous carbon with a narrow pore size distribution centered at about 9 nm, which was prepared by self assembly of block copolymer and phloroglucinol-formaldehyde resin via the soft-template method, was activated by CO{sub 2} and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The effects of activation conditions, such as the temperature, activation time, and mass ratio of KOH/C, on the textural properties of the resulting activated mesoporous carbons were investigated. Activated mesoporous carbons exhibit high BET specific surface areas (up to {approx} 2000 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) and large pore volumes (up to {approx} 1.6 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}), but still maintain a highly mesoporous structure. Heat treatment of mesoporous carbons by CO{sub 2} generally requires a moderate to high extent of activation in order to increase its BET surface area by 2-3 times, while KOH activation needs a much smaller degree of activation than the former to reach an identical surface area, ensuring high yields of activated mesoporous carbons. In addition, KOH activation allows a controllable degree of activation by adjusting the mass ratio of KOH/C (2-8), as evidenced by the fact that surface area and pore volume increase with the mass ratio of KOH/C. The electrosorption properties of activated mesoporous carbons were investigated by cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M NaCl aqueous solutions. Upon activation, the electrosorption capacitance of activated mesoporous carbons was greatly enhanced.

  5. Adsorption of lignite-derived humic acids on coal-based mesoporous activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Lorenc-Grabowska; Gra?yna Gryglewicz

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption by a coal-based mesoporous activated carbon of humic acids (HAs) isolated from two Polish lignites was studied. For comparison, a commercial Aldrich humic acid was also included into this study. The differences in chemical structure and functional groups of HAs were determined by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy DRIFT. Two activated carbons used differed in terms of mesopore

  6. A Novel Preparation of Magnetic Granular Activated Carbon with Developed Mesopores and Macropores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Jiang; Qiang Xie; Tingting Zhang; Xin Yao; Yan Liang; Wei Qian

    2011-01-01

    A novel preparation method of magnetic granular activated carbon with developed mesopores and macropores was proposed. Fe3O4 as bifunctional additive could not only promote ablation of carbon but also give activated carbon strong magnetism. Magnetic activated carbons with developed mesopores and macropores were prepared by steam from brown coal in the presence of different amounts of Fe3O4 in the raw

  7. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  8. Preparation and adsorption performances of mesopore-enriched bamboo activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuxin Wang; Congmin Liu; Yaping Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon with high specific surface area and considerable mesopores was prepared from bamboo scraps by phosphoric\\u000a acid activation. The effect of activation conditions was studied. Under the conditions of impregnating bamboo with 80% H3PO4 at 80°C for 9 days and activation at 500°C for 4 h, the prepared activated carbon had the highest mesopore volume of 0.67\\u000a cm3\\/g, a

  9. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  10. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  11. Superior electric double layer capacitors using ordered mesoporous carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Xing; S. Z. Qiao; R. G. Ding; F. Lid; G. Q. Lu; Z. F. Yan; H. M. Cheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time superior electric double layer capacitive properties of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMCs) with varying ordered pore symmetries and mesopore structure. Compared to commercially used activated carbon electrode, Maxsorb, these OMC carbons have superior capacitive behavior, power output and high-frequency performance in EDLCs due to the unique structure of their mesopore network, which is more

  12. Aggregation-free gold nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbons: toward highly active and stable heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Qingfei; Wei, Huimin; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Cho, Minhyung; Cho, Hae Sung; Terasaki, Osamu; Wan, Ying

    2013-08-14

    A coordination-assisted synthetic approach is reported here for the synthesis of highly active and stable gold nanoparticle catalysts in ordered mesoporous carbon materials using triblock copolymer F127 as a structure-directing agent, thiol-containing silane as a coordination agent, HAuCl4 as a gold source, and phenolic resin as a carbon source. Upon carbonization, the gold precursor becomes reduced to form monodispersed Au nanoparticles of ca. 9.0 nm, which are entrapped or confined by the "rigid" mesoporous carbonaceous framework. Nanoparticle aggregation is inhibited even at a high temperature of 600 °C. After removal of the silica component, the materials possess the ordered mesostructure, high surface area (~1800 m(2)/g), large pore volume (~1.19 cm(3)/g), and uniform bimodal mesopore size (<2.0 and 4.0 nm). The monodispersed gold nanoparticles are highly exposed because of the interpenetrated bimodal pores in the carbon framework, which exhibit excellent catalytic performance. A completely selective conversion of benzyl alcohol in water to benzoic acid can be achieved at 90 °C and 1 MPa oxygen. Benzyl alcohol can also be quantitatively converted to benzoic acid at 60 °C even under an atmospheric pressure, showing great advantages in green chemistry. The catalysts are stable, poison resistant, and reusable with little activity loss due to metal leaching. The silane coupling agent played several functions in this approach: (1) coordinating with gold species by the thiol group to benefit formation of monodispersed Au nanoparticles; (2) reacting with phenolic resins by silanol groups to form relatively "rigid" composite framework; (3) pore-forming agent to generate secondary pores in carbon pore walls, which lead to higher surface area, larger pore volumes, and higher accessibility to to the gold nanoparticles. Complete removal of the silica component proves to have little effect on the catalytic performance of entrapped Au nanoparticles. PMID:23865622

  13. Simple preparation and catalytic activity of Pd particles dispersed mesoporous carbons from poly(VDC/MA) containing Pd and Y compounds.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Hisashi; Ogawa, Junichi; Yasuda, Hajime

    2003-04-15

    We report a simple preparation of Pd particles dispersed mesoporous carbons. The carbons were prepared by steam activation of carbonized vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymer (poly(VDC/MA)) containing yttrium acetylacetonate (Y(acac)(3)) and palladium acetylacetonate (Pd(acac)(2)). The resulting carbons consist of high contents of mesopore and uniformly dispersed fine Pd particles. We measured the catalytic activities of the carbons obtained for hydrogenation of methyl linoleate. The Pd particles dispersed in mesoporous activated carbons obtained from poly(VDC/MA) containing both Y(acac)(3) and Pd(acac)(2) showed high catalytic activities, compared with the microporous activated carbon obtained from poly(VDC/MA) containing only Pd(acac)(2). Especially Pd particles dispersed in mesoporous carbons exhibited excellent selectivity for hydrogenation of diene (methyl linoleate) to monoene (methyl oleate). PMID:12686180

  14. Ordered mesoporous porphyrinic carbons with very high electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Jae Yeong; Kim, Taeyoung; Choi, YongMan; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Min Gyu; Sa, Young Jin; Kim, Jaesik; Lee, Zonghoon; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Kwon, Kyungjung; Terasaki, Osamu; Park, Gu-Gon; Adzic, Radoslav R.; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of the platinum-based cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has impeded the widespread application of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. We report on a new family of non-precious metal catalysts based on ordered mesoporous porphyrinic carbons (M-OMPC; M = Fe, Co, or FeCo) with high surface areas and tunable pore structures, which were prepared by nanocasting mesoporous silica templates with metalloporphyrin precursors. The FeCo-OMPC catalyst exhibited an excellent ORR activity in an acidic medium, higher than other non-precious metal catalysts. It showed higher kinetic current at 0.9?V than Pt/C catalysts, as well as superior long-term durability and MeOH-tolerance. Density functional theory calculations in combination with extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis revealed a weakening of the interaction between oxygen atom and FeCo-OMPC compared to Pt/C. This effect and high surface area of FeCo-OMPC appear responsible for its significantly high ORR activity. PMID:24056308

  15. Ordered mesoporous porphyrinic carbons with very high electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jae Yeong; Kim, Taeyoung; Choi, Yongman; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Min Gyu; Sa, Young Jin; Kim, Jaesik; Lee, Zonghoon; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Kwon, Kyungjung; Terasaki, Osamu; Park, Gu-Gon; Adzic, Radoslav R; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of the platinum-based cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has impeded the widespread application of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. We report on a new family of non-precious metal catalysts based on ordered mesoporous porphyrinic carbons (M-OMPC; M = Fe, Co, or FeCo) with high surface areas and tunable pore structures, which were prepared by nanocasting mesoporous silica templates with metalloporphyrin precursors. The FeCo-OMPC catalyst exhibited an excellent ORR activity in an acidic medium, higher than other non-precious metal catalysts. It showed higher kinetic current at 0.9 V than Pt/C catalysts, as well as superior long-term durability and MeOH-tolerance. Density functional theory calculations in combination with extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis revealed a weakening of the interaction between oxygen atom and FeCo-OMPC compared to Pt/C. This effect and high surface area of FeCo-OMPC appear responsible for its significantly high ORR activity. PMID:24056308

  16. Highly Stable and Active Pt-Cu Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts Based on Mesoporous Graphitic Carbon Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Gupta, Gaurav [University of Texas, Austin; Kumar, Pavan [University of Texas, Austin; Wiggins-camacho, Jaclyn [University of Texas, Austin; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Swinnea, Steven [University of Texas, Austin; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Stevenson, Keith J [ORNL; Johnston, Keith [University of Texas, Austin

    2009-01-01

    The activity of oxygen reduction catalysts for fuel cells often decreases markedly (30-70%) during potential cycling tests designed to accelerate catalyst degradation. Herein we achieved essentially no loss in electrochemical surface area and catalyst activity during potential cycling from 0.5 to 1.2 V for presynthesized Pt-Cu nanoparticles of controlled composition that were infused into highly graphitic disordered mesoporous carbons (DMC). The high stability is favored by the strong metal-support interactions and low tendency for carbon oxidation, which mitigates the mechanisms of degradation. Electrochemical dealloying transforms the composition from Pt{sub 20}Cu{sub 80} to Pt{sub 85}Cu{sub 15} with a strained Pt-rich shell, which exhibits an enhanced ORR activity of 0.46 A/mg{sub Pt}, >4 fold that of pure Pt catalysts. The high uniformity in particle size and composition both before and after dealloying, as a consequence of the presynthesis/infusion technique, is beneficial for elucidating the mechanism of catalyst activity and, ultimately, for designing more active catalysts.

  17. The role of mesopores in MTBE removal with granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Redding, Adam M; Cannon, Fred S

    2014-06-01

    This activated carbon research appraised how pore size and empty-bed contact time influenced the removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at part-per-billion (ppb) concentrations when MTBE was the sole organic impurity. The study compared six granular activated carbons (GACs) from three parent sources; these GACs contained a range of pore volume distributions and had uniform slurry pHs of 9.7-10.4 (i.e. the carbons' bulk surface chemistries were basic). Several of these activated carbons had been specifically tailored for enhanced sorption of trace organic compounds. In these tests, MTBE was spiked into deionized-distilled water (?pH 7); MTBE loading was measured by isotherms and by rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) that simulated full-scale empty-bed contact times of 7, 14, and 28 min. The results showed that both ultra-fine micropores and small-diameter mesopores were important for MTBE adsorption. Specifically, full MTBE loading during RSSCTs bore a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.94) to the product (mL/g × mL/g) of pore volume ?4.06 ? wide and pore volume between ?22 ? and ?59 ? wide. This correlation was greater than for the product of any other pore volume combinations. Also, this product exhibited a stronger correlation than for just one or the other of these two pore ranges. This multiplicative relationship implied that both of these pore sizes were important for the optimum GAC performance of these six carbons (i.e. favorable mass transfer coupled with favorable sorption). The authors also compared MTBE mass loading during RSSCTs (?g MTBE/g GAC) to isotherm capacity (?g MTBE/g GAC). This RSSCT loading "efficiency" ranged from 28% to 96% for the six GACs; this efficiency correlated most strongly to pores that were 14-200 ? wide (R(2) = 0.94). This correlation indicated that only those carbons with a sufficient volume of 14-200 ? pores could adsorb MTBE to the extent that would be predicted from isotherm data. PMID:24681276

  18. [Study on absorbing volatile oil with mesoporous carbon].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-mei; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E; Yang Nan

    2014-11-01

    Clove oil and turmeric oil were absorbed by mesoporous carbon. The absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria Curing powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorietry (DSC). The effects of mesoporous carbon on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. They reached high adsorption rate when the absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was 1:1. When volatile oil was absorbed, dissolution rate of active components had a little improvement and their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was absorbed by the loss rate decreasing more than 50%. Absorbing herbal volatile oil with mesoporous carbon deserves further studying. PMID:25850263

  19. Sorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by ordered hexagonal and disordered mesoporous carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Despoina D. Asouhidou; Kostas S. Triantafyllidis; Nikolaos K. Lazaridis; Kostas A. Matis; Seong-Su Kim; Thomas J. Pinnavaia

    2009-01-01

    In the present study two synthetic mesoporous carbons, a highly ordered CMK-3 sample with hexagonal structure and a disordered mesoporous carbon (denoted DMC) were investigated for the sorption of Remazol Red 3BS (C.I. 239) dye in comparison to three commercial activated carbons and a HMS mesoporous silica with a wormhole pore structure. The structural, porosity and surface characteristics of the

  20. A novel counter electrode based on mesoporous carbon for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiqiang wang; Liang Wang; Wei Xing; Shuping Zhuo

    2010-01-01

    A novel carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell was fabricated by coating the mesoporous carbon paste on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. Mesoporous carbon with pore size of 6.8nm was distributed uniformly on the conductive substrate. The electrocatalytic activity of mesoporous carbon electrode for triiodide reduction was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. By optimizing the carbon loading and heating

  1. Templated mesoporous carbons for supercapacitor application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Fuertes; G. Lota; T. A. Centeno; E. Frackowiak

    2005-01-01

    Mesoporous carbons prepared by an inverse replica technique have been used as electrodes for electrochemical capacitors. Such well-sized carbons were prepared from mesostructured SBA-16 silica materials that served as templates whereas polyfurfuryl alcohol was the carbon precursor. Two highly mesoporous carbons characterized by 3 and 8nm average pore diameter were tested in various electrolytic solutions (acidic, alkaline and aprotic).It can

  2. Preparation of mesoporous carbon by freeze drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tamon; H. Ishizaka; T. Yamamoto; T. Suzuki

    1999-01-01

    Resorcinol–formaldehyde (RF) cryogels were synthesized by sol-gel polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde and freeze drying with t-butanol. The cryogels were characterized by nitrogen adsorption and density measurements. Their porous properties were compared with those of RF aerogels prepared by supercritical drying with carbon dioxide. RF cryogels were mesoporous materials with large mesopore volumes >0.58 cm3\\/g. Although surface areas and mesopore

  3. Preparation of High Surface Area Mesoporous Activated Carbon: Kinetics and Equilibrium Isotherm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Lim; C. Srinivasakannan; V. Doshi

    2012-01-01

    Activated carbon prepared from palm shell by phosphoric acid impregnation, at significantly favorable experimental conditions is characterized for the porous nature and adsorption of methylene blue dye molecules. The activation is carried out using a 2-stage activation process with the activation in a self generated atmosphere. An activation temperature of 500 °C, with an activation time of 75 minutes using

  4. Graphitic mesoporous carbon based on aromatic polycondensation as catalyst support for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Kong, Jiangrong; Liu, Yaru; Liu, Qicheng; Zhu, Hongze

    2015-03-01

    Mesoporous carbon is constructed by monolithic polyaromatic mesophase deriving from the hexane insoluble of coal-tar pitch. This carbon material exhibits spherical morphology and layered crystallite, and thereby can be graphitized at 900 °C without destroying the mesoporous structure. Electrochemical measurements indicate that graphitic mesoporous carbon (GMC) support not only improves the activity of Pt electrocatalyst to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but also shows higher corrosion resistance than commercial XC-72 carbon black in the acid cathode environment.

  5. Reversible replication between ordered mesoporous silica and mesoporous carbon

    E-print Network

    Kim, Ji Man

    -mail: jimankim@madang.ajou.ac.kr; Fax: +82-31-214-8918; Tel: +82-31-219-1850 b Catalyst and Surface Laboratory pore diameters (2­30 nm),3 compared with those of conven- tional microporous zeolites ( , catalyst supports and materials for advanced electronics applications. Among the mesoporous carbon

  6. Electrochemically active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic frameworks on carbon nanotubes for synergistic lithium-ion battery energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Jin, Shangbin; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Dingcai; Yang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xiong; Wei, Hao; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Organic batteries free of toxic metal species could lead to a new generation of consumer energy storage devices that are safe and environmentally benign. However, the conventional organic electrodes remain problematic because of their structural instability, slow ion-diffusion dynamics, and poor electrical conductivity. Here, we report on the development of a redox-active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic framework (COF) on carbon nanotubes for use as electrodes; the electrode stability is enhanced by the covalent network, the ion transport is facilitated by the open meso-channels, and the electron conductivity is boosted by the carbon nanotube wires. These effects work synergistically for the storage of energy and provide lithium-ion batteries with high efficiency, robust cycle stability, and high rate capability. Our results suggest that redox-active COFs on conducting carbons could serve as a unique platform for energy storage and may facilitate the design of new organic electrodes for high-performance and environmentally benign battery devices. PMID:25650133

  7. Cobalt oxide and nitride particles supported on mesoporous carbons as composite electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Shao, Leng-Leng; Gao, Ze-Min; Ren, Tie-Zhen; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2015-07-01

    The composite electrocatalysts of cobalt oxide/mesoporous carbon and cobalt nitride/mesoporous carbon are synthesized via a convenient oxidation and subsequent ammonia nitridation of cobalt particles-incorporated mesoporous carbon, respectively. The cobalt oxide and nitride particles are uniformly imbedded in mesoporous carbon matrix, forming the unique composites with high surface area and mesopore architecture, and the resultant composites are evaluated as counter electrode materials, exhibiting good catalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide. The composites of cobalt nitride and mesoporous carbon are superior to the counterparts of cobalt oxide and mesoporous carbon in catalyzing the triiodide reduction, and the dye-sensitized solar cell with the composites achieves an optimum power conversion efficiency of 5.26%, which is comparable to the one based on the conventional Pt counter electrode (4.88%).

  8. A V2O3-ordered mesoporous carbon composite with novel peroxidase-like activity towards the glucose colorimetric assay.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Zeng, Lingxing; Wei, Mingdeng; Li, Chang Ming; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-21

    It is of great scientific and practical significance to explore inorganic mimetic enzymes to replace natural enzymes due to their instability and high cost. Herein we present an interesting discovery that a V2O3-ordered mesoporous carbon composite (V2O3-OMC) has a novel peroxidase-like activity towards fast redox reaction of typical peroxidase substrates H2O2 and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). Due to the small size effect and large surface area of V2O3 nanoparticles supported by OMC, V2O3-OMC exhibited excellent catalytic performance with a kcat of 1.28 × 10(4) s(-1), KM (ABTS) of 0.067 mM and KM (H2O2) of 0.16 mM, and a significantly higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) towards the oxidation of ABTS in comparison with the natural peroxidases. Furthermore, the Ping-pong BiBi mechanism was proposed to explain the catalytic reaction by V2O3-OMC. Based on this highly active biomimetic peroxidase and the colorimetric detection of H2O2, a facile analytical method was developed to detect glucose by using V2O3-OMC and glucose oxidase, which had a wide linear range (0.01-4 mM glucose), good selectivity and reliability for successful detection of various real samples. Thus, the novel V2O3-OMC peroxidase mimetic holds great promise for broad potential applications. PMID:26099042

  9. Adsorption of benzene, cyclohexane and hexane on ordered mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Dou, Baojuan; Zhang, Zhongshen; Wang, Junhui; Liu, Haier; Hao, Zhengping

    2015-04-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with high specific surface area and large pore volume was synthesized and tested for use as an adsorbent for volatile organic compound (VOC) disposal. Benzene, cyclohexane and hexane were selected as typical adsorbates due to their different molecular sizes and extensive utilization in industrial processes. In spite of their structural differences, high adsorption amounts were achieved for all three adsorbates, as the pore size of OMC is large enough for the access of these VOCs. In addition, the unusual bimodal-like pore size distribution gives the adsorbates a higher diffusion rate compared with conventional adsorbents such as activated carbon and carbon molecular sieve. Kinetic analysis suggests that the adsorption barriers mainly originated from the difficulty of VOC vapor molecules entering the pore channels of adsorbents. Therefore, its superior adsorption ability toward VOCs, together with a high diffusion rate, makes the ordered mesoporous carbon a promising potential adsorbent for VOC disposal. PMID:25872710

  10. Adsorption of malachite green on micro- and mesoporous rice husk-based active carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yupeng Guo; Shaofeng Yang; Wuyou Fu; Jurui Qi; Renzhi Li; Zichen Wang; Hongding Xu

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption of malachite green (MG) from aqueous medium by rice husk-based porous carbons (RHCs) were studied. The extent of adsorption was studied as a function of pH, contact time, contact temperature, adsorbate concentration, ion strength and adsorbent with different pore structural. The comparison of adsorption of MG on oxidized carbons and their heat-treated derivatives were studied. The results obtained

  11. Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mesoporous activated carbon prepared from H3PO4-activated langsat empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Njoku, V O; Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-05-01

    The removal of toxic herbicide from wastewater is challenging due to the availability of suitable adsorbents. The Langsat empty fruit bunch is an agricultural waste and was used in this study as a cheap precursor to produce activated carbon for the adsorption of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at different initial concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mg/L. The produced Langsat empty fruit bunch activated carbon (LEFBAC) was mesoporous and had high surface area of 1065.65 m(2)/g with different active functional groups. The effect of shaking time, temperature and pH on 2,4-D removal were investigated using the batch technique. The adsorption capacity of 2,4-D by LEFBAC was decreased with increase in pH of solution whereas adsorption capacity increased with temperature. The adsorption data was well described by Langmuir isotherm followed by removal capacity of 261.2 mg/g at 30 °C. The results from this work showed that LEFBAC can be used as outstanding material for anionic herbicide uptake from wastewater. PMID:25721981

  12. Direct template synthesis of mesoporous carbon and its application to supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Songhun, E-mail: yoonshun@krict.re.kr [Advanced Chemical Technology Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Sinseongno 19, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung M. [Research Center for Energy Conversion and Storage (RCECS), School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Process, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chulwee [Advanced Chemical Technology Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Sinseongno 19, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-05

    A direct templating method which is facile, inexpensive and suitable for the large scale production of mesoporous carbon is reported herein. A meso-structure surfactant/silicate template was made in a solution phase and resorcinol-formaldehyde as a carbon precursor was incorporated into the template solution. After aging, carbonization and hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching, mesoporous carbon was obtained. Using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption, the synthesis mechanism of the mesoporous carbon was elucidated. According to the small angle X-ray scattering measurements, the surface became smoother after the removal of the silica, indicating that the silica was mostly located at the pore surface of the carbon. Also, the calculation of the pore volume demonstrated that the silica was transferred into the pores of the carbon without structural collapse during HF etching. When the prepared mesoporous carbon was applied to a supercapacitor electrode, the rectangular shape of the cyclic voltammogram was less collapsed, even at a high scan rate, which is indicative of its high rate capability. This was due to the low resistance of the electrolyte in the pores (3.8 {Omega} cm{sup 2}), which was smaller than that of conventional activated carbon electrodes and even comparable to that of ordered mesoporous carbon electrodes. This improved performance was probably due to the well developed mesoporosity and high pore connectivity of the prepared mesoporous carbon.

  13. Using mesoporous carbon electrodes for brackish water desalination.

    PubMed

    Zou, Linda; Li, Lixia; Song, Huaihe; Morris, Gayle

    2008-04-01

    Electrosorptive deionisation is an alternative process to remove salt ions from the brackish water. The porous carbon materials are used as electrodes. When charged in low voltage electric fields, they possess a highly charged surface that induces adsorption of salt ions on the surface. This process is reversible, so the adsorbed salt ions can be desorbed and the electrode can be reused. In the study, an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) electrode was developed for electrosorptive desalination. The effects of pore arrangement pattern (ordered and random) and pore size distribution (mesopores and micropores) on the desalination performance was investigated by comparing OMC and activated carbon (AC). It were revealed from X-ray diffraction and N(2) sorption measurements that AC has both micropores and mesopores, whereas ordered mesopores are dominant in OMC. Their performance as potential electrodes to remove salt was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests at a range of electrolyte concentrations and sweep rates. It is deduced that under the same electrochemical condition the specific capacitance values of OMC electrode (i.e. 133 F/g obtained from CV at a sweep rate of 1 mV/s in 0.1M NaCl solution) are larger than those of AC electrode (107 F/g), suggesting that the former has a higher desalting capacity than the latter. Furthermore, the OMC electrode shows a better rate capacity than the AC electrode. In addition, the desalination capacities were quantified by the batch-mode experiment at low voltage of 1.2V in 25 ppm NaCl solution (50 micros/cm conductivity). It was found that the adsorbed ion amounts of OMC and AC electrodes were 11.6 and 4.3 micromol/g, respectively. The excellent electrosorptive desalination performance of OMC electrode might be not only due to the suitable pore size (average of 3.3 nm) for the propagation of the salt ions, but also due to the ordered mesoporous structure that facilitates desorption of the salt. Based on the results, it was found that the development of an ordered mesoporous structure and the control of the number of micropores are two important strategies for optimising electrode material properties for electrosorptive deionisation. PMID:18222527

  14. Mesoporous Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Sharma, Ms. Ketki [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration.

  15. Analysis of Various Experimental Methods and Preparation of Mesoporous Activated Carbon Powders from Sawdust Using Phosphoric Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Srinivasakannan; N. Balasubramaniam

    2007-01-01

    A critical analysis of various reported experimental methods utilized for preparation of activated carbon using phosphoric acid was attempted to identify the right choice of experimental method. The various experimental methods were grouped into three major categories; of these, a two-stage activation process with the precursor exposed to preset furnace temperature in a self-generated atmosphere was identified to be a

  16. Structured carbon adsorbents from clay, zeolite and mesoporous aluminosilicate templates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M Barata-Rodrigues; T. J Mays; G. D Moggridge

    2003-01-01

    Porous carbons templated from inorganic materials such as zeolites and mesoporous molecular sieves received considerable attention in the last decade. In this context, we discuss the effects of different templating structures on the carbons yielded. We describe templating using a commercial cationic clay (Wyoming bentonite), a commercial zeolite (Tosoh H-Beta) and a synthetic mesoporous aluminosilicate (Al-MCM-48), as exemplars of the

  17. Characteristics of mesoporous carbons supported Mo catalysts in thiophene hydrodesulfurization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hussain; S.-K. Ihm

    2007-01-01

    The potential of two different mesoporous carbon materials, CMK-1 and CMK-3 supported sulfided Mo catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of thiophene at specific conditions was explored to investigate the effect of different pore sizes, surface oxygen functional groups, metal dispersion, and presulfidation temperature. The Mo catalysts (114.8 wt % of Mo) supported on mesoporous carbons were prepared with (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O. For comparison, commercial

  18. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    Increasing concerns for the escalating issues activated by the effect of carbon dioxide emissions on the global climate from extensive use of fossil fuels and the limited amount of fossil resources has led to an in-depth search for alternative energy systems, primarily based on nuclear or renewable energy sources. Recent innovations in the production of more efficient devices for energy harvesting, storage, and conversion are based on the incorporation of nanostructured materials into electrochemical systems. The aforementioned nano-electrochemical energy systems hold particular promise for alternative energy transportation related technologies including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical supercapacitors. In each of these devices, nanostructured materials can be used to increase the surface area where the critical chemical reactions occur within the same volume and mass, thereby increasing the energy density, power density, electrical efficiency, and physical robustness of the system. Durable corrosion resistant carbon support materials for fuel cells have been designed by adding conductive low cost carbon materials with chemically robust ceramic materials. Since a strict control of the pore size is mandatory to optimize properties for improved performance, chemical activation agents have been utilized as porogens to tune surface areas, pore size distributions, and composition of carbon-based mesoporous materials. Through the use of evaporative self-assembly methods, both randomly disordered and surfactant-templated, ordered carbon-silica nanocomposites have been synthesized with controlled surface area, pore volume, and pore size ranging from 50-800 m2/g, 0.025-0.75 cm3/g, and 2-10 nm, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) ranging from 0.05-1.0 wt. % were added to the aforementioned carbon-silica nanocomposites, which provided an additional increase in surface area and improved conductivity. Initially, a conductivity value of 0.0667 S/cm was measured for the composite without carbon nanotubes and the conductivity value improved by over an order of magnitude to 1 S/cm with the addition of 0.5 wt.% CNTs. Triggered by dispersion issues, the agglomeration of MWNTs during the drying process prevented each nanotube from being loaded over a maximum interfacial area. In order to improve the dispersion of carbon nanotubes within the carbon-silica network, electrospinning was explored as a method to improve the alignment of the carbon nanotubes. The electrospun fibers produced with the highest concentration of MWNTs at 1.0 wt.% produced the largest surface area and electrical conductivity values of 333.36 m2/g and 2.09 S/cm, respectively. Capacitance measurements were calculated to examine if improved conductivity results in higher capacitance values. The best capacitance performance was 148 F/g from a carbon-based mesoporous composite with 0.5 wt. % MWNTs in an aqueous electrolyte with a 2.0 mV/s scan rate. An 80% increase in capacitance occurs with the addition of 0.5 wt. % MWNTs. This is in the range of capacitance values produced by hierarchically ordered mesoporous-microporous carbons, reported at 180 F/g. Fibrous carbon tubes assembled from hydrofluoric acid etched perylenetetracarboxylic diimide bridged silsesquioxane (PDBS) were capable of hydrogen adsorption on the order of 1.3-2.5 wt. % at 77K. Lastly chemically activated phenol-formaldehyde resins produced microporous carbon with 1500 m3/g surface areas and pore sizes ranging from 0.3-0.5 nm, which has potential for asymmetric super-capacitor electrodes. Judicious control over the composition and pore structure of carbon-based nanocomposites can lead to improved performance of various alternative energy materials.

  19. Contribution of mesopores in MgO-templated mesoporous carbons to capacitance in non-aqueous electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, Yuya; Soneda, Yasushi; Yoshizawa, Noriko

    2015-02-01

    MgO-templated mesoporous carbons were fabricated by annealing trimagnesium dicitrate nonahydrate at various temperatures from 700 to 1000 °C with subsequent acid leaching of MgO. The obtained carbons contained a large amount of mesopores. Performances of electric double-layer capacitors using these carbons were examined for propylene carbonate electrolyte containing 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate. The mesoporous carbons synthesized at higher temperatures showed better rate capabilities. AC impedance measurements indicated that high-temperature annealing of the carbon precursors and the presence of mesopores were important for high rate performance. In addition, the contribution of mesopores to capacitance was more significant at higher current densities of 30 A g-1.

  20. Simple synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanofibers with hierarchical nanostructure for ultrahigh lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yalan; Wang, Yanjie; Zhou, Chungen; Zhang, Shichao; Fang, Baizeng

    2014-02-26

    In this study, a simple and reproducible synthesis strategy was developed to fabricate mesoporous carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) by using dual hard templates, a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, and colloidal silica (Ludox TM-40). By using commercial templates, and removing AAO and the silica simultaneously, the synthesis procedures for MCNFs are greatly simplified without the need for separate preparation or the removal of templates in sequence. With phenol resin as a carbon precursor, the as-prepared MCNFs material reveals not only high surface area and mesoporous volume but also hierarchical nanostructure composed of hollow macrochannels derived from the AAO template, large mesopores (ca. 22 nm) from the removal of silica particles and micropores from the carbonization of phenol resin. Such unique surface and structural characteristics could provide a large quantity of active sites for Li storage and facilitate fast mass transport. Moreover, a one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanofiber (CNF) nanostructure favors fast electron transfer. The as-prepared MCNF anode demonstrates ultrahigh lithium storage capacity particularly at high rates, which is much higher than that reported for the commercial graphite and also significantly higher than other nanostructured carbon materials, such as ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 and ordered multimodal porous carbon (OMPC). PMID:24490802

  1. EPR study of the adsorption of dioxin vapours onto microporous carbons and mesoporous silica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Francesca Ottaviani; Roberto Mazzeo; Nicholas J. Turro; Xuegong Lei

    2011-01-01

    Computer aided analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of tetrachloro-dibenzodioxin labelled with a nitroxide radical (TCDD-T) was employed to investigate the adsorption of dioxin vapours onto two carbons, the activated carbon (AC) NORIT GL50 and a carbon directly taken from a waste incinerator (WI) plant, termed EVN.2, and a low-polar micelle-templated mesoporous silica, termed lpMTS. Several experimental conditions were

  2. Structural influence of ordered mesoporous carbon supports for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ji; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Ha, Kyoung Su; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2013-11-01

    A series of ordered mesoporous carbon materials (OMCs) possessing well-ordered nanoporosity with different mesopore structures were synthesized by the template-synthesis route. Two different pore strucutes (2-dimensional hexagonal and 3-dimensional cubic structures) and two different framework-configurations (rod-type and hollow-type carbon frameworks) are prepared by using the two different silica templates and synthetic conditions. The ordered mesoporous carbon supported promoted-rhodium catalysts were preparted by an incipient wetness method. The promoted Rh-OMC catalysts are tested by a fixed bed reactor for the catalytic conversion of syngas-to-alcohols. The characteristics of the promoted Rh-OMCs catalysts were scrutinized through a series of different techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and N2 sorption analysis, and the catalytic performance was tested in a fixed-bed reactor. It was found that the promoted Rh-OMC catalysts exhibited the different catalytic activity and selectivity of alcohols, which could be attributed to the size of metal nanoparticles being confined by the different mesostructure of OMCs. PMID:24245283

  3. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon derived from carp with high electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongfang; Song, Huihui; Li, Hao; Wang, Hui; Mao, Xuefeng; Ji, Shan

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a low-cost and nitrogen-containing carbon material with mesopores and high surface area is synthesized by carbonizing carp with SiO2 nanoparticles as template. It is found that pyridinic-N dominates the N species on the surface of obtained carbon material, which can act as active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The BET surface area of obtained carbon material is 401.7 m2 g-1 and the pore size is ca. 11.1 nm. Due to its high pyridinic-N content and mesoporous architecture, the ORR activity of obtained carbon material in alkaline media is comparable to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. In addition, it shows a higher methanol tolerance than Pt/C catalyst, making it a potential alternative to Pt-based catalysts.

  4. Soft-templated synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres and hollow carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Youliang; Li, Tiehu; Fang, Changqing; Zhang, Maorong; Liu, Xiaolong; Yu, Ruien; Hu, Jingbo

    2013-10-01

    Using coal tar pitch based amphiphilic carbonaceous materials (ACMs) as the precursor and amphiphilic triblock copolymer Plutonic P123 as the only soft template, carbon nanospheres with partially ordered mesopores and hollow carbon nanofibers were synthesized. The concentration of P123, cp, and the mass ratio of P123 to ACM, r, are the key parameters of controlling the shape of the as-prepared products. Mesoporous carbon nanospheres with diameter of 30-150 nm were prepared under the condition of cp = 13.3 g/L and r = 1.2. When cp = 26.7 g/L and r = 2, hollow carbon nanofibers with diameters of 50-200 nm and mesopores/macropores were obtained. Carbon nanospheres and hollow carbon fibers were amorphous materials. The mesoporous carbon nanospheres show good stability in the cyclic voltammograms and their specific capacitance at 10 mV s-1 is 172.1 F/g.

  5. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for active corrosion protection.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Dimitriya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2011-03-22

    This work presents the synthesis of monodisperse, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application as nanocontainers loaded with corrosion inhibitor (1H-benzotriazole (BTA)) and embedded in hybrid SiOx/ZrOx sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy. The developed porous system of mechanically stable silica nanoparticles exhibits high surface area (?1000 m2·g(-1)), narrow pore size distribution (d?3 nm), and large pore volume (?1 mL·g(-1)). As a result, a sufficiently high uptake and storage of the corrosion inhibitor in the mesoporous nanocontainers was achieved. The successful embedding and homogeneous distribution of the BTA-loaded monodisperse silica nanocontainers in the passive anticorrosive SiOx/ZrOx film improve the wet corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA2024 in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. The enhanced corrosion protection of this newly developed active system in comparison to the passive sol-gel coating was observed during a simulated corrosion process by the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). These results, as well as the controlled pH-dependent release of BTA from the mesoporous silica nanocontainers without additional polyelectrolyte shell, suggest an inhibitor release triggered by the corrosion process leading to a self-healing effect. PMID:21344888

  6. Preparation of polypyrrole-incorporated mesoporous carbon-based composites for confinement of Eu(III) within mesopores

    E-print Network

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    polymers using NO+ ions as oxidizing agents in a mildly acidic solution. These polymer chains were easilye Mesoporous polymer-carbon composite (CMPEI/CMK-3) materials were successfully prepared by incorporation of polypyrrole (ppy) into the mesopores of the composites. Ppy was prepared as soluble short-chain

  7. Soft-Templating Synthesis of N-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres for Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Bayatsarmadi, Bita; Zheng, Yao; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-07-01

    The development of ordered mesoporous carbon materials with controllable structures and improved physicochemical properties by doping heteroatoms such as nitrogen into the carbon framework has attracted a lot of attention, especially in relation to energy storage and conversion. Herein, a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon spheres (NMCs) was synthesized via a facile dual soft-templating procedure by tuning the nitrogen content and carbonization temperature. Various physical and (electro)chemical properties of the NMCs have been comprehensively investigated to pave the way for a feasible design of nitrogen-containing porous carbon materials. The optimized sample showed a favorable electrocatalytic activity as evidenced by a high kinetic current and positive onset potential for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to its large surface area, high pore volume, good conductivity, and high nitrogen content, which make it a highly efficient ORR metal-free catalyst in alkaline solutions. PMID:25891306

  8. Ordered mesoporous carbon coating on cordierite: synthesis and application as an efficient adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ying; Cui, Xiangting; Wen, Zhentao

    2011-12-30

    Ordered mesoporous carbon coating on the honeycomb cordierite substrate has been prepared using low-polymerized phenolic resins as carbon sources and triblock copolymer F127 as the structure directing agent via the evaporation induced self-assembly route. The high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen sorption techniques prove the hexagonally ordered pore arrays of carbon coating on the cordierite. The honeycomb monolith adsorbents coated by ordered mesoporous carbons are directly used without any activation, and exhibit adsorption capacities for chlorinated organic pollutants in water with 200 mg/g for p-chlorophenol and 178 mg/g for p-chloroaniline (with respect to the net carbon coating), high adsorption ratio for low-concentration pollutants, large processing volumes and reusability. More than 200 repeated times can be achieved without obvious loss in both adsorption capacity and weight. PMID:22047720

  9. From polymeric "plasticine" to shape-controlled mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu-Fang; Wang, Zheng; Wan, Ying

    2009-07-15

    A soft-phase intercalating process to synthesize mesostructured plasticine by using amphiphilic triblock copolymer F127 as a structure-directing agent, reverse triblock copolymer 25R4 as an intercalating soft matter, and soluble phenolic resin as a carbon source is demonstrated. The "plasticine" has interlayer organic-organic hybrid structure, which is emplastic, sticky, and able to be easily shaped at will. After template removal at 350 degrees C and further carbonization at 600 degrees C, highly ordered mesoporous polymers and carbons can be successively obtained with the maintenance of the original shape. The self-supported, shape-controlled, ordered mesoporous carbon products possess high surface areas (495-777 m(2)/g), large pore volumes (0.32-0.47 cm(3)/g), uniform pore sizes (2.5-4.3 nm) in the nanoscale and hollow tremella-like morphology in the micronscale which may facilitate mass transportation. PMID:19406429

  10. Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Phenanthrenequinone-Carbon via ?-? Interaction-Dependent Vapor Pressure for Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Mi-Sook; Choi, Aram; Park, Yuwon; Cheon, Jae Yeong; Kang, Hyojin; Jo, Yong Nam; Kim, Young-Jun; Hong, Sung You; Joo, Sang Hoon; Yang, Changduk; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-12-01

    The ?-? interaction-dependent vapour pressure of phenanthrenequinone can be used to synthesize a phenanthrenequinone-confined ordered mesoporous carbon. Intimate contact between the insulating phenanthrenequinone and the conductive carbon framework improves the electrical conductivity. This enables a more complete redox reaction take place. The confinement of the phenanthrenequinone in the mesoporous carbon mitigates the diffusion of the dissolved phenanthrenequinone out of the mesoporous carbon, and improves cycling performance.

  11. Synthesis of ordered mesoporous phenanthrenequinone-carbon via ?-? interaction-dependent vapor pressure for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi-Sook; Choi, Aram; Park, Yuwon; Cheon, Jae Yeong; Kang, Hyojin; Jo, Yong Nam; Kim, Young-Jun; Hong, Sung You; Joo, Sang Hoon; Yang, Changduk; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-01-01

    The ?-? interaction-dependent vapour pressure of phenanthrenequinone can be used to synthesize a phenanthrenequinone-confined ordered mesoporous carbon. Intimate contact between the insulating phenanthrenequinone and the conductive carbon framework improves the electrical conductivity. This enables a more complete redox reaction take place. The confinement of the phenanthrenequinone in the mesoporous carbon mitigates the diffusion of the dissolved phenanthrenequinone out of the mesoporous carbon, and improves cycling performance. PMID:25490893

  12. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL] [ORNL; Warren, Kaitlyn E [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1. The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engineered pore morphology in our synthesized carbon sorbent, along with its potential to tailor the chemistry of its interaction with sorbet, can be exploited for optimal delivery system of a preferred drug within its therapeutic level and below the level of toxicity.

  13. Heteroatom doped mesoporous carbon/graphene nanosheets as highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peimin; Wu, Dongqing; Wan, Li; Hu, Pengfei; Liu, Ruili

    2014-05-01

    The high cost of platinum (Pt) based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has restricted the widespread commercialization of fuel cells. Heteroatom (N, B, P, S or Se) doped carbon materials have been regarded as the promising metal-free catalysts for replacing Pt based catalysts owing to their high efficiencies, good stability and relative low cost. In this work, we present a cost-effective synthesis approach for heteroatom (N and S) doped mesoporous carbon/graphene (HMCG) nanosheets by using nano-casting technology with mesoporous silica/graphene nanosheets (MSG) as hard templates, and four different amino acids (alanine, serine, arginine and cystine) as heteroatom (N, S) and carbon precursors. The resulting catalysts exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media. In particular, HMCGAla with alanine as precursors showed the highest electron transfer numbers and durability. These results indicated the attractive potential of HMCGs as metal-free catalysts in practical fuel cells. PMID:24594045

  14. Polydopamine-graphene oxide derived mesoporous carbon nanosheets for enhanced oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Qu, Konggang; Zheng, Yao; Dai, Sheng; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Composite materials combining nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) with active species represent a paramount breakthrough as alternative catalysts to Pt for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to their competitive activity, low cost and excellent stability. In this paper, a simple strategy is presented to construct graphene oxide-polydopamine (GD) based carbon nanosheets. This approach does not need to modify graphene and use any catalyst for polymerization under ambient conditions, and the obtained carbon nanosheets possess adjustable thicknesses and uniform mesoporous structures without using any template. The thickness of GD hybrids and the carbonization temperature are found to play crucial roles in adjusting the microstructure of the resulting carbon nanosheets and, accordingly their ORR catalytic activity. The optimized carbon nanosheet generated by a GD hybrid of 5 nm thickness after 900 °C carbonization exhibits superior ORR activity with an onset potential of -0.07 V and a kinetic current density of 13.7 mA cm(-2) at -0.6 V. The unique mesoporous structure, high surface areas, abundant defects and favorable nitrogen species are believed to significantly benefit the ORR catalytic process. Furthermore, it also shows remarkable durability and excellent methanol tolerance outperforming those of commercial Pt/C. In view of the physicochemical versatility and structural tunability of polydopamine (PDA) materials, our work would shed new light on the understanding and further development of PDA-based carbon materials for highly efficient electrocatalysts. PMID:26147787

  15. Template-Engaged In Situ Synthesis of Carbon-Doped Monoclinic Mesoporous BiVO4: Photocatalytic Treatment of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Mingming; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian; Tripathi, Pranav K.; Liu, Yafei; Hu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, carbon-doped monoclinic scheelite mesoporous bismuth vanadate was synthesized through template-engaged in situ method. The bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and ammonia metavanadate were used as bismuth and vanadium precursors, respectively, glucose as carbon source, and mesoporous SiO2 aerogel as a hard template. Carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 were obtained by heat treatment of BiVO4/glucose/template to carbonize glucose and form monoclinic crystal, followed by etching with NaOH solution to remove the SiO2 template. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and desorption, UV-visible spectroscopy, Energy dispersive spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the sample with a carbon content of 0.5 wt.% possesses a specific surface area of 10.2 m2/g and has mesoporous structure with the most probable pore size of 13.9 nm. The band gap of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 was estimated to be 2.33 eV, indicating the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. The photocatalytic efficiency of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light (? > 400 nm) in 120 min reaches 98.7%, Besides, the carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 photocatalyst still showed high stability: 85% for Rhodamine B degradation after ten recycles.

  16. Template-Engaged In Situ Synthesis of Carbon-Doped Monoclinic Mesoporous BiVO4: Photocatalytic Treatment of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Mingming; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian; Tripathi, Pranav K.; Liu, Yafei; Hu, Zhonghua

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, carbon-doped monoclinic scheelite mesoporous bismuth vanadate was synthesized through template-engaged in situ method. The bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and ammonia metavanadate were used as bismuth and vanadium precursors, respectively, glucose as carbon source, and mesoporous SiO2 aerogel as a hard template. Carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 were obtained by heat treatment of BiVO4/glucose/template to carbonize glucose and form monoclinic crystal, followed by etching with NaOH solution to remove the SiO2 template. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and desorption, UV-visible spectroscopy, Energy dispersive spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the sample with a carbon content of 0.5 wt.% possesses a specific surface area of 10.2 m2/g and has mesoporous structure with the most probable pore size of 13.9 nm. The band gap of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 was estimated to be 2.33 eV, indicating the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. The photocatalytic efficiency of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light (? > 400 nm) in 120 min reaches 98.7%, Besides, the carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 photocatalyst still showed high stability: 85% for Rhodamine B degradation after ten recycles.

  17. Synthesis of multiwall carbon nanotubes by using mesoporous aluminosilicates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Gallego; Luis F. Giraldo; Betty L. López; Ligia Sierra

    2008-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) of ethylene on several mesoporous aluminosilicates impregnated with iron. The aluminosilicates were synthesized by sol-gel method optimizing the Si\\/Al ratios from 6 to 80. The catalysts are characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, 27Al NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared. The MWCNTs are characterized by TGA and

  18. Morphology control in mesoporous carbon films using solvent vapor annealing.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhe; Xue, Jiachen; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2013-03-12

    Ordered mesoporous (2-50 nm) carbon films were fabricated using cooperative self-assembly of a phenolic resin oligomer with a novel block copolymer template (poly(styrene-block-N,N-dimethyl-n-octadecylamine p-styrenesulfonate), (PS-b-PSS-DMODA)) synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Due to the high Tg of the PS segment and the strong interactions between the phenolic resin and the PSS-DMODA, the segmental rearrangement is kinetically hindered relative to the cross-linking rate of the phenolic resin, which inhibits long-range ordering and yields a poorly ordered mesoporous carbon with a broad pore size distribution. However, relatively short exposure (2 h) to controlled vapor pressures of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) yields significant improvements in the long-range ordering and narrows the pore size distribution. The average pore size increases as the solvent vapor pressure during annealing increases, but an upper limit of p/p0 = 0.85 exists above which the films dewet rapidly during solvent vapor annealing. This approach can be extended using mesityl oxide, which has similar solvent qualities to MEK, but is not easily removed by ambient air drying after solvent annealing. This residual solvent can impact the morphology that develops during cross-linking of the films. These results illustrate the ability to fine-tune the mesostructure of ordered mesoporous carbon films through simple changes in the processing without any compositional changes in the initial cast film. PMID:23394515

  19. Microporosity development in phenolic resin-based mesoporous carbons for enhancing CO2 adsorption at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choma, Jerzy; Jedynak, Katarzyna; Fahrenholz, Weronika; Ludwinowicz, Jowita; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2014-01-01

    Soft-templating method was used to prepare mesoporous carbons. The synthesis in the presence of hydrochloric and citric acids involved resorcinol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors and triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as a template. The as-synthesized samples underwent carbonization in flowing nitrogen at various temperatures; namely 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C. Two routes were used to develop microporosity in the mesoporous carbons studied. The first one involved introduction of tetraethyl orthosilicate to the reaction system. After silica dissolution with NaOH, an increase in microporosity was observed. The second method, chemical activation with KOH at 700 °C, was explored as an alternative approach to create microporosity. It is noteworthy that the TEOS addition not only led to the development of microporosity but also to some improvement of mesoporosity. The post-synthesis KOH activation resulted in more significant increase in the microporosity as compared to the samples obtained by TEOS-assisted synthesis. The mesopore volume was somewhat lower for activated carbons as compared to that in mesoporous carbons. Both methods resulted in micro-mesoporous carbons with good adsorption properties; for instance, in the case of carbons prepared in the presence of TEOS, the best sample exhibited BET surface area of 1463 m2/g and the total pore volume of 1.31 cm3/g. For the KOH activated carbons the best adsorption parameters were as follows: the specific surface area = 1906 m2/g, and the total pore volume = 0.98 cm3/g. Both procedures used for microporosity development afforded carbons with good adsorption properties that can be useful for applications such as CO2 adsorption, air and water purification.

  20. Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Engelhard, Mark H [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Congmin [ORNL; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); YANG, ZHENGUO [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lin, Yuehe [ORNL; Shao, Yuyan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2010-01-01

    We report a durable electrocatalyst support, highly graphitized mesoporous carbon (GMPC), for oxygen reduction in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. GMPC is prepared through graphitizing the self-assembled soft-template mesoporous carbon (MPC) under high temperature. Heat-treatment at 2800 C greatly improves the degree of graphitization while most of the mesoporous structures and the specific surface area of MPC are retained. GMPC is then noncovalently functionalized with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and loaded with Pt nanoparticles by reducing Pt precursor (H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}) in ethylene glycol. Pt nanoparticles of {approx}3.0 nm in diameter are uniformly dispersed on GMPC. Compared to Pt supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black (Pt/XC-72), Pt/GMPC exhibits a higher mass activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the mass activity retention (in percentage) is improved by a factor of {approx}2 after 44 h accelerated degradation test under the potential step (1.4-0.85 V) electrochemical stressing condition which focuses on support corrosion. The enhanced activity and durability of Pt/GMPC are attributed to the graphitic structure of GMPC which is more resistant to corrosion. These findings demonstrate that GMPC is a promising oxygen reduction electrocatalyst support for PEM fuel cells. The approach reported in this work provides a facile, eco-friendly promising strategy for synthesizing stable metal nanoparticles on hydrophobic support materials.

  1. Direct Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis of Hemoglobin at Mesoporous Carbon Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Supeng; Qu, Song; Zhang, Yongming

    2010-01-01

    The novel highly ordered mesoporous carbon (known as FDU-15), prepared by the organic-organic self-assembly method was been used for first time for the immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) and its bioelectrochemical properties were studied. The resulting Hb/FDU-15 film provided a favorable microenvironment for Hb to perform direct electron transfers at the electrode. The immobilized Hb also displayed its good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The results demonstrate that mesoporous carbon FDU-15 can improve the Hb loading with retention of its bioactivity and greatly promote the direct electron transfer, which can be attributed to its high specific surface area, uniform ordered porous structure, suitable pore size and biocompatibility. Our present study may provide an alternative way for the construction of nanostructure biofunctional surfaces and pave the way for its application to biosensors. PMID:22205867

  2. Nanocrystalline intermetallics on mesoporous carbon for direct formic acid fuel cell anodes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiulei; Lee, Kyu Tae; Holden, Reanne; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun; Botton, Gianluigi A; Couillard, Martin; Nazar, Linda F

    2010-04-01

    Shape- and size-controlled supported metal and intermetallic nanocrystallites are of increasing interest because of their catalytic and electrocatalytic properties. In particular, intermetallics PtX (X = Bi, Pb, Pd, Ru) are very attractive because of their high activity as fuel-cell anode catalysts for formic acid or methanol oxidation. These are normally synthesized using high-temperature techniques, but rigorous size control is very challenging. Even low-temperature techniques typically produce nanoparticles with dimensions much greater than the optimum <6 nm required for fuel cell catalysis. Here, we present a simple and robust, chemically controlled process for synthesizing size-controlled noble metal or bimetallic nanocrystallites embedded within the porous structure of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). By using surface-modified ordered mesoporous carbon to trap the metal precursors, nanocrystallites are formed with monodisperse sizes as low as 1.5 nm, which can be tuned up to ?3.5 nm. To the best of our knowledge, 3-nm ordered mesoporous carbon-supported PtBi nanoparticles exhibit the highest mass activity for formic acid oxidation reported to date, and over double that of Pt-Au. PMID:21124509

  3. Nanocrystalline intermetallics on mesoporous carbon for direct formic acid fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiulei; Lee, Kyu Tae; Holden, Reanne; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Couillard, Martin; Nazar, Linda F.

    2010-04-01

    Shape- and size-controlled supported metal and intermetallic nanocrystallites are of increasing interest because of their catalytic and electrocatalytic properties. In particular, intermetallics PtX (X = Bi, Pb, Pd, Ru) are very attractive because of their high activity as fuel-cell anode catalysts for formic acid or methanol oxidation. These are normally synthesized using high-temperature techniques, but rigorous size control is very challenging. Even low-temperature techniques typically produce nanoparticles with dimensions much greater than the optimum <6 nm required for fuel cell catalysis. Here, we present a simple and robust, chemically controlled process for synthesizing size-controlled noble metal or bimetallic nanocrystallites embedded within the porous structure of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). By using surface-modified ordered mesoporous carbon to trap the metal precursors, nanocrystallites are formed with monodisperse sizes as low as 1.5 nm, which can be tuned up to ~3.5 nm. To the best of our knowledge, 3-nm ordered mesoporous carbon-supported PtBi nanoparticles exhibit the highest mass activity for formic acid oxidation reported to date, and over double that of Pt-Au.

  4. Raspberry derived mesoporous carbon-tubules and fixed-bed adsorption of pharmaceutical drugs

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Raspberry derived mesoporous carbon-tubules and fixed-bed adsorption of pharmaceutical drugs Shashi Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290, USA 1. Introduction Pharmaceutical drugs (PD­water partition coefficient Pharmaceutical drugs A B S T R A C T Novel mesoporous carbon-tubules were prepared

  5. Controlled synthesis of mesoporous carbon modified by tungsten carbides as an improved electrocatalyst support for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Zhou, Shenghu [ORNL; Zhu, Qing [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous carbon was modified with tungsten carbides by the carbothermal hydrogen reduction of a layer of chemisorbed 1:12 phosphotungstic anions (PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-}) on carbon surfaces. Depending on the temperature of carbothermal treatment, different tungsten species, i.e., W, W{sub 2}C, WC, were formed on the carbon matrix. No significant changes in both surface areas and mesostructures were observed during the formation of various tungsten species on carbon surfaces under high-temperature conditions. A uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles (1-6 nm) can be achieved via nanoconfinement on the surfaces of both mesoporouscarbon and tungsten carbide-modified mesoporous carbon. Pt nanoparticles supported on mesoporous carbons modified with tungsten carbide (Pt/WC-C) exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activities relative to the control, in which mesoporous carbons without carbide modification were directly used as a support (Pt/C). In addition, both enhanced thermal stability and good electrochemical stability were observed for the Pt/WC-C electrocatalyst.

  6. Mesoporous carbons with self-assembled surfaces of defined crystal orientation

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Kengqing; Truong, Trung C.; Hoffman, Wesley P.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The design of carbon sorbents traditionally focuses on the control of pore structure and the number and type of surface functional groups. The present paper explores the potential of also controlling the carbon crystal structure, or graphene layer orientation, in the immediate vicinity of the internal surfaces. We hypothesize that this crystal structure influences the properties of the carbon surfaces and affects the number and type of active sites for functionalization. Here a series of mesoporous carbons are fabricated by capillary infiltration of mesophase pitch (naphthalene homopolymer) into a series of controlled pore glass templates of different characteristic pore size followed by carbonization and template etching. The liquid crystalline mesogens are known to adopt perpendicular alignment (anchoring) at liquid/silica interfaces, which after carbonization lead to a high concentration of graphene edge sites at the inner surfaces. These surfaces are shown to have elevated chemical reactivity, and the pore structures are shown to be consistent with predictions of a quantitative model based on the negative replica concept. Overall, the use of mesophase pitch for templated mesoporous carbons allows systematic and simultaneous control of both pore structure and interfacial crystal structure through the well-defined rules of liquid crystal surface anchoring. PMID:19190761

  7. Synthesis of core-shell graphitic carbon@silica nanospheres with dual-ordered mesopores for cancer-targeted photothermochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Ren; Liu, Xingang; Yan, Xueying; Wang, Jianxin; Wagner, Ernst; Huang, Rongqin

    2014-08-26

    Tumor site-directed multifunctional therapeutic platforms such as photothermochemotherapy that respond to tumor-focused physical and biological stimuli are highly demanded for effective cancer therapy. Herein, targeting peptide-conjugated core–shell graphitic carbon@silica nanospheres with dual-ordered mesopores (MMPS) were successfully fabricated and developed as antitumoral doxorubicin (DOX) delivery system (MMPSD) for synergistic targeted photothermal chemotherapy of breast cancer. The hydrophilic mesoporous silica shell guarantees good water dispersity of MMPSD. The hydrophobic graphitic mesoporous carbon core provides excellent hydrophobic drug loading, immediate contact between the drug and photothermal hotspots, and high NIR photothermal conversion efficiency. SP13 peptide facilitates MMPSD for targeted and enhanced delivery of DOX within HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells, while PEGylation ensures biocompatibility. Thus, the MMPSD system exhibited efficient drug loading capacity, high targeting ability, sensitive NIR/pH-responsive DOX release, sustained release, and excellent combined antitumor activity. PMID:25046179

  8. Adsorption of Pb(II) on mesoporous activated carbons fabricated from water hyacinth using H3PO4 activation: Adsorption capacity, kinetic and isotherm studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yang; Li, Shunxing; Chen, Jianhua; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Yiping

    2014-02-01

    Activated carbons with high mesoporosity and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups were prepared from water hyacinth using H3PO4 activation (WHAC) to eliminate Pb(II) in water. Characterizations of the WHAC were performed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The BET analysis showed that WHAC possesses a high mesoporosity (93.9%) with a BET surface area of 423.6 m2/g. The presence of oxygen-containing functional groups including hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and phosphate groups renders the WHAC a favorable adsorbent for Pb(II) with the maximum monolayer capacity (qm) 118.8 mg/g. The adsorption behavior follows pseudo-first order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm. The desorption study demonstrated that the WHAC could be readily regenerated using 0.1 M HCl (pH = 1.0). The desorbed WHAC could be reused at least six times without significant adsorption capacity reduction. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic with ?G (-0.27, -1.13, -3.02, -3.62, -5.54, and -9.31 kJ/mol) and ?H (38.72 kJ/mol). Under the optimized conditions, a small amount of the adsorbent (1.0 g/L) could remove as much as 90.1% of Pb(II) (50 mg/L) in 20 min at pH 6.0 and temperature of 298 K. Therefore, the WHAC has a great potential to be an economical and efficient adsorbent in the treatment of lead-contaminated water.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal and metal oxide nanoparticles inside mesoporous carbon CMK-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Huwe; Michael Fröba

    2007-01-01

    Transition metal oxides were synthesized inside the pore system of mesoporous carbon CMK-3. By a wet impregnation, drying and calcination procedure iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese and zinc oxides were formed almost exclusively within the mesopores. A reduction into the metal forms with regard to structural array in the case of zinc oxide and a reduction to manganese(II) oxide for

  10. Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage Properties

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage mesoporous structure, lithium ion batteries INTRODUCTION Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been regarded with the potential to save oil and reduce CO2 emissions, although they still suffer from low power density and safety

  11. Controllable synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres and Fe-N/carbon nanospheres as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Xinyi; Simon, George P.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Sanping; Wang, Huanting

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), especially with diameters below 200 nm remains a great challenge due to weak interactions between the carbon precursors and soft templates, as well as the uncontrollable cross-linking rate of carbon precursors. Herein, we demonstrate a simple acid-assisted, hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesizing such uniform MCNs with well controlled diameters ranging from 20 to 150 nm under highly acidic conditions (2 M HCl). Both the carbon precursor and the template are partly protonated under such conditions and show additional Coulombic interactions with chloride ions (acts as mediators). This kind of enhanced interaction is similar to that of the ``I+X-S+'' mechanism in the synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide, which can effectively retard the cross-linking rate of resol molecules and avoid macroscopic phase separation during the hydrothermal synthesis. Due to their uniform spherical morphology, small diameter, and high surface areas, MCNs can be modified with Fe and N species via impregnation of cheap precursors (ferric nitrate and dicyandiamide), which are further converted into nonprecious electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting Fe-N/MCNs exhibit high catalytic activities, long-term stability and improved methanol tolerance under alkaline conditions, which can be potentially used in direct methanol fuel cells and metal-air batteries.The synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), especially with diameters below 200 nm remains a great challenge due to weak interactions between the carbon precursors and soft templates, as well as the uncontrollable cross-linking rate of carbon precursors. Herein, we demonstrate a simple acid-assisted, hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesizing such uniform MCNs with well controlled diameters ranging from 20 to 150 nm under highly acidic conditions (2 M HCl). Both the carbon precursor and the template are partly protonated under such conditions and show additional Coulombic interactions with chloride ions (acts as mediators). This kind of enhanced interaction is similar to that of the ``I+X-S+'' mechanism in the synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide, which can effectively retard the cross-linking rate of resol molecules and avoid macroscopic phase separation during the hydrothermal synthesis. Due to their uniform spherical morphology, small diameter, and high surface areas, MCNs can be modified with Fe and N species via impregnation of cheap precursors (ferric nitrate and dicyandiamide), which are further converted into nonprecious electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting Fe-N/MCNs exhibit high catalytic activities, long-term stability and improved methanol tolerance under alkaline conditions, which can be potentially used in direct methanol fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00331h

  12. High-performance carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres for supercapacitors with low series resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Bin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Xiaohua, E-mail: hudacxh62@yahoo.com.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Guo, Kaimin [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China)] [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China); Xu, Longshan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Chen, Chuansheng [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China)] [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China); Yan, Haimei; Chen, Jianghua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} CNTs-implanted porous carbon spheres are prepared by using gelatin as soft template. {yields} Homogeneously distributed CNTs form a well-develop network in carbon spheres. {yields} CNTs act as a reinforcing backbone assisting the formation of pore structure. {yields} CNTs improve electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of supercapacitor. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres were prepared by an easy polymerization-induced colloid aggregation method using gelatin as a soft template. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements reveal that the materials are mesoporous carbon spheres, with a diameter of {approx}0.5-1.0 {mu}m, a specific surface area of 284 m{sup 2}/g and average pore size of 3.9 nm. Using the carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres as electrode material for supercapacitors in an aqueous electrolyte solution, a low equivalent series resistance of 0.83 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and a maximum specific capacitance of 189 F/g with a measured power density of 8.7 kW/kg at energy density of 6.6 Wh/kg are obtained.

  13. Enhancing adsorption efficiency of dichloroacetic acid onto mesoporous carbons: Procedure optimization, mechanism and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Zhu, Jianzhong; Ji, Dongliang; Cao, Yang; Ling, Xiaojia; Chen, Wei

    2015-08-15

    Highly ordered mesoporous carbon may be directly synthesized via supramolecular self-assembly with in situ evaporation-induced crystallization process by controlling thermal reaction temperatures and carbon mass loading. In the present study, the effects of thermal reaction temperatures on the structural characterization and adsorption capacity of mesoporous carbon have been investigated and analyzed with orthogonal test experiments. The results show the carbonization temperature (R=32.1) plays a more important role than the self-assembly temperature (R=8.5) and thermal polymerization temperature (R=10.1) in manipulating the pore texture structures. The optimization grouping temperature was 40-110-500°C. The optimum mesoporous carbon sample hadthe highest BET specific surface area (474m(2)/g), the largest pore volume (0.46cm(3)/g), and with reasonable uniform pore size distribution. The adsorption evaluation also shows the adsorption capacity is strongly correlated with theporestructureof mesoporous carbon, the optimized mesoporous carbon sample displayed the largest adsorption capacity (350mg/g) at an initial concentration of 20.0mg/L of dichloroacetic acid. The study results indicate optimization of thermal reaction parameters isan effective approach for synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbons. PMID:25935284

  14. The Adsorption of Gold, Palladium, and Platinum from Acidic Chloride Solutions on Mesoporous Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R. Zalupski; Rocklan McDowell

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium, and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II), and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of chloride ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces. The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5MHCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.

  15. Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon for Carbon Capture A Molecular Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Babarao, Ravichandar [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular simulation, we investigate the effect of nitrogen doping on adsorption capacity and selectivity of CO{sub 2} versus N{sub 2} in model mesoporous carbon. We show that nitrogen doping greatly enhances CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity; with a 7 wt % dopant concentration, the adsorption capacity at 1 bar and 298 K increases from 3 to 12 mmol/g (or 48% uptake by weight). This great enhancement is due to the preferred interaction between CO{sub 2} and the electronegative nitrogen. The nitrogen doping coupled with the mesoporosity also leads to a much higher working capacity for adsorption of the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. In addition, the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity is almost 5 times greater than in nondoped carbon at ambient conditions. This work indicates that nitrogen doping is a promising strategy to create mesoporous carbons for high-capacity, selective carbon capture.

  16. Supported mesoporous carbon ultrafiltration membrane and process for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Strano, Michael; Foley, Henry C.; Agarwal, Hans

    2004-04-13

    A novel supported mesoporous carbon ultrafiltration membrane and process for producing the same. The membranes comprise a mesoporous carbon layer that exists both within and external to the porous support. A liquid polymer precursor composition comprising both carbonizing and noncarbonizing templating polymers is deposited on the porous metal support. The coated support is then heated in an inert-gas atmosphere to pyrolyze the polymeric precursor and form a mesoporous carbon layer on and within the support. The pore-size of the membranes is dependent on the molecular weight of the noncarbonizing templating polymer precursor. The mesoporous carbon layer is stable and can withstand high temperatures and exposure to organic chemicals. Additionally, the porous metal support provides excellent strength properties. The composite structure of the membrane provides novel structural properties and allows for increased operating pressures allowing for greater membrane flow rates. The invention also relates to the use of the novel ultrafiltration membrane to separate macromolecules from solution. An example is shown separating bovine serum albumin from water. The membrane functions by separating and by selective adsorption. Because of the membrane's porous metal support, it is well suited to industrial applications. The unique properties of the supported mesoporous carbon membrane also allow the membrane to be used in transient pressure or temperature swing separations processes. Such processes were not previously possible with existing mesoporous membranes. The present invention, however, possesses the requisite physical properties to perform such novel ultrafiltration processes.

  17. Transition metal ion capture using functional mesoporous carbon made with 1,10-phenanthroline?

    PubMed Central

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Yantasee, Wassana; Shin, Yongsoon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    Functional mesoporous carbon has been built using 1,10-phenanthroline as the fundamental building block, resulting in a nanoporous, high surface area sorbent capable of selectively binding transition metal ions. This material had a specific surface area of 870 m2/g, an average pore size of about 30 Å, and contained as much as 8.2 wt% N. Under acidic conditions, where the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand is protonated, this material was found to be an effective anion exchange material for transition metal anions like PdCl42- and H2VO41-. 1,10-Phenanthroline functionalized mesoporous carbon (“Phen-FMC”) was found to have a high affinity for Cu(II), even down to a pH of 1. At pHs above 5, Phen-FMC was found to bind a variety of transition metal cations (e.g. Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), etc.) from filtered ground water, river water and seawater. Phen-FMC displayed rapid sorption kinetics with Co(II) in filtered river water, reaching equilibrium in less than an hour, and easily lowering the [Co(II)] to sub-ppb levels. Phen-FMC was found to be more effective for transition metal ion capture than ion-exchange resin or activated carbon. PMID:23762013

  18. A mesoporous carbon-supported Pt nanocatalyst for the conversion of lignocellulose to sugar alcohols.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Sung; Yun, Danim; Kim, Tae Yong; Baek, Jayeon; Yun, Yang Sik; Yi, Jongheop

    2013-12-01

    The conversion of lignocellulose is a crucial topic in the renewable and sustainable chemical industry. However, cellulose from lignocellulose is not soluble in polar solvents, and is, therefore, difficult to convert into value-added chemicals. A strategy to overcome this drawback is the use of mesoporous carbon, which enhances the affinity between the cellulose and the catalyst through its abundant functional groups and large uniform pores. Herein, we report on the preparation of a Pt catalyst supported on a type of 3D mesoporous carbon inspired by Echinometra mathae (Pt/CNE) to enhance the interaction between the catalyst and a nonsoluble reactant. In the hydrolytic hydrogenation of cellulose, the abundant oxygen groups of CNE facilitated the access of cellulose to the surface of the catalyst, and the open pore structure permits cello-oligomers to effectively diffuse to the active sites inside the pore. The highly dispersed Pt performed dual roles: hydrolysis by in?situ generating protons from H2 or water as well as effective hydrogenation. The use of the Pt/CNE catalyst resulted in an approximately 80?% yield of hexitol, the best performance reported to date. In direct conversion of hardwood powder, the Pt/CNE shows good performance in the production of sugar alcohols (23?% yield). We expect that the open-structured 3D carbon will be widely applied to the conversion of various lignocellulosic materials. PMID:24227502

  19. Metal-nitrogen doping of mesoporous carbon/graphene nanosheets by self-templating for oxygen reduction electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Wu, Dongqing; Liang, Haiwei; Wang, Jinzuan; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Su, Yuezeng; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a general and efficient self-templating strategy towards transition metal-nitrogen containing mesoporous carbon/graphene nanosheets with a unique two-dimensional (2D) morphology and tunable mesoscale porosity. Owing to the well-defined 2D morphology, nanometer-scale thickness, high specific surface area, and the simultaneous doping of the metal-nitrogen compounds, the as-prepared catalysts exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in both alkaline and acidic media. More importantly, such a self-templating approach towards two-dimensional porous carbon hybrids with diverse metal-nitrogen doping opens up new avenues to mesoporous heteroatom-doped carbon materials as electrochemical catalysts for oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution, with promising applications in fuel cell and battery technologies. PMID:25213723

  20. IL-derived N, S co-doped ordered mesoporous carbon for high-performance oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxiu; Yue, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiangjian; Zhai, Junfeng; Jia, Jianbo

    2015-07-28

    A highly efficient N, S co-doped porous carbon ORR catalyst was simply designed in our report from ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and trace ionic liquids (ILs). The microstructure OMC was chosen as the template for improving the specific area, confining the ILs in the mesopores, and promoting the formation of the planar N and S doping. The resulting IL/OMC (IOMC) nanostructure exhibits comparable ORR activity and better stability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst in 0.10 M KOH solution, which makes it one of the best-performing metal-free carbon ORR catalysts. We deduced that the excellent ORR activity is attributed to the synergistic effect of N, S, and the ordered mesoporous structure. Interestingly, the ORR activity can be further boosted in both basic and acidic solutions after Fe doping into the IOMC nanostructures which clearly emphasizes that transition metal Fe is important for the construction of ORR active functional sites especially in acidic solution. PMID:26009491

  1. Nano copper oxide-incorporated mesoporous carbon composite as multimode adsorbent for selective isolation of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Xing, Li-Gang; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2015-03-11

    Assembly of nano-objects with tunable size, morphology and function into integrated nanostructures is critical for the development of a novel nanosystem in adsorption, sensing and drug/gene delivery. We demonstrate herein the fabrication of ordered mesoporous carbon by assembling uniform and highly dispersed copper-oxide (CuxOy) nanoparticles into the mesopores via evaporation of solvent from the mixture of triblock copolymer, carbon source and metal nitrate hydrate. The ordered 2D hexagonal mesoporous carbon composite possesses a large surface area of 580.8 cm(2)/g, a uniform pore size of 5.4 nm, a large pore volume of 0.64 cm(3)/g and a high metal content of 3.32 wt %. The mesoporous composite exhibits excellent adsorption selectivity and high adsorption capacity to hemoglobin (Hb) under the synergistic effect of hydrophobic and metal-affinity interactions as well as size exclusion. This facilitates multimode adsorption of hemoglobin fitting Langmuir adsorption model and offers an adsorption capacity of 1666.7 mg g(-1) for hemoglobin. The mesoporous composite is used for the isolation of hemoglobin from human whole blood with high purity. It demonstrates the potential of the copper-oxide nanoparticle-embedded mesoporous carbon composite in selective isolation/removal of specific protein species from biological sample matrixes. PMID:25692225

  2. Platinum supported on mesoporous carbon as cathode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Mariano M.; Viva, Federico A.; Petruccelli, M. Agustina; Corti, Horacio R.

    2015-03-01

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on mesoporous carbon were obtained by an impregnation and reduction method with NaBH4 as the reducing agent. The high specific surface area mesoporous carbon was obtained by carbonization of a resorcinol-formaldehyde polymer with a cationic polyelectrolyte as a soft template. Surface characterization performed by transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction showed a homogeneous distribution and high dispersion of the metal particles on the mesoporous support. The carbon-supported Pt catalyst was employed as cathode catalyst in a direct methanol fuel cell where a 30% increase in power density was obtained when compared to Pt supported on Vulcan carbon, under the same conditions.

  3. Mesoporous N-doped carbons prepared with thermally removable nanoparticle templates: an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenhan; Li, Ligui; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Nan; Liu, Ji; Zhou, Weijia; Tang, Zhenghua; Chen, Shaowei

    2015-04-29

    Thermally removable nanoparticle templates were used for the fabrication of self-supported N-doped mesoporous carbons with a trace amount of Fe (Fe-N/C). Experimentally Fe-N/C was prepared by pyrolysis of poly(2-fluoroaniline) (P2FANI) containing a number of FeO(OH) nanorods that were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal synthesis and homogeneously distributed within the polymer matrix. The FeO(OH) nanocrystals acted as rigid templates to prevent the collapse of P2FANI during the carbonization process, where a mesoporous skeleton was formed with a medium surface area of about 400 m(2)/g. Subsequent thermal treatments at elevated temperatures led to the decomposition and evaporation of the FeO(OH) nanocrystals and the formation of mesoporous carbons with the surface area markedly enhanced to 934.8 m(2)/g. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the resulting mesoporous carbons exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR), and the one prepared at 800 °C (Fe-N/C-800) was the best among the series, with a more positive onset potential (+0.98 V vs RHE), higher diffusion-limited current, higher selectivity (number of electron transfer n > 3.95 at +0.75 V vs RHE), much higher stability, and stronger tolerance against methanol crossover than commercial Pt/C catalysts in a 0.1 M KOH solution. The remarkable ORR performance was attributed to the high surface area and sufficient exposure of electrocatalytically active sites that arose primarily from N-doped carbons with minor contributions from Fe-containing species. PMID:25860843

  4. Studies of Hydrogen Sorption on Mesoporous Carbon Composite Modified with Adsorbed Palladium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Telbiz; V. I. Gerda; N. G. Kobylinska; V. M. Zaitsev; J. Fraissard

    \\u000a Ordered mesoporous carbon composite based on the matrix synthesis protocol using mesoporous oxides as a template was prepared\\u000a and step-by-step structure formation was followed by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, N2 adsorption desorption and TPD mass-spectrometry. It was shown that property of composite is change considerably by Pd incorporation.\\u000a Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show that the framework of the highly

  5. Synthesis, characterization and dye removal capacities of N-doped mesoporous carbons.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Á; Suárez-García, F; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2015-07-15

    Nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbons were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, using acetonitrile as carbon and nitrogen source and SBA-15 as mesoporous silica template. Their porous texture, structural order and surface chemistry were studied as a function of the experimental conditions (acetonitrile stream concentration and deposition time). A non-doped ordered mesoporous carbon was also prepared by the same procedure using propylene as carbon source. Methylene blue, methyl orange and fuchsin acid were selected as probe molecules to investigate the dye adsorption behavior on the ordered mesoporous carbons. Both N-doped and non-doped ordered mesoporous carbons adsorbed large amounts of these three dyes demonstrating the importance of mesoporosity, especially for the adsorption of larger dyes (e.g. fuchsin acid). The presence of nitrogen functional groups was detrimental for the adsorption of the basic dye (methylene blue). On the other hand, the nitrogen functionalities improved the adsorption kinetics for both acid and basic dyes, and the N-doped samples achieved 100% of their maximum adsorption capacities in less than 15min. PMID:25801137

  6. Iron Carbide Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Mesoporous Fe-N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Xu, Xing-Xing; Hu, Bi-Cheng; Liang, Hai-Wei; Lin, Yue; Chen, Li-Feng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Exploring low-cost and high-performance nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries is crucial for the commercialization of these energy conversion and storage devices. Here we report a novel NPMC consisting of Fe3 C nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous Fe-N-doped carbon nanofibers, which is synthesized by a cost-effective method using carbonaceous nanofibers, pyrrole, and FeCl3 as precursors. The electrocatalyst exhibits outstanding ORR activity (onset potential of -0.02?V and half-wave potential of -0.140?V) closely comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst in alkaline media, and good ORR activity in acidic media, which is among the highest reported activities of NPMCs. PMID:26014581

  7. Facile synthesis of hydrophilic multi-colour and upconversion photoluminescent mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for bioapplications.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qinglu; Zhang, Lingxia; Liu, Jianan; Wu, Meiying; Chen, Yu; Feng, Jingwei; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-12-25

    Hydrophilic mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) have been synthesized via an extremely facile precursor carbonization-in-hot solvent route. The synthesized MCNs show well-defined particle and pore size distribution at around 100 nm and 2.7 nm, respectively, and multicolor and upconversion photoluminescence, which endow the MCNs with multicolor/upconversion bioimaging and drug delivery properties. PMID:25371274

  8. Hierarchical nanostructured hollow spherical carbon with mesoporous shell as a unique cathode catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Fang, Baizeng; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minsik; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2009-03-01

    Hierarchical nanostructured spherical carbon with hollow macroporous core in combination with mesoporous shell has been explored to support Pt cathode catalyst with high metal loading in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The hollow core-mesoporous shell carbon (HCMSC) has unique structural characteristics such as large specific surface area and mesoporous volume, ensuring uniform dispersion of the supported high loading (60 wt%) Pt nanoparticles with small particle size, and well-developed three-dimensionally interconnected hierarchical porosity network, facilitating fast mass transport. The HCMSC-supported Pt(60 wt%) cathode catalyst has demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared with carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones. Furthermore, the HCMSC-supported Pt(40 wt%) or Pt(60 wt%) outperforms the HCMSC-supported Pt(20 wt%) even at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2) in the cathode, which is completely different from the VC-supported Pt catalysts. The capability of supporting high loading Pt is supposed to accelerate the commercialization of PEMFC due to the anticipated significant reduction in the amount of catalyst support required, diffusion layer thickness and fabricating cost of the supported Pt catalyst electrode. PMID:19224039

  9. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Yingying; Fang, Yin; Qian, Xufang; Tu, Bo [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Zhangxiong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Asiri, Abdullah M. [Chemistry Department and The Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Zhao, Dongyuan, E-mail: dyzhao@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ?2200 m{sup 2}/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li{sup +} ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  10. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yingying; Wu, Zhangxiong; Fang, Yin; Qian, Xufang; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Tu, Bo; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ˜2200 m2/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li+ ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  11. PdCl2-loading mesoporous copper oxide as a novel and environmentally friendly catalyst for diethyl carbonate synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pingbo; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Mingming; Jiang, Pingping

    2015-03-01

    PdCl2-loading mesoporous copper oxide (PdCl2/mCuO) catalysts were successfully synthesized via a hard template with copper carbonate basic (Cu2(OH)2CO3), cupric nitrate (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O) and copper citrate (Cu2C6H4O7·2.5H2O) as the copper(II) precursors, respectively. Their catalytic performances were investigated in the synthesis of diethyl carbonate (DEC) by oxidative carbonylation of ethanol with CO and O2. The catalysts were characterized by TGA, XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis and SEM with the aim of establishing their composition, morphology and structure. It was observed that the catalysts all showed a good selectivity to diethyl carbonate. However, due to a better mesoporous structure such as a bigger surface area, more uniform particle size and less agglomeration, the PdCl2/mCuO-1 catalyst prepared with Cu2(OH)2CO3 precursor showed a better catalytic activity that the conversion of EtOH was about 4.8% and the STY of DEC was 97.1 mg g-1 h-1. This was because the highly developed mesoporous structure could generate a bigger surface area, which benefited the contact between reactants and active sites, improved the conversion of ethanol, and thus enhanced the catalytic performance. Furthermore, a synthetic procedure diagram about "wet impregnation" method of mesoporous CuO prepared with Cu2(OH)2CO3 precursor was given to illustrate these results intuitively.

  12. Importance of Internal Porosity for Glucan Adsorption in Mesoporous Carbon Materials.

    PubMed

    Chung, Po-Wen; Charmot, Alexandre; Click, Timothy; Lin, Yuchun; Bae, YounJue; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Katz, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    To better understand the adsorption of long-chain poly(1 ? 4)-?-d-glucans on carbon surfaces as well as interactions responsible for this adsorption, we use a comparative study involving mesoporous carbon-silica composite materials that have been etched to varying degrees and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The materials synthesized as part of this etching study consist of an as-synthesized composite material (MCN-MSN), MCN-MSN-0.5 (composite materials consisting of 50% carbon by mass), MCN-MSN-0.3 (composite materials consisting of 70% carbon by mass), and MCN, in which silica etching was conducted using an aqueous ethanolic solution of either NaOH or HF. Data for the adsorption of long-chain glucans to these materials from concentrated aqueous HCl (37 wt %) solution demonstrate a direct relationship between the amount of ?-glu adsorption and the magnitude of exposed carbon mesopore surface area, which systematically increases and is also accompanied by an increase in the mesopore size during silica etching. This demonstrates ?-glu adsorption as occurring on internal carbon mesopores rather than exclusively on the external carbon surface. These experimental data on adsorption were corroborated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ?-glu adsorption to a graphene bilayer separated by a distance of 3.2 nm, chosen to correspond to the carbon mesopore diameter of the experimental system. Simulation results using a variety of ?-glu solvent systems demonstrate the rapid adsorption of a ?-glu strand on the graphitic carbon surface via axial coupling and are consistent with experimentally observed trends in fast adsorption kinetics. Solvent-mediated effects such as small-scale hydrophobicity and preferential interactions with ions are shown to play important roles in modulating glucan adsorption to carbon surfaces, whereas experimental data on hydrophobically modified silica demonstrate that hydrophobicity in and of itself is insufficient to cause ?-glu adsorption from concentrated aqueous HCl solution. PMID:26033211

  13. Free-standing mesoporous carbon thin films with highly ordered pore architectures for nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan; Lv, Yingying; Wu, Zhangxiong; Dou, Yuqian; Han, Lu; Sun, Zhenkun; Xia, Yongyao; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2011-09-28

    We report for the first time the synthesis of free-standing mesoporous carbon films with highly ordered pore architecture by a simple coating-etching approach, which have an intact morphology with variable sizes as large as several square centimeters and a controllable thickness of 90 nm to ?3 ?m. The mesoporous carbon films were first synthesized by coating a resol precursors/Pluronic copolymer solution on a preoxidized silicon wafer and forming highly ordered polymeric mesostructures based on organic-organic self-assembly, followed by carbonizing at 600 °C and finally etching of the native oxide layer between the carbon film and the silicon substrate. The mesostructure of this free-standing carbon film is confirmed to be an ordered face-centered orthorhombic Fmmm structure, distorted from the (110) oriented body-centered cubic Im3?m symmetry. The mesoporosity of the carbon films has been evaluated by nitrogen sorption, which shows a high specific BET surface area of 700 m(2)/g and large uniform mesopores of ?4.3 nm. Both mesostructures and pore sizes can be tuned by changing the block copolymer templates or the ratio of resol to template. These free-standing mesoporous carbon films with cracking-free uniform morphology can be transferred or bent on different surfaces, especially with the aid of the soft polymer layer transfer technique, thus allowing for a variety of potential applications in electrochemistry and biomolecule separation. As a proof of concept, an electrochemical supercapacitor device directly made by the mesoporous carbon thin films shows a capacitance of 136 F/g at 0.5 A/g. Moreover, a nanofilter based on the carbon films has shown an excellent size-selective filtration of cytochrome c and bovine serum albumin. PMID:21854032

  14. Selenium sulfide@mesoporous carbon aerogel composite for rechargeable lithium batteries with good electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Jiang, Shaofeng; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Junming; Song, Junxiao; Li, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Selenium sulfide (SeS2) encapsulated into 3D interconnected mesoporous carbon aerogels (MCA) as a selenium sulfide/carbon composite material was prepared for lithium batteries. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations show the mesoporous structures of the carbon aerogels and the homogeneous distribution of selenium sulfide in the composite. The electrochemical performances of the selenium sulfide@mesoporous carbon aerogel (SeS2@MCA) composite cathode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the SeS2@MCA cathode shows a better electrochemical performance than the pristine SeS2 cathode. The SeS2@MCA composite with selenium sulfide content of 49.3 wt.% displays an initial discharge capacity of 1150 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 and a reversible discharge capacity of 601 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles at 500 mA g-1. The better electrochemical performance benefit from the high electron conductivity and 3D interconnected porous structures of the carbon aerogels, which contribute to dispersing SeS2 and trapping polysulfide and polyselenide intermediates within the skeleton structure of the mesoporous carbon aerogels.

  15. Hydrogenation of succinic acid to ?-butyrolactone (GBL) over ruthenium catalyst supported on surfactant-templated mesoporous carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ung Gi Hong; Hai Woong Park; Joongwon Lee; Sunhwan Hwang; In Kyu Song

    Mesoporous carbon support (denoted as STC) was prepared by a surfactant-templating method for use as a support for ruthenium catalyst. For comparison, porous carbon (denoted as TC), spherical carbon (denoted as SC), and microporous carbon (denoted as DC) supports were also prepared by a templating method, hydrothermal method, and direct carbonization method, respectively. Ruthenium catalysts supported on carbon supports (Ru\\/C)

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres from carboxymethylcellulose and nickel acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Li, Wei; Tan, Jia; Nan, Xi; Liu, Shouxin

    2015-03-01

    Paramagnetic mesoporous carbon spheres with diameters of 1-3 ?m were synthesized through the hydrothermal carbonization of carboxymethylcellulose with nickel acetate, followed by high-temperature carbonization in a N2 atmosphere. Monodisperse Ni particles of average size of 2-5 nm were doped into the carbon matrix, and covered the entrances of pores. Ni particles existed as metallic nickel and nickel oxide with ordered lattice structures. The effect of Ni content on the specific surface area, mesopore percentage, and magnetic and adsorption properties were investigated. The highest vitamin B12 adsorption capacity of 103 mg/g was achieved for the sample prepared using 0.04 g of nickel acetate. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to determine the equilibrium uptakes of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 was physically adsorbed as a monolayer on the carbon spheres. The carbon spheres were easily separated on account of their magnetism.

  17. Fabrication of ordered mesoporous carbon film supporting vanadium oxides for electrochemical supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunxia; Li, Junshen; Cao, Jinqiao; Chen, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon film supporting vanadium oxide nanoparticles has been synthesized via ultrasound-assistant impregnation method with ordered mesoporous carbon C-FDU15 film as the host and V2O5 sol as the guest precursor. The hybrids exhibit type IV sorption isotherms with H2 hysteresis loop, indicating the well-retained characteristics of ordered mesoporous structure. The capacitance of the materials is enhanced with V2O5 loading. Particularly, the hybrids with 32.26 wt.% V2O5 loading yield an important capacitance of 128 F/g in 1 mol/L KNO3 electrolyte under a potential range from -0.6 V to 0.6 V. The improved specific capacitance of the hybrids is proposed to be the combination of the double-layer capacitance of ordered porous structure and the pseudocapacitance derived from V2O5.

  18. Synthesis of pore-variable mesoporous CdS and evaluation of its photocatalytic activity in degrading methylene blue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei-Min, E-mail: chm_zhangwm@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Jiang, Yao-Quan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Cao, Xiao-Yan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education (China); Chen, Meng; Ge, Dong-Lai [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Sun, Zhong-Xi, E-mail: sunzx@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-templated synthesis of tubular CdS. • Cadmium complexes of aliphatic acids sustain the network of mesoporous structures. • Aliphatic acids affect the phase composition and particle size. • Pore size and volume vary with aliphatic acids having different hydrocarbonyl. - Abstract: In this study, mesoporous CdS polycrystallites have been synthesized using aliphatic acids of hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and oleic acid as coordinating and capping agents, respectively. The fibrous Cd–fatty acid salts act as a template to form the tubular CdS. The organic species are found to be necessary for maintaining the network of mesoporous CdS. The characterization results indicate that the shorter carbon chain length in aliphatic acids favors the wurtzite phase and particle size growth the specific surface area, pore diameter and pore volume show a monotonic raise with increasing carbon chain. The photocatalytic activities of mesoporous CdS tubes exhibit much higher efficiency than those of nanosized CdS powders in decolorizing methylene blue under simulated visible light.

  19. The adsorption of gold, palladium and platinum from acidic chloride solutions on mesoporous carbons.

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski; Rocklan McDowell; Guy Dutech

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of hydrogen ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces. The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5 M HCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.

  20. One-pot synthesis of boron-doped mesoporous carbon with boric acid as a multifunction reagent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shilei Ding; Sujuan Zheng; Mingjiang Xie; Luming Peng; Xuefeng Guo; Weiping Ding

    2011-01-01

    An effective method for modification of ordered mesoporous carbons is to dope boron incorporated into carbon network for improving their properties in many aspects. A one-pot synthesis is proposed with the combination of boron doping and fabrication of mesoporous carbon through sol–gel method using boric acid as the catalyst, dopant and pore-forming agent. The as-prepared materials were characterized by TEM,

  1. Electrochemical behavior and simultaneous determination of dihydroxybenzene isomers at a functionalized SBA15 mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Zhang; Shuo Duan; Xiaomeng Xu; Shuai Xu; Changli Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The simultaneous voltammetric determination of dihydroxybenzene isomers was investigated using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetries at the amino-functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica-modified carbon paste electrode (NH2-SBA15\\/CPE) in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0). The NH2-SBA15\\/CPE showed a larger peak current and higher selectivity for the dihydroxybenzene isomers in comparison with the bare carbon paste electrode (CPE) and SBA-15 mesoporous silica-modified carbon paste

  2. Protic-salt-derived nitrogen/sulfur-codoped mesoporous carbon for the oxygen reduction reaction and supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiguo; Ikoma, Ai; Ueno, Kazuhide; Chen, Zhengjian; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2015-05-11

    Nitrogen/sulfur-co-doped mesoporous carbon (Phen-HS) was obtained through direct carbonization of a single protic salt, that is, 1,10-phenanthrolinium dibisulfate ([Phen][2?HSO4 ]), in the presence of a colloidal silica template without the use of additional acid or metal catalysts for prepolymerization prior to carbonization. Phen-HS was prepared in a relatively high yield (30.0?%) and has a large surface area (1161?m(2) ?g(-1) ), large pore volume (2.490?cm(3) ?g(-1) ), large mesopores (?12?nm), narrow pore-size distribution (7-16?nm), and high nitrogen (7.5?at?%) and sulfur (1.3?at?%) contents. The surface area/pore-size distribution is much higher/narrower than that of most reported carbon materials obtained from traditional precursors by using the same template. Phen-HS was directly used as an electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and as an electrode material for supercapacitors. As an efficient metal-free catalyst, Phen-HS exhibited good electrocatalytic activity toward the ORR in a 0.1?M KOH aqueous solution, which is comparable to the activity of a commercial Pt/C catalyst. Electrochemical measurements for Phen-HS used in a double-layer capacitor showed high specific capacitances of 160 and 140?F?g(-1) in 1?M H2 SO4 and 6?M KOH, respectively, with good rate capabilities and high cycling stabilities. PMID:25855218

  3. Carbon spheres-assisted strategy to prepare mesoporous manganese dioxide for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Li Siheng [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, and Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Low-carbon Chemical Power, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin St., Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Qi Li, E-mail: qil@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, and Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Low-carbon Chemical Power, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin St., Changchun 130022 (China); Lu Lehui; Wang Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, and Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Low-carbon Chemical Power, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin St., Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Mesoporous MnO{sub 2} microstructures with large specific surface area have been successfully synthesized by an in-situ redox precipitation method in the presence of colloidal carbon spheres. The samples of them had much higher specific surface area, pore size and pore volume than those obtained via routes without carbon spheres. The morphology, chemical compositions and porous nature of products were fully characterized. Electrochemical measurements showed that these mesoporous MnO{sub 2} could function well when used as positive electrode materials for supercapacitor. Ideal electrochemical capacitive performances and cyclic stability after 2000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles could be observed in 1 M neutral Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte with a working voltage of 1.7 V. - Graphical Abstract: Mesoporous MnO{sub 2} microstructures with large S{sub BET} were successfully synthesized by in-situ redox precipitation method in the presence of colloidal carbon spheres. Electrochemical measurements showed that these mesoporous MnO{sub 2} could be well used as electrode materials for supercapacitor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous MnO{sub 2} was prepared by in-situ redox method assisted by carbon spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S{sub BET}, pore size and volume were higher than MnO{sub 2} obtained without carbon spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They could function well when used as electrode materials for supercapacitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ideal capacitive behaviors and long cycling life showed after 2000 charge-discharge.

  4. Preparation of porous diatomite-templated carbons with large adsorption capacity and mesoporous zeolite K-H as a byproduct.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yuan, Weiwei; Deng, Liangliang; Yu, Wenbin; Sun, Hongjuan; Yuan, Peng

    2014-06-15

    In this study, KOH activation was performed to enhance the porosity of the diatomite-templated carbon and to increase its adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB). In addition to serving as the activation agent, KOH was also used as the etchant to remove the diatomite templates. Zeolite K-H was synthesized as a byproduct via utilization of the resultant silicon- and potassium-containing solutions created from the KOH etching of the diatomite templates. The obtained diatomite-based carbons were composed of macroporous carbon pillars and tubes, which were derived from the replication of the diatomite templates and were well preserved after KOH activation. The abundant micropores in the walls of the carbon pillars and tubes were derived from the break and reconfiguration of carbon films during both the removal of the diatomite templates and KOH activation. Compared with the original diatomite-templated carbons and CO2-activated carbons, the KOH-activated carbons had much higher specific surface areas (988 m(2)/g) and pore volumes (0.675 cm(3)/g). Moreover, the KOH-activated carbons possessed larger MB adsorption capacity (the maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity: 645.2 mg/g) than those of the original carbons and CO2-activated carbons. These results showed that KOH activation was a high effective activation method. The zeolite K-H byproduct was obtained by utilizing the silicon- and potassium-containing solution as the silicon and potassium sources. The zeolite exhibited a stick-like morphology and possessed nanosized particles with a mesopore-predominant porous structure which was observed by TEM for the first time. PMID:24767493

  5. Marked role of mesopores for the prevention of sintering and carbon deposition in dry reforming of methane over ordered mesoporous Ni–Mg–Al oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihua Shen; Hideaki Momoi; Kenta Komatsubara; Taiga Saito; Akihiro Yoshida; Shuichi Naito

    2011-01-01

    Ordered mesoropous Ni–Al and Ni–Mg–Al oxides were prepared by evaporation induce self-assembly method using Pluronic P123 as a soft template. Ni–Al and Ni–Mg–Al oxides without P123 addition were also prepared. The prepared ordered mesoporous catalysts showed much higher activity and durability for dry reforming of methane than those without ordered mesoporous structure. The N2 sorption and transmission electron microscope observation

  6. Metallic WO2-Carbon Mesoporous Nanowires as Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Zhang, Jingfang; Shi, Yanmei; Liu, Dali; Zhang, Bin

    2015-06-10

    The development of electrocatalysts to generate hydrogen, with good activity and stability, is a great challenge in the fields of chemistry and energy. Here we demonstrate a "hitting three birds with one stone" method to synthesize less toxic metallic WO2-carbon mesoporous nanowires with high concentration of oxygen vacancies (OVs) via calcination of inorganic/organic WO3-ethylenediamine hybrid precursors. The products exhibit excellent performance for H2 generation: the onset overpotential is only 35 mV, the required overpotentials for 10 and 20 mA/cm(2) are 58 and 78 mV, the Tafel slope is 46 mV/decade, the exchange current density is 0.64 mA/cm(2), and the stability is over 10 h. Further studies, in combination with density functional theory, demonstrate that the unusual electronic structure and the large amount of active sites, generated by the high concentration of OVs, as well as the closely attached carbon materials, were key factors for excellent performance. Our results experimentally and theoretically establish metallic transition metal oxides (TMOs) as intriguing novel electrocatalysts for H2 generation. Such TMOs with OVs might be promising candidates for other energy storage and conversion applications. PMID:25992910

  7. An active carbon catalyst prevents coke formation from asphaltenes during the hydrocracking of vacuum residue

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuyama, H.; Terai, S. [Toyo Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technological Research Center

    2007-07-01

    Active carbons were prepared by the steam activation of a brown coal char. The active carbon with mesopores showed greater adsorption selectivity for asphaltenes. The active carbon was effective at suppressing coke formation, even with the high hydrocracking conversion of vacuum residue. The analysis of the change in the composition of saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes in the cracked residue with conversion demonstrated the ability of active carbon to restrict the transformation of asphaltenes to coke. The active carbon that was richer in mesopores was presumably more effective at providing adsorption sites for the hydrocarbon free-radicals generated initially during thermal cracking to prevent them from coupling and polycondensing.

  8. Europium-doped mesoporous anatase with enhanced photocatalytic activity toward elimination of gaseous methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianting; Chen, Xiaomiao; Liu, Yu; Gong, Wei; Peng, Zhenshan; Cai, Tiejun; Jin, Liangwen; Deng, Qian

    2012-02-01

    Mesoporous anatase doped with various amounts of Eu were synthesized via a sol-gel route using Pluronic P123 as template. The XRD and TEM results show that Eu doping favors the formation of anatase with smaller crystal size. The photocatalytic activity of the mesoporous anatase was tested in photocatalytic elimination of gaseous methanol. The photocatalysts exhibited higher activity than that of the commercial photocatalyst (Degussa, P25) under either ultraviolet or visible light irradiation. The superior activity of the mesoporous anatase may be attributed to the synergic effects of the surface area, crystal size and doped Eu species.

  9. Hollow core\\/mesoporous shell carbon as a highly efficient catalyst support in direct formic acid fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baizeng Fang; Minsik Kim; Jong-Sung Yu

    2008-01-01

    Spherical carbon capsules with a hollow macroporous core of ca. 260nm and a ca. 40nm thick mesoporous shell were explored for the first time as an anode catalyst support in direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC). Hollow core\\/mesoporous shell carbon (HCMSC) possesses fantastic structural characteristics such as uniform particle size, well-developed three-dimensionally interconnected bimodal porosity, and large specific surface area

  10. Magnetic mesoporous Fe/carbon aerogel structures with enhanced arsenic removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Chen, Jia-Ling

    2014-04-15

    Wastewater treatment has drawn significant research attention due to its associated environmental issues. Adsorption is a promising method for treating wastewater. The development of an adsorbent with a high surface area is important. Therefore, we successfully developed mesoporous Fe/carbon aerogel (CA) structures with high specific surface areas of 48 7m(2)/g via the carbonization of composite Fe3O4/phenol-formaldehyde resin structures, which were prepared using a hydrothermal process with the addition of phenol. The mesoporous Fe/CA structures were further used for the adsorption of arsenic ions with a maximum arsenic-ion uptake of calculated 216.9 mg/g, which is higher than that observed for other arsenic adsorbents. Ferromagnetic behavior was observed for the as-prepared mesoporous Fe/CA structures with an excellent response to applied external magnetic fields. As a result, the adsorbent Fe/CA structures can be easily separated from the solution using an external magnetic field. This study develops the mesoporous Fe/CA structures with high specific surface areas and an excellent response to an applied external magnetic field to provide a feasible approach for wastewater treatment including the removal of arsenic ions. PMID:24559703

  11. Mesoporous carbon as a novel drug carrier of fenofibrate for enhancement of the dissolution and oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xia; Wan, Long; Hou, Zhong; Wang, Tianyi; Sun, Changshan; Sun, Jin; Zhao, Peng; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2013-08-16

    The purpose of this study was to develop mesoporous carbon loaded with a poorly watersoluble drug to enhance the drug dissolution and improve the oral bioavailability. Mesoporous carbon was synthesized using Pluronic 127 triblock polymer (F127), TEOS and phenolic resins. Fenofibrate (FFB) was chosen as a model drug and loaded onto mesoporous carbon using three different loading methods involving incipient wetness impregnation, and the solvent and melting methods. The effect of the physical state and the specific surface area were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that the physicochemical properties of the drug as well as the drug loading methods had critical effects on the drug release rate. In vitro drug release studies showed that incorporation of FFB in mesoporous carbon greatly enhanced the dissolution rate in comparison with that of the pure crystalline drug. Moreover, the oral bioavailability of the drug from mesoporous carbon was higher than that of FFB commercial capsules. Furthermore, mesoporous carbon produced no irritation of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract as shown by gastric mucosa irritation test. PMID:23688621

  12. Electrochemical behavior of methyl parathion and its sensitive determination at a glassy carbon electrode modified with ordered mesoporous carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng Pan; Shumin Ma; Xiangjie Bo; Liping Guo

    2011-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was synthesized and used to modify the surface of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Due to the\\u000a unique properties of OMC, a decrease in the overvoltage of the reduction potential of methyl parathion (MP) (to ca. 219 mV)\\u000a and a 76-fold increase in the peak current are observed (compared with a bare GC electrode). The absorption capacity

  13. Well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles on polydopamine-coated ordered mesoporous carbons and their electrocatalytic application.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijiao; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhu, Dongxia; Guo, Liping

    2014-03-01

    Polydopamine (PDA)-coated ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) are easily prepared through one-step self-polymerization of dopamine on OMCs matrix at room temperature. Pt nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited on OMCs-PDA via a simple chemical reduction. The PDA layer helps to improve the water-solubility and dispersibility of OMCs, and plays a key role in the deposition of uniform and well-distributed Pt NPs. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the ultra-fine Pt NPs with an average size of ~1.8 nm are well-dispersed on the surface of OMCs-PDA. The electrocatalytic behavior of OMCs-PDA/Pt modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and current-time methods using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrazine (N2H4) as redox probes. Results show that OMCs-PDA/Pt exhibits improved electrocatalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction and N2H4 oxidation compared with OMCs/Pt. The linear electro-redox responses are found for H2O2 and N2H4 in the range of 2-14324 ?M and 1-229 ?M with the detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.85 ?M and 0.51 ?M, respectively. In addition, this new nanocomposite modified electrode exhibits high sensitivity, good anti-interference ability, excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. PMID:24468374

  14. General Method for the Synthesis of Hollow Mesoporous Carbon Spheres with Tunable Textural Properties.

    PubMed

    Mezzavilla, Stefano; Baldizzone, Claudio; Mayrhofer, Karl J J; Schüth, Ferdi

    2015-06-17

    A versatile synthetic procedure to prepare hollow mesoporous carbon spheres (HMCS) is presented here. This approach is based on the deposition of a homogeneous hybrid polymer/silica composite shell on the outer surface of silica spheres through the surfactant-assisted simultaneous polycondensation of silica and polymer precursors in a colloidal suspension. Such composite materials can be further processed to give hollow mesoporous carbon spheres. The flexibility of this method allows for independent control of the morphological (i.e., core diameter and shell thickness) and textural features of the carbon spheres. In particular, it is demonstrated that the size of the pores within the mesoporous shell can be precisely tailored over an extended range (2-20 nm) by simply adjusting the reaction conditions. In a similar fashion, also the specific carbon surface area as well as the total shell porosity can be tuned. Most importantly, the textural features can be adjusted without affecting the dimension or the morphology of the spheres. The possibility to directly modify the shell textural properties by varying the synthetic parameters in a scalable process represents a distinct asset over the multistep hard-templating (nanocasting) routes. As an exemplary application, Pt nanoparticles were encapsulated in the mesoporous shell of HMCS. The resulting Pt@HMCS catalyst showed an enhanced stability during the oxygen reduction reaction, one of the most important reactions in electrocatalysis. This new synthetic procedure could allow the expansion, perhaps even beyond the lab-scale, of advanced carbon nanostructured supports for applications in catalysis. PMID:25989157

  15. Facile Synthesis of Magnetic Mesoporous Hollow Carbon Microspheres for Rapid Capture of Low-Concentration Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous and hollow carbon microspheres embedded with magnetic nanoparticles (denoted as MHM) were prepared via a facile self-sacrificial method for rapid capture of low-abundant peptides from complex biological samples. The morphology, structure, surface property, and magnetism were well-characterized. The hollow magnetic carbon microspheres have a saturation magnetization value of 130.2 emu g–1 at room temperature and a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area of 48.8 m2 g–1 with an average pore size of 9.2 nm for the mesoporous carbon shell. The effectiveness of these MHM affinity microspheres for capture of low-concentration peptides was evaluated by standard peptides, complex protein digests, and real biological samples. These multifunctional hollow carbon microspheres can realize rapid capture and convenient separation of low-concentration peptides. They were validated to have better performance than magnetic mesoporous silica and commercial peptide-enrichment products. In addition, they can be easily recycled and present excellent reusability. Therefore, it is expected that this work may provide a promising tool for high-throughput discovery of peptide biomarkers from biological samples for disease diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:24992375

  16. A geometric pore adsorption model for predicting the drug loading capacity of insoluble drugs in mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yikun; Zhu, Wenquan; Liu, Jia; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2015-05-15

    In this work, a simple and accurate geometric pore-adsorption model was established and experimentally validated for predicting the drug loading capacity in mesoporous carbon. The model was designed according to the shape of pore channels of mesoporous carbon and the arrangement of drug molecules loaded in the pores. Three different small molecule drugs (celecoxib, fenofibrate and carvedilol) were respectively loaded in mesoporous carbon with different pore sizes. In order to test the accuracy of the established model, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis was employed to confirm the pore structure of mesoporous carbon and to calculate the occupation volume of the adsorbed drugs. The adsorption isotherms of celecoxib were systematically investigated to describe the adsorption process. It was found that the experimental results of adsorption capacity were all in the range of the predicted values for all the tested drugs and mesoporous carbon. The occupation volumes calculated from the model also agreed well with the experimental data. These results demonstrated that the established model could accurately provide the range of drug loading capacity, which may provide a useful option for the prediction of the drug loading capacity of small molecule drugs in mesoporous materials. PMID:25747453

  17. Growth of Single-Layered Two-Dimensional Mesoporous Polymer/Carbon Films by Self-Assembly of Monomicelles at the Interfaces of Various Substrates.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yin; Lv, Yingying; Tang, Jing; Wu, Hao; Jia, Dingsi; Feng, Dan; Kong, Biao; Wang, Yongcheng; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Al-Dahyan, Daifallah; Zhang, Qichun; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2015-07-13

    Single-layered two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin mesoporous polymer/carbon films are grown by self-assembly of monomicelles at the interfaces of various substrates, which is a general and common modification strategy. These unconventional 2D mesoporous films possess only a single layer of mesopores, while the size of the thin films can grow up to inch size in the plane. Free-standing transparent mesoporous carbon ultrathin films, together with the ordered mesoporous structure on the substrates of different compositions (e.g. metal oxides, carbon) and morphologies (e.g. nanocubes, nanodiscs, flexible and patterned substrates) have been obtained. This strategy not only affords controllable hierarchical porous nanostructures, but also appends the easily modified and multifunctional properties of carbon to the primary substrate. By using this method, we have fabricated Fe2 O3 -mesoporous carbon photoelectrochemical biosensors, which show excellent sensitivity and selectivity for glutathione. PMID:26088947

  18. Nitrogen-doped ordered cubic mesoporous carbons as metal-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Shao, Leng-Leng; Liu, Yu-Ping; Ren, Tie-Zhen; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2015-06-01

    N-doped ordered cubic mesoporous carbons (N-OCMCs) are synthesized by a one-pot aqueous route from resorcinol and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and applied as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared N-OCMCs with ordered cubic mesoporous structure and large surface area offer appropriate electrolyte ions diffusion channels and abundant catalytically active sites for triiodide reduction. Moreover, the temperature dependence of nitrogen content and the nitrogen-doped types are demonstrated to play decisive roles in regulating the electrocatalytic activity of N-OCMC CEs and affecting the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. The DSSCs based on the N-OCMC CEs achieve an optimum power conversion efficiency of 5.60%, as high as 86.7% of the cell based on the traditional Pt CE, due to that high N-doping amount, and particularly favorable pyridinic-N and graphtitic-N types promote the charge transport and transfer process of the carbon CE. The good catalytic performance could render N-OCMC as a cost-effective CE candidate to Pt in DSSC.

  19. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Xiqing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Dai, Sheng; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-03-22

    We demonstrate a novel electrode material?nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NMC)?for vanadium redox flow batteries. Mesoporous carbon (MC) is prepared using a soft-template method and doped with nitrogen by heat-treating MC in NH3. NMC is characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The redox reaction of VO2+/VO2+ is characterized with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox couple VO2+/VO2+ is significantly enhanced on NMC electrode compared with MC and graphite electrodes. The reversibility of the redox couple VO2+/VO2+ is greatly improved on NMC (0.61 for NMC vs. 0.34 for graphite). Nitrogen doping facilitates the electron transfer on the electrode/electrolyte interface for both oxidation and reduction processes. NMC is a promising electrode material for redox flow batteries.

  20. Mesoporous graphene-like nanobowls as Pt electrocatalyst support for highly active and stable methanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zaoxue; He, Guoqiang; Jiang, Zhifeng; Wei, Wei; Gao, Lina; Xie, Jimin

    2015-06-01

    Mesoporous graphene-like nanobowls (GLBs) with high surface area of 1091 m2 g-1, high pore volume of 2.7 cm3 g-1 and average pore diameter of 9.8 nm are synthesized through template method. The GLBs with inherent excellent electrical conductivity and chemical inertia show the properties of well mass transfer, poison resistance and stable loading of smaller Pt particles. Therefore, the Pt/GLB catalyst shows much higher activity and stability than that of commercial Pt/C (TKK) for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Therein, the peak current density on Pt/GLB (2075 mA mgPt-1) for MOR is 2.87 times that of commercial Pt/C (723 mA mgPt-1); and the onset potential for the MOR on the former is negatively shifted about 160 mV compared with that on the latter. The catalytic performances of the Pt/GLB are also better than those of the Pt loading on mesoporous amorphous carbon nanobowls (Pt/BLC), indicating promotion effect of graphite on Pt catalytic performance.

  1. Templated synthesis of pyridine functionalized mesoporous carbons through the cyclotrimerization of diethynylpyridines

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Yongsoon; Fryxell, Glen E.; Johnson, Charles; Haley, Michael M.

    2008-02-12

    Templated mesoporous carbons designed around the pyridine functionality have been made using the cyclotrimerization of a variety of diethynylpyridines. The substitution pattern of the ethynyl moieties about the pyridine ring system was found to have a significant impact on the structure and properties of the final product. A model is proposed that focuses on the self-assembly of the diethynylpyridine monomer on the silica surface, and the order and orientation of the ethynyl moieties within this monolayer.

  2. Surface Engineering of Polypropylene Membranes with Carbonic Anhydrase-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Improved Carbon Dioxide Hydration.

    PubMed

    Yong, Joel K J; Cui, Jiwei; Cho, Kwun Lun; Stevens, Geoff W; Caruso, Frank; Kentish, Sandra E

    2015-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a native enzyme that facilitates the hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions. This study reports the fabrication of thin films of active CA enzyme onto a porous membrane substrate using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Deposition of multilayer films consisting of polyelectrolytes and CA was monitored by quartz crystal microgravimetry, while the enzymatic activity was assayed according to the rates of p-nitrophenylacetate (p-NPA) hydrolysis and CO2 hydration. The fabrication of the films onto a nonporous glass substrate showed CO2 hydration rates of 0.52 ± 0.09 ?mol cm(-2) min(-1) per layer of bovine CA and 2.6 ± 0.7 ?mol cm(-2) min(-1) per layer of a thermostable microbial CA. The fabrication of a multilayer film containing the microbial CA on a porous polypropylene membrane increased the hydration rate to 5.3 ± 0.8 ?mol cm(-2) min(-1) per layer of microbial CA. The addition of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a film layer prior to enzyme adsorption was found to increase the activity on the polypropylene membranes even further to a rate of 19 ± 4 ?mol cm(-2) min(-1) per layer of microbial CA. The LbL treatment of these membranes increased the mass transfer resistance of the membrane but decreased the likelihood of membrane pore wetting. These results have potential application in the absorption of carbon dioxide from combustion flue gases into aqueous solvents using gas-liquid membrane contactors. PMID:25984966

  3. One-pot synthesis of platinum-based nanoparticles incorporated into mesoporous niobium oxide-carbon composites for fuel cell electrodes.

    PubMed

    Orilall, M Christopher; Matsumoto, Futoshi; Zhou, Qin; Sai, Hiroaki; Abruña, Héctor D; DiSalvo, Francis J; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2009-07-01

    Catalyst-electrode design is crucial for the commercialization and widespread use of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. There are considerable challenges in making less expensive, more durable, and more active catalysts. Herein, we report the one-pot synthesis of Pt and Pt-Pb nanoparticles incorporated into the pores of mesoporous niobium oxide-carbon composites. The self-assembly of block copolymers with niobium oxide and metal precursors results in an ordered mesostructured hybrid. Appropriate heat treatment of this hybrid produces highly crystalline, well-ordered mesoporous niobium oxide-carbon composites with Pt (or Pt-Pb) nanoparticles incorporated into the mesopores. The in situ-generated graphitic-like carbon material prevents the collapse of the mesostructure, while the metal oxide crystallizes at high temperatures and enhances the electrical conductivity of the final material. Formic acid electrooxidation with this novel material shows 4 times higher mass activities (3.3 mA/microg) and somewhat lower onset potentials (-0.24 V vs Ag/AgCl) than the best previously reported values employing Pt-Pb intermetallic nanoparticles supported on conducting carbon (0.85 mA/microg and -0.18 V, respectively). PMID:19566103

  4. Methanol electrooxidation at mesoporous Pt and Pt-Ru electrodes: A comparative study with carbon supported materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Gonzalo; Florez-Montaño, Jonathan; Hernandez-Creus, Alberto; Pastor, Elena; Planes, Gabriel A.

    2011-03-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of fuel cell catalysts (mesoporous Pt (MPPt), MPPtRu, MPPt modified by adsorbed Ru (MPPt/Ru) and carbon supported PtRu alloy) was studied using the thin layer flow cell differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (TLFC-DEMS) technique. The catalysts present high catalytic activity towards the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), being the PtRu/C electrode the least active for MOR, while MPPt/Ru presents higher current densities for this reaction than MPPtRu. The results suggest that the diffusion properties obtained in the porous structure of the MP electrodes and the surface atomic arrangement in the electrode are the main reasons for the higher catalytic activity achieved. Finally, TLFC-DEMS was proved to be a powerful technique which evaluates and correlates the CO2 efficiency with the catalytic activity and the porous structure of the catalysts.

  5. Comparative study on pore structures of mesoporous ZSM-5 from resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel and carbon aerogel templating.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yousheng; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Matumoto, Akihiko; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2005-01-13

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels and carbon aerogels of different mesoporosities have been used as templates for preparing bimodal zeolites of mesopores. Samples were thoroughly characterized with X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption at 77 K, as well as FT-IR spectroscopy and (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites have additional mesopores of 9-25 nm in widths and 0.07-0.2 cm(3)/g in volumes, besides their perfect inherent micropores. Experimental results show the mesoporous systems of the finally obtained zeolites can be influenced by proper preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels and carbon aerogels through solution chemistry. Consequently, zeolites of tunable mesoporosities can be prepared with this unique methodology. PMID:16851004

  6. Unidirectional self-assembly of soft templated mesoporous carbons by zone annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiachen; Singh, Gurpreet; Qiang, Zhe; Karim, Alamgir; Vogt, Bryan D.

    2013-08-01

    Surfactant or block copolymer-templated mesoporous films have been extensively explored, but achieving mesostructure coherence and unidirectional orientation over macroscopic dimensions has remained quite challenging for these self-assembled systems. Here, we extend the concepts associated with zone refinement of crystalline materials to soft templated mesoporous carbon films based on the cooperative assembly of commercial non-ionic surfactants (block copolymers) and phenolic resin oligomers (resol) to provide macroscopic alignment of both cubic (FDU-16) and hexagonal (FDU-15) mesostructures. The average orientation of these mesophases is determined from rotation grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. For FDU-15 templated by Pluronic P123, the orientation factor for the zone-annealed film is 0.98 based on the average of the second Legendre polynomial, but this orientation deteriorates significantly during carbonization. Notably, a thermal stabilization step following zone annealing preserves the orientation of the mesostructure during carbonization. The orientation factor for an isotropic cubic structure (FDU-16 templated by Pluronic F127) is only 0.48 (based on the 111 reflection with incident angle 0.15°) for the same zone annealing protocol, but this illustrates the versatility of zone annealing to different mesostructures. Unexpectedly, zone annealing of FDU-15 templated by Pluronic F127 leads to stabilization of the mesostructure through carbonization, whereas this structure collapses fully during carbonization even after extended oven annealing; despite no clear macroscopic orientation of the cylindrical mesostructure from zone annealing. Thermal zone annealing provides a simple methodology to produce highly ordered and macroscopically oriented stable mesoporous carbon films, but the efficacy is strongly tied to the mobility of the template during the zone annealing.Surfactant or block copolymer-templated mesoporous films have been extensively explored, but achieving mesostructure coherence and unidirectional orientation over macroscopic dimensions has remained quite challenging for these self-assembled systems. Here, we extend the concepts associated with zone refinement of crystalline materials to soft templated mesoporous carbon films based on the cooperative assembly of commercial non-ionic surfactants (block copolymers) and phenolic resin oligomers (resol) to provide macroscopic alignment of both cubic (FDU-16) and hexagonal (FDU-15) mesostructures. The average orientation of these mesophases is determined from rotation grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. For FDU-15 templated by Pluronic P123, the orientation factor for the zone-annealed film is 0.98 based on the average of the second Legendre polynomial, but this orientation deteriorates significantly during carbonization. Notably, a thermal stabilization step following zone annealing preserves the orientation of the mesostructure during carbonization. The orientation factor for an isotropic cubic structure (FDU-16 templated by Pluronic F127) is only 0.48 (based on the 111 reflection with incident angle 0.15°) for the same zone annealing protocol, but this illustrates the versatility of zone annealing to different mesostructures. Unexpectedly, zone annealing of FDU-15 templated by Pluronic F127 leads to stabilization of the mesostructure through carbonization, whereas this structure collapses fully during carbonization even after extended oven annealing; despite no clear macroscopic orientation of the cylindrical mesostructure from zone annealing. Thermal zone annealing provides a simple methodology to produce highly ordered and macroscopically oriented stable mesoporous carbon films, but the efficacy is strongly tied to the mobility of the template during the zone annealing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: GISAXS profiles for the FDU-15-F127 at ? = 0° and ? = 90° is included along with 2D GISAXS data for all azimuthal data associated with FDU-15-P123 to illustrate th

  7. PtRu nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped polyhedral mesoporous carbons as electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunsong; Zhu, Rong; Cui, Ying; Zhong, Jindi; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jinhua

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (NMPCs) with well-developed polyhedral morphology were prepared by direct carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanopolyhedrons. The fantastic structural characteristics of NMPCs such as ultrahigh BET surface area (1960 m(2) g(-1)), large pore volume (1.16 cm(3) g(-1)), and nitrogen doping make it an excellent catalyst support. PtRu nanoparticles (with a size of approximately 1.9 nm) were homogeneously supported on NMPCs by microwave-assisted reduction in ethylene glycol, and the obtained PtRu/NMPCs catalyst shows a significantly higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation than the typical commercial PtRu/C (E-TEK) catalyst. PMID:24594620

  8. A co-confined carbonization approach to aligned nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon nanofibers and its application as an adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aibing; Liu, Chao; Yu, Yifeng; Hu, Yongqi; Lv, Haijun; Zhang, Yue; Shen, Shufeng; Zhang, Jian

    2014-07-15

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) with an aligned mesoporous structure were synthesized by a co-confined carbonization method using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as co-confined templates and ionic liquids as the precursor. The as-synthesized MCNFs with the diameter of 80-120nm possessed a bulk nitrogen content of 5.3wt% and bimodal mesoporous structure. The nitrogen atoms were mostly bound to the graphitic network in two forms, i.e. pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen, providing adsorption sites for acidic gases like SO2 and CO2. Cyclic experiments revealed a considerable stability of MCNFs over 20 runs of SO2 adsorption and 15 runs for CO2 adsorption. The MCNFs also have a preferable adsorption performance for Cd(2+). PMID:24887121

  9. Unidirectional self-assembly of soft templated mesoporous carbons by zone annealing.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiachen; Singh, Gurpreet; Qiang, Zhe; Karim, Alamgir; Vogt, Bryan D

    2013-09-01

    Surfactant or block copolymer-templated mesoporous films have been extensively explored, but achieving mesostructure coherence and unidirectional orientation over macroscopic dimensions has remained quite challenging for these self-assembled systems. Here, we extend the concepts associated with zone refinement of crystalline materials to soft templated mesoporous carbon films based on the cooperative assembly of commercial non-ionic surfactants (block copolymers) and phenolic resin oligomers (resol) to provide macroscopic alignment of both cubic (FDU-16) and hexagonal (FDU-15) mesostructures. The average orientation of these mesophases is determined from rotation grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. For FDU-15 templated by Pluronic P123, the orientation factor for the zone-annealed film is 0.98 based on the average of the second Legendre polynomial, but this orientation deteriorates significantly during carbonization. Notably, a thermal stabilization step following zone annealing preserves the orientation of the mesostructure during carbonization. The orientation factor for an isotropic cubic structure (FDU-16 templated by Pluronic F127) is only 0.48 (based on the 111 reflection with incident angle 0.15°) for the same zone annealing protocol, but this illustrates the versatility of zone annealing to different mesostructures. Unexpectedly, zone annealing of FDU-15 templated by Pluronic F127 leads to stabilization of the mesostructure through carbonization, whereas this structure collapses fully during carbonization even after extended oven annealing; despite no clear macroscopic orientation of the cylindrical mesostructure from zone annealing. Thermal zone annealing provides a simple methodology to produce highly ordered and macroscopically oriented stable mesoporous carbon films, but the efficacy is strongly tied to the mobility of the template during the zone annealing. PMID:23857325

  10. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gui-Qiang Wang; Cong-Cong Huang; Wei Xing; Shu-Ping Zhuo

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical porous carbon is prepared by a combination of self-organization and chemical activation and explored as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Pore structure analysis shows that micropores generated within the mesopore wall and the pristine mesopore structure of mesoporous carbon are preserved during KOH activation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies demonstrate a relatively high electrocatalytic activity of hierarchical porous carbon

  11. The electrochemical performance of ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composite material for supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jicheng; Zhao, Jiachang; Tang, Bohejin; Liu, Ping [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, Jingli, E-mail: jinglixu@sues.edu.c [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A series of high performance ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composites have been synthesized by a combination of incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method for the first time. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the composites derived at the hydrothermal temperature of 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 275 and 300 {sup o}C. The formation of nanosized nickel compounds, fully inside the mesopore system, was confirmed with XRD and TEM. An N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms measurements still revealed mesoporosity for the host/guest compounds. It is noteworthy that an OMC/nickel nitrate hydroxide hydrate composite (OMCN-150) exhibits more excellent performance. Based on the various hydrothermal temperatures of the composite, the capacitance of an OMCN-150 delivering the best electrochemical performance is about 2.4 (5 mV s{sup -1}) and 1.5 (50 mV s{sup -1}) times of the pristine OMC. The capacitance retention of an OMCN-150 is 96.1%, which indicates that the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor is improved greatly, and represents novel research and significant advances in the field of electrode composite materials for supercapacitor. -- Graphical abstract: A series of high performance nickel compound/ordered mesoporous carbon composites were synthesized by a combination of incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method for the first time. Display Omitted

  12. Palladium nanoparticles decorated mesoporous carbon spheres as catalyst for reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin Hua; Moon, Byeong Kyu; Byeon, Seong Jin; Heo, Min Seon; Kim, Ii

    2014-11-01

    Two kinds of polyaromatics with mesoporous have been synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons using anhydrous zinc chloride as the Friedel-Crafts catalyst and chloromethyl methyl ether as a cross-linker, after the Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) decorated on the mesoporous carbon spheres (Pd@CSs) have been prepared by simply mixing the as-prepared polyaromatics (polynaphthalene or polypyrene) with PdCl2, reducing the Pd2+ to Pd0 by using NaBH4, followed by thermal treatment at 600 degrees C for 5 h in nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized PdNPs have a uniform size distribution with an average size smaller than 15 nm and they can be loaded on the highly mesoporous carbon microspheres. Structural of the resulting Pd@CSs were carried out using FE-SEM, HR-TEM, X-ray differaction, dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The resulting Pd@CSs have been investigated as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, showing the Pd@CSs have high catalytic reactivity and recyclability. PMID:25958601

  13. Control of ordering and structure in soft templated mesoporous carbon films by use of selective solvent additives.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhe; Xue, Jiachen; Stein, Gila E; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2013-07-01

    The structure of ordered mesoporous carbons fabricated using poly(styrene-block-N,N,-dimethyl-n-octadecylamine p-styrenesulfonate) (PS-b-PSS-DMODA) as the template and phenolic resin (resol) as the carbon source can be easily manipulated by inclusion of low concentrations of low volatility selective solvents in the casting solution. Casting from neat methyl ethyl ketone yields a disordered structure even upon thermal annealing. However, addition of both dioctyl phthalate (DOP, PS selective) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, resol and PSS-DMODA selective) at modest concentrations to this casting solution provides sufficient mobility to produce highly ordered films with cylindrical mesopores. The DOP acts to swell the hydrophobic domain and can more than double the mesopore size, while the DMSO acts to swell the resol phase. Moreover, the surface area of the mesoporous carbons increases significantly as the meosopore size increases. This is a result of the decrease in wall thickness, which can be ascertained by the constant d-spacing of the mesostructure as the pore size increases. This behavior is counter to the typical effect of pore swelling agents that increase the pore size and decrease the surface area. Moreover, with only 4 wt % DOP/DMSO in the solution (20 wt % relative to solids), the scattering profiles exhibit many orders of diffraction, even upon carbonization, which is not typically observed for soft templated films. Variation in the concentration of DOP and DMSO during casting enables facile tuning of the structure of mesoporous carbon films. PMID:23738851

  14. Switchable fluorescent imaging of intracellular telomerase activity using telomerase-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ruocan; Ding, Lin; Ju, Huangxian

    2013-09-11

    This work designs a telomerase-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) to realize in situ "off-on" imaging of intracellular telomerase activity. In the wrapping DNA (O1) sealed MSN probe, a black hole fluorescence quencher is covalently immobilized on the inner walls of the mesopores, while fluorescein is loaded in the mesopores. In the presence of telomerase and dNTPs, the designed O1 can be extended and then moves away from the MSN surface via forming a rigid hairpin-like DNA structure. Thus the O1 can act as a "biogate" to block and release fluorescein for "off-on" switchable fluorescent imaging. The MSN probe exhibits good performance for sensitive in situ tracking of telomerase activity in living cells. The practicality of this protocol has been verified by monitoring the change of cellular telomerase activity in response to telomerase-related drugs. PMID:23978191

  15. Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of bulk g-C?N? by introducing mesoporous structure and hybridizing with graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhan; Sun, Yanjuan; Dong, Fan; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2014-12-15

    Bulk graphitic carbon nitride (CN) suffers from small surface area and high recombination of charge carriers, which result in low photocatalytic activity. To enhance the activity of g-C3N4, the surface area should be enlarged and charge carrier separation should be promoted. In this work, a combined strategy was employed to dramatically enhance the activity of bulk g-C3N4 by simultaneously introducing mesoporous structure and hybridizing with graphene/graphene oxide. The mesoporous g-C3N4/graphene (MCN-G) and mesoporous g-C3N4/graphene oxide (MCN-GO) nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity (NO removal ratio of 64.9% and 60.7%) were fabricated via a facile sonochemical method. The visible light-harvesting ability of MCN-G and MCN-GO hybrids was enhanced and the conduction band was negatively shifted when 1.0 wt% graphene/graphene oxide was incorporated into the matrix of MCN. As electronic conductive channels, the G/GO sheets could efficiently facilitate the separation of chare carriers. MCN-G and MCN-GO exhibited drastically enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity toward NO removal. The NO removal ratio increased from 16.8% for CN to 64.9% for MCN-G and 60.7% for MCN-GO. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the increased surface area and pore volume, improved visible light utilization, enhanced reduction power of electrons, and promoted separation of charge carriers. This work demonstrates that a combined strategy is extremely effective for the development of active photocatalysts in environmental and energetic applications. PMID:25265582

  16. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Shao, Yuyan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Engelhard, Mark H [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Congmin [ORNL; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); YANG, ZHENGUO [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lin, Yuehe [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an excellent performance of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (N-MPC) for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries. Mesoporous carbon (MPC) is prepared using a soft-template method and doped with nitrogen by heat-treating MPC in NH{sub 3}. N-MPC is characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The redox reaction of [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is characterized with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox couple [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is significantly enhanced on N-MPC electrode compared with MPC and graphite electrodes. The reversibility of the redox couple [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is greatly improved on N-MPC (0.61 for N-MPC vs. 0.34 for graphite), which is expected to increase the energystorage efficiency of redoxflowbatteries. Nitrogen doping facilitates the electron transfer on electrode/electrolyte interface for both oxidation and reduction processes. N-MPC is a promising material for redoxflowbatteries. This also opens up new and wider applications of nitrogen-doped carbon.

  17. Preparation of aluminum-containing mesoporous silica with hierarchical macroporous architecture and its enhanced catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Kamegawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Shota; Seto, Hiroki; Zhou, Dayang; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2013-08-28

    Aluminum-containing mesoporous silica with hierarchical macroporous architecture (Al-MMS) was successfully prepared using a solvent evaporation method through the combination of precursor solution for synthesis of Al-containing mesoporous silica (Al-MS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) colloidal crystals as a hard template. The porous structure and the state of aluminum were investigated using various characterization techniques. The construction of combined structure of Al-MMS, i.e., hierarchical macroporous architecture consisting of thin mesoporous silica frameworks, led to the formation of many mesopore entrances and the shortening of the mesoporous channels. In the tetrahydropyranylation of linear alcohols with dihydropyran (DHP), Al-MMS exhibited higher catalytic activities for the formation of corresponding tetrahydropyranyl ethers as compared to Al-MS. The advantageous structure of Al-MMS enables the efficient transport of reactants to the catalytically active sites, which realizes the significant enhancement of catalytic performances in the reaction of DHP with alcohols having longer alkyl chains. PMID:23770834

  18. Preparation, phase transformation and photocatalytic activities of cerium-doped mesoporous titania nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Jiangrong [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Peng Tianyou [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.cn; Li Ran [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Peng Zhenghe [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yan Chunhua [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-04-15

    Cerium-doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with high surface area and thermal stable anatase wall were synthesized via hydrothermal process in a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/Ti(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}/Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption and DRS spectra. Experimental results indicated that the doping of cerium not only increased the surface area of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, but also inhibited the mesopores collapse and the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation. Moreover, the undoped, doped anatase mesoporous nanoparticles exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than commercial photocatalyst (Degussa, P25), but the maximum photodegradation rate corresponds to the undoped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The lower photocatalytic activities of cerium-doped samples compared with undoped one may be ascribed to that the doped cerium partially blocks titania's surface sites available for the photodegradation and absorption of Rhodamine B (RB)

  19. Mesoporous carbon adsorbents from melamine-formaldehyde resin using nanocasting technique for CO2 adsorption.

    PubMed

    Goel, Chitrakshi; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K

    2015-06-01

    Mesoporous carbon adsorbents, having high nitrogen content, were synthesized via nanocasting technique with melamine-formaldehyde resin as precursor and mesoporous silica as template. A series of adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbonization temperature from 400 to 700°C. Adsorbents were characterized thoroughly by nitrogen sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental (CHN) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Boehm titration. Carbonization temperature controlled the properties of the synthesized adsorbents ranging from surface area to their nitrogen content, which play major role in their application as adsorbents for CO2 capture. The nanostructure of these materials was confirmed by XRD and TEM. Their nitrogen content decreased with an increase in carbonization temperature while other properties like surface area, pore volume, thermal stability and surface basicity increased with the carbonization temperature. These materials were evaluated for CO2 adsorption by fixed-bed column adsorption experiments. Adsorbent synthesized at 700°C was found to have the highest surface area and surface basicity along with maximum CO2 adsorption capacity among the synthesized adsorbents. Breakthrough time and CO2 equilibrium adsorption capacity were investigated from the breakthrough curves and were found to decrease with increase in adsorption temperature. Adsorption process for carbon adsorbent-CO2 system was found to be reversible with stable adsorption capacity over four consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. From three isotherm models used to analyze the equilibrium data, Temkin isotherm model presented a nearly perfect fit implying the heterogeneous adsorbent surface. PMID:26040750

  20. Silica nanonetwork confined in nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon framework for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yeru; Cai, Lifeng; Chen, Luyi; Lin, Xidong; Fu, Ruowen; Zhang, Mingqiu; Wu, Dingcai

    2015-03-01

    A new class of nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon/silica (N-OMC/SiO2) nanocomposites was successfully fabricated via a multi-constituent co-assembly strategy. The N-OMC/SiO2 nanocomposite presented a unique interpenetrating carbon/silica structure whose carbon/silica interface is highly uniform, and thus demonstrated high capacity, good cycling and excellent rate properties. PMID:25673004

  1. Influence of heat-treatment on lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Fanyan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hou, Zhaohui, E-mail: zhqh96@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); He, Binhong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Ge, Chongyong; Cao, Jianguo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Kuang, Yafei, E-mail: yafeik@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ? Mesoporous carbons possess unique nanosheet-like pore walls which can be changed by heat treatment. ? Lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons could be influenced by the nanosheet-like walls. ? Mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties LIBs. -- Abstract: Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with nanosheet-like walls have been prepared as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries by a simple one-step infiltrating method under the action of capillary flow. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the surface topography, pore/phase structure and anode performances of as-prepared materials has been investigated. The results reveal that melted liquid-crystal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be anchored on liquid/silica interfaces by molecule engineering. After carbonization, the nanosheets are formed as the pore walls of MCs and are perpendicular to the long axis of pores. The anode properties demonstrate that C-1200 displays higher reversible capacitance than those treated in higher temperature. The rate performances of C-1200 and C-1800 are similar and more excellent than that of C-2400. These improved lithium ion anode properties could be attributed to the nanosheet-like walls of MCs which can be influenced by the heat treatment temperature.

  2. Hierarchically designed three-dimensional macro/mesoporous carbon frameworks for advanced electrochemical capacitance storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbing; Li, Peixu; Wu, Shiting; Li, Xinyang; Shi, Enzheng; Shen, Qicang; Wu, Dehai; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Yuan, Quan

    2015-04-13

    Mesoporous carbon (m-C) has potential applications as porous electrodes for electrochemical energy storage, but its applications have been severely limited by the inherent fragility and low electrical conductivity. A rational strategy is presented to construct m-C into hierarchical porous structures with high flexibility by using a carbon nanotube (CNT) sponge as a three-dimensional template, and grafting Pt nanoparticles at the m-C surface. This method involves several controllable steps including solution deposition of a mesoporous silica (m-SiO2 ) layer onto CNTs, chemical vapor deposition of acetylene, and etching of m-SiO2 , resulting in a CNT@m-C core-shell or a CNT@m-C@Pt core-shell hybrid structure after Pt adsorption. The underlying CNT network provides a robust yet flexible support and a high electrical conductivity, whereas the m-C provides large surface area, and the Pt nanoparticles improves interfacial electron and ion diffusion. Consequently, specific capacitances of 203 and 311?F?g(-1) have been achieved in these CNT@m-C and CNT@m-C@Pt sponges as supercapacitor electrodes, respectively, which can retain 96?% of original capacitance under large degree compression. PMID:25752493

  3. Transport of ions in mesoporous carbon electrodes during capacitive deionization of high-salinity solutions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Kim, Y-H; Gabitto, J; Mayes, R T; Yiacoumi, S; Bilheux, H Z; Walker, L M H; Dai, S; Tsouris, C

    2015-01-27

    Desalination of high-salinity solutions has been studied using a novel experimental technique and a theoretical model. Neutron imaging has been employed to visualize lithium ions in mesoporous carbon materials, which are used as electrodes in capacitive deionization (CDI) for water desalination. Experiments were conducted with a flow-through CDI cell designed for neutron imaging and with lithium-6 chloride ((6)LiCl) as the electrolyte. Sequences of neutron images have been obtained at a relatively high concentration of (6)LiCl solution to provide information on the transport of ions within the electrodes. A new model that computes the individual ionic concentration profiles inside mesoporous carbon electrodes has been used to simulate the CDI process. Modifications have also been introduced into the simulation model to calculate results at high electrolyte concentrations. Experimental data and simulation results provide insight into why CDI is not effective for desalination of high ionic-strength solutions. The combination of experimental information, obtained through neutron imaging, with the theoretical model will help in the design of CDI devices, which can improve the process for high ionic-strength solutions. PMID:25533167

  4. Rapid (<3 min) microwave synthesis of block copolymer templated ordered mesoporous metal oxide and carbonate films using nitrate-citric acid systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanzhong; Bhaway, Sarang M; Wang, Yi; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Becker, Matthew L; Vogt, Bryan D

    2015-03-25

    Rapid chemical transformation from micelle templated precursors (metal nitrate and citric acid) to ordered mesoporous metal carbonates and oxides is demonstrated using microwave heating for cobalt, copper, manganese and zinc. Without aging requirements, <3 min of microwave processing yields highly ordered mesoporous films. PMID:25714045

  5. Simple template-free synthesis of high surface area mesoporous ceria and its new use as a potential adsorbent for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Shimomura, Marie; Endo, Akira

    2014-12-15

    The development of an efficient technique for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from a variety of large stationary sources is in important global issue. If we are to achieve an energy-efficient and effectively higher CO2 capture process based on an adsorption approach, we need new adsorbent materials realistic enough to provide higher CO2 loading on a volumetric basis. For this reason we have focused on the practical use of high surface area mesoporous ceria as a new application in the field of CO2 capture. In this regard, we demonstrate the simple and inexpensive template-free synthesis of mesoporous ceria with a high surface area up to 200 m(2) g(-1), and characterize it as an effective CO2 adsorbent for the first time. The mesoporous ceria is prepared based on sol-gel chemistry, where the product is simply precipitated by the self-assembly of ceria nanoparticles within a short reaction period at room temperature under highly alkaline conditions with optimized chemical compositions. The results of CO2 adsorption-desorption measurement at 298 K show that the obtained ceria with an enhanced surface area exhibits a noticeably higher CO2 adsorption capacity per volume than commercially available non-porous ceria, activated carbon and zeolite 13X over a wide pressure range with robust stability as well as regenerability. This work enables us to prepare promising new materials for the CO2 capture process based on an easy-to-handle synthesis system, and this effective material will have a broad applicability to the efficient CO2 separation from variety of industrial emission sources. The features of the obtained mesoporous ceria are reported and discussed. PMID:25265586

  6. SBA-15 Mesoporous Silica Modified with Gallic Acid and Evaluation of Its Cytotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid has been covalently conjugated to SBA-15 mesoporous silica surface through different linkers. Cytotoxic activity of the hybrid organic-inorganic systems against HeLa and KB cell lines has been analyzed. Up to 67% of HeLa or KB tumor cells growth inhibition has been achieved at low silica concentration used (10 ?g mL-1). PMID:26151908

  7. Mesoporous calcium carbonate as a phase stabilizer of amorphous celecoxib--an approach to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble pharmaceutical substances.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Johan; Andersson, Mattias; Nilsson, Peter; Mihranyan, Albert

    2013-11-01

    The bioavailability of crystalline pharmaceutical substances is often limited by their poor aqueous solubility but it can be improved by formulating the active substance in the amorphous state that is featured with a higher apparent solubility. Although the possibility of stabilizing amorphous drugs inside nano-sized pores of carbon nanotubes and ordered mesoporous silica has been shown, no conventional pharmaceutical excipients have so far been shown to possess this property. This study demonstrates the potential of using CaCO3 , a widely used excipient in oral drug formulations, to stabilize the amorphous state of active pharmaceutical ingredients, in particular celecoxib. After incorporation of celecoxib in the vaterite particles, a five to sixfold enhancement in apparent solubility of celecoxib is achieved due to pore-induced amorphization. To eliminate the possibility of uncontrolled phase transitions, the vaterite particles are stored in an inert atmosphere at 5 °C throughout the study. Also, to demonstrate that the amorphization effect is indeed associated with vaterite mesopores, accelerated stress conditions of 100% relative humidity are employed to impose transition from mesoporous vaterite to an essentially non-porous aragonite phase of CaCO3 , which shows only limited amorphization ability. Further, an improvement in solubility is also confirmed for ketoconazole when formulated with the mesoporous vaterite. Synthesis of the carrier particles and the incorporation of the active substances are carried out simultaneously in a one-step procedure, enabling easy fabrication. These results represent a promising approach to achieve enhanced bioavailability in new formulations of Type II BCS drugs. PMID:23703752

  8. Capacitive performance of ordered mesoporous carbons with tunable porous texture in ionic liquid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin; Xing, Wei; Zhuo, Shuping; Zhao, Yi

    2011-11-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbons with tunable pore size and surface chemical properties are prepared by doping boric acid using a hard-templating method. The capacitive performance of these carbons is investigated in two common ionic liquids of EMImBF 4 and EMImTSFI. As demonstrated by the structure analysis, the pore size increases from 3.3 to 5.7 nm and the content of oxygenated groups on the carbon surface increases from 2.0 to 5.2 mol% with the increase of the boron doping from 0 to 50 mol%. In ionic liquid electrolyte, the carbons mainly show typical electric double layer capacitance, and the capacitance retention ratio and ion diffusion in the carbon channels is determined to the surface chemical property. The prepared carbons present visible pseudo-capacitance due to the rapid redox reactions of the oxygenated groups in hydrophilic EMImBF 4, reflecting by the increasing of the specific surface capacitance, while no visible pseudo-capacitive behavior was observed in hydrophobic EMImTSFI.

  9. Three dimensionally ordered mesoporous carbon as a stable, high-performance Li-O? battery cathode.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Yao, Xiahui; Cheng, Qingmei; Madden, Ian P; Dornath, Paul; Chang, Chun-Chih; Fan, Wei; Wang, Dunwei

    2015-03-27

    Enabled by the reversible conversion between Li2O2 and O2, Li-O2 batteries promise theoretical gravimetric capacities significantly greater than Li-ion batteries. The poor cycling performance, however, has greatly hindered the development of this technology. At the heart of the problem is the reactivity exhibited by the carbon cathode support under cell operation conditions. One strategy is to conceal the carbon surface from reactive intermediates. Herein, we show that long cyclability can be achieved on three dimensionally ordered mesoporous (3DOm) carbon by growing a thin layer of FeO(x) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). 3DOm carbon distinguishes itself from other carbon materials with well-defined pore structures, providing a unique material to gain insight into processes key to the operations of Li-O2 batteries. When decorated with Pd?nanoparticle catalysts, the new cathode exhibits a capacity greater than 6000?mAh?g(carbon) (-1) and cyclability of more than 68?cycles. PMID:25676920

  10. Electrochemical control of ion transport through a mesoporous carbon membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Surwade, Sumedh P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chai, Songhai [ORNL] [ORNL; Choi, Jai-Pil [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, Jeseung [ORNL] [ORNL; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL] [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The transport of fluids through nanometer scale channels typically on the order of 1 -100 nm often exhibit unique properties compared to the bulk fluid. These phenomena occur because the channel dimensions and molecular size become comparable to the range of several important forces including electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Small changes in properties such as the electric double layer or surface charge can significantly affect molecular transport through the channels. Based on these emerging properties, a variety of nanofluidic devices such as nanofluidic transistors, nanofluidic diodes or lab-on-a-chip devices have been developed3-7 with a diverse range of applications including water purification, biomolecular sensing, DNA separation, and rectified ion transport. Nanofluidic devices are typically fabricated using expensive lithography techniques or sacrificial templates. Here we report a carbon-based, three-dimensional nanofluidic transport membrane that enables gated, or on/off, control of the transport of organic molecular species and metal ions using an applied electrical potential. In the absence of an applied potential, both cationic and anionic molecules freely diffuse across the membrane via a concentration gradient. However, when an electrochemical potential is applied, the transport of ions through the membrane is inhibited.

  11. Nanocast Ordered Mesoporous CeO 2 as Support for Highly Active Gold Catalyst in CO Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huili ZHANG; Xiaojie YAN; Wencui LI

    2009-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous ceria oxides (CeO2) were synthesized by nanocasting using ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) as the template and cerium nitrate as the CeO2 precursor. The as-prepared materials were characterized by thermogravimetry, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption. The obtained ceria exhibits a 2-D hexagonal ordered structure with a high surface area of up to 167

  12. Nanocomposite of LiFePO4 and mesoporous carbon prepared by microwave heating for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Kwang Chul; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Jae-Won

    2013-11-01

    A nanocomposite of LiFePO4 and mesoporous carbon was synthesized from MgO-templated mesoporous carbon by microwave heating for use as a cathode material in rechargeable Li batteries. Our research group reported a composition method using a porous template in the a previous paper.[1] Despite its low carbon content, the present composite shows better electrochemical performance than our previously reported version. The LiFePO4 nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in the template because of the suppressed growth of LiFePO4 crystals in the template pores and small thermal gradient resulting from microwave heating. The three-dimensional conducting carbon network between the LiFePO4 nanoparticles led to excellent cycling stability and rate capability. No decrease in discharge capacity was observed up to 100 cycles, and 85% of the reversible capacity at a Crate of 0.1 was retained at a C-rate of 30.

  13. Mesoporous Ge/GeO2/Carbon Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with High Capacity and High Reversibility.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jongkook; Jo, Changshin; Kim, Min Gyu; Chun, Jinyoung; Lim, Eunho; Kim, Seongseop; Jeong, Sanha; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Jinwoo

    2015-05-26

    We report mesoporous composite materials (m-GeO2, m-GeO2/C, and m-Ge-GeO2/C) with large pore size which are synthesized by a simple block copolymer directed self-assembly. m-Ge/GeO2/C shows greatly enhanced Coulombic efficiency, high reversible capacity (1631 mA h g(-1)), and stable cycle life compared with the other mesoporous and bulk GeO2 electrodes. m-Ge/GeO2/C exhibits one of the highest areal capacities (1.65 mA h cm(-2)) among previously reported Ge- and GeO2-based anodes. The superior electrochemical performance in m-Ge/GeO2/C arises from the highly improved kinetics of conversion reaction due to the synergistic effects of the mesoporous structures and the conductive carbon and metallic Ge. PMID:25867753

  14. Carbon-Coated Mesoporous TiO2 Nanocrystals Grown on Graphene for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zehui; Zhang, Ludan; Li, Wei; Yu, Aishui; Wu, Peiyi

    2015-05-20

    Graphene-based hybrids have been well studied as advanced catalysts and high-performance electrode materials. In this Article, we have fabricated a novel graphene@mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals@carbon nanosheet by a simple one-step solvothermal method. We have found that titanocene dichloride can act as an extraordinary source with multiple roles for forming TiO2 nanocrystals, ultrathin carbon outer shells, and cross-linkers to binding TiO2 nanocrystals on graphene surface. Moreover, it also serves as a controlling agent to produce mesoporous structure on TiO2 nanocrystals. The loading-concentration of mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals on graphene sheets can be well controlled by adjusting the initial content of titanocene dichloride. The as-obtained graphene@mTiO2@carbon nanosheets possess a uniform sandwich-like structure, highly crystalline mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals, a high surface area of ?209 m(2)/g, and a large pore volume of ?0.68 cm(3) g(-1). When used as anodes for LIBs, the resultant nanosheets show a high reversible capacity (?145 mAh/g), good rate capability, and long cycling life (capacity remains 110 mAh/g after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A/g). We believe that our method represents a new path way to synthesize novel nanostructured graphene-based hybrids for future applications. PMID:25928471

  15. Large-Scale, Three–Dimensional, Free–Standing, and Mesoporous Metal Oxide Networks for High–Performance Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Li, Xinshi; Hu, Chao; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Junfang; Yan, Yan; Xi, Guangcheng

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous nanostructures represent a unique class of photocatalysts with many applications, including splitting of water, degradation of organic contaminants, and reduction of carbon dioxide. In this work, we report a general Lewis acid catalytic template route for the high–yield producing single– and multi–component large–scale three–dimensional (3D) mesoporous metal oxide networks. The large-scale 3D mesoporous metal oxide networks possess large macroscopic scale (millimeter–sized) and mesoporous nanostructure with huge pore volume and large surface exposure area. This method also can be used for the synthesis of large–scale 3D macro/mesoporous hierarchical porous materials and noble metal nanoparticles loaded 3D mesoporous networks. Photocatalytic degradation of Azo dyes demonstrated that the large–scale 3D mesoporous metal oxide networks enable high photocatalytic activity. The present synthetic method can serve as the new design concept for functional 3D mesoporous nanomaterials. PMID:23857595

  16. A compressible mesoporous SiO2 sponge supported by a carbon nanotube network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbing; Shi, Enzheng; Li, Peixu; Wu, Dehai; Wu, Shiting; Shang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Yuan, Quan

    2014-04-01

    Applications of mesoporous silica (m-SiO2) have suffered from its fragility (monolithic m-SiO2 easily collapses under compression) and limited internal molecular exchange through small channels. Previously reported hierarchical porous m-SiO2 structures containing interconnected macropores could improve adsorption properties, but they were still intrinsically fragile without sufficient mechanical strength to sustain deformation. Here, we embed a three-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT) skeleton into m-SiO2 to fabricate bulk, robust sponges that can be compressed to large strains (60% volume reduction) repeatedly in both air and water. This is done by directly casting a uniform m-SiO2 layer with tunable thickness onto the surface of CNTs while maintaining the original network and open porous structure, resulting in a core-shell CNT@m-SiO2 hybrid sponge. By pumping fluid through the CNT@m-SiO2 sponges under cyclic compression, the adsorption rate and efficiency of dye molecules can be significantly enhanced due to the mesoporous coating on CNTs and enhanced fluid exchange throughout internal pores. The CNT@m-SiO2 sponges may be used as robust and flexible adsorption media, and chemical and biological sensors with high performance. PMID:24535234

  17. A carbon foam with a bimodal micro–mesoporous structure prepared from larch sawdust for the gas-phase toluene adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shouxin, E-mail: liushouxin@126.com [Key Laboratory of Bio-Based Material Science and Technology of The Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Huang, Zhanhua; Wang, Rui [Key Laboratory of Bio-Based Material Science and Technology of The Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ? Network carbon foam containing a bimodal pore distribution was prepared from Larch. ? Liquefaction route was used for the preparation of morphology controllable carbon. ? Pore structure of carbon foam was controlled through KOH activation. - Abstract: A carbon foam with a bimodal micro–mesopore distribution, was prepared by submitting larch sawdust to liquefaction, resinification, foaming, carbonization and KOH activation. The morphology, pore texture and crystal microstructure was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. A honeycomb structure with adjacent cells was observed for the precursor of carbon foam. After KOH activation, the cell wall of precursor shrunk and broke. This lead to the formation of a well-connected 3D network and developed ligament pore structure (surface area of 554–1918 m{sup 2}/g) containing bimodal pores, 2.1 and 3.9 nm in diameter. The porous carbon foam prepared at 700 °C exhibited a much higher gas-phase toluene removal than commercial activated carbon fiber owing to the 3D network and bimodal pore structure.

  18. PEMFC catalyst layers: the role of micropores and mesopores on water sorption and fuel cell activity.

    PubMed

    Soboleva, Tatyana; Malek, Kourosh; Xie, Zhong; Navessin, Titichai; Holdcroft, Steven

    2011-06-01

    The effects of carbon microstructure and ionomer loading on water vapor sorption and retention in catalyst layers (CLs) of PEM fuel cells are investigated using dynamic vapor sorption. Catalyst layers based on Ketjen Black and Vulcan XC-72 carbon blacks, which possess distinctly different surface areas, pore volumes, and microporosities, are studied. It is found that pores <20 nm diameter facilitate water uptake by capillary condensation in the intermediate range of relative humidities. A broad pore size distribution (PSD) is found to enhance water retention in Ketjen Black-based CLs whereas the narrower mesoporous PSD of Vulcan CLs is shown to have an enhanced water repelling action. Water vapor sorption and retention properties of CLs are correlated to electrochemical properties and fuel cell performance. Water sorption enhances electrochemical properties such as the electrochemically active surface area (ESA), double layer capacitance and proton conductivity, particularly when the ionomer content is very low. The hydrophilic properties of a CL on the anode and the cathode are adjusted by choosing the PSD of carbon and the ionomer content. It is shown that a reduction of ionomer content on either cathode or anode of an MEA does not necessarily have a significant detrimental effect on the MEA performance compared to the standard 30 wt % ionomer MEA. Under operation in air and high relative humidity, a cathode with a narrow pore size distribution and low ionomer content is shown to be beneficial due to its low water retention properties. In dry operating conditions, adequate ionomer content on the cathode is crucial, whereas it can be reduced on the anode without a significant impact on fuel cell performance. PMID:21574609

  19. Highly active Pd-In/mesoporous alumina catalyst for nitrate reduction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenwei; Zhang, Yonggang; Li, Deyi; Werth, Charles J; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic reduction of nitrate is a promising technology for groundwater purification because it transforms nitrate into nitrogen and water. Recent studies have mainly focused on new catalysts with higher activities for the reduction of nitrate. Consequently, metal nanoparticles supported on mesoporous metal oxides have become a major research direction. However, the complex surface chemistry and porous structures of mesoporous metal oxides lead to a non-uniform distribution of metal nanoparticles, thereby resulting in a low catalytic efficiency. In this paper, a method for synthesizing the sustainable nitrate reduction catalyst Pd-In/Al2O3 with a dimensional structure is introduced. The TEM results indicated that Pd and In nanoparticles could efficiently disperse into the mesopores of the alumina. At room temperature in CO2-buffered water and under continuous H2 as the electron donor, the synthesized material (4.9 wt% Pd) was the most active at a Pd-In ratio of 4, with a first-order rate constant (k(obs) = 0.241 L min(-1) g(cata)(-1)) that was 1.3× higher than that of conventional Pd-In/Al2O3 (5 wt% Pd; 0.19 L min(-1) g(cata)(-1)). The Pd-In/mesoporous alumina is a promising catalyst for improving the catalytic reduction of nitrate. PMID:25600582

  20. One-step replication and enhanced catalytic activity for cathodic oxygen reduction of the mesostructured Co3O4/carbon composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongxia; Cui, Xiangzhi; Chen, Lisong; Wei, Chenyang; Cui, Fangming; Yao, Heliang; Shi, Jianlin; Li, Yongsheng

    2014-03-14

    Mesostructured Co3O4/C composites of high surface area have been synthesized via a one-step replica route by co-nanocasting cobalt and carbon precursors into mesoporous silica, in which the Co3O4 nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the mesoporous structure of carbon substrates. The mesostructured composites showed relatively high catalytic activities for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and that with a Co loading content of 4.3 at% exhibited the best electrochemical performance for ORR. The relatively high catalytic activity is attributed to the effects of the redox couples (Co(3+)/Co(2+)) together with the contribution from the conductive mesoporous carbon substrate. PMID:24469013

  1. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO3 templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g-1 at a current load of 0.1 A g-1 with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors.

  2. Peculiar Properties of Mesoporous Synthetic Carbon/Graphene Phase Composites and their Effect on Supercapacitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Seredych, Mykola; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2015-06-01

    Composites of mesoporous synthetic carbon and the graphene phase were synthesized in aqueous suspension by employing dispersive interactions of both phases. The resulting carbon-based materials were further heat treated in air at 350?°C. The composites and their components were characterized by using adsorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, thermal analysis-mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, SEM, high-resolution TEM, and XRD. Then, they were tested as supercapacitors in three-electrode cells and under visible-light irradiation. The composites and the initial carbon share exactly the same pore-size distributions, but they exhibit significant differences in their surface chemistry, wettability, and conductivity. This allowed us to determine the extent of their effects on their capacitive/pseudocapacitive performance. The results showed that features other than the textural properties can increase the capacitive performance by more than 100?%. The synergistic properties of the composites and their sulfur functional group related photoactivity were linked to chemical interactions between the nanoporous carbon phase and graphite oxide during the formation of the composite. PMID:25916763

  3. MESOPOROUS IRON PHOSPHATE AS AN ACTIVE, SELECTIVE AND RECYCLABLE CATALYST FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF NOPOL BY PRINS CONDENSATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesoporous iron phosphate is found to be a highly active and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the selective synthesis of nopol by Prins condensation of ?-pinene and paraformaldehyde in acetonitrile at 80 oC. ...

  4. G-quadruplex functionalized nano mesoporous silica for assay of the DNA methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Pang, Junling; Yin, Huanshun; Ai, Shiyun

    2015-06-16

    The abnormal level of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) may cause the aberrant DNA methylation, which has been found being associated with a growing number of human diseases, so it is necessary to create a sensitive and selective method to detect DNA MTase activity. In this paper, a new type of DNA functionalized nano mesoporous silica (MSNs) was creatively introduced to the detection of DNA MTase activity with G-quadruplex as a lock for signal molecule to release. The method was carried out by designing a particular DNA which could fold into G-quadruplex and complement with probe DNA. Next, MSNs was prepared before blocking methylene blue (MB) by G-quadruplex. Probe DNA was then fixed on gold nanoparticles modified glass carbon electrode, and the material was able to be transferred to the surface of electrode by DNA hybridization. After methylation of DNA MTase and the cutting of restriction endonuclease, the electrode was transferred to phosphate buffer solution (pH 9.0) for the releasing of MB. The response of differential pulse voltammetry was obtained from the release of MB. Consequently, the difference of signals with or without methylation could prove the assay of M. SssI MTase activity. The results showed that the responses from MB increased linearly with the increasing of the M. SssI MTase concentrations from 0.28 to 50UmL(-1). The limit of detection was 0.28UmL(-1). In addition, Zebularine, a nucleoside analog of cytidine, was utilized for studying the inhibition activity of M. SssI MTase. PMID:26002474

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of ordered mesoporous carbons containing nickel oxide nanoparticles using sucrose and nickel acetate in a silica template

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Yulin [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Cao Jieming [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)], E-mail: jmcao@nuaa.edu.cn; Zheng Mingbo [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Liu Jinsong [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Ji Guangbin [Nanomaterials Research Institute, College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2007-02-15

    New ordered mesoporous carbons containing nickel oxide nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by carbonization of sucrose in the presence of nickel acetate inside SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The NiO nanoparticles were embedded inside the mesoporous carbon framework due to the simultaneous pyrolysis of nickel acetate during carbonization. The electrochemical testing of the as-made nanocomposites showed a large specific capacitance of 230 F g{sup -1} using 2 M KOH as the electrolyte at room temperature. This is attributed to the nanometer-sized NiO formed inside mesoporous carbons and the high surface area of the mesopores in which the NiO nanoparticles are formed. Furthermore, the synthetic process is proposed as a simple and general method for the preparation of new functionalized mesoporous carbon materials, for various applications in catalysis, sensor or advanced electrode material. - Graphical abstract: Schematic drawings of synthesis routes for the NiOCMK materials.

  6. One-pot synthesis of intermetallic electrocatalysts in ordered, large-pore mesoporous carbon/silica toward formic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmin; Lee, Jaehyuk; Ye, Youngjin; Hwang, Jongkook; Kim, Soo-Kil; Lim, Tae-Hoon; Wiesner, Ulrich; Lee, Jinwoo

    2012-08-28

    This study describes the one-pot synthesis and single-cell characterization of ordered, large-pore (>30 nm) mesoporous carbon/silica (OMCS) composites with well-dispersed intermetallic PtPb nanoparticles on pore wall surfaces as anode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). Lab-synthesized amphiphilic diblock copolymers coassemble hydrophobic metal precursors as well as hydrophilic carbon and silica precursors. The final materials have a two-dimensional hexagonal-type structure. Uniform and large pores, in which intermetallic PtPb nanocrystals are significantly smaller than the pore size and highly dispersed, enable pore backfilling with ionomers and formation of the desired triple-phase boundary in single cells. The materials show more than 10 times higher mass activity and significantly lower onset potential for formic acid oxidation as compared with commercial Pt/C, as well as high stability due to better resistivity toward CO poisoning. In single cells, the maximum power density was higher than that of commercial Pt/C, and the stability highly improved, compared with commercial Pd/C. The results suggest that PtPb-based catalysts on large-pore OMCSs may be practically applied as real fuel cell catalysts for DFAFC. PMID:22800174

  7. Pore structure and adsorption properties of stone active carbons prepared by physicochemical and chemical activation methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Lupascu; G. A. Petukhova; P. I. Nastas; N. S. Polyakov

    2006-01-01

    Active carbons (ACs) with diverse microporous and developed mesoporous structures were prepared by chemical and phisochemical\\u000a activation methods from walnut shells, fruit stones, and grape seeds. The surface chemistry was studied by chemical titration\\u000a and spectroscopy in the IR, UV, visible, and near IR regions. The ACs prepared by chemical activation contain carboxyl and\\u000a phosphate groups, which impart acidic properties

  8. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with large and tunable pore sizes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Yu, Meihua; Li, Yang; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Jing; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-07-21

    Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m(2) g(-1)). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and small particle sizes may have excellent potential in drug/gene delivery. PMID:26087279

  9. Metallic nanocrystallites-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbon as labels for a sensitive simultaneous multianalyte electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yishan; Huang, Xinjian; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Lishi

    2015-11-15

    This work reports on a facile, novel multianalyte electrochemical immunoassay for simultaneous detection of a-fetoprotein (AFP) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER-2) using metal-containing nanomaterials confined in the ordered mesoporous carbon matrix (OMC-M) as labels. Well-dispersed uniform metallic nanocrystallites incorporated OMC materials were fabricated through a simple, economical, and green preparative strategy toward phenolic resol as a carbon source and metal nitrate as metal sources. The large amount of metallic nanocrystallites loading on the OMC nanomaterials, greatly amplified the detection signals, and the good biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes-chitosan retained excellent stability for the sandwich-type immunoassay. Under optimal experimental conditions, the proposed immunoassay exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of analytes, providing a better linear response range from 0.001 to 150ng/mL for AFP and for HER-2, with a lower limit of detectionof 0.6pg/mL and 0.35pg/mL (S/N=3), respectively. The immunosensor exhibited convenience, low cost, rapidity, good specificity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. Moreover, satisfactory results were obtained for the determination of AFP and HER-2 in real human serum samples, indicating that the developed immunoassay has the potential to find application in clinical detection of AFP and HER-2 and other tumor markers as an alternative approach. PMID:26046316

  10. Graphene and carbon nanodots in mesoporous materials: an interactive platform for functional applications.

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, Plinio; Malfatti, Luca; Carboni, Davide

    2015-07-23

    The present review is focused on a specific class of nanocomposites obtained through integration of graphene or carbon-based nanomaterials (such as carbon nanodots) with mesoporous inorganic or hybrid materials, obtained via template assisted self-assembly. The task of integrating graphene and carbon nanodots with a self-assembly process is still very challenging and this review shows some of the solutions which have been envisaged so far. These nanocomposite materials are an ideal interactive platform for developing innovative functional applications; they have a high capability of undergoing integration into advanced devices, which well exploits the advantage of tuning the wide properties and flexibility of the soft-chemistry route. A wide range of applications have been developed so far which span from sensing to electronics up to optics and biomedicine. Even though a large number of proof-of-concepts have been reported to date, an even greater expansion of applications in the field is expected to happen in the near future. PMID:26177068

  11. Stabilizing Surfactant Templated Cylindrical Mesopores in Polymer and Carbon Films through Composite Formation with Silica Reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Lingyan; Feng, Dan; Lee, Hae-Jeong; Wang, Chengqing; Wu, Quanyan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Vogt, Bryan D. (On Semi); (NIST); (AZU); (Fudan)

    2010-10-22

    A facile approach to maintain the periodic mesostructure of cylindrical pores in polymer-resin and carbon films after thermal template removal is explored through the reactive coassembly of resol (carbon precursor) and tetraethylorthosilicate (silica precursor) with triblock copolymer Pluronic F127. Without silica, a low porosity, disordered film is formed after pyrolysis despite the presence of an ordered mesostructure prior to template removal. However for silica concentration greater than 25 wt %, pyrolysis at 350 C yields a mesoporous silica-polymer film with well-defined pore mesostructure. These films remain well ordered upon carbonization at 800 C. In addition to the mesostructural stability, the addition of silica to the matrix impacts other morphological characteristics. For example, the average pore size and porosity of the films increase from 3.2 to 7.5 nm and 12 to 45%, respectively, as the concentration of silica in the wall matrix increases from 0 to 32 wt %. The improved thermal stability of the ordered mesostructure with the addition of silica to the matrix is attributed to the reinforcement of the mechanical properties leading to resistance to stress induced collapse of the mesostructure during template removal.

  12. Reaction mechanism of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery with two-dimensional mesoporous carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Miki; Imade, Yuki; Narisawa, Haruto; Watanabe, Ryota; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi; Kanno, Ryoji

    2013-12-01

    The reaction mechanism of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries was studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The results revealed that sulfur deposited in the electrode framework has a random distribution on the carbon wall of the highly ordered mesoporous carbon, CMK-3. Heat treatment complicated carbon surfaces with attached sulfur and improved the reversible charge-discharge reaction. Two Li2S phases formed during the discharge reaction; one of them participates in the reversible battery reactions.

  13. Bimetallic cerium-copper nanoparticles embedded in ordered mesoporous carbons as effective catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinghuan; Cao, Feifei; Qu, Ruiyang; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2015-10-15

    Bimetallic cerium-copper nanoparticles embedded in ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) with various Ce/Cu ratios were synthesized by "one-pot" self-assembly method, and their activities for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with ammonia were studied. The structural and textural properties, surface chemistry, acidity, and reducibility were investigated by various techniques. Results showed that NO conversion was greatly influenced by the weight ratio of Ce to Cu. An appropriate Ce/Cu ratio in OMCs could enhance catalytic performance; the optimal catalytic performance was obtained with Ce5Cu5-OMC. Ordered mesoporous structures were formed for all synthesized samples. When Ce or Cu was incorporated into the OMCs, the amount of surface acidic oxygen functional groups increased, thereby promoting the acidic properties of the OMCs, especially those of the Cu-rich OMCs. The surface Cu(2+) species may accelerate ammonia activation and may play an important role in SCR reaction. The temperature-programmed reduction results illustrated that the Cu-rich OMCs had better reducibility, and the appropriate Ce/Cu ratio could further enhance the redox ability of the CexCuy-OMC catalysts. The existing redox cycle (Ce(4+)+Cu(+)?Cu(2+)+Ce(3+)) promoted the activation of NH3 and consequently improved NH3-SCR activity. PMID:26093235

  14. Mesoporous carbon spheres with controlled porosity for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dexian; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Yiqian; Guo, Peizhi; Liu, Jingquan; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2015-07-01

    Mesoporous carbon (MC) spheres with hierarchical pores, controlled pore volume and high specific surface areas have been prepared by a mass-producible spray drying assisted template method using sodium alginate as carbon precursor and commercial colloidal silica particles as hard template. The resulting MC spheres, possessing hierarchical pores in the range of 3-30 nm, are employed as conductive matrices for the preparation of cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. A high pressure induced one-step impregnation of elemental sulfur into the pore of the MC spheres has been exploited. The electrochemical performances of sulfur-impregnated MC spheres (S-MC) derived from MC spheres with different pore volume and specific surface area but with the same sulfur loading ratio of 60 wt% (S-MC-X-60) have been investigated in details. The S-MC-4-60 composite cathode material displayed a high initial discharge capacity of 1388 mAhg-1 and a good cycling stability of 857 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C, and shows also excellent rate capability of 864 mAhg-1 at 2C. More importantly, the sulfur loading content in MC-4 spheres can reach as high as 80%, and it still can deliver a capacity of 569 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C.

  15. Facile synthesis of gradient mesoporous carbon monolith based on polymerization-induced phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shunjian; Luo, Yufeng; Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Zonghu; Luo, Yongping; Ou, Hui; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a gradient mesoporous carbon (GMC) monolith derived from the mixtures of phenolic resin (PF) and ethylene glycol (EG) was prepared by a facile route based on polymerization-induced phase separation under temperature gradient (TG). A graded biphasic structure of PF-rich and EG-rich phases was first formed in preform under a TG, and then the preform was pyrolyzed to obtain the GMC monolith. The TG is mainly induced by the thermal resistance of the preferential phase separation layer at high temperature region. The pore structure of the monolith changes gradually along the TG direction. When the TG varies from 58°C to 29°C, the pore size, apparent porosity and specific surface area of the monolith range respectively from 18 nm to 83 nm, from 32% to 39% and from 140.5 m2/g to 515.3 m2/g. The gradient porous structure of the monolith is inherited from that of the preform, which depends on phase separation under TG in the resin mixtures. The pyrolysis mainly brings about the contraction of the pore size and wall thickness as well as the transformation of polymerized PF into glassy carbon.

  16. Direct tri-constituent co-assembly of highly ordered mesoporous carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao; Sun, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Huang, Niu; Liu, Yumin; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Controlling over ordered porosity by self-assembly is challenging in the area of materials science. Materials with highly ordered aperture are favorable candidates in catalysis and energy conversion device. Here we describe a facile process to synthesize highly ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by direct tri-constituent co-assembly method, which uses resols as the carbon precursor, tri-block copolymer F127 as the soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the inorganic precursor. The obtained products are characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorption-desorption measurement and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicate that the OMC possesses high surface areas of 1209 m(2) g(-1), homogeneous pore size of 4.6 nm and a large pore volume of 1.65 cm(3) g(-1). The advantages of high electrochemical active surface area and favorable accessible porosity of OMC benefit the catalysis of I(3)(-) to I(-). As a result, the OMC counter electrode displays a remarkable property when it was applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, carbon black (CB) counter electrode and Pt counter electrode have also been prepared. When these different counter electrodes were applied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power-conversion efficiency (?) of the DSSCs with CB counter electrode are measured to be 5.10%, whereas the corresponding values is 6.39% for the DSSC with OMC counter electrode, which is comparable to 6.84% of the cell with Pt counter electrode under the same experimental conditions. PMID:23165970

  17. Lanthanum cobaltite perovskite supported onto mesoporous zirconium dioxide: nature of active sites of VOC oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kustov, Alexander L; Tkachenko, Olga P; Kustov, Leonid M; Romanovsky, Boris V

    2011-08-01

    Novel catalytic nano-sized materials based on LaCoO(x) perovskite nanoparticles incapsulated in the mesoporous matrix of zirconia were prepared, characterized by physicochemical methods and tested in complete methanol oxidation. LaCoO(x) nanoparticles were prepared inside the mesopores of ZrO(2) by decomposition of bimetallic La-Co glycine precursor complexes. The catalysts have been studied by diffuse-reflectance FTIR-spectroscopy using such probe molecules as CO, CD(3)CN and CDCl(3) to test low-coordinated metal ions. At low temperatures of decomposition of complexes (up to 400°C), low-coordinated Co(3+) ions predominate in the LaCoO(x) nanoparticles, whereas basically Co(2+) ions are found upon increasing the decomposition temperature to 600°C. The novel nano-sized perovskite catalysts exhibit a very high catalytic activity in the abatement of volatile organic compounds present in air, like methanol and light hydrocarbons. PMID:21665054

  18. Iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in activated carbons prepared from hydrothermally treated waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenming; Björkman, Eva; Yun, Yifeng; Lilliestråle, Malte; Hedin, Niklas

    2014-03-01

    Particles of iron oxide (Fe3O4 ; 20–40 nm) were embedded within activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2. Four different HTC biomass samples (horse manure, grass cuttings, beer production waste, and biosludge) were used as precursors for the activated carbons. Nanoparticles of iron oxide formed from iron catalyst included in the HTC biomasses. After systematic optimization, the activated carbons had specific surface areas of about 800 m2g1. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons depended strongly on the degree of carbonization of the precursors. Activated carbons prepared from highly carbonized precursors had mainly micropores, whereas those prepared from less carbonized precursors contained mainly mesopores. Given the strong magnetism of the activated carbon–nano-Fe3O4 composites, they could be particularly useful for water purification. PMID:24678001

  19. Thin-Layer Polymer Wrapped Enzymes Encapsulated in Hierarchically Mesoporous Silica with High Activity and Enhanced Stability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Meitao; Liang, Chao; Jiang, Huangyong; Shen, Jian; Li, Hexing

    2014-01-01

    A novel soft-hard cooperative approach was developed to synthesize bioactive mesoporous composite by pre-wrapping Penicillin G amidase with poly(acrylaimde) nanogel skin and subsequently incorporating such Penicillin G amidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica. The as-received bioactive mesoporous composite exhibited comparable activity and extraordinarily high stability in comparison with native Penicillin G amidase and could be used repetitively in the water-medium hydrolysis of penicillin G potassium salt. Furthermore, this strategy could be extended to the synthesis of multifunctional bioactive mesoporous composite by simultaneously introducing glucose oxidase nanocapsules and horseradish peroxidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica, which demonstrated a synergic effect in one-pot tandem oxidation reaction. Improvements in the catalytic performances were attributed to the combinational unique structure from soft polymer skin and hard inorganic mesoporous silica shell, which cooperatively helped enzyme molecules to retain their appropriate geometry and simultaneously decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass transfer limitation under heterogeneous conditions. PMID:24651701

  20. Thin-layer polymer wrapped enzymes encapsulated in hierarchically mesoporous silica with high activity and enhanced stability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Meitao; Liang, Chao; Jiang, Huangyong; Shen, Jian; Li, Hexing

    2014-01-01

    A novel soft-hard cooperative approach was developed to synthesize bioactive mesoporous composite by pre-wrapping Penicillin G amidase with poly(acrylaimde) nanogel skin and subsequently incorporating such Penicillin G amidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica. The as-received bioactive mesoporous composite exhibited comparable activity and extraordinarily high stability in comparison with native Penicillin G amidase and could be used repetitively in the water-medium hydrolysis of penicillin G potassium salt. Furthermore, this strategy could be extended to the synthesis of multifunctional bioactive mesoporous composite by simultaneously introducing glucose oxidase nanocapsules and horseradish peroxidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica, which demonstrated a synergic effect in one-pot tandem oxidation reaction. Improvements in the catalytic performances were attributed to the combinational unique structure from soft polymer skin and hard inorganic mesoporous silica shell, which cooperatively helped enzyme molecules to retain their appropriate geometry and simultaneously decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass transfer limitation under heterogeneous conditions. PMID:24651701

  1. Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution on dye-sensitized mesoporous carbon nitride photocatalyst with magnesium phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kamata, Kumiko; Wang, Xinchen; Antonietti, Markus; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2010-10-28

    Spectral sensitization of a mesoporous graphite carbon nitride (mpg-C(3)N(4)) photocatalyst was investigated by depositing magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) to expand the absorption to wavelengths longer than those of the principal mpg-C(3)N(4). The obtained sample, MgPc/Pt/mpg-C(3)N(4) (Pt as a cocatalyst) showed stable photocatalytic evolution of hydrogen from aqueous solution in the presence of sacrificial reagents (triethanolamine), even under irradiation at wavelengths longer than 600 nm. Increasing the amount of MgPc led to ordered MgPc aggregation on the photocatalyst surfaces. The rate of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution was highest on a sample with an amount of MgPc corresponding to a monolayer on the Pt/mpg-C(3)N(4) photocatalyst surface. The obtained action spectra of hydrogen evolution and the observation that the amount of evolved hydrogen substantially surpassed the amount of MgPc, confirm that the introduced MgPc functioned as a photocatalytic sensitizer. PMID:20820579

  2. In situ assembly of layered double hydroxide nano-crystallites within silica mesopores and its high solid base catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Shi, Jianlin

    2008-02-28

    Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocrystallites with a lateral size less than 9 nm were in situ synthesized within the pore channels of mesoporous silica materials, creating one of the most active heterogeneous base catalysts owing to the high number of active edge sites. PMID:18283361

  3. The mechanism for increasing the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs using uniform mesoporous carbon spheres as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyi; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Qinfu; Wang, Bing; Wang, Siling

    2014-05-28

    Abstract Uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were used as a carrier to improve the bioavailability of the model drug, celecoxib (CEL). Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism responsible for the improved bioavailability of CEL. The association, adhesion and uptake of UMCS by intestinal epithelial cells were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM). UMCS was found to promote cellular uptake of CEL. Drug transport in Caco-2 cell monolayers proved that UMCS can significantly reduce the rate of drug efflux and improve CEL permeability. The dissolution rate of CEL from drug-loaded samples was markedly improved compared with pure crystalline CEL; moreover, oral bioavailability of CEL loaded into UMCS was also markedly improved compared with that of commercially available capsules. UMCS indicates the advantages and potential of this method to achieve improved oral absorption by increasing the dissolution rate, cellular uptake and permeability of the drug. PMID:24870199

  4. Pore size effects on the sorption of supercritical carbon dioxide in mesoporous CPG-10 silica

    SciTech Connect

    Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Krukowski, Elizabeth G [ORNL; Wallacher, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin; Grimm, Nico [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin; Bodnar, Robert J [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

    2012-01-01

    Excess sorption isotherms of supercritical carbon dioxide in mesoporous CPG-10 silica glasses with nominal pore sizes of 75 (7.5 nm) and 350 (35 nm) were measured gravimetrically at 35 C and 50 C and pressures of 0-200 bar. Formation of broad maxima in the excess sorption was observed at fluid densities below the bulk critical density. Positive values of excess sorption were measured at bulk densities below about 0.65-0.7 g/cm3, whereas zero and negative values were obtained at higher densities, indicating that the interfacial fluid becomes less dense than the corresponding bulk fluid at high fluid densities. A shift of the excess sorption peak position to higher fluid density is found with increasing pore width. The excess sorption of CO2 normalized to the specific surface area is higher for the 35 nm pore size material, suggesting pore confinement effects. Conversely, the pore volume normalized excess sorption is higher for the 7.5 nm pore size material. Assessment of mean pore density reveals regions of constant pore fluid density, located between the excess sorption peak and the adsorption/depletion transition. Both materials exhibit such regions of constant mean pore fluid density as a function of bulk CO2 density at the lower temperature of 35 C, but not at 50 C. The results of this study suggest that the CO2 storage capacity in quartz-rich reservoirs is higher for sites with low temperature and rock textures characterized by narrow pores with high surface to volume ratios.

  5. Robust conductive mesoporous carbon?silica composite films with highly ordered and oriented orthorhombic structures from triblock-copolymer template co-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Lingyan; Feng, Dan; Campbell, Casey G.; Gu, Dong; Forster, Aaron M.; Yager, Kevin G.; Fredin, Nathaniel; Lee, Hae-Jeong; Jones, Ronald L.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Vogt, Bryan D. (AZU)

    2012-07-11

    In this work, we describe a facile approach to improve the robustness of conductive mesoporous carbon-based thin films by the addition of silica to the matrix through the triconstituent organic-inorganic-organic co-assembly of resol (carbon precursor) and tetraethylorthosilicate (silica precursor) with triblock-copolymer Pluronic F127. The pyrolysis of the resol-silica-pluronic F127 film yields a porous composite thin film with well-defined mesostructure. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and electron microscopy measurements indicate that the obtained carbon-based thin films have a highly ordered orthorhombic mesostructure (Fmmm) with uniform large pore size ({approx}3 nm). The orthorhombic mesostructure is oriented and the (010) plane is parallel to the silicon wafer substrate. The addition of silica to the matrix impacts the pore size, surface area, porosity, modulus and conductivity. For composite films with approximately 40 wt% silica, the conductivity is decreased by approximately an order of magnitude in comparison to a pure carbon mesoporous film, but the conductivity is comparable to typical printed carbon inks used in electrochemical sensing, {approx}10 S cm{sup -1}. The mechanical properties of these mesoporous silica-carbon hybrid films are similar to the pure carbon analogs with a Young's modulus between 10 GPa and 15 GPa, but the material is significantly more porous. Moreover, the addition of silica to the matrix appears to improve the adhesion of the mesoporous film to a silicon wafer. These mesoporous silica-carbon composite films have appropriate characteristics for use in sensing applications.

  6. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M-1 with a detection limit of 0.31 ?M and a linear detection range from 0.39 ?M to 8.98 ?M for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten \\left( K_{M}^{app} \\right) was 6.28 ?M. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

  7. Multiple constituents co-assembly of ordered mesoporous Al2O3-SiO2-carbon nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Huanhuan; Feng, Cuimiao; Kong, Lina; Zhao, Qingfei; Wan, Ying

    2013-02-01

    Ordered mesoporous Al2O3-SiO2-carbon nanocomposites have been synthesized via the direct triblock-copolymer self-assembly route using soluble phenolic resols as polymer precursors, aluminium chloride hexahydrate as an aluminum precursor, tetraethoxysilane as a silica precursor, and Pluronic F127 as a template. Characterization of XRD, N2 sorption isotherms, TEM, solid-state NMR, TG, and NH3-TPD techniques is used to investigate the mesostructure, pore properties, phase composition, metal incorporation state, and acidic properties. Ordered mesoporous nanocomposites have "reinforced concrete"-structured frameworks, in which the oxide and carbon components are microphase separated and homogenously dispersed inside pore walls. Al species are tetrahedrally incorporated into silica frameworks to compose the inorganic oxide compounds which provides acidic center. The nanocomposites have the ordered 2-D hexagonal mesostructure, high surface areas (291-360 m2/g), large pore volumes (0.25-0.42 cm3/g), large pore diameters (- 5 nm) and accessible acidic sites. PMID:23646686

  8. Real-time monitoring of enzyme activity in a mesoporous silicon double layer

    PubMed Central

    Orosco, Manuel M.; Pacholski, Claudia; Sailor, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A double layer mesoporous silicon with different pore sizes functions as a nano-reactor that can isolate, filter and quantify the kinetics of enzyme reactions in real-time by optical reflectivity. This tiny reactor may be used to rapidly characterize a variety of isolated enzymes in a label-free manner. Activity of certain protease enzymes is often an indicator of disease states such as cancer1,2, stroke2, and neurodegeneracy3, and thus, there is a need for rapid assays that can characterize the kinetics and substrate specificity of enzymatic reactions. Nanostructured membranes can efficiently separate biomolecules4 but coupling a sensitive detection method remains difficult. Here we report a single mesoporous nano-reactor that can isolate and quantify in real-time the reaction products of proteases. The reactor consists of two layers of porous films electrochemically prepared from crystalline silicon. The upper layer with large pore sizes traps the protease enzymes and acts as the reactor while the lower layer with smaller pore sizes excludes the large proteins and captures the reaction products. Infiltration of the digested fragments into the lower layer produces a measurable change in optical reflectivity and this allows label-free quantification of enzyme kinetics in real-time within a volume of approximately 5 nanoliters. PMID:19350037

  9. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON INSTALLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a compilation and summary of design criteria, performance, and cost data from 22 operating municipal and industrial granular activated carbon (GAC) installations that treat water and wastewater or process food and beverage products. Guidance for using this inf...

  10. Influences of urea–glycerol mixtures as mixed mesopore-controlling agents on tailoring physicochemical properties and photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity of sol–gel-derived mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sreethawong, Thammanoon, E-mail: sreethawongt@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai, E-mail: wonone@hotmail.com [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Susumu [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized by modified sol–gel process. ? Urea–glycerol mixtures were applied as mixed mesopore-controlling agents. ? Urea and glycerol contents affected physicochemical properties of synthesized TiO{sub 2}. ? Photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity also depended on urea and glycerol contents. ? 75 mol% urea and 25 mol% glycerol yielded the most photocatalytically active TiO{sub 2}. -- Abstract: In this work, the mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a sol–gel process with the aid of urea–glycerol mixtures used as mixed mesopore-controlling agents. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalysts was investigated for hydrogen production from the water splitting reaction using methanol as a hole scavenger under UV light irradiation. The synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalysts were systematically characterized by TG–DTA, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, SEM, high resolution TEM, and XRD analyses. The characterization results showed that the well-controlled contents of urea and glycerol in a urea–glycerol mixture at 75 mol% urea and 25 mol% glycerol resulted in not only the most highly porous network (i.e. the highest specific surface area and total pore volume, and the smallest mean mesopore diameter), but also the smallest crystallite size of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalyst. The photocatalytic reaction results, hence, revealed a much superior photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of the mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal synthesized with 75 mol% urea and 25 mol% glycerol to the other synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals, also being much higher than those of the commercially available P-25 TiO{sub 2} and ST-01 TiO{sub 2} powders.

  11. Importance of structural and chemical heterogeneity of activated carbon surfaces for adsorption of dibenzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Ania, C.O.; Bandosz, T.J. [CUNY City College, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2005-08-16

    The performance of various activated carbons obtained from different carbon precursors (i.e., plastic waste, coal, and wood) as adsorbents for the desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels was evaluated. To increase surface heterogeneity, the carbon surface was modified by oxidation with ammonium persulfate. The results showed the importance of activated carbon pore sizes and surface chemistry for the adsorption of dibenzothiophene (DBT) from liquid phase. Adsorption of DBT on activated carbons is governed by two types of contributions: physical and chemical interactions. The former include dispersive interactions in the microporous network of the carbons. While the volume of micropores governs the amount physisorbed, mesopores control the kinetics of the process. On the other hand, introduction of surface functional groups enhances the performance of the activated carbons as a result of specific interactions between the acidic centers of the carbon and the basic structure of DBT molecule as well as sulfur-sulfur interactions.

  12. Fabrication of mesoporous titanium dioxide/tin dioxide/carbon hollow microspheres as high performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghua; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Mesoporous titanium dioxide/tin dioxide/carbon (TiO2/SnO2/C) hollow microspheres are fabricated by a facile strategy. In this composite, SnO2 is sandwiched between TiO2 hollow microsphere and carbon coating layer. This intriguing nanostructure effectively buffers volume change and structural stress, and facilitates electron and ion transport throughout the electrode, thus contributing to excellent cycling stability.

  13. Mesoporous TiO? spheres interconnected by multiwalled carbon nanotubes as an anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ali, Zahid; Kang, Dae Joon

    2015-02-18

    We report on the excellent electrochemical response of lithium ion batteries that use a composite material comprised of mesoporous titanium dioxide (MTO) spheres and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the anode. The composite structure was synthesized via a combined sol-gel and solvothermal method, and the batteries exhibited unprecedented discharge capacity, cycling stability, and reversibility when compared to those based on commercially available TiO2 nanopowders and mesoporous TiO2 spheres. The inclusion of the composite structure resulted in an improvement in electronic and ionic conductivity, a larger surface area, and a colossal number of open channels in the synthesized structure that allowed for lithium ion intercalation. We achieved a Coulombic efficiency of nearly 100% and a discharge capacity as high as 316 mA h g(-1) at a rate of C/5, which is 1.9 times higher than that which is practically attainable with TiO2. Moreover, we observed a capacity loss of only 3.1% after 100 cycles, which indicates that the synthesized structure has a highly stable nature. PMID:25633801

  14. In-Situ Observation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Ordered Mesoporous Hard Carbon by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Zhao, Jinkui [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to better understand the electrochemical processes occurring during the cycling of a lithium-ion half-cell containing ordered mesoporous hard carbon using time-resolved in situ small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Utilizing electrolytes containing mixtures of deuterated (2H) and non-deuterated (1H) carbonates, we have addressed the challenging task of monitoring the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. An evolution occurs in the SEI layer during discharge from a composition dominated by a higher scattering length density (SLD) lithium salt, to a lower SLD lithium salt for the ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC) mixture employed. By comparing half-cells containing different solvent deuteration levels, we show that it is possible to observe both SEI formation and lithium intercalation occurring concurrently at the low voltage region in which lithium intercalates into the hard carbon. These results demonstrate that SANS can be employed to monitor complicated electrochemical processes occurring in rechargeable batteries, in a manner that simultaneously provides information on the composition and microstructure of the electrode.

  15. Synthesis of Co-containing mesoporous carbon foams using a new cobalt-oxo cluster as a precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Lv Yaokang [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Feng Yunlong [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Gan Lihua, E-mail: ganlh@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu Mingxian; Xu Liang; Liu Cao; Zheng Haowen; Li Jie [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-01-15

    A novel trinuclear cobalt-oxo cluster 2[Co{sub 3}O(Ac){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (Co-OXO) has been obtained and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and elemental analysis. The structure of Co-OXO displays 3D supramolecular networks through hydrogen bonds and generates boron nitride (bnn) topology. Co-OXO was further used as a precursor to synthesize Co-containing mesoporous carbon foams (Co-MCFs), which exhibit highly ordered mesostructure with specific surface area of 614 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and uniform pore size of 2.7 nm. Charge-discharge tests show that the specific discharge capacitance of Co-MCFs is 7% higher than that of the MCFs at the current density of 100 mA g{sup -1}, and 26% higher than that of MCFs at the current density of 3 A g{sup -1}. The electrochemical behaviors of Co-MCFs are obviously improved due to the improved wettability, increased graphitization degree and the pseudo-capacitance through additional faradic reactions arising from cobalt. - Graphical Abstract: A new trinuclear cobalt-oxo cluster, 2[Co{sub 3}O(Ac){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (1), was obtained and further used as a precursor to synthesize Co-containing mesoporous carbon foams (Co-MCFs) which exhibit improved electrochemical behaviors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new trinuclear cobalt-oxo cluster (1) were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1 is joined by hydrogen bonds to construct a 3D structure showing bnn topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1 was further used to obtain Co-containing mesoporous carbon foams (Co-MCFs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-MCFs exhibit highly ordered mesostructure and uniform pore sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical behaviors of Co-MCFs are obviously improved compared with pure MCFs.

  16. Effects of acidic and basic hydrolysis catalysts on the photocatalytic activity and microstructures of bimodal mesoporous titania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaguo Yu; Jimmy C. Yu; Mitch K.-P. Leung; Wingkei Ho; Bei Cheng; Xiujian Zhao; Jincai Zhao

    2003-01-01

    Bimodal mesoporous titania powders with high photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide in the presence of HNO3 or NH4OH under ultrasonic irradiation. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface areas, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation of acetone in air. The effects of

  17. Influence of chemical modification of anthracite on the porosity of the resulting activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B Lyubchik; R Benoit; F Béguin

    2002-01-01

    Activated carbons in a wide range of porosity (from essentially microporous to essentially mesoporous) have been prepared from anthracite by the combination of a chemical treatment with HClO4 or Mg(ClO4)2 and a physical activation with CO2 at 850°C. The main effects of the chemical treatment are a modification of anthracite microstructure by insertion and oxidation. The extent of these two

  18. Studies of adsorption equilibria and kinetics in the systems: Aqueous solution of dyes-mesoporous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derylo-Marczewska, A.; Marczewski, A. W.; Winter, Sz.; Sternik, D.

    2010-06-01

    Two carbonaceous materials were synthesized by using the method of impregnation of mesoporous silicas obtained by applying the Pluronic copolymers as pore-creating agents. The isotherms of adsorption of methylene blue and methyl orange from aqueous solutions were measured by the static method. The profiles of adsorbate concentration change in time were obtained from the UV-vis spectra. The adsorption isotherms and kinetic dependence were discussed in the terms of theory of adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces.

  19. Iron oxide nanoparticle impregnated mesoporous silicas as platforms for the growth of carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Barreca; W. J. Blau; G. M. Croke; F. A. Deeney; F. C. Dillon; J. D. Holmes; C. Kufazvinei; M. A. Morris; T. R. Spalding; E. Tondello

    2007-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been deposited on the exterior of and inside the pores of hexagonal mesoporous silica by a direct synthesis technique with iron phthalocyanine as precursor. Iron loadings were between 0.4wt.% – 3.2wt.%. XPS and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies showed that the initial form of the iron oxide nanoparticles was [Fe2O3]. Samples of these iron-loaded materials were stirred in

  20. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: Effect of pore size on carbon dioxide capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Zele?ák; M. Badani?ová; D. Halamová; J. ?ejka; A. Zukal; N. Murafa; G. Goerigk

    2008-01-01

    Three mesoporous silica materials with different pore sizes (33Å for small pore size MCM-41; 38Å for SBA-12; 71Å for large pore size SBA-15) and pore connectivity (2D for MCM-41 and SBA-15-type materials; 3D for SBA-12 material) were prepared and functionalized with aminopropyl (AP) ligands by post-synthesis treatment. The materials were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy

  1. Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

  2. Activated carbon from vetiver roots: gas and liquid adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Gaspard, S; Altenor, S; Dawson, E A; Barnes, P A; Ouensanga, A

    2007-06-01

    Large quantities of lignocellulosic residues result from the industrial production of essential oil from vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) roots. These residues could be used for the production of activated carbon. The yield of char obtained after vetiver roots pyrolysis follows an equation recently developed [A. Ouensanga, L. Largitte, M.A. Arsene, The dependence of char yield on the amounts of components in precursors for pyrolysed tropical fruit stones and seeds, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 59 (2003) 85-91]. The N(2) adsorption isotherm follows either the Freundlich law K(F)P(alpha) which is the small alpha equation limit of a Weibull shaped isotherm or the classical BET isotherm. The surface area of the activated carbons are determined using the BET method. The K(F) value is proportional to the BET surface area. The alpha value increases slightly when the burn-off increases and also when there is a clear increase in the micropore distribution width. PMID:17092643

  3. Ammonia-treated Ordered Mesoporous Carbons as Catalytic Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiqing; Lee, Je Seung; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Dai, Sheng

    2010-04-13

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been considered as promising alternative power sources for many mobile and stationary applications. Compared to the fast hydrogen oxidation at the anode, the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode requires high-performance catalysts. Currently, platium (Pt) nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbons remain the best catalysts for ORR. However, both instability and high cost of Pt-based catalysts represent two main obstacles limiting the commercial applications of PEMFCs. The instability of supported Pt catalysts is mainly due to the corrosion of carbon support under operation conditions and the agglomation and detachment of Pt particles, leading to a decrease in catalytic surface areas. Development of corrosion resistant supports and enhancement of the interactions between Pt and supports are two strategies to improve the cathode long-term activity.

  4. A new facile method to synthesize mesoporous ?-Al 2O 3 of high surface area and catalytic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranay P. Morajkar; Julio B. Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation describes a new method to prepare a high surface area mesoporous ?-Al2O3 by controlled calcination of Al (III) nitrate with urea. The alumina catalyst thus obtained is characterized by XRD, adsorption–desorption isotherms and acidity measurements. The catalytic activity is evaluated for dehydration of methanol to form dimethyl ether. It showed high conversion and 100% selectivity to DME

  5. Simultaneous determination of copper, lead, and cadmium at hexagonal mesoporous silica immobilized quercetin modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fangquan; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Changli; Sun, Danzi; Dong, Yanmin; Liu, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    A new method was developed for simultaneous determination of copper, lead, and cadmium, based on their voltammetric response at a carbon paste electrode modified with hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) immobilized quercetin (HMS-Qu/CPE). Compared with quercetin modified carbon paste electrode (Qu/CPE) and quercetin ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (Qu-IL/CPE), the HMS-Qu/CPE exhibited improved selectivity and high sensitivity toward the detection of copper, lead, and cadmium. The properties of the HMS-Qu/CPE in 0.1 M HCOONa-HCl buffer solution (pH 4.7) were investigated by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (ASV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of copper, lead, and cadmium at the modified electrodes and factors affecting the preconcentration procedures were also investigated. Detection limits of 5.0, 0.8, 1.0 nM for copper, lead, and cadmium were obtained, respectively. The method is simple, fast, sensitive, and selective, and is successfully applied to soil sample. PMID:20445747

  6. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of gold nanoparticles supported on template-synthesized mesoporous titania for the decontamination of the chemical warfare agent Soman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes Alvaro; Bogdan Cojocaru; Adel A. Ismail; Nicoleta Petrea; Belen Ferrer; Farid A. Harraz; Vasile I. Parvulescu; Hermenegildo Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous titania containing gold nanoparticles has been found to be an efficient photocatalyst for the visible-light decontamination of Soman. This contrasts with the complete lack of visible-light activity of analogous mesoporous titania sample without containing Au and is attributed to light absorption by the gold nanoparticles surface plasmon band. The possibility that Soman degradation occurs by light-induced heating is unlikely

  7. Highly active structured catalyst made up of mesoporous Co 3O 4 nanowires supported on a metal wire mesh for the preferential oxidation of CO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregorio Marbán; Irene López; Teresa Valdés-Solís; Antonio B. Fuertes

    2008-01-01

    A novel structured catalyst made up of mesoporous Co3O4 nanowire arrays (active phase) supported on a stainless steel mesh is presented. An important advantage of this catalytic system is that the formation and growth of cobalt oxide nanowires takes place on the surface of stainless steel wires. These mesoporous Co3O4 nanowires have a diameter of 500nm, a BET surface area

  8. Preparation of mesoporous TiO2/CNT nanocomposites by synthesis of mesoporous titania via EISA and their photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekar, K.; Thennarasu, S.; Rajesh, R.; Abirami, R.; Balkis Ameen, K.; Ramasubbu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Stabilized mesoporous TiO2 was synthesized by evaporation induced self assembly (EISA) method and mechanically incorporated into single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with different ratios. The physicochemical properties of the nanocomposites (mesoporous TiO2/SWCNT) materials were investigated by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy measurements. The catalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 and nanocomposites were assessed by examining the degradation of rhodamine B as model aqueous solution under visible light. CNTs are facilitating the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 in the degradation of rhodamine B efficiently.

  9. Activated carbon from municipal waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Nagano; H Tamon; T Adzumi; K Nakagawa; T Suzuki

    2000-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) was carbonized by partial combustion at 623 K and the carbonized RDF (cRDF) was steam-activated at 1123 K. The cRDF was also treated by 3.3 or 5.2 N nitric acid at a boiling temperature for 3 h prior to the steam-activation. Porous properties of the activated carbons prepared were determined by the nitrogen adsorption method.

  10. Sulfur-infiltrated graphene-backboned mesoporous carbon nanosheets with a conductive polymer coating for long-life lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yanfeng; Liu, Shaohong; Wang, Zhiyu; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zongbin; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-04-01

    Sandwich-type, two-dimensional hybrid nanosheets were fabricated by the infiltration of nanosized sulfur into graphene-backboned mesoporous carbon with a PPy nanocoating. They exhibit a high reversible capacity for as long as 400 cycles with an ultra slow decay rate of 0.05% per cycle at the high rate of 1-3 C due to the efficient immobilization of polysulfides.Sandwich-type, two-dimensional hybrid nanosheets were fabricated by the infiltration of nanosized sulfur into graphene-backboned mesoporous carbon with a PPy nanocoating. They exhibit a high reversible capacity for as long as 400 cycles with an ultra slow decay rate of 0.05% per cycle at the high rate of 1-3 C due to the efficient immobilization of polysulfides. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, BET, SEM, XPS and more electrochemical data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01015b

  11. Aerosol-Assisted Heteroassembly of Oxide Nanocrystals and Carbon Nanotubes into 3D Mesoporous Composites for High-Rate Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xilai; Zhu, Xiao; Cheng, Yanhua; Chen, Zheng; Ning, Guoqing; Lu, Yunfeng; Wei, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Nanostructured composites built from ordinary building units have attracted much attention because of their collective properties for critical applications. Herein, we have demonstrated the heteroassembly of carbon nanotubes and oxide nanocrystals using an aerosol spray method to prepare nanostructured mesoporous composites for electrochemical energy storage. The designed composite architectures show high conductivity and hierarchically structured mesopores, which achieve rapid electron and ion transport in electrodes. Therefore, as-synthesized carbon nanotube/TiO2 electrodes exhibit high rate performance through rapid Li(+) intercalation, making them suitable for ultrafast energy storage devices. Moreover, the synthesis process provides a broadly applicable method to achieve the heteroassembly of vast low-dimensional building blocks for many important applications. PMID:25777365

  12. Lanthanum cobaltite perovskite supported onto mesoporous zirconium dioxide: Nature of active sites of VOC oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander L. Kustov; Olga P. Tkachenko; Leonid M. Kustov; Boris V. Romanovsky

    2011-01-01

    Novel catalytic nano-sized materials based on LaCoOx perovskite nanoparticles incapsulated in the mesoporous matrix of zirconia were prepared, characterized by physicochemical methods and tested in complete methanol oxidation. LaCoOx nanoparticles were prepared inside the mesopores of ZrO2 by decomposition of bimetallic La–Co glycine precursor complexes. The catalysts have been studied by diffuse-reflectance FTIR-spectroscopy using such probe molecules as CO, CD3CN

  13. Improving adsorption and activation of the lipase immobilized in amino-functionalized ordered mesoporous SBA-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yun-qiang; Zhou, Guo-wei; Wu, Cui-cui; Li, Tian-duo; Song, Hong-bin

    2011-05-01

    Ordered mesoporous SBA-15 was prepared by hydrothermal process and was functionalized with(3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) by post-synthesis-grafting method. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), small-angle X-ray powder diffraction (SAXRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that SBA-15 had a 2-dimensional hexagonal p6 mm mesoscopic structure and the mesoscopic structure was remained after the functionalization procedure. The activities of porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) immobilized in SBA-15 by physical adsorption and in APTES functionalized SBA-15 by chemical adsorption were studied by hydrolysis of triacetin. Chemically adsorbed PPL showed higher loading amount and catalytic activity comparing with physically adsorbed PPL. The stability of immobilized PPL against thermal and pH of reaction medium was significantly improved. Recycling experiments showed that chemically adsorbed PPL exhibited better reusability than physically adsorbed PPL.

  14. Energy Storage: Aerosol-Assisted Heteroassembly of Oxide Nanocrystals and Carbon Nanotubes into 3D Mesoporous Composites for High-Rate Electrochemical Energy Storage (Small 26/2015).

    PubMed

    Jia, Xilai; Zhu, Xiao; Cheng, Yanhua; Chen, Zheng; Ning, Guoqing; Lu, Yunfeng; Wei, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Heteroassembly of low-dimensional building blocks is important but challenging in various applications. On page 3135, a method using aerosol spray drying is developed by Y. Lu, F. Wei, and co-workers. Using this method, oxide nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes are assembled into three-dimensional mesoporous nanocomposites, which offer remarkable energy-storage performance. The synthesis method is facile and broadly applicable in preparing composite materials. PMID:26149743

  15. Simple fabrication of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiufeng; Lu, Juan; Jiang, Jingjing; Li, Xiaobin; Lu, Mengna; Yuan, Guotao; Wang, Zuoshan; Zheng, Min; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2014-01-01

    N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by a modified and facile sol-gel approach without any templates. Ammonium nitrate was used as a raw source of N dopants, which could produce a lot of gasses such as N2, NO2, and H2O in the process of heating samples. These gasses were proved to be vitally important to form the special mesoporous structure. The samples were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The average length and the cross section diameter of the as-prepared samples were ca. 1.5 ?m and ca. 80 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods showed an excellent photocatalytic activity, which may be attributed to the enlarged surface area (106.4 m2 g-1) and the narrowed band gap (2.05 eV). Besides, the rod-like photocatalyst was found to be easy to recycle. PMID:24428848

  16. Simple fabrication of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by a modified and facile sol–gel approach without any templates. Ammonium nitrate was used as a raw source of N dopants, which could produce a lot of gasses such as N2, NO2, and H2O in the process of heating samples. These gasses were proved to be vitally important to form the special mesoporous structure. The samples were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The average length and the cross section diameter of the as-prepared samples were ca. 1.5 ?m and ca. 80 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods showed an excellent photocatalytic activity, which may be attributed to the enlarged surface area (106.4 m2 g-1) and the narrowed band gap (2.05 eV). Besides, the rod-like photocatalyst was found to be easy to recycle. PMID:24428848

  17. Comparison of the surface features of two wood-based activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Salame, I.I.; Bandosz, T.J.

    2000-02-01

    The surface features of two carbons of wood origin were compared. One sample was manufactured using phosphoric acid activation and the other using potassium hydroxide activation. To check the susceptibility to oxidation and the stability of the porous structure, the samples were oxidized with ammonium persulfate. Structural properties of carbons and their oxidized counterparts were determined using sorption of nitrogen. Surface acidity was evaluated using Boehm titration, potentiometric titration, inverse gas chromatography, and diffuse reflectance FTIR. It was demonstrated that, despite the same wood origin, the carbons significantly differ in their pore structure and surface chemistry. The carbon obtained using KOH activation is homogeneously microporous with high surface area around 2,300 m{sup 2}/g (BET). On the other hand, the carbon manufactured using phosphoric acid contains a high volume of mesopores and its surface area is significantly lower. The carbons also differ in their surface chemistry and susceptibility to oxidation.

  18. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  19. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons. PMID:24747937

  20. Preparation of activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell by air activation

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, M.S.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, three-step process for the production of high-quality activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell charcoals is described. In this process the charcoal is (1) heated to a high temperature (carbonized), (2) oxidized in air following a stepwise heating program from low (ca. 450 K) to high (ca. 660 K) temperatures (oxygenated), and (3) heated again in an inert environment to a high temperature (activated). By use of this procedure, activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1,000 m{sub 2}/g are manufactured with an overall yield of 15% (based on the dry shell feed). Removal of carbon mass by the development of mesopores and macropores is largely responsible for increases in the surface area of the carbons above 600 m{sub 2}/g. Thus, the surface area per gram of activated carbon can be represented by an inverse function of the yield for burnoffs between 15 and 60%. These findings are supported by mass-transfer calculations and pore-size distribution measurements. A kinetic model for gasification of carbon by oxygen, which provides for an Eley-Rideal type reaction of a surface oxide with oxygen in air, fits the measured gasification rates reasonably well over the temperature range of 550--660 K.

  1. Intracellular redox-activated anticancer drug delivery by functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoreservoirs with tumor specificity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhong; Hu, Yan; Cai, Kaiyong; Ding, Xingwei; Zhang, Quan; Li, Menghuan; Ma, Xing; Zhang, Beilu; Zeng, Yongfei; Li, Peizhou; Li, Jinghua; Liu, Junjie; Zhao, Yanli

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a type of intracellular redox-triggered hollow mesoporous silica nanoreservoirs (HMSNs) with tumor specificity was developed in order to deliver anticancer drug (i.e., doxorubicin (DOX)) to the target tumor cells with high therapeutic efficiency and reduced side effects. Firstly, adamantanamine was grafted onto the orifices of HMSNs using a redox-cleavable disulfide bond as an intermediate linker. Subsequently, a synthetic functional molecule, lactobionic acid-grafted-?-cyclodextrin (?-CD-LA), was immobilized on the surface of HMSNs through specific complexation with the adamantyl group, where ?-CD served as an end-capper to keep the loaded drug within HMSNs. ?-CD-LA on HMSNs could also act as a targeting agent towards tumor cells (i.e., HepG2 cells), since the lactose group in ?-CD-LA is a specific ligand binding with the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on HepG2 cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that DOX-loaded nanoreservoirs could be selectively endocytosed by HepG2 cells, releasing therapeutic DOX into cytoplasm and efficiently inducing the apoptosis and cell death. In vivo investigations further confirmed that DOX-loaded nanoreservoirs could permeate into the tumor sites and actively interact with tumor cells, which inhibited the tumor growth with the minimized side effect. On the whole, this drug delivery system exhibits a great potential as an efficient carrier for targeted tumor therapy in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24930850

  2. Activation of Snap-Top Capped Mesoporous Silica Nano Containers Using Two Near-Infrared Photons

    PubMed Central

    Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M.; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Russell, Melissa M.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Photoactivation of “snap-top” stoppers over the pore openings of mesoporous silica nanoparticles releases intact cargo molecules from the pores. The on-command release can be stimulated by either one UV photon or two coherent near-IR photons. Two-photon activation is particularly desirable for use in biological systems because it enables good tissue penetration and precise spatial control. Stoppers were assembled by first binding photolabile coumarin-based molecules to the nanoparticle surface. Then, after loading the particles with cargo, bulky ?-cyclodextrin molecules were noncovalently associated with the substituted coumarin molecule, blocking the pores and preventing the cargo from escaping. One-photon excitation at 376 nm or two-photon excitation at 800 nm cleaves the bond holding the coumarin to the nanopore, releasing both the cyclodextrin cap and the cargo. The dynamics of both the cleavage of the cap and the cargo release was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. This system traps intact cargo molecules without the necessity of chemical modification, releases them with tissue penetrating near-IR light and have possible applications in photo-stimulated drug delivery. PMID:24015927

  3. Engineering of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Remarkably Enhanced Tumor Active Targeting Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Hong, Hao; Shi, Sixiang; Goel, Shreya; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Hernandez, Reinier; Theuer, Charles P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticle (HMSN) has recently gained increasing interests due to their tremendous potential as an attractive nano-platform for cancer imaging and therapy. However, possibly due to the lack of efficient in vivo targeting strategy and well-developed surface engineering techniques, engineering of HMSN for in vivo active tumor targeting, quantitative tumor uptake assessment, multimodality imaging, biodistribution and enhanced drug delivery have not been achieved to date. Here, we report the in vivo tumor targeted positron emission tomography (PET)/near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dual-modality imaging and enhanced drug delivery of HMSN using a generally applicable surface engineering technique. Systematic in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed to investigate the stability, tumor targeting efficacy and specificity, biodistribution and drug delivery capability of well-functionalized HMSN nano-conjugates. The highest uptake of TRC105 (which binds to CD105 on tumor neovasculature) conjugated HMSN in the 4T1 murine breast cancer model was ~10%ID/g, 3 times higher than that of the non-targeted group, making surface engineered HMSN a highly attractive drug delivery nano-platform for future cancer theranostics. PMID:24875656

  4. Probing Mechanisms for Enzymatic Activity Enhancement of Organophosphorus Hydrolase in Functionalized Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Lei, Chenghong; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun

    2009-12-25

    We have previously reported that organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) can be spontaneously entrapped in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) with HOOC - as the functional groups and the entrapped OPH in HOOC-FMS showed enhanced enzyme specific activity. This work is to study the mechanisms that why OPH entrapped in FMS displayed the enhanced activity in views of OPH-FMS interactions using spectroscopic methods. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra show that, comparing to the secondary structure of OPH free in solution, OPH in HOOC-FMS displayed increased a-helix/b-strand transition of OPH with increased OPH loading density. The fluorescence emission spectra of Trp residues were used to assess the tertiary structural changes of the enzyme. There was a 42% increase in fluorescence. This is in agreement with the fact that the fluorescence intensity of OPH was increased accompanying with the increased OPH activity when decreasing urea concentrations in solution. The steady-state anisotropy was increased after OPH entrapping in HOOC-FMS comparing to the free OPH in solution, indicating that protein mobility was reduced upon entrapment. The solvent accessibility of Trp residues of OPH was probed by using acrylamide as a collisional quencher. Trp residues of OPH-FMS had less solvent exposure comparing with free OPH in solution due to its electrostatical binding to HOOC-FMS thereby displaying the increased fluorescence intensity. These results suggest the interactions of OPH with HOOC-FMS resulted in the protein immobilization and a favorable conformational change for OPH in the crowded confinement space and accordingly the enhanced activity.

  5. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described.

  6. Application of low-voltage field-emission SEM to the study of internal pore structures of activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Ornberg, R.L. [Monsanto Corp. Research, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Activated carbon has interesting and useful properties for industrial applications. It has been used extensively in purification, separation, chemical recovery and catalysis. To achieve a predictable performance of activated carbon materials, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive understanding of the pore structure including pore size, pore shape, and pore surface chemistry. Macropores (> 50 nm), mesopores (2-50 nm) and micropores (< 2 nm) generally coexist in activated carbon. It is thus desirable to synthesize activated carbon with controlled pore structures to optimize its performance. We previously reported the characterization of the surface pore structure of activated carbon by field emission SEM (FESEM) and the examination of the internal pore structure by HAADF/HRTEM techniques. However, both HAADF and HRTEM techniques give only limited information about the carbon pore structure. We report here some preliminary observation of the internal pore structure of activated carbon by high resolution low voltage FESEM technique.

  7. Physical and electrochemical study of halide-modified activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barpanda, Prabeer

    The current thesis aims to improve the electrochemical capacity of activated carbon electrodes, which enjoy prominent position in commercial electrochemical capacitors. Our approach was to develop electrochemical capacity by developing faradaic pseudocapacitance in carbon through a novel mechanochemical modification using iodine and bromine. Various commercial carbons were mechanochemically modified via solid-state iodation and vapour phase iodine-incorporation. The halidation-induced changes in the structure, composition, morphology, electrical and electrochemical properties of carbon materials were studied using different characterization techniques encompassing XRD, XRF, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, BET study, TEM, SAXS and electrochemical testing followed by an intensive battery of physical and electrochemical characterization. The introduction of iodine into carbon system led to the formation of polyiodide species that were preferentially reacted within the micropore voids within the carbon leading to the development of a faradaic reaction at 3.1V. In spite of the lower surface area of modified carbon, we observed manyfold increase in its electrochemical capacity. Parallel inception of non-faradaic development and faradaic pseudocapacitive reaction led to promising gravimetric, surface area normalized and volumetric capacity in iodated carbons. With promising electrochemical improvement post halidation process, the chemical halidation method was extended to different class of carbons and halides. Carbons ranging from amorphous (activated) carbons to crystalline carbons (graphites, fluorographites) were iodine-modified to gain further insight on the local graphite-iodine chemical interaction. In addition, the effect of pore size distribution on chemical iodation process was studied by using in-house fabricated microporous carbon. A comparative study of commercial mesoporous carbons and in-house fabricated microporous carbons showed higher iodine-uptake ability and larger volumetric capacity development in case of microporous carbons. For halides, bromine was also tested in activated carbons, which showed similar set of physical and electrochemical modification, but to a smaller degree. Carbon-polyhalide nanocomposites form a very interesting system both for fundamental research and as new electrode systems for asymmetric hybrid capacitor and low-voltage high power battery type applications.

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of bimodal mesoporous titania powders by C60 modification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaguo; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Gang; Cheng, Bei

    2011-07-01

    In this work, fullerene modified TiO(2) nanocomposites (denoted as C(60)/TiO(2)) with low C(60) loadings (0-1.5 wt.%) have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal method using tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT, Ti(OC(4)H(9))(4)) as the titanium precursor. The as-prepared C(60)/TiO(2) nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometry, nitrogen adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy. The formation of hydroxyl radicals (?OH) on the surface of UV-illuminated TiO(2) is probed by photoluminescence using terephthalic acid as a probe molecule. Our results have demonstrated that C(60) molecules can be dispersed as a monolayer onto bimodal mesoporous TiO(2)via covalent bonding. The photocatalytic oxidation rate of gas-phase acetone over C(60)/TiO(2) nanocomposites is greater than that over pure TiO(2), commercial Degussa P25 (P25) and C(60)-TiO(2) counterparts prepared by simple impregnating mixing. In particular, 0.5 wt.% C(60)/TiO(2) nanocomposites show the greatest photocatalytic activity with the rate constant k exceeding that of P25 by a factor of 3.3. Based on the results of the current study, we propose that C(60) molecules doped onto TiO(2) act as "electron acceptors" responsible for the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers and the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The proposed mechanism for the observed photocatalytic performance of C(60)/TiO(2) nanocomposites is further corroborated by experiments on hydroxyl radical and transient photocurrent response. PMID:21552575

  9. Vanadium-containing ordered mesoporous silicas: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity in the hydroxylation of biphenyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jino George; S. Shylesh; A. P. Singh

    2005-01-01

    A series of vanadium-containing ordered mesoporous MCM-41 materials (V-OMS) have been synthesized by direct hydrothermal (V-MCM-41) and grafting (V\\/MCM-41) methods using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMABr) as the structure-directing agent. The physico-chemical properties of the vanadium-containing materials were characterized in detail by ICP-OES, XRD, FT-IR, N2 adsorption–desorption, DRUV-VIS, TPR, XPS and SEM techniques. The redox performances of the vanadium-modified mesoporous

  10. The electrochemical reactions of SnO2 with Li and Na: A study using thin films and mesoporous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górka, Joanna; Baggetto, Loïc; Keum, Jong K.; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng; Veith, Gabriel M.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we have determined the room temperature electrochemical reactions of SnO2 thin films and mesoporous carbons filled with SnO2 anodes with Na, and compare the results with those obtained during the reaction with Li. We show that SnO2 can reversibly deliver up to 6.2 Li/SnO2 whereas the reaction with Na is significantly limited. The initial discharge capacity is equivalent to less than 4 Na/SnO2, which is expected to correspond to the formation of 2 Na2O and Sn. This limited discharge capacity suggests the negative role of the formed Na2O matrix upon the reversible reaction of Sn clusters. Moreover, the reversible cycling of less than 1 Na/SnO2, despite the utilization of 6-7 nm SnO2 particles, is indicative of sluggish reaction kinetics. The origin of this significant capacity reduction is probably due to the formation of a diffusion limiting interface. Furthermore, there is a larger apparent hysteresis compared to Li. These results point to the need to design composite structures of SnO2 nanoparticles with suitable morphological and conductivity components.

  11. The electrochemical reactions of SnO2 with Li and Na: a study using thin films and mesoporous carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gorka, Joanna [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this work we have determined the room temperature electrochemical reactivity of SnO2 thin films and mesoporous carbons filled with SnO2 anodes with Na, and compare the results with those obtained during the reaction with Li. We show that SnO2 can reversibly deliver up to 6.2 Li/SnO2 whereas the reaction with Na is significantly limited. The initial discharge capacity is equivalent to less than 4 Na/SnO2, which is expected to correspond to the formation of 2 Na2O and Sn. This limited discharge capacity suggests the negative role of the formed Na2O matrix upon the reversible reaction of Sn clusters. Moreover, the reversible cycling of less than 1 Na/SnO2, despite the utilization of 6-7 nm SnO2 particles, is indicative of sluggish reaction kinetics. The origin of this significant capacity reduction is likely due to the formation of a diffusion limiting interface. Furthermore, there is a larger apparent hysteresis compared to Li. These results point to the need to design composite structures of SnO2 nanoparticles with suitable morphological and conductivity components.

  12. Rapid adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by iron oxide nanoparticles-doped carboxylic ordered mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lin; Zhang, Sheng; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Gui-De; Chen, Jun; Wang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Yao-Yu; Deng, Yao-Cheng

    2015-05-01

    The ordered mesoporous carbon composite functionalized with carboxylate groups and iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe/OMC) was successfully prepared and used to adsorb 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from wastewater. The resultant adsorbent possessed high degree of order, large specific surface area and pore volume, and good magnetic properties. The increase in initial pollutant concentration and contact time would make the adsorption capacity increase, but the pH and temperature are inversely proportional to 2,4-D uptake. The equilibrium of adsorption was reached within 120 min, and the equilibrated adsorption capacity increased from 99.38 to 310.78 mg/g with the increase of initial concentration of 2,4-D from 100 to 500 mg/L. Notablely, the adsorption capacity reached 97% of the maximum within the first 5 min. The kinetics and isotherm study showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models could well fit the adsorption data. These results indicate that Fe/OMC has a good potential for the rapid adsorption of 2,4-D and prevention of its further diffusion. PMID:25594883

  13. Activated carbon to the rescue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the response to pipeline spill of ethylene dichloride (EDC) on the property of an oil company. Activated carbon cleanup proceedure was used. During delivery, changeout, transport, storage, thermal reactivation, and return delivery to the site, the carbon never came into direct contact with operating personnel or the atmosphere. More than 10,000 tones of dredge soil and 50

  14. Mesoporous zinc ferrite: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity with H2O2/visible light.

    PubMed

    Su, Minhua; He, Chun; Sharma, Virender K; Abou Asi, Mudar; Xia, Dehua; Li, Xiang-zhong; Deng, Huiqi; Xiong, Ya

    2012-04-15

    Mesoporous ZnFe(2)O(4) (meso-ZnFe(2)O(4)) was synthesized by a hydrothermal process in which cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) participates in the reaction to produce nanocrystals. Synthesized ZnFe(2)O(4) was characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The meso-ZnFe(2)O(4) was resulted from the agglomeration of nanoparticles with size of 5-10nm. The photocatalytic activity of ZnFe(2)O(4) under visible light (?>400 nm) was evaluated by the degradation of Acid Orange II (AOII) at different sintering temperatures, the amount of ZnFe(2)O(4), and the concentration of H(2)O(2). The photocatalytic degradation of AOII was almost complete within 2h in H(2)O(2)/visible light system. The high efficiency for AOII degradation was attributed to the strong absorption of ZnFe(2)O(4) in visible-light region and the generation of reactive OH by H(2)O(2) in the system. The involvement of OH in oxidizing AOII was examined by determining the photocurrent of ZnFe(2)O(4), [OH], and degradation rates using different scavengers. Organic compounds as intermediates of the degradation process were identified by LC/MS. Moreover, ZnFe(2)O(4) retained their degradation efficiencies for a series of repetitive batch runs, indicating the true photocatalytic process. PMID:22018870

  15. Controlling morphology, mesoporosity, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films prepared at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Elgh, Björn; Yuan, Ning; Palmqvist, Anders E. C. [Applied Surface Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Cho, Hae Sung; Terasaki, Osamu [Graduate School of EEWS (WCU), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Magerl, David; Philipp, Martine; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter [Lehrstuhl für Funktionelle Materialien, Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roth, Stephan V. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Yoon, Kyung Byung [Department of Chemistry, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Partly ordered mesoporous titania films with anatase crystallites incorporated into the pore walls were prepared at low temperature by spin-coating a microemulsion-based reaction solution. The effect of relative humidity employed during aging of the prepared films was studied using SEM, TEM, and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the mesoscopic order, porosity, and crystallinity of the films. The study shows unambiguously that crystal growth occurs mainly during storage of the films and proceeds at room temperature largely depending on relative humidity. Porosity, pore size, mesoscopic order, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of the films increased with relative humidity up to an optimum around 75%.

  16. THERMAL REGENERATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecologically, petrochemical wastes constitute a major hazard since waste materials contain relatively large amounts of non-biodegradable and toxic materials which may be discharged continuously. A three-part experimental study of activated carbon adsorption and thermal regenerati...

  17. Comparison of adsorption behavior of PCDD/Fs on carbon nanotubes and activated carbons in a bench-scale dioxin generating system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xujian; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Shuaixi; Zhao, Xiyuan; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2015-07-01

    Porous carbon-based materials are commonly used to remove various organic and inorganic pollutants from gaseous and liquid effluents and products. In this study, the adsorption of dioxins on both activated carbons and multi-walled carbon nanotube was internally compared, via series of bench scale experiments. A laboratory-scale dioxin generator was applied to generate PCDD/Fs with constant concentration (8.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). The results confirm that high-chlorinated congeners are more easily adsorbed on both activated carbons and carbon nanotubes than low-chlorinated congeners. Carbon nanotubes also achieved higher adsorption efficiency than activated carbons even though they have smaller BET-surface. Carbon nanotubes reached the total removal efficiency over 86.8 % to be compared with removal efficiencies of only 70.0 and 54.2 % for the two other activated carbons tested. In addition, because of different adsorption mechanisms, the removal efficiencies of carbon nanotubes dropped more slowly with time than was the case for activated carbons. It could be attributed to the abundant mesopores distributed in the surface of carbon nanotubes. They enhanced the pore filled process of dioxin molecules during adsorption. In addition, strong interactions between the two benzene rings of dioxin molecules and the hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms in the surface make carbon nanotubes have bigger adsorption capacity. PMID:25728198

  18. An Evolutionary Approach to Activated Carbon Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Schulhof

    1979-01-01

    Activated carbon has been successfully used in France to remove organics and limit the use of chlorine through two processes— simple filtration on activated carbon beds and double filtration on sand and carbon combined with ozonation.

  19. Enhanced Plasmonic Resonance Energy Transfer in Mesoporous Silica-Encased Gold Nanorod for Two-Photon-Activated Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nai-Tzu; Tang, Kuo-Chun; Chung, Ming-Fang; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Huang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Chia-Hui; Chou, Pi-Tai; Souris, Jeffrey S.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The unique optical properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) have recently drawn considerable interest from those working in in vivo biomolecular sensing and bioimaging. Especially appealing in these applications is the plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of GNRs induced by two-photon excitation at infrared wavelengths, owing to the significant penetration depth of infrared light in tissue. Unfortunately, many studies have also shown that often the intensity of pulsed coherent irradiation of GNRs needed results in irreversible deformation of GNRs, greatly reducing their two-photon luminescence (TPL) emission intensity. In this work we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of mesoporous silica-encased gold nanorods (MS-GNRs) that incorporate photosensitizers (PSs) for two-photon-activated photodynamic therapy (TPA-PDT). The PSs, doped into the nano-channels of the mesoporous silica shell, can be efficiently excited via intra-particle plasmonic resonance energy transfer from the encased two-photon excited gold nanorod and further generates cytotoxic singlet oxygen for cancer eradication. In addition, due to the mechanical support provided by encapsulating mesoporous silica matrix against thermal deformation, the two-photon luminescence stability of GNRs was significantly improved; after 100 seconds of 800 nm repetitive laser pulse with the 30 times higher than average power for imaging acquisition, MS-GNR luminescence intensity exhibited ~260% better resistance to deformation than that of the uncoated gold nanorods. These results strongly suggest that MS-GNRs with embedded PSs might provide a promising photodynamic therapy for the treatment of deeply situated cancers via plasmonic resonance energy transfer. PMID:24955141

  20. Enhanced plasmonic resonance energy transfer in mesoporous silica-encased gold nanorod for two-photon-activated photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nai-Tzu; Tang, Kuo-Chun; Chung, Ming-Fang; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Huang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Chia-Hui; Chou, Pi-Tai; Souris, Jeffrey S; Chen, Chin-Tu; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The unique optical properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) have recently drawn considerable interest from those working in in vivo biomolecular sensing and bioimaging. Especially appealing in these applications is the plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of GNRs induced by two-photon excitation at infrared wavelengths, owing to the significant penetration depth of infrared light in tissue. Unfortunately, many studies have also shown that often the intensity of pulsed coherent irradiation of GNRs needed results in irreversible deformation of GNRs, greatly reducing their two-photon luminescence (TPL) emission intensity. In this work we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of mesoporous silica-encased gold nanorods (MS-GNRs) that incorporate photosensitizers (PSs) for two-photon-activated photodynamic therapy (TPA-PDT). The PSs, doped into the nano-channels of the mesoporous silica shell, can be efficiently excited via intra-particle plasmonic resonance energy transfer from the encased two-photon excited gold nanorod and further generates cytotoxic singlet oxygen for cancer eradication. In addition, due to the mechanical support provided by encapsulating mesoporous silica matrix against thermal deformation, the two-photon luminescence stability of GNRs was significantly improved; after 100 seconds of 800 nm repetitive laser pulse with the 30 times higher than average power for imaging acquisition, MS-GNR luminescence intensity exhibited ~260% better resistance to deformation than that of the uncoated gold nanorods. These results strongly suggest that MS-GNRs with embedded PSs might provide a promising photodynamic therapy for the treatment of deeply situated cancers via plasmonic resonance energy transfer. PMID:24955141

  1. Catalytically active Au-O(OH)x-species stabilized by alkali ions on zeolites and mesoporous oxides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Li, Sha; Wang, Yuan; Herron, Jeffrey A; Xu, Ye; Allard, Lawrence F; Lee, Sungsik; Huang, Jun; Mavrikakis, Manos; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    2014-12-19

    We report that the addition of alkali ions (sodium or potassium) to gold on KLTL-zeolite and mesoporous MCM-41 silica stabilizes mononuclear gold in Au-O(OH)x-(Na or K) ensembles. This single-site gold species is active for the low-temperature (<200°C) water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. Unexpectedly, gold is thus similar to platinum in creating -O linkages with more than eight alkali ions and establishing an active site on various supports. The intrinsic activity of the single-site gold species is the same on irreducible supports as on reducible ceria, iron oxide, and titania supports, apparently all sharing a common, similarly structured gold active site. This finding paves the way for using earth-abundant supports to disperse and stabilize precious metal atoms with alkali additives for the WGS and potentially other fuel-processing reactions. PMID:25431492

  2. Significant changes in the transesterification activity of free and mesoporous-immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Mozaffar; Kawakami, Koei

    2010-02-01

    We examined the activity of free Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) and ROL immobilized on mesoporous materials in transesterification reactions in various dialkylimidazolium-cation based ionic liquids. For free ROL, the highest activity (0.39 U/mg protein) was obtained in [OMIm][PF(6)] followed by that (0.28 U/mg protein) in [BMIm][PF(6)]. Specific activities of ROL immobilized on mesocellular foam (MCF) were only 0.47 and 0.43 U/mg protein in [OMIm][PF(6)] and [BMIm][PF(6)], respectively. However, the specific activities of ROL immobilized on octadecyl functionalized MCF (C(18)-MCF) increased significantly to 15.64 and 14.84 U/mg protein in [OMIm][PF(6)] and [BMIm][PF(6)], respectively. Consequently, ROL immobilized on C(18)-MCF is a promising biocatalyst for biotransformation reactions in ionic liquids. PMID:19948194

  3. Adsorption and activity of a domoic acid binding antibody fragment on mesoporous silicates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuejun; Spada, Stefania; White, Simon; Hudson, Sarah; Magner, Edmond; Wall, J Gerard

    2006-09-21

    The adsorption of an anti-domoic acid single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment onto a range of mesoporous silicate supports was investigated. The scFv fragment adsorbed to all materials investigated, and pI had an apparently large effect on coating, with the greatest-and fastest-adsorption found on the most negatively charged silicates. Maximal coating levels attainable did not reflect the pore diameters of the materials. The immobilized antibody was functional on all materials and bound its antigen, a naturally occurring neurotoxin produced by shellfish, in a rapidly saturating manner that suggested the antibody adsorbed in a multilayer on the mesoporous particles. The antigen:antibody ratio decreased from 1:1.3 to <1:10 with increasing concentration of immobilized antibody, and the immobilized scFv exhibited no detectable reduction in domoic acid binding over a 42-day incubation period. PMID:16970501

  4. Growth of Hierarchal Mesoporous NiO Nanosheets on Carbon Cloth as Binder-free Anodes for High-performance Flexible Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hu; Shi, Tielin; Hu, Hao; Jiang, Shulan; Xi, Shuang; Tang, Zirong

    2014-12-01

    Mesoporous NiO nanosheets were directly grown on three-dimensional (3D) carbon cloth substrate, which can be used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). These mesoporous nanosheets were interconnected with each other and forming a network with interval voids, which give rise to large surface area and efficient buffering of the volume change. The integrated hierarchical electrode maintains all the advantageous features of directly building two-dimensional (2D) nanostructues on 3D conductive substrate, such as short diffusion length, strain relaxation and fast electron transport. As the LIB anode, it presents a high reversible capacity of 892.6 mAh g-1 after 120 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and 758.1 mAh g-1 at a high charging rate of 700 mA g-1 after 150 cycles. As demonstrated in this work, the hierarchical NiO nanosheets/carbon cloth also shows high flexibility, which can be directly used as the anode to build flexible LIBs. The introduced facile and low-cost method to prepare NiO nanosheets on flexible and conductive carbon cloth substrate is promising for the fabrication of high performance energy storage devices, especially for next-generation wearable electronic devices.

  5. Activated carbon to the rescue

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, S. [Calgon Carbon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the response to pipeline spill of ethylene dichloride (EDC) on the property of an oil company. Activated carbon cleanup proceedure was used. During delivery, changeout, transport, storage, thermal reactivation, and return delivery to the site, the carbon never came into direct contact with operating personnel or the atmosphere. More than 10,000 tones of dredge soil and 50 million gallons of surface water were processed during the emergency response.

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of titania monoliths prepared with controlled macro- and mesopore structure.

    PubMed

    Drisko, Glenna L; Zelcer, Andrés; Wang, Xingdong; Caruso, Rachel A; Soler-Illia, Galo J de A A

    2012-08-01

    Herein, we report a one-pot synthesis of crack-free titania monoliths with hierarchical macro-mesoporosity and crystalline anatase walls. Bimodal macroporosity is created through the polymer-induced phase separation of poly(furfuryl alcohol). The cationic polymerization of furfuryl alcohol is performed in situ and subsequently the polymer becomes immiscible with the aqueous phase, which includes titanic acid. Addition of template, Pluronic F127, increases the mesopore volume and diameter of the resulting titania, as the poly(ethylene glycol) block interacts with the titania precursor, leading to assisted assembly of the metal oxide framework. The hydrophobic poly(propylene glycol) micelle core could itself be swollen with monomeric and oligomeric furfuryl alcohol, allowing for mesopores as large as 18 nm. Variations in synthesis parameters affect porosity; for instance furfuryl alcohol content changes the size and texture of the macropores, water content changes the grain size of the titania and Pluronic F127 content changes the size and volume of the mesopore. Morphological manipulation improves the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. Light can penetrate several millimeters into the porous monolith, giving these materials possible application in commercial devices. PMID:22775206

  7. Ruthenium carbenes supported on mesoporous silicas as highly active and selective hybrid catalysts for olefin metathesis reactions under continuous flow.

    PubMed

    Bru, Miriam; Dehn, Richard; Teles, J Henrique; Deuerlein, Stephan; Danz, Manuel; Müller, Imke B; Limbach, Michael

    2013-08-26

    In the search for a highly active and selective heterogenized metathesis catalyst, we systematically varied the pore geometry and size of various silica-based mesoporous (i.e., MCM-41, MCM-48, and SBA-15) and microporous (ZSM-5 and MWW) versus macroporous materials (D11-10 and Aerosil 200), besides other process parameters (temperature, dilution, and mean residence time). The activity and, especially, selectivity of such "linker-free" supports for ruthenium metathesis catalysts were evaluated in the cyclodimerization of cis-cyclooctene to form 1,9-cyclohexadecadiene, a valuable intermediate in the flavor and fragrance industry. The optimized material showed not only exceptionally high selectivity to the valuable product, but also turned out to be a truly heterogeneous catalyst with superior activity relative to the unsupported homogeneous complex. PMID:23852995

  8. Controllable Synthesis of Mesoporous Peapod-like Co3 O4 @Carbon Nanotube Arrays for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dong; Li, Wei; Wang, Fei; Bongard, Hans; Spliethoff, Bernd; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Xia, Yongyao; Zhao, Dongyuan; Schüth, Ferdi

    2015-06-01

    Transition metal oxides are regarded as promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical capacities compared with commercial graphite. Unfortunately, the implementation of such novel anodes is hampered by their large volume changes during the Li(+) insertion and extraction process and their low electric conductivities. Herein, we report a specifically designed anode architecture to overcome such problems, that is, mesoporous peapod-like Co3 O4 @carbon nanotube arrays, which are constructed through a controllable nanocasting process. Co3 O4 nanoparticles are confined exclusively in the intratubular pores of the nanotube arrays. The pores between the nanotubes are open, and thus render the Co3 O4 nanoparticles accessible for effective electrolyte diffusion. Moreover, the carbon nanotubes act as a conductive network. As a result, the peapod-like Co3 O4 @carbon nanotube electrode shows a high specific capacity, excellent rate capacity, and very good cycling performance. PMID:25914341

  9. Ammonia-Treated Ordered Mesoporous Carbons as Catalytic Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiqing Wang; Jeseung Lee; Qing Zhu; Jun Liu; Yong Wang; Sheng Dai

    2010-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been considered as promising alternative power sources for many mobile and stationary applications. Compared to the fast hydrogen oxidation at the anode, the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode requires high-performance catalysts. Currently, platium (Pt) nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbons remain the best catalysts for ORR. However, both instability

  10. Dye adsorption onto activated carbons from tyre rubber waste using surface coverage analysis.

    PubMed

    Mui, Edward L K; Cheung, W H; Valix, Marjorie; McKay, Gordon

    2010-07-15

    Two types of activated carbons from tyre char (with or without sulphuric acid treatment) were produced via carbon dioxide activation with BET surface areas in the range 59-1118 m(2)/g. Other characterisation tests include micropore and mesopore surface areas and volumes, pH, and elemental compositions, particularly heteroatoms such as nitrogen and sulphur. They were correlated to the adsorption capacity which were in the range of 0.45-0.71 mmol/g (untreated) and 0.62-0.84 mmol/g (acid-treated) for Acid Blue 25. In the case of larger-sized molecules like Acid Yellow 117, capacities were in the range of 0.23-0.42 mmol/g (untreated) and 0.29-0.40 mmol/g (acid-treated). Some tyre carbons exhibit a more superior performance than a microporous, commercial activated carbon (Calgon F400). By modelling the dye adsorption equilibrium data, the Redlich-Peterson isotherm is adopted as it has the lowest SSE. Based on the surface coverage analysis, a novel molecular orientation modelling of adsorbed dyes has been proposed and correlated with surface area and surface charge. For the acid dyes used in this study, molecules were likely to be adsorbed by the mesopore areas. PMID:20416883

  11. Perfluoropentane-encapsulated hollow mesoporous prussian blue nanocubes for activated ultrasound imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoqing; Cai, Xiaojun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Shige; Xu, Huixiong; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Ming; Wu, Huixia; Shi, Jianlin; Chen, Hangrong

    2015-03-01

    Hollow mesoporous nanomaterials have gained tremendous attention in the fields of nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology. Herein, n-perfluoropentane (PFP)-encapsulated hollow mesoporous Prussian blue (HPB) nanocubes (HPB-PFP) with excellent colloidal stability have been synthesized for concurrent in vivo tumor diagnosis and regression. The HPB shell shows excellent photothermal conversion efficiency that can absorb near-infrared (NIR) laser light and convert it into heat. The generated heat can not only cause tumor ablation by raising the temperature of tumor tissue but also promote the continuous gasification and bubbling of encapsulated liquid PFP with low boiling point. These formed PFP bubbles can cause tissue impedance mismatch, thus apparently enhancing the signal of B-mode ultrasound imaging in vitro and generating an apparent echogenicity signal for tumor tissues of nude mice in vivo. Without showing observable in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, the designed biocompatible HPB-PFP nanotheranostics with high colloidal stability and photothermal efficiency are anticipated to find various biomedical applications in activated ultrasound imaging-guided tumor detection and therapy. PMID:25646576

  12. Production of activated carbons from Illinois coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Hippo; Jian Sun

    1996-01-01

    Although the predominant use of coal is for combustion applications, more beneficial, reasonable and profitable uses may be as a resource for the production of chemicals, and materials, including activated carbon. Activated carbons represent a family of carbonaceous substances manufactured by processes that develop the carbon`s adsorptive properties. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate that an activated

  13. Activated Carbon Modified with Different Chemical Agents as a Catalyst in the Dehydration and Dehydrogenation of Isopropanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edyta Jasi?ska; Beata Krzy?y?ska; Mieczys?aw Koz?owski

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbons modified with different chemical agents such as HNO3, H2SO4, peroxyacetic acid (PAA), air, NH3 and Cl2 have been tested as catalysts in decomposition (dehydration and dehydrogenation) of isopropanol. The majority of the samples\\u000a obtained have been characterised by well-developed microporous surface with a small contribution of mesopores (8–18%). The\\u000a influence of the surface area of the samples on

  14. MnO Nanoparticle@Mesoporous Carbon Composites Grown on Conducting Substrates Featuring High-performance Lithium-ion Battery, Supercapacitor and Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyu; Peng, Zheng; Wang, Yuhang; Tang, Jing; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a facile, two-step coating/calcination approach to grow a uniform MnO nanoparticle@mesoporous carbon (MnO@C) composite on conducting substrates, by direct coating of the Mn-oleate precursor solution without any conducting/binding reagents, and subsequent thermal calcination. The monodispersed, sub-10?nm MnO nanoparticles offer high theoretical energy storage capacities and catalytic properties, and the mesoporous carbon coating allows for enhanced electrolyte transport and charge transfer towards/from MnO surface. In addition, the direct growth and attachment of the MnO@C nanocomposite in the supporting conductive substrates provide much reduced contact resistances and efficient charge transfer. These excellent features allow the use of MnO@C nanocomposites as lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor electrodes for energy storage, with high reversible capacity at large current densities, as well as excellent cycling and mechanical stabilities. Moreover, this MnO@C nanocomposite has also demonstrated a high sensitivity for H2O2 detection, and also exhibited attractive potential for the tumor cell analysis. PMID:24045767

  15. Supporting Information Unexpected Role of Activated Carbon in Promoting

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Hua

    Supporting Information Unexpected Role of Activated Carbon in Promoting Transformation of Secondary. Activated Carbons, Modifications and Characterization. The suite of activated carbon particles and fibers), (ii) coconut shell-based activated carbons: Prominent Systems carbon (PSC) from Prominent Systems Inc

  16. Pore size control of Pitch-based activated carbon fibers by pyrolytic deposition of propylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jinchuan; Wang, Xuhui; Deng, Jiyong; Zhang, Lixing

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we attempted to narrow the pore size of Pitch-based activated carbon fiber (Pitch-ACF) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of propylene at 700 °C. The BET equation was used to estimate the specific surface areas. The micropore volumes were determined using DR equation, t-plot and ? s-plot, and mesopore surface areas were determined by t-plot and ? s-plot. The pore size distribution (PSD) of micropores and mesopore was investigated by micropore analysis method (MP method) and MK method, respectively. The relation between the graphite-like crystal interlayer distance and pore size was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the pore size of Pitch-ACF was gradually narrowed with increasing deposition time. The catalytic activation of Ni was attempted when Pitch-ACF was modified simultaneously by pyrolysis of propylene. The results obtained from the analysis of PSD of micropores, mesopores and macropores in Ni-P-ACF by density function theory (DFT) showed that the pore structure and surface chemistry were greatly changed due to introducing nickel catalyst.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and application of surface-functionalized ordered mesoporous nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Po-Wen

    2009-12-15

    The dissertation begins with Chapter 1, which is a general introduction of the fundamental synthesis of mesoporous silica materials, the selective functionlization of mesoporous silica materials, and the synthesis of nanostructured porous materials via nanocasting. In Chapter 2, the thermo-responsive polymer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) was synthesized via surface-initated polymerization and exhibited unique partition activities in a biphasic solution with the thermally induced change. In Chapter 3, the monodispersed spherical MSN with different mesoporous structure (MCM-48) was developed and employed as a template for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCN) via nanocasting. MCN was demonstrated for the delivery of membrane impermeable chemical agents inside the cells. The cellular uptake efficiency and biocompabtibility of MCN with human cervical cancer cells were also investigated. In addition to the biocompabtibility of MCN, MCN was demonstrated to support Rh-Mn nanoparticles for catalytic reaction in Chapter 4. Owing to the unique mesoporosity, Rh-Mn nanoparticles can be well distributed inside the mesoporous structure and exhibited interesting catalytic performance on CO hydrogenation. In Chapter 5, the synthesis route of the aforementioned MCM-48 MSN was discussed and investigated in details and other metal oxide nanoparticles were also developed via nanocasting by using MCM-48 MSN as a template. At last, there is a general conclusion summarized in Chapter 6.

  18. Microporous activated carbons from a bituminous coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Carrasco-Marín; Miguel A. Alvarez-Merino; Carlos Moreno-Castilla

    1996-01-01

    A Spanish bituminous coal was used as raw material to prepare activated carbons both by CO2 and by chemical activation. The activated carbons were characterized by adsorption of N2 at 77 K, CO2 at 273 K and benzene and cyclohexane at 303 K, as well as by mercury porosimetry and helium density. The microporosity of the activated carbons was evaluated

  19. In situ synthesis of polymer-modified mesoporous carbon CMK-3 composites for CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Jin, Zhong; Lu, Wei; Sun, Zhengzong; Alemany, Lawrence B; Lomeda, Jay R; Tour, James M

    2011-12-01

    Here we report carbon-based composites polyethylenimine-mesocarbon (PEI-CMK-3) and polyvinylamine-mesocarbon (PVA-CMK-3) that can be used to capture and rapidly release CO(2). CO(2) uptake by the synthesized composites was determined using a gravimetric method at 30 °C and 1 atm; the 39% PEI-CMK-3 composite had ~12 wt % CO(2) uptake capacity and the 37% PVA-CMK-3 composite had ~13 wt % CO(2) uptake capacity. A desorption temperature of 75 °C was sufficient for regeneration. The CO(2) uptake was the same when using 10% CO(2) in a 90% CH(4), C(2)H(6), and C(3)H(8) mixture, underscoring this composite's efficacy for CO(2) sequestration from natural gas. PMID:22091700

  20. Effects of surface activation on the structural and catalytic properties of ruthenium nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianfeng; Lin, Rui; Beuerle, Christopher; Jackson, James E; Obare, Sherine O; Ofoli, Robert Y

    2014-01-31

    Using colloid-based methods to prepare supported catalytic metallic nanoparticles (NPs) often faces the challenge of removing the stabilizer used during synthesis and activating the catalyst without modifying the particles or the support. We explored three surface activation protocols (thermal oxidation at 150 °C, thermal reduction at 350 °C, and argon-protected calcination at 650 °C) to activate ruthenium NPs supported on mesoporous silica (MSU-F), and assessed their effects on the structural and catalytic properties of the catalysts, and their activity by the aqueous phase hydrogenation of pyruvic acid. The NPs were synthesized by polyol reduction using poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer, and supported on MSU-F by sonication-assisted deposition. The NPs maintained their original morphology on the support during activation. Ar-protected calcination was the most efficient of the three for completely removing PVP from particle surfaces, and provided the highest degree of particle crystallinity and a metal dispersion comparable to commercial Ru/SiO2. Its catalytic performance was significantly higher than the other two protocols, although all three thermally activated catalysts achieved higher activity than the commercial catalyst at the same Ru loading. Post-reaction analysis also showed that the supported catalyst activated at 650 °C retained its morphology during the reaction, which is an important requirement for recyclability. PMID:24394435

  1. Equilibrium and kinetics analysis of carbon dioxide capture using immobilized amine on a mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Monazam, E., Shadle, L., Pennline, H., Miller, D., Fauth, D., Hoffman, J., Gray, M.

    2012-01-01

    The equilibrium and conversion-time data on the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with amine-based solid sorbent were analyzed over the range of 303–373 K. Data on CO{sub 2} loading on amine based solid sorbent at these temperatures and CO{sub 2} partial pressure between 10 and 760 mm Hg obtained from volumetric adsorption apparatus were fitted to a simple equilibrium model to generate the different parameters (including equilibrium constant) in the model. Using these constants, a correlation was obtained to define equilibrium constant and maximum CO{sub 2} loading as a function of temperature. In this study, a shrinking core model (SCM) was applied to elucidate the relative importance of pore diffusion and surface chemical reaction in controlling the rate of reaction. Application of SCM to the data suggested a surface reaction-controlled mechanism for the temperature of up to 40°C and pore-diffusion mechanism at higher temperature.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic activity and dye-sensitized solar cell performance of mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Pavasupree, Sorapong [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Klong 6, Pathumthani 12110 (Thailand); Jitputti, Jaturong; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Susumu [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: s-yoshi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-01-08

    Mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} nanopowder was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 130 deg. C for 12 h. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), HRTEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. The as-synthesized sample with narrow pore size distribution had average pore diameter about 3-4 nm. The specific BET surface area of the as-synthesized sample was about 193 m{sup 2}/g. Mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} nanopowders (prepared by this study) showed higher photocatalytic activity than the nanorods TiO{sub 2}, nanofibers TiO{sub 2} mesoporous TiO{sub 2}, and commercial TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03). The solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}) of the cell using the mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} was about 6.30% with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 13.28 mA/cm{sup 2}, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.702 V and the fill factor (ff) of 0.676; while {eta} of the cell using P-25 reached 5.82% with Jsc of 12.74 mA/cm{sup 2}, Voc of 0.704 V and ff of 0.649.

  3. Metal dispersed activated carbon fibers and their application for removal of SO x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ikpyo; Jiang, Hancheng; Park, Yang-Duk; Kim, Je-Young; Ha, Baik-Hyon

    2002-12-01

    Uniformly metal dispersed ACFs were prepared by mixing organometallic compounds with THF and pitch. The solvent was removed from this mixture and then pitch was spun, stabilized, carbonized and activated. The specific surface areas and pore size distributions of prepared ACFs and DeSO x catalytic reactivities were determined. The mesopores of ACF were developed by the addition of Co, Ni, Mn. The DeSO x catalytic reactivity of Ni, Pd, Co, V and Cr dispersed ACFs demonstrated much higher continuous reaction conversion than reference pitch-ACF.

  4. Nanocrystalline intermetallics on mesoporous carbon for direct formic acid fuel cell anodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiulei Ji; Kyu Tae Lee; Reanne Holden; Lei Zhang; Jiujun Zhang; Gianluigi A. Botton; Martin Couillard; Linda F. Nazar

    2010-01-01

    Shape- and size-controlled supported metal and intermetallic nanocrystallites are of increasing interest because of their catalytic and electrocatalytic properties. In particular, intermetallics PtX (X = Bi, Pb, Pd, Ru) are very attractive because of their high activity as fuel-cell anode catalysts for formic acid or methanol oxidation. These are normally synthesized using high-temperature techniques, but rigorous size control is very

  5. Activated carbon fibre materials for VOC removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Navarri; D Marchal; A Ginestet

    2001-01-01

    Activated carbon material has been used for many years in air cleaning applications. Powder form activated carbon has been gradually replaced by activate carbon fibre, which allows much smaller pores - specific area of such material may reach up to 2000 m2\\/g. An experimental dynamic volatile organic compound (VOC) generation system has been developed in order to test new types

  6. Perchlorate removal by activated carbon adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rovshan Mahmudov; Chin Pao Huang

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of perchlorate on activated carbon was studied. A total of 10 types of commercial activated carbons were tested for perchlorate adsorption characteristics using pH as the master variable. The activated carbons were made from different base materials such as wood, bituminous coal, and lignite coal and thus expressed different surface characteristics such as specific surface area and surface

  7. Photocatalytic and biocidal activities of novel coating systems of mesoporous and dense TiO?-anatase containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Roldán, María V; de Oña, Paula; Castro, Yolanda; Durán, Alicia; Faccendini, Pablo; Lagier, Claudia; Grau, Roberto; Pellegri, Nora S

    2014-10-01

    Here we describe the development of novel nanostructured coating systems with improved photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. These systems comprise a layer of SiO2 followed by a layer of mesoporous or dense TiO2-anatase, and doping with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The coatings were synthesized via a sol-gel technique by combining colloidal Ag NPs with TiO2 and SiO2 sols. The photocatalytic activity was studied through methyl orange decomposition under UV light. Results showed a great increase of photocatalytic activity by Ag NPs doping. The most active photocatalyst corresponded to the Ag-SiO2/TiO2 mesoporous system, associated with the porosity of the coatings and with the decrease of e-h recombination for the presence of Ag NPs. All the TiO2 coatings showed a strong bactericidal activity against planktonic forms of Gram-negative (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) pathogens, as well as a strong germicidal effect against deadly spores of human gas gangrene- and anthrax-producing bacteria (Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis, respectively). The bactericidal and sporocidal activity was improved by doping the coatings with Ag NPs, even more when nanoparticles were in the outer layer of TiO2, because they are more accessible to the environment. The mechanisms responsible for the increase of photocatalytic and bactericidal behaviors related to Ag NP doping were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence and anodic stripping voltammetry. It was found that the separation of the electron-hole pair contributed to the enhancement of photocatalysis, whereas the effect of the local electric field reinforcement was probably present. A possible involvement of a decrease of band-gap energy and dispersion by silver nanoparticles is ruled out. bactericidal efficacy was increased by Ag(+) ion release. Overall, the results included in this article show that the architecture of the films may tune photocatalytic and bactericidal properties. PMID:25175258

  8. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  9. Amine-modified SBA12 mesoporous silica for carbon dioxide capture: Effect of amine basicity on sorption properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Zelenak; D. Halamova; L. Gaberova; E. Bloch; P. Llewellyn

    2008-01-01

    SBA-12 mesoporous silica was modified by 3-aminopropyl (AP), 3-(methylamino)propyl (MAP) and 3-(phenylamino)propyl (PAP) ligands. The electronic effects in AP, MAP and PAP ligands resulted in different surface basicity of the modified silica materials. The materials were characterized by thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen adsorption\\/desorption and transmission electron microscopy. The CO2 sorption\\/desorption experiments performed at 25oC by gravimetric method showed that

  10. Heat of Adsorption of Pure Sulfur Hexafluoride on Micro-Mesoporous Adsorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Cao; S. Sircar

    2001-01-01

    The isotherms and the isosteric heats of adsorption of pure SF6 were measured on two microporous zeolites (NaX and Silicalite), one mesoporous alumina, and two activated carbons (BPL and PCB) at 305 K. The adsorption isotherms were Type I by Brunauer classification. The PCB carbon adsorbed SF6 most strongly and the alumina adsorbed SF6 most weakly. The adsorption of SF6

  11. Studies and characterisations of various activated carbons used for carbon\\/carbon supercapacitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Gamby; P. L Taberna; P Simon; J. F Fauvarque; M Chesneau

    2001-01-01

    Various activated carbons from the PICA Company have been tested in supercapacitor cells in order to compare their performances. The differences measured in terms of specific capacitance and cell resistance are presented. Porosity measurements made on activated carbon powders and electrode allowed a better understanding of the electrochemical behaviour of these activated carbons. In this way, the PICACTIF SC carbon

  12. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon-glass ceramic cathodes for solid-state lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Kichambare, Padmakar; Rodrigues, Stanley; Kumar, Jitendra

    2012-01-01

    The composite of nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) blend with lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP) was studied as cathode material in a solid-state lithium-oxygen cell. Composite electrodes exhibit high electrochemical activity toward oxygen reduction. Compared to the cell capacity of N-C blend cathode, N-C/LAGP composite cathode exhibits six times higher discharge cell capacity. A significant enhancement in cell capacity is attributed to higher electrocatalytic activity and fast lithium ion conduction ability of LAGP in the cathode. PMID:22148159

  13. Porosity Development in Activated Carbons Prepared from Walnut Shells by Carbon Dioxide or Steam Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan F. Gonza?lez; Silvia Roma?n; Carmen M. Gonzalez-Garcõ ´; J. M. Valente Nabais; Angel L. Ortiz

    2009-01-01

    The influence of carbon dioxide and steam as activating agents on the porosity development of activated carbons produced from walnut shells was investigated. The study was made covering a wide range of burnoff (12-76%) and employing different temperatures and times: in carbon dioxide activation, 850 °C varying the activation time in the range 60-480 min, and in steam activation, 700,

  14. Synthesis of mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolite from mesoporous silica materials for methanol to light olefins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun A; Kim, Tae-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Min; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolites were synthesized by using as-prepared mesoporous silica material as both silica source and mesopore tailor. The mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolite materials thus obtained are characterized by a series of different techniques, including poweder X-ray diffraction pattern, nitrogen physisorption analysis, scanning electron micrograph, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The resultant mesoporous SAPO-34 crystals exhibit sphere-like particle with zeolite layer units. The mesopore size distribution and particle size can be changed by amounts of silica source and water. The methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reactions using these mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolites are carried out with a fixed-bed reactor. Catalytic tests exhibit that the mesoporous SAPO-34 zeolite materials show high catalytic activity compared with the conventional SAPO-34 for MTO reaction. The better catalytic activity and longer life time of the mesoporous SAPO-34 catalysts in MTO are mainly due to the existence of the mesoporosity of SAPO-34 with small particle size. PMID:24245281

  15. Fabrication of meso-porous BiOI sensitized zirconia nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignesh, K.; Suganthi, A.; Min, Bong-Ki; Kang, Misook

    2015-01-01

    In this present work, BiOI sensitized zirconia (BiOI-ZrO2) nanoparticles were fabricated using a precipitation-deposition method. The physicochemical characteristics of BiOI/ZrO2 were studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BET-surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy techniques. The absorption maximum of ZrO2 was shifted to the visible region after sensitization with BiOI. BET-surface area results inferred that the prepared hetero-junctions were meso-porous in nature. The photocatalytic activity of BiOI-ZrO2 for the degradation of methyl violet (MV) dye under simulated solar light irradiation was investigated in detail. 3% BiOI-ZrO2 exhibited the highest photocatalytic performance (98% of MV degradation) when compared with ZrO2 and BiOI. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of BiOI-ZrO2 is ascribed to the sensitization effect of BiOI, suppression of electron-hole recombination and the formation of p-n hetero-junction.

  16. Ionised carbon and galaxy activity

    E-print Network

    S. J. Curran

    2009-02-12

    We investigate the possibility that the decrease in the relative luminosity of the 158 micron [CII] line with the far-infrared luminosity in extragalactic sources stems from a stronger contribution from the heated dust emission in the more distant sources. Due to the flux limited nature of these surveys, the luminosity of the detected objects increases with distance. However, the [CII] luminosity does not climb as steeply as that of the far-infrared, giving the decline in the L_[CII]/L_FIR ratio with L_FIR. Investigating this further, we find that the [CII] luminosity exhibits similar drops as measured against the carbon monoxide and radio continuum luminosities. The former may indicate that at higher luminosities a larger fraction of the carbon is locked up in the form of molecules and/or that the CO line radiation also contributes to the cooling, done mainly by the [CII] line at low luminosities. The latter hints at increased activity in these galaxies at greater distances, so we suggest that, in addition to an underlying heating of the dust by a stellar population, there is also heating of the embedded dusty torus by the ultra-violet emission from the active nucleus, resulting in an excess in the far-infrared emission from the more luminous objects.

  17. Sol-gel thin-film based mesoporous silica and carbon nanotubes for the determination of dopamine, uric acid and paracetamol in urine.

    PubMed

    Canevari, Thiago C; Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A; Landers, Richard; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Machado, Sérgio A S

    2013-11-15

    This work describes the preparation, characterization and application of a hybrid material composed of disordered mesoporous silica (SiO2) modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), obtained by the sol-gel process using HF as the catalyst. This hybrid material was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission microscopy (HR-TEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This new hybrid material was used for the construction of a thin film on a glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode using this material was designated SiO2/MWCNT/GCE. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrode toward dopamine, uric acid and paracetamol oxidation were studied by differential pulse voltammetry. Well-defined and separated oxidation peaks were observed in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0, in contrast with the ill-defined peaks observed with unmodified glassy carbon electrodes. The electrode had high sensitivity for the determination of dopamine, uric acid and paracetamol, with the limits of detection obtained using statistical methods, at 0.014, 0.068 and 0.098 µmol L(-1), respectively. The electrode presented some important advantages, including enhanced physical rigidity, surface renewability by polishing and high sensitivity, allowing the simultaneous determination of these three analytes in a human urine sample. PMID:24148467

  18. Adsorption of indigo carmine by activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tamura; T. Miyoshi; K. Boki; S. Tanada

    1988-01-01

    Adsorption of indigo carmine as an acid dye onto activated carbon was studied in order to elucidate its adsorption behavior on the basis of amount adsorbed, pore size distribution, pH and basicity of activated carbon, and pH of filtrate. Activated carbon No.1 and No.4 were the preferable adsorbents for removing indigo carmine in the range of higher and lower equilibrium

  19. Sol-gel derived mesoporous cobalt silica catalyst: Synthesis, characterization and its activity in the oxidation of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andas, Jeyashelly; Adam, Farook; Rahman, Ismail Ab.

    2014-10-01

    Highly mesoporous cobalt silica rice husk catalysts with (5-15 wt.%) Co2+ loading were prepared via a simple sol-gel technique at room temperature. The successful insertion of cobalt ions into silica matrix was evidenced from FT-IR, NMR, XPS and AAS analyses. Preservation of the mesoporosity nature of silica upon incorporating Co2+ was confirmed from the N2-sorption studies. The topography and morphology viewed by TEM analysis differs as the cobalt concentration varies from 5 to 15 wt.%. Parallel pore channels and spherical nanoparticles of 9.44 nm were achieved for cobalt silica catalysts with 10 and 15 wt.% respectively. Cobalt catalysts were active in the liquid-phase oxidation of phenol with H2O2 as an oxygen source. The performances of the catalysts were greatly influenced by various parameters such as reaction temperature, catalyst amount, molar ratio of substrate to oxidant, nature of solvent, metal loading and homogeneous precursor salt. Water served as the best reaction medium for this oxidation system. The regeneration studies confirmed cobalt catalyst could be reused for five cycles without experiencing large loss in the conversion. Both leaching and reusability studies testified that the catalysts were truly heterogeneous.

  20. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  1. Improving the visible light photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 via the synergetic effects of B doping and Ag loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Baozhu; Shao, Zhimang; Ma, Yunfei; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Feng

    2011-11-01

    B-doped together with Ag-loaded mesoporous TiO2 (Ag/B-TiO2) was prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method in the presence of boric acid, triblock copolymer surfactant, and silver nitrate, followed by heat treatment. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. It was revealed that all samples consist of highly crystalline anatase with mesoporous structure. For Ag/B-TiO2, B was doped into TiO2 matrix in the form of both interstitial B and substitutional B while Ag was deposited on the surface of B-TiO2 in the form of metallic silver. Compared with the single B-doped or Ag-loaded TiO2 one, mesoporous Ag/B-TiO2 exhibits much higher visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine 6G, which can be ascribed to the synergistic effects of B doping and Ag loading by narrowing the band gap of the photocatalyst and preventing the fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, respectively.

  2. Excellent photocatalytic degradation activities of ordered mesoporous anatase TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposites to various organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weiyang; Sun, Yaojun; Ma, Qingwei; Zhu, Li; Hua, Weiming; Lu, Xinchun; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhang, Shicheng; Guo, Zhigang; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-08-30

    Ordered 2-D hexagonal mesoporous TiO(2)-SiO(2) nanocomposites consisted of anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals and amorphous SiO(2) nanoparticles, with large mesochannels and high specific surface areas, have been extensively and detailedly evaluated using various cationic dyes (methylene blue, safranin O, crystal violet, brilliant green, basic fuchsin and rhodamine-6G), anionic dyes (acid fuchsin, orange II, reactive brilliant red X3B and acid red 1) and microcystin-LR. We use mesoporous 80TiO(2)-20SiO(2)-900 for the degradation of cationic dyes and MC-LR, due to the dominant adsorption of SiOH groups and synergistic role of coupled adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation. For anionic dyes, due to the adsorption results predominantly from TiOH groups, our strategy realizes the enhanced photocatalytic oxidation by strong surface acids and larger available specific surface area. Based on this, we prepared 90TiO(2)-10SiO(2)-700 to degrade them. The results show that our samples exhibit excellent degradation activities to all the contaminants, which are much higher than that of P25 photocatalyst. The dyes are not only decolorized promptly but degraded readily as well. It is strongly indicated that our mesoporous nanocomposites are considerably stable and reusable. These results demonstrate that our mesoporous TiO(2)-SiO(2) nanocomposites present extensive and promising application in the fast and highly efficient degradation of various organic pollutants. PMID:22749122

  3. Biochar as a precursor of activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Azargohar; A. K. Dalai

    2006-01-01

    Biochar was evaluated as a precursor of activated carbon. This product was produced by chemical activation using potassium\\u000a hydroxide. The effects of operating conditions of activation process, such as temperature, activating agent to biochar mass\\u000a ratio, and nitrogen flow rate, on the textural and chemical properties of the product were investigated. Activated carbon\\u000a produced by this method has internal surface

  4. Mesoporous silica: Holey quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2012-09-01

    The self-assembly of surfactant micelles in the formation of templated mesoporous silicas can be tuned to produce mesoporous materials with quasicrystalline ordering, proving that quasicrystals are indeed a general form of ordered but non-periodic matter.

  5. Performance of granular activated carbon for total organic carbon removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul V. Roberts; R. Scott Summers

    1982-01-01

    The results of papers presented at the second of two conferences concerning the state of the art of the application of oxidation and adsorption techniques (including granular activated carbon) in the treatment of drinking water were analyzed for their application to GAC use in the United States. Total organic carbon was used as the parameter for measuring the removal of

  6. Carbon-decorated Li?Ti?O??/rutile TiO? mesoporous microspheres with nanostructures as high-performance anode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Liu, Rujun; Hu, Hao; Li, Guojian; Yu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Li4Ti5O12/rutile TiO2 (LTO-RT) composites with Li/Ti molar ratios of 3:5, 4:5 and 4.5:5 have been successfully synthesized with TiO2 microspheres as a precursor. Furthermore, C-coated LTO-RT mesoporous microspheres with a molar ratio of 4:5 (C/4-5-LTO-RT) have been prepared based on the LTO-RT composite through a hydrothermal method and high temperature calcination. After various characterizations, it is found that carbon plays a pivotal role in retaining the porous nanostructure of the original as-prepared TiO2 precursor in the overall process. Substantially, C/4-5-LTO-RT still shows a high specific surface area of 63.70 m(2) g(-1) even after high temperature treatment at 800 °C. Since the porous nanostructure offers open and direct channels for the diffusion of Li ions and electrons and carbon decoration also efficiently improves the electrical conductivity, the sample of C/4-5-LTO-RT shows an enhanced electrochemical performance. In addition, the presence of nanosized rutile TiO2 in C/4-5-LTO-RT has an important contribution to the high electrochemical performance, as does the fast lithium ion diffusion along the [001] direction. PMID:24722166

  7. Activated carbon mitigates mercury and methylmercury bioavailability in contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Cynthia C; Riedel, Georgia S; Riedel, Gerhardt; Kwon, Seokjoon; Landis, Richard; Brown, Steven S; Menzie, Charles A; Ghosh, Upal

    2013-11-19

    There are few available in situ remediation options for Hg contaminated sediments, short of capping. Here we present the first tests of activated carbon and other sorbents as potential in situ amendments for remediation of mercury and methylmercury (MeHg), using a study design that combined 2 L sediment/water microcosms with 14 day bioaccumulation assays. Our key end points were pore water concentrations, and bioaccumulation of total Hg and MeHg by a deposit-feeding oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Four amendments were tested: an activated carbon (AC); CETCO Organoclay MRM (MRM); Thiol-SAMMS (TS), a thiol-functionalized mesoporous silica; and AMBERSEP GT74, an ion-exchange resin. Amendments were tested in four separate microcosm assays using Hg-contaminated sediments from two freshwater and two estuarine sites. AC and TS amendments, added at 2-7% of the dry weight of sediments significantly reduced both MeHg concentrations in pore waters, relative to unamended controls (by 45-95%) and bioaccumulation of MeHg by Lumbriculus (by between 30 and 90%). Both amendments had only small impacts on microcosm surface water, sediment and pore water chemistry, with the exception of significant reductions in pore water dissolved organic matter. The effectiveness of amendments in reducing bioaccumulation was well-correlated with their effectiveness in increasing sediment:water partitioning, especially of MeHg. Sediments with low native sediment:water MeHg partition coefficients were most effectively treated. Thus, in situ sediment sorbent amendments may be able to reduce the risk of biotic Hg and MeHg uptake in contaminated sediments, and subsequent contamination of food webs. PMID:24156748

  8. Activated carbon for gas separation and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sircar; T. C. Golden; M. B. Rao

    1996-01-01

    Activated carbons offer a large spectrum of pore structures and surface chemistry for adsorption of gases, which are being used to design practical pressure swing and thermal swing adsorption processes for separation and purification of gas mixtures. The activated carbons are often preferred over the zeolitic adsorbents in a gas separation process because of their relatively moderate strengths of adsorption

  9. One-pot synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped onion-like mesoporous carbon vesicle as an efficient metal-free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ce; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Yufan; Li, Mian; Guo, Liping

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped onion-like mesoporous carbon vesicle (NS-MCV) with multilayer lamellar structure is synthesized as a metal-free catalyst through a convenient and economical procedure. The synthesized materials are systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization results demonstrate that N and S atoms can be successfully doped into the framework of MCV with little impact on the morphology and structure. The NS-MCV manifests a remarkably high electrocatalytic activity as a metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with mainly a four-electron transfer pathway. Moreover, in contrast to the commercially available Pt/C catalyst, the NS-MCV shows much better long-term stability and tolerance toward methanol crossover in an alkaline medium. Such excellent performances can be mainly attributed to the synergistic effect arising from the addition of N and S heteroatom, optimized S content and high surface area. The NS-MCV with a simple synthesis method may further exploited as potentially efficient and inexpensive metal-free ORR catalyst materials.

  10. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon foam from phenolic resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuefei ZHAO; Shiquan LAI; Hongzha LIU; Lijuan GAO

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon foam was successfully prepared from phenolic resin synthesized with phenol and formaldehyde under alkali condition. The influence of process variables, such as steam rate, carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time on the adsorption capacities of the activated carbon foam was studied. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the activated carbon foam with a specific surface area

  11. Regenerate activated carbon using organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, H.S.

    1995-07-01

    Adsorption by activated carbon is widely used to remove chemical species from waters and wastewater and volatile organic compounds from vapor streams. In normal applications, the activated carbon gradually accumulates the chemical species removed from the liquid or vapor stream. This causes a progressive reduction in the carbon`s ability to remove additional chemicals from the stream, and eventually the adsorption capacity is consumed and the carbon is spent. At this point, the carbon must either be replaced or be regenerated to restore its adsorptive capacity. Solvent regeneration is one such technology. It uses solvents to dissolve adsorbed material out of the pores of the activated carbon. Then the solvent is removed by steam. This article discusses where solvent regeneration fits into the overall scheme of activated carbon applications and regeneration options. Cost-wise, solvent regeneration of activated carbon is only a few cents per pound more expensive than steam regeneration, and less than one-tenth as expensive as thermal regeneration. Because steam regeneration is appropriate for only certain industrial applications (discussed later), the choice is usually between solvent and thermal regeneration.

  12. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, N.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd. [NANOCEN, Block A, Level 3, Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rinaldi, A. [NANOCEN, Block A, Level 3, Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Inorganic Chemistry Department, Fritz-Haber Institute der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Fritz-Haber Institute der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300 deg. C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2} was carried out at temperature of 550 deg. C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N{sub 2} isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  13. Upgrading the rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis for the production of amorphous silica and high quality activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jon; Lopez, Gartzen; Amutio, Maider; Bilbao, Javier; Olazar, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The overall valorization of rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR) has been studied in a two-step process. Thus, silica has been recovered in a first step and the remaining carbon material has been subjected to steam activation. The char samples used in this study have been obtained by continuous flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor at 500°C. Extraction with Na2CO3 allows recovering 88% of the silica contained in the rice husk char. Activation of the silica-free rice husk char has been carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 800°C using steam as activating agent. The porous structure of the activated carbons produced includes a combination of micropores and mesopores, with a BET surface area of up to 1365m(2)g(-1) at the end of 15min. PMID:25127010

  14. Sorption of elemental mercury by activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Krishnan; Brian K. Gullett; Wojciech Jozewicz

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives results of a study of the mechanisms and rate of elemental mercury (Hg) capture by activated carbons, using a bench-scale apparatus. Three types of activated carbons, two thermally activated (PC-100 and FGD) and one impregnated with elemental sulfur (S) (HGR), were used to study the effects of surface area (approximately 550-1000 sq m\\/g), sorption temperature (23-140 C),

  15. Effects of Fe-doping on the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 powders prepared by an ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minghua; Yu, Jiaguo; Cheng, Bei

    2006-10-11

    Highly photoactive nanocrystalline mesoporous Fe-doped TiO(2) powders were prepared by the ultrasonic-induced hydrolysis reaction of tetrabutyl titanate (Ti(OC(4)H(9))(4)) in a ferric nitrate aqueous solution (pH 5) without using any templates or surfactants. The as-prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements, UV-visible adsorbance spectra (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation of acetone in air. The results showed that all the Fe-doped TiO(2) samples prepared by ultrasonic methods were mesoporous nanocrystalline. A small amount of Fe(3+) ions in TiO(2) powders could obviously enhance their photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped TiO(2) powders prepared by this method and calcined at 400 degrees C exceeded that of Degussa P25 (P25) by a factor of more than two times at an optimal atomic ratio of Fe to Ti of 0.25. The high activities of the Fe-doped TiO(2) powders could be attributed to the results of the synergetic effects of Fe-doping, large BET specific surface area and small crystallite size. PMID:16777319

  16. 78 FR 13894 - Certain Activated Carbon From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...731-TA-1103 (Review)] Certain Activated Carbon From China Determination On...antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from China would be likely to...February 2013), entitled Certain Activated Carbon from China: Investigation...

  17. Pore structure analysis of activated carbon fiber by microdomain-based model.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Nanako; Lee, Kyung Jin; Miyawaki, Jin; Hong, Seong-Hwa; Mochida, Isao; An, Bai; Yokogawa, Kiyoshi; Jang, Jyongsik; Yoon, Seong-Ho

    2009-07-01

    The pore structures of commercial pitch and PAN-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were investigated. The pore size and pore size distribution of pitch-based ACFs were measured by nitrogen adsorption isotherms and 129Xe NMR spectroscopy and compared with each other. Scanning tunneling microscopy showed that the ACFs were composed of spherical microdomain units the size of a few nanometers. The activation mechanism of ACFs was considered and explained by novel hypothesis; the concept of microdomain structure of ACFs was considered and explained to overcome limitation of the conventional fractal hypothesis. Whereas micropores were generated on each microdomain, the origin of mesopores was interdomain pores, resulting from the microdomain hypothesis. PMID:19344158

  18. Sensitive impedimetric biosensor based on duplex-like DNA scaffolds and ordered mesoporous carbon nitride for silver(I) ion detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yaoyu; Tang, Lin; Xie, Xia; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Jiajia; Deng, Yaocheng; Yang, Guide; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Jun

    2014-12-21

    This study demonstrates a new, unlabeled immobilized DNA-based biosensor with ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) for the detection of Ag(+) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) as the redox couple. The unlabeled immobilized DNA initially formed the hairpin-like structure through hybridization with the probe, and then changed to duplex-like structure upon interaction with Ag(+) in solution to form a C-Ag(+)-C complex at electrode surface. As a result, the interfacial charge-transfer resistance of the electrode towards the [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) redox couple was changed. Thus, a declined charge transfer resistance (Rct) was obtained, corresponding to Ag(+) concentration. MCN provide an excellent platform for DNA immobilization and faster electron transfer. Impedance data were analyzed with the help of Randles equivalent circuit. The lower detection limit of the biosensor for Ag(+) is 5 × 10(-11) M with good specificity. All results showed that this novel approach provides a reliable method for Ag(+) detection with sensitivity and specificity, potentially useful for practical applications. Moreover, other DNA detection methods for more heavy metals may be obtained from this idea and applied in the environmental field. PMID:25346956

  19. Functionalized CMK-3 mesoporous carbon with 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole for Hg(II) removal from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Anbia, Mansoor; Dehghan, Roghaye

    2014-07-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) was synthesized and functionalized with 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole groups (AMT-OCMK-3) for Hg(II) removal from aqueous solution. The modified CMK-3 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of solution pH, contact time, initial Hg(II) concentration and matrix effect were studied. The adsorption data were successfully fitted with the Langmuir model, exhibiting high adsorption capacity of 450.45 mg/g of AMT-OCMK-3. In the solid-phase extraction system a series of experimental parameters such as sample flow rate, sample volume, eluent volume and concentration of the eluent solution have been investigated and established for preconcentration of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. The results showed that the enrichment factor for Hg(II) was 250, the precision (relative standard deviation (RSD), %) for six replicate measurements was 2.05% and the limit of detection for Hg(II) was achieved at 0.17 ?g/L. PMID:25080004

  20. Carbon dioxide-methane mixture adsorption on activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Goetz; O. Pupier; A. Guillot

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report new experimental data of pure and binary adsorption equilibria of carbon dioxide and methane on the\\u000a activated carbon RB2 at 273 and 298 K. The pressure range studied were 0–3.5 MPa for pure gases and 0–0.1 MPa for mixtures.\\u000a The combination of the generalized Dubinin model to describe the pure CO2 and CH4 isotherms with

  1. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types of sorption sites. The effect of pH on adsorption was investigated using buffered solutions. The sorption capacity decreased with increasing pH. A study of the effect of activation conditions on the adsorption capacity of the resulting carbon showed that steam activation at 750 C provides the optimum activity with the high-sodium char. An attempt to scale up the carbon production to the 2-kg scale failed to produce the same high activity that was obtained in the 100-g batch unit. Although this research demonstrated that a highly active carbon for water treatment can be produced from high-sodium lignites, much further work is needed to understand what methods and equipment will be needed for large-scale production of this carbon.

  2. Activated carbons and double layer capacitance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hang Shi

    1996-01-01

    The porous structures and electrochemical double layer capacitance of activated carbon microbeads and carbon fibers were investigated using nitrogen gas adsorption and electrochemical constant current cycling (CCC) methods. Porous structural information on pore size distribution (PSD) and surface area were extracted through a gas adsorption analysis program based on density functional theory (DFT). The relation between the porous surface areas

  3. The transport properties of activated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    di Vittorio, S.L. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Dresselhaus, M.S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Endo, M. (Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Gold stabilized aqueous sols immobilized on mesoporous CeO2-Al2O3 as catalysts for the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Storaro, Loretta; Lenarda, Maurizio; Moretti, Elisa; Talon, Aldo; Porta, Francesca; Moltrasio, Bernardo; Canton, Patrizia

    2010-10-15

    Nanostructured Au/Al(2)O(3)-CeO(2) catalysts with a low content of precious metal (0.9% wt.) were prepared immobilizing two different stabilized Au sols on a high surface area Al(2)O(3)-CeO(2) mixed oxide with a uniform pore size distribution, synthesized by a one-pot methodology. The samples were characterized by elemental analysis, N(2) physisorption, XRPD, TEM and (27)Al-MAS NMR techniques. The catalytic activity of the two samples in the preferential oxidation of CO in excess of H(2) (CO-PROX) was comparatively evaluated in the 35-110 degrees C temperature range. The Au-THPS/AlCe20 sample, prepared immobilizing a sol obtained reducing an aqueous solution of gold tetrachloroaurate salt with bis[tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate], resulted very active and selective at low temperatures and its catalytic activity was correlated with the structural characteristics of the metal particles and of the ordered mesoporous support. PMID:20655539

  5. ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION OF TRACE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to determine how effectively humic substances and the trace contaminants 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), geosmin, the chlorophenols and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were adsorbed by activated carbon under the competitive adsorption conditions encountered in ...

  6. Systematical study of depositing nanoparticles and nanowires in mesoporous silica using supercritical carbon dioxide and co-solvents: morphology control, thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin-qin; Wang, Ya-qiong; Wang, Ai-qin; Yin, Jian-zhong; Yu-Liu

    2012-07-01

    AgNO3 was successfully deposited into mesoporous silica including SBA-15 and KIT-6 using supercritical carbon dioxide as the solvent, ethanol or a mixture of ethanol and ethylene glycol as the co-solvent, followed by calcination after depressurization. A large number of experiments were conducted to find out the most important parameters influencing the metal loading and the morphology of the nanostructure. The morphology was found to vary a lot according to the deposition time, which is interesting, i.e. small nanoparticles, short nanorods, continuous nanowires, and big nanoparticles appeared in succession as the deposition time increased. Besides, the co-solvent was also found to influence significantly the deposition results. The samples prepared using the mixture of ethanol and ethylene glycol as the co-solvent presented the morphology of nanowires, while those prepared using only ethanol as the co-solvent presented a mixed morphology of both nanoparticles and nanowires. The role of ethylene glycol was discussed and a mechanism model demonstrating the formation of Ag nanowires or nanoparticles was proposed. Finally, the adsorption of AgNO3 (adsorbate) from supercritical carbon dioxide and co-solvent (solvent) on the SBA-15 support (adsorbent) was investigated by both experimental and simulating methods. It was found that the adsorption isotherm was well fitted by the Langmuir model, and the kinetic investigation based on a mass differential equation showed that the adsorption reached equilibrium after 10?000 s (about 2.8 h) which was consistent with our experimental result (2.5 h).

  7. Adsorption properties of an activated carbon for 18 cytokines and HMGB1 from inflammatory model plasma.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Satoru; Kiriyama, Kentaro; Hatanaka, Yoshihiro; Kanoh, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    The ability of an activated carbon (AC) to adsorb 18 different cytokines with molecular weights ranging from 8 kDa to 70 kDa and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) from inflammatory model plasma at 310 K and the mechanisms of adsorption were examined. Porosity analysis using N2 gas adsorption at 77K showed that the AC had micropores with diameters of 1-2 nm and mesopores with diameters of 5-20 nm. All 18 cytokines and HMGB1 were adsorbed on the AC; however, the shapes of the adsorption isotherms changed depending on the molecular weight. The adsorption isotherms for molecules of 8-10 kDa, 10-20 kDa, 20-30 kDa, and higher molecular weights were classified as H-2, L-3, S-3, and S-1 types, respectively. These results suggested that the adsorption mechanism for the cytokines and HMGB1 in the mesopores and on the surface of the AC differed as a function of the molecular weight. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that AC should be efficient for cytokine adsorption. PMID:25543984

  8. Ordered mesoporous phenolic resins: highly versatile and ultra stable support materials.

    PubMed

    Muylaert, Ilke; Verberckmoes, An; De Decker, Jeroen; Van Der Voort, Pascal

    2012-07-15

    Ordered mesoporous phenolic resins and carbons - an advanced class of ultra-stable mesoporous materials - offer potential applications in the field of catalysis, electrodes and adsorbents. This review gives an extensive overview of the main principles and the recent progress made in the synthesis of these innovative materials using the soft-template method. Furthermore, the versatility towards functionalization and the incorporation of hetero-atoms in the organic framework of the mesoporous resins and carbons are considered. Finally, the broad range of potential applications is discussed and future perspectives in the field of mesoporous polymers and carbons are given. PMID:22525791

  9. Catalytic Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Silicon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel Complexes

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Catalytic Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Silicon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Received June 11, 1999 The nickel alkyne complexes (dippe)Ni(Me3Si, and nickel phosphine complexes.3 Milstein and co-workers reported the cata- lytic hydrogenolysis

  10. The effect of the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid on the activity in catalyzing aldol condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Yu Xiaobo [China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wu Shujie; Liu Bo; Liu Heng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.c [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan Qiubin, E-mail: catalysischina@yahoo.com.c [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Acid-base bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts containing carboxylic and amine groups, which were immobilized at defined distance from one another on the mesoporous solid were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), elemental analysis, and back titration. Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance was more active than maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. It appears that the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid should be an essential factor for catalysis optimization. -- Graphical abstract: Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance and maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance. {yields} Maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance. {yields} Compared to maximum-C-A-SBA-15, proximal-C-A-SBA-15 was more active toward aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes.

  11. Effect of activated carbon on fouling of activated sludge filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert H. P. Fang; Xinlong Shi; Tong Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of adding activated carbon on the fouling of activated sludge filtration was investigated using a complete-mix cell with a flat-sheet cellulosic membrane at a constant pressure gradient of 70 kN\\/m2. Four sludge samples were tested in parallel: a sludge without additive served as control, plus three sludge samples dosed with individual additives, including inert diatomaceous earth, activated carbon

  12. Nanospace engineering of KOH activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, J.; Beckner, M.; Rash, T.; Firlej, L.; Kuchta, B.; Yu, P.; Suppes, G.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that nanospace engineering of KOH activated carbon is possible by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process. High specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nanometer (<1 nm) and supra-nanometer (1-5 nm) pore volumes are quantitatively controlled by a combination of KOH concentration and activation temperature. The process typically leads to a bimodal pore size distribution, with a large, approximately constant number of sub-nanometer pores and a variable number of supra-nanometer pores. We show how to control the number of supra-nanometer pores in a manner not achieved previously by chemical activation. The chemical mechanism underlying this control is studied by following the evolution of elemental composition, specific surface area, porosity, and pore size distribution during KOH activation and preceding H3PO4 activation. The oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen contents decrease during successive activation steps, creating a nanoporous carbon network with a porosity and surface area controllable for various applications, including gas storage. The formation of tunable sub-nanometer and supra-nanometer pores is validated by sub-critical nitrogen adsorption. Surface functional groups of KOH activated carbon are studied by microscopic infrared spectroscopy.

  13. Carbon-Hydrogen and Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation of Cyclopropane by a Hydridotris(pyrazolyl)borate

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Carbon-Hydrogen and Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation of Cyclopropane by a Hydridotris and re-forming alkanes via carbon-carbon bond activation using heterogeneous catalysts is an important results in C-H activation of the hydrocarbon. The cyclopropyl hydride complex rearranges in benzene

  14. Electrospinning Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous TiO2 Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Qiao, Hui; Du, Yuanzhi; Chen, Chen; Li, Xiaolin; Cui, Jing; Kumar, Dnt; Wei, Qufu

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibers in the anatase structure were successfully prepared via electrospinning technique followed by calcination process. The morphologies, crystal structure, surface area, and the photocatalytic activity of resulting TiO2 nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results revealed that calcination temperature had greatly influenced the morphologies of TiO2 nanofibers, but no obvious effect was noticed on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanofibers. The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanofibers were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) in water under visible light irradiation. It was observed that TiO2 nanofibers obtained by calcination at 500°C for 3 hours exhibited the most excellent photocatalytic activity. We present a novel and simple method to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers with high-photocatalytic activity. PMID:22619598

  15. Highly active mesoporous ferrihydrite supported pt catalyst for formaldehyde removal at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhaoxiong; Xu, Zhihua; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2015-06-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) supported Pt (Pt/Fh) catalyst was first prepared by combining microemulsion and NaBH4 reduction methods and investigated for room-temperature removal of formaldehyde (HCHO). It was found that the order of addition of Pt precursor and ferrihydrite in the preparation process has an important effect on the microstructure and performance of the catalyst. Pt/Fh was shown to be an efficient catalyst for complete oxidation of HCHO at room temperature, featuring higher activity than magnetite supported Pt (Pt/Fe3O4). Pt/Fh and Pt/Fe3O4 exhibited much higher catalytic activity than Pt supported over calcined Fh and TiO2. The abundance of surface hydroxyls, high Pt dispersion and excellent adsorption performance of Fh are responsible for superior catalytic activity and stability of the Pt/Fh catalyst. This work provides some indications into the design and fabrication of the cost-effective and environmentally benign catalysts with excellent adsorption and catalytic oxidation performances for HCHO removal at room temperature. PMID:25961411

  16. Organic solvent regeneration of granular activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, W. H.; Suidan, M. T.; Roller, M. A.; Kim, B. R.; Gould, J. P.

    1982-09-01

    The use of activated carbon for the treatment of industrial waste-streams was shown to be an effective treatment. The high costs associated with the replacement or thermal regeneration of the carbon have prohibited the economic feasibility of this process. The in situ solvent regeneration of activated carbon by means of organic solvent extraction was suggested as an economically alternative to thermal regeneration. The important aspects of the solvent regeneration process include: the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, the pore size distribution and energy of adsorption associated with the activated carbon; the degree of solubility of the adsorbate in the organic solvent; the miscibility of the organic solvent in water; and the temperature at which the generation is performed.

  17. Mesoporous silica directly modified by incorporation or impregnation of some heteropolyacids: Synthesis and structural characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandru Popa; Viorel Sasca; Erne E. Kiss; Radmila Marinkovic-Neducin; Ivanka Holclajtner-Antunovi?

    The synthesis of heteropolyacids–mesoporous silica composites was carried out in acidic media by impregnation and\\/or by direct incorporation of active phase. The effect of incorporation of heteropolyacids (HPAs) species into organized mesoporous silica was studied by using non-ionic and cationic surfactants. A comparison between direct incorporation of HPAs into mesoporous silica and impregnation of HPAs on mesoporous silica was done.

  18. Characterization and utilization of mesoporous fertilizer plant waste carbon for adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Mall; V. C. Srivastava; G. V. A. Kumar; I. M. Mishra

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the physico-chemical characteristics of low-cost fertilizer plant waste carbon (WC) for the adsorption of different dyes. The particle size analysis showed an average particle size of 167.35?m. Proximate and CHN analysis showed the presence of high amount of carbon in WC. Bulk density and heating value of WC were found to be 308.03kg\\/m3 and 22.3MJ\\/kg, respectively. The

  19. Antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Mennati, Afsaneh; Jafari, Samira; Khezri, Khadejeh; Adibkia, Khosro

    2015-03-01

    Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery. PMID:25789215

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Mennati, Afsaneh; Jafari, Samira; Khezri, Khadejeh; Adibkia, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery. PMID:25789215

  1. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment

  2. Activated carbons derived from coconut shells as high energy density cathode material for Li-ion capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Akshay; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Kumar, Palaniswamy Suresh; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Srinivasan, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, a dramatic increase in the energy density of ~ 69?Wh kg?1 and an extraordinary cycleability ~ 2000 cycles of the Li-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors (Li-HEC) is achieved by employing tailored activated carbon (AC) of ~ 60% mesoporosity derived from coconut shells (CS). The AC is obtained by both physical and chemical hydrothermal carbonization activation process, and compared to the commercial AC powders (CAC) in terms of the supercapacitance performance in single electrode configuration vs. Li. The Li-HEC is fabricated with commercially available Li4Ti5O12 anode and the coconut shell derived AC as cathode in non-aqueous medium. The present research provides a new routine for the development of high energy density Li-HEC that employs a mesoporous carbonaceous electrode derived from bio-mass precursors. PMID:24141527

  3. Preparation of activated carbons from Spanish anthracite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lozano-Castelló; M. A. Lillo-Ródenas; D. Cazorla-Amorós; A. Linares-Solano

    2001-01-01

    In a previous work, the use of a Spanish anthracite for the preparation of activated carbons by chemical activation was analyzed. The results indicated that this raw material is promising for that purpose. In the present paper, that previous work is extended and the effect of different preparation variables on the final porous texture is discussed, such as KOH\\/anthracite ratio,

  4. PYROGENIC ACTIVITY OF CARBON-FILTERED WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endotoxin content and pyrogenic response of granular activated carbon (GAC) filtered waters were studied. GAC-filtered secondary effluent from an activated sludge pilot plant contained free endotoxins in the range 6-250 micrograms/l yielding positive pyrogenic responses in 18...

  5. Vibration damping with active carbon fiber structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reimund Neugebauer; Holger Kunze; Mathias Riedel; Hans-Jürgen Roscher

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a mechatronic strategy for active reduction of vibrations on machine tool struts or car shafts. The active structure is built from a carbon fiber composite with embedded piezofiber actuators that are composed of piezopatches based on the Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) technology, licensed by NASA and produced by Smart Material GmbH in Dresden, Germany. The structure of

  6. Block copolymer directed one-pot simple synthesis of L10-phase FePt nanoparticles inside ordered mesoporous aluminosilicate/carbon composites.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunae; Jung, Hyunok; Park, Je-Geun; Kwon, Seungchul; Shim, Jongmin; Sai, Hiroaki; Wiesner, Ulich; Kim, Jin Kon; Lee, Jinwoo

    2011-02-22

    A "one-pot" synthetic method was developed to produce L1(0)-phase FePt nanoparticles in ordered mesostructured aluminosilicate/carbon composites using polyisoprene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PI-b-PEO) as a structure-directing agent. PI-b-PEO block copolymers with aluminosilicate sols are self-assembled with a hydrophobic iron precursor (dimethylaminomethyl-ferrocene) and a hydrophobic platinum precursor (dimethyl(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum(II)) to obtain mesostructured composites. The as-synthesized material was heat-treated to 800 °C under an Ar/H(2) mixture (5% v/v), resulting in the formation of fct FePt nanocrystals encapsulated in ordered mesopores. By changing the quantities of the Fe and Pt precursors in the composite materials, the average particle size of the resulting fct FePt, estimated using the Debye-Scherer equation with X-ray diffraction patterns, can be easily controlled to be 2.6-10.4 nm. Using this simple synthetic method, we can extend the size of directly synthesized fct FePt up to ?10 nm, which cannot be achieved directly in the colloidal synthetic method. All fct FePt nanoparticles show hysteresis behavior at room temperature, which indicates that ferromagnetic particles are obtained inside mesostructued channels. Well-isolated, ?10 nm fct FePt have a coercivity of 1100 Oe at 300 K. This coercivity value is higher than values of fct FePt nanoparticles synthesized through the tedious hard template method by employing SBA-15 as a host material. The coercivity value for FePt-1 (2.6 nm) at 5 K is as high as 11?900 Oe, which is one of the largest values reported for FePt nanoparticles, or any other magnetic nanoparticles. The fct FePt nanoparticles also showed exchange-bias behavior. PMID:21226487

  7. Composition-property relationships in multifunctional hollow mesoporous carbon nanosystems for PH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging and on-demand drug release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengjian; Qian, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Linlin; Peng, Weijun; Chen, Yu

    2015-04-24

    The construction of intelligent stimuli-responsive nanosystems can substantially improve the sensitivity/resolution/specificity of diagnostic imaging and enhance the therapeutic efficiency of chemotherapy for cancer treatment. This work reports on a generic construction strategy to achieve a multiple stimuli-responsive theranostic system for cancer simply by optimizing the chemical compositions of inorganic nanoplatforms to avoid the tedious and complicated synthetic procedure for traditional organic or organic/inorganic nanosystems. Based on the "breaking up" nature of manganese oxides and specific features of the carbonaceous framework to interact with aromatic drug molecules, manganese oxide nanoparticles were elaborately integrated into hollow mesoporous carbon nanocapsules by a simple in situ framework redox strategy to realize concurrent pH-sensitive T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pH-/HIFU-responsive on-demand drug release. The ultrasensitive disease-triggered MRI performance has been successfully demonstrated by a 52.5-fold increase of longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 10.5 mM(-1) s(-1)) and on nude mice 4T1 xenograft. The pH- and HIFU-triggered doxorubicin release and enhanced therapeutic outcome against multidrug resistance of cancer cells were systematically confirmed. In particular, the fabricated inorganic composite nanocapsules were found to feature unique biological behaviours, such as antimetastasis effect, extremely low hemolysis against red blood cells and high in vivo histocompatibility. This report on the successful construction of a pure inorganic nanosystem with multiple stimuli-responsivenesses may pave the way to new methods for the development of intelligent nanofamilies for cancer therapy. PMID:25785502

  8. A label-free amperometric immunosensor for detection of zearalenone based on trimetallic Au-core/AgPt-shell nanorattles and mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Chao, Yingjun; Cao, Wei; Wang, Yulan; Luo, Chuannan; Pang, Xuehui; Fan, Dawei; Wei, Qin

    2014-10-17

    A novel label-free amperometric immunosensor is proposed for the ultrasensitive detection of zearalenone (ZEN) based on mesoporous carbon (MC) and trimetallic nanorattles (core/shell particles with movable cores encapsulated in the shells). The nanorattles are composed of special Au-core and imperfect AgPt-shell structure (Au@AgPt). The Au@AgPt nanorattles are loaded onto the MC by physical adsorption. The structure of the Au@AgPt nanorattles was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the composition of the synthesized nanorattles. Compared with monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), Au@AgPt nanorattles show a higher electron transfer rate due to the synergistic effect of the Au, Ag and Pt NPs. MC further improves the sensitivity of the immunosensor because of its extraordinarily large specific surface area, suitable pore arrangement and outstanding conductivity. The large specific surface area of MC and MC@Au@AgPt were characterized by the BET method. ZEN antibodies are immobilized onto the nanorattles via Ag-NH2 bonds and Pt-NH2 bonds. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry were used to characterize the recognizability of ZEN. Under optimum experimental conditions, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a low detection limit (1.7 pg mL(-1)), a wide linear range (from 0.005 to 15 ng mL(-1)) as well as good stability, reproducibility and selectivity. The sensor can be used in clinical analysis. PMID:25261897

  9. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB and phenol adsorption mechanism on ACs are demonstrated. The various effects involved in adsorption mechanisms of each molecule are demonstrated. PMID:19118948

  10. Interactions of Plutonium and Lanthanides with Ordered Mesoporous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons-Moss, Tashi

    Ordered mesoporous materials are porous solids with a regular, patterned structure composed of pores between 2 and 50 nm wide. Such materials have attracted much attention in the past twenty years because the chemistry of their synthesis allows control of their unique physicochemical properties, which can be tuned for a variety of applications. Generally, ordered mesoporous materials have very high specific surface areas and pore volumes, and offer unique structures that are neither crystalline nor amorphous. The large tunable interface provided by ordered mesoporous solids may be advantageous in applications involving sequestration, separation, or detection of actinides and lanthanides in solution. However, the fundamental chemical interactions of actinides and lanthanides must be understood before applications can be implemented. This dissertation focuses primarily on the fundamental interactions of plutonium with organically modified mesoporous silica, as well as several different porous carbon materials, both untreated and chemically oxidized. A method for functionalizing mesoporous silica by self assembly and molecular grafting of functional organosilane ligands was optimized for the 2D-hexagonal ordered mesoporous silica known as SBA-15 (Santa Barbara amorphous silica). Four different organically-modified silica materials were synthesized and characterized with several techniques. To confirm that covalent bonds were formed between the silane anchor of the ligand and the silica substrate, functionalized silica samples were analyzed with 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy was used in combination with 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to verify the molecular structures of the ligands after they were synthesized and grafted to the silica. The densities of the functional silane ligands on the silica surface were estimated using thermogravimetric analysis. Batch sorption experiments were conducted with solutions of Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Eu(III), Ce(III), and Zr(IV). The acetamide phosphonate functionalized silica called Ac-Phos-SBA-15 required more extensive synthesis than the other three functionalized silica materials. Development of functionalized mesoporous silica extractants for actinides is contingent on their synthesis and hydrolytic stability, and these two aspects of the Ac-Phos-SBA-15 material are discussed. This material showed the highest binding affinity for all of the target ions, and the sorption and desorption of Pu(VI) to Ac-Phos-SBA-15 was extensively investigated. Ordered mesoporous carbons are attractive as sorbents because of their extremely high surface areas and large pore volumes, and could be suitable substrates for the development of actinide sensors based on their electrochemical properties. Three different mesoporous carbon materials were synthesized by collaborators to test their application as radionuclide sorbent materials. The first is called CMK (carbons mesostructured by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), and was synthesized using a hard silica template with 3D-bicontinuous ordered mesostructure. Highly ordered body-centered cubic mesoporous carbon was synthesized by self-assembly of a phenol resin around a soft polymer template, and this material is known as FDU-16 (Fudan University). Etching of the silica portion of mesoporous carbon-silica composites created the 2D-hexagonal mesoporous carbon called C-CS (carbon from carbon-silica nanocomposites) with a bimodal pore size distribution. The as-synthesized nanocast mesoporous carbon in this work is called UN CMK, and the same material after oxidation treatment with nitric acid is called OX CMK. A portion of both FDU-16-type and C-CS-type ordered mesoporous carbons were oxidized with acidic ammonium persulfate, which created the oxidized carbon materials called FDU-16-COOH and C-CS-COOH, respectively. The mesoporous carbons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to view their particle sizes and morphologies. Their porosities and structures on the meso-scale were an

  11. Influence of CO{sub 2} activation on hydrogen storage behaviors of platinum-loaded activated carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.k [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this work, platinum (Pt) metal loaded activated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared with different structural characteristics for hydrogen storage applications. The process was conducted by a gas phase CO{sub 2} activation method at 1200 {sup o}C as a function of the CO{sub 2} flow time. Pt-loaded activated MWNTs were also formulated to investigate the hydrogen storage characteristics. The microstructures of the Pt-loaded activated MWNTs were characterized by XRD and TEM measurements. The textural properties of the samples were analyzed using N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The BET, D-R, and BJH equations were used to observe the specific surface areas and the micropore and mesopore structures. The hydrogen storage capacity of the Pt-loaded activated MWNTs was measured at 298 K at a pressure of 100 bar. The hydrogen storage capacity was increased with CO{sub 2} flow time. It was found that the micropore volume of the activated MWNTs plays a key role in the hydrogen storage capacity. -- Graphical abstract: The hydrogen storage capacities of the Pt-loaded activated MWNTs as a function of CO{sub 2} flow time are described. Display Omitted

  12. Micro–meso hierarchical porous carbon as low-cost counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiqiang Wang; Congcong Huang; Wei Xing; Shuping Zhuo

    2011-01-01

    A micro–meso hierarchical porous carbon with low crystallinity was prepared by a combination of self-assembly and post activation and explored as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Pore structure analysis showed that the pristine mesopores were basically preserved during activation and the micropores were mainly generated within the mesopore wall. Due to its low crystallinity and unique pore-structure including

  13. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Stabilized and Manganese-Modified Rhodium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Highly Selective Synthesis of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde from Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulin; Deng, Weihua; Guo, Enruo; Chung, Po-Wen; Chen, Senniang; Trewyn, Brian; Brown, Robert; Lin, Victor

    2012-03-30

    Well-defined and monodispersed rhodium nanoparticles as small as approximately 2?nm were encapsulated in?situ and stabilized in a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) framework during the synthesis of the mesoporous material. Although both the activity and selectivity of MSN-encapsulated rhodium nanoparticles in CO hydrogenation could be improved by the addition of manganese oxide as expected, the carbon selectivity for C2 oxygenates (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) was unprecedentedly high at 74.5?% with a very small amount of methanol produced if rhodium nanoparticles were modified by manganese oxide with very close interaction.

  14. Design and Fabrication of Hierarchically Porous Carbon with a Template-free Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yutong; Wei, Zhongzhe; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Haoran; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Fabrication of hierarchically porous carbon materials (HPCs) with high surface area and pore volume has always been pursued. However, the currently effective template methods and acid/base activation strategies suffer from the drawbacks of either high costs or tedious steps. Herein, HPCs with 3D macro-mesopores and short-range meso-micropores were fabricated via an easy and sustainable two-step method from biomass. Macro-mesopores were constructed by slightly accumulation/aggregation of carbon spheres ranging from 60 nm to 80 nm, providing efficient mass diffusion pathways. Short-range mesopores and micropores with high electrolyte accessibility were developed in these spheres by air activation. The obtained HPCs showed surface area values up to 1306 m2/g and high mesopore volume proportion (63.9%). They demonstrated excellent capacitance and low equivalent series resistance (ESR) as supercapacitor electrode materials, suggesting the efficient diffusion and adsorption of electrolyte ions in the designed hierarchically porous structure.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and application of activated carbon membrane with carbon whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Bae; C. W. Lee; L. S. Kang; A. Sakoda

    2007-01-01

    A novel activated carbon membrane with carbon whiskers (W-ACM) for wastewater and drinking water treatments was designed and prepared. This membrane has carbon whiskers on its surface for preventing the deposition and accumulation of particles and has activated carbon layer below its carbon whiskers for the adsorption of dissolved organics. Adsorption capacity of the membrane was compared with a granular

  16. Modeling the selectivity of activated carbons for efficient separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jianzhong

    the separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide via adsorption in activated carbons. In the simulations, both hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules are modeled as Lennard-Jones spheres, and the activated carbons essentially no preference over the two gases and the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to hydrogen falls

  17. Hydrogen storage on chemically activated carbons and carbon nanomaterials at high pressures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jordá-Beneyto; F. Suárez-García; D. Lozano-Castelló; D. Cazorla-Amorós; A. Linares-Solano

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen adsorption measurements have been carried out at different temperatures (298K and 77K) and high pressure on a series of chemically activated carbons with a wide range of porosities and also on other types of carbon materials, such as activated carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. This paper provides a useful interpretation of hydrogen adsorption data according to the

  18. A novel activated carbon for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Haijie [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Liu, Enhui, E-mail: liuenhui99@sina.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Xiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Zhengzheng; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yuhu; Wu, Zhilian; Xie, Hui [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel activated carbon was prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon has large surface area with microporous, and high heteroatom content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteroatom-containing functional groups can improve the pseudo-capacitance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: A novel activated carbon has been prepared by simple carbonization and activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin which is synthesized by the condensation polymerization method. The morphology, thermal stability, surface area, elemental composition and surface chemical composition of samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L{sup -1} potassium hydroxide. The activated carbon shows good capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance is up to 210 F g{sup -1}, which indicates that it may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  19. New mesoporous perovskite ZnTiO 3 and its excellent catalytic activity in liquid phase organic transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabanita Pal; Manidipa Paul; Asim Bhaumik

    2011-01-01

    A new mesoporous perovskite ZnTiO3 material has been synthesized by the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method using non-ionic surfactant Pluronic P123 as template. After calcination of the dried gel of equimolar concentrations of Zn(II) and Ti(IV) at 673K, a new perovskite mesophase of ZnTiO3 (MZT-11) formed, having highly crystalline cubic ZnTiO3 pore wall. Interestingly, in the absence of P123 but otherwise

  20. Structure of methylammonium lead iodide within mesoporous titanium dioxide: active material in high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joshua J; Yang, Xiaohao; Norman, Zachariah M; Billinge, Simon J L; Owen, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    We report the structure of methylammonium lead(II) iodide perovskite in mesoporous TiO2, as used in high-performance solar cells. Pair distribution function analysis of X-ray scattering reveals a two component nanostructure: one component with medium range crystalline order (30 atom %) and another with only local structural coherence (70 atom %). The nanostructuring correlates with a blueshift of the absorption onset and increases the photoluminescence. Our findings underscore the importance of fully characterizing and controlling the structure for improved solar cell efficiency. PMID:24266720

  1. High-Temperature-Stable and Regenerable Catalysts: Platinum Nanoparticles in Aligned Mesoporous Silica Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Chaoxian [Ames Laboratory; Maligal-Ganesh, Raghu V. [Ames Laboratory; Li, Tao [Argonne Laboratory; Wi, Zhiyuan [Ames Laboratory; Guo, Zhiyong [Ames Laboratory; Brashler, Kyle T. [Ames Laboratory; Goes, Shannon [Ames Laboratory; Li, Xinle [Ames Laboratory; Goh, Tian Wei [Ames Laboratory; Winans, Randall E. [Argonne Laboratory; Huang, Wenyu [Ames Laboratory

    2013-08-22

    We report the synthesis, structural characterization, thermal stability study, and regeneration of nanostructured catalysts made of 2.9?nm Pt nanoparticles sandwiched between a 180?nm SiO2 core and a mesoporous SiO2 shell. The SiO2 shell consists of 2.5?nm channels that are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the SiO2 core. The nanostructure mimics Pt nanoparticles that sit in mesoporous SiO2 wells (Pt@MSWs). By using synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering, we were able to prove the ordered structure of the aligned mesoporous shell. By using high-temperature cyclohexane dehydrogenation as a model reaction, we found that the Pt@MSWs of different well depths showed stable activity at 500?°C after the induction period. Conversely, a control catalyst, SiO2-sphere-supported Pt nanoparticles without a mesoporous SiO2 shell (Pt/SiO2), was deactivated. We deliberately deactivated the Pt@MSWs catalyst with a 50?nm deep well by using carbon deposition induced by a low H2/cyclohexane ratio. The deactivated Pt@MSWs catalyst was regenerated by calcination at 500?°C with 20?% O2 balanced with He. After the regeneration treatments, the activity of the Pt@MSWs catalyst was fully restored. Our results suggest that the nanostructured catalysts—Pt nanoparticles confined inside mesoporous SiO2 wells—are stable and regenerable for treatments and reactions that require high temperatures.

  2. Mesoporous Ti(0.5)Cr(0.5)N supported PdAg nanoalloy as highly active and stable catalysts for the electro-oxidation of formic acid and methanol.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhiming; Yang, Minghui; DiSalvo, Francis J

    2014-06-24

    We report a robust noncarbon Ti0.5Cr0.5N support synthesized by an efficient solid-solid phase separation method. This ternary nitride exhibits highly porous, sintered, and random network structure with a crystallite size of 20-40 nm, resulting in a high specific surface area. It is not only kinetically stable in both acid and alkaline media, but also electrochemically stable in the potential range of fuel cell operation. Two typical anode reactions, formic acid oxidation in acid media and methanol oxidation in alkaline media, are employed to investigate the possibility of Ti0.5Cr0.5N as an alternative to carbon. Bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles (?4 nm) act as anode catalysts for the two anode reactions. PdAg/Ti0.5Cr0.5N exhibits much higher mass activity and durability for the two reactions than PdAg/C and Pd/C catalyst, suggesting that mesoporous Ti0.5Cr0.5N is a very promising support in both acid and alkaline media. PMID:24836603

  3. Treatment of potato processing wastewaters by activated carbon adsorption process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Tse Hung

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of degrees of pretreatment, types of activated carbons, dosages\\u000a of activated carbons on the organic removal rates of potato processing wastewaters using the activated carbon adsorption process.\\u000a Primary treated effluents, and secondary treated effluents using activated sludge and powdered activated carbon activated\\u000a sludge processes were used as adsorbate in this study.

  4. Protection of Organic Matter from Enzyme Degradation by Mineral Mesopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; Chorover, J. D.; Brantley, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    Mineral mesopores (2-50 nm diameter) may sequester organic matter (natural and pollutant) and protect it from microbial and fungal enzymatic degradation in soils and sediments. Synthetic mesoporous alumina and silica minerals with uniform pore sizes and shapes were used to test the role of mesopores in protecting organic matter from enzymatic degradation. A model humic compound, L-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), was sorbed to the internal surfaces of mesoporous alumina (8.2 nm diameter pores) and mesoporous silica (3.4 nm diameter pores) as well as to the external surfaces of nonporous alumina and silica analogues. A fungal derived enzyme, laccase, was added to these sorbate-sorbent pairs in aqueous solution and activity was monitored by oxygen consumption. Though enzyme activity was suppressed in both cases by mineral-enzyme interaction (enzyme inhibition likely due to adsorption of the enzyme), both the rate and total extent of enzyme-mediated degradation of mesopore-sorbed L-DOPA was 3-40 times lower than that of the externally-sorbed analogue. These results provide, for the first time, direct evidence for the viability of the proposed mesopore protection mechanism for the sequestration and preservation of sedimentary organic matter and organic contaminants. Mesopore adsorption/desorption phenomena may also help explain the slow degradation of organic contaminants in soil and sediment and may prove useful as delivery vehicles for organic compounds to agricultural, medical or environmental systems.

  5. Drinking Water Treatment: Activated Carbon Filtration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Divorak, Bruce I.

    This site, presented by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, discusses the principles, processes and requirements of activated carbon filtration systems for the domestic (household) user. The site addresses contaminants removed, those not removed, water testing, principals of treatment and the equipment used in this treatment.

  6. Invertebrate colonization of granular activated carbon filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schreiber; D. Schoenen; W. Traunspurger

    1997-01-01

    Results of biological sampling of granular activated carbon (GAC) filtrate taken between May 1994 and August 1995 at three different treatment plants along the river Rhine indicate that GAC filters are colonized by invertebrates. Dominating organism groups were rotifers and nematodes. Depending on operational characteristics, mainly regeneration intervals and backwashing procedures, the filter colonization can lead to an output of

  7. EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research into Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) for use in drinking water treatment has a long history in the Drinking Water Research Division and its predecessor organizations. tudies were conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service in the late fifties and early sixties to examine...

  8. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  9. Making Activated Carbon for Storing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Serio, Michael A.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid disks of microporous activated carbon, produced by a method that enables optimization of pore structure, have been investigated as means of storing gas (especially hydrogen for use as a fuel) at relatively low pressure through adsorption on pore surfaces. For hydrogen and other gases of practical interest, a narrow distribution of pore sizes <2 nm is preferable. The present method is a variant of a previously patented method of cyclic chemisorption and desorption in which a piece of carbon is alternately (1) heated to the lower of two elevated temperatures in air or other oxidizing gas, causing the formation of stable carbon/oxygen surface complexes; then (2) heated to the higher of the two elevated temperatures in flowing helium or other inert gas, causing the desorption of the surface complexes in the form of carbon monoxide. In the present method, pore structure is optimized partly by heating to a temperature of 1,100 C during carbonization. Another aspect of the method exploits the finding that for each gas-storage pressure, gas-storage capacity can be maximized by burning off a specific proportion (typically between 10 and 20 weight percent) of the carbon during the cyclic chemisorption/desorption process.

  10. Dendrimer Templated Synthesis of One Nanometer Rh and Pt Particles Supported on Mesoporous Silica: Catalytic Activity for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wenyu; Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Zhang, Yawen; Habas, Susan E.; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-05-09

    Monodisperse rhodium (Rh) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles as small as {approx}1 nm were synthesized within a fourth generation polyaminoamide (PAMAM) dendrimer, a hyperbranched polymer, in aqueous solution and immobilized by depositing onto a high-surface-area SBA-15 mesoporous support. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the as-synthesized Rh and Pt nanoparticles were mostly oxidized. Catalytic activity of the SBA-15 supported Rh and Pt nanoparticles was studied with ethylene hydrogenation at 273 and 293 K in 10 torr of ethylene and 100 torr of H{sub 2} after reduction (76 torr of H{sub 2} mixed with 690 torr of He) at different temperatures. Catalysts were active without removing the dendrimer capping but reached their highest activity after hydrogen reduction at a moderate temperature (423 K). When treated at a higher temperature (473, 573, and 673 K) in hydrogen, catalytic activity decreased. By using the same treatment that led to maximum ethylene hydrogenation activity, catalytic activity was also evaluated for pyrrole hydrogenation.

  11. Active carbons impregnated before activation of olive stones: catalytic activity to remove benzene from gaseous emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. M. Alvim-Ferraz; C. M. T. B. Gaspar

    2004-01-01

    This work analyses the catalytic activity of impregnated active carbons prepared with olive stones to remove benzene from atmospheric emissions through catalytic complete oxidation. When the impregnation step is performed on the raw material or after activation, the influence of carbon texture on the catalyst dispersion and catalytic activity is already well studied. Nevertheless, when the impregnation step is performed

  12. TRANSITION METAL ACTIVATION AND FUNCTIONALIZATION OF CARBON-HYDROGEN BONDS

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    TRANSITION METAL ACTIVATION AND FUNCTIONALIZATION OF CARBON-HYDROGEN BONDS William D. Jones-H and C-C bond functionalization, and (4) carbon-fluorine bond activation. We have made progress in each in our proposal where we have had success. These include: (1) carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions, (2

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nitrogen and indium co-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanocomposites for the degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myilsamy, M.; Mahalakshmi, M.; Murugesan, V.; Subha, N.

    2015-07-01

    Mesoporous N/In2O3-TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts were synthesized by sol-gel route using Pluronic P123 as the structure directing template. The synthesized composite materials were successfully characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption studies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of all the synthesized catalysts were evaluated for the degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol under visible light irradiation. The results demonstrated that the mesoporous N/In2O3-TiO2 showed higher efficiency than meso TiO2, N-TiO2 and In2O3-TiO2 under visible light irradiation and the optimum molar ratio of N and In to Ti is 0.3 wt%. DRUV-vis revealed that the substitution of N- and In3+ dopants on TiO2 lattice shifted the light absorption to the longer wavelength and reduced the band gap energy. The enhanced •OH radicals formation during the photocatalytic reaction was revealed by photoluminescence spectra. The photoluminescence spectra of synthesized catalysts revealed that the efficient charge separation of photo induced charge carriers for 0.3 wt% N/In2O3-TiO2 nanocomposite. The enhanced surface area, large pore volume and large pore diameter for 0.3 wt% N/In2O3-TiO2 improved the photocatalytic efficiency. In3+ ions can easily trap and transfer the excited electrons to the adsorbed O2 molecules, hence efficiently extending the life time of electron-hole pair.

  14. Carbon-deposited TiO2 3D inverse opal photocatalysts: visible-light photocatalytic activity and enhanced activity in a viscous solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunbok; Lee, Youngshin; Kim, Dong Ha; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-12-11

    We for the first time demonstrated carbon-deposited TiO2 inverse opal (C-TiO2 IO) structures as highly efficient visible photocatalysts. The carbon deposition proceeded via high-temperature pyrolysis of phloroglucinol/formaldehyde resol, which had been coated onto the TiO2 IO structures. Carbon deposition formed a carbon layer and doped the TiO2 interface, which synergistically enhanced visible-light absorption. We directly measured the visible-light photocatalytic activity by constructing solar cells comprising the C-TiO2 IO electrode. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in a solution was also evaluated. Photocatalytic dye degradation under visible light was only observed in the presence of the C-TiO2 IO sample and was increased with the content of carbon deposition. The IO structures could be readily decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles to increase the surface area and enhance the photocatalytic activity. Notably, the photocatalytic reaction was found to proceed in a viscous polymeric solution. A comparison of the mesoporous TiO2 structure and the IO TiO2 structure revealed that the latter performed better as the solution viscosity increased. This result was attributed to facile diffusion into the fully connected and low-tortuosity macropore network of the IO structure. PMID:24266769

  15. A novel route to graphite-like carbon supporting SnO2 with high electron transfer and photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianjie; Liu, Fenglin; Liu, Bing; Tian, Lihong; Hu, Wei; Xia, Qinghua

    2015-04-28

    Mesoporous graphite-like carbon supporting SnO2 (carbon-SnO2) nanocomposites were prepared by a modified solvothermal method combined with a post-calcination at 500°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The polyvinylpyrrolidone not only promotes the nucleation and crystallization, but also provides the carbon source in the process. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show a uniform distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles on the graphite- like carbon surface. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate the presence of strong C-Sn interaction between SnO2 and graphite-like carbon. Photoelectrochemical measurements confirm that the effective separation of electron-hole pairs on the carbon-SnO2 nanocomposite leads to a high photocatalytic activity on the degradation of Rhodamine B and glyphosate under simulated sunlight irradiation. The nanocomposite materials show a potential application in dealing with the environmental and industrial contaminants under sunlight irradiation. PMID:25638039

  16. REMOVAL OF DYE BY IMMOBILISED PHOTOCATALYST LOADED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zulkarnain Zainal; Chang Sook Keng; Abdul Halim Abdullah

    The ability of activated carbon to adsorb and titanium dioxide to photodegrade organic impurities from water bodies is well accepted. Combination of the two is expected to enhance the removal efficiency due to the synergistic effect. This has enabled activated carbon to adsorb more and at the same time the lifespan of activated carbon is prolonged as the workload of

  17. Preparation of modified active carbon from brown coal by ammoxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pietrzak; H. Wachowska; P. Nowicki; K. Babe?

    2007-01-01

    The technology of obtaining active carbon enriched in nitrogen from brown coal is described. The effect of ammoxidation by a mixture of ammonia and air at the ratio 1:3 at 300 and 350 °C, at each stage of the active carbon production has been tested. The amount of nitrogen introduced into the active carbon has been proved to depend on the

  18. Textural characterization of active carbons using fractal analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel María Mahamud

    2006-01-01

    This study continues a previous work aiming to explore how fractal analysis may help to understand the textural changes of materials during the manufacture of active carbons. Textural characterization of active carbons is carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the facts underlying char gasification. The materials selected for study were a series of active carbons obtained

  19. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  20. Sorption of heavy metal cations on activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilczak

    1988-01-01

    Activated carbon is used to remove trace amounts of organic compounds from waters and wastewaters. An experimental program was conducted to determine the kinetics of sorption of lead, copper, and zinc on the surface of the powdered activated carbon Nuchar SA, and on granular activated carbon Filtrasorb 400. The results of the experimental program showed that sorption of heavy metals

  1. Steam and KOH Activated Carbons from Peach Stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Durano?lu; Ü. Beker

    2012-01-01

    Peach-stone-based activated carbons were prepared by using steam and KOH activation at 800°C. The effects of solid\\/liquid phase KOH and steam activation, alkali and acidic pre-treatment, and also single-step activation on activated carbon properties were investigated comprehensively. The activated carbon produced by solid phase KOH impregnation showed the highest surface area of 835 m\\/g and micropore volume of 0.412 cm\\/g.

  2. Preparation of microfibrous entrapped activated carbon composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiping Zhang; Lianlian Gao; Xijun Hu

    2009-01-01

    A kind of microfibrous entrapped activated carbon composites were prepared by the wet lay-up paper-making process followed by sintering in N2 at 950°C for 30min. SEM and ASAP 2020 apparatus were used to characterize the structure and test the adsorption isotherm. SEM results indicated that the junctures of the ceramic fiber were completely welded together to cause a sinter-locked three-dimensional

  3. Adsorption of chlorophenols on granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.

    1993-12-31

    Studies were undertaken of the adsorption of chlorinated phenols from aqueous solution on granular activated carbon (Filtrasorb-400, 30 x 40 mesh). Single-component equilibrium adsorption data on the eight compounds in two concentration ranges at pH 7.0 fit the Langmuir equation better than the Freundlich equation. The adsorptive capacities at pH 7.0 increase from pentachlorophenol to trichlorophenols and are fairly constant from trichlorophenols to monochlorophenols. The adsorption process was found to be exothermic for pentachlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and endothermic for 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol. Equilibrium measurements were also conducted for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 4-chlorophenol over a wide pH range. A surface complexation model was proposed to describe the effect of pH on adsorption equilibria of chlorophenols on activated carbon. The simulations of the model are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Batch kinetics studies were conducted of the adsorption of chlorinated phenols on granular activated carbon. The results show that the surface reaction model best describes both the short-term and long-term kinetics, while the external film diffusion model describes the short-term kinetics data very well and the linear-driving-force approximation improved its performance for the long-term kinetics. Multicomponent adsorption equilibria of chlorophenols on granular activated carbon was investigated in the micromolar equilibrium concentration range. The Langmuir competitive and Ideal Adsorbed Solution (IAS) models were tested for their performance on the three binary systems of pentachlorophenol/2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol/2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol/4-chlorophenol, and the tertiary system of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol/2,4-dichlorophenol/4-chlorophenol, and found to fail to predict the two-component adsorption equilibria of the former two binary systems and the tertiary system.

  4. Templated nanoscale porous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yongde; Yang, Zhuxian; Mokaya, Robert

    2010-05-01

    This manuscript reviews key developments in the important and rapidly expanding area of templated porous carbons. The porosity covered ranges from microporous to mesoporous and macroporous carbons. Two modes of templating, using so-called hard and soft templates, are covered. In particular, for hard templating, zeolite templating generates microporous carbons, mesoporous silicates yield mesoporous carbons, while colloidal particles are replicated to large mesoporous and macroporous carbons. Soft-templating, a more recent phenomenon, mainly generates mesoporous carbons. The full range of pore sizes can therefore now be accessed using hard and soft templates to generate highly ordered nanoscale carbons with well-defined and optimised textural properties. The research area has seen rapid and important developments over the last few years, and this review aims to present the more significant advances.

  5. Templated nanoscale porous carbons.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongde; Yang, Zhuxian; Mokaya, Robert

    2010-05-01

    This manuscript reviews key developments in the important and rapidly expanding area of templated porous carbons. The porosity covered ranges from microporous to mesoporous and macroporous carbons. Two modes of templating, using so-called hard and soft templates, are covered. In particular, for hard templating, zeolite templating generates microporous carbons, mesoporous silicates yield mesoporous carbons, while colloidal particles are replicated to large mesoporous and macroporous carbons. Soft-templating, a more recent phenomenon, mainly generates mesoporous carbons. The full range of pore sizes can therefore now be accessed using hard and soft templates to generate highly ordered nanoscale carbons with well-defined and optimised textural properties. The research area has seen rapid and important developments over the last few years, and this review aims to present the more significant advances. PMID:20648305

  6. Gas diffusion and microstructural properties of ordered mesoporous silica fibers.

    PubMed

    Alsyouri, Hatem M; Lin, Jerry Y S

    2005-07-21

    Pore and surface diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ethylene (C(2)H(4)) in the nanopores of ordered mesoporous silica fibers about 200 microm in length was measured by the transient gravimetric method. The experimentally determined pore diffusivity data, coupled with the porosity, pore size, and fiber length, are used to obtain the actual length of the nanopores in silica fibers. These measurements reveal a structure of the ordered nanopores whirling helically around the fiber axis with a spiral diameter of about 15 microm and a pitch value of 1.6 microm. At room temperature the surface diffusion contributes about 10% to the total diffusional flux for these two gases in the nanopores of the ordered mesoporous silica fibers. The surface diffusion coefficients for the ordered mesoporous silica fibers are about 1 order of magnitude larger than the non-ordered mesoporous alumina or silica with similar pore size. PMID:16852707

  7. An ordered mesoporous organosilica hybrid material with a crystal-like wall structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Inagaki; Shiyou Guan; Tetsu Ohsuna; Osamu Terasaki

    2002-01-01

    Surfactant-mediated synthesis strategies are widely used to fabricate ordered mesoporous solids in the form of metal oxides, metals, carbon and hybrid organosilicas. These materials have amorphous pore walls, which could limit their practical utility. In the case of mesoporous metal oxides, efforts to crystallize the framework structure by thermal and hydrothermal treatments have resulted in crystallization of only a fraction

  8. Preparation of high surface area activated carbon from corn by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narges Bagheri; Jalal Abedi

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared through chemical activation of corn cob precursor, using potassium hydroxide as the chemical agent. The effect of different parameters, such as particle size, method of mixing, chemical\\/corn ratio, activation time and activation temperature, on weight loss and BET surface area of the produced activated carbons were discussed. The porosity of the activated carbons was evaluated through

  9. Aqueous mercury adsorption by activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Pejman; To, Ming-Ho; Hui, Chi-Wai; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; McKay, Gordon

    2015-04-15

    Due to serious public health threats resulting from mercury pollution and its rapid distribution in our food chain through the contamination of water bodies, stringent regulations have been enacted on mercury-laden wastewater discharge. Activated carbons have been widely used in the removal of mercuric ions from aqueous effluents. The surface and textural characteristics of activated carbons are the two decisive factors in their efficiency in mercury removal from wastewater. Herein, the structural properties and binding affinity of mercuric ions from effluents have been presented. Also, specific attention has been directed to the effect of sulfur-containing functional moieties on enhancing the mercury adsorption. It has been demonstrated that surface area, pore size, pore size distribution and surface functional groups should collectively be taken into consideration in designing the optimal mercury removal process. Moreover, the mercury adsorption mechanism has been addressed using equilibrium adsorption isotherm, thermodynamic and kinetic studies. Further recommendations have been proposed with the aim of increasing the mercury removal efficiency using carbon activation processes with lower energy input, while achieving similar or even higher efficiencies. PMID:25644627

  10. Elastic Pore Structure in Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, M. J.; Wexler, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    Adsorbent materials such as activated carbon and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have received significant attention as a potential storage material for hydrogen and natural gas. Typically the adsorbent material is assumed to consist of rigid slit- or cylindrical-shaped pores. Recent work, for MOFs in particular, revealed the importance of the mechanical response of the adsorbent in the presence of an adsorbate. In the absence of an adsorbate the pore structure is defined by the size, shape and inter-molecular interactions of the constituent parts of the solid. Here, we demonstrate the flexibility of pore walls in activated carbon and the effect this has on the pore structure of the bulk samples. The interaction is modeled as a competition between Van der Waals interactions between neighboring walls and a resistance to bending due to the rigidity of graphene. Minimal energy configurations were calculated analytically for a simplified potential and numerically for a more realistic potential. The pore structures are discussed in the context of pore measurements on activated carbon samples.

  11. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, A.I.; Gargas, Daniel; Jeong Hwang, Yun; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-04

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  12. Pilot-scale demonstration of the OSCAR process for high-temperature multipollutant control of coal combustion flue gas, using carbonated fly ash and mesoporous calcium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Himanshu Gupta; Theodore J. Thomas; Ah-Hyung A. Park; Mahesh V. Iyer; Puneet Gupta; Rajeev Agnihotri; Raja A. Jadhav; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers; Tarunjit Butalia; Liang-Shih Fan

    2007-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of the Ohio State Carbonation Ash Reactivation (OSCAR) process was performed to demonstrate the reactivity of two novel calcium-based sorbents toward sulfur and trace heavy metal (arsenic, selenium, and mercury) capture in the furnace sorbent injection (FSI) mode on a 0.365 m³\\/s slipstream of a bituminous coal-fired stoker boiler. The sorbents were synthesized by bubbling COâ to

  13. Preparing and characterizing the active carbon produced by steam and carbon dioxide as a heavy oil hydrocracking catalyst support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidetsugu Fukuyama; Satoshi Terai

    2008-01-01

    Active carbon was prepared from Yallourn brown coal char using steam and carbon dioxide activation in a laboratory rotary kiln. The activation rate with steam was faster than that with carbon dioxide. The pore structure of the active carbons was characterized using the nitrogen isotherms at 77K. The pore volume and specific surface area of the active carbon increased with

  14. Samarium-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles with improved photocatalytic performance for elimination of gaseous organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianting; Chen, Xiaomiao; Liu, Yu; Gong, Wei; Peng, Zhenshan; Cai, Tiejun; Luo, Lianjing; Deng, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 doped with different amounts of Sm were prepared via a sol-gel route with Pluronic P123 as template. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 sorption experiments, etc. The photocatalytic activity of the mesoporous TiO2 was tested in elimination of gaseous methanol and acetone. The Sm doped mesoporous TiO2 have higher activity than those of the commercial photocatalyst (Degussa, P25) and Sm doped TiO2 counterparts without mesopore structure under ultraviolet light irradiation. A possible mechanism was proposed to account for the high photocatalytic activity of the Sm doped mesoporous TiO2. The superior activity of the Sm doped mesoporous TiO2 may be attributed to the synergic effect of the high surface area, mesopore structure and doped Sm species.

  15. Gyroidal mesoporous multifunctional nanocomposites via atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Jörg G.; Scherer, Maik R. J.; Steiner, Ullrich; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate the preparation of rationally designed, multifunctional, monolithic and periodically ordered mesoporous core-shell nanocomposites with tunable structural characteristics. Three-dimensionally (3D) co-continuous gyroidal mesoporous polymer monoliths are fabricated from a solution-based triblock terpolymer-resol co-assembly and used as the functional templates for the fabrication of free-standing core-shell carbon-titania composites using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The deposition depth into the torturous gyroidal nanonetwork is investigated as a function of ALD conditions and the resulting composites are submitted to different thermal treatments. Results suggest that ALD can homogenously coat mesoporous templates with well defined pore sizes below 50 nm and thicknesses above 10 ?m. Structural tunability like titania shell thickness and pore size control is demonstrated. The ordered nanocomposites exhibit triple functionality; a 3D continuous conductive carbon core that is coated with a crystalline titania shell that in turn is in contact with a 3D continuous mesopore network in a compact monolithic architecture. This materials design is of interest for applications including energy conversion and storage. Gyroidal mesoporous titania monoliths can be obtained through simultaneous titania crystallization and template removal in air.We demonstrate the preparation of rationally designed, multifunctional, monolithic and periodically ordered mesoporous core-shell nanocomposites with tunable structural characteristics. Three-dimensionally (3D) co-continuous gyroidal mesoporous polymer monoliths are fabricated from a solution-based triblock terpolymer-resol co-assembly and used as the functional templates for the fabrication of free-standing core-shell carbon-titania composites using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The deposition depth into the torturous gyroidal nanonetwork is investigated as a function of ALD conditions and the resulting composites are submitted to different thermal treatments. Results suggest that ALD can homogenously coat mesoporous templates with well defined pore sizes below 50 nm and thicknesses above 10 ?m. Structural tunability like titania shell thickness and pore size control is demonstrated. The ordered nanocomposites exhibit triple functionality; a 3D continuous conductive carbon core that is coated with a crystalline titania shell that in turn is in contact with a 3D continuous mesopore network in a compact monolithic architecture. This materials design is of interest for applications including energy conversion and storage. Gyroidal mesoporous titania monoliths can be obtained through simultaneous titania crystallization and template removal in air. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photographs of flexible templates and the Beneq ALD reactor indicating the different sample positioning. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01948b

  16. Investigation kinetics mechanisms of adsorption malachite green onto activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Önal; C. Akmil-Ba?ar; Ç. Sar?c?-Özdemir

    2007-01-01

    Lignite was used to prepare activated carbon (T3K618) by chemical activation with KOH. Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by t-plot based on N2 adsorption isotherm. BET surface area of activated carbon is determined as 1000m2\\/g. Adsorption capacity of malachite green (MG) onto T3K618 activated

  17. An adsorption diffusion model for removal of para-chlorophenol by activated carbon derived from bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Sze, M F F; McKay, G

    2010-05-01

    Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive removal and diffusion mechanism of para-chlorophenol (p-CP) onto Calgon Filtrasorb 400 (F400) activated carbon. The external mass transfer resistance is negligible in the adsorption process carried out under different conditions in batch operation. Intraparticle diffusion model plots were used to correlate the batch p-CP adsorption data; three distinct linear sections were obtained for every batch operation. The textural properties of F400 activated carbon showed that it has a large portion of supermicropores, which is comparable to the size of the p-CP molecules. Due to the stronger interactions between p-CP molecules and F400 micropores, p-CP molecules predominantly diffused and occupied active sites in micropore region by hopping mechanism, and eventually followed by a slow filling of mesopores and micropores. This hypothesis is proven by the excellent agreement of the intraparticle diffusion model plots and the textural properties of F400 activated carbon. PMID:20056302

  18. Potential of activated carbon from waste rubber tire for the adsorption of phenolics: effect of pre-treatment conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Nayak, Arunima; Agarwal, Shilpi; Tyagi, Inderjeet

    2014-03-01

    Rubber tire activated carbon modification (RTACMC) and rubber tire activated carbon (RTAC) were prepared from waste rubber tire by microwave assisted chemical treatment and physical heating respectively. A greater improvement in porosity and total pore volume was achieved in RTACMC as compared to that of RTAC. But both have a predominantly mesoporous structure. Under identical operating conditions, an irradiation time of 10 min, chemical impregnation ratio of 1.50 and a microwave power of 600 W resulted in maximizing the efficiency of RTACMC for p-cresol (250 mg/g) at a contact time of 90 min while RTAC showed a 71.43 mg/g adsorption capacity at 150 min. Phenol, due to its higher solubility was adsorbed to a lesser extent by both adsorbents. Physical nature of interactions, pore diffusion mechanism and exothermicity of the adsorption process was operative in both adsorbents. The outcomes support the feasibility of preparing high quality activated carbon from waste rubber tire by microwave assisted chemical activation. PMID:24407705

  19. Preparation of activated carbons from bituminous coal pitches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ganan; C. M. González-Garc??a; J. F. González; E. Sabio; A. Mac??as-Garc??a; M. A. D??az-D??ez

    2004-01-01

    High-porosity carbons were prepared from bituminous coal pitches by combining chemical and physical activation. The chemical activation process consisted of potassium hydroxide impregnation followed by carbonization in nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of the KOH impregnation ratio on the surface area and pore volumes evolution of the carbons derived from mesophase pitch was studied. The optimum KOH:pitch ratio was fixed to

  20. ENTRAINED-FLOW ADSORPTION OF MERCURY USING ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted in a flow reactor to simulate entrained-flow capture of elemental mercury (Hg) by activated carbon. Adsorption of Hg by several commercial activated carbons was examined at different carbon-to-mercury (C:Hg) ratios (by weight) (600:1 - 29000...

  1. BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogen...

  2. Pilot-scale demonstration of the OSCAR process for high-temperature multipollutant control of coal combustion flue gas, using carbonated fly ash and mesoporous calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, H.; Thomas, T.J.; Park, A.H.A.; Iyer, M.V.; Gupta, P.; Agnihotri, R.; Jadhav, R.A.; Walker, H.W.; Weavers, L.K.; Butalia, T.; Fan, L.S. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A pilot-scale study of the Ohio State Carbonation Ash Reactivation (OSCAR) process was performed to demonstrate the reactivity of two novel calcium-based sorbents toward sulfur and trace heavy metal (arsenic, selenium, and mercury) capture in the furnace sorbent injection (FSI) mode on a 0.365 m{sup 3}/s slipstream of a bituminous coal-fired stoker boiler. The sorbents were synthesized by bubbling CO{sub 2} to precipitate calcium carbonate (a) from the unreacted calcium present in the lime spray dryer ash and (b) from calcium hydroxide slurry that contained a negatively charged dispersant. The heterogeneous reaction between these sorbents and SO{sub 2} gas occurred under entrained flow conditions by injecting fine sorbent powders into the flue gas slipstream. The reacted sorbents were captured either in a hot cyclone (about 650{sup o}C) or in the relatively cooler downstream baghouse (about 230{sup o}C). The baghouse samples indicated about 90% toward sulfation and captured arsenic, selenium and mercury to 800 ppmw, 175 ppmw and 3.6 ppmw, respectively.

  3. Vibration damping with active carbon fiber structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Roscher, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a mechatronic strategy for active reduction of vibrations on machine tool struts or car shafts. The active structure is built from a carbon fiber composite with embedded piezofiber actuators that are composed of piezopatches based on the Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) technology, licensed by NASA and produced by Smart Material GmbH in Dresden, Germany. The structure of these actuators allows separate or selectively combined bending and torsion, meaning that both bending and torsion vibrations can be actively absorbed. Initial simulation work was done with a finite element model (ANSYS). This paper describes how state space models are generated out of a structure based on the finite element model and how controller codes are integrated into finite element models for transient analysis and the model-based control design. Finally, it showcases initial experimental findings and provides an outlook for damping multi-mode resonances with a parallel combination of resonant controllers.

  4. Branched artificial nanofinger arrays by mesoporous interfacial atomic rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Kong, Biao; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Yueyu; Selomulya, Cordelia; Gong, Xingao; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jianping; Wang, Wenshuo; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Yufei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2015-04-01

    The direct production of branched semiconductor arrays with highly ordered orientation has proven to be a considerable challenge over the last two decades. Here we report a mesoporous interfacial atomic rearrangement (MIAR) method to directly produce highly crystalline, finger-like branched iron oxide nanoarrays from the mesoporous nanopyramids. This method has excellent versatility and flexibility for heteroatom doping of metallic elements, including Sn, Bi, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and W, in which the mesoporous nanopyramids first absorb guest-doping molecules into the mesoporous channels and then convert the mesoporous pyramids into branching artificial nanofingers. The crystalline structure can provide more optoelectronic active sites of the nanofingers by interfacial atomic rearrangements of doping molecules and mesopore channels at the porous solid-solid interface. As a proof-of-concept, the Sn-doped Fe2O3 artificial nanofingers (ANFs) exhibit a high photocurrent density of ?1.26 mA/cm(2), ?5.25-fold of the pristine mesoporous Fe2O3 nanopyramid arrays. Furthermore, with surface chemical functionalization, the Sn-doped ANF biointerfaces allow nanomolar level recognition of metabolism-related biomolecules (?5 nm for glutathione). This MIAR method suggests a new growth means of branched mesostructures, with enhanced optoelectronic applications. PMID:25764364

  5. Responsive mesoporous photonic cellulose films by supramolecular cotemplating.

    PubMed

    Giese, Michael; Blusch, Lina K; Khan, Mostofa K; Hamad, Wadood Y; MacLachlan, Mark J

    2014-08-18

    Cellulose-based materials have been and continue to be exceptionally important for humankind. Considering the bioavailability and societal relevance of cellulose, turning this renewable resource into an active material is a vital step towards sustainability. Herein we report a new form of cellulose-derived material that combines tunable photonic properties with a unique mesoporous structure resulting from a new supramolecular cotemplating method. A composite of cellulose nanocrystals and a urea-formaldehyde resin organizes into a chiral nematic assembly, which yields a chiral nematic mesoporous continuum of desulfated cellulose nanocrystals after alkaline treatment. The mesoporous photonic cellulose (MPC) films undergo rapid and reversible changes in color upon swelling, and can be used for pressure sensing. These new active mesoporous cellulosic materials have potential applications in biosensing, optics, functional membranes, chiral separation, and tissue engineering. PMID:24981200

  6. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  7. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  8. Quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guannan Qiu; Mingxin Guo

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a source material for generating activated carbon is a value-added and environmentally beneficial approach to recycling organic waste. In this study, the overall quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon was systematically evaluated based on its various physical and chemical properties. Granular activated carbon generated from pelletized poultry litter following a typical steam-activation procedure possessed

  9. Prevention of microparticle blocking in activated carbon membrane filtration with carbon whisker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Dae Bae; Masaki Sagehashi; Akiyoshi Sakoda

    2005-01-01

    We have developed activated carbon membranes (ACM) that can remove not only particulate matters but also dissolved organic matters. Recently, we succeeded in growing carbon whiskers on activated carbon membranes (W-ACM). We hypothesize that the whiskers prevent the flux from lowering due to particle blocking on the membrane surface. In this study, we compared the filtration properties and blocking characteristics

  10. Unburnt carbon from coal fly ashes as a precursor of activated carbon for nitric oxide removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Begoña Rubio; M. Teresa Izquierdo; M. Carmen Mayoral; M. Teresa Bona; Jose M. Andres

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the characteristics of an activated carbon obtained from unburnt carbon in coal fly ashes to be used in the removal of NO. Carbon-rich fraction was obtained by mechanical sieving of fly ashes. The mineral matter was removed by conventional HCl and HF demineralization procedure. Activation was carried out with steam at 900°C

  11. Metal ion adsorption using polyamine-functionalized mesoporous materials prepared from bromopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Alothman, Zeid A; Apblett, Allen W

    2010-10-15

    Mesoporous silicas carrying di-, tri-, or penta-amine functional groups were prepared by prior functionalization of a mesoporous silica with bromopropyl-functional groups followed by nucleophilic displacement of the bromine atoms by ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, or tetraethylenepentamine, respectively. A synthetic method was developed that gave a starting material with very high surface coverage by the 3-brompropyl groups. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the capabilities of the prepared adsorbents for the removal of copper, zinc, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. The metal adsorption capacities for these metals were determined as a function of the polyamine group used and the total nitrogen content. The tendency to chemisorb divalent metal ions was found to follow the order: Cu(2+)>Zn(2+)>Cd(2+). It was found that the ethylenediamine derivative unexpectedly exhibited the highest capacities. The metal sorption by the ethylenediamine functionalized silica was found to follow first order kinetics with rate constants for Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) uptake of 0.028, 0.019, and 0.014 min(-1), respectively. The substituted mesoporous silicas showed high resistance to leaching of the grafted polyamine groups. Copper ions that were adsorbed at the surface of the mesoporous silicas can be recovered by washing with an aqueous solution of 1.0 M HNO(3). The activities of the recovered mesoporous silicas were between 80 and 90% of the original materials. PMID:20663609

  12. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhang; Qi-Gang Chang; Wan-Dong Liu; Bing-Jing Li; Wen-Xin Jiang; Li-Jun Fu; Wei-Chi Ying

    2007-01-01

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal

  13. Ni and Rh containing mesoporous amorphous silicate catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhomenko, K.; Tyunyaev, A.; Martinez Tejada, L. M.; Dedov, A.; Loktev, A.; Moiseev, I.; Roger, A.-C.

    2011-03-01

    TUD-1 mesoporous silicate materials with incorporated Ni and Rh were prepared by sol-gel one-pot synthesis. The catalytic performance of synthesized materials in dry reforming of methane was compared as well as the stability in time-on-stream experiments. These materials with directly incorporated active metals allowed remarkable increasing of CH4 and CO2 conversions up to 92 % and 95 %, respectively. Ni-TUD-1 catalyst provided very low carbon deposition together with the excellent stability over 50 h. The effect of Rh addition was evaluated.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be inferred from their physical and chemical properties. The developed porosity of the activated carbon was a function of the oxygen content, porosity and H/C ratio of the parent unburned carbon feedstock. It was observed that extended activation times and high activation temperatures increased the porosity of the produced activated carbon at the expense of the solid yield. The development of activated carbon from unburned carbon in fly ash has been proven to be a success by this study in terms of the higher surface areas of the resultant activated carbons, which are comparable with commercial activated carbons. However, unburned carbon samples obtained from coal-fired power plants as by-product have high ash content, which is unwanted for the production of activated carbons. Therefore, the separation of unburned carbon from the fly ash is expected to be beneficial for the utilization of unburned carbon to produce activated carbons with low ash content.

  15. Mesoporous metal oxide materials for catalysis and biotechnology applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enruo Guo

    2010-01-01

    The research presented here involves the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysis and biomedical study.\\u000aSince the discovery of mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN), it has been studied as solid catalyst support. We studied the catalytic activity of CO hydrogenation and the selectivity to C2 oxygenates by encapsulating monodispersed rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles during the synthesis of MSN in situ,

  16. Active carbon filter health condition detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors

    E-print Network

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    ) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). ECIS is currently being used to evaluate active carbon filtration the filtration performance. Hence, methods are sought to detect the degradation of impregnated active carbonActive carbon filter health condition detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors Jingjing

  17. Reduction of bromate by granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kirisits, M.J.; Snoeyink, V.L.; Kruithof, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Ozonation of waters containing bromide can lead to the formation of bromate, a probable human carcinogen. Since bromate will be regulated at 10 {micro}g/L by the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rule, there is considerable interest in finding a suitable method of bromate reduction. Granular activated carbon (GAC) can be used to chemically reduce bromate to bromide, but interference from organic matter and anions present in natural water render this process inefficient. In an effort to improve bromate reduction by GAC, several modifications were made to the GAC filtration process. The use of a biologically active carbon (BAC) filter ahead of a fresh GAC filter with and without preozonation, to remove the biodegradable organic matter, did not substantially improve the bromate removal of the GAC filter. The use of the BAC filter for biological bromate reduction proved to be the most encouraging experiment. By lowering the dissolved oxygen in the influent to the BAC from 8.0 mg/L to 2.0 mg/L, the percent bromate removal increased from 42% to 61%.

  18. Catalytic ozonation of p-chlorobenzoic acid by activated carbon and nickel supported activated carbon prepared from petroleum coke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xukai Li; Qiuyun Zhang; Lili Tang; Ping Lu; Fengqiang Sun; Laisheng Li

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate catalytic activity of petroleum coke, activated carbon (AC) prepared from this material, Ni supported catalyst on activated carbon (Ni\\/AC) in the ozonation of aqueous phase p-chlorobenzoic acid (p-CBA). Activated carbon and Ni\\/AC catalyst were characterized by XRD and SEM. The presence of petroleum coke did not improve the degradation of p-CBA compared

  19. Efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity by band alignment in mesoporous ternary polyoxometalate-Ag2S-CdS semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornarakis, I.; Lykakis, I. N.; Vordos, N.; Armatas, G. S.

    2014-07-01

    Porous multicomponent semiconductor materials show improved photocatalytic performance due to the large and accessible pore surface area and high charge separation efficiency. Here we report the synthesis of well-ordered porous polyoxometalate (POM)-Ag2S-CdS hybrid mesostructures featuring a controllable composition and high photocatalytic activity via a two-step hard-templating and topotactic ion-exchange chemical process. Ag2S compounds and polyoxometalate cluster anions with different reduction potentials, such as PW12O403-, SiW12O404- and PMo12O403-, were employed as electron acceptors in these ternary heterojunction photocatalysts. Characterization by small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N2 physisorption measurements showed hexagonal arrays of POM-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanorods with large internal BET surface areas and uniform mesopores. The Keggin structure of the incorporated POM clusters was also verified by elemental X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis, infrared and diffuse-reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. These new porous materials were implemented as visible-light-driven photocatalysts, displaying exceptional high activity in aerobic oxidation of various para-substituted benzyl alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. Our experiments show that the spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes at CdS through the potential gradient along the CdS-Ag2S-POM interfaces is responsible for the increased photocatalytic activity.Porous multicomponent semiconductor materials show improved photocatalytic performance due to the large and accessible pore surface area and high charge separation efficiency. Here we report the synthesis of well-ordered porous polyoxometalate (POM)-Ag2S-CdS hybrid mesostructures featuring a controllable composition and high photocatalytic activity via a two-step hard-templating and topotactic ion-exchange chemical process. Ag2S compounds and polyoxometalate cluster anions with different reduction potentials, such as PW12O403-, SiW12O404- and PMo12O403-, were employed as electron acceptors in these ternary heterojunction photocatalysts. Characterization by small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N2 physisorption measurements showed hexagonal arrays of POM-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanorods with large internal BET surface areas and uniform mesopores. The Keggin structure of the incorporated POM clusters was also verified by elemental X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis, infrared and diffuse-reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. These new porous materials were implemented as visible-light-driven photocatalysts, displaying exceptional high activity in aerobic oxidation of various para-substituted benzyl alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. Our experiments show that the spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes at CdS through the potential gradient along the CdS-Ag2S-POM interfaces is responsible for the increased photocatalytic activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: EDS spectra of STA/CdS and STA/Ag2S/CdS samples, SAXS patterns and N2 physisorption isotherms of SBA-15 silica, IR spectra of meso-CdS and POM-Ag2S-CdS materials, catalytic data of the as-prepared CdS based mesostructures and TiO2 (Degussa P25) nanoparticles, PL spectra of meso-CdS, Ag2S-CdS, CuS/CdS and STA/Ag2S/CdS samples, N2 physisorption isotherms of b-STA/Ag2S/CdS and STA/CuS/CdS, 1H NMR spectra of 8 oxidation products, and EDS and IR spectra and N2 physisorption isotherms of the reused STA/Ag2S/CdS catalyst. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01094a

  20. Siberian anthracite as a precursor material for microporous activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Nowicki; Robert Pietrzak; Helena Wachowska

    2008-01-01

    The technology of obtaining active carbon from anthracite mined in Siberia is described. The effect of the activating agent, anthracite\\/activator ratio and activation temperature has been tested. The activation either with KOH or NaOH has been found to lead to microporous active carbon samples of well-developed surface area reaching from 588 to 2260m2\\/g and pore volume from 0.29 to 1.12m3\\/g.

  1. Characterization of activated carbons from oil-palm shell by CO2 activation with no holding carbonization temperature.

    PubMed

    Herawan, S G; Hadi, M S; Ayob, Md R; Putra, A

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbons can be produced from different precursors, including coals of different ranks, and lignocellulosic materials, by physical or chemical activation processes. The objective of this paper is to characterize oil-palm shells, as a biomass byproduct from palm-oil mills which were converted into activated carbons by nitrogen pyrolysis followed by CO2 activation. The effects of no holding peak pyrolysis temperature on the physical characteristics of the activated carbons are studied. The BET surface area of the activated carbon is investigated using N2 adsorption at 77 K with selected temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C. These pyrolysis conditions for preparing the activated carbons are found to yield higher BET surface area at a pyrolysis temperature of 700°C compared to selected commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons thus result in well-developed porosities and predominantly microporosities. By using this activation method, significant improvement can be obtained in the surface characteristics of the activated carbons. Thus this study shows that the preparation time can be shortened while better results of activated carbon can be produced. PMID:23737721

  2. Drug Loading of Mesoporous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Anne; Coffer, Jeff; Wang, Mengjia

    2011-03-01

    The nanostructuring of crystalline solids with low aqueous solubilities by their incorporation into mesoporous host materials is one route to improve the bioavailability of such solids. Earlier studies suggest that mesoporous Si (PSi), with pore widths in the range of 5-50 nm, is a candidate for such an approach. In this presentation, we describe efforts to load curcumin into free-standing microparticles of PSi. Curcumin is a compound extracted from turmeric root, which is an ingredient of curry. Curucmin has shown activity against selected cancer cell lines, bacteria, and other medical conditions. However, curcumin has a very low bioavailability due to its extremely low water solubility (0.6 ? g/mL). Incorporation of curcumin was achieved by straightforward loading of the molten solid at 185circ; C. Loading experiments were performed using PSi particles of two different size ranges, 45-75 ? m and 150-250 ? m. Longer loading times and ratio of curcumin to PSi leads to a higher percentage of loaded curcumin in both PSi particle sizes (as determined by weight difference). The extent of curcumin crystallinity was assessed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The solubility and release kinetics of loaded curcumin from the PSi was determined by extraction into water at 37circ; C, with analysis using UV-VIS spectrometry. NSF-REU and TCU.

  3. Effect on mass transference phenomena by textural change inside monolithic carbon aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chejne, F.; Camargo-Trillos, D.; Pabón, E.; Carrasco-Marin, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effects on mass transference phenomena due textural changes of monolithic carbon aerogels were studied by hexane adsorption. The monolithic carbon aerogels were prepared after carbonization of the organic aerogels obtained by resorcinol-formaldehyde polymerization, using p-toluenesulfonic acid (acid-catalyst) and sodium carbonate catalysts (basic-catalyst). Internal texture was modified by CO2 activation. The characterization by gas adsorption showed that the monolithic carbon aerogels presents a bi-modal pore size distribution with presence of both microporous and mesoporous. It was shown that the activation process of monolithic carbon aerogels increases their micropore volume bigger than the other one acid-catalyst aerogel. The mesopores volume in the carbon aerogels plays an important role on mass transport mechanism. The samples with presence of significant mesopore volume present a lower height of mass transfer zone than others less mesopore volume; therefore better efficiency of adsorption in mass transfer zone in dynamic adsorption. The breakthrough curve methodology proposed in this work has allowed finding a relationship between the structural parameters and dynamic adsorption variables, which opens new approaches for measuring textural parameters of material.

  4. Molecularly imprinted mesoporous organosilica.

    PubMed

    Lofgreen, Jennifer E; Moudrakovski, Igor L; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2011-03-22

    We have prepared molecularly imprinted mesoporous organosilica (MIMO) using a semicovalent imprinting technique. A thermally reversible covalent bond was used to link a bisphenol A (BPA) imprint molecule to a functional alkoxysilane monomer at two points to generate a covalently bound imprint precursor. This precursor was incorporated into a cross-linked periodic mesoporous silica matrix via a typical acid-catalyzed, triblock copolymer-templated, sol-gel synthesis. Evidence of imprint sites buried in the pore walls was found through careful characterization of the imprinted material and its comparison to similarly prepared non-imprinted mesoporous organosilica (NIMO) and pure periodic mesoporous silica (PMS). After thermal treatment, the imprinted material (MIMO-ir) removed more than 90% of appropriately sized bisphenol species from water, yet showed significantly lower binding for both smaller and larger molecules containing phenol moieties. Identically treated NIMO-ir showed much poorer retention behavior than MIMO-ir for the same bisphenol species and behaved only slightly better than PMS-ir. PMID:21323322

  5. Operation of Membrane Bioreactor with Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choon Aun Ng; Darren Sun; Anthony G. Fane

    2006-01-01

    The effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition to the activated sludge (AS) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been investigated. The long term nature of the tests allowed the PAC to gradually incorporate into the biofloc forming biologically activated carbon (BAC). One series of tests involved 4 bench scale (2 L) MBRs operated at sludge retention times (SRTs) of 30

  6. Colonization of Biological Activated Carbon in Drinking Water Purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Wang; Zhonglin Chen; Jimin Shen; Feifei Xiang; Yu Liu; Xu Zhai; Yue Liu

    2010-01-01

    The colonization of columnar activated carbon was developed. Some analysis of several physical–chemical, biochemical and microbiological methods (indicators) used to characterize the BAC biofilm's composition and activity was provided. The filtration column filled with columnar activated carbon was operated incessantly for 72 days in the condition of natural colonization in a dynamic flow and poor nutritional status. The mature biofilm

  7. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM REFINERY WASTEWATER USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the removal of low level cyanide in petroleum refinery wastewater by the addition of powdered activated carbon and cupric chloride to an activated sludge unit. The activated carbon and cupric chloride act as a catalyst in the oxidatio...

  8. High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Waste Biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Srinivasakannan

    The present work relates to efforts made towards developing a high surface area, activated carbon from rubber wood sawdust by a two-stage activation process with phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Experiments are conducted in lab scale using muffle furnace under static conditions in a self-generated atmosphere covering process parameters such as impregnation ratio, carbonization time and temperature. The process

  9. Pd nanoparticles supported on hierarchically porous carbons derived from assembled nanoparticles of a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) for methanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhu, Qi-Long; Xu, Qiang

    2015-06-23

    Hierarchically porous carbons with both micro- and mesopores synthesized by direct carbonization of assembled nanoparticles of ZIF-8 have been used as supports for Pd electrocatalysts for methanol electrooxidation for the first time. The Pd/ZC-1000 catalyst exerts extremely high catalytic activity and electrochemical stability for methanol electrooxidation. PMID:26051231

  10. Impact of Pt loading methods over mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide nanocrystal on photocatalytic dye-sensitized H{sub 2} production activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sreethawong, Thammanoon, E-mail: tsreethawong@hotmail.com [Baan Klangmuang Luzern, Soi On-nut 46, Sukhumvit 77 Road, Suanluang, Bangkok 10250 (Thailand)] [Baan Klangmuang Luzern, Soi On-nut 46, Sukhumvit 77 Road, Suanluang, Bangkok 10250 (Thailand); Yoshikawa, Susumu [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: The Pt loading on the synthesized mesoporous-assembled 0.95TiO{sub 2}–0.05ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide nanocrystal photocatalyst was comparatively investigated by two methods: single-step sol–gel (SSSG) and photochemical deposition (PCD). The Pt loading by the PCD method was found to be superior to that by the SSSG method in enhancing photocatalytic sensitized hydrogen production under visible light irradiation. The Pt loading amount and PCD conditions, i.e. light irradiation time and light intensity, also had a strong effect on the photocatalytic hydrogen production activity. Highlights: ? Pt-loaded mesoporous-assembled 0.95TiO{sub 2}–0.05ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized. ? Pt loading was performed by single-step sol–gel and photochemical deposition. ? Pt loading by photochemical deposition more enhanced photocatalytic H{sub 2} production. ? Pt loading amount and photochemical deposition conditions were optimized. -- Abstract: In this work, the photocatalytic water splitting under visible light irradiation for hydrogen production was investigated by using Eosin Y-sensitized Pt-loaded mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide nanocrystal photocatalysts. The mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide with the TiO{sub 2}-to-ZrO{sub 2} molar ratio of 95:5 (i.e. 0.95TiO{sub 2}–0.05ZrO{sub 2}) was synthesized by using a sol–gel process with the aid of a structure-directing surfactant. The Pt loading was comparatively performed via two different effective methods: single-step sol–gel (SSSG) and photochemical deposition (PCD). The synthesized photocatalysts were methodically characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy, SEM–EDX, TEM–EDX, TPR, and H{sub 2} chemisorption analyses. The results revealed that the Pt loading by the PCD method greatly enhanced the photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of the synthesized mesoporous-assembled 0.95TiO{sub 2}–0.05ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide photocatalyst more than that by the SSSG method. The optimum Pt loading by the PCD method was experimentally observed at 0.5 wt.%, which was well associated with the maximum Pt dispersion. In addition, the PCD conditions, i.e. UV light irradiation time and UV light intensity, were investigated and optimized to be 2 h and 44 W, respectively.

  11. Adsorption of chromium by activated carbon from aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diksha Aggarwal; Meenakshi Goyal; R. C. Bansal

    1999-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions on two samples of activated carbon fibres and two samples of granulated activated carbons from aqueous solutions in the concentration range 20–1000 mg\\/l have been studied. The adsorption isotherms have been determined after modifying the activated carbon surfaces by oxidation with nitric acid, ammonium persulphate, hydrogen peroxide and oxygen gas at 350°C and

  12. Preparation of nitrogen-enriched activated carbons from brown coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Pietrzak; Helena Wachowska; Piotr Nowicki

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-enriched activated carbons were prepared from a Polish brown coal. Nitrogen was introduced from urea at 350{sup o}C in an oxidizing atmosphere both to carbonizates obtained at 500-700{sup o}C and to activated carbons prepared from them. The activation was performed at 800{sup o}C with KOH in argon. It has been observed that the carbonization temperature determines the amount of nitrogen

  13. Phenol Adsorption in Immobilized Activated Carbon with Alginate Gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Jodra; F. Mijangos

    2003-01-01

    Calcium alginate-activated carbon composites were used for phenol adsorption from aqueous solutions. These composites were prepared by mixing different amounts of powdered activated carbon with a 3% (w\\/v) sodium alginate solution, and then dripping the mix into a calcium solution. Spherical beads were obtained with different amounts of powder-activated carbon immobilized inside the calcium alginate matrix. The adsorption on immobilized

  14. Mesoporous aluminum phosphite

    SciTech Connect

    El Haskouri, Jamal, E-mail: haskouri@uv.e [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials de la Universitat de Valencia (ICMUV), P. O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Perez-Cabero, Monica; Guillem, Carmen; Latorre, Julio; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials de la Universitat de Valencia (ICMUV), P. O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Amoros, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.amoros@uv.e [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials de la Universitat de Valencia (ICMUV), P. O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    High surface area pure mesoporous aluminum-phosphorus oxide-based derivatives have been synthesized through an S{sup +}I{sup -} surfactant-assisted cooperative mechanism by means of a one-pot preparative procedure from aqueous solution and starting from aluminum atrane complexes and phosphoric and/or phosphorous acids. A soft chemical extraction procedure allows opening the pore system of the parent as-prepared materials by exchanging the surfactant without mesostructure collapse. The nature of the pore wall can be modulated from mesoporous aluminum phosphate (ALPO) up to total incorporation of phosphite entities (mesoporous aluminum phosphite), which results in a gradual evolution of the acidic properties of the final materials. While phosphate groups in ALPO act as network building blocks (bridging Al atoms), the phosphite entities become basically attached to the pore surface, what gives practically empty channels. The mesoporous nature of the final materials is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms. The materials present regular unimodal pore systems whose order decreases as the phosphite content increases. NMR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of oxo-phosphorus entities to the framework of these materials and also provide us useful information concerning the mechanism through which they are formed. - Abstract: TEM image of the mesoporous aluminum phosphite showing the hexagonal disordered pore array that is generated by using surfactant micelles as template. Also a scheme emphasizing the presence of an alumina-rich core and an ALPO-like pore surface is presented.

  15. Mesoporous yolk-shell SnS2-TiO2 visible photocatalysts with enhanced activity and durability in Cr(vi) reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinguo; Li, Xinru; Li, Xi; Zhu, Jian; Li, Hexing

    2013-02-01

    A novel mesoporous yolk-shell SnS2-TiO2 visible photocatalyst (ST-is) was synthesized by in situ doping TiO2 with SnO2 through solvothermal alcoholysis, followed by sulfurization under hydrothermal conditions. The ST-is displayed higher activity in photocatalytic reduction of Cr(vi) owing to the strong photosensitizing effect of SnS2 in uniform nanoparticles and the enhanced light harvesting via multiple reflections in yolk-shell chambers. Meanwhile, the strong SnS2-TiO2 interaction could generate more heterojunctions which facilitated photoelectron transfer from SnS2 to TiO2, leading to the enhanced activity by inhibiting photoelectron-hole recombination. Moreover, the ST-is displayed strong durability owing to the strong SnS2-TiO2 interaction and the encapsulation of SnS2 nanoparticles in the yolk-shell chamber, which could inhibit SnS2 leaching. Furthermore, because of the electronegative surface and high surface area, the ST-is could thoroughly purify wastewater by completely adsorbing Cr3+ resulting from Cr(vi) reduction. In addition, the presence of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds promoted Cr(vi) reduction owing to inhibition of photoelectron-hole recombination by consuming holes.A novel mesoporous yolk-shell SnS2-TiO2 visible photocatalyst (ST-is) was synthesized by in situ doping TiO2 with SnO2 through solvothermal alcoholysis, followed by sulfurization under hydrothermal conditions. The ST-is displayed higher activity in photocatalytic reduction of Cr(vi) owing to the strong photosensitizing effect of SnS2 in uniform nanoparticles and the enhanced light harvesting via multiple reflections in yolk-shell chambers. Meanwhile, the strong SnS2-TiO2 interaction could generate more heterojunctions which facilitated photoelectron transfer from SnS2 to TiO2, leading to the enhanced activity by inhibiting photoelectron-hole recombination. Moreover, the ST-is displayed strong durability owing to the strong SnS2-TiO2 interaction and the encapsulation of SnS2 nanoparticles in the yolk-shell chamber, which could inhibit SnS2 leaching. Furthermore, because of the electronegative surface and high surface area, the ST-is could thoroughly purify wastewater by completely adsorbing Cr3+ resulting from Cr(vi) reduction. In addition, the presence of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds promoted Cr(vi) reduction owing to inhibition of photoelectron-hole recombination by consuming holes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the FESEM images, TEM images, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, FTIR spectra, XRD patterns, XPS spectra, zeta-potential test, Mott-Schottky plots, and the schematic illustration of the charge separation in SnS2-TiO2 photocatalysts under visible light irradiation. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33755j

  16. Merging allylic carbon-hydrogen and selective carbon-carbon bond activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarwa, Ahmad; Didier, Dorian; Zabrodski, Tamar; Schinkel, Marvin; Ackermann, Lutz; Marek, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century, many synthetic organic chemists have focused on developing new strategies to regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectively build carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds in a predictable and efficient manner. Ideal syntheses should use the least number of synthetic steps, with few or no functional group transformations and by-products, and maximum atom efficiency. One potentially attractive method for the synthesis of molecular skeletons that are difficult to prepare would be through the selective activation of C-H and C-C bonds, instead of the conventional construction of new C-C bonds. Here we present an approach that exploits the multifold reactivity of easily accessible substrates with a single organometallic species to furnish complex molecular scaffolds through the merging of otherwise difficult transformations: allylic C-H and selective C-C bond activations. The resulting bifunctional nucleophilic species, all of which have an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centre, can then be selectively derivatized by the addition of two different electrophiles to obtain more complex molecular architecture from these easily available starting materials.

  17. Activated carbon from pecan shell: process description and economic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chilton Ng; Wayne E Marshall; Ramu M Rao; Rishipal R Bansode; Jacques N Losso

    2003-01-01

    Granular activated carbons derived from pecan shells have been shown to adsorb a variety of metal and organic species in various processing wastewaters. Their effectiveness is equivalent to or exceeds comparable commercial carbons in this regard. The objectives of this study were to develop process flow diagrams for the large-scale production of pecan shell-based carbons derived from steam or phosphoric

  18. Adsorption of natural gas and biogas components on activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel A. A. C. Esteves; Marta S. S. Lopes; Pedro M. C. Nunes; José P. B. Mota

    2008-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the adsorption equilibria of methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, as well as natural gas odorants tert-butyl mercaptan and tetrahydrothiophene, on an activated carbon with the desirable characteristics for use in a guard bed for adsorbed natural gas storage, but that can also be applied for separation of biogas components, such as carbon

  19. Enhanced Cellular Activation with Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    E-print Network

    Fahmy, Tarek

    focused on new methods of biochemical functionalization of carbon nano- tubes using various proteinsEnhanced Cellular Activation with Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles Presenting Antibody Stimuli the body using single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles presenting antibody stimuli. Owing to the large

  20. Active Carbon and Oxygen Shell Burning Hydrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Casey Meakin; David Arnett

    2006-01-16

    We have simulated 2.5$\\times10^3$ s of the late evolution of a $23 \\rm M_\\odot$ star with full hydrodynamic behavior. We present the first simulations of a multiple-shell burning epoch, including the concurrent evolution and interaction of an oxygen and carbon burning shell. In addition, we have evolved a 3D model of the oxygen burning shell to sufficiently long times (300 s) to begin to assess the adequacy of the 2D approximation. We summarize striking new results: (1) strong interactions occur between active carbon and oxygen burning shells, (2) hydrodynamic wave motions in nonconvective regions, generated at the convective-radiative boundaries, are energetically important in both 2D and 3D with important consequences for compositional mixing, and (3) a spectrum of mixed p- and g-modes are unambiguously identified with corresponding adiabatic waves in these computational domains. We find that 2D convective motions are exaggerated relative to 3D because of vortex instability in 3D. We discuss the implications for supernova progenitor evolution and symmetry breaking in core collapse.

  1. Active carbon filter health condition detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingjing Bao; Victor Giurgiutiu; Glenn O. Rubel; Gregory W. Peterson; Thomas M. Ball

    2011-01-01

    The impregnated active carbon used in air purification systems degrades over time due to exposure to contamination and mechanical effects (packing, settling, flow channeling, etc.). A novel approach is proposed to detect contamination in active carbon filters by combining the electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). ECIS is currently being used to evaluate active carbon filtration material;

  2. Sorption properties of active carbons obtained from walnut shells by chemical and physical activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Nowicki; Robert Pietrzak; Helena Wachowska

    2010-01-01

    A technology of obtaining active carbon from common walnut shells is described. The effect of activation methods, temperature and heating mode on the surface properties has been tested. The resulting carbons were characterised by elemental analysis, low-temperature nitrogen sorption and determination of the number of surface oxygen groups. The sorption properties of the active carbons obtained were characterised by determination

  3. Preparation of activated carbons from bituminous coals with zinc chloride activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsisheng Teng; Tien-Sheng Yeh

    1998-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation from two Australian bituminous coals in this study. The preparation process consisted of zinc chloride impregnation followed by carbonization in nitrogen. The carbonization temperature ranges from 400 to 700 C. Experimental results reveal that an acid-washing process following the carbonization with ZnClâ is necessary for preparing high-porosity carbons. Surface area, pore volume, and

  4. An Appraisal of The Lignin\\/Activated Carbon Adsorption System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Rankin

    1975-01-01

    The pore structure of a wide array of activated carbons has been evaluated by nitrogen adsorption and mercury penetration techniques. Carbons were found to exhibit total surface areas and pore volumes in the range 93 - 1500 m²\\/g and 0.34 -1.8 cm³\\/g respectively. The Darco carbons contain significant pore structure in all pores up to 1000 ? radius. Columbia carbon

  5. Processing of porous carbon with tunable pore structure by the carbide-derived carbon method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovska, Nadejda; Kormann, Martina

    2010-06-01

    Biomorphic TiC ceramics were covered with highly porous carbon, so-called carbide-derived carbon (CDC), by selective etching of Ti with chlorine in a temperature range between 400° C and 1,200°C. Microporous carbon with narrow pore size distribution was obtained at temperature ranging from 400°C to 800°C. Chlorination at higher temperatures leads to formation of mesopores because of increased degree of order of the obtained CDC. A higher etching rate as well as higher degree of order at lower reaction temperature was observed if a catalytically active metal like Fe or Ru was presented during the chlorination process. This is associated with an increased amount of mesopores and with a decrease in specific surface area. Therefore, the CDC processing in the presence of a catalyst offers another way to produce ordered carbon structures at lower temperatures.

  6. Effect of activated carbon fiber anode structure and electrolysis conditions on electrochemical degradation of dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fenyun; Chen, Shuixia; Yuan, Chan'e

    2008-08-30

    The alizarin red S (ARS) in simulated dye wastewater was electrochemically oxidized using an activated carbon fiber (ACF) felt as an anode. The influence of electrolytic conditions and anode structure on the dye degradation was investigated. The results indicated that initial pH, current density and supporting electrolyte type all played an important role in the dye degradation. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of dye solution in neutral or alkaline medium was about 74% after 60 min of electrolysis, which was higher than that in acidic medium. Increasing current density would lead to a corresponding increase in the dye removal. The addition of NaCl could also improve the treatment effect by enhancing the COD removal efficiency 10.3%. For ACF anodes, larger specific surface area and higher mesopore percentage could ensure more effective electrochemical degradation of dye. The data showed that the color removal efficiency increased from 54.2 to 83.9% with the specific surface area of ACF anodes increasing correspondingly from 894 to 1,682 m(2)/g. PMID:18258359

  7. Carbon-decorated Li4Ti5O12/rutile TiO2 mesoporous microspheres with nanostructures as high-performance anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lin; Liu, Rujun; Hu, Hao; Li, Guojian; Yu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Li4Ti5O12/rutile TiO2 (LTO-RT) composites with Li/Ti molar ratios of 3:5, 4:5 and 4.5:5 have been successfully synthesized with TiO2 microspheres as a precursor. Furthermore, C-coated LTO-RT mesoporous microspheres with a molar ratio of 4:5 (C/4-5-LTO-RT) have been prepared based on the LTO-RT composite through a hydrothermal method and high temperature calcination. After various characterizations, it is found that carbon plays a pivotal role in retaining the porous nanostructure of the original as-prepared TiO2 precursor in the overall process. Substantially, C/4-5-LTO-RT still shows a high specific surface area of 63.70 m2 g-1 even after high temperature treatment at 800 °C. Since the porous nanostructure offers open and direct channels for the diffusion of Li ions and electrons and carbon decoration also efficiently improves the electrical conductivity, the sample of C/4-5-LTO-RT shows an enhanced electrochemical performance. In addition, the presence of nanosized rutile TiO2 in C/4-5-LTO-RT has an important contribution to the high electrochemical performance, as does the fast lithium ion diffusion along the [001] direction.

  8. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  9. Synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles directly from active carbon via a one-step ultrasonic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haitao; He, Xiaodie [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Yu, Hang [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Lee, Shuit-Tong [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSADF), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSADF), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2011-01-15

    Water-soluble fluorescent carbon nanoparticles were synthesized directly from active carbon by a one-step hydrogen peroxide-assisted ultrasonic treatment. The carbon nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, optical fluorescent microscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that the surface of carbon nanoparticles was rich of hydroxyl groups resulting in high hydrophilicity. The carbon nanoparticles could emit bright and colorful photoluminescence covering the entire visible-to-near infrared spectral range. Furthermore, these carbon nanoparticles also had excellent up-conversion fluorescent properties.

  10. Activated Carbon Modified with Copper for Adsorption of Propanethiol

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Tirano, Joaquín; Salamanca, Brisa; Giraldo, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbons were characterized texturally and chemically before and after treatment, using surface area determination in the BET model, Boehm titration, TPR, DRX and immersion calorimetry. The adsorption capacity and the kinetics of sulphur compound removal were determined by gas chromatography. It was established that the propanethiol retention capacity is dependent on the number of oxygenated groups generated on the activated carbon surface and that activated carbon modified with CuO at 0.25 M shows the highest retention of propanethiol. Additionally is proposed a mechanism of decomposition of propenothiol with carbon-copper system. PMID:20479992

  11. Hydrogenation of anthracene over active carbon-supported nickel catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z.-G Zhang; K Okada; M Yamamoto; T Yoshida

    1998-01-01

    Hydrogen transfer behavior over active carbon and carbon-supported Ni catalyst was examined in the hydrogenation of anthracene with three kinds of hydrogen sources: hydrogen gas, hydrogen-donor tetralin and the combination of both. In tetralin, active carbon itself provided higher conversions of anthracene in the temperature range of 350–400°C than Ni\\/C catalyst, while under the pressure of hydrogen gas, the addition

  12. Phenolic-resin-derived activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Tennison

    1998-01-01

    A novel binderless preparative route is described for the production of phenolic-resin-derived carbons for use as catalyst supports and adsorbents. The carbons can be produced in a wide variety of physical forms ranging from simple granules to large monolithic structures. The fully interconnected macropore structure of the carbons, which derives from the interconnected voids between the primary resin particles, can

  13. Production and characterization of activated carbons from cereal grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Venkatraman; W. P. Walawender; L. T. Fan

    1996-01-01

    The term, activated carbon, is a generic name for a family of carbonaceous materials with well-developed porosities and consequently, large adsorptive capacities. Activated carbons are increasingly being consumed worldwide for environmental applications such as separation of volatiles from bulk gases and purification of water and waste-water streams. The global annual production is estimated to be around 300 million kilograms, with

  14. Ammoxidation of active carbons for improvement of supercapacitor characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jurewicz; K. Babe?; A. ?ió?kowski; H. Wachowska

    2003-01-01

    Modification of active carbon by ammoxidation was used to obtain electrode material with intermediate acidic–basic properties. It allowed advantage to be taken of the pseudocapacitance characteristics of the material for the improvement of the supercapacitor. Precursor fabric from regenerated cellulose was subjected to carbonization, followed by steam activation at 400 and 800°C, respectively. Ammoxidation was carried out with a mixture

  15. Activated carbon catalytic ozonation of oxamic and oxalic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. C. Faria; J. J. M. Órfão; M. F. R. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation of hazardous organic compounds leads to the formation of several by-products, being oxalic acid and oxamic acid final oxidation products refractory to ozonation. The present work aimed to study the ozonation of those carboxylic acids in the presence of activated carbon at different solution pH. For comparative purposes, experiments of adsorption on activated carbon, ozonation, and ozonation in

  16. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of manufacturing a carbonized and activated nonwoven made by cotton fiber was investigated in this paper. The study was focused on the acoustic application and nonwoven composites with cotton nonwoven as a base layer and glass fiber nonwoven, cotton nonwoven, and carbonized and activated...

  17. Advanced purification of carbonization wastewater by activated sludge treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Moerman; D. R. Bamelis; P. M. Van Holle; H. L. Vergote; W. H. Verstraete

    1995-01-01

    A full scale activated sludge plant has been developed treating 960 mof carbonization wastewater daily. Results and process parameters from the first three years of operation are described. In spite of intense physical?chemical pretreatment, the carbonization wastewater must still be diluted by 50% prior to biological processing due to the presence of inhibitory organic compounds. The activated sludge plant consists

  18. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Sun; Mark J. Rood; Massoud Rostam-Abadi; Anthony A. Lizzio

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons (?20 + 100 mesh; 0.149?0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (VmVs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation

  19. Hypercrosslinked Phenolic Polymers with Well Developed Mesoporous Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinshui [ORNL; Qiao, Zhenan [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Jiang, Xueguang [ORNL; Chai, Songhai [ORNL; Lu, Hanfeng [ORNL; Nelson, Kimberly M [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A soft chemistry synthetic strategy based on a Friedel Crafts alkylation reaction is developed for the textural engineering of phenolic resin (PR) with a robust mesoporous framework to avoid serious framework shrinkage and maximize retention of organic functional moieties. By taking advantage of the structural benefits of molecular bridges, the resultant sample maintains a bimodal micro-mesoporous architecture with well-preserved organic functional groups, which is effective for carbon capture. Moreover, this soft chemistry synthetic protocol can be further extended to nanotexture other aromatic-based polymers with robust frameworks.

  20. Monolithic gyroidal mesoporous mixed titanium-niobium nitrides.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Spencer W; Sai, Hiroaki; DiSalvo, Francis J; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-08-26

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium-niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials. PMID:25122534

  1. Hypercrosslinked phenolic polymers with well-developed mesoporous frameworks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinshui; Qiao, Zhen-An; Mahurin, Shannon M; Jiang, Xueguang; Chai, Song-Hai; Lu, Hanfeng; Nelson, Kimberly; Dai, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    A soft chemistry synthetic strategy based on a Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction is developed for the textural engineering of phenolic resin (PR) with a robust mesoporous framework to avoid serious framework shrinkage and maximize retention of organic functional moieties. By taking advantage of the structural benefits of molecular bridges, the resultant sample maintains a bimodal micro-mesoporous architecture with well-preserved organic functional groups, which is effective for carbon capture. Moreover, this soft chemistry synthetic protocol can be further extended to nanotexture other arene-based polymers with robust frameworks. PMID:25683637

  2. The performance of two adsorption ice making test units using activated carbon and a carbon composite as adsorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Wang; R. Z. Wang; Z. S. Lu; C. J. Chen; K. Wang; J. Y. Wu

    2006-01-01

    The available adsorption working pairs applied to adsorption refrigeration system, which utilize activated carbon as adsorbent, are mainly activated carbon–methanol, activated carbon–ammonia, and composite adsorbent–ammonia. The adsorption properties and refrigeration application of these three types of adsorption working pairs are investigated. For the physical adsorbents, consolidated activated carbon showed best heat transfer performance, and activated carbon–methanol showed the best adsorption

  3. [Fe(CN)6]4- decorated mesoporous gelatin thin films for colorimetric detection and as sorbents of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Huang, Hubiao; Sun, Luwei; Lu, Yanping; Du, Binyang; Mao, Yiyin; Li, Junwei; Ye, Zhizhen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2013-09-28

    [Fe(CN)6](4-) decorated mesoporous gelatin films, acting as colorimetric sensors and sorbents for heavy metal ions, were prepared by incorporating [Fe(CN)6](4-) ions into the mesoporous gelatin films through electrostatic interaction. Gelatin-Prussian blue (PB) and gelatin-PB analogue composite films were successfully synthesized by immersing the [Fe(CN)6](4-) decorated gelatin films into aqueous solutions of metal ions, such as Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) (all as nitrates). The in situ formation process of PB or its analogues in the films was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. According to the different colors of the PB nanoparticles and its analogues, the [Fe(CN)6](4-) decorated mesoporous gelatin films demonstrated colorimetric sensor abilities for detecting the corresponding metal ions by the naked eye with sufficient sensitivity at 1 ppm level and a quite short response time of 5 minutes. Moreover, due to the [Fe(CN)6](4-) functionality and other functional groups of gelatin itself, this [Fe(CN)6](4-) decorated mesoporous gelatin film shows a tens times higher adsorption ability for heavy metal ions in water than that of activated carbon. Due to both the efficient detection and high adsorption ability for heavy metal ions, this film has wide potential applications for the detection and purification of heavy metal ions from polluted water. PMID:23887280

  4. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from pomegranate seeds by ZnCl 2 activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uçar, Suat; Erdem, Murat; Tay, Turgay; Karagöz, Selhan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, pomegranate seeds, a by-product of fruit juice industry, were used as precursor for the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation with ZnCl 2. The influence of process variables such as the carbonization temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons was studied. When using the 2.0 impregnation ratio at the carbonization temperature of 600 °C, the specific surface area of the resultant carbon is as high as 978.8 m 2 g -1. The results showed that the surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbons at the lowest impregnation ratio and the carbonization temperature were achieved as high as 709.4 m 2 g -1 and 0.329 cm 3 g -1. The surface area was strongly influenced by the impregnation ratio of activation reagent and the subsequent carbonization temperature.

  5. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  6. Influence of activation temperature on adsorption characteristics of activated carbon fiber composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo-Jin Park; Ki-Dong Kim

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the effect of activation temperature on adsorption properties of activated carbon fiber-reinforced phenolic resin matrix composites has been investigated. The composites were manufactured via a molding process with unwoven carbon fabrics and phenolic resin. The green body mold was heated at 125°C to cure the phenolic resin and they were carbonized in an inert environment at 1000°C

  7. The use of steam and CO 2 as activating agents in the preparation of activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Rodríguez-Reinoso; M. Molina-Sabio; M. T. González

    1995-01-01

    Four series of activated carbon have been prepared from carbonized olive stones. One of them, series D, was prepared using carbon dioxide as activating agent, and the other three, series AV, W, and H, with water vapor under different experimental conditions. Two of the series, D and H, were prepared in such a way that the gasification rate for both

  8. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  9. Drug Loading of Mesoporous Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Moffitt; Jeff Coffer; Mengjia Wang

    2011-01-01

    The nanostructuring of crystalline solids with low aqueous solubilities by their incorporation into mesoporous host materials is one route to improve the bioavailability of such solids. Earlier studies suggest that mesoporous Si (PSi), with pore widths in the range of 5-50 nm, is a candidate for such an approach. In this presentation, we describe efforts to load curcumin into free-standing

  10. Grain-based activated carbons for natural gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengyan; Walawender, Walter P; Fan, L T

    2010-03-01

    Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand and environmental concerns. An investigation was undertaken to explore the technical feasibility of implementing the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles with activated carbons from biomass, e.g., sorghum and wheat. The grain-based activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation; the experimental parameters were varied to identify the optimum conditions. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was evaluated through nitrogen adsorption; and the storage capacity, through methane adsorption. A comparative study was also carried out with commercial activated carbons from charcoal. The highest storage factor attained was 89 for compacted grain-based activated carbons from grain sorghum with a bulk density of 0.65 g/cm(3), and the highest storage factor attained is 106 for compacted commercial activated carbons (Calgon) with a bulk density of 0.70 g/cm(3). The storage factor was found to increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density and to be independent of the extent of compaction. This implies that the grain-based activated carbons are the ideal candidates for the ANG storage. PMID:19945864

  11. The preparation of activated carbon from macadamia nutshell by chemical activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ahmadpour; D. D. Do

    1997-01-01

    Different structured activated carbons were prepared from macadamia nutshell by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide and zinc chloride. The influence of process variables on the carbons' pore structure was studied in order to optimise these parameters. The results were also compared with those previously obtained on the chemical activation of coal. The most important parameter in chemical activation with both

  12. Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  13. Adsorption uptake of synthetic organic chemicals by carbon nanotubes and activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, A. J.; Lim, Hyung-nam; Kilduff, James E.

    2012-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise as high performance materials for adsorbing priority pollutants from water and wastewater. This study compared uptake of two contaminants of interest in drinking water treatment (atrazine and trichloroethylene) by nine different types of carbonaceous adsorbents: three different types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), three different sized multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs), two granular activated carbons (GACs) and a powdered activated carbon (PAC). On a mass basis, the activated carbons exhibited the highest uptake, followed by SWNTs and MWNTs. However, metallic impurities in SWNTs and multiple walls in MWNTs contribute to adsorbent mass but do not contribute commensurate adsorption sites. Therefore, when uptake was normalized by purity (carbon content) and surface area (instead of mass), the isotherms collapsed and much of the CNT data was comparable to the activated carbons, indicating that these two characteristics drive much of the observed differences between activated carbons and CNT materials. For the limited data set here, the Raman D:G ratio as a measure of disordered non-nanotube graphitic components was not a good predictor of adsorption from solution. Uptake of atrazine by MWNTs having a range of lengths and diameters was comparable and their Freundlich isotherms were statistically similar, and we found no impact of solution pH on the adsorption of either atrazine or trichloroethylene in the range of naturally occurring surface water (pH = 5.7-8.3). Experiments were performed using a suite of model aromatic compounds having a range of ?-electron energy to investigate the role of ?-? electron donor-acceptor interactions on organic compound uptake by SWNTs. For the compounds studied, hydrophobic interactions were the dominant mechanism in the uptake by both SWNTs and activated carbon. However, comparing the uptake of naphthalene and phenanthrene by activated carbon and SWNTs, size exclusion effects appear to be more pronounced with activated carbon materials, perhaps due to smaller pore sizes or larger adsorption surface areas in small pores.

  14. Changes in surface chemistry of activated carbons by wet oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Moreno-Castilla; M. V López-Ramón; F Carrasco-Mar??n

    2000-01-01

    A series of activated carbons with different degrees of activation were oxidized with H2O2, (NH4)2S2O8 and HNO3 in order to introduce different oxygen surface complexes. Changes in the surface chemistry of the activated carbons after their oxidizing treatments were studied by different techniques including temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), titrations with HCl and

  15. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous cerium doped TiO{sub 2} as visible light sensitive photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Aman, Noor [CSE Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)] [CSE Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Satapathy, P.K. [PG Department of Chemistry, North Orissa University, Baripada 757003, Orissa (India)] [PG Department of Chemistry, North Orissa University, Baripada 757003, Orissa (India); Mishra, T., E-mail: drtmishra@yahoo.com [CSE Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Mahato, M. [CSE Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)] [CSE Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Das, N.N. [PG Department of Chemistry, North Orissa University, Baripada 757003, Orissa (India)] [PG Department of Chemistry, North Orissa University, Baripada 757003, Orissa (India)

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Cerium doped titania having optimum 5 wt% of cerium can decompose methylene blue and reduce selenium (IV) efficiently under visible light. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cerium doping on the surface properties and visible light mediated photocatalytic reaction is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cerium doping increases the anatase phase stability, surface area (up to 137 m{sup 2}/g) and visible light absorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Importance of Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}, oxygen vacancy, surface area and crystallinity is correlated with improved catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Material with 5 wt% Ce is found to be most active photocatalyst for methylene blue decomposition and Se (IV) reduction. -- Abstract: Cerium doped titania materials were synthesized varying the cerium concentration from 0 to 10 wt%. Materials are characterised by XRD, TEM, XPS and N{sub 2} adsorption desorption method. Surface area and visible light absorption substantially increases and crystallite size decreases with the increasing cerium content. Cerium doping stabilizes the anatase phase and surface area even at 600 Degree-Sign C calcination. Photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue decomposition and selenium (IV) reduction is found to increase with the cerium content up to 5 wt% and then decreases. Materials calcined at 600 Degree-Sign C shows better activity than that calcined at 400 Degree-Sign C, even though surface area decreases. Anatase crystallinity mostly decides the photocatalytic activity rather than only surface area. It can be concluded that the optimum visible light absorption and oxygen vacancy with 5% cerium doping enhances the photocatalytic activity. In addition photocatalytic performance is found to depend on the presence of Ce{sup 4+}/Ce{sup 3+} rather than only visible light absorption.

  16. Cellulosic carbon fibers with branching carbon nanotubes for enhanced electrochemical activities for bioprocessing applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueyan; Lu, Xin; Tze, William Tai Yin; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2013-09-25

    Renewable biobased carbon fibers are promising materials for large-scale electrochemical applications including chemical processing, energy storage, and biofuel cells. Their performance is, however, often limited by low activity. Herein we report that branching carbon nanotubes can enhance the activity of carbonized cellulosic fibers, such that the oxidation potential of NAD(H) was reduced to 0.55 V from 0.9 V when applied for bioprocessing. Coordinating with enzyme catalysts, such hierarchical carbon materials effectively facilitated the biotransformation of glycerol, with the total turnover number of NAD(H) over 3500 within 5 h of reaction. PMID:24020801

  17. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection...monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection...monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection...monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection...monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  1. Select metal adsorption by activated carbon made from peanut shells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kermit; Yang, Hong; Seo, Chung W; Marshall, Wayne E

    2006-12-01

    Agricultural by-products, such as peanut shells, contribute large quantities of lignocellulosic waste to the environment each growing season; but few, if any, value-added uses exist for their disposal. The objective of this study was to convert peanut shells to activated carbons for use in adsorption of select metal ions, namely, cadmium (Cd2+), copper (Cu2+), lead (Pb2+), nickel (Ni2+) and zinc (Zn2+). Milled peanut shells were pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen gas, and then activated with steam at different activation times. Following pyrolysis and activation, the carbons underwent air oxidation. The prepared carbons were evaluated either for adsorption efficiency or adsorption capacity; and these parameters were compared to the same parameters obtained from three commercial carbons, namely, DARCO 12x20, NORIT C GRAN and MINOTAUR. One of the peanut shell-based carbons had metal ion adsorption efficiencies greater than two of the three commercial carbons but somewhat less than but close to Minotaur. This study demonstrates that peanut shells can serve as a source for activated carbons with metal ion-removing potential and may serve as a replacement for coal-based commercial carbons in applications that warrant their use. PMID:16364633

  2. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number was superior to commercial DARCO FGD for mercury capture. The results of the activated carbon market assessment indicate an existing market for water treatment and an emerging application for mercury control. That market will involve both existing and new coal-fired plants. It is expected that 20% of the existing coal-fired plants will implement activated carbon injection by 2015, representing about 200,000 tons of annual demand. The potential annual demand by new plants is even greater. In the mercury control market, two characteristics are going to dominate the customer's buying habit-performance and price. As continued demonstration testing of activated carbon injection at the various coal-fired power plants progresses, the importance of fuel type and plant configuration on the type of activated carbon best suited is being identified.

  3. Preparation of activated carbons from agricultural residues for pesticide adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Ourania A; Zabaniotou, Anastasia A; Stavropoulos, George G; Islam, Md Azharul; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2010-09-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) can be used not only for liquid but also for vapour phase applications, such as water treatment, deodorisation, gas purification and air treatment. In the present study, activated carbons produced from agricultural residues (olive kernel, corn cobs, rapeseed stalks and soya stalks) via physical steam activation were tested for the removal of Bromopropylate (BP) from water. For the characterization of the activated carbons ICP, SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses were performed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms were investigated for all biomass activated carbons in aqueous solutions. Experimental data of BP adsorption have fitted best to the pseudo 2nd-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The study resulted that corn cobs showed better adsorption capacity than the other biomass ACs. Comparison among ACs from biomass and commercial ones (F400 and Norit GL50) revealed that the first can be equally effective for the removal of BP from water with the latter. PMID:20598734

  4. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S

    2013-02-19

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  5. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, P.; Centeno, T. A.; Urones-Garrote, E.; Ávila-Brande, D.; Otero-Díaz, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 °C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet-like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp2 content ? 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm3 (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m2/g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3-1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm2) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  6. Effects of adsorbed water vapor on the Wheeler kinetic rate constant and kinetic adsorption capacity for activated carbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Activated carbon plays a key role reducing organic vapor emissions to the environment from synthetic chemical manufacturing, pesticide manufacturing, in odor control, for removal of contaminant vapors during remediation of hazardous waste sites, and as an adsorption matrix for collection of organic vapors from ambient air in occupational and environmental settings to assess exposure. The Wheeler dynamic adsorption model has been evaluated under laboratory conditions and has shown potential for predicting activated carbon bed penetration. Water vapor is a normal constituent of ambient air that is present at concentrations 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations of potentially toxic air contaminants. Many investigations have shown that adsorbed water vapor can reduce the breakthrough-time of activated charcoal beds. The effect of adsorbed water vapor on the predictive power of the Wheeler model has not been evaluated. The research evaluated the effect of water vapor adsorbed on activated charcoal on the subsequent adsorption of four air contaminants, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethylene, and 1-propanol. The adsorbent used in this research had a large surface area, 1200 m[sup 2]/g and that 95% of the surface area was associated with micropores (pores with diameters less than 2 micrometers). Kinetic adsorption capacities for all four adsorbates were not affected by the presence of water vapor except for some observed enhancement. The kinetic trial data suggest that the primary effect of adsorbed water vapor was to reduce the effective pore radius of the smaller mesopores thus restricting pore diffusion. This results in an increase in the critical bed capacity with shorter breakthrough times for adsorbent beds.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of triflic acid-functionalized mesoporous Zr-TMS catalysts: heterogenization of CF 3SO 3H over Zr-TMS and its catalytic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chidambaram; D. Curulla-Ferre; A. P. Singh; B. G. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Triflic acid-functionalized Zr-TMS (zirconium oxide with a mesostructured framework; TMS, transition metal oxide mesoporous molecular sieves) catalysts have been synthesized by functionalizing triflic acid onto the walls of Zr-TMS via post synthesis method. The synthesized materials were characterized by powder XRD, N2-sorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, solid-state 13C CP and DD\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy, FT-Raman analysis, NH3-TPD, SEM, TEM, TG-DTA, and

  8. The influence of aluminium sources on the acidic behaviour as well as on the catalytic activity of mesoporous H-AlMCM-41 molecular sieves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Sakthivel; S. E Dapurkar; N. M Gupta; S. K Kulshreshtha; P Selvam

    2003-01-01

    A series of mesoporous molecular sieves (AlMCM-41) were synthesized with varying silicon-to-aluminium ratios and using three different aluminium sources, viz., sodium aluminate, aluminium isopropoxide and aluminium sulphate. The samples were characterized systematically using XRD, TG-DTA, BET surface area, and ICP-AES. In addition, the extent of framework substitution as well as the nature of acid sites was deduced employing 27Al MAS-NMR,

  9. HARDWOOD-BASED GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR METALS REMEDIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Granular activated carbon is usually the adsorbent of choice for removing organic pollutants from air and water waste streams. Its ability to remove metal ions from aqueous media is considered secondary to its ability to remove organics. Only recently was a coal-based, commercial carbon (Minotaur) m...

  10. Dynamics of natural gas adsorption storage systems employing activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Barbosa Mota; A. E. Rodrigues; E. Saatdjian; D. Tondeur

    1997-01-01

    Various aspects of the dynamics of natural gas adsorption storage systems employing activated carbon are studied theoretically. The fast charge of the storage system is the first subject addressed. Emphasis is given to thermal effects and hydrodynamics of flow through the carbon bed. In order to study the influence of diffusional resistances on charge dynamics, an intraparticle transport equation governed

  11. ELEMENTAL MERCURY CAPTURE BY ACTIVATED CARBON IN A FLOW REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale experiments in a flow reactor to simulate the entrained-flow capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) using solid sorbents. Adsorption of Hgo by a lignite-based activated carbon (Calgon FGD) was examined at different carbon/mercury (C/Hg) rat...

  12. Activated carbon testing for the 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.N.

    1997-01-17

    This report documents pilot and laboratory scale testing of activated carbon for use in the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility peroxide decomposer columns. Recommendations are made concerning column operating conditions and hardware design, the optimum type of carbon for use in the plant, and possible further studies.

  13. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MOBILE ACTIVATED CARBON REGENERATOR SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated carbon adsorption has become a standard procedure for the cleanup of contaminated water streams. To facilitate such cleanup at hazardous waste and spill sites, mobile carbon adsorption units have been constructed and are now in use. Their primary drawback is the logisti...

  14. HARDWOOD-BASED GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR METALS REMEDIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Granular activated carbon is usually the adsorbent of choice for removing organic pollutants from air and water waste streams. Its ability to remove metal ions from aqueous media is considered secondary to its ability to remove organics. Only recently was a coal-based, commercial carbon (Minotaur, C...

  15. ACTIVATED CARBON PROCESS FOR TREATMENT OF WASTEWATERS CONTAINING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from dilute aqueous solution by an activated carbon process has been investigated. Two removal mechanisms were observed; hexavalent chromium species were removed by adsorption onto the interior carbon surface and/or through reduction to...

  16. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICAL REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of the adsorbability of synthetic organic chemicals (SOC) by granular activated carbon (GAC). The paper demonstrates the adsorbability by presenting data on the removal of SOCs and organic surrogates such as total organic carbon and total organic halide b...

  17. CTAB-assisted synthesis of mesoporous F-N-codoped TiO{sub 2} powders with high visible-light-driven catalytic activity and adsorption capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Yi [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China)], E-mail: xieyithanks@163.com; Zhao Xiujian [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China)], E-mail: opluse@whut.edu.cn; Li Yuanzhi; Zhao Qingnan; Zhou Xuedong; Yuan Qihua [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China)

    2008-08-15

    This article describes the preparation of mesoporous rod-like F-N-codoped TiO{sub 2} powder photocatalysts with anatase phase via a sol-gel route at the temperature of 373 K, using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). The results showed that the photocatalysts possessed a homogeneous pore diameter and a high surface area of 106.3-160.7 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}. The increasing CTAB reactive concentration extended the visible-light absorption up to 600 nm. The F-N-codoped TiO{sub 2} powders exhibited significant higher adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO) than that of Degussa P25 and showed more than 6 times higher visible-light-induced catalytic degradation for MO than that of P25. - Graphical abstract: The introduction of surfactant CTAB not only extended the visible light absorption of mesoporous F-N-codoped TiO{sub 2} up to 600 nm but also significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity and visible-light-induced degradation for methyl orange. Mesoporous rod-like F-N-codoped TiO{sub 2} powder photocatalysts were synthesized via a sol-gel route at low temperature of 373 K.

  18. Graphitic nanocrystals inside the pores of mesoporous silica: Synthesis, characterization and an adsorption study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. de Clippel; A. Harkiolakis; T. Vosch; X. Ke; L. Giebeler; S. Oswald; K. Houthoofd; J. Jammaer; G. Van Tendeloo; J. A. Martens; P. A. Jacobs; G. V. Baron; B. F. Sels; J. F. M. Denayer

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a new carbon–silica hybrid material, denoted as CSM, with remarkable sorption properties. It consists of intraporous graphitic nanocrystals grown in the pores of mesoporous silica. CSM is obtained by a subtle incipient wetness impregnation of Al-containing mesoporous silica with furfuryl alcohol (FA)\\/hemelitol solutions. Both the volume match of the impregnation solution with that of the silica template

  19. Mesoporous materials for antihydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Consolati, Giovanni; Ferragut, Rafael; Galarneau, Anne; Di Renzo, Francesco; Quasso, Fiorenza

    2013-05-01

    Antimatter is barely known by the chemist community and this article has the vocation to explain how antimatter, in particular antihydrogen, can be obtained, as well as to show how mesoporous materials could be used as a further improvement for the production of antimatter at very low temperatures (below 1 K). The first experiments with mesoporous materials highlighted in this review show very promising and exciting results. Mesoporous materials such as mesoporous silicon, mesoporous material films, pellets of MCM-41 and silica aerogel show remarkable features for antihydrogen formation. Yet, the characteristics for the best future mesoporous materials (e.g. pore sizes, pore connectivity, shape, surface chemistry) remain to be clearly identified. For now among the best candidates are pellets of MCM-41 and aerogel with pore sizes between 10 and 30 nm, possessing hydrophobic patches on their surface to avoid ice formation at low temperature. From a fundamental standpoint, antimatter experiments could help to shed light on open issues, such as the apparent asymmetry between matter and antimatter in our universe and the gravitational behaviour of antimatter. To this purpose, basic studies on antimatter are necessary and a convenient production of antimatter is required. It is exactly where mesoporous materials could be very useful. PMID:23250616

  20. The Synthesis of Functional Mesoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, Glen E.

    2006-11-01

    The ability to decorate a silica surface with specific ligand fields and/or metal complexes creates powerful new capabilities for catalysis, chemical separations and sensor development. Integrating this with the ability to control the spacing of these complexes across the surface, as well as the symmetry and size of the pore structure, allows the synthetic chemist to hierarchically tailor these structured nanomaterials to specific needs. The next step up the “scale ladder” is provided by the ability to coat these mesoporous materials onto complex shapes, allowing for the intimate integration of these tailored materials into device interfaces. The ability to tailor the pore structure of these mesoporous supports is derived from the surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous materials, an area which has seen an explosion of activity over the last decade.[1,2] The ability to decorate the surface with the desired functionality requires chemical modification of the oxide interface, most commonly achieved using organosilane self-assembly.[3-6] This manuscript describes recent results from the confluence of these two research areas, with a focus on synthetic manipulation of the morphology and chemistry of the interface, with the ultimate goal of binding metal centers in a chemically useful manner.

  1. Activated Carbon from Peach Stones Using Phosphoric Acid Activation at Medium Temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Su Kim

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the activation features of phosphoric acid have been investigated using waste peach stones as the raw material in the production of granular activated carbon. Thermogravimetry\\/differential thermal analysis was conducted to characterize the thermal behavior of peach stone and titration method was used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the produced activated carbon. It was observed that

  2. Preparing activated carbon from various nutshells by chemical activation with K 2CO 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun’ichi Hayashi; Toshihide Horikawa; Isao Takeda; Katsuhiko Muroyama; Farid Nasir Ani

    2002-01-01

    We have prepared activated carbons by chemical activation with K2CO3 from five kinds of nutshells: almond shell (AM), coconut shell (CN), oil palm shell (OP), pistachio shell (PT) and walnut shell (WN). When prepared at 1073 K, the activated carbons from all the nutshells had the maximum specific surface areas. According to the maximum values of specific surface areas, the

  3. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME

    2010-09-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs) will load heavily onto activated carbon and should be removed from groundwater upstream of the activated carbon pre-treatment system. Unless removed upstream, the adsorbed loadings of these organic constituents could exceed the land disposal criteria for carbon.

  4. Activated carbon from coal refuse for water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Broderick; E. S. Hertzog

    1941-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon or char from high-coal fraction of coal refuse is described and these chars are evaluated to determine their suitability for removing tastes and odors from municipal water supplies.

  5. GROWTH AND PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three enteric pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica 0:8, Salmonella typhimurium, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, were examined for their ability to colonize granular activated carbon (GAC) in pure cultures and in the presence of autochthonous river water organisms. All three or...

  6. Sustainable Regeneration of Nanoparticle Enhanced Activated Carbon in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The regeneration and reuse of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) is an appropriate method for lowering operational and environmental costs. Advanced oxidation is a promising environmental friendly technique for GAC regeneration. The main objective of this research was to ...

  7. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  8. Biofilm processes in biologically active carbon water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Simpson

    2008-01-01

    This review paper serves to describe the composition and activity of a biologically active carbon (BAC) biofilm used in water purification. An analysis of several physical–chemical, biochemical and microbiological methods (indicators) used to characterize the BAC biofilm's composition and activity is provided. As well, the ability of the biofilm to remove and biodegrade waterborne organic substances and pollutants will be

  9. Catalytic Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel Complexes

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Catalytic Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel Complexes Brian L. Edelbach, New York 14627 Received May 24, 1999 The nickel alkyne complexes (dippe)Ni(PhCtCPh), 1, (dippe reported using (C5Me5)Rh- (PMe3)H2 5e and several platinum, palladium, and nickel phosphine complexes.5i

  10. Construction of homogenous/heterogeneous hollow mesoporous silica nanostructures by silica-etching chemistry: principles, synthesis, and applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hang-Rong; Shi, Jian-Lin

    2014-01-21

    Colloidal hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are aspecial type of silica-based nanomaterials with penetrating mesopore channels on their shells. HMSNs exhibit unique structural characteristics useful for diverse applications: Firstly, the hollow interiors can function as reservoirs for enhanced loading of guest molecules, or as nanoreactors for the growth of nanocrystals or for catalysis in confined spaces. Secondly, the mesoporous silica shell enables the free diffusion of guest molecules through the intact shell. Thirdly, the outer silica surface is ready for chemical modifications, typically via its abundant Si-OH bonds. As early as 2003, researchers developed a soft-templating methodto prepare hollow aluminosilicate spheres with penetrating mesopores in a cubic symmetry pattern on the shells. However, adapting this method for applications on the nanoscale, especially for biomedicine, has proved difficult because the soft templating micelles are very sensitive to liquid environments, making it difficult to tune key parameters such as dispersity, morphology and structure. In this Account, we present the most recent developments in the tailored construction of highly dispersive and monosized HMSNs using simple silica-etching chemistry, and we discuss these particles' excellent performance in diverse applications. We first introduce general principles of silica-etching chemistry for controlling the chemical composition and the structural parameters (particle size, pore size, etching modalities, yolk-shell nanostructures, etc.) of HMSNs. Secondly, we include recent progress in constructing heterogeneous, multifunctional, hollow mesoporous silica nanorattles via several methods for diverse applications. These elaborately designed HMSNs could be topologically transformed to prepare hollow mesoporous carbon nanoparticles or functionalized to produce HMSN-based composite nanomaterials. Especially in biomedicine, HMSNs are excellent as carriers to deliver either hydrophilic or hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs, to tumor cells, offering enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy and diminished toxic side effects. Most recently, research has shown that loading one or more anticancer drugs into HMSNs can inhibit metastasis or reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. HMSNs could also deliver hydrophobic perfluorohexane (PFH) molecules to improve high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) cancer surgery by changing the tissue acoustic environment; and HMSNs could act as nanoreactors for enhanced catalytic activity and/or durability. The versatility of silica-etching chemistry, a simple but scalable synthetic methodology, offers great potential for the creation of new types of HMSN-based nanostructures in a range of applications. PMID:23944328

  11. Influence of anthracite pretreatment in the preparation of activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Daulan; Svetlana B. Lyubchik; Jean-Noël Rouzaud; François Béguin

    1998-01-01

    Chemical modification by HClO4 was used prior to physical gasification with CO2 to produce activated carbon from La Mure (France) anthracite. BET surface areas as high as 1600 m2 g?1 and a total pore volume of ?1 cm3 g?1 were obtained for this activated carbon. XPS studies have shown that a part of the chlorine had reacted with the anthracite,

  12. Perchlorate Sorption\\/Transformation from Solution Using Activated Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Pyatt; A. P. Jackman; D. Rolston

    2002-01-01

    Because perchlorate (ClO4-) inhibits iodide uptake it is a contaminant of concern in groundwater. Therefore ClO4- contaminated drinking water must be treated to either remove ClO4- or reduce ClO4- to chloride (Cl-). Batch and column experiments using varying operational conditions with powdered activated carbon (PAC) and granular activated carbon (PAC) were performed to evaluate PAC and GAC capacity to adsorb

  13. Sorption of acid dyes from effluents using activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith K. H. Choy; Gordon McKay; John F. Porter

    1999-01-01

    The sorption of three acid dyes, namely, Acid Red 114, Polar Yellow and Polar Blue RAWL, onto activated carbon, has been studied. Equilibrium isotherms have been measured for three single component systems (AB, AR, AY) and one binary component system (AB+AY). The isotherms were determined by shaking 0.05 g activated carbon, particle size range 500–710 ?m, with 0.05 dm3 dye

  14. Water purification by sulfide-containing activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz D. Oeste; Rainer Haas; Lothar Kaminski

    2000-01-01

    We investigated a new kind of activated carbon named gaiasafe-Formstoff [1] as an agent for powerful heavy metal reduction.\\u000a This activated carbon contains highly dispersed sulfide compounds. Our investigations with lead containing wastewaters showed\\u000a an outstanding metal sulfide precipitation power of the new agent. The lead reduction rates are independent of wastewater\\u000a parameters like lead concentration and complexing agent concentration.

  15. Highly Ordered Mesoporous -Mn2O3 for Catalytic Decomposition of H2O2 at Low Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Highly Ordered Mesoporous ¡-Mn2O3 for Catalytic Decomposition of H2O2 at Low Temperatures Jung-defined mesopores, high surface area, and high oxygen vacancy exhibits excellent catalytic activity toward H2O2 oxide also shows excellent catalytic activity for decomposition of H2O2 compared to other transition

  16. Carbon Nanotube Materials for Substrate Enhanced Control of Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Heben, M.; Dillon, A. C.; Engtrakul, C.; Lee, S.-H.; Kelley, R. D.; Kini, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    Carbon SWNTs are attractive materials for supporting electrocatalysts. The properties of SWNTs are highly tunable and controlled by the nanotube's circumferential periodicity and their surface chemistry. These unique characteristics suggest that architectures constructed from these types of carbon support materials would exhibit interesting and useful properties. Here, we expect that the structure of the carbon nanotube support will play a major role in stabilizing metal electrocatalysts under extreme operating conditions and suppress both catalyst and support degradation. Furthermore, the chemical modification of the carbon nanotube surfaces can be expected to alter the interface between the catalyst and support, thus, enhancing the activity and utilization of the electrocatalysts. We plan to incorporate discrete reaction sites into the carbon nanotube lattice to create intimate electrical contacts with the catalyst particles to increase the metal catalyst activity and utilization. The work involves materials synthesis, design of electrode architectures on the nanoscale, control of the electronic, ionic, and mass fluxes, and use of advanced optical spectroscopy techniques.

  17. Detection of low concentration oxygen containing functional groups on activated carbon fiber surfaces through fluorescent labeling

    E-print Network

    Borguet, Eric

    carbon, activated carbon fibers and carbon nano- tubes, are based on the presence of oxygen containingDetection of low concentration oxygen containing functional groups on activated carbon fiber of surface functional groups (OH, COOH and CHO) on activated carbon fiber surfaces. The chromophores were

  18. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Chilcoat, Bill R. (Knoxville, TN); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  19. Activated carbon from jackfruit peel waste by H 3PO 4 chemical activation: Pore structure and surface chemistry characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devarly Prahas; Y. Kartika; N. Indraswati; S. Ismadji

    2008-01-01

    The effects of activation temperature and impregnation ratio on the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbons derived from jackfruit peel with chemical activation method using phosphoric acid as activating agent were studied. Activated carbons with well-developed pore sizes were produced at activation temperatures of 450 and 550°C. The BET surface areas and total pore volumes of the carbons

  20. Catalytic ozonation of p-chlorobenzoic acid by activated carbon and nickel supported activated carbon prepared from petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Li, Xukai; Zhang, Qiuyun; Tang, Lili; Lu, Ping; Sun, Fengqiang; Li, Laisheng

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate catalytic activity of petroleum coke, activated carbon (AC) prepared from this material, Ni supported catalyst on activated carbon (Ni/AC) in the ozonation of aqueous phase p-chlorobenzoic acid (p-CBA). Activated carbon and Ni/AC catalyst were characterized by XRD and SEM. The presence of petroleum coke did not improve the degradation of p-CBA compared to ozonation alone, but it was advantageous for p-CBA mineralization (total organic carbon, TOC, reduction), indicating the generation of highly oxidant species (*OH) in the medium. The presence of either activated carbon or Ni/AC considerably improves TOC removal during p-CBA ozonation. Ni/AC catalyst shows the better catalytic activity and stability based on five repeated tests during p-CBA ozonation. During the ozonation (50 mg/h ozone flow rate) of a 10 mg/L p-CBA (pH 4.31), it can be more mineralized in the presence of Ni/AC catalyst (5.0 g/L), TOC removal rate is over 60% in 60 min, 43% using activated carbon as catalyst, only 30% with ozonation alone. PMID:18667273