Science.gov

Sample records for message passing programs

  1. Trace-Driven Debugging of Message Passing Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Lopez, Louis; Bailey, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we report on features added to a parallel debugger to simplify the debugging of parallel message passing programs. These features include replay, setting consistent breakpoints based on interprocess event causality, a parallel undo operation, and communication supervision. These features all use trace information collected during the execution of the program being debugged. We used a number of different instrumentation techniques to collect traces. We also implemented trace displays using two different trace visualization systems. The implementation was tested on an SGI Power Challenge cluster and a network of SGI workstations.

  2. Parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Phillip M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    As massively parallel computers proliferate, there is growing interest in findings ways by which performance of massively parallel codes can be efficiently predicted. This problem arises in diverse contexts such as parallelizing computers, parallel performance monitoring, and parallel algorithm development. In this paper we describe one solution where one directly executes the application code, but uses a discrete-event simulator to model details of the presumed parallel machine such as operating system and communication network behavior. Because this approach is computationally expensive, we are interested in its own parallelization specifically the parallelization of the discrete-event simulator. We describe methods suitable for parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs, and report on the performance of such a system, Large Application Parallel Simulation Environment (LAPSE), we have built on the Intel Paragon. On all codes measured to date, LAPSE predicts performance well typically within 10 percent relative error. Depending on the nature of the application code, we have observed low slowdowns (relative to natively executing code) and high relative speedups using up to 64 processors.

  3. Message passing in PUMA

    SciTech Connect

    Maccabe, A.B. |; Wheat, S.R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the message passing primitives provided by PUMA (Performance-oriented, User-managed Messaging Architecture). Message passing in PUMA is based on the concept of a portal--an opening in the address space of an application process. Once an application process has established a portal, other processes can write values into the memory associated with the portal using a simple send operation. Because messages are written directly into the address space of the receiving process, there is not need to buffer messages in the PUMA kernel. This simplifies the design of the kernel, increasing its reliability and portability. Moreover, because messages are mapped directly into the address space of the application process, the application can manage the messages that it receives without needing direct support from the kernel.

  4. Formal Analysis of Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Stephen F.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    The message passing paradigm underlies many important families of programs - for instance programs in the area of high performance computing that support science and engineering research. Unfortunately, very few formal methods researchers are involved in developing formal analysis tools and techniques for message passing programs. This paper summarizes research being done in our groups in support of this area, specifically with respect to the Message Passing Interface. We emphasize the need for specialized varieties of many familiar notions such as deadlock detection, race analysis, symmetry analysis, partial order reduction, static analysis and symbolic reasoning support. Since these issues are harbingers of those being faced in multicore programming, the time is ripe to build a critical mass of researchers working in this area.

  5. Automated Performance Prediction of Message-Passing Parallel Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Robert J.; Sarukkai, Sekhar; Mehra, Pankaj; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The increasing use of massively parallel supercomputers to solve large-scale scientific problems has generated a need for tools that can predict scalability trends of applications written for these machines. Much work has been done to create simple models that represent important characteristics of parallel programs, such as latency, network contention, and communication volume. But many of these methods still require substantial manual effort to represent an application in the model's format. The NIK toolkit described in this paper is the result of an on-going effort to automate the formation of analytic expressions of program execution time, with a minimum of programmer assistance. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, by extending previous work to detect and model communication patterns automatically, with and without overlapped computations. The predictions derived from these models agree, within reasonable limits, with execution times of programs measured on the Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon. Further, we demonstrate the use of MK in selecting optimal computational grain size and studying various scalability metrics.

  6. The ACL Message Passing Library

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, J.; McCormick, P.; Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Colin de Verdiere, G.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the ACL (Advanced Computing Lab) Message Passing Library. It is a high throughput, low latency communications library, based on Thinking Machines Corp.`s CMMD, upon which message passing applications can be built. The library has been implemented on the Cray T3D, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI workstations, and on top of PVM.

  7. Incremental Parallelization of Non-Data-Parallel Programs Using the Charon Message-Passing Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.

    2000-01-01

    Message passing is among the most popular techniques for parallelizing scientific programs on distributed-memory architectures. The reasons for its success are wide availability (MPI), efficiency, and full tuning control provided to the programmer. A major drawback, however, is that incremental parallelization, as offered by compiler directives, is not generally possible, because all data structures have to be changed throughout the program simultaneously. Charon remedies this situation through mappings between distributed and non-distributed data. It allows breaking up the parallelization into small steps, guaranteeing correctness at every stage. Several tools are available to help convert legacy codes into high-performance message-passing programs. They usually target data-parallel applications, whose loops carrying most of the work can be distributed among all processors without much dependency analysis. Others do a full dependency analysis and then convert the code virtually automatically. Even more toolkits are available that aid construction from scratch of message passing programs. None, however, allows piecemeal translation of codes with complex data dependencies (i.e. non-data-parallel programs) into message passing codes. The Charon library (available in both C and Fortran) provides incremental parallelization capabilities by linking legacy code arrays with distributed arrays. During the conversion process, non-distributed and distributed arrays exist side by side, and simple mapping functions allow the programmer to switch between the two in any location in the program. Charon also provides wrapper functions that leave the structure of the legacy code intact, but that allow execution on truly distributed data. Finally, the library provides a rich set of communication functions that support virtually all patterns of remote data demands in realistic structured grid scientific programs, including transposition, nearest-neighbor communication, pipelining

  8. Comparative Study of Message Passing and Shared Memory Parallel Programming Models in Neural Network Training

    SciTech Connect

    Vitela, J.; Gordillo, J.; Cortina, L; Hanebutte, U.

    1999-12-14

    It is presented a comparative performance study of a coarse grained parallel neural network training code, implemented in both OpenMP and MPI, standards for shared memory and message passing parallel programming environments, respectively. In addition, these versions of the parallel training code are compared to an implementation utilizing SHMEM the native SGI/CRAY environment for shared memory programming. The multiprocessor platform used is a SGI/Cray Origin 2000 with up to 32 processors. It is shown that in this study, the native CRAY environment outperforms MPI for the entire range of processors used, while OpenMP shows better performance than the other two environments when using more than 19 processors. In this study, the efficiency is always greater than 60% regardless of the parallel programming environment used as well as of the number of processors.

  9. Parallel Brownian dynamics simulations with the message-passing and PGAS programming models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teijeiro, C.; Sutmann, G.; Taboada, G. L.; Touriño, J.

    2013-04-01

    The simulation of particle dynamics is among the most important mechanisms to study the behavior of molecules in a medium under specific conditions of temperature and density. Several models can be used to compute efficiently the forces that act on each particle, and also the interactions between them. This work presents the design and implementation of a parallel simulation code for the Brownian motion of particles in a fluid. Two different parallelization approaches have been followed: (1) using traditional distributed memory message-passing programming with MPI, and (2) using the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model, oriented towards hybrid shared/distributed memory systems, with the Unified Parallel C (UPC) language. Different techniques for domain decomposition and work distribution are analyzed in terms of efficiency and programmability, in order to select the most suitable strategy. Performance results on a supercomputer using up to 2048 cores are also presented for both MPI and UPC codes.

  10. Monitoring Data-Structure Evolution in Distributed Message-Passing Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Beers, Andrew; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring the evolution of data structures in parallel and distributed programs, is critical for debugging its semantics and performance. However, the current state-of-art in tracking and presenting data-structure information on parallel and distributed environments is cumbersome and does not scale. In this paper we present a methodology that automatically tracks memory bindings (not the actual contents) of static and dynamic data-structures of message-passing C programs, using PVM. With the help of a number of examples we show that in addition to determining the impact of memory allocation overheads on program performance, graphical views can help in debugging the semantics of program execution. Scalable animations of virtual address bindings of source-level data-structures are used for debugging the semantics of parallel programs across all processors. In conjunction with light-weight core-files, this technique can be used to complement traditional debuggers on single processors. Detailed information (such as data-structure contents), on specific nodes, can be determined using traditional debuggers after the data structure evolution leading to the semantic error is observed graphically.

  11. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, M.; Asghar, S.; Malik, U. A.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, N.

    2011-12-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  12. Efficient Tracing for On-the-Fly Space-Time Displays in a Debugger for Message Passing Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robert; Matthews, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    In this work we describe the implementation of a practical mechanism for collecting and displaying trace information in a debugger for message passing programs. We introduce a trace format that is highly compressible while still providing information adequate for debugging purposes. We make the mechanism convenient for users to access by incorporating the trace collection in a set of wrappers for the MPI (message passing interface) communication library. We implement several debugger operations that use the trace display: consistent stoplines, undo, and rollback. They all are implemented using controlled replay, which executes at full speed in target processes until the appropriate position in the computation is reached. They provide convenient mechanisms for getting to places in the execution where the full power of a state-based debugger can be brought to bear on isolating communication errors.

  13. Study of parallel efficiency in message passing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    1996-03-01

    A benchmark test using the Message Passing Interface (MPI, an emerging standard for writing message passing programs) has been developed, to study parallel performance in message passing environments. The test is comprised of a computational task of independent calculations followed by a round-robin data communication step. Performance data as a function of computational granularity and message passing requirements are presented for the IBM SPx at Argonne National Laboratory and for a cluster of quasi-dedicated SUN SPARC Station 20`s. In the later portion of the paper a widely accepted communication cost model combined with Amdahl`s law is used to obtain performance predictions for uneven distributed computational work loads.

  14. Active messages versus explicit message passing under SUNMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.R.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    In the past few years much effort has been devoted to finding faster and more convenient ways to exchange data between nodes of massively parallel distributed memory machines. One such approach, taken by Thorsten von Eicken et al. is called Active Messages. The idea is to hide message passing latency and continue to compute while data is being sent and delivered. The authors have implemented Active Messages under SUNMOS for the Intel Paragon and performed various experiments to determine their efficiency and utility. In this paper they concentrate on the subset of the Active Message layer that is used by the implementation of the Split-C library. They compare performance to explicit message passing under SUNMOS and explore new ways to support Split-C without Active Messages. They also compare the implementation to the original one on the Thinking Machines CM-5 and try to determine what the effects of low latency and low band-width versus high latency and high bandwidth are on user codes.

  15. Message passing with parallel queue traversal

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Keith D.; Brightwell, Ronald B.; Hemmert, K. Scott

    2012-05-01

    In message passing implementations, associative matching structures are used to permit list entries to be searched in parallel fashion, thereby avoiding the delay of linear list traversal. List management capabilities are provided to support list entry turnover semantics and priority ordering semantics.

  16. Message-passing performance of various computers

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan, T.H.

    1996-02-01

    This report compares the performance of different computer systems message passing. Latency and bandwidth are measured on Convex, Cray, IBM, Intel, KSR, Meiko, nCUBE, NEC, SGI, and TMC multiprocessors. Communication performance is contrasted with the computational power of each system. The comparison includes both shared a memory computers as well as networked workstation cluster.

  17. Development of Message Passing Routines for High Performance Parallel Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Edward K.

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations require a great deal of computing power for completing the detailed computations involved. In an effort shorten the time it takes to complete such calculations they are implemented on a parallel computer. In the case of a parallel computer some sort of message passing structure must be used to communicate between the computers because, unlike a single machine, each computer in a parallel computing cluster does not have access to all the data or run all the parts of the total program. Thus, message passing is used to divide up the data and send instructions to each machine. The nature of my work this summer involves programming the "message passing" aspect of the parallel computer. I am working on modifying an existing program, which was written with OpenMP, and does not use a multi-machine parallel computing structure, to work with Message Passing Interface (MPI) routines. The actual code is being written in the FORTRAN 90 programming language. My goal is to write a parameterized message passing structure that could be used for a variety of individual applications and implement it on Silicon Graphics Incorporated s (SGI) IRIX operating system. With this new parameterized structure engineers would be able to speed up computations for a wide variety of purposes without having to use larger and more expensive computing equipment from another division or another NASA center.

  18. MPF: A portable message passing facility for shared memory multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malony, Allen D.; Reed, Daniel A.; Mcguire, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The design, implementation, and performance evaluation of a message passing facility (MPF) for shared memory multiprocessors are presented. The MPF is based on a message passing model conceptually similar to conversations. Participants (parallel processors) can enter or leave a conversation at any time. The message passing primitives for this model are implemented as a portable library of C function calls. The MPF is currently operational on a Sequent Balance 21000, and several parallel applications were developed and tested. Several simple benchmark programs are presented to establish interprocess communication performance for common patterns of interprocess communication. Finally, performance figures are presented for two parallel applications, linear systems solution, and iterative solution of partial differential equations.

  19. msg: A Message-Passing Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roll, J. B.; Mandel, J.

    As the foundation for the SAO MMT Instrument control software, we have developed an ASCII protocol for passing messages between client and server applications. Server interfaces are described as registered commands and published values. Clients may execute these commands and subscribe to published values. The mechanics of exchanging data between the client and server over a TCP/IP socket are handled by the library. The protocol and its implementing libraries have been designed with simplicity in mind. The simplest server can be written in three lines of code. However, we also have used the msg library to build complex systems with dozens of registered commands and hundreds of published values.

  20. Gene-network inference by message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, A.; Pagnani, A.; Weigt, M.; Zecchina, R.

    2008-01-01

    The inference of gene-regulatory processes from gene-expression data belongs to the major challenges of computational systems biology. Here we address the problem from a statistical-physics perspective and develop a message-passing algorithm which is able to infer sparse, directed and combinatorial regulatory mechanisms. Using the replica technique, the algorithmic performance can be characterized analytically for artificially generated data. The algorithm is applied to genome-wide expression data of baker's yeast under various environmental conditions. We find clear cases of combinatorial control, and enrichment in common functional annotations of regulated genes and their regulators.

  1. CT reconstruction via denoising approximate message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelli, Alessandro; Lexa, Michael A.; Can, Ali; Davies, Mike E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we adapt and apply a compressed sensing based reconstruction algorithm to the problem of computed tomography reconstruction for luggage inspection. Specifically, we propose a variant of the denoising generalized approximate message passing (D-GAMP) algorithm and compare its performance to the performance of traditional filtered back projection and to a penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) based reconstruction method. D-GAMP is an iterative algorithm that at each iteration estimates the conditional probability of the image given the measurements and employs a non-linear "denoising" function which implicitly imposes an image prior. Results on real baggage show that D-GAMP is well-suited to limited-view acquisitions.

  2. Intel NX to PVM 3.2 message passing conversion library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has developed a library that allows Intel NX message passing codes to be executed under the more popular and widely supported Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. PVM was developed at Oak Ridge National Labs and has become the defacto standard for message passing. This library will allow the many programs that were developed on the Intel iPSC/860 or Intel Paragon in a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) design to be ported to the numerous architectures that PVM (version 3.2) supports. Also, the library adds global operations capability to PVM. A familiarity with Intel NX and PVM message passing is assumed.

  3. Tracking particles by passing messages between images

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Kroc, Lukas; Zdeborova, Lenka; Krakala, Florent; Vergassola, M

    2009-01-01

    Methods to extract information from the tracking of mobile objects/particles have broad interest in biological and physical sciences. Techniques based on the simple criterion of proximity in time-consecutive snapshots are useful to identify the trajectories of the particles. However, they become problematic as the motility and/or the density of the particles increases because of the uncertainties on the trajectories that particles have followed during the acquisition time of the images. Here, we report efficient methods for learning parameters of the dynamics of the particles from their positions in time-consecutive images. Our algorithm belongs to the class of message-passing algorithms, also known in computer science, information theory and statistical physics under the name of Belief Propagation (BP). The algorithm is distributed, thus allowing parallel implementation suitable for computations on multiple machines without significant inter-machine overhead. We test our method on the model example of particle tracking in turbulent flows, which is particularly challenging due to the strong transport that those flows produce. Our numerical experiments show that the BP algorithm compares in quality with exact Markov Chain Monte-Carlo algorithms, yet BP is far superior in speed. We also suggest and analyze a random-distance model that provides theoretical justification for BP accuracy. Methods developed here systematically formulate the problem of particle tracking and provide fast and reliable tools for its extensive range of applications.

  4. Compressive Hyperspectral Imaging via Approximate Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jin; Ma, Yanting; Rueda, Hoover; Baron, Dror; Arce, Gonzalo R.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a compressive hyperspectral imaging reconstruction problem, where three-dimensional spatio-spectral information about a scene is sensed by a coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI). The CASSI imaging process can be modeled as suppressing three-dimensional coded and shifted voxels and projecting these onto a two-dimensional plane, such that the number of acquired measurements is greatly reduced. On the other hand, because the measurements are highly compressive, the reconstruction process becomes challenging. We previously proposed a compressive imaging reconstruction algorithm that is applied to two-dimensional images based on the approximate message passing (AMP) framework. AMP is an iterative algorithm that can be used in signal and image reconstruction by performing denoising at each iteration. We employed an adaptive Wiener filter as the image denoiser, and called our algorithm "AMP-Wiener." In this paper, we extend AMP-Wiener to three-dimensional hyperspectral image reconstruction, and call it "AMP-3D-Wiener." Applying the AMP framework to the CASSI system is challenging, because the matrix that models the CASSI system is highly sparse, and such a matrix is not suitable to AMP and makes it difficult for AMP to converge. Therefore, we modify the adaptive Wiener filter and employ a technique called damping to solve for the divergence issue of AMP. Our approach is applied in nature, and the numerical experiments show that AMP-3D-Wiener outperforms existing widely-used algorithms such as gradient projection for sparse reconstruction (GPSR) and two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding (TwIST) given a similar amount of runtime. Moreover, in contrast to GPSR and TwIST, AMP-3D-Wiener need not tune any parameters, which simplifies the reconstruction process.

  5. Partitioning networks into communities by message passing.

    PubMed

    Lai, Darong; Nardini, Christine; Lu, Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Community structures are found to exist ubiquitously in a number of systems conveniently represented as complex networks. Partitioning networks into communities is thus important and crucial to both capture and simplify these systems' complexity. The prevalent and standard approach to meet this goal is related to the maximization of a quality function, modularity, which measures the goodness of a partition of a network into communities. However, it has recently been found that modularity maximization suffers from a resolution limit, which prevents its effectiveness and range of applications. Even when neglecting the resolution limit, methods designed for detecting communities in undirected networks cannot always be easily extended, and even less directly applied, to directed networks (for which specifically designed community detection methods are very limited). Furthermore, real-world networks are frequently found to possess hierarchical structure and the problem of revealing such type of structure is far from being addressed. In this paper, we propose a scheme that partitions networks into communities by electing community leaders via message passing between nodes. Using random walk on networks, this scheme derives an effective similarity measure between nodes, which is closely related to community memberships of nodes. Importantly, this approach can be applied to a very broad range of networks types. In fact, the successful validation of the proposed scheme on real and synthetic networks shows that this approach can effectively (i) address the problem of resolution limit and (ii) find communities in both directed and undirected networks within a unified framework, including revealing multiple levels of robust community partitions. PMID:21405752

  6. GMH: A Message Passing Toolkit for GPU Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Chen, W. Watson, Weizhen Mao

    2011-01-01

    Driven by the market demand for high-definition 3D graphics, commodity graphics processing units (GPUs) have evolved into highly parallel, multi-threaded, many-core processors, which are ideal for data parallel computing. Many applications have been ported to run on a single GPU with tremendous speedups using general C-style programming languages such as CUDA. However, large applications require multiple GPUs and demand explicit message passing. This paper presents a message passing toolkit, called GMH (GPU Message Handler), on NVIDIA GPUs. This toolkit utilizes a data-parallel thread group as a way to map multiple GPUs on a single host to an MPI rank, and introduces a notion of virtual GPUs as a way to bind a thread to a GPU automatically. This toolkit provides high performance MPI style point-to-point and collective communication, but more importantly, facilitates event-driven APIs to allow an application to be managed and executed by the toolkit at runtime.

  7. Message passing with queues and channels

    SciTech Connect

    Dozsa, Gabor J; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ratterman, Joseph D; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    In an embodiment, a send thread receives an identifier that identifies a destination node and a pointer to data. The send thread creates a first send request in response to the receipt of the identifier and the data pointer. The send thread selects a selected channel from among a plurality of channels. The selected channel comprises a selected hand-off queue and an identification of a selected message unit. Each of the channels identifies a different message unit. The selected hand-off queue is randomly accessible. If the selected hand-off queue contains an available entry, the send thread adds the first send request to the selected hand-off queue. If the selected hand-off queue does not contain an available entry, the send thread removes a second send request from the selected hand-off queue and sends the second send request to the selected message unit.

  8. Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Chen, Dong; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-10-04

    A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

  9. Concurrent hypercube system with improved message passing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John C. (Inventor); Tuazon, Jesus O. (Inventor); Lieberman, Don (Inventor); Pniel, Moshe (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A network of microprocessors, or nodes, are interconnected in an n-dimensional cube having bidirectional communication links along the edges of the n-dimensional cube. Each node's processor network includes an I/O subprocessor dedicated to controlling communication of message packets along a bidirectional communication link with each end thereof terminating at an I/O controlled transceiver. Transmit data lines are directly connected from a local FIFO through each node's communication link transceiver. Status and control signals from the neighboring nodes are delivered over supervisory lines to inform the local node that the neighbor node's FIFO is empty and the bidirectional link between the two nodes is idle for data communication. A clocking line between neighbors, clocks a message into an empty FIFO at a neighbor's node and vica versa. Either neighbor may acquire control over the bidirectional communication link at any time, and thus each node has circuitry for checking whether or not the communication link is busy or idle, and whether or not the receive FIFO is empty. Likewise, each node can empty its own FIFO and in turn deliver a status signal to a neighboring node indicating that the local FIFO is empty. The system includes features of automatic message rerouting, block message transfer and automatic parity checking and generation.

  10. ACLMPL: Portable and efficient message passing for MPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, J.; Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; McCormick, P. |; de Verdiere, G.C.

    1995-09-19

    This paper presents the Advanced Computing Lab Message Passing Library (ACLMPL). Modeled after Thinking Machines Corporation`s CMMD, ACLMPL is a high throughout, low latency communications library for building message passing applications. The library has been implemented on the Cray T3D, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI workstations, and on top of PVM. On the Cray T3D, benchmarks show ACLMPL to be 4 to 7 times faster than MPI or PVM.

  11. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngarrt, Rob F.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Charon toolkit for piecemeal development of high-efficiency parallel programs for scientific computing is described. The portable toolkit, callable from C and Fortran, provides flexible domain decompositions and high-level distributed constructs for easy translation of serial legacy code or design to distributed environments. Gradual tuning can subsequently be applied to obtain high performance, possibly by using explicit message passing. Charon also features general structured communications that support stencil-based computations with complex recurrences. Through the separation of partitioning and distribution, the toolkit can also be used for blocking of uni-processor code, and for debugging of parallel algorithms on serial machines. An elaborate review of recent parallelization aids is presented to highlight the need for a toolkit like Charon. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability.

  12. Message passing with queues and channels

    DOEpatents

    Dozsa, Gabor J; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ratterman, Joseph D; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burkhard

    2013-02-19

    In an embodiment, a reception thread receives a source node identifier, a type, and a data pointer from an application and, in response, creates a receive request. If the source node identifier specifies a source node, the reception thread adds the receive request to a fast-post queue. If a message received from a network does not match a receive request on a posted queue, a polling thread adds a receive request that represents the message to an unexpected queue. If the fast-post queue contains the receive request, the polling thread removes the receive request from the fast-post queue. If the receive request that was removed from the fast-post queue does not match the receive request on the unexpected queue, the polling thread adds the receive request that was removed from the fast-post queue to the posted queue. The reception thread and the polling thread execute asynchronously from each other.

  13. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Charon toolkit for piecemeal development of high-efficiency parallel programs for scientific computing is described. The portable toolkit, callable from C and Fortran, provides flexible domain decompositions and high-level distributed constructs for easy translation of serial legacy code or design to distributed environments. Gradual tuning can subsequently be applied to obtain high performance, possibly by using explicit message passing. Charon also features general structured communications that support stencil-based computations with complex recurrences. Through the separation of partitioning and distribution, the toolkit can also be used for blocking of uni-processor code, and for debugging of parallel algorithms on serial machines. An elaborate review of recent parallelization aids is presented to highlight the need for a toolkit like Charon. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability.

  14. Direct message passing for hybrid Bayesian networks and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Chang, K. C.

    2010-04-01

    Probabilistic inference for hybrid Bayesian networks, which involves both discrete and continuous variables, has been an important research topic over the recent years. This is not only because a number of efficient inference algorithms have been developed and used maturely for simple types of networks such as pure discrete model, but also for the practical needs that continuous variables are inevitable in modeling complex systems. Pearl's message passing algorithm provides a simple framework to compute posterior distribution by propagating messages between nodes and can provides exact answer for polytree models with pure discrete or continuous variables. In addition, applying Pearl's message passing to network with loops usually converges and results in good approximation. However, for hybrid model, there is a need of a general message passing algorithm between different types of variables. In this paper, we develop a method called Direct Message Passing (DMP) for exchanging messages between discrete and continuous variables. Based on Pearl's algorithm, we derive formulae to compute messages for variables in various dependence relationships encoded in conditional probability distributions. Mixture of Gaussian is used to represent continuous messages, with the number of mixture components up to the size of the joint state space of all discrete parents. For polytree Conditional Linear Gaussian (CLG) Bayesian network, DMP has the same computational requirements and can provide exact solution as the one obtained by the Junction Tree (JT) algorithm. However, while JT can only work for the CLG model, DMP can be applied for general nonlinear, non-Gaussian hybrid model to produce approximate solution using unscented transformation and loopy propagation. Furthermore, we can scale the algorithm by restricting the number of mixture components in the messages. Empirically, we found that the approximation errors are relatively small especially for nodes that are far away from

  15. Efficiently passing messages in distributed spiking neural network simulation

    PubMed Central

    Thibeault, Corey M.; Minkovich, Kirill; O'Brien, Michael J.; Harris, Frederick C.; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently passing spiking messages in a neural model is an important aspect of high-performance simulation. As the scale of networks has increased so has the size of the computing systems required to simulate them. In addition, the information exchange of these resources has become more of an impediment to performance. In this paper we explore spike message passing using different mechanisms provided by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). A specific implementation, MVAPICH, designed for high-performance clusters with Infiniband hardware is employed. The focus is on providing information about these mechanisms for users of commodity high-performance spiking simulators. In addition, a novel hybrid method for spike exchange was implemented and benchmarked. PMID:23772213

  16. Standards for message-passing in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the main ideas presented at the First CRPC Work-shop on Standards for Message Passing in a Distributed Memory Environment, held April 29-30, 1992, in Williamsburg, Virginia. This workshop attracted 68 attendees including representative from major hardware and software vendors, and was the first in a series of workshops sponsored by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation. The aim of this series of workshops is to develop and implement a standard for message passing on distributed memory concurrent computers, thereby making it easier to develop efficient, portable application codes for such machines. The report discusses the main issues raised in the CRPC workshop, and describes proposed desirable features of a message passing standard for distributed memory environments.

  17. Parallelization of a hydrological model using the message passing interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Li, Tiejian; Sun, Liqun; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the natural processes, hydrological models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are becoming larger and more complex with increasing computation time. Additionally, other procedures such as model calibration, which may require thousands of model iterations, can increase running time and thus further reduce rapid modeling and analysis. Using the widely-applied SWAT as an example, this study demonstrates how to parallelize a serial hydrological model in a Windows® environment using a parallel programing technology—Message Passing Interface (MPI). With a case study, we derived the optimal values for the two parameters (the number of processes and the corresponding percentage of work to be distributed to the master process) of the parallel SWAT (P-SWAT) on an ordinary personal computer and a work station. Our study indicates that model execution time can be reduced by 42%–70% (or a speedup of 1.74–3.36) using multiple processes (two to five) with a proper task-distribution scheme (between the master and slave processes). Although the computation time cost becomes lower with an increasing number of processes (from two to five), this enhancement becomes less due to the accompanied increase in demand for message passing procedures between the master and all slave processes. Our case study demonstrates that the P-SWAT with a five-process run may reach the maximum speedup, and the performance can be quite stable (fairly independent of a project size). Overall, the P-SWAT can help reduce the computation time substantially for an individual model run, manual and automatic calibration procedures, and optimization of best management practices. In particular, the parallelization method we used and the scheme for deriving the optimal parameters in this study can be valuable and easily applied to other hydrological or environmental models.

  18. Statistics of Epidemics in Networks by Passing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Munik Kumar

    Epidemic processes are common out-of-equilibrium phenomena of broad interdisciplinary interest. In this thesis, we show how message-passing approach can be a helpful tool for simulating epidemic models in disordered medium like networks, and in particular for estimating the probability that a given node will become infectious at a particular time. The sort of dynamics we consider are stochastic, where randomness can arise from the stochastic events or from the randomness of network structures. As in belief propagation, variables or messages in message-passing approach are defined on the directed edges of a network. However, unlike belief propagation, where the posterior distributions are updated according to Bayes' rule, in message-passing approach we write differential equations for the messages over time. It takes correlations between neighboring nodes into account while preventing causal signals from backtracking to their immediate source, and thus avoids "echo chamber effects" where a pair of adjacent nodes each amplify the probability that the other is infectious. In our first results, we develop a message-passing approach to threshold models of behavior popular in sociology. These are models, first proposed by Granovetter, where individuals have to hear about a trend or behavior from some number of neighbors before adopting it themselves. In thermodynamic limit of large random networks, we provide an exact analytic scheme while calculating the time dependence of the probabilities and thus learning about the whole dynamics of bootstrap percolation, which is a simple model known in statistical physics for exhibiting discontinuous phase transition. As an application, we apply a similar model to financial networks, studying when bankruptcies spread due to the sudden devaluation of shared assets in overlapping portfolios. We predict that although diversification may be good for individual institutions, it can create dangerous systemic effects, and as a result

  19. Location constrained approximate message passing for compressed sensing MRI.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyunghyun; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2013-08-01

    Iterative thresholding methods have been extensively studied as faster alternatives to convex optimization methods for solving large-sized problems in compressed sensing. A novel iterative thresholding method called LCAMP (Location Constrained Approximate Message Passing) is presented for reducing computational complexity and improving reconstruction accuracy when a nonzero location (or sparse support) constraint can be obtained from view shared images. LCAMP modifies the existing approximate message passing algorithm by replacing the thresholding stage with a location constraint, which avoids adjusting regularization parameters or thresholding levels. This work is first compared with other conventional reconstruction methods using random one-dimention signals and then applied to dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate the excellent reconstruction accuracy (less than 2% absolute difference) and low computation time (5-10 s using Matlab) with highly undersampled three-dimentional data (244 × 128 × 48; overall reduction factor = 10). PMID:23042658

  20. A test implementation of the MPI draft message-passing standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.

    1992-12-01

    Message passing is a common method for programming parallel computers. The lack of a standard has significantly impeded the development of portable software libraries for these machines. Recently, an ad-hoc committee was formed to develop a standard for message-passing software for parallel computers. This group first met in April 1992 at a workshop sponsored in part by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC). Four of the attendees at that meeting produced a draft standard, henceforth referred to as the MPI (Message-Passing Interface) draft standard. After review by a larger group, and significant changes in the document, a meeting was held in November to discuss the MPI draft standard. This document is a result of those discussions; it describes a running implementation of in most of the proposed standard,plus additional routines that were suggested by the discussions at the November meeting.

  1. n-body simulations using message passing parallel computers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grama, A. Y.; Kumar, V.; Sameh, A.

    The authors present new parallel formulations of the Barnes-Hut method for n-body simulations on message passing computers. These parallel formulations partition the domain efficiently incurring minimal communication overhead. This is in contrast to existing schemes that are based on sorting a large number of keys or on the use of global data structures. The new formulations are augmented by alternate communication strategies which serve to minimize communication overhead. The impact of these communication strategies is experimentally studied. The authors report on experimental results obtained from an astrophysical simulation on an nCUBE2 parallel computer.

  2. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Charon is a library, callable from C and Fortran, that aids the conversion of structured-grid legacy codes-such as those used in the numerical computation of fluid flows-into parallel, high- performance codes. Key are functions that define distributed arrays, that map between distributed and non-distributed arrays, and that allow easy specification of common communications on structured grids. The library is based on the widely accepted MPI message passing standard. We present an overview of the functionality of Charon, and some representative results.

  3. A draft standard for message passing in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. |; Hempel, R.; Hey, A.J.G.; Walker, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes Message Passing Interface 1 (MPI1), a proposed library interface standard for supporting point-to-point message passing. The intended standard will be provided with Fortran 77 and C interfaces, and will form the basis of a standard high level communication environment featuring collective communication and data distribution transformations. The standard proposed here provides blocking and nonblocking message passing between pairs of processes, with message selectivity by source process and message type. Provision is made for noncontiguous messages. Context control provides a convenient means of avoiding message selectivity conflicts between different phases of an application. The ability to form and manipulate process groups permits task parallelism to be exploited.

  4. Hybrid approximate message passing for generalized group sparsity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Alyson K.; Rangan, Sundeep

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of estimating a group sparse vector x ∈ Rn under a generalized linear measurement model. Group sparsity of x means the activity of different components of the vector occurs in groups - a feature common in estimation problems in image processing, simultaneous sparse approximation and feature selection with grouped variables. Unfortunately, many current group sparse estimation methods require that the groups are non-overlapping. This work considers problems with what we call generalized group sparsity where the activity of the different components of x are modeled as functions of a small number of boolean latent variables. We show that this model can incorporate a large class of overlapping group sparse problems including problems in sparse multivariable polynomial regression and gene expression analysis. To estimate vectors with such group sparse structures, the paper proposes to use a recently-developed hybrid generalized approximate message passing (HyGAMP) method. Approximate message passing (AMP) refers to a class of algorithms based on Gaussian and quadratic approximations of loopy belief propagation for estimation of random vectors under linear measurements. The HyGAMP method extends the AMP framework to incorporate priors on x described by graphical models of which generalized group sparsity is a special case. We show that the HyGAMP algorithm is computationally efficient, general and offers superior performance in certain synthetic data test cases.

  5. Message Passing vs. Shared Address Space on a Cluster of SMPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The convergence of scalable computer architectures using clusters of PCs (or PC-SMPs) with commodity networking has become an attractive platform for high end scientific computing. Currently, message-passing and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading programming paradigms for these systems. Message-passing has been standardized with MPI, and is the most common and mature programming approach. However message-passing code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregular structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality, and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and programming effort, required for six applications under both programming models on a 32 CPU PC-SMP cluster. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit high efficiency under shared memory programming. due to their high communication to computation ratios and complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications: however, on certain classes of problems SAS performance is competitive with MPI. We also present new algorithms for improving the PC cluster performance of MPI collective operations.

  6. MPI-2: Extending the Message-Passing Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, A.; Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Huss-Lederman, S. |; Lumsdaine, A.; Saphir, W.; Skjellum, T.; Snir, M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes current activities of the MPI-2 Forum. The MPI - 2 Forum is a group of parallel computer vendors, library writers, and application specialists working together to define a set of extensions to MPI (Message Passing Interface). MPI was defined by the same process and now has many implementations, both vendor- proprietary and publicly available, for a wide variety of parallel computing environments. In this paper we present the salient aspects of the evolving MPI-2 document as it now stands. We discuss proposed extensions and enhancements to MPI in the areas of dynamic process management, one-sided operations, collective operations, new language binding, real-time computing, external interfaces, and miscellaneous topics.

  7. Supporting the Development of Resilient Message Passing Applications using Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Naughton, III, Thomas J; Engelmann, Christian; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Boehm, Swen

    2014-01-01

    An emerging aspect of high-performance computing (HPC) hardware/software co-design is investigating performance under failure. The work in this paper extends the Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim), which was designed for evaluating the performance of message passing interface (MPI) applications on future HPC architectures, with fault-tolerant MPI extensions proposed by the MPI Fault Tolerance Working Group. xSim permits running MPI applications with millions of concurrent MPI ranks, while observing application performance in a simulated extreme-scale system using a lightweight parallel discrete event simulation. The newly added features offer user-level failure mitigation (ULFM) extensions at the simulated MPI layer to support algorithm-based fault tolerance (ABFT). The presented solution permits investigating performance under failure and failure handling of ABFT solutions. The newly enhanced xSim is the very first performance tool that supports ULFM and ABFT.

  8. Approximate message passing with restricted Boltzmann machine priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramel, Eric W.; Drémeau, Angélique; Krzakala, Florent

    2016-07-01

    Approximate message passing (AMP) has been shown to be an excellent statistical approach to signal inference and compressed sensing problems. The AMP framework provides modularity in the choice of signal prior; here we propose a hierarchical form of the Gauss–Bernoulli prior which utilizes a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) trained on the signal support to push reconstruction performance beyond that of simple i.i.d. priors for signals whose support can be well represented by a trained binary RBM. We present and analyze two methods of RBM factorization and demonstrate how these affect signal reconstruction performance within our proposed algorithm. Finally, using the MNIST handwritten digit dataset, we show experimentally that using an RBM allows AMP to approach oracle-support performance.

  9. Cooperative Localization for Mobile Networks: A Distributed Belief Propagation–Mean Field Message Passing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmak, Burak; Urup, Daniel N.; Meyer, Florian; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard H.; Hlawatsch, Franz

    2016-06-01

    We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurement-related part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief approximation, only three real values per message passing iteration have to be broadcast to neighboring agents. Despite these very low communication requirements, the estimation accuracy can be comparable to that of particle-based belief propagation.

  10. A high-performance, portable implementation of the MPI message passing interface standard.

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Doss, N.; Skjellum, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Mississippi State Univ.

    1996-09-01

    MPI (Message Passing Interface) is a specification for a standard library for message passing that was defined by the MPI Forum, a broadly based group of parallel computer vendors, library writers, and applications specialists. Multiple implementations of MPI have been developed. In this paper, we describe MPICH, unique among existing implementations in its design goal of combining portability with high performance. We document its portability and performance and describe the architecture by which these features are simultaneously achieved. We also discuss the set of tools that accompany the free distribution of MPICH, which constitute the beginnings of a portable parallel programming environment. A project of this scope inevitably imparts lessons about parallel computing, the specification being followed, the current hardware and software environment for parallel computing, and project management; we describe those we have learned. Finally, we discuss future developments for MPICH, including those necessary to accommodate extensions to the MPI Standard now being contemplated by the MPI Forum.

  11. Containing Epidemic Outbreaks by Message-Passing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Wakeling, J. R.; Zecchina, R.

    2014-04-01

    The problem of targeted network immunization can be defined as the one of finding a subset of nodes in a network to immunize or vaccinate in order to minimize a tradeoff between the cost of vaccination and the final (stationary) expected infection under a given epidemic model. Although computing the expected infection is a hard computational problem, simple and efficient mean-field approximations have been put forward in the literature in recent years. The optimization problem can be recast into a constrained one in which the constraints enforce local mean-field equations describing the average stationary state of the epidemic process. For a wide class of epidemic models, including the susceptible-infected-removed and the susceptible-infected-susceptible models, we define a message-passing approach to network immunization that allows us to study the statistical properties of epidemic outbreaks in the presence of immunized nodes as well as to find (nearly) optimal immunization sets for a given choice of parameters and costs. The algorithm scales linearly with the size of the graph, and it can be made efficient even on large networks. We compare its performance with topologically based heuristics, greedy methods, and simulated annealing on both random graphs and real-world networks.

  12. Inference in particle tracking experiments by passing messages between images.

    PubMed

    Chertkov, M; Kroc, L; Krzakala, F; Vergassola, M; Zdeborová, L

    2010-04-27

    Methods to extract information from the tracking of mobile objects/particles have broad interest in biological and physical sciences. Techniques based on simple criteria of proximity in time-consecutive snapshots are useful to identify the trajectories of the particles. However, they become problematic as the motility and/or the density of the particles increases due to uncertainties on the trajectories that particles followed during the images' acquisition time. Here, we report an efficient method for learning parameters of the dynamics of the particles from their positions in time-consecutive images. Our algorithm belongs to the class of message-passing algorithms, known in computer science, information theory, and statistical physics as belief propagation (BP). The algorithm is distributed, thus allowing parallel implementation suitable for computations on multiple machines without significant intermachine overhead. We test our method on the model example of particle tracking in turbulent flows, which is particularly challenging due to the strong transport that those flows produce. Our numerical experiments show that the BP algorithm compares in quality with exact Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms, yet BP is far superior in speed. We also suggest and analyze a random distance model that provides theoretical justification for BP accuracy. Methods developed here systematically formulate the problem of particle tracking and provide fast and reliable tools for the model's extensive range of applications. PMID:20368454

  13. Mapping a battlefield simulation onto message-passing parallel architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical problem in distributed simulation is that of mapping: without an effective mapping of workload to processors the speedup potential of parallel processing cannot be realized. Mapping a simulation onto a message-passing architecture is especially difficult when the computational workload dynamically changes as a function of time and space; this is exactly the situation faced by battlefield simulations. This paper studies an approach where the simulated battlefield domain is first partitioned into many regions of equal size; typically there are more regions than processors. The regions are then assigned to processors; a processor is responsible for performing all simulation activity associated with the regions. The assignment algorithm is quite simple and attempts to balance load by exploiting locality of workload intensity. The performance of this technique is studied on a simple battlefield simulation implemented on the Flex/32 multiprocessor. Measurements show that the proposed method achieves reasonable processor efficiencies. Furthermore, the method shows promise for use in dynamic remapping of the simulation.

  14. A proposal for a user-level, message passing interface in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Hempel, R. ); Hey, A.J.G. . Dept. of Electronics and Computer Science); Walker, D.W. )

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes Message Passing Interface 1 (MPI1), a proposed library interface standard for supporting point-to-point message passing. The intended standard will be provided with Fortran 77 and C interfaces, and will form the basis of a standard high level communication environment featuring collective communication and data distribution transformations. The standard proposed here provides blocking, nonblocking, and synchronized message passing between pairs of processes, with message selectivity by source process and message type. Provision is made for noncontiguous messages. Context control provides a convenient means of avoiding message selectivity conflicts between different phases of an application. The ability to form and manipulate process groups permits task parallelism to be exploited, and is a useful abstraction in controlling certain types of collective communication.

  15. A real-time MPEG software decoder using a portable message-passing library

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, Man Kam; Tang, P.T. Peter; Lin, Biquan

    1995-12-31

    We present a real-time MPEG software decoder that uses message-passing libraries such as MPL, p4 and MPI. The parallel MPEG decoder currently runs on the IBM SP system but can be easil ported to other parallel machines. This paper discusses our parallel MPEG decoding algorithm as well as the parallel programming environment under which it uses. Several technical issues are discussed, including balancing of decoding speed, memory limitation, 1/0 capacities, and optimization of MPEG decoding components. This project shows that a real-time portable software MPEG decoder is feasible in a general-purpose parallel machine.

  16. Message based event specification for debugging nondeterministic parallel programs

    SciTech Connect

    Damohdaran-Kamal, S.K.; Francioni, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    Portability and reliability of parallel programs can be severely impaired by their nondeterministic behavior. Therefore, an effective means to precisely and accurately specify unacceptable nondeterministic behavior is necessary for testing and debugging parallel programs. In this paper we describe a class of expressions, called Message Expressions that can be used to specify nondeterministic behavior of message passing parallel programs. Specification of program behavior with Message Expressions is easier than pattern based specification techniques in that the former does not require knowledge of run-time event order, whereas that later depends on the user`s knowledge of the run-time event order for correct specification. We also discuss our adaptation of Message Expressions for use in a dynamic distributed testing and debugging tool, called mdb, for programs written for PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine).

  17. Verification of Faulty Message Passing Systems with Continuous State Space in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilotto, Concetta; White, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    We present a library of Prototype Verification System (PVS) meta-theories that verifies a class of distributed systems in which agent commu nication is through message-passing. The theoretic work, outlined in, consists of iterative schemes for solving systems of linear equations , such as message-passing extensions of the Gauss and Gauss-Seidel me thods. We briefly review that work and discuss the challenges in formally verifying it.

  18. Message passing vs. shared address space on a cluster of SMPs

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2001-01-22

    The emergence of scalable computer architectures using clusters of PCs or PC-SMPs with commodity networking has made them attractive platforms for high-end scientific computing. Currently, message passing (MP) and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading programming paradigms for these systems. MP has been standardized with MPI, and is the most common and mature parallel programming approach. However, MP code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregularly structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality and high protocol overhead. In this paper, they compare the performance of and programming effort required for six applications under both programming models on a 32-CPU PC-SMP cluster. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit scalable performance under shared-memory programming due to their high communication-to-computation ratios and complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of the applications; however, on certain classes of problems, SAS performance is competitive with MPI.

  19. MPWide: a light-weight library for efficient message passing over wide area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, D.; Rieder, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (super)computing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.

  20. Message Passing and Shared Address Space Parallelism on an SMP Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder P.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Currently, message passing (MP) and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading parallel programming paradigms. MP has been standardized with MPI, and is the more common and mature approach; however, code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregularly structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and the programming effort required for six applications under both programming models on a 32-processor PC-SMP cluster, a platform that is becoming increasingly attractive for high-end scientific computing. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit scalable performance under shared-memory programming due to their high communication-to-computation ratios and/or complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications, while being competitive for the others. A hybrid MPI+SAS strategy shows only a small performance advantage over pure MPI in some cases. Finally, improved implementations of two MPI collective operations on PC-SMP clusters are presented.

  1. Neighbourhood-consensus message passing and its potentials in image processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ružic, Tijana; Pižurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm for inference in Markov Random Fields (MRFs) is presented. Its goal is to find approximate maximum a posteriori estimates in a simple manner by combining neighbourhood influence of iterated conditional modes (ICM) and message passing of loopy belief propagation (LBP). We call the proposed method neighbourhood-consensus message passing because a single joint message is sent from the specified neighbourhood to the central node. The message, as a function of beliefs, represents the agreement of all nodes within the neighbourhood regarding the labels of the central node. This way we are able to overcome the disadvantages of reference algorithms, ICM and LBP. On one hand, more information is propagated in comparison with ICM, while on the other hand, the huge amount of pairwise interactions is avoided in comparison with LBP by working with neighbourhoods. The idea is related to the previously developed iterated conditional expectations algorithm. Here we revisit it and redefine it in a message passing framework in a more general form. The results on three different benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed technique can perform well both for binary and multi-label MRFs without any limitations on the model definition. Furthermore, it manifests improved performance over related techniques either in terms of quality and/or speed.

  2. Algorithms for parallel flow solvers on message passing architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwijngaart, Rob F.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to identify and test suitable technologies for implementation of fluid flow solvers -- possibly coupled with structures and heat equation solvers -- on MIMD parallel computers. In the course of this investigation much attention has been paid to efficient domain decomposition strategies for ADI-type algorithms. Multi-partitioning derives its efficiency from the assignment of several blocks of grid points to each processor in the parallel computer. A coarse-grain parallelism is obtained, and a near-perfect load balance results. In uni-partitioning every processor receives responsibility for exactly one block of grid points instead of several. This necessitates fine-grain pipelined program execution in order to obtain a reasonable load balance. Although fine-grain parallelism is less desirable on many systems, especially high-latency networks of workstations, uni-partition methods are still in wide use in production codes for flow problems. Consequently, it remains important to achieve good efficiency with this technique that has essentially been superseded by multi-partitioning for parallel ADI-type algorithms. Another reason for the concentration on improving the performance of pipeline methods is their applicability in other types of flow solver kernels with stronger implied data dependence. Analytical expressions can be derived for the size of the dynamic load imbalance incurred in traditional pipelines. From these it can be determined what is the optimal first-processor retardation that leads to the shortest total completion time for the pipeline process. Theoretical predictions of pipeline performance with and without optimization match experimental observations on the iPSC/860 very well. Analysis of pipeline performance also highlights the effect of uncareful grid partitioning in flow solvers that employ pipeline algorithms. If grid blocks at boundaries are not at least as large in the wall-normal direction as those

  3. QMP-MVIA: a message passing system for Linux clusters with gigabit Ethernet mesh connections

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Chen; W. Watson III; Robert Edwards; Weizhen Mao

    2004-09-01

    Recent progress in performance coupled with a decline in price for copper-based gigabit Ethernet (GigE) interconnects makes them an attractive alternative to expensive high speed network interconnects (NIC) when constructing Linux clusters. However traditional message passing systems based on TCP for GigE interconnects cannot fully utilize the raw performance of today's GigE interconnects due to the overhead of kernel involvement and multiple memory copies during sending and receiving messages. The overhead is more evident in the case of mesh connected Linux clusters using multiple GigE interconnects in a single host. We present a general message passing system called QMP-MVIA (QCD Message Passing over M-VIA) for Linux clusters with mesh connections using GigE interconnects. In particular, we evaluate and compare the performance characteristics of TCP and M-VIA (an implementation of the VIA specification) software for a mesh communication architecture to demonstrate the feasibility of using M-VIA as a point-to-point communication software, on which QMP-MVIA is based. Furthermore, we illustrate the design and implementation of QMP-MVIA for mesh connected Linux clusters with emphasis on both point-to-point and collective communications, and demonstrate that QMP-MVIA message passing system using GigE interconnects achieves bandwidth and latency that are not only better than systems based on TCP but also compare favorably to systems using some of the specialized high speed interconnects in a switched architecture at much lower cost.

  4. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  5. Development of a low-latency scalar communication routine on message-passing architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, R.

    1994-01-11

    One of the most significant advances in computer systems over the past decade is parallel processing. To be scalable to a large number of processing nodes and to be able to support multiple levels and forms of parallelism and its flexible use, new parallel machines have to be multicomputer architectures that have general networking support and extremely low internode communication latencies. The performance of a program when ported to a parallel machine is limited mainly by the internode communication latencies of the machine. Therefore, the best parallel applications are those that seldom require communications which must be routed through the nodes. Thus the ratio of computation time to that of communication time is what determines, to a large extent, the performance metrics of an algorithm. The cost of synchronization and load imbalance appear secondary to that of the time required for internode communication and I/O, for communication intensive applications. This thesis is organized in chapters. The first chapter deals with the communication strategies in various message-passing computers. A taxonomy of inter-node communication strategies is presented in the second chapter and a comparison of the strategies in some existing machines is done. The implementation of communication in nCUBE Vertex O.S is explained in the third chapter. The fourth chapter deals with the communication routines in the Vertex O.S, and the last chapter explains the development and implementation of the scalar communication call. Finally some conclusions are presented.

  6. The design of a standard message passing interface for distributed memory concurrent computers

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.W.

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of MPI, a proposed standard message passing interface for MIMD distributed memory concurrent computers. The design of MPI has been a collective effort involving researchers in the United States and Europe from many organizations and institutions. MPI includes point-to-point and collective communication routines, as well as support for process groups, communication contexts, and application topologies. While making use of new ideas where appropriate, the MPI standard is based largely on current practice.

  7. The Edge-Disjoint Path Problem on Random Graphs by Message-Passing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a message-passing algorithm to solve a series of edge-disjoint path problems on graphs based on the zero-temperature cavity equations. Edge-disjoint paths problems are important in the general context of routing, that can be defined by incorporating under a unique framework both traffic optimization and total path length minimization. The computation of the cavity equations can be performed efficiently by exploiting a mapping of a generalized edge-disjoint path problem on a star graph onto a weighted maximum matching problem. We perform extensive numerical simulations on random graphs of various types to test the performance both in terms of path length minimization and maximization of the number of accommodated paths. In addition, we test the performance on benchmark instances on various graphs by comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms and results found in the literature. Our message-passing algorithm always outperforms the others in terms of the number of accommodated paths when considering non trivial instances (otherwise it gives the same trivial results). Remarkably, the largest improvement in performance with respect to the other methods employed is found in the case of benchmarks with meshes, where the validity hypothesis behind message-passing is expected to worsen. In these cases, even though the exact message-passing equations do not converge, by introducing a reinforcement parameter to force convergence towards a sub optimal solution, we were able to always outperform the other algorithms with a peak of 27% performance improvement in terms of accommodated paths. On random graphs, we numerically observe two separated regimes: one in which all paths can be accommodated and one in which this is not possible. We also investigate the behavior of both the number of paths to be accommodated and their minimum total length. PMID:26710102

  8. The Edge-Disjoint Path Problem on Random Graphs by Message-Passing.

    PubMed

    Altarelli, Fabrizio; Braunstein, Alfredo; Dall'Asta, Luca; De Bacco, Caterina; Franz, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    We present a message-passing algorithm to solve a series of edge-disjoint path problems on graphs based on the zero-temperature cavity equations. Edge-disjoint paths problems are important in the general context of routing, that can be defined by incorporating under a unique framework both traffic optimization and total path length minimization. The computation of the cavity equations can be performed efficiently by exploiting a mapping of a generalized edge-disjoint path problem on a star graph onto a weighted maximum matching problem. We perform extensive numerical simulations on random graphs of various types to test the performance both in terms of path length minimization and maximization of the number of accommodated paths. In addition, we test the performance on benchmark instances on various graphs by comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms and results found in the literature. Our message-passing algorithm always outperforms the others in terms of the number of accommodated paths when considering non trivial instances (otherwise it gives the same trivial results). Remarkably, the largest improvement in performance with respect to the other methods employed is found in the case of benchmarks with meshes, where the validity hypothesis behind message-passing is expected to worsen. In these cases, even though the exact message-passing equations do not converge, by introducing a reinforcement parameter to force convergence towards a sub optimal solution, we were able to always outperform the other algorithms with a peak of 27% performance improvement in terms of accommodated paths. On random graphs, we numerically observe two separated regimes: one in which all paths can be accommodated and one in which this is not possible. We also investigate the behavior of both the number of paths to be accommodated and their minimum total length. PMID:26710102

  9. Space Reclamation for Uncoordinated Checkpointing in Message-Passing Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min

    1993-01-01

    Checkpointing and rollback recovery are techniques that can provide efficient recovery from transient process failures. In a message-passing system, the rollback of a message sender may cause the rollback of the corresponding receiver, and the system needs to roll back to a consistent set of checkpoints called recovery line. If the processes are allowed to take uncoordinated checkpoints, the above rollback propagation may result in the domino effect which prevents recovery line progression. Traditionally, only obsolete checkpoints before the global recovery line can be discarded, and the necessary and sufficient condition for identifying all garbage checkpoints has remained an open problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for achieving optimal garbage collection is derived and it is proved that the number of useful checkpoints is bounded by N(N+1)/2, where N is the number of processes. The approach is based on the maximum-sized antichain model of consistent global checkpoints and the technique of recovery line transformation and decomposition. It is also shown that, for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages, the same approach can be used to achieve optimal message log reclamation. As a final topic, a unifying framework is described by considering checkpoint coordination and exploiting piecewise determinism as mechanisms for bounding rollback propagation, and the applicability of the optimal garbage collection algorithm to domino-free recovery protocols is demonstrated.

  10. Implementation of a Message Passing Interface into a Cloud-Resolving Model for Massively Parallel Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Hann-Ming Henry; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Zeng, Xi-Ping; Shie, Chung-Lin; Simpson, Joanne; Lang, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The capability for massively parallel programming (MPP) using a message passing interface (MPI) has been implemented into a three-dimensional version of the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. The design for the MPP with MPI uses the concept of maintaining similar code structure between the whole domain as well as the portions after decomposition. Hence the model follows the same integration for single and multiple tasks (CPUs). Also, it provides for minimal changes to the original code, so it is easily modified and/or managed by the model developers and users who have little knowledge of MPP. The entire model domain could be sliced into one- or two-dimensional decomposition with a halo regime, which is overlaid on partial domains. The halo regime requires that no data be fetched across tasks during the computational stage, but it must be updated before the next computational stage through data exchange via MPI. For reproducible purposes, transposing data among tasks is required for spectral transform (Fast Fourier Transform, FFT), which is used in the anelastic version of the model for solving the pressure equation. The performance of the MPI-implemented codes (i.e., the compressible and anelastic versions) was tested on three different computing platforms. The major results are: 1) both versions have speedups of about 99% up to 256 tasks but not for 512 tasks; 2) the anelastic version has better speedup and efficiency because it requires more computations than that of the compressible version; 3) equal or approximately-equal numbers of slices between the x- and y- directions provide the fastest integration due to fewer data exchanges; and 4) one-dimensional slices in the x-direction result in the slowest integration due to the need for more memory relocation for computation.

  11. The Portals 3.0 Message Passing Interface Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGHTWELL,RONALD B.; HUDSON,TRAMMELL B.; RIESEN,ROLF E.; MACCABE,ARTHUR B.

    1999-12-01

    This report presents a specification for the Portals 3.0 message passing interface. Portals 3.0 is intended to allow scalable, high-performance network communication between nodes of a parallel computing system. Specifically, it is designed to support a parallel computing platform composed of clusters of commodity workstations connected by a commodity system area network fabric. In addition, Portals 3.0 is well suited to massively parallel processing and embedded systems. Portals 3.0 represents an adoption of the data movement layer developed for massively parallel processing platforms, such as the 4500-node Intel TeraFLOPS machine.

  12. Message-Passing Algorithms for Inference and Optimization. "Belief Propagation" and "Divide and Concur"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedidia, Jonathan S.

    2011-11-01

    Message-passing algorithms can solve a wide variety of optimization, inference, and constraint satisfaction problems. The algorithms operate on factor graphs that visually represent and specify the structure of the problems. After describing some of their applications, I survey the family of belief propagation (BP) algorithms, beginning with a detailed description of the min-sum algorithm and its exactness on tree factor graphs, and then turning to a variety of more sophisticated BP algorithms, including free-energy based BP algorithms, "splitting" BP algorithms that generalize "tree-reweighted" BP, and the various BP algorithms that have been proposed to deal with problems with continuous variables. The Divide and Concur (DC) algorithm is a projection-based constraint satisfaction algorithm that deals naturally with continuous variables, and converges to exact answers for problems where the solution sets of the constraints are convex. I show how it exploits the "difference-map" dynamics to avoid traps that cause more naive alternating projection algorithms to fail for non-convex problems, and explain that it is a message-passing algorithm that can also be applied to optimization problems. The BP and DC algorithms are compared, both in terms of their fundamental justifications and their strengths and weaknesses.

  13. Program for Access to Science Study (PASS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Millicent; Weiner, Michael

    The Program for Access to Science Study (PASS) consists of a preparatory science course which is taught in tandem with a special counseling seminar. Problem solving is taught using content in chemistry and physics. The curriculum is divided into cycles, each built around a single topic. A problem set related to the topic and an illustrative lab…

  14. Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zdeborova, Lenka; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

  15. Multi-partitioning for ADI-schemes on message passing architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwijngaart, Rob F.

    1994-01-01

    A kind of discrete-operator splitting called Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) has been found to be useful in simulating fluid flow problems. In particular, it is being used to study the effects of hot exhaust jets from high performance aircraft on landing surfaces. Decomposition techniques that minimize load imbalance and message-passing frequency are described. Three strategies that are investigated for implementing the NAS Scalar Penta-diagonal Parallel Benchmark (SP) are transposition, pipelined Gaussian elimination, and multipartitioning. The multipartitioning strategy, which was used on Ethernet, was found to be the most efficient, although it was considered only a moderate success because of Ethernet's limited communication properties. The efficiency derived largely from the coarse granularity of the strategy, which reduced latencies and allowed overlap of communication and computation.

  16. MPI on the I-WAY: a wide-area, multimethod implementation of the message passing interface

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Geisler, J.; Tuecke, S.

    1996-12-31

    High-speed wide-area networks enable innovative applications that integrate geographically distributed computing, database, graphics, and networking resources. The Message Passing Interface (MPI) can be used as a portable, high-performance programming model for such systems. However, the wide-area environment introduces challenging problems for the MPI implementor, because of the heterogeneity of both the underlying physical infrastructure and the authentication and software environment at different sites. In this article, we describe an MPI implementation that incorporates solutions to these problems. This implementation, which was developed for the I-WAY distributed-computing experiment, was constructed by layering MPICH on the Nexus multithreaded runtime system. Nexus provides automatic configuration mechanisms that can be used to select and configure authentication, process creation, and communication mechanisms in heterogeneous systems.

  17. Two-Dimensional Pattern-Coupled Sparse Bayesian Learning via Generalized Approximate Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jun; Zhang, Lizao; Li, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of recovering two-dimensional (2-D) block-sparse signals with \\emph{unknown} cluster patterns. Two-dimensional block-sparse patterns arise naturally in many practical applications such as foreground detection and inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging. To exploit the block-sparse structure, we introduce a 2-D pattern-coupled hierarchical Gaussian prior model to characterize the statistical pattern dependencies among neighboring coefficients. Unlike the conventional hierarchical Gaussian prior model where each coefficient is associated independently with a unique hyperparameter, the pattern-coupled prior for each coefficient not only involves its own hyperparameter, but also its immediate neighboring hyperparameters. Thus the sparsity patterns of neighboring coefficients are related to each other and the hierarchical model has the potential to encourage 2-D structured-sparse solutions. An expectation-maximization (EM) strategy is employed to obtain the maximum a posterior (MAP) estimate of the hyperparameters, along with the posterior distribution of the sparse signal. In addition, the generalized approximate message passing (GAMP) algorithm is embedded into the EM framework to efficiently compute an approximation of the posterior distribution of hidden variables, which results in a significant reduction in computational complexity. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method

    PubMed Central

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting. PMID:26236773

  19. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method.

    PubMed

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting. PMID:26236773

  20. Precoder selection scheme based on message-passing approach: a practical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Igor M.; Cavalcante, Charles C.; Hui, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    This work addresses a distributed technique to precoding matrices coordination in a multi-cell network. We propose an iterative method based on a message-passing algorithm in factor graphs. Finite precoder codebooks for different MIMO setups are adopted for beam forming purposes. Conversely, practical cellular networks usually solve the precoder selection problem in a non-iterative manner based on the best response method. Nevertheless, this method may not provide a near-optimal solution. For more realistic results, the wireless channel is modeled based on measured data that comprises spatial correlation effects. Evaluations on the potential of such an approach are provided and its performance is compared with the selfish/greedy approach. The capability of reaching the globally optimal solution is evaluated, as well as its performance per iteration. Simulation results for the precoder selection example are presented and discussed, which show that the graph-based technique generally obtains gain in system capacity over both the non-iterative and selfish approaches. Besides, the proposed method usually reaches the global optima in an efficient manner in terms of signaling load.

  1. Scampi: a robust approximate message-passing framework for compressive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Jean; Tramel, Eric W.; Krzakala, Florent

    2016-03-01

    Reconstruction of images from noisy linear measurements is a core problem in image processing, for which convex optimization methods based on total variation (TV) minimization have been the long-standing state-of-the-art. We present an alternative probabilistic reconstruction procedure based on approximate message-passing, Scampi, which operates in the compressive regime, where the inverse imaging problem is underdetermined. While the proposed method is related to the recently proposed GrAMPA algorithm of Borgerding, Schniter, and Rangan, we further develop the probabilistic approach to compressive imaging by introducing an expectation-maximization learning of model parameters, making the Scampi robust to model uncertainties. Additionally, our numerical experiments indicate that Scampi can provide reconstruction performance superior to both GrAMPA as well as convex approaches to TV reconstruction. Finally, through exhaustive best-case experiments, we show that in many cases the maximal performance of both Scampi and convex TV can be quite close, even though the approaches are a prori distinct. The theoretical reasons for this correspondence remain an open question. Nevertheless, the proposed algorithm remains more practical, as it requires far less parameter tuning to perform optimally.

  2. Streaming data analytics via message passing with application to graph algorithms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Shead, Tim

    2014-05-06

    The need to process streaming data, which arrives continuously at high-volume in real-time, arises in a variety of contexts including data produced by experiments, collections of environmental or network sensors, and running simulations. Streaming data can also be formulated as queries or transactions which operate on a large dynamic data store, e.g. a distributed database. We describe a lightweight, portable framework named PHISH which enables a set of independent processes to compute on a stream of data in a distributed-memory parallel manner. Datums are routed between processes in patterns defined by the application. PHISH can run on top of eithermore » message-passing via MPI or sockets via ZMQ. The former means streaming computations can be run on any parallel machine which supports MPI; the latter allows them to run on a heterogeneous, geographically dispersed network of machines. We illustrate how PHISH can support streaming MapReduce operations, and describe streaming versions of three algorithms for large, sparse graph analytics: triangle enumeration, subgraph isomorphism matching, and connected component finding. Lastly, we also provide benchmark timings for MPI versus socket performance of several kernel operations useful in streaming algorithms.« less

  3. Streaming data analytics via message passing with application to graph algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Shead, Tim

    2014-05-06

    The need to process streaming data, which arrives continuously at high-volume in real-time, arises in a variety of contexts including data produced by experiments, collections of environmental or network sensors, and running simulations. Streaming data can also be formulated as queries or transactions which operate on a large dynamic data store, e.g. a distributed database. We describe a lightweight, portable framework named PHISH which enables a set of independent processes to compute on a stream of data in a distributed-memory parallel manner. Datums are routed between processes in patterns defined by the application. PHISH can run on top of either message-passing via MPI or sockets via ZMQ. The former means streaming computations can be run on any parallel machine which supports MPI; the latter allows them to run on a heterogeneous, geographically dispersed network of machines. We illustrate how PHISH can support streaming MapReduce operations, and describe streaming versions of three algorithms for large, sparse graph analytics: triangle enumeration, subgraph isomorphism matching, and connected component finding. Lastly, we also provide benchmark timings for MPI versus socket performance of several kernel operations useful in streaming algorithms.

  4. Supporting the Development of Soft-Error Resilient Message Passing Applications using Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Christian; Naughton III, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bit flip faults are of particular concern in extreme-scale high-performance computing systems. This paper presents a simulation-based tool that enables the development of soft-error resilient message passing applications by permitting the investigation of their correctness and performance under various fault conditions. The documented extensions to the Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) enable the injection of bit flip faults at specific of injection location(s) and fault activation time(s), while supporting a significant degree of configurability of the fault type. Experiments show that the simulation overhead with the new feature is ~2,325% for serial execution and ~1,730% at 128 MPI processes, both with very fine-grain fault injection. Fault injection experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the new feature by injecting bit flips in the input and output matrices of a matrix-matrix multiply application, revealing vulnerability of data structures, masking and error propagation. xSim is the very first simulation-based MPI performance tool that supports both, the injection of process failures and bit flip faults.

  5. How My Program Passed the Turing Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrys, Mark

    In 1989, the author put an ELIZA-like chatbot on the Internet. The conversations this program had can be seen - depending on how one defines the rules (and how seriously one takes the idea of the test itself) - as a passing of the Turing Test. This is the first time this event has been properly written. This chatbot succeeded due to profanity, relentless aggression, prurient queries about the user, and implying that they were a liar when they responded. The element of surprise was also crucial. Most chatbots exist in an environment where people expectto find some bots among the humans. Not this one. What was also novel was the onlineelement. This was certainly one of the first AI programs online. It seems to have been the first (a) AI real-time chat program, which (b) had the element of surprise, and (c) was on the Internet. We conclude with some speculation that the future of all of AI is on the Internet, and a description of the "World- Wide-Mind" project that aims to bring this about.

  6. Message-passing approach for recurrent-state epidemic models on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Munik; Scarpino, Samuel V.; Moore, Cristopher

    2015-08-01

    Epidemic processes are common out-of-equilibrium phenomena of broad interdisciplinary interest. Recently, dynamic message-passing (DMP) has been proposed as an efficient algorithm for simulating epidemic models on networks, and in particular for estimating the probability that a given node will become infectious at a particular time. To date, DMP has been applied exclusively to models with one-way state changes, as opposed to models like SIS and SIRS where nodes can return to previously inhabited states. Because many real-world epidemics can exhibit such recurrent dynamics, we propose a DMP algorithm for complex, recurrent epidemic models on networks. Our approach takes correlations between neighboring nodes into account while preventing causal signals from backtracking to their immediate source, and thus avoids "echo chamber effects" where a pair of adjacent nodes each amplify the probability that the other is infectious. We demonstrate that this approach well approximates results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation and that its accuracy is often superior to the pair approximation (which also takes second-order correlations into account). Moreover, our approach is more computationally efficient than the pair approximation, especially for complex epidemic models: the number of variables in our DMP approach grows as 2 m k where m is the number of edges and k is the number of states, as opposed to m k2 for the pair approximation. We suspect that the resulting reduction in computational effort, as well as the conceptual simplicity of DMP, will make it a useful tool in epidemic modeling, especially for high-dimensional inference tasks.

  7. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jeannette; Gibson, C Ben; Spiro, Emma S; League, Cedar; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Butts, Carter T

    2015-01-01

    Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not) perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials' Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events. PMID:26295584

  8. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jeannette; Gibson, C. Ben; Spiro, Emma S.; League, Cedar; Fitzhugh, Sean M.; Butts, Carter T.

    2015-01-01

    Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not) perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials’ Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events. PMID:26295584

  9. QLWFPC2: Parallel-Processing Quick-Look WFPC2 Stellar Photometry based on the Message Passing Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, K. J.

    2003-12-01

    I describe a new parallel-processing stellar photometry code called QLWFPC2 which is designed to do quick-look analysis of two entire WFPC2 observations from the Hubble Space Telescope in under 5 seconds using a fast Beowulf cluster with a Gigabit Ethernet local network. This program is written in ANSI/ISO C and uses the MPICH implementation of the Message Passing Interface from the Argonne National Laboratory for the parallel-processing communications, the CFITSIO library (from HEASARC at NASA's GSFC) for reading the standard FITS files from the HST Data Archive and the Parameter Interface Library (from the INTEGRAL Science Data Center) for the IRAF parameter-file user interface. QLWFPC2 running on 4 processors takes about 2.4 seconds to analyze WFPC2 archive datasets u37ga407r.c0.fits (F555W; 300 s) and u37ga401r.c0.fits (F814W; 300 s) of M54 (NGC 6715) which is the bright massive globular cluster near the center of the nearby Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The analysis of these HST observations of M54 lead to the serendipitous discovery of more than 50 new bright variable stars in the central region of M54. Most of the candidate variables stars are found on the PC1 images of the cluster center --- a region where no variables have been reported by previous ground-based studies of variables in M54. This discovery is an example of how QLWFPC2 can be used to quickly explore the time domain of observations in the HST Data Archive. This work is supported by a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Order No. S-13811-G, which was awarded by the Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP) of NASA's Office of Space Science (NRA 01-OSS-01).

  10. QLWFPC2: Parallel-Processing Quick-Look WFPC2 Stellar Photometry Based on the Message Passing Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, K. J.

    2004-07-01

    I describe a new parallel-processing stellar photometry code called QLWFPC2 (http://www.noao.edu/staff/mighell/qlwfpc2) which is designed to do quick-look analysis of two entire WFPC2 observations from the Hubble Space Telescope in under 5 seconds using a fast Beowulf cluster with a Gigabit-Ethernet local network. This program is written in ANSI C and uses MPICH implementation of the Message Passing Interface from the Argonne National Laboratory for the parallel-processing communications, the CFITSIO library (from HEASARC at NASA's GSFC) for reading the standard FITS files from the HST Data Archive, and the Parameter Interface Library (from the INTEGRAL Science Data Center) for the IRAF parameter-file user interface. QLWFPC2 running on 4 processors takes about 2.4 seconds to analyze the WFPC2 archive datasets u37ga407r.c0.fits (F555W; 300 s) and u37ga401r.c0.fits (F814W; 300 s) of M54 (NGC 6715) which is the bright massive globular cluster near the center of the nearby Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The analysis of these HST observations of M54 lead to the serendipitous discovery of more than 50 new bright variable stars in the central region of M54. Most of the candidate variables stars are found on the PC1 images of the cluster center --- a region where no variables have been reported by previous ground-based studies of variables in M54. This discovery is an example of how QLWFPC2 can be used to quickly explore the time domain of observations in the HST Data Archive.

  11. A Struggle for Dominance: Relational Communication Messages in Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbatsis, Gretchen S.; And Others

    Television's messages about sex role behavior were analyzed by collecting and coding spot samples of the ten top ranked programs in prime viewing time and proportionate numbers of daytime soap operas and Saturday morning children's programs. The content analysis was based on a relational coding system developed to assess interpersonal…

  12. The development and performance of a message-passing version of the PAGOSA shock-wave physics code

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.R.; Vaughan, C.T.

    1997-10-01

    A message-passing version of the PAGOSA shock-wave physics code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for multiple-instruction, multiple-data stream (MIMD) computers. PAGOSA is an explicit, Eulerian code for modeling the three-dimensional, high-speed hydrodynamic flow of fluids and the dynamic deformation of solids under high rates of strain. It was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) Connection Machine parallel computers. The performance of Sandia`s message-passing version of PAGOSA has been measured on two MIMD machines, the nCUBE 2 and the Intel Paragon XP/S. No special efforts were made to optimize the code for either machine. The measured scaled speedup (computational time for a single computational node divided by the computational time per node for fixed computational load) and grind time (computational time per cell per time step) show that the MIMD PAGOSA code scales linearly with the number of computational nodes used on a variety of problems, including the simulation of shaped-charge jets perforating an oil well casing. Scaled parallel efficiencies for MIMD PAGOSA are greater than 0.70 when the available memory per node is filled (or nearly filled) on hundreds to a thousand or more computational nodes on these two machines, indicating that the code scales very well. Thus good parallel performance can be achieved for complex and realistic applications when they are first implemented on MIMD parallel computers.

  13. P.A.S.S. Program (Portable Assisted Study Sequence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Jane E.

    Motivated migrant students can accumulate some credits necessary for high school graduation via the Portable Assisted Study Sequence (PASS) Program of correspondence courses. Migrant students enrolled in any high school district in California may also enroll in a PASS course to make up credit deficiencies in reading, English, speech, general math,…

  14. Scalable High Performance Message Passing over InfiniBand for Open MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, A; Hoefler, T; Leininger, M L; Lumsdaine, A

    2007-10-24

    InfiniBand (IB) is a popular network technology for modern high-performance computing systems. MPI implementations traditionally support IB using a reliable, connection-oriented (RC) transport. However, per-process resource usage that grows linearly with the number of processes, makes this approach prohibitive for large-scale systems. IB provides an alternative in the form of a connectionless unreliable datagram transport (UD), which allows for near-constant resource usage and initialization overhead as the process count increases. This paper describes a UD-based implementation for IB in Open MPI as a scalable alternative to existing RC-based schemes. We use the software reliability capabilities of Open MPI to provide the guaranteed delivery semantics required by MPI. Results show that UD not only requires fewer resources at scale, but also allows for shorter MPI startup times. A connectionless model also improves performance for applications that tend to send small messages to many different processes.

  15. Approximate message-passing with spatially coupled structured operators, with applications to compressed sensing and sparse superposition codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Jean; Schülke, Christophe; Krzakala, Florent

    2015-05-01

    We study the behavior of approximate message-passing (AMP), a solver for linear sparse estimation problems such as compressed sensing, when the i.i.d matrices—for which it has been specifically designed—are replaced by structured operators, such as Fourier and Hadamard ones. We show empirically that after proper randomization, the structure of the operators does not significantly affect the performances of the solver. Furthermore, for some specially designed spatially coupled operators, this allows a computationally fast and memory efficient reconstruction in compressed sensing up to the information-theoretical limit. We also show how this approach can be applied to sparse superposition codes, allowing the AMP decoder to perform at large rates for moderate block length.

  16. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; Hendry, Gilbert; Dechev, Damian

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed for the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.

  17. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; Hendry, Gilbert; Dechev, Damian

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed formore » the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.« less

  18. Run-time scheduling and execution of loops on message passing machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Kay; Saltz, Joel; Mirchandaney, Ravi; Berryman, Harry

    1989-01-01

    Sparse system solvers and general purpose codes for solving partial differential equations are examples of the many types of problems whose irregularity can result in poor performance on distributed memory machines. Often, the data structures used in these problems are very flexible. Crucial details concerning loop dependences are encoded in these structures rather than being explicitly represented in the program. Good methods for parallelizing and partitioning these types of problems require assignment of computations in rather arbitrary ways. Naive implementations of programs on distributed memory machines requiring general loop partitions can be extremely inefficient. Instead, the scheduling mechanism needs to capture the data reference patterns of the loops in order to partition the problem. First, the indices assigned to each processor must be locally numbered. Next, it is necessary to precompute what information is needed by each processor at various points in the computation. The precomputed information is then used to generate an execution template designed to carry out the computation, communication, and partitioning of data, in an optimized manner. The design is presented for a general preprocessor and schedule executer, the structures of which do not vary, even though the details of the computation and of the type of information are problem dependent.

  19. Run-time scheduling and execution of loops on message passing machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, Joel; Crowley, Kathleen; Mirchandaney, Ravi; Berryman, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Sparse system solvers and general purpose codes for solving partial differential equations are examples of the many types of problems whose irregularity can result in poor performance on distributed memory machines. Often, the data structures used in these problems are very flexible. Crucial details concerning loop dependences are encoded in these structures rather than being explicitly represented in the program. Good methods for parallelizing and partitioning these types of problems require assignment of computations in rather arbitrary ways. Naive implementations of programs on distributed memory machines requiring general loop partitions can be extremely inefficient. Instead, the scheduling mechanism needs to capture the data reference patterns of the loops in order to partition the problem. First, the indices assigned to each processor must be locally numbered. Next, it is necessary to precompute what information is needed by each processor at various points in the computation. The precomputed information is then used to generate an execution template designed to carry out the computation, communication, and partitioning of data, in an optimized manner. The design is presented for a general preprocessor and schedule executer, the structures of which do not vary, even though the details of the computation and of the type of information are problem dependent.

  20. Developing and Pretesting a Text Messaging Program for Health Behavior Change: Recommended Steps

    PubMed Central

    Mendel Van Alstyne, Judith; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence demonstrates that text messaging-based programs (short message service [SMS]) on mobile phones can help people modify health behaviors. Most of these programs have consisted of automated and sometimes interactive text messages that guide a person through the process of behavior change. Objective This paper provides guidance on how to develop text messaging programs aimed at changing health behaviors. Methods Based on their collective experience in designing, developing, and evaluating text messaging programs and a review of the literature, the authors drafted the guide. One author initially drafted the guide and the others provided input and review. Results Steps for developing a text messaging program include conducting formative research for insights into the target audience and health behavior, designing the text messaging program, pretesting the text messaging program concept and messages, and revising the text messaging program. Conclusions The steps outlined in this guide may help in the development of SMS-based behavior change programs. PMID:26690917

  1. Media's Moral Messages: Assessing Perceptions of Moral Content in Television Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…

  2. Task-parallel message passing interface implementation of Autodock4 for docking of very large databases of compounds using high-performance super-computers.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Barbara; Schulz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome

    2011-04-30

    A message passing interface (MPI)-based implementation (Autodock4.lga.MPI) of the grid-based docking program Autodock4 has been developed to allow simultaneous and independent docking of multiple compounds on up to thousands of central processing units (CPUs) using the Lamarkian genetic algorithm. The MPI version reads a single binary file containing precalculated grids that represent the protein-ligand interactions, i.e., van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation potentials, and needs only two input parameter files for the entire docking run. In comparison, the serial version of Autodock4 reads ASCII grid files and requires one parameter file per compound. The modifications performed result in significantly reduced input/output activity compared with the serial version. Autodock4.lga.MPI scales up to 8192 CPUs with a maximal overhead of 16.3%, of which two thirds is due to input/output operations and one third originates from MPI operations. The optimal docking strategy, which minimizes docking CPU time without lowering the quality of the database enrichments, comprises the docking of ligands preordered from the most to the least flexible and the assignment of the number of energy evaluations as a function of the number of rotatable bounds. In 24 h, on 8192 high-performance computing CPUs, the present MPI version would allow docking to a rigid protein of about 300K small flexible compounds or 11 million rigid compounds. PMID:21387347

  3. Can rare SAT formulae be easily recognized? On the efficiency of message-passing algorithms for K-SAT at large clause-to-variable ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, Fabrizio; Monasson, Rémi; Zamponi, Francesco

    2007-02-01

    For large clause-to-variable ratios, typical K-SAT instances drawn from the uniform distribution have no solution. We argue, based on statistical mechanics calculations using the replica and cavity methods, that rare satisfiable instances from the uniform distribution are very similar to typical instances drawn from the so-called planted distribution, where instances are chosen uniformly between the ones that admit a given solution. It then follows, from a recent article by Feige, Mossel and Vilenchik (2006 Complete convergence of message passing algorithms for some satisfiability problems Proc. Random 2006 pp 339-50), that these rare instances can be easily recognized (in O(log N) time and with probability close to 1) by a simple message-passing algorithm.

  4. PENN PASS: a program for graduates of foreign dental schools.

    PubMed

    Berthold, P; Lopez, N

    1994-01-01

    An increasing number of graduates of foreign dental schools who enroll in advanced standing programs to qualify for licensure calls for dental schools to be prepared to handle not only the curricular demands but also the growing cultural diversity among its student population. The "reeducation" of this student group not only meets the need of foreign dentists for an American degree but may also provide health professionals to service various ethnic populations whose language and culture they are able to understand and identify with. A survey of students and graduates of a two-year Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) for graduates of foreign dental schools representing 34 countries aimed to arrive at an understanding of this student group through characterization of the foreign dentists and identification of their attitudes and feelings toward various aspects of the program, the school and faculty and their experience of stress. This report includes description of the distinctive features of the program which cater to specific needs and concerns of this non-traditional group of dental students. PASS students are accepted on the basis of their grades in dental school in home country, scores in the National Dental Board Examination Part I, Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL), and ratings in personal interviews. They complete an intensive summer program consisting of didactic and laboratory courses which prepares them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. Cultural diversity seminars, a special English class, PASS class meetings and seminars are unique additions to their program and aim to assist them adjust to the educational, social and cultural systems in an American school. Results of the survey show a majority of the PASS students feel that they are part of the school and that there is someone in the school whom they can approach for problems. An understanding of their ethnic and

  5. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking. PMID:15554118

  6. Free viewpoint image generation using multi-pass dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Norishige; Yendo, Tomohiro; Fujii, Toshiaki; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2007-02-01

    Ray-Space is categorized by Image-Based Rendering (IBR), thus generated views have photo-realistic quality. While this method has the performance of high quality imaging, this needs a lot of images or cameras. The reason why that is Ray-Space requires various direction's and position's views instead of 3D depth information. In this paper, we reduce that flood of information using view-centered ray interpolation. View-centered interpolation means estimating view dependent depth value (or disparity map) at generating view-point and interpolating that of pixel values using multi-view images and depth information. The combination of depth estimation and interpolation realizes the rendering photo-realistic images effectively. Unfortunately, however, if depth estimation is week or mistake, a lot of artifacts appear in creating images. Thus powerful depth estimation method is required. When we render the free viewpoint images video, we perform the depth estimation at every frame. Thus we want to keep a lid on computing cost. Our depth estimation method is based on dynamic programming (DP). This method optimizes and solves depth images at the weak matching area with high-speed performance. But scan-line noises become appeared because of the limit of DP. So, we perform the DP multi-direction pass and sum-up the result of multi-passed DPs. Our method fulfills the low computation cost and high depth estimation performance.

  7. Text4Peds: Feasibility of an Educational Text-Messaging Program for Pediatrics Residents

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Gregory T.; Draper, Lauren R.; Broom, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing effort to maximize educational material provided to residents who are in a time-constrained work environment. Mobile technology, principally smartphone applications and online modules, has shown educational promise. Intervention We developed a text-messaging program, Text4Peds, to assist residents with preparation for their pediatric board examinations. Goals were to assess (1) the feasibility of texting educational messages to residents, and (2) resident satisfaction and perceived usefulness of a texting program. Methods We conducted a prospective study of pediatrics and combined internal medicine-pediatrics residents. Messages derived from the most missed pediatric in-training examination questions were sent daily to residents. After 3 months, residents completed surveys that gauged their perception on the educational value of the text messages and the effect on their pediatric board preparation. Feasibility of the system was assessed as a total percentage of messages successfully received by residents. Results Of 55 residents, 35 (64%) participated in the program. Of 2534 messages sent out to participants, 2437 (96.2%) were delivered successfully. Positive comments cited the texting of board facts as a quick, helpful, daily study tool. Residents liked that messages were sent at 2:00 pm, and most felt that 1 to 5 messages per week was appropriate. Drawbacks included character restrictions of messages, content limitations, and the lack of a question-answer format. Conclusions An educational text message–based program was successfully implemented in our residency program. Messages were delivered with a high success rate, and residents found educational value in the messages. PMID:26140130

  8. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  9. Methods to assess youth engagement in a text messaging supplement to an effective teen pregnancy program.

    PubMed

    Devine, Sharon; Leeds, Caroline; Shlay, Judith C; Leytem, Amber; Beum, Robert; Bull, Sheana

    2015-08-01

    Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit. We explored youth engagement with an automated SMS program designed to supplement a 25-session youth development program with demonstrated efficacy for reductions in teen pregnancy. Using two years of program data, we report on youth participation in design of message content and response frequency to messages among youth enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as one indicator of engagement. There were 221 youth between the ages of 14-18 enrolled over two years in the intervention arm of the RCT. Just over half (51%) were female; 56% were Hispanic; and 27% African American. Youth were sent 40,006 messages of which 16,501 were considered bi-directional where youth were asked to text a response. Four-fifths (82%) responded at least once to a text. We found variations in response frequency by gender, age, and ethnicity. The most popular types of messages youth responded to include questions and quizzes. The first two months of the program in each year had the highest response frequency. An important next step is to assess whether higher response to SMS results in greater efficacy. This future work can facilitate greater attention to message design and content to ensure messages are engaging for the intended audience. PMID:26173038

  10. Neural correlates of message tailoring and self-relatedness in smoking cessation programming

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Liberzon, Israel; Welsh, Robert C.; Strecher, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking leads to illnesses including addiction, cancer, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Different intervention programs have become available. In the past decade, providing tailored smoking cessation messages has been shown to be more effective in inducing smoking cessation than one-size-fits-all interventions. However, little is known about the brain responses of smokers when they receive tailored smoking cessation messages. METHODS A neuroimaging study using blocked and event-related designs examined neural activity in 24 smokers exposed to high-tailored and low-tailored smoking cessation messages. RESULTS: In both blocked and event-related conditions, rostral medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate were engaged more during the processing of high-tailored smoking cessation messages than low-tailored smoking cessation messages. CONCLUSION The activation patterns of smokers to tailored cessation messages show involvement of brain areas commonly implicated in self-related processing. Results seem to add support to the suggested role of self-relevance in tailored cessation programs, where previous studies have shown a potential mediating role of self-relevance on smoking abstinence. The findings are relevant to understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying tailored message processing and may point to new directions for testing response to health communications programming. PMID:18926523

  11. One-Sided Communication on the Myrinet-Based SMP Clusters Using the GM Message-Passing Library

    SciTech Connect

    Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Ju, Jialin; Apra, Edoardo

    2001-12-07

    he paper describes an efficient implementation of one-sided communication on top of GM messagre passing library and Pthreads for the Myrinet-based SMP clusters. This approach avoids polling, is compatible with shared memory, and exploits pipelining, nonblocking communication, and overlapping memory registration with memory copy to maximize the transfer rate. Our implementation uses the standard distribution of GM and is compatible with MPICH/GM. Performance of our two applications was very good, and the GM port allowed them to avoid performance anomalies of the standard TCP/IP implementation when running on Myrinet.

  12. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Messaging Program for Smoking Cessation in Israel.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien; Hershcovitz, Ronit; Boal, Ashley; Levine, Hagai

    2015-08-01

    Text messaging programs on mobile phones have been shown to promote smoking cessation. This study investigated whether a text-messaging program for smoking cessation, adapted from QuitNowTXT, is feasible in Israel and acceptable to Israeli smokers. Participants (N = 38) were given a baseline assessment, enrolled in the adapted text messaging program, and followed-up with at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after their quit date. The authors used an intent-to-treat analysis and found that 23.7% of participants reported having quit smoking at the 4-week follow-up. Participants sent an average of 12.9 text replies during the study period, and the majority reported reading most or all of the texts. However, 34.2% of participants had unsubscribed by the 4-week follow-up. Moderate levels of satisfaction were reported; more than half agreed that they would recommend the program. Suggestions for improvement included adding advice by an expert counselor, website support, and increased customization. Results indicate that a text messaging smoking cessation program developed by modifying the content of QuitNowTXT is feasible and could be acceptable to smokers in Israel. The experience adapting and pilot testing the program can serve as a model for using QuitNowTXT to develop and implement such programs in other countries. PMID:25996261

  13. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. Objective The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. Methods The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together

  14. Automated Generation of Message-Passing Programs: An Evaluation Using CAPTools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Jin, Haoqiang; Yan, Jerry C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Scientists at NASA Ames Research Center have been developing computational aeroscience applications on highly parallel architectures over the past ten years. During that same time period, a steady transition of hardware and system software also occurred, forcing us to expend great efforts into migrating and re-coding our applications. As applications and machine architectures become increasingly complex, the cost and time required for this process will become prohibitive. In this paper, we present the first set of results in our evaluation of interactive parallelization tools. In particular, we evaluate CAPTool's ability to parallelize computational aeroscience applications. CAPTools was tested on serial versions of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks and ARC3D, a computational fluid dynamics application, on two platforms: the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E. This evaluation includes performance, amount of user interaction required, limitations and portability. Based on these results, a discussion on the feasibility of computer aided parallelization of aerospace applications is presented along with suggestions for future work.

  15. Secret Message Decryption: Group Consulting Projects Using Matrices and Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurski, Katharine F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe two short group projects for finite mathematics students that incorporate matrices and linear programming into fictional consulting requests presented as a letter to the students. The students are required to use mathematics to decrypt secret messages in one project involving matrix multiplication and inversion. The second project…

  16. Text Messaging Data Collection for Monitoring an Infant Feeding Intervention Program in Rural China: Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Background An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Methods Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants’ acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. Results We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all

  17. PASS: A computer program for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer code for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis provides rapid and accurate analysis for aircraft structures that can be adequately modeled by beam finite elements. The philosophy used in developing the program was to provide a basic framework that can be used for structural synthesis. It is anticipated that a user will need to add detail to this framework in order to perform his specific task. With this philosophy in mind, the program was written so that it is easily divided into segments, thereby making it readily adaptable. The theoretical portion of this manual describes the basic structure of the program and details the development of the unique beam element that is used. The present capability of the algorithm is stated and suggestions are made regarding enhancements to this capability. User information is also given that provides an overview of the program's construction, identifies the required inputs, describes the program output, provides some comments on the program use, and exhibits results for a simple example.

  18. Communicating with the Workforce During Emergencies: Developing an Employee Text Messaging Program in a Local Public Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bogan, Sharon; Bosslet, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Short message service (SMS) text messaging can be useful for communicating information to public health employees and improving workforce situational awareness during emergencies. We sought to understand how the 1,500 employees at Public Health – Seattle & King County, Washington, perceived barriers to and benefits of participation in a voluntary, employer-based SMS program. Based on employee feedback, we developed the system, marketed it, and invited employees to opt in. The system was tested during an ice storm in January 2012. Employee concerns about opting into an SMS program included possible work encroachment during non-work time and receiving excessive irrelevant messages. Employees who received messages during the weather event reported high levels of satisfaction and perceived utility from the program. We conclude that text messaging is a feasible form of communication with employees during emergencies. Care should be taken to design and deploy a program that maximizes employee satisfaction. PMID:25355976

  19. Feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging-based smoking cessation program in ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Holtrop, Jodi S; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Bilir, Nazmi; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Salih Emri, A K

    2013-08-01

    Data from high-income countries suggest that cell phone-based smoking cessation programs have the potential to affect cessation rates. There is a paucity of research, however, about the feasibility of cell phone-based smoking cessation programs in lower income countries that have higher smoking prevalence rates. A one-arm feasibility and acceptability pilot study of SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program, was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The authors recruited 75 daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the subsequent 30 days into the 6-week SMS Turkey program. Recruitment was completed in 4 months. Participant retention was high: Almost all (96%) completed the program, and 84% provided 12-week follow-up data. Most (89%) of the respondents who completed the 4-week follow-up measures (n = 38, 51%) said that the text messages were easy to understand and referred to what they were experiencing and feeling during the quitting process (78%). On the basis of intention to treat, 13% of participants (n = 10) reported, at 12-week follow-up, continuous abstinence since their quit date, confirmed by carbon monoxide readings. The cell phone text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention appears feasible and acceptable in Ankara, Turkey. PMID:23627304

  20. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  1. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  2. Evaluating Special Education Programs: Using PASS (Program Analysis of Service Systems) to Assess a District's Mainstreaming Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Michael F.; Bernstein, Jean C.

    The two-part paper describes the PASS (Program Analysis of Service Service Systems) evaluation method and its use in assessing a local school district federally funded project for mainstreaming elementary-level handicapped children. It is explained that PASS is an approach based on normalization and accountability principles applicable to a…

  3. Text message program improves outcomes, decreases ED utilization among ED patients with poorly controlled diabetes.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic patients who lack access to primary care tend to frequent the ED, often with complications from their disease that could have been prevented with proper management and education. To get around the problem of access, researchers tested an automated program that continuously delivered educational messaging via text to a group of patients who presented to the ED with poorly controlled diabetes. After six months, researchers noted improvements in Hb A1c levels, self-reported medication adherence, and ED utilization when compared with a control group. And the impact was particularly noteworthy among Latinos, according to the researchers. The text messaging program, dubbed TExT-Med, was developed by four physicians and two diabetes educators. The messages were delivered daily, and contained educational as well motivational content derived from the National Diabetes Education Program.There were also medication reminders, healthy living challenges, and trivia questions about diabetes. At six months, Hb A1c levels decreased by 1.05% in the intervention group, compared to 0.60% in the control group, and self-reported medication adherence improved from 4.5 to 5.4 (as measured on an 8 point scale) in the intervention group versus a decrease of 0.1 in the control group. During the six-month study period, 35.9% of patients in the intervention group presented to the ED for care, as compared to 51.6% of patients in the control group. PMID:24505864

  4. Lessons learned: program messaging in gender-transformative work with men and boys in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Viitanen, Amanda P.; Colvin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to traditional notions of masculinity has been identified as an important driver in the perpetuation of numerous health and social problems, including gender-based violence and HIV. With the largest generalized HIV epidemic in the world and high rates of violence against women, the need for gender-transformative work in South Africa is broadly accepted in activist circles and at the national and community level. Because of the integral role men play in both of these epidemics, initiatives and strategies that engage men in promoting gender equality have emerged over the last decade and the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of masculinities-based interventions is growing. However, little research exists on men's receptivity to the messages delivered in these programs. Objective This article examines the current practices among a set of gender-transformation initiatives in South Africa to see what lessons can be derived from them. We look at how South African men participating in these programs responded to three thematic messages frequently found in gender-transformative work: 1) the ‘costs of masculinity’ men pay for adherence to harmful gender constructs; 2) multiple forms of masculinity; and 3) the human rights framework and contested rights. Design This article synthesizes qualitative findings from in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and ethnographic research with men participating in several gender- and health-intervention programs in South Africa. The data were collected between 2007 and 2011 and synthesized using some of the basic principles of meta-ethnography. Results and conclusions Overall, men were receptive to the three thematic messages reviewed; they were able to see them in the context of their own lives and the messages facilitated rich dialog among participants. However, some men were more ambivalent toward shifting gender notions and some even adamantly resisted engaging in discussions over gender

  5. Feasibility of the SMART Project: A Text Message Program for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Priya; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated response rates to the Self-Management and Research Technology Project, a 6-week text message program for adolescents with type 1 diabetes designed to provide diabetes self-management reminders and education. The rate of response to texts was high, with 78% of texts responded to during the 6-week period. Girls and participants who self-reported sending a large number of personal daily texts had higher response rates; other demographic and medical variables were unrelated to text response rates. Inclusion of mobile health technologies such as text messages in clinical care may be a unique, relevant method of intervention for youths with type 1 diabetes, regardless of age, socioeconomic status, or glycemic control. PMID:25647048

  6. Diabetes Text-Message Self-Management Support Program (SMS4BG): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Karen; Cutfield, Richard; Hulme, Ashley; Hulme, Richard; McNamara, Catherine; Maddison, Ralph; Murphy, Rinki; Shepherd, Matthew; Strydom, Johan; Whittaker, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of diabetes and costly long-term complications associated with poor glycemic control are issues facing health services worldwide. Diabetes self-management, with the support of health care providers, is critical for successful outcomes, however, frequent clinical contact is costly. Text messages via short message service (SMS) have the advantage of instant transmission at low cost and, given the ubiquity of mobile phones, may be the ideal platform for the delivery of diabetes self-management support. A tailored text message-based diabetes support intervention called Self-Management Support for Blood Glucose (SMS4BG) was developed. The intervention incorporates prompts around diabetes education, management, and lifestyle factors (healthy eating, exercise, and stress management), as well as blood glucose monitoring reminders, and is tailored to patient preferences and clinical characteristics. Objective To determine the usability and acceptability of SMS4BG among adults with poorly controlled diabetes. Methods Adults (aged 17 to 69 years) with type 1 (n=12) or type 2 diabetes (n=30), a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over 70 mmol/mol (8.6%), and who owned a mobile phone (n=42) were recruited to take part in a 3-month pilot study of SMS4BG. At registration, participants selected the modules they would like to receive and, where appropriate, the frequency and timing of blood glucose monitoring reminders. Patient satisfaction and perceptions of the usability of the program were obtained via semistructured phone interviews conducted at completion of the pilot study. HbA1c was obtained from patient records at baseline and completion of the pilot study. Results Participants received on average 109 messages during the 3-month program with 2 participants withdrawing early from the study. Follow-up interviews were completed with 93% of participants with all reporting SMS4BG to be useful and appropriate to their age and culture. Participants reported

  7. Promoting quality of program delivery via an internet message delivery system.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dana C; Dusenbury, Linda; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from a study that evaluated an online message system designed to improve the delivery of prevention programs. We conducted a quasi-experimental study with 32 agencies and schools that implemented substance use prevention programs and examined differences between the comparison and intervention groups. We also examined the impact of dosage of the message system by comparing results among three groups of teachers: non-users, low users, and high users. Results for norm setting were marginally significant, such that teachers within the agencies assigned to the intervention condition scored higher on their understanding of norm setting at posttest compared to teachers within comparison agencies, after controlling for pretest knowledge scores and demographic items. In the model examining impact of dosage, high users of the intervention scored significantly higher on self-reported understanding of their program, quality of delivery, and program effectiveness compared to non-users. Low users of the intervention reported significantly higher quality of delivery compared to non-users. PMID:25445506

  8. P.A.S.S. Program (Portable Assisted Study Sequence) Summer Report, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Jane E.

    The 1981 summer Portable Assisted Study Sequence (PASS) Program, designed to provide self-directed learning packages whereby high school migrant students throughout California can receive credits toward graduation requirements, provided instructional materials to 2,306 students. Student transcripts were sent to 159 California high schools.…

  9. A Novel Recruitment Message to Increase Enrollment into a Smoking Cessation Treatment Program: Preliminary Results from a Randomized Triala

    PubMed Central

    Schnoll, Robert A.; Cappella, Joseph; Lerman, Caryn; Pinto, Angela; Patterson, Freda; Wileyto, E. Paul; Leone, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Most smokers do not utilize approved interventions for nicotine dependence, reducing the probability of cessation. Smoking cessation programs typically use recruitment messages emphasizing the health threats of smoking. Augmenting this threat message by describing the genetic aspects of nicotine addiction may enhance enrollment into a cessation program. During telephone recruitment, 125 treatment-seeking smokers were randomized to receive by phone either a standard threat message or a threat plus genetic prime message and were offered open-label varenicline and counseling. There was a greater rate of enrollment into the cessation program for the threat plus genetic prime participants (51.7%) vs. the threat-only participants (37.7%; p = .03). Smokers who self-identified from racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to enroll in the cessation program (p = .01) vs. smokers who self-identified as Caucasian. These preliminary data suggest that a simple, affordable, and transportable communication approach enhances enrollment of smokers into a smoking cessation program. A larger clinical trial to evaluate a genetic prime message for improving recruitment into smoking cessation programs is warranted. PMID:21667366

  10. Participation Rates in a Worksite Wellness Program Using E-Mail Wellness Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anenson, Larry W.; Brunt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna J.; Christensen, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which days of the work week had the largest rate of opened e-health messages, whether detailed or basic e-health messages were more likely to be opened, if motivation influenced the rate of message opening, and if the rate of opening messages declined over time. Ninety-one city employees (52 male and 39…

  11. May I Take a Message? Using General Case Programming to Teach Students with Disabilities to Take and Give Phone Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicard, David F.; Horan, James; Plank, Esther; Covington, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown general case programming to be an effective method for teaching a wide range of skills to students with disabilities. The authors used a multiple probe nested in an ABA reversal design to test (a) the effectiveness of general case programming for teaching 4 students with mild to moderate disabilities to take and give telephone…

  12. Boys to Men: Sports Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Sports Programs and Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messner, Mike; Hunt, Darnell; Dunbar, Michele; Chen, Perry; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Sports programming plays a significant role in the media messages that American boys receive today. To explore the messages that sports programming presents to its audience, this report relates the findings of a study that analyzed a representative selection of sports programs and their accompanying commercials; also presented are findings from a…

  13. An APL program for the distribution of energy deposition by charged particles passing through thin absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    An APL program which numerically evaluates the probability density function (PDF) for the energy deposited in a thin absorber by a charged particle is proposed, with application to the construction, pointing, and control of spacecraft. With this program, the PDF of the restricted energy loss distribution of Watts (1973) is derived, and Vavilov's (1957) distribution is obtained by proper parameter selection. The method is demonstrated with the example of the effect of charged particle induced radiation on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointing accuracy. A Monte Carlo study simulates the photon noise caused by charged particles passing through the photomultiplier tube window, and the stochastic variation of energy loss is introduced into the simulation by generating random energy losses from a power law distribution. The program eliminates annoying loop procedures, and model parameter sensitivity can be studied using the graphical output.

  14. The Prime Time Diet: A Content Analysis of Eating Behavior and Food Messages in Television Program Content and Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Mary; Faulkner, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes messages related to food and eating behavior as presented on prime time television programing and commercials. Finds that food references occur an average of 4.8 times per 30 minutes and that over half of all food references were for low nutrient beverages and sweets, which is inconsistent with healthy dietary guidelines.…

  15. Designing text-messaging (SMS) in HIV programs: ethics-framed recommendations from the field.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Guillermo Martínez; Hwang, Bella; Bygrave, Helen; Venables, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Text messages (SMS) are being increasingly integrated into HIV programs across Southern Africa to improve patient adherence, linkage to care and provide psycho-social support. Careful attention needs to be paid to the design of SMS-based interventions for clients of HIV-care services to ensure that any potential harm, such as unwanted disclosure of HIV status, is minimized. In this article we propose a set of best practice recommendations to ensure that any SMS-based intervention considers ethical principles to safeguard safety, autonomy and confidentiality of its targeted HIV-positive beneficiaries. This analysis draws from our operational experience in Southern Africa in the design and conduct of mHealth interventions in the frame of HIV projects. The recommendations, framed in the context of the Belmont Report's three ethical pillars, may contribute to more safely operationalize any SMS service integrated into an HIV program if adopted by mHealth planners and implementers. We encourage actors to report on the ethical and methodological pathways followed when conducting SMS-based innovations to improve the wellbeing and quality provision of HIV-care for their targeted clients. PMID:26421096

  16. Designing text-messaging (SMS) in HIV programs: ethics-framed recommendations from the field

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Guillermo Martínez; Hwang, Bella; Bygrave, Helen; Venables, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Text messages (SMS) are being increasingly integrated into HIV programs across Southern Africa to improve patient adherence, linkage to care and provide psycho-social support. Careful attention needs to be paid to the design of SMS-based interventions for clients of HIV-care services to ensure that any potential harm, such as unwanted disclosure of HIV status, is minimized. In this article we propose a set of best practice recommendations to ensure that any SMS-based intervention considers ethical principles to safeguard safety, autonomy and confidentiality of its targeted HIV-positive beneficiaries. This analysis draws from our operational experience in Southern Africa in the design and conduct of mHealth interventions in the frame of HIV projects. The recommendations, framed in the context of the Belmont Report's three ethical pillars, may contribute to more safely operationalize any SMS service integrated into an HIV program if adopted by mHealth planners and implementers. We encourage actors to report on the ethical and methodological pathways followed when conducting SMS-based innovations to improve the wellbeing and quality provision of HIV-care for their targeted clients. PMID:26421096

  17. The Utility of the Memorable Messages Framework as an Intermediary Evaluation Tool for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, LaShara A.; Morgan, Susan E.; Mobley, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Additional strategies to evaluate the impact of community nutrition education programs on low-income individuals are needed. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the use of the Memorable Messages Framework as an intermediary nutrition education program evaluation tool to determine what fruit and vegetable messages were reported…

  18. Preparing EBS messages

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  19. Relationship of residency program characteristics with pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying exam

    PubMed Central

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship between the pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certifying exam and the characteristics of residency programs. Methods The study used a retrospective, cross-sectional design with publicly available data from the ABIM and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All categorical residency programs with reported pass rates were included. Using univariate and multivariate, linear regression analyses, I analyzed how 69 factors (e.g., location, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment) are related to the pass rate. Results Of 371 programs, only one region had a significantly different pass rate from the other regions; however, as no other characteristics were reported in this region, I excluded program location from further analysis. In the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with four program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of osteopathic doctors, formal mentoring program, and on-site child care (OCC). Numerous factors were not associated at all, including minimum exam scores, salary, vacation days, and average hours per week. Conclusions As shown through the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions and whether there was a formal mentoring program, a highly supervised training experience was strongly associated with the pass rate. In contrast, percentage of osteopathic doctors was inversely related to the pass rate. Programs with OCC significantly outperformed programs without OCC. This study suggested that enhancing supervision of training programs and offering parental support may help attract and produce competitive residents. PMID:26426400

  20. Summary of the P.A.S.S. Program (Project Assuring Student Success), Mercy College of Northwest Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, James L.

    The paper describes an academic support program at Mercy College of Northwest Ohio. The Project Assuring Student Success (PASS) Program is multi-faceted and comprehensive, designed to help students find success in their academic endeavors. The first phase of this program was the development and implementation of the Student Success Center. Some of…

  1. Stepwise Development of a Text Messaging-Based Bullying Prevention Program for Middle School Students (BullyDown)

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tonya L; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullying is a significant public health issue among middle school-aged youth. Current prevention programs have only a moderate impact. Cell phone text messaging technology (mHealth) can potentially overcome existing challenges, particularly those that are structural (e.g., limited time that teachers can devote to non-educational topics). To date, the description of the development of empirically-based mHealth-delivered bullying prevention programs are lacking in the literature. Objective To describe the development of BullyDown, a text messaging-based bullying prevention program for middle school students, guided by the Social-Emotional Learning model. Methods We implemented five activities over a 12-month period: (1) national focus groups (n=37 youth) to gather acceptability of program components; (2) development of content; (3) a national Content Advisory Team (n=9 youth) to confirm content tone; and (4) an internal team test of software functionality followed by a beta test (n=22 youth) to confirm the enrollment protocol and the feasibility and acceptability of the program. Results Recruitment experiences suggested that Facebook advertising was less efficient than using a recruitment firm to recruit youth nationally, and recruiting within schools for the pilot test was feasible. Feedback from the Content Advisory Team suggests a preference for 2-4 brief text messages per day. Beta test findings suggest that BullyDown is both feasible and acceptable: 100% of youth completed the follow-up survey, 86% of whom liked the program. Conclusions Text messaging appears to be a feasible and acceptable delivery method for bullying prevention programming delivered to middle school students. PMID:27296471

  2. The Utility of the Memorable Messages Framework as an Intermediary Evaluation Tool for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Nutrition Education Program.

    PubMed

    Davis, LaShara A; Morgan, Susan E; Mobley, Amy R

    2016-06-01

    Additional strategies to evaluate the impact of community nutrition education programs on low-income individuals are needed. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the use of the Memorable Messages Framework as an intermediary nutrition education program evaluation tool to determine what fruit and vegetable messages were reported as memorable and the characteristics of those memorable messages. A convenience sample of low-income, primarily African American adults (N = 58) who previously completed a series of community nutrition education lessons within an urban area of Indiana participated in a focus group (N = 8 focus groups). A lead moderator using a semistructured script conducted the focus groups to determine what information about fruits and vegetables was most memorable from the participants' nutrition lessons and why this information was memorable. All focus group audiotapes were transcribed verbatim and ATLAS.ti software was used to code and identify themes within the data. Participants cited quantity, variety, and the positive nutritional impact of eating fruits and vegetables as most memorable. Information given in the form of recipes was also cited as most memorable. For example, participants referred to the recipe demonstrations as not only fun but also key components of the program that helped with message retention and memorability. Key characteristics of memorable messages included personal relevance and message vividness. These findings indicated that the Memorable Messages Framework may serve as an intermediary program evaluation tool to identify what information and messages are most influential to participants in community nutrition education programs. PMID:26317229

  3. Residency program characteristics that are associated with pass rate of the American Board of Pediatrics certifying exam

    PubMed Central

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Background The US is home to almost 200 pediatrics residency programs; despite this, there is little information about the relationship between program characteristics and performance in the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) certifying exam. Objective To evaluate the relationship between pass rate of the ABP certifying exam with the characteristics of categorical pediatrics residency programs. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study used publicly available data from the ABP website and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All programs that reported pass rates were included. The analysis, comprising univariate and multivariate linear regression, involved determining how 69 factors (eg, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment) related to the pass rate. Results Of 199 programs, 194 reported pass rates. The univariate analysis revealed 20 program characteristics with P-values <0.10. However, in the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with only three program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of US medical graduates, and average hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences. Conclusion Unlike in previous studies, location and program size were not significantly associated with the pass rate in this multivariate analysis. The finding regarding the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions highlighted the benefits of a well-supervised training environment, while that regarding the percentage of US medical graduates indicated the necessity of high competition in residency programs. Finally, longer hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences were associated with better academic outcomes, both statistically and intuitively. PMID:26316837

  4. [open quotes]Passing the test[close quotes] - Human behavior and California's smog check program

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, D.R. )

    1993-12-01

    We have analyzed data obtained from more than 11,000 vehicles inspected in California's random roadside surveys to assess the real-world characteristics of the in-use motor vehicle fleet and to test the effectiveness of California's inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. The low-idle emissions data from these surveys show that 10 percent of the fleet are responsible for about 60 percent of the exhaust hydrocarbons and also that 10 percent of the fleet (not necessarily the same vehicles) are responsible for about 60 percent of the carbon monoxide emissions. We also show that high emitters appear among all model years, and not just among old vehicles, as previously assumed. Old vehicles, on average, have higher idle emissions than new vehicles, but they contribute relatively little to the total idle emissions because there are so few on the road. We compare roadside survey results at I/M and non-I/M locations in California, and observe identical tampering and overall failure rates at the two types of locations. We also show that motorists are taking steps to [open quotes]pass the test,[close quotes] and that the high-emitting vehicles' idle-emissions performance and tampering rates in the roadside surveys are unaffected by the Smog Check test. These results imply that success in California's Smog Check program in reducing emissions will require consideration of human behavior and the attendant negative incentives inherent in the program as historically conceived. 29 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  6. Reaching hard to reach populations with hard to communicate messages: Efficacy of a Breast Health Research Champion Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Rafie, Carlin; Ayers, Antoinette; Cadet, Debbie; Quillin, John; Hackney, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    A Breast Health Research Champion training program was developed targeting self-identified community breast health advocates from a predominantly African American community with a significant breast cancer mortality disparity. Twelve individuals completed the program that provided training in breast cancer risk and screening, breast cancer research, biospecimen in cancer research, and human research subject protection. The training emphasized four key messages to be disseminated to the community. Trainees hosted a minimum of two social chats with individuals from their social networks, and functioned as community researchers, acquiring consent and gathering follow-up data from attendees. Trainees reached 199 individuals from their social networks, and chats were diverse in the venue selected, mode of message transmission, and the audience reached. Post/pre questionnaire data from attendees at the chats showed significant improvement in knowledge, attitudes and intended behaviors as it relates to breast cancer screening, clinical research and biospecimen in research. Forty percent of attendees provided 4 week follow-up information. Of respondents eligible for mammography, 38% had taken action to be screened, and 86% of respondents had spoken about the information to someone else in their social network. Trainees expressed feelings of empowerment after completing the project, “feeling like the expert,” and all trainees were surprised at the enthusiastic response from attendees of their chats. Trainees continued to disseminate the information learned from the training program during the six months following the training, reaching an additional 786 individuals in the community. PMID:25171905

  7. Reducing barriers to nursing certification: an analysis of perceptions and impact of PNCB's No Pass, No Pay Program.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The number of board-certified RNs in the United States continues to increase, but cost and fear of failure inhibit many from seeking certification. In 2009, the Pediatric Nursing Certification Board developed a no-risk program called No Pass, No Pay (NPNP) for its Certified Pediatric Nurse (CPN®) exam. In 2012, 49% of the 2299 nurses earning CPN certification did so through NPNP. This article explores program structure, successes, and findings from 2011 stakeholder surveys of NPNP hospital leaders, NPNP program facilitators, and nurses who attained CPN certification through NPNP. Aspects of NPNP may prove applicable to other certification boards. PMID:24316455

  8. State High School Exit Exams: Trends in Test Programs, Alternate Pathways, and Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The report draws from Center on Education Policy's eight-year study of high school exit exams to identify long-term trends in state policies and student performance. It highlights a growing trend among states to establish alternate pathways to graduation for students who are struggling to pass exit exams. The report also analyzes exit exam pass…

  9. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Engelhard, Chalee; Landry, Michel D.; McCallum, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs. PMID:26395081

  10. Calculating inspector probability of detection using performance demonstration program pass rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumblidge, Stephen; D'Agostino, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been working since the 1970's to ensure that nondestructive testing performed on nuclear power plants in the United States will provide reasonable assurance of structural integrity of the nuclear power plant components. One tool used by the NRC has been the development and implementation of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI Appendix VIII[1] (Appendix VIII) blind testing requirements for ultrasonic procedures, equipment, and personnel. Some concerns have been raised, over the years, by the relatively low pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification testing. The NRC staff has applied statistical tools and simulations to determine the expected probability of detection (POD) for ultrasonic examinations under ideal conditions based on the pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification tests for the ultrasonic testing personnel. This work was primarily performed to answer three questions. First, given a test design and pass rate, what is the expected overall POD for inspectors? Second, can we calculate the probability of detection for flaws of different sizes using this information? Finally, if a previously qualified inspector fails a requalification test, does this call their earlier inspections into question? The calculations have shown that one can expect good performance from inspectors who have passed appendix VIII testing in a laboratory-like environment, and the requalification pass rates show that the inspectors have maintained their skills between tests. While these calculations showed that the PODs for the ultrasonic inspections are very good under laboratory conditions, the field inspections are conducted in a very different environment. The NRC staff has initiated a project to systematically analyze the human factors differences between qualification testing and field examinations. This work will be used to evaluate and prioritize

  11. Use of NWSChat (Instant Messaging program) as a coordination tool during the 2009 Redoubt Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiensky, J. M.; Jones, D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) based Instant Messaging service, NWSChat, is used for sharing critical warning decision expertise and other types of significant weather information between the NWS and partners in all levels of government, emergency managers, and the media. NWSChat allows multiple users to send messages to each other in forums known as “chat rooms.” NWSChat is used to enhance decision support during discussions related to high impact weather events, and improve outreach and real-time feed-back from partners. This information is exchanged with the media and emergency response community, who in turn play a key role in communicating the NWS’s hazardous weather messages to the public. NWSChat also provides media and emergency response partners with the ability to communicate significant event reports back to NWS operational personnel, who in turn utilize the information to make effective warning decisions. NWS partners can also use the Service as an efficient means of seeking clarifications and enhancements to the communication stream originating from the NWS. NWSChat will include a wide variety of types of information. Some of this information will include contents of official NWS products available through other NWS systems and thus available to the public. However, other NWSChat content may include preliminary data which has not been screened by NWS for accuracy or applicability; highly technical discussions, some of them speculative, regarding atmospheric or other environmental conditions; and other types of information not intended for a general audience. NWSChat participants are expected to avoid release of information to a broader audience that might be misinterpreted or cause confusion. NWSChat is an enhancement to communications between the NWS and its partners, and is not intended to replace official NWS products or official means of communications. In March 2009, the NWS stood up a Redoubt chatroom just prior to the first eruption

  12. A Research Protocol to Test the Effectiveness of Text Messaging and Reminder Calls to Increase Service Use Referrals in a Community Engagement Program

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phoned–based interventions have been increasingly used in clinical populations to improve health and health care delivery. The literature has shown that mobile phone–based text messages (short message service, SMS) are instantaneous, cost effective, and have less chance of being misplaced. Studies using mobile phone based–text messages have reported text messages as effective reminders that have resulted in increased appointment attendance, adherence to treatment, and better self-management. There have been no reports of adverse events when using text messaging in terms of misreading or misinterpreting data, transmitting inaccurate data, losing verbal or nonverbal communication cues, privacy issues, or failure or delay in message delivery. However, the literature has cited a need for personalized messages that are more responsive to individual needs. In addition, there has been a dearth of information on the use of reminders in nonclinical populations. Objective The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness of adding reminders in the form of text messaging versus reminder calls versus text messages and reminder calls to increase use of service referrals provided through community outreach. Methods A total of 300 participants will be recruited for the study. Each participant will be randomized to one of three arms: a group that receives only reminder calls (CALLSONLY); a group that receives only text message reminders (TEXTONLY); and a group that receives both reminder calls and text messages (CALLS+TEXT). All groups will receive their reminder intervention on the 15th and 45th day after baseline when they receive medical and social service referrals from the community health workers (CHWs). A standard script will be used to administer the call and text reminders and a 15-item telephone-based satisfaction survey will be administered to assess the participant satisfaction with the process of receiving periodic reminders. Results The

  13. A Text Message Program as a Booster to In-Person Brief Interventions for Mandated College Students to Prevent Weekend Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suffoletto, Brian; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Chung, Tammy; Kristan, Jeffrey; Vanek, Marian; Clark, Duncan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a text message (SMS) program as a booster to an in-person alcohol intervention with mandated college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 224; 46% female) who violated an on-campus alcohol policy over a 2-semester period in 2014. Methods: The SMS program sent drinking-related queries each Thursday and Sunday and…

  14. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy -Major Accomplishments and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation has shown the accomplishments of the PASS project over three decades and highlighted the lessons learned. Over the entire time, our goal has been to continuously improve our process, implement automation for both quality and increased productivity, and identify and remove all defects due to prior execution of a flawed process in addition to improving our processes following identification of significant process escapes. Morale and workforce instability have been issues, most significantly during 1993 to 1998 (period of consolidation in aerospace industry). The PASS project has also consulted with others, including the Software Engineering Institute, so as to be an early evaluator, adopter, and adapter of state-of-the-art software engineering innovations.

  15. Using Text Messages to Communicate with Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konshak, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Text messaging is an ideal communications method for libraries, which often want to send short, concise messages to their patrons near and far. Uses for text messaging in libraries include reminders about items' due dates, hold pickup notices, program reminders, and even short messages of content. Some libraries are already using text messaging…

  16. A Pilot Program: Using Text Messaging to Improve Timely Communication to Tonsillectomy Patients.

    PubMed

    Newton, Laurie; Sulman, Cecille

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1,500 tonsillectomies are performed annually at a large pediatric academic medical center each year. Families need to be educated on how to care for their child after this surgery. Most tonsillectomy patients are discharged home either the same day as surgery or after one night of observation, resulting in post-operative tonsillectomy recovery and care falling upon the patient's family. Multiple quality improvement efforts to improve family education post tonsillectomy surgery have been performed over the last several years at a large pediatric academic medical center. None of these efforts, however, have focused on the use of technology to provide innovative patient education. The purpose of this project is to provide information to parents via text messages and videos to improve patient experience and outcomes following tonsillectomy. Families provided positive feedback, including that the texts were helpful, easy to understand, and reduced pre-operative and recovery anxiety. Also, none of these families needed to call the ENT clinic for any other questions or concerns. The recovery from tonsillectomy is not easy and this pediatric otolaryngology practice is always searching for new ways to improve care and education. Use of technology is an innovative approach and likely one that will be used more often in the future. PMID:27305731

  17. A Pilot Test of Self-Affirmations to Promote Smoking Cessation in a National Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Program

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William M.P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Augustson, Erik; Patrick, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. Objective To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention. Methods Data were collected from smokers (n=1261) who subscribed to a free smoking cessation program and met eligibility criteria. The intervention lasted 42 days. The original design was a 2 (Baseline affirmation: 5-item questionnaire present vs absent) × 2 (Integrated affirmation: texts present vs absent) factorial design. Only 17 eligible users completed all baseline affirmation questions and these conditions did not influence any outcomes, so we collapsed across baseline affirmation conditions in analysis. In the integrated affirmation conditions, affirmations replaced approximately 20% of texts delivering motivational content. Results In all, 687 users remained enrolled throughout the 42-day intervention and 81 reported smoking status at day 42. Among initiators (n=1261), self-affirmation did not significantly improve (1) intervention completion, (2) days enrolled, (3) 1-week smoking status, or (4) 6-week smoking status (all Ps>.10); and among the 687 completers, there were no significant effects of affirmation on cessation (Ps>.25). However, among the 81 responders, those who received affirmations were more likely to report cessation at 6 weeks (97.5%; 39 of 40) than those not given affirmations (78.1%; 32 of 41; χ2(1)=7.08, P=.008). Conclusion This proof-of-concept study provides preliminary evidence that self

  18. Canada's New National Childcare Program: Ensuring the Rural Message Is Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Sue; Olfert, M. Rose; Tsetso, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The government of Canada announced in the October 2004 Speech from the Throne that it will move ahead with its long-awaited national childcare program. In early 2005, federal, provincial and territorial ministers will meet to forge a deal for a national childcare program. The national Advisory Committee on Rural Issues applauds this attention to…

  19. Daily Challenges and Practice Quit Text Message Programs | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Daily Challenges Program: Start Small If you’re not ready to quit smoking for a whole day, sign up for the Daily Challenges program. We will send you 1 challenge each day for 7 days to help build up your quit smoking skills. Why you should sign up:

  20. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  1. Pass the Flame: Tentative Programs of Cultural Heritage Education Among Teenagers in Yuanmingyuan Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, R.; Yin, L.; Liu, T.; Zhang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Yuanmingyuan is a very important cultural heritage site in Beijing, China. In order to improve the conservation of Yuanmingyuan Site and increase communication between the cultural heritage site and the public, especially the teenagers, our institute initiated a serial of education programs in the past two years, cooperating with local schools, including courses on the base of school curriculums, independent cultural heritage summer camp, and special sessions in international cultural heritage symposium. All these programs have received positive feedback and shown promising future.

  2. The Message of Starlight, Book 4. The University of Illinois Astronomy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, J. Myron; Wyatt, Stanley P., Jr.

    Presented is book four in a series of six books in the University of Illinois Astronomy Program which introduces astronomy to upper elementary and junior high school students. This document terms the analysis of light as an essential clue to understanding astronomical phenomena. Topics discussed include: thm behavior of light; the wave model and…

  3. Passing the Torch: Preparing Teaching Artists through a First-Year ArtsBridge Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Karen A.

    2007-01-01

    During spring, 2005 The University of Montana, Department of Drama/Dance successfully piloted a small ArtsBridge Program through a new service-learning course for advanced dance and drama students. This article describes the process of setting up the university-public school partnership; describes challenges to faculty, staff, scholars and host…

  4. A Study of the Acceptance to Graduate Schools of Students with a Planned Program of Sixty-Six Quarter Hours of Pass-Fail Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlin, Lynn

    The professional portion of the elementary and early childhood teacher education program at the University of Florida (UF) is taken on a pass-fail basis. A student completing this program has 66 quarter hours of pass-fail credit and a letter written by a faculty member who has worked with her or him for two years. The purpose of this study was to…

  5. President's Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy

    2007-01-01

    In this message from the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) president, Andy Stephenson stresses the need for technology, innovation, design, and engineering (TIDE) education. He cites the recent report--"Preparing for the Perfect Storm, a Report on the Forum, Taking Action Together: Developing a National Plan to Address the "T &…

  6. The LIVE Network: A Music-Based Messaging Program to Promote ART Adherence Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Ofotokun, Igho; Higgins, Melinda; Logwood, Steven

    2013-01-01

    We developed and pilot-tested the efficacy, acceptability, and feasibility of a music program, The LIVE Network (LN), compared to standard care on outcomes of ART adherence, clinical indicators, and self-efficacy. The study was powered to detect differences at p < 0.1. We enrolled and followed 77 participants for 12 weeks (T3). Mean monthly pill counts (PC) declined over time in both groups. Although not significant, the LN had higher PC and a larger proportion had plasma anti-retroviral trough levels within therapeutic range. The LN group did have significantly (p < 0.1) increased levels of adherence self-efficacy and decrease in viral loads. PMID:23934269

  7. House Bill No. 2531 passes community based reduction of teenage pregnancy programs.

    PubMed

    Brown, M D

    1991-09-01

    Kansas House Bill 2531 was singed into law on May 9, 1991. This law allows the Department of Health and the Environment to implement sex education and pregnancy reduction programs for school age children. In 1989 a country of 24,000 had the highest pregnancy rate for 15-19 age range. For the age range 10-19 a county of 30,000 had the highest pregnancy rate for the period 1984-89. For the period 1985-1989 a county of 17,000 had the highest pregnancy rate for the 15-19 age range. In 1989 Kansas minors has 1488 babies, including 192 2nd, 3rd, or 4th babies. 1 mother was 10 years old, another new mother's father was only 14. During 1989 there were 12 still births from women under 18 years of age, 488 abortions, including 38 2nd or 3rd abortions. Results issued in 1987 and 1989 showed that parenthood under 20, is generally associated with with a reduced rate of high school graduation for females 19-21 and reduced top income for females 29-36. A national study of 5550 men 20-27 showed 59.4% of those that fathered a child while 17 or younger and single had completed high school or GED by age 20 compared to 86% of subjects who had no child or waited until they were 20 or over. Some of those studied had fathered children when they were 11 years old. The new Kansas program is based on a South Carolina program that reduced teenage pregnancy by 63% in 2 years. 2 recent studies indicated that for every dollar spent for contraceptive services, $4.40 to $7.70 was saved. PMID:1942736

  8. Impact of Text Message Reminders on Caregivers’ Adherence to a Home Fortification Program Against Child Anemia in Rural Western China: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Sun, Shuai; Sylvia, Sean; Yue, Ai; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test whether text message reminders sent to caregivers improve the effectiveness of a home micronutrient fortification program in western China. Methods. We carried out a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 351 villages (clusters) in Shaanxi Province in 2013 and 2014, enrolling children aged 6 to 12 months. We randomly assigned each village to 1 of 3 groups: free delivery group, text messaging group, or control group. We collected information on compliance with treatments and hemoglobin concentrations from all children at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We estimated the intent-to-treat effects on compliance and child anemia using a logistic regression model. Results. There were 1393 eligible children. We found that assignment to the text messaging group led to an increase in full compliance (marginal effect = 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.16) compared with the free delivery group and decrease in the rate of anemia at end line relative to the control group (marginal effect = −0.07; 95% CI = −0.12, −0.01), but not relative to the free delivery group (marginal effect = −0.03; 95% CI = −0.09, 0.03). Conclusions. Text messages improved compliance of caregivers to a home fortification program and children’s nutrition. PMID:27077354

  9. NEW PASS: Nontraditional Education for Women, Paths to Economic Self-Sufficiency. A Career Awareness Program for Economically Disadvantaged Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Judith

    This manual is designed for social service agencies, educational institutions, and other organizations who want to strengthen their programming for economicaly disadvantaged teenage girls and young women. It provides materials for the development and implementation of NEW PASS, a unique career awareness program that uses nontraditional employment…

  10. Effectiveness of 6 Months of Tailored Text Message Reminders for Obese Male Participants in a Worksite Weight Loss Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sohee; Steinhubl, Steven; Kim, Sohye; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong Soo; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Mi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions are important to help overweight and obese employees lose weight, but costs and insufficient sustained motivation prevent the majority of these programs from succeeding. Tailored text messaging in aiding weight management has been effective in several studies, but no studies have evaluated the effect of a tailored text message service on weight loss in a worksite health promotion program. Objective We studied the efficacy of a tailored text-messaging intervention for obese male participants in a worksite weight loss program of 6 months duration. Methods The study was an unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 were recruited from the Korea District Heating Corporation, the Korea Expressway Corporation, and the Korea Gas Corporation. The participants were identified by nurse managers. Participants were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 2 groups for 24 weeks: (1) intervention group, which received tailored text message reminders every other day plus 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses for weight control over 6 months and (2) control group, which received the 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses about weight control over 6 months. The primary outcome was the difference in weight loss at 6 months. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention group’s weight loss compared with the control group. Results A total of 205 obese men were randomized into either the intervention (n=104) or the control group (n=101). At the end of 6 months, the intervention group (n=63) had lost 1.71 kg (95% CI –2.53 to –0.88) and the control group (n=59) had lost 1.56 kg (95% CI –2.45 to –0.66); the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (mean difference –0.15, 95% CI –1.36 to 1.07). At the end of

  11. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Major Accomplishments and Lessons Learned Detail Historical Timeline Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) and the people who developed and maintained this system. One theme is to provide quantitative data on software quality and reliability over a 30 year period. Consistent data relates to code break discrepancies. Requirements were supplied from external sources. Requirement inspections and measurements not implemented until later, beginning in 1985. Second theme is to focus on the people and organization of PASS. Many individuals have supported the PASS project over the entire period while transitioning from company to company and contract to contract. Major events and transitions have impacted morale (both positively and negatively) across the life of the project.

  12. Adapting a Database of Text Messages to a Mobile-Based Weight Loss Program: The Case of the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Behih, Nawal; Shahzad, Maahd; Anggraini, Aysha

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Qatar, a rapidly developing country in the Middle East, has seen a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity. The increase can be attributed to several reasons, including sedentary lifestyles imposed by a harsh climate and the introduction of Western fast food. Mobile technologies have been used and studied as a technology to support individuals' weight loss. The authors have developed a mobile application that implements three strategies drawn from proven theories of behavioral change. The application is localized to the cultural context of its proposed users. The objective of this paper is to present a method through which we adapted the messaging content of a weight loss application to the context of its users while retaining an effective degree of automation. The adaptation addressed body image, eating and physical exercise habits, and regional/cultural needs. The paper discusses how surveying potential users can be used to build a profile of a target population, find common patterns, and then develop a database of text messages. The text messages are automated and sent to the users at specific times of day, as suggested by the survey results. PMID:24511311

  13. Mixed messages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  14. Preparing EBS messages. [Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  15. Users manual for the Chameleon parallel programming tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Smith, B.

    1993-06-01

    Message passing is a common method for writing programs for distributed-memory parallel computers. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard for message passing has hampered the construction of portable and efficient parallel programs. In an attempt to remedy this problem, a number of groups have developed their own message-passing systems, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Chameleon is a second-generation system of this type. Rather than replacing these existing systems, Chameleon is meant to supplement them by providing a uniform way to access many of these systems. Chameleon`s goals are to (a) be very lightweight (low over-head), (b) be highly portable, and (c) help standardize program startup and the use of emerging message-passing operations such as collective operations on subsets of processors. Chameleon also provides a way to port programs written using PICL or Intel NX message passing to other systems, including collections of workstations. Chameleon is tracking the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) draft standard and will provide both an MPI implementation and an MPI transport layer. Chameleon provides support for heterogeneous computing by using p4 and PVM. Chameleon`s support for homogeneous computing includes the portable libraries p4, PICL, and PVM and vendor-specific implementation for Intel NX, IBM EUI (SP-1), and Thinking Machines CMMD (CM-5). Support for Ncube and PVM 3.x is also under development.

  16. PASS Program. SSA Work Incentive for Disabled Beneficiaries Poorly Managed. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate, and the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    The General Accounting Office reviewed the Social Security Administration's (SSA) Plan for Achieving Self-Support (PASS) program, which was established in 1972 to help disability benefit recipients return to employment. The study evaluated the SSA's management of the PASS program, including the program's impact on employment, and sought to…

  17. Modularity, reuse and efficiency with message-driven libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, L.V.; Gursoy, A.

    1995-12-01

    Software re-use via libraries is a strategy that allows the cost of software to be amortized. A parallel programming system must support the ability to develop modules that can be {open_quotes}fitted together{close_quotes} in a variety of contexts. Although it is important to be able to reuse parallel libraries, it is also more difficult to use parallel modules in comparison to sequential module. We present a methodology for developing libraries that addresses these issues effectively. The methodology, which is embodied in the Charm system, employs message-driven execution (in contrast to traditional, receive based message passing), information sharing abstractions, the notion of branched objects, and explicit support for modules.

  18. The effect of a text message and telephone follow-up program on cardiac self-efficacy of patients with coronary artery disease: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Boroumand, Saba; Moeini, Mahin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac self-efficacy is an essential factor in persistence of healthy behaviors in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Today, telenursing methods have numerous applications in health care. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of a text message and telephone follow-up program on cardiac self-efficacy of patients with CAD. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on 70 patients with CAD who were hospitalized in Shahid Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Collection of data on cardiac self-efficacy was performed before, 3 months after, and 4 months after the beginning of the intervention using Cardiac Self-Efficacy Scale designed by Sullivan et al. During the 3 months of intervention, six messages were sent to the subjects each week and calls were made twice a week in the first month and once a week during the second and third months. The statistical analysis of data was performed using independent t-test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the mean scores of cardiac self-efficacy of the two groups. However, 3 months and 4 months after the beginning of the intervention, the mean score of cardiac self-efficacy in the experimental group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The text message and telephone follow-up program is effective in promoting the cardiac self-efficacy of patients with CAD. PMID:27095991

  19. A Text-Messaging and Pedometer Program to Promote Physical Activity in People at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Development of the PROPELS Follow-On Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Katie; Sutton, Stephen; Hardeman, Wendy; Troughton, Jacqui; Yates, Tom; Griffin, Simon; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represent a promising strategy for reducing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk. The PROPELS trial investigates whether structured group-based education alone or supplemented with a follow-on support program combining self-monitoring with pedometers and tailored text-messaging is effective in promoting and maintaining physical activity among people at high risk of T2DM. Objective This paper describes the iterative development of the PROPELS follow-on support program and presents evidence on its acceptability and feasibility. Methods We used a modified mHealth development framework with four phases: (1) conceptualization of the follow-on support program using theory and evidence, (2) formative research including focus groups (n=15, ages 39-79 years), (3) pre-testing focus groups using a think aloud protocol (n=20, ages 52-78 years), and (4) piloting (n=11). Analysis was informed by the constant comparative approach, with findings from each phase informing subsequent phases. Results The first three phases informed the structure, nature, and content of the follow-on support program, including the frequency of text messages, the need for tailored content and two-way interaction, the importance of motivational messages based on encouragement and reinforcement of affective benefits (eg, enjoyment) with minimal messages about weight and T2DM risk, and the need for appropriate language. The refined program is personalized and tailored to the individual’s perceived confidence, previous activity levels, and physical activity goals. The pilot phase indicated that the program appeared to fit well with everyday routines and was easy to use by older adults. Conclusions We developed a feasible and innovative text messaging and pedometer program based on evidence and behavior change theory and grounded in the experiences, views, and needs of people at high diabetes risk. A large scale trial is testing the effectiveness of this 4-year

  20. Passing excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupikova, Daria

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes the research and development of a virtual reality visualization project "Passing excellence" about the world famous architectural ensemble "Kizhi". The Kizhi Pogost is located on an island in Lake Onega in northern Karelia in Russia. It is an authentic museum of an ancient wood building tradition which presents a unique artistic achievement. This ensemble preserves a concentration of masterpieces of the Russian heritage and is included in the List of Most Endangered Sites of the World Monuments Watch protected by World Heritage List of UNESCO. The project strives to create a unique virtual observation of the dynamics of the architectural changes of the museum area beginning from the 15th Century up to the 21st Century. The visualization is being created to restore the original architecture of Kizhi island based on the detailed photographs, architectural and geometric measurements, textural data, video surveys and resources from the Kizhi State Open-Air Museum archives. The project is being developed using Electro, an application development environment for the tiled display high-resolution graphics visualization system and can be shown on the virtual reality systems such as the GeoWall TM and the C-Wall.

  1. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  2. Use of a Text Message Program to Raise Type 2 Diabetes Risk Awareness and Promote Health Behavior Change (Part I): Assessment of Participant Reach and Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Hirzel, Lindsey; Turske, Scott A; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Yarandi, Hossein; Bondurant, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background There are an estimated 25.8 million American children and adults, equivalent to 8.3% of the US population, living with diabetes. Diabetes is particularly burdensome on minority populations. The use of mobile technologies for reaching broad populations is a promising approach, given its wide footprint and ability to deliver inexpensive personalized messages, to increase awareness of type 2 diabetes and promote behavior changes targeting risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes. As a part of the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, txt4health, a public-facing mobile health information service, was launched in 3 Beacon Communities: the Southeast Michigan Beacon Community in Detroit, MI, the Greater Cincinnati Beacon Community in Cincinnati, OH, and the Crescent City Beacon Community in New Orleans, LA. Txt4health is a mobile health information service designed to help people understand their risk for type 2 diabetes and become more informed about the steps they can take to lead healthy lives. Objective The purpose of this investigation was to use the RE-AIM framework to document txt4health reach and adoption by focusing on enrollment and participant engagement in program pilots in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati. Methods We conducted a retrospective records analysis of individual-level txt4health system data from participants in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati to determine participant usage of txt4health and engagement with the program. Results Results from the retrospective records analysis revealed that 5570 participants initiated the 2-step enrollment process via 1 of 3 enrollment strategies: text message, website, or directly with Beacon staff who signed participants up via the website. In total, 33.00% (1838/5570) of participants completed the 2-step enrollment process and were fully enrolled in the program. All participants (100.00%, 1620/1620) who enrolled via text message completed the entire 2-step enrollment

  3. Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

  4. Alcohol Messages in Prime-Time Television Series

    PubMed Central

    RUSSELL, CRISTEL ANTONIA; RUSSELL, DALE W.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol messages contained in television programming serve as sources of information about drinking. To better understand the ways embedded messages about alcohol are communicated, it is crucial to objectively monitor and analyze television alcohol depictions. This article presents a content analysis of an eight-week sample of eighteen prime-time programs. Alcohol messages were coded based on modalities of presentation, level of plot connection, and valence. The analysis reveals that mixed messages about alcohol often coexist but the ways in which they are presented differ: whereas negative messages are tied to the plot and communicated verbally, positive messages are associated with subtle visual portrayals. PMID:21188281

  5. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  6. Implementing the ICPD's message.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in September 1994 recognized the need for reducing unwanted fertility and promoting smaller families within reproductive health services along with improving women's equality in education, health, and economic opportunity. The implementation of the main message would require an ideological transformation both for the population and for the development establishments. The implementation of a broadened population policy must incorporate the reduction of gender disparities as the primary goal. The problem is that the UNFPA has no influence over resources allocated to child health, female education, economic opportunities for women, or empowerment of women. Reproductive health and family planning programs should be integrated within the broader health services; however, reproductive health may not receive the desired high priority. Family planning programs are also expected to solve two problems: to improve individual well-being and to reduce overall fertility. Managers are likely to implement the reproductive health approach if it is a cost-effective way of reducing total fertility. However, no evidence exists to show that treating reproductive tract infections is a cost-effective way of reducing fertility. The primary objective of family planning programs should be empowerment of individuals to achieve their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner. Fertility reduction should be linked to fertility reduction by focusing on unwanted childbirth and to reproductive health services. The redesign of contraceptive services from a reproductive health perspective would deal with the contraindications of each method by developing standards for screening and focusing as well on the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. The suggested role of the population sector in the tasks of development and family planning lies in promoting the main message to a wider national and international audience

  7. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

  8. The Advanced Placement Program Benefits Mainly Well-Prepared Students Who Pass AP Exams. Issues in College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Achievement, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Many policymakers and education leaders have embraced the Advanced Placement (AP) Program as a tool to strengthen the high school curriculum and prepare students for college. The popularity of the AP program among these policy leaders reflects their belief that the traditional high school curriculum has often failed to provide rigorous courses…

  9. The Effectiveness of Texas Teacher Certification Programs as Evidenced through Pass Rates on TExES PPR 160 Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouse, Scarlet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between alternative certification pathways, specifically those offered through a university-based, post baccalaureate certification program and a regional education service center certification program. A quantitative research design was implemented and archived scores on the TExES PPR…

  10. Medium-Term Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Internet-Based and Patient-Specific Telerehabilitation Program With Text Messaging Support for Cardiac Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Dominique; Coninx, Karin; Vandervoort, Pieter; Vandijck, Dominique; Hens, Niel; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline; Van Driessche, Niels; Dendale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac telerehabilitation has been introduced as an adjunct or alternative to conventional center-based cardiac rehabilitation to increase its long-term effectiveness. However, before large-scale implementation and reimbursement in current health care systems is possible, well-designed studies on the effectiveness of this new additional treatment strategy are needed. Objective The aim of this trial was to assess the medium-term effectiveness of an Internet-based, comprehensive, and patient-tailored telerehabilitation program with short message service (SMS) texting support for cardiac patients. Methods This multicenter randomized controlled trial consisted of 140 cardiac rehabilitation patients randomized (1:1) to a 24-week telerehabilitation program in combination with conventional cardiac rehabilitation (intervention group; n=70) or to conventional cardiac rehabilitation alone (control group; n=70). In the telerehabilitation program, initiated 6 weeks after the start of ambulatory rehabilitation, patients were stimulated to increase physical activity levels. Based on registered activity data, they received semiautomatic telecoaching via email and SMS text message encouraging them to gradually achieve predefined exercise training goals. Patient-specific dietary and/or smoking cessation advice was also provided as part of the telecoaching. The primary endpoint was peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak). Secondary endpoints included accelerometer-recorded daily step counts, self-assessed physical activities by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessed by the HeartQol questionnaire at baseline and at 6 and 24 weeks. Results Mean VO2 peak increased significantly in intervention group patients (n=69) from baseline (mean 22.46, SD 0.78 mL/[min*kg]) to 24 weeks (mean 24.46, SD 1.00 mL/[min*kg], P<.01) versus control group patients (n=70), who did not change significantly (baseline: mean 22.72, SD 0.74 m

  11. Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L.; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5–7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  12. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  13. CHAIRMAN'S WELCOME MESSAGE Chairman's message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Every clinical physicist I have asked readily acknowledges the great desirability of a 3D dosimetry system for the verification of advanced radiation therapy treatments. An accurate and practical 3D dosimetry system would greatly strengthen the foundation of quality assurance in radiation therapy by enabling a rigorous and comprehensive whole system test. Such systems are now emerging, and the innovations and progress that led to them are remarkably captured in the proceedings of five prior DOSGEL conferences, the last three of which are freely available in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. These meetings included a focus on the technical challenges of various approaches to 3D dosimetry. When considering plans for the present 6th meeting, the scientific committee recognized that the field has matured, and a broader focus was desirable, including a strengthening of the clinical and applications component, while preserving a strong technical component. There was also the desire to embrace a variety of other semi-3D techniques which have also recently emerged to implementation in the clinic. In accordance with these sentiments, the committee approved changing the name of the conference from the International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL) to the International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose) and to the following objectives - Conference Objectives: 1. To provide a forum to discuss the latest research and developments in 3D and advanced radiation dosimetry. 2. To elevate the quality of radiation therapy treatments (quality assurance QA) through improved clinical dosimetry. 3. To explore the dosimetric challenges posed by modern radiation treatment techniques 4. To energize and diversify dosimetry research and clinical practice by encouraging interaction and synergy between advanced, 3D, and semi-3D dosimetry techniques The scientific program of the IC3DDose2010 meeting has been crafted to meet the objectives listed above, and

  14. Discrete geometric analysis of message passing algorithm on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yusuke

    2010-04-01

    We often encounter probability distributions given as unnormalized products of non-negative functions. The factorization structures are represented by hypergraphs called factor graphs. Such distributions appear in various fields, including statistics, artificial intelligence, statistical physics, error correcting codes, etc. Given such a distribution, computations of marginal distributions and the normalization constant are often required. However, they are computationally intractable because of their computational costs. One successful approximation method is Loopy Belief Propagation (LBP) algorithm. The focus of this thesis is an analysis of the LBP algorithm. If the factor graph is a tree, i.e. having no cycle, the algorithm gives the exact quantities. If the factor graph has cycles, however, the LBP algorithm does not give exact results and possibly exhibits oscillatory and non-convergent behaviors. The thematic question of this thesis is "How the behaviors of the LBP algorithm are affected by the discrete geometry of the factor graph?" The primary contribution of this thesis is the discovery of a formula that establishes the relation between the LBP, the Bethe free energy and the graph zeta function. This formula provides new techniques for analysis of the LBP algorithm, connecting properties of the graph and of the LBP and the Bethe free energy. We demonstrate applications of the techniques to several problems including (non) convexity of the Bethe free energy, the uniqueness and stability of the LBP fixed point. We also discuss the loop series initiated by Chertkov and Chernyak. The loop series is a subgraph expansion of the normalization constant, or partition function, and reflects the graph geometry. We investigate theoretical natures of the series. Moreover, we show a partial connection between the loop series and the graph zeta function.

  15. Optimizing spread dynamics on graphs by message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Zecchina, R.

    2013-09-01

    Cascade processes are responsible for many important phenomena in natural and social sciences. Simple models of irreversible dynamics on graphs, in which nodes activate depending on the state of their neighbors, have been successfully applied to describe cascades in a large variety of contexts. Over the past decades, much effort has been devoted to understanding the typical behavior of the cascades arising from initial conditions extracted at random from some given ensemble. However, the problem of optimizing the trajectory of the system, i.e. of identifying appropriate initial conditions to maximize (or minimize) the final number of active nodes, is still considered to be practically intractable, with the only exception being models that satisfy a sort of diminishing returns property called submodularity. Submodular models can be approximately solved by means of greedy strategies, but by definition they lack cooperative characteristics which are fundamental in many real systems. Here we introduce an efficient algorithm based on statistical physics for the optimization of trajectories in cascade processes on graphs. We show that for a wide class of irreversible dynamics, even in the absence of submodularity, the spread optimization problem can be solved efficiently on large networks. Analytic and algorithmic results on random graphs are complemented by the solution of the spread maximization problem on a real-world network (the Epinions consumer reviews network).

  16. Increasing fault resiliency in a message-passing environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Stearley, Jon R.; Riesen, Rolf E.; Laros, James H., III; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Oldfield, Ron A.; Kordenbrock, Todd; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2009-10-01

    Petaflops systems will have tens to hundreds of thousands of compute nodes which increases the likelihood of faults. Applications use checkpoint/restart to recover from these faults, but even under ideal conditions, applications running on more than 30,000 nodes will likely spend more than half of their total run time saving checkpoints, restarting, and redoing work that was lost. We created a library that performs redundant computations on additional nodes allocated to the application. An active node and its redundant partner form a node bundle which will only fail, and cause an application restart, when both nodes in the bundle fail. The goal of this library is to learn whether this can be done entirely at the user level, what requirements this library places on a Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability (RAS) system, and what its impact on performance and run time is. We find that our redundant MPI layer library imposes a relatively modest performance penalty for applications, but that it greatly reduces the number of applications interrupts. This reduction in interrupts leads to huge savings in restart and rework time. For large-scale applications the savings compensate for the performance loss and the additional nodes required for redundant computations.

  17. A Portable Debugger for Parallel and Distributed Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Doreen Y.; Hood, Robert; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a portable debugger for parallel and distributed programs. The design incorporates a client-server model in order to isolate non-portable debugger code from the user interface. The precise definition of a protocol for client-server interaction permits a high degree of portability of the client user interface. Replication of server components permits the implementation of a debugger for distributed computations. Portability across message passing implementations is achieved with a protocol that dictates the interaction between a message passing library and the debugger. This permits the same debugger to be used both on PVM and MTI programs. The process abstractions used for debugging message-passing programs can be easily adapted to debug HPF programs at the source level. This allows the debugger to present information hidden in tool-generated code in a meaningful manner.

  18. The Forgotten American. The President's Message to the Congress on Goals and Programs for American Indians (March 6, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyndon B.

    1968-01-01

    Emphasizing the need for a Federal-Indian partnership which promotes Indian self-help and Indian respect, this speech proposes: strengthened Federal leadership via a National Council on Indian Opportunity; Indian involvement in the determination of Indian problems and needs; enrollment of all Indian Children in a preschool program by 1971; funds…

  19. Recall of Television Advertising Messages as Influenced by Commercial Pod Position and Commercial/Program Affect Congruity or Dissonance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutenko, Gregory

    A study examined viewer recall of television commercial content as influenced by both commercial spot positioning within breaks and the congruence or dissonance of the affective (emotionally evocative) formats of the program contexts and commercials. Objectives were to determine whether commercials will have greater rates of viewer recall if: (1)…

  20. Information Management and Learning in Computer Conferences: Coping with Irrelevant and Unconnected Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwan, Stephan; Straub, Daniela; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study of computer conferencing where learners interacted over the course of four log-in sessions to acquire the knowledge sufficient to pass a learning test. Studied the number of messages irrelevant to the topic, explicit threading of messages, reading times of relevant messages, and learning outcomes. (LRW)

  1. Seeking Success: Program Improvement Plans as a Strategy to Increase Pass Rates on the National Licensure Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangerin, Virginia S.

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is a practice profession that has long been regarded with esteem and trust by the public. The education of nurses is a process that has evolved over the last 150 years from apprenticeship-based training to an academic program grounded in the arts and sciences. Nurses must successfully learn a rigorous academic curriculum, demonstrate…

  2. Self-Talk in Wheelchair Basketball: The Effects of an Intervention Program on Dribbling and Passing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbalis, Thomas; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a self-talk intervention program on performance of wheelchair basketball drills. Twenty-two (N = 22) wheelchair basketball athletes from two different clubs of the same league participated in the study. The duration of the intervention was 12 weeks and its aim was the improvement of two…

  3. A New Shared-Memory Programming Paradigm for Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the use of shared memory emulation with DOLIB (Distributed Object Library) to simplify parallel programming on the Intel Paragon. A molecular dynamics application is used as an example to illustrate the use of the DOLIB shared memory library. SOTON PAR, a parallel molecular dynamics code with explicit message-passing using a Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, is rewritten using DOLIB primitives. The resulting code has no explicit message primitives and resembles a serial code. The new code can perform dynamic load balancing and achieves better performance than the original parallel code with explicit message-passing.

  4. A new shared-memory programming paradigm for molecular dynamics simulations on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the use of shared memory emulation with DOLIB (Distributed Object Library) to simplify parallel programming on the Intel Paragon. A molecular dynamics application is used as an example to illustrate the use of the DOLIB shared memory library. SOTON-PAR, a parallel molecular dynamics code with explicit message-passing using a Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, is rewritten using DOLIB primitives. The resulting code has no explicit message primitives and resembles a serial code. The new code can perform dynamic load balancing and achieves better performance than the original parallel code with explicit message-passing.

  5. Launching Family Message Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollman-Bonilla, Julie

    This lesson introduces Family Message Journals, a tool for encouraging family involvement and supporting writing to reflect and learn. First and second graders are led into composing through demonstration, guided writing, and finally independent writing of messages that they will bring home for family to read and write a reply. During the three…

  6. Scalable Replay with Partial-Order Dependencies for Message-Logging Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Meneses, Esteban; Menon, Harshita; Miller, Phil; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2014-09-22

    Deterministic replay of a parallel application is commonly used for discovering bugs or to recover from a hard fault with message-logging fault tolerance. For message passing programs, a major source of overhead during forward execution is recording the order in which messages are sent and received. During replay, this ordering must be used to deterministically reproduce the execution. Previous work in replay algorithms often makes minimal assumptions about the programming model and application in order to maintain generality. However, in many cases, only a partial order must be recorded due to determinism intrinsic in the code, ordering constraints imposed by the execution model, and events that are commutative (their relative execution order during replay does not need to be reproduced exactly). In this paper, we present a novel algebraic framework for reasoning about the minimum dependencies required to represent the partial order for different concurrent orderings and interleavings. By exploiting this theory, we improve on an existing scalable message-logging fault tolerance scheme. The improved scheme scales to 131,072 cores on an IBM BlueGene/P with up to 2x lower overhead than one that records a total order.

  7. Education Bill passes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    On March 2 the U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill authorizing $425 million for science and mathematics education in fiscal 1984; the authorization is $350 million more than President Ronald Reagan requested in his budget proposal (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65).H.R. 1310 allocates $295 million to the Department of Education not only to improve precollege instruction in science and math, but to beef up foreign language training to aid in improving international communication among scientists. The bill also allots $130 million to the National Science Foundation for a variety of programs, the lion's share of which aims to upgrade research equipment at colleges and universities. It is hoped that industry will match the $100 million targeted for this program.

  8. Message in a molecule.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tanmay; Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient times, steganography, the art of concealing information, has largely relied on secret inks as a tool for hiding messages. However, as the methods for detecting these inks improved, the use of simple and accessible chemicals as a means to secure communication was practically abolished. Here, we describe a method that enables one to conceal multiple different messages within the emission spectra of a unimolecular fluorescent sensor. Similar to secret inks, this molecular-scale messaging sensor (m-SMS) can be hidden on regular paper and the messages can be encoded or decoded within seconds using common chemicals, including commercial ingredients that can be obtained in grocery stores or pharmacies. Unlike with invisible inks, however, uncovering these messages by an unauthorized user is almost impossible because they are protected by three different defence mechanisms: steganography, cryptography and by entering a password, which are used to hide, encrypt or prevent access to the information, respectively. PMID:27138465

  9. Message in a molecule

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tanmay; Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient times, steganography, the art of concealing information, has largely relied on secret inks as a tool for hiding messages. However, as the methods for detecting these inks improved, the use of simple and accessible chemicals as a means to secure communication was practically abolished. Here, we describe a method that enables one to conceal multiple different messages within the emission spectra of a unimolecular fluorescent sensor. Similar to secret inks, this molecular-scale messaging sensor (m-SMS) can be hidden on regular paper and the messages can be encoded or decoded within seconds using common chemicals, including commercial ingredients that can be obtained in grocery stores or pharmacies. Unlike with invisible inks, however, uncovering these messages by an unauthorized user is almost impossible because they are protected by three different defence mechanisms: steganography, cryptography and by entering a password, which are used to hide, encrypt or prevent access to the information, respectively. PMID:27138465

  10. Consumer-Product and Socio-Political Messages for Use in Studies of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratkanis, Anthony R.; And Others

    Developed as part of a research program directed at obtaining reliable persuasive effects, the two sets of persuasive messages provided in this report--consumer messages and sociopolitical messages--discuss fictitious brands of consumer products and various sociopolitical issues. The consumer messages were developed for the following 12 products:…

  11. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. PMID:25683552

  12. A uGNI-Based Asynchronous Message-driven Runtime System for Cray Supercomputers with Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yanhua; Zheng, Gengbin; Olson, Ryan M; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Gemini as the network for new Cray XE/XT systems features low latency, high bandwidth and strong scalability. Its hardware support for remote direct memory access enables efficient implementation of the global address space programming languages. Although the Generic Network Interface (GNI) is designed to support message-passing applications, it is still challenging to attain good performance for applications written in alternative programming models, such as the message-driven programming model. In our earlier work we showed that CHARM++, an object-oriented message-driven programming model, scales up to the full Jaguar Cray machine. In this paper, we describe a general and light-weight asynchronous Low-level RunTime System (LRTS) for CHARM+, and its implementation on the uGNI software stack for Cray XE systems. Several techniques are presented to exploit the uGNI capability by reducing memory copy and registration overhead, taking advantage of persistent communication, and improving intra-node communication. Our micro-benchmark results demonstrate that the uGNI-based runtime system outperforms the MPI-based implementation by up to 50% in terms of message latency. For communication intensive applications such as N-Queens, this implementation scales up to 15,360 cores of a Cray XE6 machine and is 70% faster than an MPI-based implementation. In molecular dynamics application NAMD, the performance is also considerably improved by as high as 18%.

  13. Priority nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness. PMID:12284666

  14. Expedition 34 Thanksgiving Message

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford shares a Thanksgiving message from the International Space Station. Ford demonstrates how the crew will spend the holiday on orbit and describes the menu he and h...

  15. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  16. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Denvil, Sebastien; Raciazek, Jerome; Carenton, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Guillame

    2014-05-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output (data and meta-data) are just some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve. The Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) is responsible for running climate simulations upon a set of heterogenous HPC environments within France. With heterogeneity comes added complexity in terms of simulation instrumentation and control. Obtaining a global perspective upon the state of all simulations running upon all HPC environments has hitherto been problematic. In this presentation we detail how, within the context of CONVERGENCE, the implementation of the Prodiguer messaging platform resolves complexity and permits the development of real-time applications such as: 1. a simulation monitoring dashboard; 2. a simulation metrics visualizer; 3. an automated simulation runtime notifier; 4. an automated output data & meta-data publishing pipeline; The Prodiguer messaging platform leverages a widely used open source message broker software called RabbitMQ. RabbitMQ itself implements the Advanced Message Queue Protocol (AMPQ). Hence it will be demonstrated that the Prodiguer messaging platform is built upon both open source and open standards.

  17. LBNL SecureMessaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pery, Marcia; Agarwal, Deb

    2003-03-17

    The LBNLSecureMessaging application enables collaboration among colocated or geograhically dispersed users by supporting secure synchronous and asynchronous communication. This application is the graphical user interface client that is meant to be used in conjunction with servers (LBNL's PCCEServer and a customized IRC server) to allow group and one-to-one conversations via text-based instant messaging. Conversations may be private (by invitation only) or public (open to any member of a collaboratory group_ and they may be permanent and on-going or temporary and ad hoc. Users may leave notes for other people who are online or offline. By providing presence and awareness information, collaborators can easily locate each other and rendezvous. Written in Java/Swing, this application is cross-platform. To gain access to functionality, users have to be registered with an authorization server (PCCEServer) that maintains an access control list. Thus a collaboration group is comprised of a set of PCCE-registered users. Registered users can log in via either X.509 certificate or a username and password combination. PKI and SSL are used to authenticate servers and clients and to encrypt messages sent over the network. The LBNLSecureMessaging application offers instant messaging capabilities in a secure environment that provides data integrity, privacyk authorization, and authentication.

  18. LBNL SecureMessaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-03-17

    The LBNLSecureMessaging application enables collaboration among colocated or geograhically dispersed users by supporting secure synchronous and asynchronous communication. This application is the graphical user interface client that is meant to be used in conjunction with servers (LBNL's PCCEServer and a customized IRC server) to allow group and one-to-one conversations via text-based instant messaging. Conversations may be private (by invitation only) or public (open to any member of a collaboratory group_ and they may be permanentmore » and on-going or temporary and ad hoc. Users may leave notes for other people who are online or offline. By providing presence and awareness information, collaborators can easily locate each other and rendezvous. Written in Java/Swing, this application is cross-platform. To gain access to functionality, users have to be registered with an authorization server (PCCEServer) that maintains an access control list. Thus a collaboration group is comprised of a set of PCCE-registered users. Registered users can log in via either X.509 certificate or a username and password combination. PKI and SSL are used to authenticate servers and clients and to encrypt messages sent over the network. The LBNLSecureMessaging application offers instant messaging capabilities in a secure environment that provides data integrity, privacyk authorization, and authentication.« less

  19. Authentication of quantum messages.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, Howard; Crépeau, Jean-Claude; Gottesman, D.; Smith, A.; Tapp, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Authentication is a well-studied area of classical cryptography: a sender A and a receiver B sharing a classical private key want to exchange a classical message with the guarantee that the message has not been modified or replaced by a dishonest party with control of the communication line. In this paper we study the authentication of messages composed of quantum states. We give a formal definition of authentication in the quantum setting. Assuming A and B have access to an insecure quantum channel and share a private, classical random key, we provide a non-interactive scheme that both enables A to encrypt and authenticate (with unconditional security) an m qubit message by encoding it into m + s qubits, where the probability decreases exponentially in the security parameter s. The scheme requires a private key of size 2m + O(s). To achieve this, we give a highly efficient protocol for testing the purity of shared EPR pairs. It has long been known that learning information about a general quantum state will necessarily disturb it. We refine this result to show that such a disturbance can be done with few side effects, allowing it to circumvent cryptographic protections. Consequently, any scheme to authenticate quantum messages must also encrypt them. In contrast, no such constraint exists classically: authentication and encryption are independent tasks, and one can authenticate a message while leaving it publicly readable. This reasoning has two important consequences: On one hand, it allows us to give a lower bound of 2m key bits for authenticating m qubits, which makes our protocol asymptotically optimal. On the other hand, we use it to show that digitally signing quantum states is impossible, even with only computational security.

  20. Increasing the Operational Value of Event Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Smith, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the health of a space mission has traditionally been performed using telemetry analysis tools. Parameter values are compared to known operational limits and are plotted over various time periods. This presentation begins with the notion that there is an incredible amount of untapped information contained within the mission s event message logs. Through creative advancements in message handling tools, the event message logs can be used to better assess spacecraft and ground system status and to highlight and report on conditions not readily apparent when messages are evaluated one-at-a-time during a real-time pass. Work in this area is being funded as part of a larger NASA effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center to create component-based, middleware-based, standards-based general purpose ground system architecture referred to as GMSEC - the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center. The new capabilities and operational concepts for event display, event data analyses and data mining are being developed by Lockheed Martin and the new subsystem has been named GREAT - the GMSEC Reusable Event Analysis Toolkit. Planned for use on existing and future missions, GREAT has the potential to increase operational efficiency in areas of problem detection and analysis, general status reporting, and real-time situational awareness.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Remote Memory Access (RMA) Programming on Shared Memory Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of remote memory access (RMA) programming on shared memory parallel computers. We discuss different RMA based implementations of selected CFD application benchmark kernels and compare them to corresponding message passing based codes. For the message-passing implementation we use MPI point-to-point and global communication routines. For the RMA based approach we consider two different libraries supporting this programming model. One is a shared memory parallelization library (SMPlib) developed at NASA Ames, the other is the MPI-2 extensions to the MPI Standard. We give timing comparisons for the different implementation strategies and discuss the performance.

  2. A System for Exchanging Control and Status Messages in the NOvA Data Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Biery, K.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Foulkes, S.C.; Guglielmo, G.M.; Piccoli, L.P.; Votava, M.E.V.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    In preparation for NOvA, a future neutrino experiment at Fermilab, we are developing a system for passing control and status messages in the data acquisition system. The DAQ system will consist of applications running on approximately 450 nodes. The message passing system will use a publish-subscribe model and will provide support for sending messages and receiving the associated replies. Additional features of the system include a layered architecture with custom APIs tailored to the needs of a DAQ system, the use of an open source messaging system for handling the reliable delivery of messages, the ability to send broadcasts to groups of applications, and APIs in Java, C++, and Python. Our choice for the open source system to deliver messages is EPICS. We will discuss the architecture of the system, our experience with EPICS, and preliminary test results.

  3. Are Instant Messages Speech?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.

  4. Research Messages 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Research messages 2011" is a collection of summaries of research projects published by National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2011. The publication also has an overview essay that captures the themes and highlights from the research for the year, including: (1) the initial education and training of young people and their…

  5. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  6. Evaluating Personalized Risk Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Neil D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An experiment with 766 homeowners compared 3 strategies for delivering radon test results to homeowners. Small improvements in consumer satisfaction were found for personalized messages (a telephone call or personal letter) over a form letter. No detectable improvement was found in recall of advice or compliance for any strategy. (SLD)

  7. Message in a Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a lesson that uses the Message in a Bottle concept. This lesson combines social studies, language arts, technology, and art, particularly studying and drawing portraits and utilizing values within a drawing. As part of their grade-four art curriculum, students are required to correctly proportion the face and the…

  8. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  9. Research Messages 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Research messages 2010 is a collection of summaries of research projects published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). The summaries are clustered under five broad themes used by NCVER to organise its research and analysis: Industry and employers; Students and individuals; Teaching and learning: VET system; and VET in…

  10. Music's unspoken messages.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Tami

    2011-01-01

    Today, integrative medicine encompasses many healing arts therapies, including music. The universal language of music is simple, yet often forgotten, and communicates unspoken messages. The healing power of music in the health care setting creates a healing environment, distracts from pain, relaxes and de-stresses, and helps with sleep. PMID:22403857

  11. Research Messages 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Research Messages 2014" is a collection of summaries of research published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2014 in the context of changing economic, industrial, social and education conditions, organised under the following broad categories: (1) Productivity: to sustain and build Australia's human…

  12. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  13. Business Professionals Workplace Message Quality Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Joy L.; Anderson, Marcia A.

    2007-01-01

    In light of today's large amount of written workplace communication, this study attempted to reveal information regarding the quality in which business messages are encoded on the job. Data were gathered through a questionnaire administered to a sample of 1994-2004 MBA graduates of three AACSB-accredited programs. Findings suggest that business…

  14. Couriers in the Inca Empire: Getting Your Message Across. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This lesson shows how the Inca communicated across the vast stretches of their mountain realm, the largest empire of the pre-industrial world. The lesson explains how couriers carried messages along mountain-ridge roads, up and down stone steps, and over chasm-spanning footbridges. It states that couriers could pass a message from Quito (Ecuador)…

  15. Optimizing Adherence Through Provider and Patient Messaging.

    PubMed

    Millman, Mark D; Den Hartog, Kevin S

    2016-08-01

    Health care organizations continue to look for cost-effective ways to modify patient behaviors toward a healthier lifestyle, including improving compliance with evidence-based treatment guidelines. This study evaluated the impact on compliance to evidence-based guidelines associated with a member messaging program (MMP) that is delivered via hard copy through the mail and also electronically via web portals. Anonymized member data were reviewed using disease-specific algorithms designed to find gaps in evidence-based care. Gap closure was monitored over a 6-month period after identification and was the main outcome under study. MMP members received at least 1 message describing a specific gap in care identified via claims data. In addition, if a match was possible, the same message also was sent to the member's physician. MMP members were then compared to a cohort not receiving messages but having the same gaps in care. Multiple regression analysis was performed using a generalized linear model with gap closure as the outcome to infer the relationship between receiving a notification and closing a gap in care. Of the 140 gaps addressed in the study, 23 showed a statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference in gap closure rates between the messaged group and the non-messaged group. Diabetes-related gap closures accounted for 10 of the 23 significant outcomes. Messages notifying of a gap in care can influence member health care adherence to evidence-based guidelines, particularly with diabetes-related gaps in care. (Population Health Management 2016;19:264-271). PMID:26451807

  16. Remote Asynchronous Message Service Gateway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan; Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Remote Asynchronous Message Service (RAMS) gateway is a special-purpose AMS application node that enables exchange of AMS messages between nodes residing in different AMS "continua," notionally in different geographical locations. JPL s implementation of RAMS gateway functionality is integrated with the ION (Interplanetary Overlay Network) implementation of the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) bundle protocol, and with JPL s implementation of AMS itself. RAMS protocol data units are encapsulated in ION bundles and are forwarded to the neighboring RAMS gateways identified in the source gateway s AMS management information base. Each RAMS gateway has interfaces in two communication environments: the AMS message space it serves, and the RAMS network - the grid or tree of mutually aware RAMS gateways - that enables AMS messages produced in one message space to be forwarded to other message spaces of the same venture. Each gateway opens persistent, private RAMS network communication channels to the RAMS gateways of other message spaces for the same venture, in other continua. The interconnected RAMS gateways use these communication channels to forward message petition assertions and cancellations among themselves. Each RAMS gateway subscribes locally to all subjects that are of interest in any of the linked message spaces. On receiving its copy of a message on any of these subjects, the RAMS gateway node uses the RAMS network to forward the message to every other RAMS gateway whose message space contains at least one node that has subscribed to messages on that subject. On receiving a message via the RAMS network from some other RAMS gateway, the RAMS gateway node forwards the message to all subscribers in its own message space.

  17. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  18. Dynamic Message Routing Using Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibler, Thorsten; Karastoyanova, Dimka; Leymann, Frank

    The Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is composable middleware that provides applications with services such as message routing and transformation, service composition, dynamic discovery, transactional support, coordination, security features, and others. In an ESB supporting SOAP message exchange, routing algorithms typically follow the sequential SOAP message processing model, where SOAP headers are the main artefacts used to specify the message route and the processing of the payload by intermediaries along that route. This model supports neither alternative nor parallel message routes. In the case of a failing intermediary node this leads to a failure in the message delivery. Moreover, the execution order of services on SOAP message payloads at the intermediaries cannot be prescribed. In this paper, we demonstrate how these deficiencies of the SOAP message processing model can be addressed. We introduce an approach that allows for specifying SOAP message routing logic in terms of BPEL processes. We show that parallel and alternative routes for SOAP messages can be modelled and executed, and the order of services that process a message at intermediaries can be predefined to accommodate the correct processing sequence as required by the concrete application domain. Features like dynamic discovery of services and flexible service composition are leveraged to enable flexible SOAP message routing.

  19. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  20. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, Andrew

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8) with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.

  1. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less

  2. Event Driven Messaging with Role-Based Subscriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Tung; Bui, Bach; Malhotra, Shantanu; Chen, Fannie; Kim, rachel; Allen, Christopher; Luong, Ivy; Chang, George; Zendejas, Silvino; Sadaqathulla, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Event Driven Messaging with Role-Based Subscriptions (EDM-RBS) is a framework integrated into the Service Management Database (SMDB) to allow for role-based and subscription-based delivery of synchronous and asynchronous messages over JMS (Java Messaging Service), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), or SMS (Short Messaging Service). This allows for 24/7 operation with users in all parts of the world. The software classifies messages by triggering data type, application source, owner of data triggering event (mission), classification, sub-classification and various other secondary classifying tags. Messages are routed to applications or users based on subscription rules using a combination of the above message attributes. This program provides a framework for identifying connected users and their applications for targeted delivery of messages over JMS to the client applications the user is logged into. EDMRBS provides the ability to send notifications over e-mail or pager rather than having to rely on a live human to do it. It is implemented as an Oracle application that uses Oracle relational database management system intrinsic functions. It is configurable to use Oracle AQ JMS API or an external JMS provider for messaging. It fully integrates into the event-logging framework of SMDB (Subnet Management Database).

  3. Secret Message Science Goggles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVita, Christina; Ruppert, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Light is radiation in wavelengths composed of many colors that are visible to the eyes. These wavelengths can be separated. One way to separate colors is with a filter. Filters keep certain wavelengths out and allow other wavelengths to pass through. In this article, the authors discuss an activity to provide students the opportunity to build a…

  4. Vested interest, disaster preparedness, and strategic campaign message design.

    PubMed

    Adame, Bradley J; Miller, Claude H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the United States has recognized an increasing need for individual-level disaster preparedness, with federal, state, and local government agencies finding only limited success in instituting campaign-based disaster preparedness programs. Extant research indicates Americans generally remain poorly informed and badly unprepared for imminent disasters. Vested interest theory (Crano, 1997) is presented as a framework for designing and testing the effectiveness of television-based disaster preparedness campaign messages. High- and low-vested versions of an extant control message are compared to assess message efficacy as indicated by behavioral intentions, message acceptance, and preparedness related attitudes. Results indicate television-based video public service announcements manipulated with subtle message variations can be effective at influencing critical preparedness-related attitudes. The high-vested condition performed significantly better than the low-vested and control conditions for both behavioral intentions and perceptions of self-efficacy, two vitally important outcome variables associated with disaster preparedness. PMID:24837442

  5. No Pass, No Drive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses basis for Kentucky appellate court decision that state's no-pass, no-drive statute did not violate due-process and equal-protection clauses of the Kentucky and federal constitutions, but did violate the federal Family Education Rights and Privacy Act, but nevertheless did not invalidate the statute. Explains why the decision is…

  6. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  7. Components of US Associate Degree Nursing Programs and Their Relationship to the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses Graduate Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Caroline A.

    2011-01-01

    The nursing shortage has accelerated the need for nursing programs to discover program components related to success on the NCLEX-RN. As the demand for nurses is growing, nursing programs have been called upon to help find solutions to the problem. This study attempted to contribute to the resolution of the shortage and provide nursing educators…

  8. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K; Straker, Leon M

    2015-06-01

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support. PMID:26043035

  9. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin

    2011-12-01

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  10. Automatic Classification of E-Mail Messages by Message Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Andrew D.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a system that automatically classifies e-mail messages in the HUMANIST electronic discussion group into one of four classes: question, response, announcement, or administrative. The system's ability to accurately classify a message was compared against manually assigned codes. Results suggested that there was a statistical agreement in…