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1

Drugs affecting lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

This book contains over 60 selections. Some of the titles are: Relationship of cholesterol to DNA synthesis in normal and cancerous cells; A genetic marker in the apolipoprotein AI/CIII gene complex associated with hypercholesterolaemia; Cellular and molecular biology of apolipoproteins: Receptor-mediated regulation of cholesterol metabolism; Animal models for hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis; and Fatty acid-binding proteins of various tissues.

Paoletti, R. Kritchevsky, D. Holmes, W.L.

1987-01-01

2

Dll1 Haploinsufficiency in Adult Mice Leads to a Complex Phenotype Affecting Metabolic and Immunological Processes  

PubMed Central

Background The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved signal transduction pathway involved in embryonic patterning and regulation of cell fates during development and self-renewal. Recent studies have demonstrated that this pathway is integral to a complex system of interactions, involving as well other signal transduction pathways, and implicated in distinct human diseases. Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is one of the known ligands of the Notch receptors. The role of the Notch ligands is less well understood. Loss-of-function of Dll1 leads to embryonic lethality, but reduction of Delta-like 1 protein levels has not been studied in adult stage. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the haploinsufficient phenotype of Dll1 and a missense mutant Dll1 allele (Dll1C413Y). Haploinsufficiency leads to a complex phenotype with several biological processes altered. These alterations reveal the importance of Dll1 mainly in metabolism, energy balance and in immunology. The animals are smaller, lighter, with altered fat to lean ratio and have increased blood pressure and a slight bradycardia. The animals have reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood. At the immunological level a subtle phenotype is observed due to the effect and fine-tuning of the signaling network at the different levels of differentiation, proliferation and function of lymphocytes. Moreover, the importance of the proteolytic regulation of the Notch signaling network emphasized. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, slight alterations in one player of Notch signaling alter the entire organism, emphasizing the fine-tuning character of this pathway in a high number of processes.

Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Przemeck, Gerhard K. H.; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Adler, Thure; Hans, Wolfgang; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Wagner, Sibylle; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Becker, Lore; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Wolf, Eckhard; Klingenspor, Martin; Ivandic, Boris T.; Busch, Dirk H.; Beckers, Johannes; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin

2009-01-01

3

Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?  

PubMed

There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might induce adverse effects, leading to osteoporosis. PMID:24582730

Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

2014-05-01

4

Food Texture Differences affect Energy Metabolism in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary factors such as taste and nutrients are known to affect satiety and energy balance. We hypothesized that food texture might contribute to the regulation of energy metabolism through the process of mastication in the oral cavity as well. The effects of long-term feeding of different-textured pellets on body weight gain, adiposity, and thermogenesis were assessed. From weaning at 4

K. Oka; A. Sakuarae; T. Fujise; H. Yoshimatsu; T. Sakata; M. Nakata

2003-01-01

5

Boron nutrition affects the carbon metabolism of silver birch seedlings.  

PubMed

Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient whose deficiency is common both in agriculture and in silviculture. Boron deficiency impairs the growth of plants and affects many metabolic processes like carbohydrate metabolism. Boron deficiency and also excess B may decrease the sink demand by decreasing the growth and sugar transport which may lead to the accumulation of carbohydrates and down-regulation of photosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of B nutrition on the soluble and storage carbohydrate concentrations of summer leaves and autumn buds in a deciduous tree species, Betula pendula Roth. In addition, we investigated the changes in the pools of condensed tannins between summer and autumn harvests. One-year-old birch seedlings were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution containing three different levels of B: 0, 30 and 100% of the standard level for complete nutrient solution. Half of the seedlings were harvested after summer period and another half when leaves abscised. The highest B fertilization level (B100) caused an accumulation of starch and a decrease in the concentrations of hexoses (glucose and fructose) in summer leaves, whereas in the B0 seedlings, hexoses (mainly glucose) accumulated and starch decreased. These changes in carbohydrate concentrations might be related to the changes in the sink demand since the autumn growth was the smallest for the B100 seedlings and largest for the B30 seedlings that did not accumulate carbohydrates. The autumn buds of B30 seedlings contained the lowest levels of glucose, glycerol, raffinose and total polyols, which was probably due to the dilution effect of the deposition of other substances like phenols. Condensed tannins accumulated in high amounts in the birch stems during the hardening of seedlings and the largest accumulation was detected in the B30 treatment. Our results suggest that B nutrition of birch seedlings affects the carbohydrate and phenol metabolism and may play an important role in the hardening process of the seedlings. PMID:22084021

Ruuhola, Teija; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Lehto, Tarja

2011-11-01

6

Mechanical Loading Affects the Energy Metabolism of Intervertebral Disc Cells  

PubMed Central

Research has shown that mechanical loading affects matrix biosynthesis of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells; however the pathway(s) to this effect is currently unknown. Cellular matrix biosynthesis is an energy demanding process. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of static and dynamic compressive loading on energy metabolism of IVD cells. Porcine annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells seeded in 2% agarose were used in this experiment. Experimental groups included 15% static compression and 0.1 and 1 Hz dynamic compression at 15% strain magnitude for 4 hours. ATP, lactate, glucose and nitric oxide (NO) contents in culture media, and ATP content in cell-agarose construct were measured using biochemical assays. While the total ATP content of AF cells was promoted by static and dynamic loading, only 1 Hz dynamic loading increased total ATP content of NP cells. Increases in lactate production and glucose consumption of AF cells suggest that ATP production via glycolysis is promoted by dynamic compression. ATP release and NO production of AF and NP cells were significantly increased by dynamic loading. Thus, this study clearly illustrates that static and dynamic compressive loading affect IVD cell energy production while cellular responses to mechanical loading were both cell type and compression type dependent.

Fernando, H.N.; Czamanski, J.; Yuan, T.-Y.; Gu, W.Y.; Abdi, S.; Huang, C.-Y.C.

2011-01-01

7

Characterizing the Network of Drugs and Their Affected Metabolic Subpathways  

PubMed Central

A fundamental issue in biology and medicine is illustration of the overall drug impact which is always the consequence of changes in local regions of metabolic pathways (subpathways). To gain insights into the global relationship between drugs and their affected metabolic subpathways, we constructed a drug–metabolic subpathway network (DRSN). This network included 3925 significant drug–metabolic subpathway associations representing drug dual effects. Through analyses based on network biology, we found that if drugs were linked to the same subpathways in the DRSN, they tended to share the same indications and side effects. Furthermore, if drugs shared more subpathways, they tended to share more side effects. We then calculated the association score by integrating drug-affected subpathways and disease-related subpathways to quantify the extent of the associations between each drug class and disease class. The results showed some close drug–disease associations such as sex hormone drugs and cancer suggesting drug dual effects. Surprisingly, most drugs displayed close associations with their side effects rather than their indications. To further investigate the mechanism of drug dual effects, we classified all the subpathways in the DRSN into therapeutic and non-therapeutic subpathways representing drug therapeutic effects and side effects. Compared to drug side effects, the therapeutic effects tended to work through tissue-specific genes and these genes tend to be expressed in the adrenal gland, liver and kidney; while drug side effects always occurred in the liver, bone marrow and trachea. Taken together, the DRSN could provide great insights into understanding the global relationship between drugs and metabolic subpathways.

Li, Jing; Han, Junwei; Wang, Shuyuan; Yao, Qianlan; Wang, Yingying; Zhang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Chunlong; Xu, Yanjun; Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia

2012-01-01

8

Interactions between dietary boron and thiamine affect lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary boron impacts upon the function of various coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. In a 2 {times} 7 factorially-arranged experiment, weanling, vitamin D{sub 3}-deprived rats were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet supplemented with 0 or 2 mg boron/kg and 50% of the requirement for thiamine (TM), riboflavin (RF), pantothenic acid (PA) or pyridoxine (PX); 0% for folic acid (FA) or nicotinic acid (NA). All vitamins were supplemented in adequate amounts in the control diet. At 8 weeks of age, the TM dietary treatment was the one most affected by supplemental dietary boron (SDB). In rats that were fed 50% TM, SDB increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), and the liver to body weight (L/B) ratio. However, in the SDB animals, adequate amounts of TM decreased the means of those variables to near that observed in non-SDB rats fed 50% TM. The findings suggest that an interaction between dietary boron and TM affects lipid metabolism.

Herbel, J.L.; Hunt, C.D. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1991-03-15

9

Diagnosis of inherited metabolic disorders affecting the nervous system.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the molecular causes for genetic diseases that affect the nervous system is rapidly expanding. Especially striking has been the finding in several autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that unstable expansions of trinucleotide repeats are responsible for the genetic disorder and that the length of the repeat can be correlated with the age of onset and the severity of symptoms. Phenotypic heterogeneity in many disorders associated with enzyme deficiencies can often be linked to the amount of residual enzyme activity occurring with different gene mutations. Making a specific diagnosis of a neurological disorder associated with genetically determined metabolic defects requires access to a laboratory that can assist in arranging for appropriate testing to be carried out. In some disorders such as the aminoacidurias diagnostic metabolic studies can be performed in hospital clinical chemistry laboratories. In others, such as the lysosomal storage diseases, a laboratory that carries out special lipid analyses and white blood cell enzyme assays will be necessary. DNA mutational analyses are becoming commercially available for diagnosing many disorders such as mitochondrial diseases and those conditions associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. It may be necessary to contact individual research laboratories when confronted with a disorder that has been newly discovered or that is very rare. A computerised directory of specialised laboratories that perform disease specific testing for genetic disorders should be useful in choosing the appropriate diagnostic or research laboratory. PMID:8530925

Swanson, P D

1995-11-01

10

Derivative processes for modelling metabolic fluxes  

PubMed Central

Motivation: One of the challenging questions in modelling biological systems is to characterize the functional forms of the processes that control and orchestrate molecular and cellular phenotypes. Recently proposed methods for the analysis of metabolic pathways, for example, dynamic flux estimation, can only provide estimates of the underlying fluxes at discrete time points but fail to capture the complete temporal behaviour. To describe the dynamic variation of the fluxes, we additionally require the assumption of specific functional forms that can capture the temporal behaviour. However, it also remains unclear how to address the noise which might be present in experimentally measured metabolite concentrations. Results: Here we propose a novel approach to modelling metabolic fluxes: derivative processes that are based on multiple-output Gaussian processes (MGPs), which are a flexible non-parametric Bayesian modelling technique. The main advantages that follow from MGPs approach include the natural non-parametric representation of the fluxes and ability to impute the missing data in between the measurements. Our derivative process approach allows us to model changes in metabolite derivative concentrations and to characterize the temporal behaviour of metabolic fluxes from time course data. Because the derivative of a Gaussian process is itself a Gaussian process, we can readily link metabolite concentrations to metabolic fluxes and vice versa. Here we discuss how this can be implemented in an MGP framework and illustrate its application to simple models, including nitrogen metabolism in Escherichia coli. Availability and implementation: R code is available from the authors upon request. Contact: j.norkunaite@imperial.ac.uk; m.stumpf@imperial.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Zurauskiene, Justina; Kirk, Paul; Thorne, Thomas; Pinney, John; Stumpf, Michael

2014-01-01

11

Landfill leachate affects metabolic responses of Zea mays L. seedlings.  

PubMed

With an increasing focus on phyto-remediation options for landfill leachate, it is important to understand the responses of plant systems to landfill leachate stress. It is especially important to study the tolerant mechanisms of plant systems. We investigated several physiological changes of Zea mays L. (maize) in response to landfill leachate. Specifically, we investigated growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results indicate that landfill leachate affected the growth and chlorophyll level of maize seedlings. Furthermore, landfill leachate elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by the changes in antioxidant status. The physiological responses varied as a function of leachate concentration, and the growth inhibition, chlorophyll content inhibition and oxidative stress occurred after the exposure of higher concentrations of leachate. Higher concentrations of landfill leachate contained higher levels of pollutants. Our results indicate that landfill leachate affected the metabolic responses of plant systems. The risk of pollution occurred mainly in samples of higher concentration. Therefore, the critical aspect of phyto-remediation for landfill leachate is controlling its concentration. In doing so, plant systems may be able to tolerate the environmental stress of landfill leachate. PMID:20149964

Sang, Nan; Han, Ming; Li, Guangke; Huang, Mingzhu

2010-05-01

12

Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health  

PubMed Central

Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals.

Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

2014-01-01

13

Age, Marital Processes, and Depressed Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined age-cohort differences in the interrelationships among marital processes and depressed affect. Design and Methods: We used data from individuals in first marriages that participated in the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH). The NSFH interviewed one adult per household of a nationally representative sample.…

Bookwala, Jamila; Jacobs, Jamie

2004-01-01

14

Age, Marital Processes, and Depressed Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We examined age-cohort differences in the interrelationships among marital processes and de- pressed affect. Design and Methods: We used data from individuals in first marriages that participated in the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH). The NSFH interviewed one adult per house- hold of a nationally representative sample. Partic- ipants were categorized into young (n ¼ 2,289), middle-aged

Jamila Bookwala; Jamie Jacobs

2004-01-01

15

Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects.

CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

2012-01-01

16

miR-122 Targets Pyruvate Kinase M2 and Affects Metabolism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In contrast to normal differentiated cells that depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, cancer cells have evolved to utilize aerobic glycolysis (Warburg’s effect), with benefit of providing intermediates for biomass production. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is highly expressed in normal liver tissue regulating a wide variety of biological processes including cellular metabolism, but is reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Overexpression of miR-122 was shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and increase chemosensitivity, but its functions in cancer metabolism remains unknown. The present study aims to identify the miR-122 targeted genes and to investigate the associated regulatory mechanisms in HCC metabolism. We found the ectopic overexpression of miR-122 affected metabolic activities of HCC cells, evidenced by the reduced lactate production and increased oxygen consumption. Integrated gene expression analysis in a cohort of 94 HCC tissues revealed miR-122 level tightly associated with a battery of glycolytic genes, in which pyruvate kinase (PK) gene showed the strongest anti-correlation coefficient (Pearson r?=??0.6938, p?=?<0.0001). In addition, reduced PK level was significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes of HCC patients. We found isoform M2 (PKM2) is the dominant form highly expressed in HCC and is a direct target of miR-122, as overexpression of miR-122 reduced both the mRNA and protein levels of PKM2, whereas PKM2 re-expression abrogated the miR-122-mediated glycolytic activities. The present study demonstrated the regulatory role of miR-122 on PKM2 in HCC, having an implication of therapeutic intervention targeting cancer metabolic pathways.

Shek, Felix H.; Wong, Kwong-Fai; Lee, Nikki P.; Poon, Ronnie T.; Chen, Jinfei; Luk, John M.

2014-01-01

17

miR-122 targets pyruvate kinase M2 and affects metabolism of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

In contrast to normal differentiated cells that depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, cancer cells have evolved to utilize aerobic glycolysis (Warburg's effect), with benefit of providing intermediates for biomass production. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is highly expressed in normal liver tissue regulating a wide variety of biological processes including cellular metabolism, but is reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Overexpression of miR-122 was shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and increase chemosensitivity, but its functions in cancer metabolism remains unknown. The present study aims to identify the miR-122 targeted genes and to investigate the associated regulatory mechanisms in HCC metabolism. We found the ectopic overexpression of miR-122 affected metabolic activities of HCC cells, evidenced by the reduced lactate production and increased oxygen consumption. Integrated gene expression analysis in a cohort of 94 HCC tissues revealed miR-122 level tightly associated with a battery of glycolytic genes, in which pyruvate kinase (PK) gene showed the strongest anti-correlation coefficient (Pearson r?=?-0.6938, p?=?<0.0001). In addition, reduced PK level was significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes of HCC patients. We found isoform M2 (PKM2) is the dominant form highly expressed in HCC and is a direct target of miR-122, as overexpression of miR-122 reduced both the mRNA and protein levels of PKM2, whereas PKM2 re-expression abrogated the miR-122-mediated glycolytic activities. The present study demonstrated the regulatory role of miR-122 on PKM2 in HCC, having an implication of therapeutic intervention targeting cancer metabolic pathways. PMID:24466275

Liu, Angela M; Xu, Zhi; Shek, Felix H; Wong, Kwong-Fai; Lee, Nikki P; Poon, Ronnie T; Chen, Jinfei; Luk, John M

2014-01-01

18

Copper Stress Affects Metabolism and Reproductive Yield of Chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To observe the effects of copper (Cu) deficiency on growth, metabolism, and reproductive yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cv. ‘13.G-256’, plants were grown in refined sand at deficient (0.1 ?M) and adequate Cu (1 ?M), supplied as copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O). At d 35–40, at deficient Cu, the growth of plants were depressed and the young leaflets appeared reduced in

Gitanjali Bhakuni; B. K. Dube; Pratima Sinha; C. Chatterjee

2009-01-01

19

Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed Central

The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15 degrees C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction.

Madsen, E L; Francis, A J; Bollag, J M

1988-01-01

20

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Elsas LJ II. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . ...

21

Factors affecting metabolic and electrolyte changes after reperfusion in liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe metabolic and electrolyte changes were evaluated after various durations of cold and warm ischemia times to correlate ASA status with hemodynamic changes that may affect the severity of the reperfusion syndrome.

K. K. Tsinari; E. P. Misiakos; C. T. Lawand; M. A. Chatzipetrou; K. V. Lampadariou; A. Bakonyi Neto; J. C. Llanos; S. Tamura; A. R. Gyamfi; A. G. Tzakis

2004-01-01

22

How aneuploidy affects metabolic control and causes cancer.  

PubMed Central

The complexity and diversity of cancer-specific phenotypes, including de-differentiation, invasiveness, metastasis, abnormal morphology and metabolism, genetic instability and progression to malignancy, have so far eluded explanation by a simple, coherent hypothesis. However, an adaptation of Metabolic Control Analysis supports the 100-year-old hypothesis that aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, is the cause of cancer. The results demonstrate the currently counter-intuitive principle that it is the fraction of the genome undergoing differential expression, not the magnitude of the differential expression, that controls phenotypic transformation. Transforming the robust normal phenotype into cancer requires a twofold increase in the expression of thousands of normal gene products. The massive change in gene dose produces highly non-linear (i.e. qualitative) changes in the physiology and metabolism of cells and tissues. Since aneuploidy disrupts the natural balance of mitosis proteins, it also explains the notorious genetic instability of cancer cells as a consequence of the perpetual regrouping of chromosomes. In view of this and the existence of non-cancerous aneuploidy, we propose that cancer is the phenotype of cells above a certain threshold of aneuploidy. This threshold is reached either by the gradual, stepwise increase in the level of aneuploidy as a consequence of the autocatalysed genetic instability of aneuploid cells or by tetraploidization followed by a gradual loss of chromosomes. Thus the initiation step of carcinogenesis produces aneuploidy below the threshold for cancer, and the promotion step increases the level of aneuploidy above this threshold. We conclude that aneuploidy offers a simple and coherent explanation for all the cancer-specific phenotypes. Accordingly, the gross biochemical abnormalities, abnormal cellular size and morphology, the appearance of tumour-associated antigens, the high levels of secreted proteins responsible for invasiveness and loss of contact inhibition, and even the daunting genetic instability that enables cancer cells to evade chemotherapy, are all the natural consequence of the massive over- and under-expression of proteins.

Rasnick, D; Duesberg, P H

1999-01-01

23

Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical processes which affect stratospheric aerosol particles include nucleation, condensation, evaporation, coagulation and sedimentation. Quantitative studies of these mechanisms to determine if they can account for some of the observed properties of the aerosol are carried out. It is shown that the altitude range in which nucleation of sulfuric acid-water solution droplets can take place corresponds to that region of the stratosphere where the aerosol is generally found. Since heterogeneous nucleation is the dominant nucleation mechanism, the stratospheric solution droplets are mainly formed on particles which have been mixed up from the troposphere or injected into the stratosphere by volcanoes or meteorites. Particle growth by heteromolecular condensation can account for the observed increase in mixing ratio of large particles in the stratosphere. Coagulation is important in reducing the number of particles smaller than 0.05 micron radius. Growth by condensation, applied to the mixed nature of the particles, shows that available information is consistent with ammonium sulfate being formed by liquid phase chemical reactions in the aerosol particles. The upper altitude limit of the aerosol layer is probably due to the evaporation of sulfuric acid aerosol particles, while the lower limit is due to mixing across the tropopause.

Hamill, P.; Toon, O. B.; Kiang, C. S.

1977-01-01

24

Infiltration Process in Fire-affected Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-wildfire infiltration is not well understood, which limits the ability to predict post-wildfire runoff. The time-to-start of runoff, soil-water content, rainfall intensity, and infiltration rates were measured on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire west of Boulder, Colorado during rainstorms in 2011. A 1-D numerical model of infiltration was calibrated and evaluated using these data and measured soil physical properties to provide insight into the post-wildfire infiltration process. Field saturated, vertical-hydraulic conductivity, Ks predicted by the model ranged from 0.1 to 10 mm/h, and only a shallow layer of soil of thickness, hw (the upper 10-20 mm) controlled runoff generation. Time-to-start of runoff, tp, was sensitive to the initial soil-water content at the start of rainfall, but tp did not correlate with initial soil-water content for all rainstorms. It was hypothesized that the shape of the rainfall profile affected tp. A simple analytical model was developed to predict tp by incorporating the soil saturation deficit (saturated soil-water content minus initial soil-water content) and a rainfall metric that estimates the initial rate of increase in the rainfall intensity. This model of tp explained about 92% of the variance of tp, and predicted values of tp that were nearly identical to observed values. These results strongly suggest that tp in burned soils, with low values of Ks, is probably controlled more by the rainstorm profile and the initial soil saturation deficit than by Ks.

Moody, John; Ebel, Brian

2013-04-01

25

Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD. PMID:21514691

Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J

2012-03-01

26

Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD.

Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

2011-01-01

27

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

PubMed

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

2012-03-01

28

Herbicide-affected plant metabolism reduces virus propagation.  

PubMed

It has been previously shown that certain herbicides or plant extracts inhibited the viral infection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) infection and herbicide or plant extract treatments on the photosynthetic processes of the host plants to get informations about the interactions of these factors. In Capsicum annuum-ObPV host-virus relations the virus infection slightly increased the activity of photosystem II (PSII), as it was supposed from fluorescence induction parameters. Chlorophyll content of leaves was also elevated probably due to virus-induced growth inhibition. The herbicide Stomp (active ingredient: pendimethalin) incorporated into the soil one week before planting (preplant treatment) together with virus infection even strengthened these effects in agreement with previous observations that this herbicide always did not prevent virus infection or reduce virus concentration in hosts. In ObPV-infected Nicotiana tabacum the structural changes showed similar tendency like in ObPV-infected C. annuum, but PSII efficiency did not significantly differ from that of the control. However, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased because of the strongly decreasing CO2 fixation activity. Though simultaneous application of a water extract of Cirsium arvense shoot caused a little stronger inhibition of CO2 fixation, little loss in production was obtained due to significant reduction in virus concentration. In Solanum nigrum-ObPV relation the slightly increasing tendency of the values of actual PSII quantum efficiency could be related to the probably elevated ratio of reaction centre components (increased chlorophyll a/b ratio) in the thylakoids. Application of the herbicide Fusilade S (active ingredient: fluazifop-P-butyl) at 4-6 leaf stage as a post-emergence treatment practically prevented systemic virus infection and the virus-induced changes of photosynthesis are probably due to inhibiting the virus infection/replication process. PMID:17139793

Kazinczi, Gabriella; Gáspár, László; Nyitrai, Péter; Gáborjányi, Richard; Sárvári, Eva; Takács, András; Horváth, József

2006-01-01

29

Hyperketonemia during lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis affects systemic and local intramammary metabolism in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Hyperketonemia interferes with the metabolic regulation in dairy cows. It is assumed that metabolic and endocrine changes during hyperketonemia also affect metabolic adaptations during inflammatory processes. We therefore studied systemic and local intramammary effects of elevated plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) before and during the response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirteen dairy cows received intravenously either a Na-dl-?-OH-butyrate infusion (n=5) to achieve a constant plasma BHBA concentration (1.7±0.1mmol/L), with adjustments of the infusion rates made based on immediate measurements of plasma BHBA every 15min, or an infusion with a 0.9% NaCl solution (control; n=8) for 56h. Infusions started at 0900h on d 1 and continued until 1700h 2 d later. Two udder quarters were challenged with 200?g of Escherichia coli LPS and 2 udder quarters were treated with 0.9% saline solution as control quarters at 48h after the start of infusion. Blood samples were taken at 1 wk and 2h before the start of infusions as reference samples and hourly during the infusion. Mammary gland biopsies were taken 1 wk before, and 48 and 56h (8h after LPS challenge) after the start of infusions. The mRNA abundance of key factors related to BHBA and fatty acid metabolism, and glucose transporters was determined in mammary tissue biopsies. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma glucose, BHBA, nonesterified fatty acid, urea, insulin, glucagon, and cortisol concentrations. Differences were not different for effects of BHBA infusion on the mRNA abundance of any of the measured target genes in the mammary gland before LPS challenge. Intramammary LPS challenge increased plasma glucose, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in both groups but increases in plasma glucose and glucagon concentration were less pronounced in the Na-dl-?-OH-butyrate infusion group than in controls. In response to LPS challenge, plasma BHBA concentration decreased in controls and decreased also slightly in the BHBA-infused animals because the BHBA concentration could not be fully maintained despite a rapid increase in BHBA infusion rate. The change in mRNA abundance of citrate synthase in LPS quarters was significant between the 2 treatment groups. The results indicate that elevated circulating BHBA concentration inhibits gluconeogenesis before and during immune response to LPS challenge, likely because BHBA can replace glucose as an energy source. PMID:24679930

Zarrin, M; Wellnitz, O; van Dorland, H A; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

2014-06-01

30

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits.

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jerome; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

31

How does emotional content affect lexical processing?  

PubMed Central

Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience.

Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

2013-01-01

32

Dilution, Not Load, Affects Distractor Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lavie and Tsal (1994) proposed that spare attentional capacity is allocated involuntarily to the processing of irrelevant stimuli, thereby enabling interference. Under this view, when task demands increase, spare capacity should decrease and distractor interference should decrease. In support, Lavie and Cox (1997) found that increasing perceptual…

Wilson, Daryl E.; Muroi, Miya; MacLeod, Colin M.

2011-01-01

33

Sound Affects the Speed of Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the effects of a task-irrelevant sound on visual processing. Participants were presented with revolving clocks at or around central fixation and reported the hand position of a target clock at the time an exogenous cue (1 clock turning red) or an endogenous cue (a line pointing toward 1 of the clocks) was presented. A…

Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

2011-01-01

34

Processing fluency affects subjective claims of recollection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies that have used the remember-know paradigm to investigate subjective awareness in memory have shown that fluency manipulations have an impact on \\\\ldknow\\\\rd\\u000a responses but not on \\\\ldremember\\\\rd responses (e.g., Rajaram, 1993), a finding typically accounted for by invoking inferential\\u000a processing in judgments of familiarity but not of recollection. However, in light of several researchers’ criticisms of this\\u000a procedure,

Brian P. Kurilla; Deanne L. Westerman

2008-01-01

35

Does family history of metabolic syndrome affect the metabolic profile phenotype in young healthy individuals?  

PubMed Central

Background Early identification of high-risk individuals is key for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of a family history of metabolic syndrome (fhMetS) on the risk of metabolic disorders (abnormal body mass, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and blood pressure) in healthy young individuals. Methods We studied CVD risk factors in 90 healthy volunteers, aged 27–39 years; of these, 78 had fhMetS and 12 were without fhMetS (control group). Fasting serum lipids, glucose, and insulin levels were assayed, and anthropometric parameters and blood pressure using, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system, were measured. Nutritional and physical activity habits were assessed. Results Despite similar nutritional and physical activity habits, abnormal body mass was found in 53.2% of the fhMetS participants and 46.1% of the control participants (p = 0.54). The occurrence of obesity was 19.4% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.69). Compared to the control participants, fhMetS was associated with significantly higher total cholesterol (5.46 mmol/L vs. 4.69 mmol/L, p < 0.030), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( 3.28 mmol/L vs. 2.90 mmol/L, p < 0.032), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( 3.74 mmol/L vs. 3.25 mmol/L, p < 0.016) levels, in addition to lower fasting glucose levels ( 4.51 mmol/L vs. 4.81 mmol/L, p < 0.042). A positive correlation between fasting glucose and insulin levels (r = 0.28; p < 0.015) was detected in the fhMetS participants. Higher mean daytime systolic blood pressure (121.5 mmHg vs. 113.3 mmHg, p < 0.035), mean daytime diastolic blood pressure ( 79.0 mmHg vs. 74.5 mmHg, p < 0.045), and mean nighttime diastolic blood pressure ( 64.0 mmHg vs. 59.5 mmHg, p < 0.019) were observed in the fhMetS group. Conclusions More than 50% of the fhMetS participants had excess weight or a lipid disorder, which may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the need for regular ambulatory assessment of serum lipid concentrations in young people with a family history of MetS.

2014-01-01

36

Pharmacogenetics affects dosing, efficacy, and toxicity of cytochrome P450–metabolized drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-metabolizing enzyme activity is one of many factors affecting patient response to medications. The objective of this review is to highlight the potential for genetic variability in cytochrome P450 enzyme activity that can lead to interperson differences in response to drugs. Awareness and application of this knowledge will improve drug use in clinical practice and provide the physician with further

Janyce F Rogers; Anne N Nafziger; Joseph S Bertino

2002-01-01

37

How object shape affects visual metaphor processing.  

PubMed

In order to interpret novel metaphoric relations, we have to construct ad hoc categories under which the metaphorically related concepts can be subsumed. Shape is considered to be one of the primary vehicles of object categorization. Accordingly, shape might play a prominent role in interpreting visual metaphors (i.e., two metaphorically related objects depicted in one visual array). This study explores the role of object shape in visual metaphor interpretation of 10- to 12-year-olds. The experiment shows that participants can produce more correspondences between similarly shaped objects as compared to dissimilarly shaped objects and that they need less thinking time to do so. These findings suggest that similarity in shape facilitates the process of interpreting visual metaphors. PMID:22851379

van Weelden, Lisanne; Maes, Alfons; Schilperoord, Joost; Swerts, Marc

2012-01-01

38

Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

1998-12-31

39

Inorganic nutrient availability affects organic matter fluxes and metabolic activity in the soft coral genus Xenia.  

PubMed

The release of organic matter (OM) by scleractinian corals represents a key physiological process that importantly contributes to coral reef ecosystem functioning, and is affected by inorganic nutrient availability. Although OM fluxes have been studied for several dominant reef taxa, no information is available for soft corals, one of the major benthic groups in tropical reef environments. Thus, this study investigates OM fluxes along with other key physiological parameters (i.e. photosynthesis, respiration and chlorophyll a tissue content) in the common soft coral genus Xenia after a 4-week exposure period to elevated ammonium (N; 20.0 ?mol l(-1)), phosphate (P; 2.0 ?mol l(-1)) and combined inorganic nutrient enrichment treatment (N+P). Corals maintained without nutrient enrichment served as non-treated controls and revealed constant uptake rates for particulate organic carbon (POC) (-0.315±0.161 mg POC m(-2) coral surface area h(-1)), particulate nitrogen (PN) (-0.053±0.018 mg PN m(-2) h(-1)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (-4.8±2.1 mg DOC m(-2) h(-1)). Although DOC uptake significantly increased in the N treatment, POC flux was not affected. The P treatment significantly enhanced PN release as well as photosynthesis and respiration rates, suggesting that autotrophic carbon acquisition of zooxanthellae endosymbionts influences OM fluxes by the coral host. Our physiological findings confirm the significant effect of inorganic nutrient availability on OM fluxes and key metabolic processes for the soft coral Xenia, and provide the first clues on OM cycles initiated by soft corals in reef environments exposed to ambient and elevated inorganic nutrient concentrations. PMID:22811248

Bednarz, Vanessa N; Naumann, Malik S; Niggl, Wolfgang; Wild, Christian

2012-10-15

40

Absence of cumulus cells during in vitro maturation affects lipid metabolism in bovine oocytes.  

PubMed

Cumulus cells (CC) surround the oocyte and are coupled metabolically through regulation of nutrient intake. CC removal before in vitro maturation (IVM) decreases bovine oocyte developmental competence without affecting nuclear meiotic maturation. The objective was to investigate the influence of CC on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation in relation to energy metabolism. IVM with either cumulus-enclosed (CEO) or -denuded (DO) oocytes was performed in serum-free metabolically optimized medium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different distribution of membrane-bound vesicles and lipid droplets between metaphase II DO and CEO. By Nile Red staining, a significant reduction in total lipid level was evidenced in DO. Global transcriptomic analysis revealed differential expression of genes regulating energy metabolism, transcription, and translation between CEO and DO. By Western blot, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive phospholipase (HSL) proteins were detected in oocytes and in CC, indicating a local lipogenesis and lypolysis. FAS protein was significantly less abundant in DO that in CEO and more highly expressed in CC than in the oocytes. On the contrary, HSL protein was more abundant in oocytes than in CC. In addition, active Ser??³-phosphorylated HSL was detected in the oocytes only after IVM, and its level was similar in CEO and DO. In conclusion, absence of CC during IVM affected lipid metabolism in the oocyte and led to suboptimal cytoplasmic maturation. Thus, CC may influence the oocyte by orienting the consumption of nutritive storage via regulation of local fatty acid synthesis and lipolysis to provide energy for maturation. PMID:23321473

Auclair, Sylvain; Uzbekov, Rustem; Elis, Sébastien; Sanchez, Laura; Kireev, Igor; Lardic, Lionel; Dalbies-Tran, Rozenn; Uzbekova, Svetlana

2013-03-15

41

Xylitol affects the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of daidzein in adult male mice.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight) were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01). The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health. PMID:24336061

Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

2013-01-01

42

Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

2011-02-01

43

Modifying metabolically sensitive histone marks by inhibiting glutamine metabolism affects gene expression and alters cancer cell phenotype  

PubMed Central

The interplay of metabolism and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms has become a focal point for a better understanding of cancer development and progression. In this study, we have acquired data supporting previous observations that demonstrate glutamine metabolism affects histone modifications in human breast cancer cell lines. Treatment of non-invasive epithelial (T-47D and MDA-MB-361) and invasive mesenchymal (MDA-MB-231 and Hs-578T) breast cancer cell lines with the glutaminase inhibitor, Compound 968, resulted in cytotoxicity in all cell lines, with the greatest effect being observed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Compound 968-treatment induced significant downregulation of 20 critical cancer-related genes, the majority of which are anti-apoptotic and/or promote metastasis, including AKT, BCL2, BCL2L1, CCND1, CDKN3, ERBB2, ETS1, E2F1, JUN, KITLG, MYB, and MYC. Histone H3K4me3, a mark of transcriptional activation, was reduced at the promoters of all but one of these critical cancer genes. The decrease in histone H3K4me3 at global and gene-specific levels correlated with reduced expression of SETD1 and ASH2L, genes encoding the histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex. Further, the expression of other epigenetic regulatory genes, known to be downregulated during apoptosis (e.g., DNMT1, DNMT3B, SETD1 and SIRT1), was also downregulated by Compound 968. These changes in gene expression and histone modifications were accompanied by the activation of apoptosis, and decreased invasiveness and resistance of MDA-MB-231 cells to chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The results of this study provide evidence to a link between cytotoxicity caused by inhibiting glutamine metabolism with alterations of the epigenome of breast cancer cells and suggest that modification of intracellular metabolism may enhance the efficiency of epigenetic therapy.

Simpson, Natalie E.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribna, Marta; Beland, Frederick A.; Pogribny, Igor P.

2012-01-01

44

Metabolic approaches for the optimisation of recombinant fermentation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was the establishment of a novel method to determine the metabolic load on host-cell metabolism resulting\\u000a from recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. This tool can be used to develop strategies to optimise recombinant fermentation processes through adjustment of recombinant-protein\\u000a expression to the biosynthetic capacity of the host-cell. The signal molecule of the stringent-response network,

M. Cserjan-Puschmann; W. Kramer; E. Duerrschmid; G. Striedner; K. Bayer

1999-01-01

45

Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through an elevated polyamine turnover. Dietary lysine was held at a constant concentration, just below the requirement. All other amino acids were balanced and equal in the diets. Arginine supplementation increased protein and fat accretion, without affecting the hepatosomatic or visceralsomatic indices. Dietary arginine correlated with putrescine in the liver (R 0·78, P= 0·01) and with ornithine in the muscle, liver and plasma (P= 0·0002, 0·003 and 0·0002, respectively). The mRNA of ornithine decarboxylase, the enzyme producing putrescine, was up-regulated in the white adipose tissue of fish fed the high-arginine inclusion compared with those fed the low-arginine diet. Concomitantly, spermidine/spermine-(N1)-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine turnover that consumes acetyl-CoA, showed an increased activity in the liver of fish fed the arginine-supplemented diets. In addition, lower acetyl-CoA concentrations were observed in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet, while ATP, which is used in the process of synthesising spermidine and spermine, did not show a similar trend. Gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for ?-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was up-regulated in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet. Taken together, the data support that increased dietary arginine activates polyamine turnover and ?-oxidation in the liver of juvenile Atlantic salmon and may act to improve the metabolic status of the fish. PMID:23656796

Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rønnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

2013-12-14

46

Articulation of three core metabolic processes in Arabidopsis: Fatty acid biosynthesis, leucine catabolism and starch metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Elucidating metabolic network structures and functions in multicellular organisms is an emerging goal of functional genomics. We describe the co-expression network of three core metabolic processes in the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana: fatty acid biosynthesis, starch metabolism and amino acid (leucine) catabolism. Results These co-expression networks form modules populated by genes coding for enzymes that represent the reactions generally considered to define each pathway. However, the modules also incorporate a wider set of genes that encode transporters, cofactor biosynthetic enzymes, precursor-producing enzymes, and regulatory molecules. We tested experimentally the hypothesis that one of the genes tightly co-expressed with starch metabolism module, a putative kinase AtPERK10, will have a role in this process. Indeed, knockout lines of AtPERK10 have an altered starch accumulation. In addition, the co-expression data define a novel hierarchical transcript-level structure associated with catabolism, in which genes performing smaller, more specific tasks appear to be recruited into higher-order modules with a broader catabolic function. Conclusion Each of these core metabolic pathways is structured as a module of co-expressed transcripts that co-accumulate over a wide range of environmental and genetic perturbations and developmental stages, and represent an expanded set of macromolecules associated with the common task of supporting the functionality of each metabolic pathway. As experimentally demonstrated, co-expression analysis can provide a rich approach towards understanding gene function.

Mentzen, Wieslawa I; Peng, Jianling; Ransom, Nick; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

2008-01-01

47

Pharmacogenetics affects dosing, efficacy, and toxicity of cytochrome P450-metabolized drugs.  

PubMed

Drug-metabolizing enzyme activity is one of many factors affecting patient response to medications. The objective of this review is to highlight the potential for genetic variability in cytochrome P450 enzyme activity that can lead to interperson differences in response to drugs. Awareness and application of this knowledge will improve drug use in clinical practice and provide the physician with further appreciation that standard drug dosing may not be appropriate in all patients. PMID:12517365

Rogers, Janyce F; Nafziger, Anne N; Bertino, Joseph S

2002-12-15

48

Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages  

PubMed Central

Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting affective images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using early posterior negativity (EPN, 175–300 ms) as well as P3-like (P3, 300–500 ms) and slow wave (SW, 500–1500 ms) portions of the late positive potential. All analyzed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

Uusberg, Andero; Uibo, Helen; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Tamm, Maria; Raidvee, Aire; Allik, Juri

2013-01-01

49

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in

Renee Dufault; Roseanne Schnoll; Walter J Lukiw; Blaise LeBlanc; Charles Cornett; Lyn Patrick; David Wallinga; Steven G Gilbert; Raquel Crider

2009-01-01

50

C282Y-HFE Gene Variant Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Human Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Although disruptions in the maintenance of iron and cholesterol metabolism have been implicated in several cancers, the association between variants in the HFE gene that is associated with cellular iron uptake and cholesterol metabolism has not been studied. The C282Y-HFE variant is a risk factor for different cancers, is known to affect sphingolipid metabolism, and to result in increased cellular iron uptake. The effect of this variant on cholesterol metabolism and its possible relevance to cancer phenotype was investigated using wild type (WT) and C282Y-HFE transfected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of C282Y-HFE in SH-SY5Y cells resulted in a significant increase in total cholesterol as well as increased transcription of a number of genes involved in its metabolism compared to cells expressing WT-HFE. The marked increase in expression of NPC1L1 relative to that of most other genes, was accompanied by a significant increase in expression of NPC1, a protein that functions in cholesterol uptake by cells. Because inhibitors of cholesterol metabolism have been proposed to be beneficial for treating certain cancers, their effect on the viability of C282Y-HFE neuroblastoma cells was ascertained. C282Y-HFE cells were significantly more sensitive than WT-HFE cells to U18666A, an inhibitor of desmosterol ?24-reductase the enzyme catalyzing the last step in cholesterol biosynthesis. This was not seen for simvastatin, ezetimibe, or a sphingosine kinase inhibitor. These studies indicate that cancers presenting in carriers of the C282Y-HFE allele might be responsive to treatment designed to selectively reduce cholesterol content in their tumor cells.

Ali-Rahmani, Fatima; Huang, Michael A.; Schengrund, C.-L.; Connor, James R.; Lee, Sang Y.

2014-01-01

51

Genetic modification of iron metabolism in mice affects the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by environmental factors as well as host genetics. Iron is one of the important elements essential for bacterial growth, thus we hypothesized that changes in host iron homeostasis, may affect the luminal iron content of the gut and thereby the composition of intestinal bacteria. The iron regulatory protein 2 (Irp2) and one of the genes mutated in hereditary hemochromatosis Hfe , are both proteins involved in the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. To test our hypothesis, fecal metal content and a selected spectrum of the fecal microbiota were analyzed from Hfe-/-, Irp2-/- and their wild type control mice. Elevated levels of iron as well as other minerals in feces of Irp2-/- mice compared to wild type and Hfe-/- mice were observed. Interestingly significant variation in the general fecal-bacterial population-patterns was observed between Irp2-/- and Hfe-/- mice. Furthermore the relative abundance of five species, mainly lactic acid bacteria, was significantly different among the mouse lines. Lactobacillus (L.) murinus and L. intestinalis were highly abundant in Irp2-/- mice, Enterococcus faecium species cluster and a species most similar to Olsenella were highly abundant in Hfe-/- mice and L. johnsonii was highly abundant in the wild type mice. These results suggest that deletion of iron metabolism genes in the mouse host affects the composition of its intestinal bacteria. Further studying the relationship between gut microbiota and genetic mutations affecting systemic iron metabolism in human should lead to clinical implications. PMID:22580926

Buhnik-Rosenblau, Keren; Moshe-Belizowski, Shirly; Danin-Poleg, Yael; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G

2012-10-01

52

Ceramide metabolism is affected by obesity and diabetes in human adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Ceramide is involved in development of insulin resistance. However, there are no data on ceramide metabolism in human adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to examine sphingolipid metabolism in fat tissue from obese nondiabetic (n?=?11), obese diabetic (n?=?11), and lean nondiabetic (n?=?8) subjects. The content of ceramide (Cer), dihydroceramide (dhCer), sphingosine (SPH), sphinganine (SPA), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P; pmol/mg of protein), the expression (mRNA) and activity of key enzymes responsible for Cer metabolism: serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), neutral and acidic sphingomyelinase (nSMase and aSMase, respectively), and neutral and acidic ceramidase (nCDase and aCDase, respectively) were examined in human adipose tissue. The contents of SPA and Cer were significantly lower whereas the content of dhCer was higher in both obese groups than the respective values in the lean subjects. The expression of examined enzymes was elevated in both obese groups. The SPT and CDases activity increased whereas aSMase activity deceased in both obese groups. We have found correlation between adipose tissue Cer content and plasma adiponectin concentration (r?=?0.69, P?affected pathways of sphingolipid metabolism in the adipose tissue. PMID:21437908

B?achnio-Zabielska, A U; Pu?ka, M; Baranowski, M; Niko?ajuk, A; Zabielski, P; Górska, M; Górski, J

2012-02-01

53

Cell differentiation within a yeast colony: metabolic and regulatory parallels with a tumor-affected organism.  

PubMed

Nutrient sensing and metabolic reprogramming are crucial for metazoan cell aging and tumor growth. Here, we identify metabolic and regulatory parallels between a layered, multicellular yeast colony and a tumor-affected organism. During development, a yeast colony stratifies into U and L cells occupying the upper and lower colony regions, respectively. U cells activate a unique metabolism controlled by the glutamine-induced TOR pathway, amino acid-sensing systems (SPS and Gcn4p) and signaling from mitochondria with lowered respiration. These systems jointly modulate U cell physiology, which adapts to nutrient limitations and utilize the nutrients released from L cells. Stress-resistant U cells share metabolic pathways and other similar characteristics with tumor cells, including the ability to proliferate. L cells behave similarly to stressed and starving cells, which activate degradative mechanisms to provide nutrients to U cells. Our data suggest a nutrient flow between both cell types, resembling the Cori cycle and glutamine-NH(4)(+) shuttle between tumor and healthy metazoan cells. PMID:22560924

Cáp, Michal; St?pánek, Lud?k; Harant, Karel; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

2012-05-25

54

Host-related metabolic cues affect colonization strategies of a root endophyte  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underpinning broad compatibility in root symbiosis are largely unexplored. The generalist root endophyte Piriformospora indica establishes long-lasting interactions with morphologically and biochemically different hosts, stimulating their growth, alleviating salt stress, and inducing local and systemic resistance to pathogens. Cytological studies and global investigations of fungal transcriptional responses to colonization of barley and Arabidopsis at different symbiotic stages identified host-dependent colonization strategies and host-specifically induced effector candidates. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, P. indica establishes and maintains biotrophic nutrition within living epidermal cells, whereas in barley the symbiont undergoes a nutritional switch to saprotrophy that is associated with the production of secondary thinner hyphae in dead cortex cells. Consistent with a diversified trophic behavior and with the occurrence of nitrogen deficiency at the onset of saprotrophy in barley, fungal genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes and nutrient transporters were highly induced in this host but not in Arabidopsis. Silencing of the high-affinity ammonium transporter PiAMT1 gene, whose transcripts are accumulating during nitrogen starvation and in barley, resulted in enhanced colonization of this host, whereas it had no effect on the colonization of Arabidopsis. Increased levels of free amino acids and reduced enzymatic activity for the cell-death marker VPE (vacuolar-processing enzyme) in colonized barley roots coincided with an extended biotrophic lifestyle of P. indica upon silencing of PiAMT1. This suggests that PiAmt1 functions as a nitrogen sensor mediating the signal that triggers the in planta activation of the saprotrophic program. Thus, host-related metabolic cues affect the expression of P. indica’s alternative lifestyles.

Lahrmann, Urs; Ding, Yi; Banhara, Aline; Rath, Magnus; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.; Dohlemann, Stefanie; von Wiren, Nicolaus; Parniske, Martin; Zuccaro, Alga

2013-01-01

55

Host-related metabolic cues affect colonization strategies of a root endophyte.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underpinning broad compatibility in root symbiosis are largely unexplored. The generalist root endophyte Piriformospora indica establishes long-lasting interactions with morphologically and biochemically different hosts, stimulating their growth, alleviating salt stress, and inducing local and systemic resistance to pathogens. Cytological studies and global investigations of fungal transcriptional responses to colonization of barley and Arabidopsis at different symbiotic stages identified host-dependent colonization strategies and host-specifically induced effector candidates. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, P. indica establishes and maintains biotrophic nutrition within living epidermal cells, whereas in barley the symbiont undergoes a nutritional switch to saprotrophy that is associated with the production of secondary thinner hyphae in dead cortex cells. Consistent with a diversified trophic behavior and with the occurrence of nitrogen deficiency at the onset of saprotrophy in barley, fungal genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes and nutrient transporters were highly induced in this host but not in Arabidopsis. Silencing of the high-affinity ammonium transporter PiAMT1 gene, whose transcripts are accumulating during nitrogen starvation and in barley, resulted in enhanced colonization of this host, whereas it had no effect on the colonization of Arabidopsis. Increased levels of free amino acids and reduced enzymatic activity for the cell-death marker VPE (vacuolar-processing enzyme) in colonized barley roots coincided with an extended biotrophic lifestyle of P. indica upon silencing of PiAMT1. This suggests that PiAmt1 functions as a nitrogen sensor mediating the signal that triggers the in planta activation of the saprotrophic program. Thus, host-related metabolic cues affect the expression of P. indica's alternative lifestyles. PMID:23918389

Lahrmann, Urs; Ding, Yi; Banhara, Aline; Rath, Magnus; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R; Döhlemann, Stefanie; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Parniske, Martin; Zuccaro, Alga

2013-08-20

56

Stochastic Models Describing Human Metabolic Processes Using SDEs with Reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a human metabolism system using the theory of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with reflecting boundary conditions. We investigate the distribution of the process determined by the SDEs. The relation between the deterministic model introduced by Nordberg and Kjellström and our stochastic model is considered. Numerical computations are also given.

Toshihiko Kawamura; Yasumasa Saisho

2006-01-01

57

Uncinate Process Length in Birds Scales with Resting Metabolic Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum.

Peter Tickle; Robert Nudds; Jonathan Codd; Alejandro Lucia

2009-01-01

58

Green Tea minimally affects Biomarkers of Inflammation in Obese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has shown to exert cardio-protective benefits in observational studies. The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of green tea on features of metabolic syndrome and inflammation in obese subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five subjects [age (mean±SE) 42.5±1.7 years, BMI 36.1±1.3 kg/m2] completed the 8-week study and were randomly assigned to receive green tea (4 cups/day), green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water/day), or no treatment (4 cups water/day). Both the beverage and extract groups had similar dosing of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the active green tea polyphenol. Fasting blood samples were collected at screening, four, and eight weeks of the study. Results Green tea beverage or extract supplementation did not significantly alter features of metabolic syndrome or biomarkers of inflammation including adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), leptin, or leptin:adiponectin ratio. However, both green tea beverage and extracts significantly reduced plasma serum amyloid alpha (SAA) versus no treatment (p<0.005). Conclusion This study suggests that the daily consumption of green tea beverage or extracts for 8 weeks was well tolerated but did not affect the features of metabolic syndrome. However, green tea significantly reduced plasma SAA, an independent CVD risk factor, in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

Basu, Arpita; Du, Mei; Sanchez, Karah; Leyva, Misti J.; Betts, Nancy M.; Blevins, Steve; Wu, Mingyuan; Aston, Christopher E.; Lyons, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

59

Select nutrients, progesterone, and interferon tau affect conceptus metabolism and development  

PubMed Central

Interferon tau (IFNT), a novel multifunctional type I interferon secreted by trophectoderm, is the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants that also has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory bioactivities. IFNT, with progesterone, affects availability of the metabolic substrate in the uterine lumen by inducing expression of genes for transport of select nutrients into the uterine lumen that activate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling responsible for proliferation, migration, and protein synthesis by conceptus trophectoderm. As an immunomodulatory protein, IFNT induces an anti-inflammatory state affecting metabolic events that decrease adiposity and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 activity, while increasing insulin sensitivity, nitric oxide production by endothelial cells, and brown adipose tissue in rats. This short review focuses on effects of IFNT and progesterone affecting transport of select nutrients into the uterine lumen to stimulate mTOR cell signaling required for conceptus development, as well as effects of IFNT on the immune system and adiposity in rats with respect to its potential therapeutic value in reducing obesity.

Bazer, Fuller W; Kim, Jingyoung; Song, Gwonhwa; Ka, Hakhyun; Tekwe, Carmen D; Wu, Guoyao

2012-01-01

60

Metabolic context affects hemodynamic response to bupivacaine in the isolated rat heart.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that the local anesthetic bupivacaine selectively inhibits oxidative metabolism of fatty acids in isolated cardiac mitochondria. In the present investigation, we compare the development of bupivacaine cardiotoxicity during fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Hearts from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were excised and retrograde perfused with a solution containing fatty acid (oleate or octanoate) or carbohydrate substrates for cardiac metabolism. An infusion of bupivacaine was initiated and sustained until asystole, after which full cardiac recovery was allowed. During fatty acid metabolism, substantially lower bupivacaine doses induced both arrhythmia (60.4+/-11.5 microg oleate and 106.8+/-14.8 octanoate versus 153.4+/-21.4 carbohydrate; P<0.05) and asystole (121.0+/-30.1 microg and 171.5+/-20.2 versus 344.7+/-34.6; P<0.001). Dose-response analysis revealed significantly increased sensitivity to bupivacaine toxicity during fatty acid metabolism, indicated by lower V50 doses for both heart rate (70.6+/-5.6 microg oleate and 122.3+/-6.2 octanoate versus 152.6+/-8.6) and rate-pressure product (63.4+/-5.1 microg and 133.7+/-7.9 versus 165.1+/-12.2). Time to recovery following bupivacaine exposure was elevated in the fatty acid group (24.3+/-2.0 s versus 15.8+/-3.1; P<0.04). Fatty acid metabolism was shown to predispose the isolated heart to bupivacaine toxicity, confirming that the local anesthetic exerts specific effects on lipid processes in cardiomyocytes. PMID:18096147

Edelman, Lucas B; Ripper, Richard; Kelly, Kemba; Di Gregorio, Guido; Weinberg, Guy L

2008-03-10

61

Chromosomal location of mutations affecting sucrose metabolism in Bacillus subtilis Marburg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations affecting sucrose metabolism have been mapped by PBS1 transduction on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome in seven loci sacA, sacB, sacQ, sacR, sacS, sacT and sacU. sacA and sacB are presumed to be the structural genes of a sucrase and a levansucrase respectively. sacR, sacS and sacT correspond to groups of mutations leading to constitutive synthesis of sucrase or both

Jean-Antoine Lepesant; Frank Kunst; Jana Lepesant-Kejzlarová; Raymond Dedonder

1972-01-01

62

Drugs Affecting Lipid Metabolism--XIII International Symposium. 30 May-3 June 1998, Florence, Italy.  

PubMed

This meeting convened over four days in the historical city of Florence, Italy. It attracted around 2500 attendees mainly from academia and pharmaceutical companies but also included clinical cardiologists from around the world. The conference covered a wide range of topics in the field of heart disease and lipid lowering drugs in the plenary sessions, workshops, and over 300 posters. The plenary sessions and series of workshops entitled "Drugs affecting lipid metabolism" were well attended and stimulated much discussion. There was a noticeably high content of basic research in the workshops, particularly in the field of molecular biology, although clinical studies also made up a large part of the data. PMID:18465547

Ahmed, T

1998-07-01

63

L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.  

PubMed

The dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types. PMID:22984600

Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bill, Roslyn M; Hipkiss, Alan R

2012-01-01

64

L-Carnosine Affects the Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Metabolism-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

The dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10–30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

Cartwright, Stephanie P.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Hipkiss, Alan R.

2012-01-01

65

Potato Snakin-1 Gene Silencing Affects Cell Division, Primary Metabolism, and Cell Wall Composition1[W  

PubMed Central

Snakin-1 (SN1) is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that was classified as a member of the Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis protein family. In this work, a transgenic approach was used to study the role of SN1 in planta. Even when overexpressing SN1, potato lines did not show remarkable morphological differences from the wild type; SN1 silencing resulted in reduced height, which was accompanied by an overall reduction in leaf size and severe alterations of leaf shape. Analysis of the adaxial epidermis of mature leaves revealed that silenced lines had 70% to 90% increases in mean cell size with respect to wild-type leaves. Consequently, the number of epidermal cells was significantly reduced in these lines. Confocal microscopy analysis after agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that SN1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in plasma membrane, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that SN1 self-interacted in vivo. We further focused our study on leaf metabolism by applying a combination of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric techniques. These targeted analyses allowed a detailed examination of the changes occurring in 46 intermediate compounds from primary metabolic pathways and in seven cell wall constituents. We demonstrated that SN1 silencing affects cell division, leaf primary metabolism, and cell wall composition in potato plants, suggesting that SN1 has additional roles in growth and development beyond its previously assigned role in plant defense.

Nahirnak, Vanesa; Almasia, Natalia Ines; Fernandez, Paula Virginia; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Estevez, Jose Manuel; Carrari, Fernando; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

2012-01-01

66

FMRI scanner noise interaction with affective neural processes.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=34, 19 female) were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier) and emotion (fear, neutral, joy) were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus). Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes. PMID:24260420

Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

2013-01-01

67

Do the noncaffeine ingredients of energy drinks affect metabolic responses to heavy exercise?  

PubMed

Energy drinks (EDs) such as Red Bull (RB) are marketed to enhance metabolism. Secondary ingredients of EDs (e.g., taurine) have been purported to improve time trial performance; however, little research exists on how such secondary ingredients affect aerobic metabolism during heavy exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the secondary ingredients of RB on aerobic metabolism during and subsequent to heavy exercise. In double-blind, counterbalanced, and crossover fashion, 8 recreationally trained individuals completed a graded exercise test to determine the gas exchange threshold (GET). Subjects returned on 2 separate occasions and ingested either a 245 ml serving of RB or a control (CTRL) drink with the equivalent caffeine before engaging in two 10-minute constant-load cycling bouts, at an intensity equivalent to GET, with 3 minutes of rest between bouts. Accumulated liters of O2 (10 minutes) were higher for the first bout (17.1 ± 3.5 L) vs. the second bout (16.7 ± 3.5 L) but did not differ between drinks. Similarly, excess postexercise oxygen consumption was higher after the initial bout (RB mean, 2.6 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 2.9 ± 0.90 L) vs. the second bout (RB mean, 1.5 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 1.9 ± 0.87 L) but did not differ between drinks. No differences occurred between drinks for measures of heart rate or rating of perceived exertion. These results indicate that the secondary ingredients contained in a single serving of RB do not augment aerobic metabolism during or subsequent to heavy exercise. PMID:23037611

Pettitt, Robert W; Niemeyer, JoLynne D; Sexton, Patrick J; Lipetzky, Amanda; Murray, Steven R

2013-07-01

68

Octacosanol affects lipid metabolism in rats fed on a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary octacosanol, a long-chain alcohol, on lipid metabolism was investigated in rats fed on a high-fat diet for 20 d. The addition of octacosanol (10 g/kg diet) to the high-fat diet led to a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the perirenal adipose tissue weight without decrease of the cell number, suggesting that octacosanol may suppress lipid accumulation in this tissue, whereas no effect was seen in the epididymal adipose tissue weight and in the lipid content in liver. Octacosanol supplementation decreased the serum triacylglycerol concentration, and enhanced the concentration of serum fatty acids, probably through inhibition of hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.4). Though the activity of hormone-sensitive lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) was not influenced by octacosanol, higher activities of lipoprotein lipase (EC 3.1.1.34) in the perirenal adipose tissue and the total oxidation rate of fatty acid in muscle were observed. Lipid absorption was not affected by the inclusion of octacosanol. Thus, the present results suggest that the dietary incorporation of octacosanol into a high-fat diet affects some aspects of lipid metabolism. PMID:7766566

Kato, S; Karino, K; Hasegawa, S; Nagasawa, J; Nagasaki, A; Eguchi, M; Ichinose, T; Tago, K; Okumori, H; Hamatani, K

1995-03-01

69

Nitrogen uptake and metabolism in Populus x canescens as affected by salinity.  

PubMed

External salinization can affect different steps of nitrogen (N) metabolism (ion uptake, N assimilation, and amino acid and protein synthesis) depending on the inorganic N source. Here, we assessed the net uptake of N supplied as nitrate or ammonium and N assimilation (combining metabolite analyses with molecular biological approaches) in grey poplar (Populus x canescens) plants grown under saline (75 mM NaCl) and control conditions. The specific (micromol N g(-1) dry weight fine roots h(-1)) and total plant (micromol N per plant h(-1)) N net uptake rates, total plant N content, total plant biomass and total leaf protein concentration were reduced under saline conditions when plants were supplied with ammonium. In both nutritional groups, salt treatment caused pronounced accumulation of soluble N compounds in the leaves. The mRNAs of genes coding for enzymes catalyzing rate-limiting steps of both proline synthesis and degradation (delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase and proline dehydrogenase) as well as for NADH-dependent glutamate synthase were accumulated under saline conditions. Whereas under control conditions the plant N status seemed to be superior when ammonium was supplied, the N balance of ammonium-fed plants was more severely affected by salt stress than that of plants supplied with nitrate. Possible metabolic implications of stress-related accumulation of particular amino acids are discussed. PMID:17204075

Dluzniewska, P; Gessler, A; Dietrich, H; Schnitzler, J-P; Teuber, M; Rennenberg, H

2007-01-01

70

Factors Affecting Information Processing in Short-Term Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three experiments were conducted to investigate several of the variables that affect information processing in short-term memory as reflected by the strategies used by Ss in a visual search task. The first study investigated differences in strategy as a f...

S. M. Moss J. F. Hearns J. B. Soward

1966-01-01

71

Political Expertise and Affect: Effects on News Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates interactions between political expertise and affect in shaping cognitive strategies people employ in forming reactions to newspaper stories. Finds that, in processing the news articles, political experts produced a greater number of thoughts and a larger share of arguments than did novices. Observes no predicted main effects of…

Hsu, Mei-Ling; Price, Vincent

1993-01-01

72

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

73

Characterization of the ischemic process by regional metabolism.  

PubMed

The myocardial cell requires energy for contractile activity and for the work of internal maintenance. With the onset of ischemia mechanical performance is compromised. If the ischemia is severe and persistent, the energy necessary to maintain the internal millieu proves inadequate and cell death ensues. Ischemic heart disease is a regional phenomenon with normal and abnormal cell metabolism occurring side by side. The ischemic cell demonstrates hemodynamic, electrical and biochemical instability; its passage from a state of reversible to irreversible injury may persist for as long as 7 days and offers an opportunity to introduce interventions that may protect it and reduce ultimate infarct size. There is as yet no adequate objective means for predicting the mass of infarcted tissue. However, studies of regional metabolism, if properly conducted, may help define the adequacy of coronary vascular reserve and characterize the ischemic process. Current techniques utilize a myocardial pacing stress to induce an ischemic response. Although virtually every metabolic pathway is disrupted by severe ischemia, the assay of selected metabolities in arterial and coronary venous blood samples has provided information of diagnostic significance. PMID:1258783

Brachfeld, N

1976-03-31

74

Humans Process Dog and Human Facial Affect in Similar Ways  

PubMed Central

Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., social isolation) provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs.

Schirmer, Annett; Seow, Cui Shan; Penney, Trevor B.

2013-01-01

75

Humans process dog and human facial affect in similar ways.  

PubMed

Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., social isolation) provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs. PMID:24023954

Schirmer, Annett; Seow, Cui Shan; Penney, Trevor B

2013-01-01

76

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children.  

PubMed

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body. PMID:19860886

Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; Leblanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

2009-01-01

77

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children  

PubMed Central

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body.

Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; LeBlanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

2009-01-01

78

Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1) activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14) an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids) to the leaves.

2012-01-01

79

Factors affecting carisoprodol metabolism in pain patients using urinary excretion data.  

PubMed

Carisoprodol is a skeletal muscle relaxant prescribed to treat pain. Carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate, an active metabolite with anxiolytic effects, by the genetically polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme. Concomitant use of CYP2C19 substrates or inhibitors may alter carisoprodol metabolism, with therapeutic and/or toxic implications for effectively treating patients with pain. This was a retrospective analysis of urinary excretion data collected from patients with pain from March 2008 to May 2011. Carisoprodol and meprobamate urine concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the metabolic ratio (MR) of meprobamate to carisoprodol concentrations was determined in 14,965 subjects. The MR geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the young group (105, 95% CI = 99.1-113) were ?47.4% higher than the middle-aged group (71.9, 95% CI = 70-73.8) and nearly two times higher than the elderly group (54.4, 95% CI = 51.3-57.6). Females had a 20.7% higher MR compared with males. No significant change in the MR was observed with overall CYP2C19 inhibitor or substrate use. However, evaluation of individual inhibitors showed co-administration with esomeprazole or fluoxetine was associated with a 31.8 and 24.6% reduction in MR, respectively, compared with controls (P < 0.05). Omeprazole did not significantly affect the MR. Patient-specific factors such as age, sex and co-medications may be important considerations for effective carisoprodol therapy. PMID:24488112

Tse, Stephanie A; Atayee, Rabia S; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M

2014-04-01

80

Species and Gender Differences Affect the Metabolism of Emodin via Glucuronidation  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to define the mechanisms responsible for poor bioavailability of emodin by determining its metabolism using in vitro and in situ disposition models of the intestine and liver. Liver microsomes of mice, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, and humans were used along with the rat intestinal perfusion model and the rat intestinal microsomes. In the rat intestine, excretion rates of emodin-3-O-glucuronide were significantly different (p?metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase is the major reason why emodin has poor bioavailability. Species and gender affected emodin metabolism to a different degree, and experimental animals are expected to be useful in predicting emodin glucuronidation in humans.

Liu, Wei; Tang, Lan; Ye, Ling; Cai, Zheng; Xia, Bijun; Zhang, Jiajie

2010-01-01

81

Branching process approach for Boolean bipartite networks of metabolic reactions.  

PubMed

The branching process (BP) approach has been successful in explaining the avalanche dynamics in complex networks. However, its applications are mainly focused on unipartite networks, in which all nodes are of the same type. Here, motivated by a need to understand avalanche dynamics in metabolic networks, we extend the BP approach to a particular bipartite network composed of Boolean AND and OR logic gates. We reduce the bipartite network into a unipartite network by integrating out OR gates and obtain the effective branching ratio for the remaining AND gates. Then the standard BP approach is applied to the reduced network, and the avalanche-size distribution is obtained. We test the BP results with simulations on the model networks and two microbial metabolic networks, demonstrating the usefulness of the BP approach. PMID:23005888

Lee, Deokjae; Goh, K-I; Kahng, B

2012-08-01

82

Processes affecting the oceanic distributions of dissolved calcium and alkalinity  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of the CO/sub 2/ system have suggested that chemical processes in addition to the dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate affect the oceanic calcium and alkalinity distributions. Calcium and alkalinity data from the North Pacific have been examined both by using the simple physical-chemical model of previous workers and by a study involving the broader oceanographic context of these data. The simple model is shown to be an inadequate basis for these studies. Although a proton flux associated with organic decomposition may affect the alkalinity, previously reported deviations of calcium-alkalinity correlations from expected trends appear to be related to boundary processes that have been neglected rather than to this proton flux. The distribution of calcium in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean is examined.

Shiller, A.M.; Gieskes, J.M.

1980-05-20

83

Neural Correlates of Affect Processing and Aggression in Methamphetamine Dependence  

PubMed Central

Context Methamphetamine abuse is associated with high rates of aggression, but few studies have addressed the contributing neurobiological factors. Objective To quantify aggression, investigate function of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and assess relationships between brain function and behavior in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Design In a case-control study, aggression and brain activation were compared between methamphetamine-dependent and control participants. Setting Participants were recruited from the general community to an academic research center. Participants Thirty-nine methamphetamine-dependent volunteers (16 women) who were abstinent for 7 to 10 days and 37 drug-free control volunteers (18 women) participated in the study; subsets completed self-report and behavioral measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 25 methamphetamine-dependent and 23 control participants. Main outcome measures We measured self-reported and perpetrated aggression, and self-reported alexithymia. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI during visual processing of facial affect (affect matching), and symbolic processing (affect labeling), the latter representing an incidental form of emotion regulation. Results Methamphetamine-dependent participants self-reported more aggression and alexithymia than control participants and escalated perpetrated aggression more following provocation. Alexithymia scores correlated with measures of aggression. During affect matching, fMRI showed no differences between groups in amygdala activation, but found lower activation in methamphetamine-dependent than control participants in bilateral ventral inferior frontal gyrus. During affect labeling, participants recruited dorsal inferior frontal gyrus and exhibited decreased amygdala activity, consistent with successful emotion regulation; there was no group difference in this effect. The magnitude of decrease in amygdala activity during affect labeling correlated inversely with self-reported aggression in control participants, and perpetrated aggression in all participants. Ventral inferior frontal gyrus activation correlated inversely with alexithymia in control participants. Conclusions Contrary to the hypotheses, methamphetamine-dependent individuals may successfully regulate emotions through incidental means (affect labeling). Instead, low ventral inferior frontal gyrus activity may contribute to heightened aggression by limiting emotional insight.

Payer, Doris E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; London, Edythe D.

2012-01-01

84

Assessment of Chitosan-Affected Metabolic Response by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Bioluminescent Imaging-Guided Transcriptomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB) and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.

Kao, Chia-Hung; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

2012-01-01

85

Demonstrating emotional processing differences in psychopathy using affective ERP modulation.  

PubMed

Psychopaths exhibit abnormalities processing emotional information, but there is less certainty regarding the role attention plays in these processes. We present data from two affective picture-viewing tasks comparing event-related potential (ERP) modulation effects when emotional information is present but not task relevant (Task 1) followed by a condition directing attention to the categorization of emotional content (Task 2). Controls show a robust, persistent ERP positivity (200-900?ms) associated with emotional target photos compared to neutral targets in both tasks. Individuals with psychopathy only showed this differentiation when explicitly attending to the emotional content of the photos (Task 2), and these effects remained smaller than the amplitude differences demonstrated by controls. Although abnormal allocation of attention may play a critical role, this cannot completely account for emotional processing deficits associated with psychopathy. PMID:22524235

Anderson, Nathaniel E; Stanford, Matthew S

2012-06-01

86

Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Perlut, N. G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A. M.; Donovan, T. M.; Kilpatrick, C. W.; Zalik, N. J.

2008-01-01

87

Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites.  

PubMed Central

The remediation of chromium-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the processes that control the migration and transformation of chromium. Advection, dispersion, and diffusion are physical processes affecting the rate at which contaminants can migrate in the subsurface. Heterogeneity is an important factor that affects the contribution of each of these mechanisms to the migration of chromium-laden waters. Redox reactions, chemical speciation, adsorption/desorption phenomena, and precipitation/dissolution reactions control the transformation and mobility of chromium. The reduction of CrVI to CrIII can occur in the presence of ferrous iron in solution or in mineral phases, reduced sulfur compounds, or soil organic matter. At neutral to alkaline pH, the CrIII precipitates as amorphous hydroxides or forms complexes with organic matter. CrIII is oxidized by manganese dioxide, a common mineral found in many soils. Solid-phase precipitates of hexavalent chromium such as barium chromate can serve either as sources or sinks for CrVI. Adsorption of CrVI in soils increases with decreasing chromium concentration, making it more difficult to remove the chromium as the concentration decreases during pump-and-treat remediation. Knowledge of these chemical and physical processes is important in developing and selecting effective, cost-efficient remediation designs for chromium-contaminated sites.

Palmer, C D; Wittbrodt, P R

1991-01-01

88

Sydnone SYD-1 affects the metabolic functions of isolated rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated that sydnone SYD-1 (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) impairs the mitochondrial functions linked to energy provision and suggested that this effect could be associated with its antitumor activity. Herein, we evaluated the effects of SYD-1 (25 and 50?M) on rat hepatocytes to determine its cytotoxicity on non-tumor cells. SYD-1 (25 and 50?M) did not affect the viability of hepatocytes in suspension after 1-40min of incubation. However, the viability of the cultured hepatocytes was decreased by ?66% as a consequence of treatment with SYD-1 (50?M) for 18h. Under the same conditions, SYD-1 promoted an increase in the release of LDH by ?19%. The morphological changes in the cultured cells treated with SYD-1 (50?M) were suggestive of cell distress, which was demonstrated by the presence of rounded hepatocytes, cell fragments and monolayer impairment. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopy showed an increase in the annexin label after treatment with SYD-1 (50?M), suggesting that apoptosis had been induced in these cells. SYD-1 did not affect the states of respiration in the suspended hepatocytes, but the pyruvate levels were decreased by ?36%, whereas the lactate levels were increased by ?22% (for the 50?M treatment). The basal and uncoupled states of respiration of the cultured hepatocytes were inhibited by ?79% and ?51%, respectively, by SYD-1 (50?M). In these cells, SYD-1 (50?M) increased the pyruvate and lactate levels by ?84% and ?16%, respectively. These results show that SYD-1 affects important metabolic functions related to energy provision in hepatocytes and that this effect was more pronounced on cells in culture than those in suspension. PMID:24836382

Brandt, Anna Paula; do Rocio Andrade Pires, Amanda; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Acco, Alexandra; de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Echevarria, Aurea; Dos Santos Canuto, André Vinícius; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

2014-07-25

89

Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.  

PubMed

Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects? attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects? task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. PMID:24593900

Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

2014-04-01

90

Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardio-vascular health.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

2014-02-01

91

A dynamic computer model of the metabolic and regulatory processes in Crassulacean acid metabolism.  

PubMed

The paper describes a computer model which is capable of simulating the typical phenomena of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). The model is based on a simplified scheme of the metabolic processes of CAM described earlier in the literature. The evolution of the model proceeded in the following steps, namely i) a verbal description of CAM in the form of a scheme integrating the metabolic and regulatory CAM processes at the cellular level of the cell, and transcription of the scheme into a block diagram; ii) the stepwise transformation of the block diagram into a structural model, represented by a system of differential equations; this was later used as the dynamic model. In the first attempt to construct the dynamic model, it appeared to be useful to accept the following simplifications: i) All reactions involved were considered to be of the first order. ii) Sequences of reactions, in which the intermediary products appeared to be of minor importance, were summarized in a single step. iii) All reactions were considered to proceed irreversibly in the main direction. iv) The mathematical formulations, usually used in describing enzyme regulations (for instance, competitive or allosteric behaviour), were replaced in the model by a uniformly simplified equation which independent of the actual mechanism, described activation by the multiplication of the velocity constant with an activating factor, and inhibition by division of the velocity constant by an inhibiting factor. v) From the manifold interactions between the plants and their environment, at present, only two factors have been selected to act as input parameters of the model, namely, the CO2 concentration in the air and light. Our studies showed that the model was capable of simulating not only some basic phenomena of CAM such as the diurnal rhythms of malic acid and starch, and the diurnal pattern of net CO2 exchange, but also alterations in the pool sizes of phosphoenolpyruvate, glucose-6-phosphate and internal CO2. The latter were of particular interest since the experimental findings were not made known to the model-building coauthors prior to the formulation of the model. Thus, the results could not influence the structure and behaviour of the model. It was also possible to simulate alterations of CAM behaviour as occurring in vivo in response to environmental signals. In all tested cases, the simulation was in very good agreement with the in-vivo behaviour of the plants documented by experiments or observations. This close agreement between the in-vivo behaviour of CAM and the simulation by the model indicated that the basic scheme of CAM contained all the major metabolic and regulatory interrelationships operating in vivo to bring about CAM. PMID:24253091

Nungesser, D; Kluge, M; Tolle, H; Oppelt, W

1984-09-01

92

Are Accuracy and Reaction Time Affected via Different Processes?  

PubMed Central

A recent study by van Ede et al. (2012) shows that the accuracy and reaction time in humans of tactile perceptual decisions are affected by an attentional cue via distinct cognitive and neural processes. These results are controversial as they undermine the notion that accuracy and reaction time are influenced by the same latent process that underlie the decision process. Typically, accumulation-to-bound models (like the drift diffusion model) can explain variability in both accuracy and reaction time by a change of a single parameter. To elaborate the findings of van Ede et al., we fitted the drift diffusion model to their behavioral data. Results show that both changes in accuracy and reaction time can be partly explained by an increase in the accumulation of sensory evidence (drift rate). In addition, a change in non-decision time is necessary to account for reaction time changes as well. These results provide a subtle explanation of how the underlying dynamics of the decision process might give rise to differences in both the speed and accuracy of perceptual tactile decisions. Furthermore, our analyses highlight the importance of applying a model-based approach, as the observed changes in the model parameters might be ecologically more valid, since they have an intuitive relationship with the neuronal processes underlying perceptual decision making.

Mulder, Martijn J.; van Maanen, Leendert

2013-01-01

93

Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch  

PubMed Central

Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

Bjornsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Hakan; Kaiser, Martha D.

2014-01-01

94

Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. Prior attempts to uncouple and quantify these processes have relied on column experiments, where the effluent concentration was monitored under different conditions in an effort to quantify the contributions from a single process. In real porous media these processes occur simultaneously and are inter-related. Further, the contribution from each of these processes varies at the pore scale and with time. This research aims to determine the pore-scale processes that limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. The specific objectives are to: (1) determine the effect of unswept zones on DNAPL removal during SVE, (2) determine the effect of retarded vapor phase transport on DNAPL removal during SVE, and (3) determine the effect of interphase mass transfer on DNAPL removal during SVE, all as a function of changing moisture and DNAPL content. To fulfill these objectives we propose to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe and quantify the location and size of individual pores containing DNAPL, water, and vapor in flow through columns filled with model and natural sediments. Imaging results will be used in conjunction with modeling techniques to develop spatially and temporally dependent constitutive relations that describe the transient distribution of phases inside a column experiment. These constitutive relations will be incorporated into a site-scale transport model to evaluate how the different processes affect SVE performance in practical applications. This will allow decision makers to better assess the risk associated with vadose zone contamination and the effectiveness of SVE at hazardous waste sites.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Webb, Andrew G.

2001-06-01

95

Effects of processing style on responsiveness to affective stimuli and processing fluency.  

PubMed

In the present study, we provide direct evidence for effects of global versus local processing on responsiveness to and reliance on affective information in judgement and decision-making. Results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed an increased responsiveness to affective stimuli among participants in a global processing mode. Experiment 3 showed similar effects for processing fluency; participants adopting a global processing style showed an increased reliance on fluency. Experiment 4 replicated our findings in a more mundane judgement task in which participants judged apartments. We discuss our findings in relation to the distinction between intuitive versus deliberative modes of thinking. PMID:24341779

Dijkstra, Koen A; van der Pligt, Joop; van Kleef, Gerben A

2014-09-01

96

Diet-induced alterations of host cholesterol metabolism are likely to affect the gut microbiota composition in hamsters.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal microbiota affects the metabolism of the mammalian host and has consequences for health. However, the complexity of gut microbial communities and host metabolic pathways make functional connections difficult to unravel, especially in terms of causation. In this study, we have characterized the fecal microbiota of hamsters whose cholesterol metabolism was extensively modulated by the dietary addition of plant sterol esters (PSE). PSE intake induced dramatic shifts in the fecal microbiota, reducing several bacterial taxa within the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae. The abundance of these taxa displayed remarkably high correlations with host cholesterol metabolites. Most importantly, the associations between several bacterial taxa with fecal and biliary cholesterol excretion showed an almost perfect fit to a sigmoidal nonlinear model of bacterial inhibition, suggesting that host cholesterol excretion can shape microbiota structure through the antibacterial action of cholesterol. In vitro experiments suggested a modest antibacterial effect of cholesterol, and especially of cholesteryl-linoleate, but not plant sterols when included in model bile micelles. The findings obtained in this study are relevant to our understanding of gut microbiota-host lipid metabolism interactions, as they provide the first evidence for a role of cholesterol excreted with the bile as a relevant host factor that modulates the gut microbiota. The findings further suggest that the connections between Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae and host lipid metabolism, which have been observed in several studies, could be caused by a metabolic phenotype of the host (cholesterol excretion) affecting the gut microbiota. PMID:23124234

Martínez, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J; Brown, Andrew W; Hammons, Susan; Carden, Trevor J; Carr, Timothy P; Eskridge, Kent M; Walter, Jens

2013-01-01

97

Metabolic Parameters and Emotionality Are Little Affected in G-Protein Coupled Receptor 12 (Gpr12) Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Background G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) bear the potential to serve as yet unidentified drug targets for psychiatric and metabolic disorders. GPR12 is of major interest given its putative role in metabolic function and its unique brain distribution, which suggests a role in emotionality and affect. We tested Gpr12 deficient mice in a series of metabolic and behavioural tests and subjected them to a well-established high-fat diet feeding protocol. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparing the mutant mice with wild type littermates, no significant differences were seen in body weight, fatness or weight gain induced by a high-fat diet. The Gpr12 mutant mice displayed a modest but significant lowering of energy expenditure and a trend to lower food intake on a chow diet, but no other metabolic parameters, including respiratory rate, were altered. No emotionality-related behaviours (assessed by light-dark box, tail suspension, and open field tests) were affected by the Gpr12 gene mutation. Conclusions/Significance Studying metabolic and emotionality parameters in Gpr12 mutant mice did not reveal a major phenotypic impact of the gene mutation. Compared to previous results showing a metabolic phenotype in Gpr12 mice with a mixed 129 and C57Bl6 background, we suggest that a more pure C57Bl/6 background due to further backcrossing might have reduced the phenotypic penetrance.

Frank, Elisabeth; Wu, Yizhen; Piyaratna, Naomi; Body, William James; Snikeris, Peta; South, Timothy; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Huang, Xu-Feng

2012-01-01

98

Genomewide transcriptional changes associated with genetic alterations and nutritional supplementation affecting tryptophan metabolism in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

DNA microarrays comprising ?95% of the Bacillus subtilis annotated protein coding ORFs were deployed to generate a series of snapshots of genomewide transcriptional changes that occur when cells are grown under various conditions that are expected to increase or decrease transcription of the trp operon segment of the aromatic supraoperon. Comparisons of global expression patterns were made between cells grown in the presence of indole acrylic acid, a specific inhibitor of tRNATrp charging; cells deficient in expression of the mtrB gene, which encodes the tryptophan-activated negative regulatory protein, TRAP; WT cells grown in the presence or absence of two or three of the aromatic amino acids; and cells harboring a tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase mutation conferring temperature-sensitive tryptophan-dependent growth. Our findings validate expected responses of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes and presumed regulatory interrelationships between genes in the different aromatic amino acid pathways and the histidine biosynthetic pathway. Using a combination of supervised and unsupervised statistical methods we identified ?100 genes whose expression profiles were closely correlated with those of the genes in the trp operon. This finding suggests that expression of these genes is influenced directly or indirectly by regulatory events that affect or are a consequence of altered tryptophan metabolism.

Berka, Randy M.; Cui, Xianju; Yanofsky, Charles

2003-01-01

99

Water Deficit Affected Flavonoid Accumulation by Regulating Hormone Metabolism in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Roots  

PubMed Central

The content of flavonoids especially baicalin and baicalein determined the medical quality of Scutellaria baicalensis which is a Chinese traditional medicinal plant. Here, we investigated the mechanism responsible for the content and composition of flavonoids in S. baicalensis under water deficit condition. The transcription levels of several genes which are involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were stimulated by water deficit. Under water deficit condition, fifteen up-regulated proteins, three down-regulated proteins and other six proteins were detected by proteomic analysis. The identified proteins include three gibberellin (GA)- or indoleacetic acid (IAA)-related proteins. Decreased endogenous GAs level and increased IAA level were observed in leaves of S. baicalensis which was treated with water deficit. Exogenous application of GA or ?-naphthalene acelic acid (NAA) to plants grown under water deficit conditions led to the increase of endogenous GAs and the decrease of IAA and flavonoids, respectively. When the synthesis pathway of GA or IAA in plants was inhibited by application with the inhibitors, flavonoid levels were recovered. These results indicate that water deficit affected flavonoid accumulation might through regulating hormone metabolism in S. baicalensis Georgi.

Wu, Chong; Chen, Shunqin; Wang, Zhouyong; Yang, Zhaochun; Qin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Luqi

2012-01-01

100

Rapamycin does not affect post-absorptive protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Administration of the mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, to humans blocks the increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis in response to resistance exercise or amino acid ingestion. Objective To determine whether rapamycin administration influences basal post-absorptive protein synthesis or breakdown in human skeletal muscle. Materials/Methods Six young (26±2 years) subjects were studied during two separate trials, in which each trial was divided into two consecutive 2h basal periods. The trials were identical except during one trial a single oral dose (16mg) of rapamycin was administered immediately prior to the second basal period. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at 0, 2, and 4h to examine protein synthesis, mTORC1 signaling, and markers of autophagy (LC3B-I and LC3B-II protein) associated with each 2h basal period. Results During the Control trial, muscle protein synthesis, whole body protein breakdown (phenylalanine Ra), mTORC1 signaling, and markers of autophagy were similar between both basal periods (p>0.05). During the Rapamycin trial, these variables were similar to the Control trial (p>0.05) and were unaltered by rapamycin administration (p>0.05). Thus, post-absorptive muscle protein metabolism and mTORC1 signaling were not affected by rapamycin administration. Conclusions Short-term rapamycin administration may only impair protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle when combined with a stimulus such as resistance exercise or increased amino acid availability.

Dickinson, Jared M.; Drummond, Micah J.; Fry, Christopher S.; Gundermann, David M.; Walker, Dillon K.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

2013-01-01

101

Rearing temperature affects Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae protein metabolic capacity.  

PubMed

The present work examined the short- and long-term effects of three rearing temperatures on protein metabolism and growth trajectories of Senegalese sole larvae using ¹?C-labelled Artemia protein as feed. A first feeding trial was performed on larvae reared at 15, 18 and 21 °C (at 26, 17 and 14 days post-hatching (dph), respectively) and a second trial conducted on post-larvae after transfer to the same rearing temperature (~20 °C) (49, 35 and 27 dph, in larvae initially reared at 15, 18 and 21 °C, respectively). Temperature greatly influenced larvae relative growth rate (RGR) and survival, since growth at 15 °C was severely depressed. Protein digestibility and retention was highest at 18 °C during the first trial (85.35 ± 1.16 and 86.34 ± 2.33 %, respectively). However, during the second trial, post-larvae from 15 °C had the highest feed intake and protein digestibility (3.58 ± 1.54 and 75.50 ± 1.35 %, respectively), although retention was similar between treatments. Furthermore, after transfer to 20 °C larvae from 15 °C experienced compensatory growth, which was observed until 121 dph, and confirmed by RGR values, which were significantly higher at 15 ºC than at 21 ºC or 18 ºC. Results from the present study show that Solea senegalensis larval development, survival and protein digestion and retention are highly affected by thermal history. PMID:23644726

Campos, Catarina; Castanheira, M Filipa; Engrola, Sofia; Valente, Luísa M P; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Conceição, Luís E C

2013-12-01

102

Metabolic effects of furaldehydes and impacts on biotechnological processes.  

PubMed

There is a growing awareness that lignocellulose will be a major raw material for production of both fuel and chemicals in the coming decades--most likely through various fermentation routes. Considerable attention has been given to the problem of finding efficient means of separating the major constituents in lignocellulose (i.e., lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose) and to efficiently hydrolyze the carbohydrate parts into sugars. In these processes, by-products will inevitably form to some extent, and these will have to be dealt with in the ensuing microbial processes. One group of compounds in this category is the furaldehydes. 2-Furaldehyde (furfural) and substituted 2-furaldehydes--most importantly 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde--are the dominant inhibitory compounds found in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The furaldehydes are known to have biological effects and act as inhibitors in fermentation processes. The effects of these compounds will therefore have to be considered in the design of biotechnological processes using lignocellulose. In this short review, we take a look at known metabolic effects, as well as strategies to overcome problems in biotechnological applications caused by furaldehydes. PMID:19184597

Almeida, João R M; Bertilsson, Magnus; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F; Gorsich, Steven; Lidén, Gunnar

2009-03-01

103

Conserved changes in the dynamics of metabolic processes during fruit development and ripening across species.  

PubMed

Computational analyses of molecular phenotypes traditionally aim at identifying biochemical components that exhibit differential expression under various scenarios (e.g. environmental and internal perturbations) in a single species. High-throughput metabolomics technologies allow the quantification of (relative) metabolite levels across developmental stages in different tissues, organs, and species. Novel methods for analyzing the resulting multiple data tables could reveal preserved dynamics of metabolic processes across species. The problem we address in this study is 2-fold. (1) We derive a single data table, referred to as a compromise, which captures information common to the investigated set of multiple tables containing data on different fruit development and ripening stages in three climacteric (i.e. peach [Prunus persica] and two tomato [Solanum lycopersicum] cultivars, Ailsa Craig and M82) and two nonclimacteric (i.e. strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa] and pepper [Capsicum chilense]) fruits; in addition, we demonstrate the power of the method to discern similarities and differences between multiple tables by analyzing publicly available metabolomics data from three tomato ripening mutants together with two tomato cultivars. (2) We identify the conserved dynamics of metabolic processes, reflected in the data profiles of the corresponding metabolites that contribute most to the determined compromise. Our analysis is based on an extension to principal component analysis, called STATIS, in combination with pathway overenrichment analysis. Based on publicly available metabolic profiles for the investigated species, we demonstrate that STATIS can be used to identify the metabolic processes whose behavior is similarly affected during fruit development and ripening. These findings ultimately provide insights into the pathways that are essential during fruit development and ripening across species. PMID:24243932

Klie, Sebastian; Osorio, Sonia; Tohge, Takayuki; Drincovich, María F; Fait, Aaron; Giovannoni, James J; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nikoloski, Zoran

2014-01-01

104

Nonsense mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene affect RNA processing.  

PubMed Central

Steady-state dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mRNA levels were decreased as a result of nonsense mutations in the dhfr gene. Thirteen DHFR-deficient mutants were isolated after treatment of Chinese hamster ovary cells with UV irradiation. The positions of most point mutations were localized by RNA heteroduplex mapping, the mutated regions were isolated by cloning or by enzymatic amplification, and base changes were determined by DNA sequencing. Two of the mutants suffered large deletions that spanned the entire dhfr gene. The remaining 11 mutations consisted of nine single-base substitutions, one double-base substitution, and one single-base insertion. All of the single-base substitutions took place at the 3' position of a pyrimidine dinucleotide, supporting the idea that UV mutagenesis proceeds through the formation of pyrimidine dimers in mammalian cells. Of the 11 point mutations, 10 resulted in nonsense codons, either directly or by a frameshift, suggesting that the selection method favored a null phenotype. An examination of steady-state RNA levels in cells carrying these mutations and a comparison with similar data from other dhfr mutants (A. M. Carothers, R. W. Steigerwalt, G. Urlaub, L. A. Chasin, and D. Grunberger, J. Mol. Biol., in press) showed that translation termination mutations in any of the internal exons of the gene gave rise to a low-RNA phenotype, whereas missense mutations in these exons or terminations in exon 6 (the final exon) did not affect dhfr mRNA levels. Nuclear run-on experiments showed that transcription of the mutant genes was normal. The stability of mature dhfr mRNA also was not affected, since (i) decay rates were the same in wild-type and mutant cells after inhibition of RNA synthesis with actinomycin D and (ii) intronless minigene versions of cloned wild-type and nonsense mutant genes were expressed equally after stable transfection. We conclude that RNA processing has been affected by these nonsense mutations and present a model in which both splicing and nuclear transport of an RNA molecule are coupled to its translation. Curiously, the low-RNA mutant phenotype was not exhibited after transfer of the mutant genes, suggesting that the transcripts of transfected genes may be processed differently than are those of their endogenous counterparts. Images

Urlaub, G; Mitchell, P J; Ciudad, C J; Chasin, L A

1989-01-01

105

Spectral context affects temporal processing in awake auditory cortex  

PubMed Central

Amplitude modulation encoding is critical for human speech perception and complex sound processing in general. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a staple of auditory psychophysics, and has been shown to predict speech intelligibility performance in a range of adverse listening conditions and hearing impairments, including cochlear implant-supported hearing. Although both tonal and broadband carriers have been employed in psychophysical studies of modulation detection and discrimination, relatively little is known about differences in the cortical representation of such signals. We obtained MTFs in response to sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) for both narrowband tonal carriers and 2-octave bandwidth noise carriers in the auditory core of awake squirrel monkeys. MTFs spanning modulation frequencies from 4 to 512 Hz were obtained using 16 channel linear recording arrays sampling across all cortical laminae. Carrier frequency for tonal SAM and center frequency for noise SAM was set at the estimated best frequency for each penetration. Changes in carrier type affected both rate and temporal MTFs in many neurons. Using spike discrimination techniques, we found that discrimination of modulation frequency was significantly better for tonal SAM than for noise SAM, though the differences were modest at the population level. Moreover, spike trains elicited by tonal and noise SAM could be readily discriminated in most cases. Collectively, our results reveal remarkable sensitivity to the spectral content of modulated signals, and indicate substantial interdependence between temporal and spectral processing in neurons of the core auditory cortex.

Beitel, Ralph E.; Vollmer, Maike; Heiser, Marc A; Schreiner, Christoph E.

2013-01-01

106

Metabolic ecology: How do body size and temperature affect nutrient cycling rates?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this TIEE dataset, students answer the question of whether nutrient cycling (excretion) rates of fish in lakes scale with body size and temperature as predicted by The Metabolic Theory of Ecology.Students use data on the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of fish to test hypotheses related to metabolic ecology.

Vanni, Michael J.

2011-08-29

107

Leptin: a metabolic signal affecting central regulation of reproduction in the pig.  

PubMed

The discovery of the obesity gene and its product, leptin, it is now possible to examine the relationship between body fat and the neuroendocrine axis. A minimum percentage of body fat may be linked to onset of puberty and weaning-to-estrus interval in the pig. Adipose tissue is no longer considered as only a depot to store excess energy in the form of fat. Recent findings demonstrate that numerous genes, i.e., relaxin, interleukins and other cytokines and biologically active substances such as leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-II and Agouti protein are produced by porcine adipose tissue, which could have a profound effect on appetite and the reproductive axis. Hypothalamic neurons are transsynaptically connected to porcine adipose tissue and may regulate adipose tissue function. In the pig nutritional signals such as leptin are detected by the central nervous system (CNS) and translated by the neuroendocrine system into signals, which regulate appetite, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and subsequent luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Furthermore, leptin directly affects LH secretion from the pituitary gland independent of CNS input. Changes in body weight or nutritional status are characterized by altered adipocyte function a reduction in adipose tissue leptin expression, serum leptin concentrations and a concurrent decrease in LH secretion. During pubertal development serum leptin levels, hypothalamic leptin receptor mRNA and estrogen-induced leptin gene expression in fat increased with age and adiposity in the pig and this occurred at the time of expected puberty. In the lactating sow serum and milk leptin concentrations were positively correlated with backfat thickness and level of dietary energy fed during gestation as well as feed consumption. Although, these results identify leptin as a putative signal that links metabolic status and neuroendocrine control of reproduction, other adipocyte protein products may play an important role in regulating the reproductive axis in the pig. PMID:15927773

Barb, C R; Hausman, G J; Czaja, K

2005-07-01

108

How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets.  

PubMed

For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell. PMID:18800972

Kuniansky, Eve L; Lowery, Mark A; Campbell, Bruce G

2009-01-01

109

How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

Kuniansky, E. L.; Lowery, M. A.; Campbell, B. G.

2009-01-01

110

Affective Signal Processing (ASP): Unraveling the mystery of emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slowly computers are being dressed and becoming huggable and tangible. They are being personalized and are expected to understand more of their users' feelings, emotions, and moods: This we refer to as affective computing. The work and experiences from 50+ publications on affective computing is collected and reported in one concise monograph. A brief introduction on emotion theory and affective

Broek van den Egon L

2011-01-01

111

Maize source leaf adaptation to nitrogen deficiency affects not only nitrogen and carbon metabolism but also control of phosphate homeostasis.  

PubMed

Crop plant development is strongly dependent on the availability of nitrogen (N) in the soil and the efficiency of N utilization for biomass production and yield. However, knowledge about molecular responses to N deprivation derives mainly from the study of model species. In this article, the metabolic adaptation of source leaves to low N was analyzed in maize (Zea mays) seedlings by parallel measurements of transcriptome and metabolome profiling. Inbred lines A188 and B73 were cultivated under sufficient (15 mM) or limiting (0.15 mM) nitrate supply for up to 30 d. Limited availability of N caused strong shifts in the metabolite profile of leaves. The transcriptome was less affected by the N stress but showed strong genotype- and age-dependent patterns. N starvation initiated the selective down-regulation of processes involved in nitrate reduction and amino acid assimilation; ammonium assimilation-related transcripts, on the other hand, were not influenced. Carbon assimilation-related transcripts were characterized by high transcriptional coordination and general down-regulation under low-N conditions. N deprivation caused a slight accumulation of starch but also directed increased amounts of carbohydrates into the cell wall and secondary metabolites. The decrease in N availability also resulted in accumulation of phosphate and strong down-regulation of genes usually involved in phosphate starvation response, underlining the great importance of phosphate homeostasis control under stress conditions. PMID:22972706

Schlüter, Urte; Mascher, Martin; Colmsee, Christian; Scholz, Uwe; Bräutigam, Andrea; Fahnenstich, Holger; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-11-01

112

Role of N-terminal protein formylation in central metabolic processes in Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial protein biosynthesis usually depends on a formylated methionyl start tRNA but Staphylococcus aureus is viable in the absence of Fmt, the tRNAMet formyl transferase. fmt mutants exhibit reduced growth rates indicating that the function of certain proteins depends on formylated N-termini but it has remained unclear, which cellular processes are abrogated by the lack of formylation. Results In order to elucidate how global metabolic processes are affected by the absence of formylated proteins the exometabolome of an S. aureus fmt mutant was compared with that of the parental strain and the transcription of corresponding enzymes was analyzed to identify possible regulatory changes. The mutant consumed glucose and other carbon sources slower than the wild type. While the turnover of several metabolites remained unaltered fmt inactivation led to increases pyruvate release and, concomitantly, reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. In parallel, the release of the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate, acetoin, and alanine was reduced. The anaerobic degradation of arginine was also reduced in the fmt mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Moreover, the lack of formylated proteins caused increased susceptibility to the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulamethoxazole suggesting that folic acid-dependant pathways were perturbed in the mutant. Conclusions These data indicate that formylated proteins are crucial for specific bacterial metabolic processes and they may help to understand why it has remained important during bacterial evolution to initiate protein biosynthesis with a formylated tRNAMet.

2013-01-01

113

Alpha-Tocopherol Modulates Transcriptional Activities that Affect Essential Biological Processes in Bovine Cells  

PubMed Central

Using global expression profiling and pathway analysis on ?-tocopherol-induced gene perturbation in bovine cells, this study has generated comprehensive information on the physiological functions of ?-tocopherol. The data confirmed ?-tocopherol is a potent regulator of gene expression and ?-tocopherol possesses novel transcriptional activities that affect essential biological processes. The genes identified fall within a broad range of functional categories and provide the molecular basis for its distinctive effects. Enrichment analyses of gene regulatory networks indicate ?-tocopherol alter the canonical pathway of lipid metabolism and transcription factors SREBP1 and SREBP2, (Sterol regulatory element binding proteins), which mediate the regulatory functions of lipid metabolism. Transcription factors HNF4-? (Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4), c-Myc, SP1 (Sp1 transcription factor), ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1, nuclear), and androgen receptor, along with several others, were centered as the hubs of transcription regulation networks. The data also provided direct evidence that ?-tocopherol is involved in maintaining immuno-homeostasis through targeting the C3 (Complement Component 3) gene.

Li, Cong-jun; Li, Robert W.; Elsasser, Theodore H.

2010-01-01

114

Severe dietary lysine restriction affects growth and body composition and hepatic gene expression for nitrogen metabolism in growing rats.  

PubMed

Dietary lysine restriction may differentially affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism, depending on the degree of lysine restriction. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism with two different degree of lysine restriction. Isocaloric amino acid-defined diets containing 1.4% lysine (adequate), 0.70% lysine (50% moderate lysine restriction) and 0.35% lysine (75% severe lysine restriction) were fed from the age of 52 to 77 days for 25 days in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The 75% severe lysine restriction increased (p < 0.05) food intake, but retarded (p < 0.05) growth, increased (p < 0.05) liver and muscle lipid contents and abdominal fat accumulation, increased (p < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen levels and mRNA levels of the serine-synthesizing 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene, but decreased (p < 0.05) urea cycle arginase gene mRNA levels. In contrast, the 50% lysine restriction did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism. Our results demonstrate that severe 75% lysine restriction has detrimental effects on body growth and deregulate lipid and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:23441935

Kim, J; Lee, K S; Kwon, D-H; Bong, J J; Jeong, J Y; Nam, Y S; Lee, M S; Liu, X; Baik, M

2014-02-01

115

Transcriptional responses of male fathead minnows exposed to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is produced by the oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. OSPW has acute and chronic effects on aquatic organisms, but the suite of effects of OSPW, and mechanisms of effects, are not understood. The goal of this study was to use RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to quantify abundances of transcripts in livers of male fathead minnows exposed to untreated OSPW and ozone-treated OSPW to investigate sublethal effects of untreated OSPW and to determine whether ozonation imparts toxicity upon OSPW. A reference transcriptome of 25,342 contigs was constructed from RNA from livers of fathead minnows exposed to various experimental conditions. Exposure to untreated OSPW resulted in greater abundances of 104 transcripts and lesser abundances of 91 transcripts. Oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and immune function were identified as processes affected by OSPW. Exposure to ozone-treated OSPW resulted in greater abundances of 57 transcripts and lesser abundances of 75 transcripts. However, in general, putative pathways for effects of OSPW in fathead minnows exposed to untreated OSPW were not identified in minnows exposed to ozone-treated OSPW, and pathways by which ozone-treated OSPW might have effects were not identified. PMID:23246600

Wiseman, Steve B; He, Yuhe; Gamal-El Din, Mohamed; Martin, Jonathan W; Jones, Paul D; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P

2013-03-01

116

Glutamate Catabolism of Rickettsia rickettsi and Factors Affecting Retention of Metabolic Activity1  

PubMed Central

Glutamate catabolism and the factors contributing to metabolic stability of purified suspensions of Rickettsia rickettsi were investigated. By use of 14C-glutamate, it was shown that CO2 was produced from all carbons of glutamate and that 14CO2 production was reduced by the addition of most of the unlabeled intermediates of the citric acid cycle and pyruvate. Oxalacetate, added in various concentrations, did not stimulate glutamate utilization. When the cells were suspended in bovine plasma albumin (BPA), CO2 production from glutamate proceeded at a nearly uniform rate for 8 hr at 32 C and for 24 hr at 15 C. When BPA was used, the cells retained their metabolic activity at 0 or 30 C regardless of cell concentration, and were not influenced by the addition of varoius metabolites. Without BPA, metabolic stability was directly related to concentration. Of the stabilizers tested on low concentrations of rickettsiae, reduced glutathione was the most effective, provided that the gas phase contained predominantly N2. Under these conditions of low partial pressure of O2, glutamate further stabilized metabolic activity and was actively metabolized. The cells were also stabilized by oxidized glutathione in a gas phase of air, but under these conditions glutamate was utilized at a more moderate rate and it impaired metabolic stability.

Rees, Horace B.; Weiss, Emilio

1968-01-01

117

Glutamate catabolism of Rickettsia rickettsi and factors affecting retention of metabolic activity.  

PubMed

Glutamate catabolism and the factors contributing to metabolic stability of purified suspensions of Rickettsia rickettsi were investigated. By use of (14)C-glutamate, it was shown that CO(2) was produced from all carbons of glutamate and that (14)CO(2) production was reduced by the addition of most of the unlabeled intermediates of the citric acid cycle and pyruvate. Oxalacetate, added in various concentrations, did not stimulate glutamate utilization. When the cells were suspended in bovine plasma albumin (BPA), CO(2) production from glutamate proceeded at a nearly uniform rate for 8 hr at 32 C and for 24 hr at 15 C. When BPA was used, the cells retained their metabolic activity at 0 or 30 C regardless of cell concentration, and were not influenced by the addition of varoius metabolites. Without BPA, metabolic stability was directly related to concentration. Of the stabilizers tested on low concentrations of rickettsiae, reduced glutathione was the most effective, provided that the gas phase contained predominantly N(2). Under these conditions of low partial pressure of O(2), glutamate further stabilized metabolic activity and was actively metabolized. The cells were also stabilized by oxidized glutathione in a gas phase of air, but under these conditions glutamate was utilized at a more moderate rate and it impaired metabolic stability. PMID:5640379

Rees, H B; Weiss, E

1968-02-01

118

Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and…

Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Majeskie, Matthew R.; Fiore, Michael C.

2004-01-01

119

Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and withdrawal, addicted organisms learn to

Timothy B. Baker; Megan E. Piper; Danielle E. McCarthy; Matthew R. Majeskie; Michael C. Fiore

2004-01-01

120

[The activity of the metabolic processes in phagocytosing cells in sarcoidosis patients].  

PubMed

A study of 109 patients with active sarcoidosis revealed an activation of the metabolic processes of phagocytes but with extension and duration of the disease they subside. Apparently, this is related to exhaustion of the functional capacities of the cells. Though, namely, low initial metabolic activity favours spreading and delay of the pathological process. PMID:1441387

Tyshko, N A

1992-04-01

121

Recycled Fiber Properties as Affected by Contaminants and Removal Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five materials were applied to either a kraft pulp furnish or to a kraft paper and were removed by conventional removal processes. Uncontaminated kraft paper subjected to the same removal processes determined that the process, not the contaminant, was res...

J. H. Klungness

1974-01-01

122

Assessment of metabolic flux distribution in the thermophilic hydrogen producer Caloramator celer as affected by external pH and hydrogen partial pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Caloramator celer is a strict anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium capable of converting glucose to hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide, acetate, ethanol and formate by a mixed acid fermentation. Depending on the growth conditions C. celer can produce H2 at high yields. For a biotechnological exploitation of this bacterium for H2 production it is crucial to understand the factors that regulate carbon and electron fluxes and therefore the final distribution of metabolites to channel the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Results Combining experimental results from batch fermentations with genome analysis, reconstruction of central carbon metabolism and metabolic flux analysis (MFA), this study shed light on glucose catabolism of the thermophilic alkalitolerant bacterium C. celer. Two innate factors pertaining to culture conditions have been identified to significantly affect the metabolic flux distribution: culture pH and partial pressures of H2 (PH2). Overall, at alkaline to neutral pH the rate of biomass synthesis was maximized, whereas at acidic pH the lower growth rate and the less efficient biomass formation are accompanied with more efficient energy recovery from the substrate indicating high cell maintenance possibly to sustain intracellular pH homeostasis. Higher H2 yields were associated with fermentation at acidic pH as a consequence of the lower synthesis of other reduced by-products such as formate and ethanol. In contrast, PH2 did not affect the growth of C. celer on glucose. At high PH2 the cellular redox state was balanced by rerouting the flow of carbon and electrons to ethanol and formate production allowing unaltered glycolytic flux and growth rate, but resulting in a decreased H2 synthesis. Conclusion C. celer possesses a flexible fermentative metabolism that allows redistribution of fluxes at key metabolic nodes to simultaneously control redox state and efficiently harvest energy from substrate even under unfavorable conditions (i.e. low pH and high PH2). With the H2 production in mind, acidic pH and low PH2 should be preferred for a high yield-oriented process, while a high productivity-oriented process can be achieved at alkaline pH and high PH2.

2014-01-01

123

Arginine supplementation and exposure time affects polyamine and glucose metabolism in primary liver cells isolated from Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

Arginine has been demonstrated to enhance glucose and lipid oxidation in mammals through activation of polyamine turnover. We aimed to investigate how arginine affects energy utilization through polyamine metabolism and whether this effect is time dependent. Primary liver cells were isolated from Atlantic salmon (2.2 kg body weight) fed diets containing 25.5 (low arginine, LA) or 36.1 (high arginine, HA) g arginine/kg dry matter for 12 weeks, to investigate the effect of long-term arginine supplementation. The cells were cultured for 24 h in L-15 medium to which either alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) or N (1),N (11)-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) was added. Analysis of the medium by nuclear magnetic resonance revealed significant differences between the two dietary groups as well as between cells exposed to DFMO and DENSPM, with decreased glucose, fumarate and lactate concentrations in media of the HA cells. Liver cells from fish fed the HA diet had higher spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase protein abundance and lower adenosine triphosphate concentration as compared to the LA-fed fish, while gene expression was not affected by either diet or treatment. Primary liver cells isolated from salmon fed a commercial diet and cultured in L-15 media with or without arginine supplementation (1.82 or 3.63 mM) for 48 h, representing short-term effect of arginine supplementation, showed differential expression of genes for apoptosis and polyamine synthesis due to arginine supplementation or inhibition by DFMO. Overall, arginine concentration and exposure time affected energy metabolism and gene regulation more than inhibition or activation of key enzymes of polyamine metabolism, suggesting a polyamine-independent influence of arginine on cellular energy metabolism and survival. PMID:24500114

Andersen, Synne Marte; Taylor, Richard; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Espe, Marit

2014-05-01

124

Analysis of aggregate size as a process variable affecting paclitaxel accumulation in Taxus suspension cultures  

PubMed Central

Plant cell aggregates have long been implicated in affecting cellular metabolism in suspension culture, yet the rigorous characterization of aggregate size as a process variable and its effect on bioprocess performance has not been demonstrated. Aggregate fractionation and analysis of biomass-associated product is commonly used to assess the effect of aggregation, but we establish that this method is flawed under certain conditions and does not necessarily agree with comprehensive studies of total culture performance. Leveraging recent advances to routinely measure aggregate size distributions, we developed a simple method to manipulate aggregate size and evaluate its effect on the culture as a whole, and found that Taxus suspension cultures with smaller aggregates produced significantly more paclitaxel than cultures with larger aggregates in two cell lines over a range of aggregate sizes, and where biomass accumulation was equivalent prior to elicitation with methyl jasmonate. T. cuspidata P93AF cultures with mean aggregate sizes of 690 ?m and 1100 ?m produced 22 mg/L and 11 mg/L paclitaxel, respectively, a 2-fold increase for smaller aggregates, and T. cuspidata P991 cultures with mean aggregate sizes of 400 ?m and 840 ?m produced 6 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L paclitaxel, respectively, an increase of 20-fold for smaller aggregates. These results demonstrate the importance of validating experiments aimed at a specific phenomenon with total process studies, and provide a basis for treating aggregate size as a targeted process variable for rational control strategies.

Kolewe, Martin E.; Henson, Michael A.; Roberts, Susan C.

2013-01-01

125

Glutamate Catabolism of Rickettsia Rickettsi and Factors Affecting Retention of Metabolic Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glutamate catabolism and the factors contributing to metabolic stability of purified suspensions of Rickettsia rickettsi were investigated. By use of 14C-glutamate, it was shown that CO2 was produced from all carbons of glutamate and that 14CO2 production...

H. B. Rees E. Weiss

1968-01-01

126

Factors Affecting On The Food Metabolism In Some Honey Bee Races  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food metabolism activity in between some honey bee races were tested through determination t he aci d phosphatase co ncentration, total p roteins, and the p rotein dif ferentiation i n t he haemolymph, preitrophic memb rane and whol e mi dgut tissues of honey bee workers of Egyptian race (Apis m ellifera lamarckii), C arniolian race( A. m

Mahmoud E. Zakaria

2007-01-01

127

Goal-completion processes affect the attentional blink  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are notably limited in processing information from the outside world. For instance, they frequently fail to identify the second of two targets presented in close succession (attentional blink, AB). Theories of the AB have mostly focused upon early stimuli processing. However, here we show that late, goal-completion processes play an important role. We report findings from a rapid serial

Fabio Ferlazzo; Sabrina Fagioli; Stefano Sdoia; Francesco Di Nocera

2008-01-01

128

Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Determinants of Performance: A Process Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature from organizational and social psychology has suggested that three types of factors influence performance, i.e., cognitive, affective and behavioral. A model was developed to test a set of propositions concerning the relationship between the three kinds of factors, and included attributions, expectancies, general emotional responses to…

Dorfman, Peter W.; Stephan, Walter G.

129

Factors affecting bioabsorption, metabolism, and storage of organic compounds by aquatic biota  

SciTech Connect

Biological concentration and transfer of organic chemicals through aquatic food webs can be influenced by a variety of environmental, biological, and biochemical factors. Bioaccumulation can be significantly altered by the presence of suspended matter or complex organic mixtures in the water column. In addition, the bioaccumulation factor of a compound is dependent on the species of an organism, its life stage, and the available food supply. Metabolic changes in structure of absorbed organics can alter both the rate and the mechanism of absorption and elimination of organics. In the case of quinoline absorption by trout, both the rate of absorption and the metabolic disposition depended upon whether exposure was through ingestion or through direct water column exposure. All of these factors can be used to explain why the physical properties of organic compounds (most notably octanol/water partition coefficients) are unreliable predictors of bioaccumulation potential. 24 refs., 1 tab.

Bean, R.M.; Dauble, D.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Chess, E.K.

1985-12-01

130

Tissue transglutaminase expression affects hypusine metabolism in BALB\\/c 3T3 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational formation of hypusine in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is essential for cell viability. Recently, we showed that hypusine protein is an in vitro substrate for transglutaminases (TGases). We report the effect of tissue TGase expression on the in vivo hypusine metabolic pathway. The stable expression of tTGase in BALB\\/c 3T3 cells induced a 100-fold reduction of hypusine levels

S Beninati; V Gentile; M Caraglia; A Lentini; P Tagliaferri; A Abbruzzese

1998-01-01

131

Changes in Phosphoinositide Metabolism with Days in Culture Affect Signal Transduction Pathways in Galdieria sulphuraria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) changed during the culture period of the thermoacidophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria. Seven days after inoculation, the amount of PIP2 in the cells was 910 6 100 pmol g 21 fresh weight; by 12 d, PIP2 levels increased to 1200 6 150 pmol g21 fresh weight. In vitro assays indicated that phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) ki-

Ingo Heilmann; Imara Y. Perera; Wolfgang Gross; Wendy F. Boss

1999-01-01

132

Factors affecting the metabolism of cinnamyl anthranilate in the rat and mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological actions of cinnamyl anthranilate are dependent on both dose size and animal species. The present study aimed to examine metabolism as a possible source of explanation for these differences. [3-14C]Cinnamyl anthranilate was synthesized, injected ip into male Fischer 344 (F344) rats and CD-1 mio, and urine and faeces collected for 3 days. The pattern of elimination of 14C

F. Keyhanfar; J. Caldwell

1996-01-01

133

Obesity and overfeeding affecting both tumor and systemic metabolism activates the progesterone receptor to contribute to postmenopausal breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Obese postmenopausal women have increased risk of breast cancers with poorer clinical outcomes than their lean counterparts. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. Rodent model studies have recently identified a period of vulnerability for mammary cancer promotion, which emerges during weight gain after the loss of ovarian function (surgical ovariectomy; OVX). Thus, a period of transient weight-gain may provide a lifecycle-specific opportunity to prevent or treat postmenopausal breast cancer. We hypothesized that a combination of impaired metabolic regulation in obese animals prior to OVX plus an OVX-induced positive energy imbalance might cooperate to drive tumor growth and progression. To determine if lean and obese rodents differ in their metabolic response to OVX-induced weight gain, and whether this difference affects later mammary tumor metabolism, we performed a nutrient tracer study during the menopausal window of vulnerability. Lean animals preferentially deposited excess nutrients to mammary and peripheral tissues rather than to the adjacent tumors. Conversely, obese animals deposited excess nutrients into the tumors themselves. Notably, tumors from obese animals also displayed increased expression of the progesterone receptor (PR). Elevated PR expression positively correlated with tumor expression of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes, glucose uptake and proliferation markers. Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin during ovariectomy-induced weight gain caused tumor regression and downregulation of PR expression in tumors. Clinically, expression array analysis of breast tumors from postmenopausal women revealed that PR expression correlated with a similar pattern of metabolic upregulation, supporting the notion that PR+ tumors have enhanced metabolic capacity after menopause. Our findings have potential explanative power in understanding why obese, postmenopausal women display an increased risk of breast cancer.

Giles, Erin D.; Wellberg, Elizabeth A.; Astling, David P.; Anderson, Steven M.; Thor, Ann D.; Jindal, Sonali; Tan, Aik-Choon; Schedin, Pepper S.; MacLean, Paul S.

2014-01-01

134

Deletion of TRAAK Potassium Channel Affects Brain Metabolism and Protects against Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Cerebral stroke is a worldwide leading cause of disability. The two-pore domain K+ channels identified as background channels are involved in many functions in brain under physiological and pathological conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that TRAAK, a mechano-gated and lipid-sensitive two-pore domain K+ channel, is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. We studied the effects of TRAAK deletion on brain morphology and metabolism under physiological conditions, and during temporary focal cerebral ischemia in Traak?/? mice using a combination of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We provide the first in vivo evidence establishing a link between TRAAK and neurometabolism. Under physiological conditions, Traak?/? mice showed a particular metabolic phenotype characterized by higher levels of taurine and myo-inositol than Traak+/+ mice. Upon ischemia, Traak?/? mice had a smaller infarcted volume, with lower contribution of cellular edema than Traak+/+ mice. Moreover, brain microcirculation was less damaged, and brain metabolism and pH were preserved. Our results show that expression of TRAAK strongly influences tissue levels of organic osmolytes. Traak?/? mice resilience to cellular edema under ischemia appears related to their physiologically high levels of myo-inositol and of taurine, an aminoacid involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity and cell death. The beneficial effects of TRAAK deletion designate this channel as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment against stroke.

Laigle, Christophe; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Viola, Angele

2012-01-01

135

Retrospective surveillance of metabolic parameters affecting reproductive performance of Japanese Black breeding cows  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study was conducted to confirm the relationship between pre- and postpartum metabolic parameters and postpartum reproductive performance and to clarify seasonal characteristics of the metabolic parameters by using our metabolic profile test (MPT) database of Japanese Black breeding herds. In evaluation 1, MPT databases of blood samples from multiparous cows collected prepartum and postpartum were divided into two groups according to calving interval, and each MPT parameter was compared. In evaluation 2, the same MPT databases used in evaluation 1 were divided into two groups according to the sampling period. Significant differences were found in the prepartal total protein and postpartal ?-glutamyltransferase in evaluation 1. In evaluation 2, significant differences were found in the prepartal and postpartal total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and glucose. Clear seasonal differences in MPT results emphasized the usefulness of the MPT in breeding cattle herds fed home-pasture roughage and suggest that unsatisfactory reproductive performance during hot periods reflects inadequate nutritional content of the diet and possible reduced feed intake due to heat stress.

Watanabe, Urara; Yamato, Osamu; Otoi, Takeshige; Okamoto, Koji

2014-01-01

136

Dim Light at Night Disrupts Molecular Circadian Rhythms and Affects Metabolism  

PubMed Central

With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms which are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electrical lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to nighttime light and investigated changes in the circadian system and body weight. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night attenuate core circadian clock rhythms in the SCN at both the gene and protein level. Moreover, circadian clock rhythms were perturbed in the liver by nighttime light exposure. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide mechanistic evidence for how mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function.

Fonken, Laura K.; Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Melendez-Fernandez, O. Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

2014-01-01

137

Genetically based trait in a dominant tree affects ecosystem processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental links between genes and ecosystem processes have remained elusive, although they have the potential to place ecosystem sciences within a genetic and evolutionary framework. Utilizing common gardens with cottonwood trees of known genotype, we found that the concentration of condensed tannins is genetically based and is the best predictor of ecosystem-level processes. Condensed tannin inputs from foliage explained 55-65%

Jennifer A. Schweitzer; Joseph K. Bailey; Brian J. Rehill; Gregory D. Martinsen; Stephen C. Hart; Richard L. Lindroth; Paul Keim; Thomas G. Whitham

2004-01-01

138

Processing Deficits and the Mediation of Positive Affect in Persuasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational and cognitive mediators of the reduced processing of persuasive messages shown by recipients in a positive mood were tested. Ss in positive or neutral moods read strong or weak counterattitudinal advocacies for either a limited time or for as long as they wanted. Under limited exposure conditions, neutral mood Ss showed attitude change indicative of systematic processing, whereas positive

Diane M. Mackie; Leila T. Worth

1989-01-01

139

Rapid assessment of drug metabolism in the drug discovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a few years, in vitro models have been used as part of high-throughput screening (HTS) programs to characterize metabolic stability, drug permeability and drug solubility. This has allowed the rapid selection of lead candidates based not only on pharmacological endpoints but also on biopharmaceutical specifications. What has now become clear is that the huge amount of data produced to

Marc Bertrand; Peter Jackson; Bernard Walther

2000-01-01

140

Load-dependent modulation of affective picture processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the biological significance of emotional stimuli, their processing is considered largely automatic. In the study\\u000a reported herein, we tested the alternative hypothesis—namely, that the processing of emotional stimuli requires some level\\u000a of attention. Our experiments utilized highly negative and arousing visual stimuli comprising mutilated bodies. All experiments\\u000a employed a single task, which consisted of determining whether two peripheral

Fátima Smith Erthal; Letícia De Oliveira; Izabela Mocaiber; Mirtes Garcia Pereira; Walter Machado-Pinheiro; Eliane Volchan; Luiz Pessoa

2005-01-01

141

Biogeochemical reduction processes in a hyperalkaline affected leachate soil profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperalkaline surface environments can occur naturally or because of contamination by hydroxide-rich wastes. The high pH produced in these areas has the potential to lead to highly specialised microbial communities and unusual biogeochemical processes. This paper reports an investigation into the geochemical processes that are occurring in a buried, saturated, organic–rich soil layer at pH 12.3. The soil has been

Ian T. Burke; Robert J. G. Mortimer; Shanmugam Palani; Robert A. Whittleston; Cindy L. Lockwood; David J. Ashley; Douglas I. Stewart

2012-01-01

142

Glucose Metabolism in the Insula and Cingulate is affected by Systemic Inflammation in Humans  

PubMed Central

Depression is associated with systemic inflammation, and endotoxin administration, which causes systemic inflammation, elicits mild depressive symptoms, such as fatigue and reduced interest. The neural correlates of depressive symptoms that result from systemic inflammation are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to use FDG-PET to identify brain regions involved in the response to endotoxin administration in humans. Methods Nine healthy subjects received double-blind endotoxin (0.8 ng/kg) and placebo on different days. FDG-PET was used to measure differences in the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in regions of interest: insula, cingulate, and amygdala. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were used to gauge the systemic inflammatory response, and depressive symptoms were measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and other scales. Results Endotoxin administration was associated with an increase in MADRS score, increased fatigue, reduced social interest, increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, higher normalized glucose metabolism (NGM) in the insula and, at a trend level, lower NGM in the cingulate. Secondary analyses of insula and cingulate subregions indicated that these changes were driven by the right anterior insula and the right anterior cingulate. There was a negative correlation between peak cytokine levels and change in social interest, and between peak cytokine levels and change in insula NGM. There was a positive correlation between the change in NGM in the insula and change in social interest. Conclusion Systemic inflammation in humans causes an increase in depressive symptoms and concurrent changes in glucose metabolism in the insula and cingulate, brain regions that are involved in interoception, positive emotionality, and motivation.

Hannestad, Jonas; Subramanyam, Kalyani; DellaGioia, Nicole; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Weinzimmer, David; Pittman, Brian; Carson, Richard E.

2013-01-01

143

Oral nitrate therapy does not affect glucose metabolism in healthy men.  

PubMed

1. Previously, we demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) may be an important mediator of peripheral glucose disposal. The aim of the present study was to determine whether acute oral nitrate therapy improves glucose metabolism in healthy individuals. 2. Healthy men (n = 10), aged between 19 and 46 years, participated in a randomized cross-over placebo-controlled study. During Visit 1, participants received a dose-graded intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; titrated from a dose of 0.5 microg/kg per min to a maximum of 2 microg/kg per min and delivered at a rate of 2 mL/min over 30 min). On Visits 2, 3 and 4, participants received oral extended-release isosorbide mononitrate (120 mg), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (160 mg) and placebo in a randomized Latin square design (one treatment per visit). The main outcome measures were plasma glucose and insulin levels and glucose tolerance determined by an oral glucose tolerance test following the SNP infusion and 3 h after nitrate/placebo administration. Exhaled NO, cGMP and pulmonary blood flow were also measured for 3 h after administration of nitrate/placebo and after SNP infusion. 3. None of the nitrate interventions influenced measures of glucose metabolism. Following SNP infusion, there was no change in plasma glucose (P = 0.42) or insulin (P = 0.25) levels, and the response to a glucose load did not different from baseline (P = 0.46). Similarly, neither of the oral nitrates altered plasma glucose (P = 0.24) or insulin levels (P = 0.90) or glucose tolerance (P = 0.56) compared with placebo. 4. In conclusion, these results indicate that acute oral nitrate therapy does not influence glucose metabolism. Studies using NO donors in a chronic setting are required to clarify the role of NO in mediating peripheral glucose uptake. PMID:19413595

Henstridge, Darren C; Duffy, Stephen J; Formosa, Melissa F; Ahimastos, Anna A; Thompson, Bruce R; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

2009-11-01

144

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) deficiency affects energy metabolism pattern in murine oxidative skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

Oxidative capacity of muscles correlates with capillary density and with microcirculation, which in turn depend on various regulatory factors, including NO generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). To determine the role of eNOS in patterns of regulation of energy metabolism in various muscles, we studied mitochondrial respiration in situ in saponin-permeabilized fibres as well as the energy metabolism enzyme profile in the cardiac, soleus (oxidative) and gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles isolated from mice lacking eNOS (eNOS(-/-)). In soleus muscle, the absence of eNOS induced a marked decrease in both basal mitochondrial respiration without ADP (-32%; P <0.05) and maximal respiration in the presence of ADP (-29%; P <0.05). Furthermore, the eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle showed a decrease in total creatine kinase (-29%; P <0.05), citrate synthase (-31%; P <0.01), adenylate kinase (-27%; P <0.05), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (-43%; P <0.01) and pyruvate kinase (-26%; P <0.05) activities. The percentage of myosin heavy chains I (slow isoform) was significantly increased from 24.3+/-1.5% in control to 30.1+/-1.1% in eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle ( P <0.05) at the expense of a slight non-significant decrease in the three other (fast) isoforms. Besides, eNOS(-/-) soleus showed a 28% loss of weight. Interestingly, we did not find differences in any parameters in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscles compared with respective controls. These results show that eNOS knockout has an important effect on muscle oxidative capacity as well on the activities of energy metabolism enzymes in oxidative (soleus) muscle. The absence of such effects in cardiac and glycolytic (gastrocnemius) muscle suggests a specific role for eNOS-produced NO in oxidative skeletal muscle.

Momken, Iman; Fortin, Dominique; Serrurier, Bernard; Bigard, Xavier; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Veksler, Vladimir

2002-01-01

145

Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.  

PubMed

The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is ? (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. PMID:22411724

Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

2012-05-01

146

Paternal low protein diet affects adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic function in mice.  

PubMed

Although the association between maternal periconceptional diet and adult offspring health is well characterised, our understanding of the impact of paternal nutrition at the time of conception on offspring phenotype remains poorly defined. Therefore, we determined the effect of a paternal preconception low protein diet (LPD) on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic health in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal protein diet (NPD; 18% casein) or LPD (9% casein) for 7 wk before mating. At birth, a reduced male-to-female ratio (P = 0.03) and increased male offspring weight (P = 0.009) were observed in litters from LPD compared with NPD stud males with no differences in mean litter size. LPD offspring were heavier than NPD offspring at 2 and 3 wk of age (P < 0.02). However, no subsequent differences in body weight were observed. Adult male offspring derived from LPD studs developed relative hypotension (decreased by 9.2 mmHg) and elevated heart rate (P < 0.05), whereas both male and female offspring displayed vascular dysfunction and impaired glucose tolerance relative to NPD offspring. At cull (24 wk), LPD males had elevated adiposity (P = 0.04), reduced heart-to-body weight ratio (P = 0.04), and elevated circulating TNF-? levels (P = 0.015) compared with NPD males. Transcript expression in offspring heart and liver tissue was reduced for genes involved in calcium signaling (Adcy, Plcb, Prkcb) and metabolism (Fto) in LPD offspring (P < 0.03). These novel data reveal the impact of suboptimal paternal nutrition on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, and provide some insight into the underlying regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24658019

Watkins, Adam J; Sinclair, Kevin D

2014-05-15

147

Flawed processing of airborne EM data affecting hydrogeological interpretation.  

PubMed

Airborne electromagnetics (AEMs) is increasingly being used across the globe as a tool for groundwater and environmental management. Focus is on ensuring the quality of the source data, their processing and modeling, and the integration of results with ancillary information to generate accurate and relevant products. Accurate processing and editing of raw AEM data, the topic of this article, is one of the crucial steps in obtaining quantitative information for groundwater modeling and management. In this article, we examine the consequences that different levels of processing of helicopter transient electromagnetic method data have on the resulting electrical models and subsequently on hydrogeological models. We focus on different approaches used in the industry for processing of the raw data and show how the electrical resistivity-depth models, which is the end "geophysical" product (after data inversion) of an AEM survey, change with different levels of processing of the raw data. We then extend the study to show the impact on some of the hydrogeological parameters or models, which can be derived from the geophysical results. The consequences of improper handling of raw data to groundwater and environmental management can be significant and expensive. PMID:22775586

Viezzoli, Andrea; Jørgensen, Flemming; Sørensen, Camilla

2013-03-01

148

Affective flexibility: evaluative processing goals shape amygdala activity.  

PubMed

Although early research implicated the amygdala in automatic processing of negative information, more recent research suggests that it plays a more general role in processing the motivational relevance of various stimuli, suggesting that the relation between valence and amygdala activation may depend on contextual goals. This study provides experimental evidence that the relation between valence and amygdala activity is dynamically modulated by evaluative goals. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants evaluated the positive, negative, or overall (positive plus negative) aspects of famous people. When participants were providing overall evaluations, both positive and negative names were associated with amygdala activation. When they were evaluating positivity, positive names were associated with amygdala activity, and when they were evaluating negativity, negative names were associated with amygdala activity. Evidence for a negativity bias was found; modulation was more pronounced for positive than for negative information. These data suggest that the amygdala flexibly processes motivationally relevant evaluative information in accordance with current processing goals, but processes negative information less flexibly than positive information. PMID:18271863

Cunningham, William A; Van Bavel, Jay J; Johnsen, Ingrid R

2008-02-01

149

Paraoxonase-1 is not affected in polycystic ovary syndrome without metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, but oxidative stress is altered.  

PubMed

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity is decreased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) having metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR). We aimed to assess PON1 activity and oxidative stress in PCOS without MetS or IR. Metabolic and hormonal parameters, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), oxidative stress parameters (total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidative stress (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), total free sulfhydryl (--SH) groups), PON and arylesterase were analyzed in 30 normal weighed patients with PCOS without MetS or IR and 20 normal controls. Hs-CRP, PON, arylesterase, and TAS levels of PCOS and control groups were similar. LOOH, TOS, and OSI of PCOS group were higher than in the controls (p < 0.05; p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). - SH group levels showed a positive correlation with free testosterone (fT). TOS positively correlated with free androgen index (FAI), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), LOOH, and OSI. This study showed that oxidative stress is increased in PCOS even in the absence of MetS or IR. PON1 activity appears not to be affected in PCOS without MetS and IR. Several metabolic and antropometric risk factors may aggravate this altered oxidative state in PCOS. PMID:21557696

Torun, Ayse Nur; Vural, Mehmet; Cece, Hasan; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan; Toy, Harun; Aksoy, Nurten

2011-12-01

150

Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. Prior attempts to uncouple and quantify these processes have relied on column experiments, where the effluent concentration was monitored under different conditions in an effort to quantify the contributions from a single process. In real porous media these processes occur simultaneously and are inter-related. Further, the contribution from each of these processes varies at the pore scale and with time. This research aims to determine the pore-scale processes that limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. The specific objectives are to: (1) determine the effect of unswept zones on DNAPL removal during SVE, (2) determine the effect of retarded vapor phase transport on DNAPL removal during SVE, and (3) determine the effect of interphase mass transfer on DNAPL removal during SVE, all as a function of changing moisture and DNAPL content. To fulfill these objectives we propose to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe and quantify the location and size of individual pores containing DNAPL, water, and vapor in flow through columns filled with model and natural sediments. Imaging results will be used in conjunction with modeling techniques to develop spatially and temporally dependent constitutive relations that describe the transient distribution of phases inside a column experiment. This work will lead to improved models that will allow decision makers to better assess the risk associated with vadose zone contamination and the effectiveness of SVE at hazardous waste sites.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Webb, Andrew G.

2004-06-24

151

Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. Prior attempts to uncouple and quantify these processes have relied on column experiments, where the effluent concentration was monitored under different conditions in an effort to quantify the contributions from a single process. In real porous media these processes occur simultaneously and are inter-related. Further, the contribution from each of these processes varies at the pore scale and with time. This research aims to determine the pore-scale processes that limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. The specific objectives are to: (1) determine the effect of unswept zones on DNAPL removal during SVE, (2) determine the effect of retarded vapor phase transport on DNAPL removal during SVE, and (3) determine the effect of interphase mass transfer on DNAPL removal during SVE, all as a function of changing moisture and DNAPL content. To fulfill these objectives we propose to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe and quantify the location and size of individual pores containing DNAPL, water, and vapor in flow through columns filled with model and natural sediments. Imaging results will be used in conjunction with modeling techniques to develop spatially and temporally dependent constitutive relations that describe the transient distribution of phases inside a column experiment. This work will lead to improved models that will allow decision makers to better assess the risk associated with vadose zone contamination and the effectiveness of SVE at hazardous waste sites.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Webb, Andrew G.

2003-06-01

152

Changes in phosphoinositide metabolism with days in culture affect signal transduction pathways in galdieria sulphuraria  

PubMed

The metabolism of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) changed during the culture period of the thermoacidophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria. Seven days after inoculation, the amount of PIP2 in the cells was 910 +/- 100 pmol g-1 fresh weight; by 12 d, PIP2 levels increased to 1200 +/- 150 pmol g-1 fresh weight. In vitro assays indicated that phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) kinase specific activity increased from 75 to 230 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein between d 7 and 12. When G. sulphuraria cells were osmostimulated, transient increases of up to 4-fold could be observed in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels within 90 s, regardless of the age of the cells. In d-12 cells, the increase in IP3 was preceded by a transient increase of up to 5-fold in specific PIP kinase activity, whereas no such increase was detected after osmostimulation of d-7 cells. The increase in PIP kinase activity before IP3 signaling in d-12 cells indicates that there is an additional pathway for regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism after stimulation other than an initial activation of phospholipase C. Also, the rapid activation of PIP2 biosynthesis in cells with already-high PIP2 levels suggests that the PIP2 present was not available for signal transduction. By comparing the response of the cells at d 7 and 12, we have identified two potentially distinct pools of PIP2. PMID:10198092

Heilmann; Perera; Gross; Boss

1999-04-01

153

bZIP transcription factors affecting secondary metabolism, sexual development and stress responses in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play critical roles in the organismal response to the environment. Recently, a novel YAP-like bZIP, restorer of secondary metabolism A (RsmA), was found in a suppressor screen of an Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism (SM) mutant in which overexpression of rsmA was found to partially remediate loss of SM in Velvet Complex mutants. The Velvet Complex is a conserved fungal transcriptional heteromer that couples SM with sexual development in fungi. Here we characterized and contrasted SM in mutants of RsmA and four other A. nidulans bZIP proteins (NapA, ZipA, ZipB and ZipC) with predicted DNA binding motifs similar to RsmA. Only two overexpression mutants exhibited both SM and sexual abnormalities that were noteworthy: OE?:?:?rsmA resulted in a 100-fold increase in sterigmatocystin and a near loss of meiotic spore production. OE?:?:?napA displayed decreased production of sterigmatocystin, emericellin, asperthecin, shamixanthone and epishamixanthone, coupled with a shift from sexual to asexual development. Quantification of bZIP homodimer and heterodimer formation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) suggested that these proteins preferentially self-associate.

Yin, Wen-Bing; Reinke, Aaron W.; Szilagyi, Melinda; Emri, Tamas; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Keating, Amy E.; Pocsi, Istvan; Wang, Clay C. C.

2013-01-01

154

[Microcalorimetric study on the metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus affected by qingkailing injection].  

PubMed

This paper is to report the investigation on the metabolic behavior of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) after given Qingkailing injection, and with the aim of seeking for a new quality control method based on biological assessment. The growth thermogenic curves of S. aureus were determined by microcalorimetry and analyzed by computer. The results showed that in the concentration range of (0-5.00%), the growth thermogenic curves of S. aureus were declined and removed back with increasing dosage of Qingkailing injection; the main parameters (T1, T2, k1, P1, P2 and I) and the dosage of Qingkailing injection have good correlation. The 50% inhibiting dosage is 3.26 %, and the optimal inhibiting dosage is 5.47%. Difference could be detected among the Qingkailing injection samples from different factories and different batches. It is proved that Qingkailing injection could inhibit the metabolic behavior of S. aureus, and microcalorimetry might be applied in the quality assessment of Qingkailing injection. PMID:21542291

Jin, Cheng; Wu, Yan-shu; Zhang, Qian; Li, Xing-feng; Yan, Dan; Du Xiao-xi; Xiao, Xiao-he

2011-02-01

155

bZIP transcription factors affecting secondary metabolism, sexual development and stress responses in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play critical roles in the organismal response to the environment. Recently, a novel YAP-like bZIP, restorer of secondary metabolism A (RsmA), was found in a suppressor screen of an Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism (SM) mutant in which overexpression of rsmA was found to partially remediate loss of SM in Velvet Complex mutants. The Velvet Complex is a conserved fungal transcriptional heteromer that couples SM with sexual development in fungi. Here we characterized and contrasted SM in mutants of RsmA and four other A. nidulans bZIP proteins (NapA, ZipA, ZipB and ZipC) with predicted DNA binding motifs similar to RsmA. Only two overexpression mutants exhibited both SM and sexual abnormalities that were noteworthy: OE : : rsmA resulted in a 100-fold increase in sterigmatocystin and a near loss of meiotic spore production. OE : : napA displayed decreased production of sterigmatocystin, emericellin, asperthecin, shamixanthone and epishamixanthone, coupled with a shift from sexual to asexual development. Quantification of bZIP homodimer and heterodimer formation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) suggested that these proteins preferentially self-associate. PMID:23154967

Yin, Wen-Bing; Reinke, Aaron W; Szilágyi, Melinda; Emri, Tamás; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Keating, Amy E; Pócsi, István; Wang, Clay C C; Keller, Nancy P

2013-01-01

156

Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein Regulates Glucose Metabolism and Affects Cytoplasmic Streaming in Mouse Oocytes  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) regulates intracellular redox state and prompts oxidative stress by binding to and inhibiting Thioredoxin (Trx). In addition, via a Trx-independent mechanism, Txnip regulates glucose metabolism and thus maintains intracellular glucose levels. Previously, we found Txnip mRNA highly expressed in immature germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, but currently there is no report describing the role of Txnip in oocytes. Therefore, we conducted the present study to determine the function of Txnip in mouse oocytes' maturation and meiosis by using RNA interference (RNAi) method. Upon specific depletion of Txnip, 79.5% of oocytes were arrested at metaphase I (MI) stage. Time-lapse video microscopy analysis revealed that the formation of granules in the oocyte cytoplasm increased concurrent with retarded cytoplasmic streaming after Txnip RNAi treatment. Txnip RNAi-treated oocytes had upregulated glucose uptake and lactate production. To confirm the supposition that mechanism responsible for these observed phenomena involves increased lactate in oocytes, we cultured oocytes in high lactate medium and observed the same increased granule formation and retarded cytoplasmic streaming as found by Txnip RNAi. The MI-arrested oocytes exhibited scattered microtubules and aggregated chromosomes indicating that actin networking was disturbed by Txnip RNAi. Therefore, we conclude that Txnip is a critical regulator of glucose metabolism in oocytes and is involved in maintaining cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes.

Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Eun-Young; Ko, Jung-Jae; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo-Sik; Lee, Kyung-Ah

2013-01-01

157

Multiscale structures of lipids in foods as parameters affecting fatty acid bioavailability and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

On a nutritional standpoint, lipids are now being studied beyond their energy content and fatty acid (FA) profiles. Dietary FA are building blocks of a huge diversity of more complex molecules such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL), themselves organised in supramolecular structures presenting different thermal behaviours. They are generally embedded in complex food matrixes. Recent reports have revealed that molecular and supramolecular structures of lipids and their liquid or solid state at the body temperature influence both the digestibility and metabolism of dietary FA. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent knowledge on the impact on FA digestion, absorption and metabolism of: (i) the intramolecular structure of TAG; (ii) the nature of the lipid molecules carrying FA; (iii) the supramolecular organization and physical state of lipids in native and formulated food products and (iv) the food matrix. Further work should be accomplished now to obtain a more reliable body of evidence and integrate these data in future dietary recommendations. Additionally, innovative lipid formulations in which the health beneficial effects of either native or recomposed structures of lipids will be taken into account can be foreseen. PMID:23624223

Michalski, M C; Genot, C; Gayet, C; Lopez, C; Fine, F; Joffre, F; Vendeuvre, J L; Bouvier, J; Chardigny, J M; Raynal-Ljutovac, K

2013-10-01

158

[How do transport and metabolism affect the biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?].  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic/mutagenic, are generated by combustion of fossil fuels and also released through tanker or oilfield accident to cause a large scale environmental pollution. PAHs concentration in China is especially high in East Asia because of many kinds of generation sources such as coal heating systems, vehicles and factories without exhaust gas/particulate treatment systems. So, the atmospheric pollution caused by PAHs in China has been seriously concerned from the view point of health effects. Like yellow sand and sulfur oxide, PAHs exhausted in China are also transported to Japan. Additionally, strongly mutagenic nitrated PAHs (NPAHs), estrogenic/antiestrogenic PAH hydroxides (PAHOHs) and reactive oxygen species-producing PAH quinones (PAHQs) are formed from PAHs by the chemical reaction during the transport. Furthermore these PAHOHs and PAHQs are produced by the metabolism in animal body. In the biological activities caused by the above PAH derivatives, the structure-activity relationship was observed. In this review, our recent results on the generation of PAH derivatives by atmospheric transport and metabolism are reported. Also, the existing condition of PAHs as atmospheric pollutants is considered. PMID:22382837

Bekki, Kanae; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Kameda, Takayuki; Takigami, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Go; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2012-01-01

159

Alteration of fatty-acid-metabolizing enzymes affects mitochondrial form and function in hereditary spastic paraplegia.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A M; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M; Durand, Christelle M; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A; Kabiraj, Mohammad M; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-12-01

160

PROCESSES AFFECTING THE FATE OF OIL IN THE SEA  

EPA Science Inventory

Using research results reported from oil spills, laboratory experiments and microcosm studies, this review outlines the many processes controlling the behavior of petroleum in marine waters. The fate of oil spilled at sea depends on the composition of the oil, and on such externa...

161

Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

2008-01-01

162

How community context affects entrepreneurial process: A diagnostic framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports a multi-faceted search to discover and articulate, in the form of a manageable framework, a diagnostic system for assessing the influence that community factors will have upon the conduct and outcome of any proposed entrepreneurial process. A methodological approach based on investigation of a rich empirical database supported by a wide examination of extant theory in several

Kevin Hindle

2010-01-01

163

Respiration rate of minimally processed lettuce as affected by packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study on the influence of films with different water and gas permeability on the quality decay of fresh processed lettuce is presented. The study was conducted by packaging two lettuce cultivars, Iceberg and Romaine, with three different plastic films, two commercially available polyolefines (PF1 and PF2) and a biodegradable film (BF), and storing the packages at 5°C. The

M. A. Del Nobile; A. Baiano; A. Benedetto; L. Massignan

2006-01-01

164

Cultivars and fungicides affect phytophthora root rot in processing tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials tested different processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) cultivars and the effect of fungicides in a site artificially infested with Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Hann, the cause of Phytophthora root rot. In a trial screening nine cultivars, with and without phosphorous acid\\u000a (PA) sprays, cultivar L343 showed more root rot at harvest than all the other cultivars, whether sprayed

W. S. Washington; Patricia McGee; Sze P. Flett; P. H. Jerie; W. J. Ashcroft

2001-01-01

165

Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Webb, Andrew G.

2002-06-01

166

Intestinal circulation, oxygenation and metabolism is not affected by oleic acid lung injury.  

PubMed

This study was performed to establish a platform for further studies on effects of ventilatory treatment modalities on the intestines during mechanical ventilation of acute lung injury (ALI). We tested the hypotheses that oleic acid (OA) infusion causes changes in intestinal circulation, oxygenation and metabolism, and that OA is distributed to tissues outside the lung. This was performed as an experimental, prospective and controlled study in an university animal research laboratory. Thirteen juvenile anaesthetized pigs were used in the main study, where seven were given an intravenous infusion of 0.1 ml kg(-1) OA and six served as control (surgery only). In a separate study, four animals were given an intravenous infusion of 0.1 ml kg(-1) (3)H-labelled OA. We measured systemic and mesenteric (portal venous blood flow, jejunal mucosal perfusion) haemodynamic parameters, mesenteric oxygenation (jejunal tissue oxygen tension) and systemic cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6). We calculated mesenteric lactate flux and mesenteric oxygen delivery, uptake and extraction ratio. In the animals given 3H-OA, we measured 3H-OA in different tissues (lungs, heart, liver, kidney, stomach, jejunum, colon and arterial blood). We found that OA given intravenously is distributed in small amounts to the intestines. This intestinal exposure to OA does not cause intestinal injury when evaluating mesenteric blood flow, metabolism or oxygenation. OA infusion induced a moderate increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and a decrease in PaO2/Fraction inspired O2 (P/F) ratio, giving evidence of severe lung injury. Consequently, the OA lung injury model is suitable for studies on intestinal effects of ventilatory treatment modalities during mechanical ventilation of ALI. PMID:16268988

Claesson, Jonas; Lehtipalo, Stefan; Bergstrand, Ulf; Arnerlöv, Conny; Rocksen, David; Hultin, Magnus; Winsö, Ola

2005-11-01

167

Processes affecting greenhouse gas production in experimental boreal reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding land for water reservoir creation has many environmental impacts including the production of the greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). To assess processes governing GHG emissions from the flooding of terrestrial carbon, three experimental reservoirs were constructed in upland boreal forest areas of differing carbon stores as part of the Flooded Upland Dynamics Experiment (FLUDEX). We calculated process-based GHG budgets for these reservoirs over 5 years following the onset of flooding. Stable isotopic budgets of carbon were necessary to separate community respiration (CR), which produces CO2, from net primary production (NPP), which consumes CO2, and to separate CH4 production from CH4 consumption via oxidation. NPP removed up to 44% of the CO2 produced from CR. CR and NPP exhibited different year-after-year trends. CH4 flux to the atmosphere increased about twofold over 3 years, yet isotopic budgets showed CH4 production in flooded soils increased nearly tenfold. CH4 oxidation near the flooded soil-water interface greatly decreased the CH4 flux from the water column to the atmosphere. Ebullition was the most important conduit of CH4 to the atmosphere after 3 years. Although CH4 production increased with time, the total GHG flux, in CO2 equivalents, declined. Contrary to expectations, neither CR nor total GHG fluxes were directly related to the quantity of organic carbon flooded. Instead, these reservoirs produced a strikingly similar amount of CO2 equivalents over 5 years.

Venkiteswaran, Jason J.; Schiff, Sherry L.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Matthews, Cory J. D.; Boudreau, Natalie M.; Joyce, Elizabeth M.; Beaty, Kenneth G.; Bodaly, R. Andrew

2013-04-01

168

Left Hand Dominance Affects Supra-Second Time Processing  

PubMed Central

Previous studies exploring specific brain functions of left- and right-handed subjects have shown variances in spatial and motor abilities that might be explained according to consistent structural and functional differences. Given the role of both spatial and motor information in the processing of temporal intervals, we designed a study aimed at investigating timing abilities in left-handed subjects. To this purpose both left- and right-handed subjects were asked to perform a time reproduction of sub-second vs. supra-second time intervals with their left and right hand. Our results show that during processing of the supra-second intervals left-handed participants sub-estimated the duration of the intervals, independently of the hand used to perform the task, while no differences were reported for the sub-second intervals. These results are discussed on the basis of recent findings on supra-second motor timing, as well as emerging evidence that suggests a linear representation of time with a left-to-right displacement.

Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Bonni, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo

2011-01-01

169

ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 deficiency causes hypertriglyceridemia by affecting multiple metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Mutations in ABCG5 or ABCG8 transporters are responsible for sitosterolemia, an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the accumulation of plant sterols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ABCG5 and ABCG8 deficiency on TG metabolism in mice. Experiments were carried out in wild-type (G5/G8+/+) mice, mice heterozygous for ABCG5 and ABCG8 deficiency (G5/G8+/-) and ABCG5/G8-deficient (G5/G8-/-) mice fed a chow diet. Plasma TG were 2.6 and 4.3-fold higher in fasted G5/G8+/- and G5/G8-/- mice, respectively, than in G5/G8+/+ mice. Postprandial TG were 5-fold higher in G5/G8-/- mice. TG metabolism studies indicate that: first, the fractional catabolic rate was significantly lower in G5/G8+/- (1.3-fold) and G5/G8-/- mice (1.5-fold) compared to G5/G8+/+ and postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activities were significantly lower in G5/G8+/- (1.8-fold) and G5/G8-/- mice (5.4-fold) than in G5/G8+/+. Second, liver TG secretion was 1.3-fold higher in G5/G8+/- and G5/G8-/- than in G5/G8+/+ mice and this was associated with an increase in liver LXR, FAS, ACAC and CD36 gene expression. Third, TG intestinal secretion, determined after an oral fat gavage of glycerol tri[9,10(n)-(3)H] oleate, was 5.8-fold higher in G5/G8-/- than in G5/G8+/+ mice. Also, the HOMA index was 2.6-fold higher in G5/G8-/- than in G5/G8+/+ mice, reflecting a degree of insulin resistance. In conclusion, ABCG5/G8 deficiency in mice fed a chow diet markedly raises TG levels by impairing TG catabolism and by increasing liver and intestinal TG secretion. PMID:21855652

Méndez-González, Jesús; Julve, Josep; Rotllan, Noemí; Llaverias, Gemma; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

2011-12-01

170

Environmental stress affects the activity of metabolic and growth factor signaling networks and induces autophagy markers in MCF7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Phosphoproteomic techniques are contributing to our understanding of how signaling pathways interact and regulate biological processes. This technology is also being used to characterize how signaling networks are remodeled during disease progression and to identify biomarkers of signaling pathway activity and of responses to cancer therapy. A potential caveat in these studies is that phosphorylation is a very dynamic modification that can substantially change during the course of an experiment or the retrieval and processing of cellular samples. Here, we investigated how exposure of cells to ambient conditions modulates phosphorylation and signaling pathway activity in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. About 1.5% of 3,500 sites measured showed a significant change in phosphorylation extent upon exposure of cells to ambient conditions for 15 min. The effects of this perturbation in modifying phosphorylation patterns did not involve random changes due to stochastic activation of kinases and phosphatases. Instead, exposure of cells to ambient conditions elicited an environmental stress reaction that involved a coordinated response to a metabolic stress situation, which included: (1) the activation of AMPK; (2) the inhibition of PI3K, AKT, and ERK; (3) an increase in markers of protein synthesis inhibition at the level of translation elongation; and (4) an increase in autophagy markers. We also observed that maintaining cells in ice modified but did not completely abolish this metabolic stress response. In summary, exposure of cells to ambient conditions affects the activity of signaling networks previously implicated in metabolic and growth factor signaling. Mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000472. PMID:24425749

Casado, Pedro; Bilanges, Benoit; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Cutillas, Pedro R

2014-03-01

171

PCB153 disrupts thyroid hormone homeostasis by affecting its biosynthesis, biotransformation, feedback regulation, and metabolism.  

PubMed

PCB153, one of the 3 dominant congeners in the food chain, causes the disruption of the endocrine system in humans and animals. In order to elucidate the effects of PCB153 on the biosynthesis, biotransformation, regulation, metabolism, and transport of thyroid hormones (THs), Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 0, 4, 16 and 32 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days and sacrificed 24 h after the last dose. Results showed that after treatment with PCB153, serum total thyroxine (TT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) decreased, whereas serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration did not alter. The serum sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels decreased. The mRNA expressions of type 2 and 3 deiodinases (D2 and D3) reduced, but the type 1 deiodinase (D1) showed no significant change. The TSH receptor (TSHr) and TRH receptor (TRHr) levels declined. PCB153 induced hepatic enzymes, and the UDPGTs, CYP2B1, and CYP3A1 mRNA levels were significantly elevated. Taken together, the observed results from the present study indicated that PCB153 disrupted thyroid hormone homeostasis through influencing synthesis-associated proteins (NIS, TPO and Tg), deiodinases, receptors (TSHr and TRHr), and hepatic enzymes, and the decrease of D3 expression might be the compensatory response of body. PMID:22517553

Liu, C; Wang, C; Yan, M; Quan, C; Zhou, J; Yang, K

2012-09-01

172

Purine metabolizing capability of Enterobacter agglomerans affects volatiles production and attractiveness to Mexican fruit fly.  

PubMed

We investigated two strains of Enterobacter agglomerans that differ in their ability to metabolize uric acid for (1) attractiveness to sugar-fed Mexican fruit flies, and (2) production of volatile chemicals that may be responsible for the attractiveness. The two strains were cultured on a medium that contained uric acid as the primary nitrogen source to simulate bird feces, a natural substrate for this bacterium. Active cultures of both strains were more attractive than uninoculated uric acid medium to both sexes of sugar-fed flies in wind-tunnel bioassays. The uricase(+) strain was more attractive than the uricase(-) strain to males and to females <9 days old, but not to older females. Volatiles found by solid-phase microextraction in greater amounts in headspace above active cultures of both strains than above uninoculated medium were ammonia, dimethyldisulfide, 3-methylbutanol, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and trimethylpyrazine. The uricase(+) strain produced more ammonia, dimethyldisulfide, and trimethylpyrazine than the uricase(-) strain. An additional chemical, 3-hydroxybutanone, appears to be produced exclusively by the uricase(+) strain. The uricase(-) strain produced more 2-phenylethanol than the uricase(+) strain. Differences in volatiles are consistent with the generally greater attractiveness of the uricase(+) strain compared with the uricase(-) strain as ammonia, 3-hydroxybutanone, and trimethylpyrazine have been demonstrated attractive to sugar-fed Mexican fruit flies. PMID:12371809

Robacker, David C; Lauzon, Carol R

2002-08-01

173

Placebo Analgesia Affects Brain Correlates of Error Processing  

PubMed Central

Placebo analgesia (PA) is accompanied by decreased activity in pain-related brain regions, but also by greater prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, which has been suggested to reflect increases in top-down cognitive control and regulation of pain. Here we test whether PA is associated with altered prefrontal monitoring functions that could adjust nociceptive processing to a mismatch between expected and experienced pain. We recorded event-related potentials to response errors in a go/nogo task during placebo vs. a matched control condition. Error commission was associated with two well-described components, the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Results show that the Pe, but not the ERN, was amplified during placebo analgesia compared to the control condition, with neural sources in the lateral and medial PFC. This Pe increase was driven by participants showing a placebo-induced change in pain tolerance, but was absent in the group of non-responders. Our results shed new light on the possible functional mechanisms underlying PA, suggesting a placebo-induced transient change in prefrontal error monitoring and control functions.

Koban, Leonie; Brass, Marcel; Lynn, Margaret T.; Pourtois, Gilles

2012-01-01

174

Placebo analgesia affects brain correlates of error processing.  

PubMed

Placebo analgesia (PA) is accompanied by decreased activity in pain-related brain regions, but also by greater prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, which has been suggested to reflect increases in top-down cognitive control and regulation of pain. Here we test whether PA is associated with altered prefrontal monitoring functions that could adjust nociceptive processing to a mismatch between expected and experienced pain. We recorded event-related potentials to response errors in a go/nogo task during placebo vs. a matched control condition. Error commission was associated with two well-described components, the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Results show that the Pe, but not the ERN, was amplified during placebo analgesia compared to the control condition, with neural sources in the lateral and medial PFC. This Pe increase was driven by participants showing a placebo-induced change in pain tolerance, but was absent in the group of non-responders. Our results shed new light on the possible functional mechanisms underlying PA, suggesting a placebo-induced transient change in prefrontal error monitoring and control functions. PMID:23185436

Koban, Leonie; Brass, Marcel; Lynn, Margaret T; Pourtois, Gilles

2012-01-01

175

Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization  

SciTech Connect

Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir M. [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Riccio, Massimo [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Squarzoni, Stefano [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: lattanzi@jolly.bo.cnr.it

2008-02-01

176

Benzoate Metabolism Intermediate Benzoyl Coenzyme A Affects Gentisate Pathway Regulation in Comamonas testosteroni.  

PubMed

A previous study showed that benzoate was catabolized via a coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent epoxide pathway in Azoarcus evansii (R. Niemetz, U. Altenschmidt, S. Brucker, and G. Fuchs, Eur. J. Biochem. 227:161-168, 1995), but gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was induced. Similarly, we found that the Comamonas testosteroni strain CNB-1 degraded benzoate via a CoA-dependent epoxide pathway and that gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GenA) was also induced when benzoate or 3-hydroxybenzoate served as a carbon source for growth. Genes encoding the CoA-dependent epoxide (box genes) and gentisate (gen genes) pathways were identified. Genetic disruption revealed that the gen genes were not involved in benzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate degradation. Hence, we investigated gen gene regulation in the CNB-1 strain. The PgenA promoter, a MarR-type regulator (GenR), and the GenR binding site were identified. We found that GenR took gentisate, 3-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoyl-CoA as effectors and that binding of GenR to its target DNA sequence was prohibited when these effectors were present. In vivo studies showed that the CNB-1 mutant that lost benzoyl-CoA synthesis was not able to activate PgenA promoter, while transcription of genA was upregulated in another CNB-1 mutant that lost the ability to degrade benzoyl-CoA. The finding that benzoyl-CoA (a metabolic intermediate of benzoate degradation) and 3-hydroxybenzoate function as GenR effectors explains why GenA was induced when CNB-1 grew on benzoate or 3-hydroxybenzoate. Regulation of gentisate pathways by MarR-, LysR-, and IclR-type regulators in diverse bacterial groups is discussed in detail. PMID:24771026

Chen, Dong-Wei; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

2014-07-01

177

Molybdate:sulfate ratio affects redox metabolism and viability of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum.  

PubMed

Molybdenum is a transition metal used primarily (90% or more) as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys in metallurgical industries and its release into the environment is a growing problem. As a catalytic center of some redox enzymes, molybdenum is an essential element for inorganic nitrogen assimilation/fixation, phytohormone synthesis, and free radical metabolism in photosynthesizing species. In oceanic and estuarine waters, microalgae absorb molybdenum as the water-soluble molybdate anion (MoO4(2-)), although MoO4(2-) uptake is thought to compete with uptake of the much more abundant sulfate anion (SO4(2-), approximately 25 mM in seawater). Thus, those aspects of microalgal biology impacted by molybdenum would be better explained by considering both MoO4(2-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in the aquatic milieu. This work examines toxicological, physiological and redox imbalances in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum that have been induced by changes in the molybdate:sulfate ratios. We prepared cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum grown in artificial seawater containing eight different MoO4(2-) concentrations (from 0 to 200 ?M) and three different SO4(2-) concentrations (3.5 mM, 9.6 mM and 25 mM). We measured sulfur content in cells, the activities of the three major antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase), indexes of oxidative modifications in proteins (carbonyl content) and lipids (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), the activities of the molybdenum-dependent enzymes xanthine oxidase and nitrate reductase, expression of key protein components of dinoflagellate photosynthesis (peridinin-chlorophyll a protein and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxidase) and growth curves. We find evidence for Mo toxicity at relatively high [MoO4(2-)]:[SO4(2-)] ratios. We also find evidence for extensive redox adaptations at Mo levels well below lethal levels. PMID:24036534

Barros, M P; Hollnagel, H C; Glavina, A B; Soares, C O; Ganini, D; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, S; Morse, D; Colepicolo, P

2013-10-15

178

Transient exposure to low levels of insecticide affects metabolic networks of honeybee larvae.  

PubMed

The survival of a species depends on its capacity to adjust to changing environmental conditions, and new stressors. Such new, anthropogenic stressors include the neonicotinoid class of crop-protecting agents, which have been implicated in the population declines of pollinating insects, including honeybees (Apis mellifera). The low-dose effects of these compounds on larval development and physiological responses have remained largely unknown. Over a period of 15 days, we provided syrup tainted with low levels (2 µg/L(-1)) of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to beehives located in the field. We measured transcript levels by RNA sequencing and established lipid profiles using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry from worker-bee larvae of imidacloprid-exposed (IE) and unexposed, control (C) hives. Within a catalogue of 300 differentially expressed transcripts in larvae from IE hives, we detect significant enrichment of genes functioning in lipid-carbohydrate-mitochondrial metabolic networks. Myc-involved transcriptional response to exposure of this neonicotinoid is indicated by overrepresentation of E-box elements in the promoter regions of genes with altered expression. RNA levels for a cluster of genes encoding detoxifying P450 enzymes are elevated, with coordinated downregulation of genes in glycolytic and sugar-metabolising pathways. Expression of the environmentally responsive Hsp90 gene is also reduced, suggesting diminished buffering and stability of the developmental program. The multifaceted, physiological response described here may be of importance to our general understanding of pollinator health. Muscles, for instance, work at high glycolytic rates and flight performance could be impacted should low levels of this evolutionarily novel stressor likewise induce downregulation of energy metabolising genes in adult pollinators. PMID:23844170

Derecka, Kamila; Blythe, Martin J; Malla, Sunir; Genereux, Diane P; Guffanti, Alessandro; Pavan, Paolo; Moles, Anna; Snart, Charles; Ryder, Thomas; Ortori, Catharine A; Barrett, David A; Schuster, Eugene; Stöger, Reinhard

2013-01-01

179

Drosophila Insulin Pathway Mutants Affect Visual Physiology and Brain Function Besides Growth, Lipid, and Carbohydrate Metabolism  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes worldwide. Some of its complications, such as retinopathy and neuropathy, are long-term and protracted, with an unclear etiology. Given this problem, genetic model systems, such as in flies where type 2 diabetes can be modeled and studied, offer distinct advantages. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used individual flies in experiments: control and mutant individuals with partial loss-of-function insulin pathway genes. We measured wing size and tested body weight for growth phenotypes, the latter by means of a microbalance. We studied total lipid and carbohydrate content, lipids by a reaction in single fly homogenates with vanillin-phosphoric acid, and carbohydrates with an anthrone-sulfuric acid reaction. Cholinesterase activity was measured using the Ellman method in head homogenates from pooled fly heads, and electroretinograms with glass capillary microelectrodes to assess performance of central brain activity and retinal function. RESULTS Flies with partial loss-of-function of insulin pathway genes have significantly reduced body weight, higher total lipid content, and sometimes elevated carbohydrate levels. Brain function is impaired, as is retinal function, but no clear correlation can be drawn from nervous system function and metabolic state. CONCLUSIONS These studies show that flies can be models of type 2 diabetes. They weigh less but have significant lipid gains (obese); some also have carbohydrate gains and compromised brain and retinal functions. This is significant because flies have an open circulatory system without microvasculature and can be studied without the complications of vascular defects.

Murillo-Maldonado, Juan M.; Sanchez-Chavez, Gustavo; Salgado, Luis M.; Salceda, Rocio; Riesgo-Escovar, Juan R.

2011-01-01

180

Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

1983-01-01

181

Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.

Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

182

43 CFR 2.6 - How will fee information affect the processing of your request?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will fee information affect the processing of... How To Make a Request § 2.6 How will fee information affect the processing of...Your request must explicitly state that you will pay all fees associated with...

2013-10-01

183

[Effect of the nonspecific biogenic stimulators pentoxyl and mumie on metabolic processes].  

PubMed

Unspecific biogenic stimulants (pentoxyl and mummie) accelerated metabolism of nucleic acids and protein in rat liver tissue. After the treatment with the stimulants the rate of lipolysis exceeded that of lipogenesis. Increase in content of lactate was similar if glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate were used as substrates of glycolysis, but it was stimulated 2-3-fold, when glucose was used; the phenomenon appears to be due to activation of hexokinase. As shown by polarographic measurements mitochondrial respiration was increased in all the metabolic states, but increased doses caused an inhibition of phosphorylation apparently due to functional overstrain of mitochondria. Increased doses of the stimulants accelerated also some other metabolic processes studied, but the effects were not dose-dependent. Pentoxyl and mummie apparently increased processes of protein and nuclei acid metabolism and stimulated the energy-providing reactions. PMID:664476

Shvetski?, A G; Vorob'eva, L M

1978-01-01

184

GlmS and NagB Regulate Amino Sugar Metabolism in Opposing Directions and Affect Streptococcus mutans Virulence  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic pathogen that produces an extracellular polysaccharide (glucan) from dietary sugars, which allows it to establish a reproductive niche and secrete acids that degrade tooth enamel. While two enzymes (GlmS and NagB) are known to be key factors affecting the entrance of amino sugars into glycolysis and cell wall synthesis in several other bacteria, their roles in S. mutans remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of GlmS and NagB in S. mutans sugar metabolism and determined whether they have an effect on virulence. NagB expression increased in the presence of GlcNAc while GlmS expression decreased, suggesting that the regulation of these enzymes, which functionally oppose one another, is dependent on the concentration of environmental GlcNAc. A glmS-inactivated mutant could not grow in the absence of GlcNAc, while nagB-inactivated mutant growth was decreased in the presence of GlcNAc. Also, nagB inactivation was found to decrease the expression of virulence factors, including cell-surface protein antigen and glucosyltransferase, and to decrease biofilm formation and saliva-induced S. mutans aggregation, while glmS inactivation had the opposite effects on virulence factor expression and bacterial aggregation. Our results suggest that GlmS and NagB function in sugar metabolism in opposing directions, increasing and decreasing S. mutans virulence, respectively.

Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Mazda, Yusuke; Oogai, Yuichi; Kajiya, Mikihito; Kawai, Toshihisa; Yamada, Sakuo; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Oho, Takahiko; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

185

Estrogen receptor ? activation impairs mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and affects malignant mesothelioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER)-? has been shown to possess a tumor suppressive effect, and is a potential target for cancer therapy. Using gene-expression meta-analysis of human malignant pleural mesothelioma, we identified an ESR2 (ER? coding gene) signature. High ESR2 expression was strongly associated with low succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) (which encodes a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II subunit) expression. We demonstrate that SDHB loss induced ESR2 expression, and that activated ER?, by over-expression or by selective agonist stimulation, negatively affected oxidative phosphorylation compromising mitochondrial complex II and IV activity. This resulted in reduced mitochondrial ATP production, increased glycolysis dependence and impaired cell proliferation. The observed in vitro effects were phenocopied in vivo using a selective ER? agonist in a mesothelioma mouse model. On the whole, our data highlight an unforeseen interaction between ER?-mediated tumor suppression and energy metabolism that may be exploited to improve on the therapy for clinical management of malignant mesothelioma.

Manente, A G; Valenti, D; Pinton, G; Jithesh, P V; Daga, A; Rossi, L; Gray, S G; O'Byrne, K J; Fennell, D A; Vacca, R A; Nilsson, S; Mutti, L; Moro, L

2013-01-01

186

Ad libitum feeding during the peripartal period affects body condition, reproduction results and metabolism of sows.  

PubMed

To overcome negative energy balance during the peripartal period of sows, an ad libitum feeding strategy (ADLIB) as alternative for commonly used restricted feeding (STANDARD, on average 3kg feed/day) was evaluated. Plasma metabolites and thyroid hormones, change of back fat thickness (BF), reproductive traits, and piglet performance were monitored. Voluntary feed intake of ADLIB sows declined at farrowing but was still more than twice the amount of what was offered to STANDARD sows. Consequently, ADLIB sows lost less BF than STANDARD sows (P=0.041). Additionally, BF change was affected by body condition. LEAN sows (BF<18mm on d 105 of gestation) lost less BF than MODERATE sows (18mm?BF?22mm) which lost less BF than FAT sows (BF>22mm) (P<0.001). Except for a decreased percentage of stillborn piglets for MODERATE sows (P=0.044), reproduction results were not affected. Piglet weaning weight of ADLIB-FAT and STANDARD-MODERATE sows was reduced in comparison with that of ADLIB-LEAN sows (P=0.005). Regardless of body condition, all metabolites and thyroid hormones measured showed a time dependent profile (P<0.001). On d 112 of gestation increased concentrations of creatinine (P=0.004), non-esterified fatty acids (P=0.039), and serum crosslaps (P=0.016) for STANDARD sows were observed. Triglycerides were increased for FAT sows (P<0.001), and decreased faster over time for ADLIB (P=0.013) and for FAT (P=0.012). Although ad libitum feeding during the peripartal period only resulted in less mobilization of muscle, fat, and bone reserves on d 112 of gestation, results of BF change and piglet weaning weight indicated that ad libitum feeding is beneficial for sow performance provided that BF is below 22mm. PMID:24559972

Cools, A; Maes, D; Decaluwé, R; Buyse, J; van Kempen, T A T G; Liesegang, A; Janssens, G P J

2014-03-01

187

Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing.  

PubMed

Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all-trans isomers can be observed in the dehydrated tomato samples using the different dehydration methods. Frozen foods and heat-sterilized foods exhibit excellent lycopene stability throughout their normal temperature storage shelf life. Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. Food processing may improve lycopene bioavailability by breaking down cell walls, which weakens the bonding forces between lycopene and tissue matrix, thus making lycopene more accessible and enhancing the cis-isomerization. More information on lycopene bioavailability, however, is needed. The pharmacokinetic properties of lycopene remain particularly poorly understood. Further research on the bioavalability, pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology must be done to reveal the mechanism of lycopene in human diet, and the in vivo metabolism of lycopene. Consumer demand for healthy food products provides an opportunity to develop lycopene-rich food as new functional foods, as well as food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade lycopene as new nutraceutical products. An industrial scale, environmentally friendly lycopene extraction and purification procedure with minimal loss of bioactivities is highly desirable for the foods, feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. High-quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will offer potential benefits to the food industry. PMID:11192026

Shi, J; Le Maguer, M

2000-01-01

188

Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing.  

PubMed

Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all-trans isomers can be observed in the dehydrated tomato samples using the different dehydration methods. Frozen foods and heat-sterilized foods exhibit excellent lycopene stability throughout their normal temperature storage shelf life. Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. Food processing may improve lycopene bioavailability by breaking down cell walls, which weakens the bonding forces between lycopene and tissue matrix, thus making lycopene more accessible and enhancing the cis-isomerization. More information on lycopene bioavailability, however, is needed. The pharmacokinetic properties of lycopene remain particularly poorly understood. Further research on the bioavalability, pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology must be done to reveal the mechanism of lycopene in human diet, and the in vivo metabolism of lycopene. Consumer demand for healthy food products provides an opportunity to develop lycopene-rich food as new functional foods, as well as food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade lycopene as new nutraceutical products. An industrial scale, environmentally friendly lycopene extraction and purification procedure with minimal loss of bioactivities is highly desirable for the foods, feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. High-quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will offer potential benefits to the food industry. PMID:10674200

Shi, J; Le Maguer, M

2000-01-01

189

Genotype and allele frequencies of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter genes affecting immunosuppressants in the Spanish White population.  

PubMed

Interpatient variability in drug response can be widely explained by genetically determined differences in metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, and drug targets, leading to different pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic behaviors of drugs. Genetic variations affect or do not affect drug responses depending on their influence on protein activity and the relevance of such proteins in the pathway of the drug. Also, the frequency of such genetic variations differs among populations, so the clinical relevance of a specific variation is not the same in all of them. In this study, a panel of 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 different genes (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, MTHFR, NOD2/CARD15, SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1, TPMT, and UGT1A9), encoding for the most relevant metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters relating to immunosuppressant agents, was analyzed to determine the genotype profile and allele frequencies in comparison with HapMap data. A total of 570 Spanish white recipients and donors of solid organ transplants were included. In 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms, statistically significant differences in allele frequency were observed. The largest differences (>100%) occurred in ABCB1 rs2229109, ABCG2 rs2231137, CYP3A5 rs776746, NOD2/CARD15 rs2066844, TPMT rs1800462, and UGT1A9 rs72551330. In conclusion, differences were recorded between the Spanish and other white populations in terms of allele frequency and genotypic distribution. Such differences may have implications in relation to dose requirements and drug-induced toxicity. These data are important for further research to help explain interindividual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability in response to drug therapy. PMID:24232128

Bosó, Virginia; Herrero, María J; Buso, Enrique; Galán, Juan; Almenar, Luis; Sánchez-Lázaro, Ignacio; Sánchez-Plumed, Jaime; Bea, Sergio; Prieto, Martín; García, María; Pastor, Amparo; Sole, Amparo; Poveda, José Luis; Aliño, Salvador F

2014-04-01

190

Perturbations of amino acid metabolism associated with glyphosate-dependent inhibition of shikimic acid metabolism affect cellular redox homeostasis and alter the abundance of proteins involved in photosynthesis and photorespiration.  

PubMed

The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway. PMID:21757634

Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P; Bulman, Christopher A; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H

2011-09-01

191

Perturbations of Amino Acid Metabolism Associated with Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Shikimic Acid Metabolism Affect Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Alter the Abundance of Proteins Involved in Photosynthesis and Photorespiration1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway.

Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P.; Bulman, Christopher A.; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.

2011-01-01

192

Ammonium-related metabolic changes affect somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin can be induced on auxin-containing medium and also on hormone-free medium containing 1mM ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as the sole source of nitrogen. Growth of NH(4)(+)-induced embryogenic tissue was slow and caused considerable acidification of the culture medium. Small spherical cells with dense cytoplasma formed proembryogenic cell clusters that could not develop into late stage embryos. Buffering of NH(4)(+) medium with 25mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethane-sulfonic acid enhanced tissue proliferation, but no further differentiation was observed. Later stage embryos developed only after re-supply of nitrogen in form of nitrate or l-glutamine. Effects of nitrogen status and pH of culture media on ammonium assimilation were analyzed by following the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in relation to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Increased activity of GS and PAL in NH(4)(+) induced tissue coincided with significantly higher activity of stress-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble peroxidase (POD), indicating oxidative stress response of embryogenic tissue to NH(4)(+) as the sole source of nitrogen. In addition, considerable increase was observed in callose accumulation and esterase activity, the early markers of somatic embryogenesis. Activity of stress-related enzymes decreased after the re-supply of nitrate (20mM) or Gln (10mM) in combination with NH(4)(+) (1mM), which subsequently triggered globular embryo development. Together, these results suggest that stress responses, as affected by nitrogen supply, contribute to the regulation of embryogenic competence in pumpkin. PMID:21807439

Mihaljevi?, Snježana; Radi?, Sandra; Bauer, Nataša; Gari?, Rade; Mihaljevi?, Branka; Horvat, Gordana; Leljak-Levani?, Dunja; Jelaska, Sibila

2011-11-01

193

Extracted oat and barley ?-glucans do not affect cholesterol metabolism in young healthy adults.  

PubMed

?-Glucans are known to exhibit hypocholesterolemic effects. Increased intestinal viscosity is thought to be crucial for cholesterol lowering. It is suggested that concentration, molecular mass, and structure, including the ratio of (1?3) to (1?4) glucan bonds in the molecule, are of importance for ?-glucan functionality. This study investigated the effects of 3 different ?-glucan sources, incorporated into a beverage and yogurt, on blood lipids and fecal endpoints. Fourteen participants completed this randomized, crossover, single-blinded study with four 3-wk periods: control and 3.3 g/d oat, barley, and barley mutant ?-glucans of similar molecular mass. Before and after each period, fasting and postprandial blood samples were drawn and 3-d fecal samples were collected. Treatment did not affect changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol compared with control; however, consumption of 3.3 g/d of oat ?-glucans for 3 wk resulted in greater decreases in total (-0.29 ± 0.09 mmol/L, P < 0.01), LDL (-0.23 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P < 0.01), and HDL (-0.05 ± 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.05) cholesterol compared with baseline. Changes in LDL in the ?-glucan treatments were not related to ?-glucan structure (cellotriosyl:cellotetraosyl). Decreases in fasting triacylglycerol were substantially greater after oat ?-glucan treatment compared with control (P = 0.03). Fecal dry and wet weight, stool frequency, fecal pH, and energy excretion were unaffected. The results do not fully support the hypocholesterolemic effects by differently structured oat and barley ?-glucans. However, substantial differences compared with baseline suggest a potential for oat ?-glucan, presumably due to its higher solubility and viscosity. This underlines the importance of elusive structural ?-glucan features for beneficial physiologic effects. PMID:23946347

Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau; Ejsing, Johnny; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Bügel, Susanne

2013-10-01

194

Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

Polá?ková Šolcová, Iva; La?ev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

2014-07-01

195

Facial affect processing and depression susceptibility: cognitive biases and cognitive neuroscience.  

PubMed

Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal experience, cognition, and social behavior. We therefore review the burgeoning depressive facial affect processing literature and examine its potential for integrating disciplines, theories, and research. In particular, we evaluate studies in which information processing or cognitive neuroscience paradigms were used to assess facial affect processing in depressed and depression-susceptible populations. Most studies have assessed and supported cognitive models. This research suggests that depressed and depression-vulnerable groups show abnormal facial affect interpretation, attention, and memory, although findings vary based on depression severity, comorbid anxiety, or length of time faces are viewed. Facial affect processing biases appear to correspond with distinct neural activity patterns and increased depressive emotion and thought. Biases typically emerge in depressed moods but are occasionally found in the absence of such moods. Indirect evidence suggests that childhood neglect might cultivate abnormal facial affect processing, which can impede social functioning in ways consistent with cognitive-interpersonal and interpersonal models. However, reviewed studies provide mixed support for the social risk model prediction that depressive states prompt cognitive hypervigilance to social threat information. We recommend prospective interdisciplinary research examining whether facial affect processing abnormalities promote-or are promoted by-depressogenic attachment experiences, negative thinking, and social dysfunction. PMID:21895353

Bistricky, Steven L; Ingram, Rick E; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2011-11-01

196

Defects in GABA metabolism affect selective autophagy pathways and are alleviated by mTOR inhibition  

PubMed Central

In addition to key roles in embryonic neurogenesis and myelinogenesis, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) serves as the primary inhibitory mammalian neurotransmitter. In yeast, we have identified a new role for GABA that augments activity of the pivotal kinase, Tor1. GABA inhibits the selective autophagy pathways, mitophagy and pexophagy, through Sch9, the homolog of the mammalian kinase, S6K1, leading to oxidative stress, all of which can be mitigated by the Tor1 inhibitor, rapamycin. To confirm these processes in mammals, we examined the succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH)-deficient mouse model that accumulates supraphysiological GABA in the central nervous system and other tissues. Mutant mice displayed increased mitochondrial numbers in the brain and liver, expected with a defect in mitophagy, and morphologically abnormal mitochondria. Administration of rapamycin to these mice reduced mTOR activity, reduced the elevated mitochondrial numbers, and normalized aberrant antioxidant levels. These results confirm a novel role for GABA in cell signaling and highlight potential pathomechanisms and treatments in various human pathologies, including SSADH deficiency, as well as other diseases characterized by elevated levels of GABA.

Lakhani, Ronak; Vogel, Kara R; Till, Andreas; Liu, Jingjing; Burnett, Sarah F; Gibson, K Michael; Subramani, Suresh

2014-01-01

197

Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psychopathy is a complex personality disorder of unknown etiology. Central to the disorder are anomalies or difficulties in affective processing.Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to elucidate the neurobiological correlates of these anomalies in criminal psychopaths during performance of an affective memory task.Results: Compared with criminal nonpsychopaths and noncriminal control participants, criminal psychopaths showed significantly less affect-related activity

Kent A. Kiehl; Andra M. Smith; Robert D. Hare; Adrianna Mendrek; Bruce B. Forster; Johann Brink; Peter F. Liddle

2001-01-01

198

In vitro fertilization affects growth and glucose metabolism in a sex-specific manner in an outbred mouse model.  

PubMed

The preimplantation period is a time of reprogramming that may be vulnerable to disruption. This question has wide clinical relevance since the number of children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) is rising. To examine this question, outbred mice (CF1 × B6D2F1) conceived by IVF and cultured using Whitten medium and 20% O2 (IVFWM group, less optimal) or K simplex optimized medium with amino acids and 5% O2 (IVFKAA group, more optimal and similar to conditions used in human IVF) were studied postnatally. We found that flushed blastocysts transferred to recipient mice provided the best control group (FB group), as this accounted for the effects of superovulation, embryo transfer, and litter size. We observed that many physiological parameters were normal. Reassuringly, IVFKAA offspring did not differ significantly from FB offspring. However, male IVFWM mice (but not females) were larger during the first 19 wk of life and exhibited glucose intolerance. Male IVFWM mice also showed enlarged left heart despite normal blood pressure. Expression of candidate imprinted genes (H19, Igf2, and Slc38a4) in multiple adult tissues did not show differences among the groups; only Slc38a4 was down-regulated following IVF (in both culture conditions) in female adipose tissue. These studies demonstrate that adult metabolism is affected by the type of conditions encountered during the preimplantation stage. Further, the postnatal growth trajectory and glucose homeostasis following ex vivo manipulation may be sexual dimorphic. Future work on the long-term effects of IVF offspring should focus on glucose metabolism and the cardiovascular system. PMID:24621920

Donjacour, Annemarie; Liu, Xiaowei; Lin, Wingka; Simbulan, Rhodel; Rinaudo, Paolo F

2014-01-01

199

Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated

J. G. Dyke; F. Gans; A. Kleidon

2011-01-01

200

Affect detection in the real world: Recording and processing physiological signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recording and processing physiological signals from real life for the purpose of affect detection presents many challenges beyond those encountered in the laboratory. Issues such as finding the proper baseline and normalization take on a time dependent meaning. Physical motion also becomes an important factor as these physiological signals often overwhelm those caused by affect. Motion also has an effect

Jennifer A. Healey

2009-01-01

201

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section 63.52 Protection...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

2009-07-01

202

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section 63.52 Protection...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

2013-07-01

203

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section 63.52 Protection...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

2010-07-01

204

Osteoblast-specific expression of Fra-2/AP-1 controls adiponectin and osteocalcin expression and affects metabolism.  

PubMed

Recent studies have established that the skeleton functions as an endocrine organ affecting metabolism through the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin (Ocn). However, it is not fully understood how many transcription factors expressed in osteoblasts regulate the endocrine function. Here, we show that mice with osteoblast-specific deletion of Fra-2 (Fosl2) have low bone mass but increased body weight. In contrast, transgenic expression of Fra-2 in osteoblasts leads to increased bone mass and decreased body weight accompanied by reduced serum glucose and insulin levels, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, mice lacking Fra-2 have reduced levels of circulating Ocn, but high adiponectin (Adipoq), whereas Fra-2 transgenic mice exhibit high Ocn and low Adipoq levels. Moreover, we found that Adipoq was expressed in osteoblasts and that this expression was transcriptionally repressed by Fra-2. These results demonstrate that Fra-2 expression in osteoblasts represents a novel paradigm for a transcription factor controlling the endocrine function of the skeleton. PMID:24046454

Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Rosen, Evan D; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Schett, Georg; Amling, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

2013-12-01

205

Uncoupled metabolism stimulated by chemical uncoupler and oxic-settling-anaerobic combined process to reduce excess sludge production.  

PubMed

The effects of three uncoupled metabolic systems (conventional activated sludge process with the addition of 3,3', 4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide [TCS], oxic-settling-anaerobic [OSA] process modified by insertion of a sludge-holding tank in the sludge return line, and TCS and OSA combined process) on reducing excess sludge production were studied. Compared with the control conventional activated sludge process, the most effective system was the combined process, which could reduce excess sludge production by 46.90%. The 180-d operation results confirmed that TCS is an effective chemical uncoupler in reducing the sludge yield but that it had an adverse effect on substrate removal capability, effluent nitrogen concentration, and sludge settleability. The OSA process decreased excess sludge production by only 26% but had less adverse effect on effluent quality and could improve sludge settleability. The effluent total phosphorous concentration of the three systems was slightly lower than of the control unit. Microbial populations were monitored by both microscopic and molecular biologic analysis method (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]). The presence of TCS caused metazoans to disappear and decreased the number and activity of protozoa. PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and sequent DGGE analysis found a shift in the diversity of the predominant species. The results imply that OSA combined with the chemical uncoupler process may effectively reduce excess sludge yield and not affect process performance significantly. PMID:16377849

Ye, Fen Xia; Li, Ying

2005-12-01

206

Arabidopsis BPM Proteins Function as Substrate Adaptors to a CULLIN3-Based E3 Ligase to Affect Fatty Acid Metabolism in Plants[W  

PubMed Central

Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that CULLIN3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by MATH-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the WRINKLED1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of MATH-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members.

Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Hellmann, Hanjo

2013-01-01

207

Computer-assisted image-processing system for the analysis of autoradiographs of cerebral metabolic activity  

SciTech Connect

Computerized image-processing system has been developed for quantitative analyses of the autoradiographs obtained with the (14C) deoxyglucose method. By means of this system, these cerebral metabolic images can be digitized and the resultant data can be manipulated for image construction, enhancement, enlargement, and microdensitometric analysis. It is also possible to generate quantitative color-coded metabolic maps tht display the distribution of the actual rates of local glucose utilization throughout the entire central nervous system with a resolution conservatively estimated to be equivalent to that of a full-width-half-maximum of approximately 100 micron.

Goochee, C.F.; Rasband, W.S.; Sokoloff, L.

1980-01-01

208

Do surface processes and/or the presence of an initial surface topography affect(s) the fold linkage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape geomorphology provides an indirect observation of the tectonic activity. Surface processes and tectonics interact one with another to create a wide variety of landscape. Geomorphic features such as wind gaps can record the amplification and lateral propagation of embryonic fold segments. Depending of their relative initial spacing, those growing fold segments can link and form long train folds. This mechanism has been suggested for the Zagros Folded Belt, where the axial lengths of folds can reach more than 100 km. Previous studies have focused on fold linkage or on the response of the drainage network to tectonic forcing. Using seeds in their setup to prescribe the fold orientation, Grasemann and Schmalholz (2012) numerically investigated the distance between two isolated laterally propagating folds to explain the different modes of linkage. However, the effects of surface processes on the fold development have not been considered. Our recent multilayer folding experiments, in which an initial random perturbation was prescribed, have shown that under efficient drainage network conditions, or when a non-zero initial topography was applied to the model, the type of fold linkage could be modified. In this study we systematically investigate the effects of surface processes on the mode of linkage and how the distance between two isolated growing perturbations, required for linkage, is affected. In order to address this question, we use the 3D thermo-mechanical code LaMEM, which has been coupled to a finite-element based landscape evolution model (both erosion and sedimentation). The landscape evolution model uses a non-linear diffusion formulation (Simpson and Schlunegger, 2003) taking into account both hillslopes and channel processes. Graseman, B., and Schmalholz, S. M., 2012, Lateral fold growth and fold linkage: Geology, v. 40. Simpson, G., and Schlunegger, F., 2003, Topographic evolution and morphology of surfaces evolving in repsonse to coupled fluvial and hillslope sediment transport: Journal of geophysical research, v. 108, p. 16p.

Collignon, Marine; Fernandez, Naiara; Kaus, Boris J. P.

2014-05-01

209

Responsiveness and Affective Processes in the Interactive Construction of Understanding in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on important learning processes that emerged during adult mathematics classes that used a teaching approach compatible with a social constructivist theory of knowing. Concludes that affective processes precipitated students' responsiveness, modifying the immediate learning context which influenced student thinking, creating a snowball…

Owens, Kay; Perry, Bob; Conroy, John; Howe, Peter; Geoghegan, Noel

1998-01-01

210

How Does Tele-Mental Health Affect Group Therapy Process? Secondary Analysis of a Noninferiority Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Video teleconferencing (VTC) is used for mental health treatment delivery to geographically remote, underserved populations. However, few studies have examined how VTC affects individual or group psychotherapy processes. This study compares process variables such as therapeutic alliance and attrition among participants receiving anger…

Greene, Carolyn J.; Morland, Leslie A.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubbs, Kathleen M.; Rosen, Craig S.

2010-01-01

211

The Mechanism of Valence-Space Metaphors: ERP Evidence for Affective Word Processing  

PubMed Central

Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say “feeling down” or “cheer up” in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding locations. Valence-space metaphors might be grounded in attention allocation.

Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

2014-01-01

212

Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

Zhang, Yuanxing

213

Lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress as metabolic adaptation processes in dairy heifers during transition period.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in dairy heifers during the transition period. Possible relationships between lipid mobilisation indicators and oxidative stress markers were investigated as well. Nineteen dairy heifers were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the time of estrus synchronisation in heifers, at insemination, three weeks after insemination, one week before calving, at calving and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Common metabolic parameters, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidative status (TAS) were analysed. Around insemination, no significant difference was observed in the majority of tested parameters (P>0.05). However, the transition period markedly affected the concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, BHB, FFA, TAS and PON1activity. Positive correlations between PON1 activity and total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglycerides were noted but inverse correlations with FFA, BHB and bilirubin were found indicating that PON1 activity changed with lipid metabolism and was influenced by negative energy balance. These findings suggest that lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress are part of a complex metabolic adaptation to low energy balance which reaches equilibrium later in advanced lactation. PMID:23998495

Turk, R; Podpe?an, O; Mrkun, J; Kosec, M; Flegar-Meštri?, Z; Perkov, S; Stari?, J; Robi?, M; Beli?, M; Zrimšek, P

2013-10-01

214

Modeling Central Carbon Metabolic Processes in Soil Microbial Communities: Comparing Measured With Modeled  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms regulating C cycling is hindered by our inability to directly observe and measure the biochemical processes of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle in intact and complex microbial communities. Position-specific 13C labeled metabolic tracer probing is proposed as a new way to study microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, C use efficiency (the proportion of substrate incorporated into microbial biomass), and enables the quantification of C fluxes through the central C metabolic network processes (Dijkstra et al 2011a,b). We determined the 13CO2 production from U-13C, 1-13C, 2-13C, 3-13C, 4-13C, 5-13C, and 6-13C labeled glucose and 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate in parallel incubations in three soils along an elevation gradient. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the results indicate a high pentose phosphate pathway activity in soils. Agreement between modeled and measured CO2 production rates for the six C-atoms of 13C-labeled glucose indicate that the metabolic model used is appropriate for soil community processes, but that improvements can be made. These labeling and modeling techniques may improve our ability to analyze the biochemistry and (eco)physiology of intact microbial communities. Dijkstra, P., Blankinship, J.C., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011a. Probing C flux patterns of soil microbial metabolic networks using parallel position-specific tracer labeling. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 126-132. Dijkstra, P., Dalder, J.J., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011b. Modeling soil metabolic processes using isotopologue pairs of position-specific 13C-labeled glucose and pyruvate. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 1848-1857.

Dijkstra, P.; Fairbanks, D.; Miller, E.; Salpas, E.; Hagerty, S.

2013-12-01

215

Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome in non-affective psychoses.  

PubMed

The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, and is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Schizophrenia is also associated with increased inflammation, including aberrant blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. Fifty-nine inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychotic disorders and 22 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and anthropometric measures were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis and the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher total WBC counts, monocytes, and hsCRP levels than patients without the metabolic syndrome (p?0.04 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, after controlling for potential confounding effects of age, race, sex, age at first hospitalization for psychosis, parental history of diabetes, smoking, and psychotropic medications, total WBC count, monocytes, and hsCRP were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome in patients (p?0.04 for each). hsCRP was also a significant predictor of increased waist circumference and triglycerides in patients (p?0.05 for each). Our findings suggest that measurement of total and differential WBC counts and hsCRP blood levels may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and metabolic disturbance in these patients. PMID:22982547

Miller, Brian J; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

2013-07-01

216

Metabolic depression during warm torpor in the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) does not affect mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide release.  

PubMed

Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during daily torpor and hibernation to save energy. Recently, depression of mitochondrial substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria was observed and associated to hypothermic/hypometabolic states in Djungarian hamsters, mice and hibernators. We aimed to clarify whether hypothermia or hypometabolism causes mitochondrial depression during torpor by studying the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus), a desert rodent which performs daily torpor at high ambient temperatures of 32°C. Notably, metabolic rate but not body temperature is significantly decreased under these conditions. In isolated liver, heart, skeletal muscle or kidney mitochondria we found no depression of respiration. Moderate cold exposure lowered torpor body temperature but had minor effects on minimal metabolic rate in torpor. Neither decreased body temperature nor metabolic rate impacted mitochondrial respiration. Measurements of mitochondrial proton leak kinetics and determination of P/O ratio revealed no differences in mitochondrial efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide release from mitochondria was not affected. We conclude that interspecies differences of mitochondrial depression during torpor do not support a general relationship between mitochondrial respiration, body temperature and metabolic rate. In Golden spiny mice, reduction of metabolic rate at mild temperatures is not triggered by depression of substrate oxidation as found in liver mitochondria from other cold-exposed rodents. PMID:24021912

Grimpo, Kirsten; Kutschke, Maria; Kastl, Anja; Meyer, Carola W; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin

2014-01-01

217

Deletion or Overexpression of Mitochondrial NAD+ Carriers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alters Cellular NAD and ATP Contents and Affects Mitochondrial Metabolism and the Rate of Glycolysis ?  

PubMed Central

The modification of enzyme cofactor concentrations can be used as a method for both studying and engineering metabolism. We varied Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial NAD levels by altering expression of its specific mitochondrial carriers. Changes in mitochondrial NAD levels affected the overall cellular concentration of this coenzyme and the cellular metabolism. In batch culture, a strain with a severe NAD depletion in mitochondria succeeded in growing, albeit at a low rate, on fully respiratory media. Although the strain increased the efficiency of its oxidative phosphorylation, the ATP concentration was low. Under the same growth conditions, a strain with a mitochondrial NAD concentration higher than that of the wild type similarly displayed a low cellular ATP level, but its growth rate was not affected. In chemostat cultures, when cellular metabolism was fully respiratory, both mutants showed low biomass yields, indicative of impaired energetic efficiency. The two mutants increased their glycolytic fluxes, and as a consequence, the Crabtree effect was triggered at lower dilution rates. Strikingly, the mutants switched from a fully respiratory metabolism to a respirofermentative one at the same specific glucose flux as that of the wild type. This result seems to indicate that the specific glucose uptake rate and/or glycolytic flux should be considered one of the most important independent variables for establishing the long-term Crabtree effect. In cells growing under oxidative conditions, bioenergetic efficiency was affected by both low and high mitochondrial NAD availability, which suggests the existence of a critical mitochondrial NAD concentration in order to achieve optimal mitochondrial functionality.

Agrimi, Gennaro; Brambilla, Luca; Frascotti, Gianni; Pisano, Isabella; Porro, Danilo; Vai, Marina; Palmieri, Luigi

2011-01-01

218

Episodic Processes in Emotional Labor: Perceptions of Affective Delivery and Regulation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined emotional labor processes from a within-person, episodic framework. The authors hypothesized that the influence of negative emotions on affective delivery would be lessened by regulation strategies for supervisor perceptions but not self-perceptions. In addition, difficulty maintaining display rules was hypothesized to mediate the relation between negative emotions and self-perceptions of affective delivery. Finally, the influence of surface

Daniel J. Beal; John P. Trougakos; Howard M. Weiss; Stephen G. Green

2006-01-01

219

Stress-Buffering Effects of Self-Complexity: Reduced Affective Spillover or Self-Regulatory Processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress-buffering effects of high self-complexity can be explained by two different theoretical models. According to the affective spillover model (Linville, 1985), a large number of independent self-aspects prevents a generalization of affect after negative but also after positive events. According to the self-regulatory processes model, a large number of self-aspects promotes efficient self-regulation, which is restricted to negative events. Effects

Klaus Rothermund; Christian Meiniger

2004-01-01

220

Playing TETRIS for science counter-regulatory affective processing in a motivationally “hot” context  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapted the computer game TETRIS to investigate the process of affective-motivational counter-regulation, that is, attentional biases for emotional stimuli that are in opposition to the momentary motivational focus. Counter-regulation is seen as a mechanism which should prevent escalation and impulsivity, and it should help to avoid becoming “locked up” in affective-motivational states. Accordingly, for a negative outcome focus condition

Dirk Wentura; Andreas Voss; Klaus Rothermund

2009-01-01

221

X-linked dystonia parkinsonism syndrome (XDP, lubag): disease-specific sequence change DSC3 in TAF1/DYT3 affects genes in vesicular transport and dopamine metabolism.  

PubMed

X-chromosomal dystonia parkinsonism syndrome (XDP, 'lubag') is associated with sequence changes within the TAF1/DYT3 multiple transcript system. Although most sequence changes are intronic, one, disease-specific single-nucleotide change 3 (DSC3), is located within an exon (d4). Transcribed exon d4 occurs as part of multiple splice variants. These variants include exons d3 and d4 spliced to exons of TAF1, and an independent transcript composed of exons d2-d4. Location of DSC3 in exon d4 and utilization of this exon in multiple splice variants suggest an important role of DSC3 in the XDP pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we transfected neuroblastoma cells with four expression constructs, including exons d2-d4 [d2-d4/wild-type (wt) and d2-d4/DSC3] and d3-d4 (d3-d4/wt and d3-d4/DSC3). Expression profiling revealed a dramatic effect of DSC3 on overall gene expression. Three hundred and sixty-two genes differed between cells containing d2-d4/wt and d2-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering revealed enrichment of genes related to vesicular transport, dopamine metabolism, synapse function, Ca(2+) metabolism and oxidative stress. Two hundred and eleven genes were differentially expressed in d3-d4/wt versus d3-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering highlighted genes in signal transduction and cell-cell interaction. The data show an important role of physiologically occurring transcript d2-d4 in normal brain function. Interference with this role by DSC3 is a likely pathological mechanism in XDP. Disturbance of dopamine function and of Ca(2+) metabolism can explain abnormal movement; loss of protection against reactive oxygen species may account for the neurodegenerative changes in XDP. Although d3-d4 also affect genes potentially related to neurodegenerative processes, their physiologic role as splice variants of TAF1 awaits further exploration. PMID:23184149

Herzfeld, Thilo; Nolte, Dagmar; Grznarova, Maria; Hofmann, Andrea; Schultze, Joachim L; Müller, Ulrich

2013-03-01

222

Lyophilized carrot ingestion lowers lipemia and beneficially affects cholesterol metabolism in cholesterol–fed C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Several lines of evidence indicate that diet rich in fruit and vegetable can protect against cardiovascular diseases by acting on cholesterol metabolism and on oxidative stress. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to assess whether daily carrot consumption (provided as lyophilized powder) could differentially influence the consequences of cholesterol supplementation on lipid metabolism and

Catherine Nicolle; Elyett Gueux; Claudine Lab; Lydia Jaffrelo; E. Rock; A. Mazur; P. Amouroux; C. Rémésy

2004-01-01

223

Modulation of polyamine metabolic flux in adipose tissue alters the accumulation of body fat by affecting glucose homeostasis.  

PubMed

The continued rise in obesity despite public education, awareness and policies indicates the need for mechanism-based therapeutic approaches to help control the disease. Our data, in conjunction with other studies, suggest an unexpected role for the polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) in fat homeostasis. Our previous studies showed that deletion of SSAT greatly exaggerates weight gain and that the transgenic overexpression suppresses weight gain in mice on a high-fat diet. This discovery is substantial but the underlying molecular linkages are only vaguely understood. Here, we used a comprehensive systems biology approach, on white adipose tissue (WAT), to discover that the partition of acetyl-CoA towards polyamine catabolism alters glucose homeostasis and hence, fat accumulation. Comparative proteomics and antibody-based expression studies of WAT in SSAT knockout, wild type and transgenic mice identified nine proteins with an increasing gradient across the genotypes, all of which correlate with acetyl-CoA consumption in polyamine acetylation. Adipose-specific SSAT knockout mice and global SSAT knockout mice on a high-fat diet exhibited similar growth curves and proteomic patterns in their WAT, confirming that attenuated consumption of acetyl-CoA in acetylation of polyamines in adipose tissue drives the obese phenotype of these mice. Analysis of protein expression indicated that the identified changes in the levels of proteins regulating acetyl-CoA consumption occur via the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Together, our data suggest that differential expression of SSAT markedly alters acetyl-CoA levels, which in turn trigger a global shift in glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, thus affecting the accumulation of body fat. PMID:23881108

Liu, Chunli; Perez-Leal, Oscar; Barrero, Carlos; Zahedi, Kamyar; Soleimani, Manoocher; Porter, Carl; Merali, Salim

2014-03-01

224

40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400...of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution...affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? This...

2013-07-01

225

Metabolic and luteal function in winter-calving Spanish beef cows as affected by calf management and breed.  

PubMed

This experiment aimed at evaluating the effect of calf management and breed on the metabolic and luteal function of post-partum beef cows fed at maintenance. Fifty multiparous cows, 22 Parda de Montaña (PA) and 28 Pirenaica (PI), were assigned to either suckling once-daily for 30 min (RESTR) or ad libitum (ADLIB) from the day after calving. Blood samples were collected to analyse metabolites [non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate, total protein and urea)], insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and progesterone (P4) at different intervals. Cows from RESTR maintained their live-weight (LW) over the first 3 months post-partum, whereas ADLIB cows lost nearly 4% LW. Both genotypes showed similar LW gains during this period (p > 0.10). Calf daily gains were lower in RESTR than in ADLIB treatment (p < 0.05), but similar across breeds (p > 0.10). Milk and lactose production were lower in RESTR cows than in ADLIB (p < 0.05). Milk and protein yield were greater in PA than in PI breed (p < 0.05). Serum NEFA, total protein and urea were higher in PI cows suckling ADLIB than in the rest (p < 0.05). Cows from PI breed had greater NEFA values than PA ones on the first week post-partum (p < 0.001). Circulating IGF-I was not affected by suckling frequency, breed nor their interaction (p > 0.10). Suckling frequency, but not breed, affected the interval from calving to first ovulation (p < 0.001), being shorter in RESTR than in ADLIB cows. In conclusion, the ad libitum suckling practice improved cow milk yield and offspring gain compared to once-daily suckling for 30 min from the day after calving, at the expense of impairing the onset of cyclicity. The effect of calf management was confounded with breed on the studied blood biochemical constituents, but any of these metabolites influenced the role of endocrine IGF-I in these genotypes. PMID:19663981

Alvarez-Rodríguez, J; Palacio, J; Sanz, A

2010-06-01

226

Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian cycle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece 51142 can fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. Thus, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of two processes: photosynthesis during the day, and nitrogen fixation at night. While previous studies have examined periodic changes transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. We found that ~30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes in numerous individual pathways, such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogen metabolism, were co-regulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. Our analyses suggest that the demands of nitrogen fixation greatly influence major metabolic activities inside Cyanothece cells and thus drive various cellular activities. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium

Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh V.; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2008-04-22

227

Emotion and working memory: evidence for domain-specific processes for affective maintenance.  

PubMed

Working memory is comprised of separable subsystems for visual and verbal information, but what if the information is affective? Does the maintenance of affective information rely on the same processes that maintain nonaffective information? The authors address this question using a novel delayed-response task developed to investigate the short-term maintenance of affective memoranda. Using selective interference methods the authors find that a secondary emotion-regulation task impaired affect intensity maintenance, whereas secondary cognitive tasks disrupted brightness intensity maintenance, but facilitated affect maintenance. Additionally, performance on the affect maintenance task depends on the valence of the maintained feeling, further supporting the domain-specific nature of the task. The importance of affect maintenance per se is further supported by demonstrating that the observed valence effects depend on a memory delay and are not evident with simultaneous presentation of stimuli. These findings suggest that the working memory system may include domain-specific components that are specialized for the maintenance of affective memoranda. PMID:18410199

Mikels, Joseph A; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Beyer, Jonathan A; Fredrickson, Barbara L

2008-04-01

228

Bile metabolism and lithogenesis.  

PubMed

Our understanding of bile metabolism and the molecular effects of bile acids has expanded in recent years. Bile acids, which are classically recognized for their involvement in dietary lipid absorption, are now known to be involved in many aspects of energy metabolism and disease processes in humans. Cholelithiasis, a consequence of altered bile metabolism, affects a significant number of American adults. An understanding of the disease process, risk factors, and complications of gallbladder disease is necessary for the development of novel targeted treatments and prophylactic therapies against the development of gallstones. PMID:24679426

O'Connell, Kathleen; Brasel, Karen

2014-04-01

229

Dll1 Haploinsufficiency in Adult Mice Leads to a Complex Phenotype Affecting Metabolic and Immunological Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved signal transduction pathway involved in embryonic patterning and regulation of cell fates during development and self-renewal. Recent studies have demonstrated that this pathway is integral to a complex system of interactions, involving as well other signal transduction pathways, and implicated in distinct human diseases. Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is one of the known

Isabel Rubio-Aliaga; Gerhard K. H. Przemeck; Helmut Fuchs; Valérie Gailus-Durner; Thure Adler; Wolfgang Hans; Marion Horsch; Birgit Rathkolb; Jan Rozman; Anja Schrewe; Sibylle Wagner; Sabine M. Hoelter; Lore Becker; Thomas Klopstock; Wolfgang Wurst; Eckhard Wolf; Martin Klingenspor; Boris T. Ivandic; Dirk H. Busch; Johannes Beckers; Martin Hrabé de Angelis; Derya Unutmaz

2009-01-01

230

Mind at Ease Puts a Smile on the Face Psychophysiological Evidence That Processing Facilitation Elicits Positive Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affect system, in its position to monitor organismic—environmental transactions, may be sensitive to the internal dynamics of information processing. Hence, the authors predicted that facilitation of stimulus processing should elicit a brief, mild, positive affective response. In 2 studies, participants watched a series of neutral pictures while the processing ease was unobtrusively manipulated. Affective reactions were assessed with facial

Piotr Winkielman; John T. Cacioppo

2002-01-01

231

Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets  

SciTech Connect

The G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty-acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. We observed that glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, assessed by hyperglycemic clamps, was decreased by approximately 60% in GPR40 knock-out (KO) fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Glucose and palmitate metabolism were not affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling revealed a similar increase in triglyceride and decrease in lysophosphatidylethanolamine species in WT and KO islets in response to palmitate. These results demonstrate that GPR40 regulates insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism.

Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, M. G.; Kebede, Melkam; Sorensen, Christina M.; Gesta, Stephane; Kahn, C. R.; Smith, Richard D.; Jetton, Thomas L.; Metz, Thomas O.; Prentki, Marc; Poitout, Vincent J.

2009-11-01

232

Self-organization and fractality in a metabolic processes of the Krebs cycle.  

PubMed

The metabolic processes of the Krebs cycle is studied with the help of a mathematical model. The autocatalytic processes resulting in both the formation of the self-organization in the Krebs cycle and the appearance of a cyclicity of its dynamics are determined. Some structural-functional connections creating the synchronism of an autoperiodic functioning at the transport in the respiratory chain and the oxidative phosphorylation are investigated. The conditions for breaking the synchronization of processes, increasing the multiplicity of cyclicity, and for the appearance of chaotic modes are analyzed. The phase-parametric diagram of a cascade of bifurcations showing the transition to a chaotic mode by the Feigenbaum scenario is obtained. The fractal nature of the revealed cascade of bifurcations is demonstrated. The strange attractors formed as a result of the folding are obtained. The results obtained give the idea of structural-functional connections, due to which the self-organization appears in the metabolism running in a cell. The constructed mathematical model can be applied to the study of the toxic and allergic effects of drugs and various substances on cell metabolism. PMID:24479337

Grytsay, V I; Musatenko, I V

2013-01-01

233

Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.  

PubMed

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders. PMID:22761585

Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V

2012-06-01

234

Facial Affect Processing and Depression Susceptibility: Cognitive Biases and Cognitive Neuroscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal…

Bistricky, Steven L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2011-01-01

235

Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

2010-01-01

236

Evaluation of Geochemical Processes Affecting Uranium Sequestration and Longevity of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of effective remediation techniques for protecting existing drinking water supplies and for mitigating existing contamination problems requires evaluating both the contaminant sequestration processes and the secondary reactions affecting the long term stability of contaminant attenuation. Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) provide a means for passive remediation of dissolved groundwater contaminants and may be an effective strategy for remediation of uranium

C. C. Fuller; S. Webb; J. Bargar; D. L. Naftz

2009-01-01

237

An Empirical Investigation on Factors Affecting Software Developer Acceptance and Utilization of Electronic Process Guides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective is to perform an empirical investigation on factors affecting software developer acceptance and utilization of electronic process guides (EPGs) and to discuss the implications of the findings. The potential benefits of EPGs can only be realized when key capabilities are not only adopted, but also infused across the organization. We conducted a survey of 97 software developers in

Tore Dybå; Nils Brede Moe; Edda M. Mikkelsen

2004-01-01

238

Transactional Distance among Open University Students: How Does it Affect the Learning Process?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the presence of transactional distance among students, the factors affecting it, as well as the way it influences the learning process of students in a blended distance learning setting in Greece. The present study involved 12 postgraduate students of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). A qualitative research was conducted,…

Kassandrinou, Amanda; Angelaki, Christina; Mavroidis, Ilias

2014-01-01

239

Informal speech processes can be categorical in nature, even if they affect many different words.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the nature of reduction phenomena in informal speech. It addresses the question whether reduction processes that affect many word types, but only if they occur in connected informal speech, may be categorical in nature. The focus is on reduction of schwa in the prefixes and on word-final /t/ in Dutch past participles. More than 2000 tokens of past participles from the Ernestus Corpus of Spontaneous Dutch and the Spoken Dutch Corpus (both from the interview and read speech component) were transcribed automatically. The results demonstrate that the presence and duration of /t/ are affected by approximately the same phonetic variables, indicating that the absence of /t/ is the extreme result of shortening, and thus results from a gradient reduction process. Also for schwa, the data show that mainly phonetic variables influence its reduction but its presence is affected by different and more variables than its duration, which suggests that the absence of schwa may result from gradient as well as categorical processes. These conclusions are supported by the distributions of the segments' durations. These findings provide evidence that reduction phenomena which affect many words in informal conversations may also result from categorical reduction processes. PMID:23464034

Hanique, Iris; Ernestus, Mirjam; Schuppler, Barbara

2013-03-01

240

The embrace of Mother Nature: appraisal processes and the regulation of affect in attachment genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Except for a couple of articles from cognitive film theory, theoretical writing about film has shed little light on the underlying processes governing affective film experience in relation to attachment concerns. In this paper, I explore the relevance of neuro-psychoanalytic theory in laying down a framework for understanding the viewer's experience of emotional episodes of loss primarily in romantic films

Mette Kramer

2010-01-01

241

Affective Cues and Processing Strategy: Color-Coded Examination Forms Influence Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that external cues provide affective information that influence processing strategy and, therefore, examination performance. Notes the differences in performance for two midterm examinations, identical, except that they were printed on blue and red paper. Discusses a method for appropriately adjusting scores to control for form effects.…

Sinclair, Robert C.; Soldat, Alexander S.; Mark, Melvin M.

1998-01-01

242

Heterogeneous evolutionary processes affect R gene diversity in natural populations of Solanum pimpinellifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance (R) genes of plants are responsible for pathogen recognition and encode proteins that trigger a cascade of responses when a pathogen invades a plant. R genes are assumed to be under strong selection, but there is limited knowledge of the processes affecting R gene diversity in the wild. In this study, DNA sequence variation of Cf-2 homologs was surveyed

Ana L. Caicedo; Barbara A. Schaal

2004-01-01

243

Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

244

Affective processing of loved faces: Contributions from peripheral and central electrophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the neural mechanisms of face identity constitutes a fruitful method to explore the affective contributions to face processing. Here, we investigated central and peripheral electrophysiological indices associated with the perception of loved faces. Subjects viewed black-and-white photographs of faces that belonged to one of five categories: loved ones, famous people, unknown people, babies, and neutral faces from the

Cynthia Vico; Pedro Guerra; Humbelina Robles; Jaime Vila; Lourdes Anllo-Vento

2010-01-01

245

Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces  

PubMed Central

According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Kohler, Stefan

2014-01-01

246

Effects of naphthenic acid exposure on development and liver metabolic processes in anuran tadpoles.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NA) are used in a variety of commercial and industrial applications, and are primary toxic components of oil sands wastewater. We investigated developmental and metabolic responses of tadpoles exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of a commercial NA blend throughout development. We exposed Lithobates pipiens tadpoles to 1 and 2 mg/L NA for 75 days and monitored growth and development, condition factor, gonad and liver sizes, and levels of liver glucose, glycogen, lipids and cholesterol following exposure. NA decreased growth and development, significantly reduced glycogen stores and increased triglycerides, indicating disruption to processes associated with energy metabolism and hepatic glycolysis. Effects on liver function may explain reduced growth and delayed development observed in this and previous studies. Our data highlight the need for greater understanding of the mechanisms leading to hepatotoxicity in NA-exposed organisms, and indicate that strict guidelines may be needed for the release of NA into aquatic environments. PMID:23466728

Melvin, Steven D; Lanctôt, Chantal M; Craig, Paul M; Moon, Thomas W; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Trudeau, Vance L

2013-06-01

247

Teaching creativity involves both cognitive and affective learning processes organized as 3D cases on The Creative Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching creativity involves both a cognitive and an affective learning process. Creativity can be defined as our ability to perceive and respond to stimuli in a new way. Teaching creativity therefore involves both cognitive and affective learning processes. Cognitive because our thinking is cognitive and affective because our thinking is close related to our body movements and attitude in a

S. Hansen; C. Byrge

248

Demographic Processes Affect HIV-1 Evolution in Primary Infection before the Onset of Selective Processes?  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 transmission and viral evolution in the first year of infection were studied in 11 individuals representing four transmitter-recipient pairs and three independent seroconverters. Nine of these individuals were enrolled during acute infection; all were men who have sex with men (MSM) infected with HIV-1 subtype B. A total of 475 nearly full-length HIV-1 genome sequences were generated, representing on average 10 genomes per specimen at 2 to 12 visits over the first year of infection. Single founding variants with nearly homogeneous viral populations were detected in eight of the nine individuals who were enrolled during acute HIV-1 infection. Restriction to a single founder variant was not due to a lack of diversity in the transmitter as homogeneous populations were found in recipients from transmitters with chronic infection. Mutational patterns indicative of rapid viral population growth dominated during the first 5 weeks of infection and included a slight contraction of viral genetic diversity over the first 20 to 40 days. Subsequently, selection dominated, most markedly in env and nef. Mutants were detected in the first week and became consensus as early as day 21 after the onset of symptoms of primary HIV infection. We found multiple indications of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations while reversions appeared limited. Putative escape mutations were often rapidly replaced with mutually exclusive mutations nearby, indicating the existence of a maturational escape process, possibly in adaptation to viral fitness constraints or to immune responses against new variants. We showed that establishment of HIV-1 infection is likely due to a biological mechanism that restricts transmission rather than to early adaptive evolution during acute infection. Furthermore, the diversity of HIV strains coupled with complex and individual-specific patterns of CTL escape did not reveal shared sequence characteristics of acute infection that could be harnessed for vaccine design.

Herbeck, Joshua T.; Rolland, Morgane; Liu, Yi; McLaughlin, Sherry; McNevin, John; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Kim; Stoddard, Julia N.; Raugi, Dana; Sorensen, Stephanie; Genowati, Indira; Birditt, Brian; McKay, Angela; Diem, Kurt; Maust, Brandon S.; Deng, Wenjie; Collier, Ann C.; Stekler, Joanne D.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Mullins, James I.

2011-01-01

249

Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory  

PubMed Central

Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing.

Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

2010-01-01

250

Threat processing in generalized social phobia: An investigation of interpretation biases in ambiguous facial affect.  

PubMed

Facial affect is one of the most important information sources during the course of social interactions, but it is susceptible to distortion due to the complex and dynamic nature. Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit alterations in the processing of social information, such as an attentional and interpretative bias toward threatening information. This may be one of the key factors contributing to the development and maintenance of anxious psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a threat-related interpretation bias is evident for ambiguous facial stimuli in a population of individuals with a generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (gSAD) as compared to healthy controls. Participants judged ambiguous happy/fearful, angry/fearful and angry/happy blends varying in intensity and rated the predominant affective expression. The results obtained in this study do not indicate that gSAD is associated with a biased interpretation of ambiguous facial affect. PMID:24656896

Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael

2014-06-30

251

Genome-wide analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies cellular processes affecting intracellular aggregation of Alzheimer's amyloid-?42: importance of lipid homeostasis.  

PubMed

Amyloid-? (A?)-containing plaques are a major neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two major isoforms of A? peptide associated with AD are A?40 and A?42, of which the latter is highly prone to aggregation. Increased presence and aggregation of intracellular A?42 peptides is an early event in AD progression. Improved understanding of cellular processes affecting A?42 aggregation may have implications for development of therapeutic strategies. A?42 fused to green fluorescent protein (A?42-GFP) was expressed in ?4600 mutants of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide deletion library to identify proteins and cellular processes affecting intracellular A?42 aggregation by assessing the fluorescence of A?42-GFP. This screening identified 110 mutants exhibiting intense A?42-GFP-associated fluorescence. Four major cellular processes were overrepresented in the data set, including phospholipid homeostasis. Disruption of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylethanolamine metabolism had a major effect on intracellular A?42 aggregation and localization. Confocal microscopy indicated that A?42-GFP localization in the phospholipid mutants was juxtaposed to the nucleus, most likely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/ER membrane. These data provide a genome-wide indication of cellular processes that affect intracellular A?42-GFP aggregation and may have important implications for understanding cellular mechanisms affecting intracellular A?42 aggregation and AD disease progression. PMID:24870034

Nair, S; Traini, M; Dawes, I W; Perrone, G G

2014-08-01

252

Proposal for field sampling of plants and processing in the lab for environmental metabolic fingerprinting  

PubMed Central

Background Samples for plant metabolic fingerprinting are prepared generally by metabolism quenching, grinding of plant material and extraction of metabolites in solvents. Further concentration and derivatisation steps follow in dependence of the sample nature and the available analytical platform. For plant material sampled in the field, several methods are not applicable, such as, e.g., collection in liquid nitrogen. Therefore, a protocol was established for sample pre-treatment, grinding, extraction and storage, which can be used for analysis of field-collected plant material, which is further processed in the laboratory. Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., Plantaginaceae) was used as model plant. The quality criteria for method suitability were high reproducibility, extraction efficiency and handling comfort of each subsequent processing step. Results Highest reproducibility of results was achieved by sampling fresh plant material in a solvent mixture of methanol:dichloromethane (2:1), crushing the tissue with a hand-held disperser and storing the material until further processing. In the laboratory the material was extracted threefold at different pH. The gained extracts were separated with water (2:1:1 methanol:dichloromethane:water) and the aqueous phases used for analysis by LC-MS, because the polar metabolites were in focus. Chromatograms were compared by calculating a value ? for similarities. Advantages and disadvantages of different sample pre-treatment methods, use of solvents and solvent mixtures, influence of pH, extraction frequency and duration, and storing temperature are discussed with regard to the quality criteria. Conclusions The proposed extraction protocol leads to highly reproducible metabolic fingerprints and allows optimal handling of field-collected plant material and further processing in the laboratory, which is demonstrated for an exemplary field data-set. Calculation of ? values is a useful tool to judge similarities between chromatograms.

2010-01-01

253

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Affects Lipid Composition, Metabolism, and Gene Expression in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L)1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maximize growth, farmed fish are fed high-fat diets, which can lead to high tissue lipid concentrations that have an impact on quality. The intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat in mammals and this study was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary CLA on growth, composition, and postprandial metabolic variables in sea bream. Fish were fed

Amalia Diez; David Menoyo; Susana Perez-Benavente; Josep A. Calduch-Giner; Alex Obach; Laurence Favre-Krey; Evridiki Boukouvala; Michael J. Leaver; Douglas R. Tocher; Grigorios Krey

254

Exercise affects energy metabolism and neural plasticity-related proteins in the hippocampus as revealed by proteomic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of a brief voluntary exercise period on the expression pattern and post-translational modification of multiple protein classes in the rat hippocampus using proteomics. An analysis of 80 protein spots of relative high abundance on two-dimensional gels revealed that approximately 90% of the proteins identified were associated with energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity. Exercise

Qinxue Ding; Shoshanna Vaynman; Puneet Souda; Julian P. Whitelegge; Fernando Gomez-Pinilla

2006-01-01

255

Dietary excesses of urea influence the viability and metabolism of preimplantation sheep embryos and may affect fetal growth among survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first of two experiments investigating the effect of dietary urea on the survival and metabolism of ovine embryos, 30 Border Leicester × Scottish Blackface ewes received a maintenance diet (milled hay, molasses, minerals, vitamins) with no urea (control, C; n = 10) or with added urea at 15 g (low urea, LU; n = 10) or 30 g

T. G. McEvoy; J. J. Robinson; R. P. Aitken; P. A. Findlay; I. S. Robertson

1997-01-01

256

Energy metabolism in relation to physical activity in growing pigs as affected by type of dietary carbohydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary carbohydrate source on physical activity in relation to metabolic rate in pigs was studied. Six groups of 12 pigs (50-kg, castrated males) were fed one of two diets: a starch diet or a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) diet. Both diets had a similar calculated net energy content. The starch diet contained 13% tapioca, and the NSP diet

J. W. Schrama; M. W. A. Verstegen; P. H. J. Verboeket; J. B. Schutte; J. Haaksma

1996-01-01

257

The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Cognitive Processes and Affect in Patients with Past Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effects of an 8-week course in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; J. Kabat-Zinn, 1982, 1990) on affective symptoms (depression and anxiety), dysfunctional attitudes, and rumination. Given the focus of mindfulness meditation (MM) in modifying cognitive processes, it was hypothesized that the primary change in MM practice involves reductions in ruminative tendencies. We studied a sample of individuals

Wiveka Ramel; Philippe R. Goldin; Paula E. Carmona; John R. McQuaid

2004-01-01

258

Is the processing of affective prosody influenced by spatial attention? an ERP study  

PubMed Central

Background The present study asked whether the processing of affective prosody is modulated by spatial attention. Pseudo-words with a neutral, happy, threatening, and fearful prosody were presented at two spatial positions. Participants attended to one position in order to detect infrequent targets. Emotional prosody was task irrelevant. The electro-encephalogram (EEG) was recorded to assess processing differences as a function of spatial attention and emotional valence. Results Event-related potentials (ERPs) differed as a function of emotional prosody both when attended and when unattended. While emotional prosody effects interacted with effects of spatial attention at early processing levels (< 200 ms), these effects were additive at later processing stages (> 200 ms). Conclusions Emotional prosody, therefore, seems to be partially processed outside the focus of spatial attention. Whereas at early sensory processing stages spatial attention modulates the degree of emotional voice processing as a function of emotional valence, emotional prosody is processed outside of the focus of spatial attention at later processing stages.

2013-01-01

259

FfVel1 and FfLae1, components of a velvet-like complex in Fusarium fujikuroi, affect differentiation, secondary metabolism and virulence.  

PubMed

Besides industrially produced gibberellins (GAs), Fusarium fujikuroi is able to produce additional secondary metabolites such as the pigments bikaverin and neurosporaxanthin and the mycotoxins fumonisins and fusarin C. The global regulation of these biosynthetic pathways is only poorly understood. Recently, the velvet complex containing VeA and several other regulatory proteins was shown to be involved in global regulation of secondary metabolism and differentiation in Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we report on the characterization of two components of the F. fujikuroi velvet-like complex, FfVel1 and FfLae1. The gene encoding this first reported LaeA orthologue outside the class of Eurotiomycetidae is upregulated in DeltaFfvel1 microarray-studies and FfLae1 interacts with FfVel1 in the nucleus. Deletion of Ffvel1 and Fflae1 revealed for the first time that velvet can simultaneously act as positive (GAs, fumonisins and fusarin C) and negative (bikaverin) regulator of secondary metabolism, and that both components affect conidiation and virulence of F. fujikuroi. Furthermore, the velvet-like protein FfVel2 revealed similar functions regarding conidiation, secondary metabolism and virulence as FfVel1. Cross-genus complementation studies of velvet complex component mutants between Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium support an ancient origin for this complex, which has undergone a divergence in specific functions mediating development and secondary metabolism. PMID:20572938

Wiemann, Philipp; Brown, Daren W; Kleigrewe, Karin; Bok, Jin Woo; Keller, Nancy P; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

2010-06-21

260

[Processing mechanism of Epimedium fried with suet oil based on absorption and metabolism of flavonoids].  

PubMed

As beneficial traditional Chinese medicine, Epimedium fried with suet oil can enhance the effect of warming kidney yang. Previous literature studies about processing of Epimedium mainly focused on changes in chemical composition and pharmacological effect. From the angle of flavonoids absorption and metabolism, our group innovatively study the processing mechanism of Epimedium based on active component transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier. The processing effect of fried Epimedium can be divided into two key aspects of " heat" during processing and processing accessories "suet oil". Through continuous three National Natural Science Foundation items, the research group has clarified the scientific connotation of "heat" during processing with ADME, and explains the synergistic mechanism of processing accessories "suet oil" based on self-assembled micelles formation in vivo for the first time. This paper summarizes the research ideas and results of Epimedium processing mechanism of the project team for many years, and discusses the future research direction and content, in order to provide new ideas and new methods for modern Chinese medicine processing mechanism. PMID:24946535

Sun, E; Wei, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Cui, Li; Xu, Feng-Juan; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2014-02-01

261

Determining novel functions of Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins in central metabolic processes  

PubMed Central

Background 14-3-3 proteins are considered master regulators of many signal transduction cascades in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins have major roles as regulators of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, conclusions based on the studies of a few specific 14-3-3 targets. Results In this study, extensive novel roles of 14-3-3 proteins in plant metabolism were determined through combining the parallel analyses of metabolites and enzyme activities in 14-3-3 overexpression and knockout plants with studies of protein-protein interactions. Decreases in the levels of sugars and nitrogen-containing-compounds and in the activities of known 14-3-3-interacting-enzymes were observed in 14-3-3 overexpression plants. Plants overexpressing 14-3-3 proteins also contained decreased levels of malate and citrate, which are intermediate compounds of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. These modifications were related to the reduced activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of TCA cycle. In addition, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 proteins interacted with one isocitrate dehydrogenase and two malate dehydrogenases. There were also changes in the levels of aromatic compounds and the activities of shikimate dehydrogenase, which participates in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicate that 14-3-3 proteins play roles as crucial tuners of multiple primary metabolic processes including TCA cycle and the shikimate pathway.

2011-01-01

262

Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants  

PubMed Central

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant’s circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source–sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant–nematode interactions.

Hofmann, Julia

2014-01-01

263

Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants.  

PubMed

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant's circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source-sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant-nematode interactions. PMID:24187419

Cabello, Susana; Lorenz, Cindy; Crespo, Sara; Cabrera, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Escobar, Carolina; Hofmann, Julia

2014-01-01

264

Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

Waldron, M. C.; Wiley, J. B.

1996-01-01

265

TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing.  

PubMed

Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome. PMID:24592204

Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2014-01-01

266

The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: measuring temporal and affective components of adolescent responses to peer stress.  

PubMed

The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Adolescent Coping Process Interview (ACPI), that is more in line with transactional and developmental models of coping. Results indicate that the ACPI displays good psychometric properties, captures significant intra-individual variability in coping over the process, and points to emotional arousal as informing several coping-adjustment relationships. Moreover, the ACPI and similar approaches may help promote the development of more adaptive patterns of coping in adolescents by helping to identify specific points within the coping process at which to intervene. PMID:18022684

Feagans Gould, Laura; Hussong, Andrea M; Keeley, Mary L

2008-10-01

267

The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.  

PubMed

Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

2014-03-01

268

Gene Regulatory and Metabolic Adaptation Processes of Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL12T during Oxygen Depletion.  

PubMed

Metabolic flexibility is the key to the ecological success of the marine Roseobacter clade bacteria. We investigated the metabolic adaptation and the underlying changes in gene expression of Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL12(T) to anoxic life by a combination of metabolome, proteome, and transcriptome analyses. Time-resolved studies during continuous oxygen depletion were performed in a chemostat using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Formation of the denitrification machinery was found enhanced on the transcriptional and proteome level, indicating that D. shibae DFL12(T) established nitrate respiration to compensate for the depletion of the electron acceptor oxygen. In parallel, arginine fermentation was induced. During the transition state, growth and ATP concentration were found to be reduced, as reflected by a decrease of A578 values and viable cell counts. In parallel, the central metabolism, including gluconeogenesis, protein biosynthesis, and purine/pyrimidine synthesis was found transiently reduced in agreement with the decreased demand for cellular building blocks. Surprisingly, an accumulation of poly-3-hydroxybutanoate was observed during prolonged incubation under anoxic conditions. One possible explanation is the storage of accumulated metabolites and the regeneration of NADP(+) from NADPH during poly-3-hydroxybutanoate synthesis (NADPH sink). Although D. shibae DFL12(T) was cultivated in the dark, biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll was increased, possibly to prepare for additional energy generation via aerobic anoxygenic photophosphorylation. Overall, oxygen depletion led to a metabolic crisis with partly blocked pathways and the accumulation of metabolites. In response, major energy-consuming processes were reduced until the alternative respiratory denitrification machinery was operative. PMID:24648520

Laass, Sebastian; Kleist, Sarah; Bill, Nelli; Drüppel, Katharina; Kossmehl, Sebastian; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Klein, Johannes; Rohde, Manfred; Bartsch, Annekathrin; Wittmann, Christoph; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Tielen, Petra; Jahn, Dieter; Schomburg, Dietmar

2014-05-01

269

Parameters affecting the slow inward channel repriming process in frog atrium.  

PubMed Central

1. The time of recovery (from the inactivation) of the slow inward current was studied in the frog atrium, using the double sucrose gap voltage clamp technique. 2. The 'repriming' process was found to be distinct from the current inactivation, and to depend on experimental protocol: double pulses given at low frequencies (at 'rest') gave a faster recovery time when compared to recovery during constant stimulation, with interposed stimuli monitoring the recovery. Longer durations of the clamp pulses led to a faster recovery process. 3. Changing the holding potential of the membrane (with double pulses to the same absolute membrane potential monitoring the recovery process) greatly affect the repriming with depolarized levels slowing down the process. 4. The recovery time was fastest following clamp pulses to intermediate membrane potentials (in the plateau range). This was determined by double pulses, from a constant hold potentials, to different levels. 5. Decreasing extracellular Ca prolonged, and increasing Ca enhanced the recovery process. 6. The recovery process was markedly slowed down in Na or in K-free solutions. 7. The recovery process was enhanced in solutions with a raised concentration of Mg or H ions (lower pH). In higher Mg solutions, the inactivation of the slow inward current was slower. 8. It is proposed that the recovery process is sensitive to alterations in intracellular Ca ions and to variations in extracellular surface charges. The possible implications are discussed.

Shimoni, Y

1981-01-01

270

Oxidative metabolism and the physiological age of seed potatoes are affected by increased alpha-linolenate content.  

PubMed

The effects of high alpha-linolenate content on lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and loss of plant growth potential during ageing of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) seed-tubers was examined. Endoplasmic reticulum (FAD3) and plastidal (FAD7) 18:2 fatty acid desaturases were upregulated in potato (cv. Desiree), resulting in a 2-fold average increase in mol percentage 18:3 in the total lipid fraction across all transgenic clones. In double-transformed (FAD3+7) tubers, high alpha-linolenate phenotype effected accelerated ageing, resulting in growth responses characteristic of older seed-tubers. Although respiration rates of wild-type (WT) and FAD3+7 tubers were equal at 7 months of storage, rates had increased by 23% and 50% in WT and FAD3+7 tubers, respectively, by 19 months of storage. Electrolyte leakage of tissue from 19-month-old FAD3+7 tubers was significantly greater than that from WT tubers of the same age, indicating that the high alpha-linolenate phenotype was detrimental to membrane integrity during long-term storage. On average, indices of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, ethane, C-6 aldehydes) were higher in older FAD3+7 tubers, relative to WT tubers. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and monodehydroascorbate reductase increased in tubers with advancing age and were higher, on average, in FAD3+7 tubers. Dehydroascorbate reductase activity decreased with age, with no difference between transgenic and WT lines. Collectively, these results indicate that FAD3+7 tubers underwent a higher degree of oxidative stress during ageing. The age-induced increase in respiration of FAD3+7 tubers was at least partly a response to fuel increased free radical scavenging through the ascorbate-glutathione antioxidant pathway. By affecting the susceptibility of lipids to peroxidation, the degree of fatty acid unsaturation influenced the development of oxidative stress and the overall rate at which growth potential was lost from seed-tubers during ageing. Thus, oxidative stress plays an integral role in modulating the ageing process to affect growth potential from potato seed-tubers. PMID:12354193

Zabrouskov, Vladimir; Kumar, G.N. Mohan; Spychalla, James P.; Knowles, N. Richard

2002-10-01

271

How work context affects operating room processes: using data mining and computer simulation to analyze facility and process design.  

PubMed

The complexity of the operating room (OR) requires that both structural (eg, department layout) and behavioral (eg, staff interactions) patterns of work be considered when developing quality improvement strategies. In our study, we investigated how these contextual factors influence outpatient OR processes and the quality of care delivered. The study setting was a German university-affiliated hospital performing approximately 6000 outpatient surgeries annually. During the 3-year-study period, the hospital significantly changed its outpatient OR facility layout from a decentralized (ie, ORs in adjacent areas of the building) to a centralized (ie, ORs in immediate vicinity of each other) design. To study the impact of the facility change on OR processes, we used a mixed methods approach, including process analysis, process modeling, and social network analysis of staff interactions. The change in facility layout was seen to influence OR processes in ways that could substantially affect patient outcomes. For example, we found a potential for more errors during handovers in the new centralized design due to greater interdependency between tasks and staff. Utilization of the mixed methods approach in our analysis, as compared with that of a single assessment method, enabled a deeper understanding of the OR work context and its influence on outpatient OR processes. PMID:19851238

Baumgart, André; Denz, Christof; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Schleppers, Alexander

2009-01-01

272

Soil-inhabiting fungal community composition as qualitative indicator of C metabolism processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although fungi represent the greater part of soil microbial biomass, they play an important role in macro-aggregate formation and their carbon (C) assimilation efficiency is markedly higher than that of bacteria (Bailey et al., 2002), they have not yet been widely used as soil biological indicators. The reason is mainly due to the difficulties in application of molecular analysis tools due to limited availability of reference sequence of fungal strains in DNA database and to the low concentration of fungal DNA in soil and in isolating, enumerating and identifying groups of fungi differing for their functioning in soil and for biological characteristics. The presence of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes as the two main groups of soil-inhabiting fungi were investigated in four different cropping systems. The soil DNA of soil samples coming from twenty sites (five sites for each system), collected in two cropping systems in northern (soil organic matter - SOM content varying from 0.8 to 1.4 %) and two in southern Italy (SOM from 1.4 to 2.3%), was amplified using Ascomycete-specific primer ITS1F - ITS4A (Larena et al., 1999) and Basidiomycete-specific primer ITS1F -ITS4B (Gardes and Bruns, 1993). On the basis of soil DNA amplified with specific primers, Ascomycetes were much more represented than Basidiomycetes in the cultivated top soil. Basidiomycetes are usually reported to account for more than half of the fungal biomass in undisturbed soils. However the low ratio of Basidiomycete DNA to soil fungal DNA observed in this study could be a feature of soil fungal communities in arable soil affected by desertification problems as those of some Italian cropping systems mainly in Mediterranean area. This phenomenon could be due to soil tillage, which is well known to deeply reduce fungal biomass and to continuous incorporation into the soil of herbaceous crop residues. In fact, Ascomycetes decompose holocellulose in preference to lignin (Oslko & Takeda, 2002) and their growth may depend on readily available energy sources, such as soluble carbohydrates (Hudson, 1968). The high ratio of Ascomycetes in the top layer where crop residues of the recurrent had represented the main substrate for saprophytic fungi could explain these results. On the contrary, Basidiomycetes are the most important synthesizing biomass organisms in forest soils as well as the most effective organisms in lignin decomposition with an important role in humic substances processes (Hurst et al., 1963; Cook and Rayner, 1986). Preliminary results of this study suggest that the composition of soil-inhabiting fungal communities, which are the organisms most involved in C metabolism processes, could represents an useful indicator in programs aimed to increase the quality of organic matter in arable soils. Bailey V., Smith L., Bolton Jr K. 2002. Fungal-to-bacteria ratio investigated for enhanced C sequestration. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34, 997-1007. Cook R., Rayner A.D.M. 1984. Ecology of Saprotrophic Fungi. Longman, London, New York, 415 pp. Gardes M., Bruns T.D. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes: application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molec. Ecol. 2, 113-118. Hudson H.J. 1968. The ecology of fungi on plant remains above the soil. New Phytol. 67, 837-874. Hurst H.M., A. Burges, P. Latter. 1963. Some aspects of the biochemistry of humic acid decomposition by fungi. Phytochem. 1, 227-231. Larena I., Salazar O., González V, Julián M.C., Rubio V. 1999. Design of a primer for ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer with enhanced specificity for Ascomycetes. J. Biotech. 75, 187-194. Osolko T., Fukasawa Y., Takeda H. 2003. Roles of diverse fungi in Larch neerle-litter decomposition. Mycologia 95, 820-826.

Manici, L.; Ciavatta, C.; Caputo, F.

2009-04-01

273

Telmisartan improves lipid metabolism and adiponectin production but does not affect glycemic control in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II receptor blockers as a class are reported to act as insulin sensitizers. Of these, telmisartan has been shown\\u000a to have additional unique peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-mediated, insulin-sensitizing properties. In this\\u000a study, investigators explored the effects of telmisartan on glycemic control and lipid metabolism in hypertensive patients\\u000a with type 2 diabetes who had switched to telmisartan from another angiotensin II

Yutaka Mori; Yohta Itoh; Naoko Tajima

2007-01-01

274

The power of emotional valence--from cognitive to affective processes in reading  

PubMed Central

The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C.; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2012-01-01

275

Reduction of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate affects the overall phosphoinositol pathway and leads to modifications in light signalling and secondary metabolism in tomato plants.  

PubMed

The phosphoinositol pathway is one of the major eukaryotic signalling pathways. The metabolite of the phosphoinositol pathway, inositol- (1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP(3)), is a regulator of plant responses to a wide variety of stresses, including light, drought, cold, and salinity. It was found that the expression of InsP 5-ptase, the enzyme that hydrolyses InsP(3), also dramatically affects the levels of inositol phosphate metabolites and the secondary metabolites in transgenic tomato plants. Tomato plants expressing InsP 5-ptase exhibited a reduction in the levels of several important inositol phosphates, including InsP(1), InsP(2), InsP(3), and InsP(4). Reduced levels of inositol phosphates accompanied an increase in the accumulation of phenylpropanoids (rutin, chlorogenic acid) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the transgenic fruits of tomato plants. The enhanced accumulation of these metabolites in transgenic tomato plants was in direct correspondence with the observed up-regulation of the genes that express the key enzymes of ascorbic acid metabolism (myo-inositol oxygenase, MIOX; L-galactono-?-lactone dehydrogenase, GLDH) and phenylpropanoid metabolism (chalcone synthase, CHS1; cinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate transferase, HCT). To understand the molecular links between the activation of different branches of plant metabolism and InsP(3) reduction in tomato fruits, the expression of transcription factors known to be involved in light signalling was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of LeHY5, SIMYB12, and LeELIP was found to be higher in fruits expressing InsP 5-ptase. These results suggest possible interconnections between phosphoinositol metabolism, light signalling, and secondary metabolism in plants. Our study also revealed the biotechnological potential for the genetic improvement of crop plants by the manipulation of the phosphoinositol pathway. PMID:21994174

Alimohammadi, Mohammad; de Silva, Kanishka; Ballu, Clarisse; Ali, Nawab; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V

2012-01-01

276

Reduction of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate affects the overall phosphoinositol pathway and leads to modifications in light signalling and secondary metabolism in tomato plants  

PubMed Central

The phosphoinositol pathway is one of the major eukaryotic signalling pathways. The metabolite of the phosphoinositol pathway, inositol- (1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3), is a regulator of plant responses to a wide variety of stresses, including light, drought, cold, and salinity. It was found that the expression of InsP 5-ptase, the enzyme that hydrolyses InsP3, also dramatically affects the levels of inositol phosphate metabolites and the secondary metabolites in transgenic tomato plants. Tomato plants expressing InsP 5-ptase exhibited a reduction in the levels of several important inositol phosphates, including InsP1, InsP2, InsP3, and InsP4. Reduced levels of inositol phosphates accompanied an increase in the accumulation of phenylpropanoids (rutin, chlorogenic acid) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the transgenic fruits of tomato plants. The enhanced accumulation of these metabolites in transgenic tomato plants was in direct correspondence with the observed up-regulation of the genes that express the key enzymes of ascorbic acid metabolism (myo-inositol oxygenase, MIOX; L-galactono-?-lactone dehydrogenase, GLDH) and phenylpropanoid metabolism (chalcone synthase, CHS1; cinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate transferase, HCT). To understand the molecular links between the activation of different branches of plant metabolism and InsP3 reduction in tomato fruits, the expression of transcription factors known to be involved in light signalling was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of LeHY5, SIMYB12, and LeELIP was found to be higher in fruits expressing InsP 5-ptase. These results suggest possible interconnections between phosphoinositol metabolism, light signalling, and secondary metabolism in plants. Our study also revealed the biotechnological potential for the genetic improvement of crop plants by the manipulation of the phosphoinositol pathway.

Alimohammadi, Mohammad; de Silva, Kanishka; Ballu, Clarisse; Ali, Nawab; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

2012-01-01

277

Competitive as well as uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists affect cortical neuronal morphology and cerebral glucose metabolism.  

PubMed

The studies examined the effects of three antagonists (CPP, CGS 19755, and CGP 37849) that act competitively at the glutamate recognition site of the NMDA receptor complex on cortical neuronal morphology and cerebral limbic glucose metabolism. Responses were compared to the effects of dizocilpine, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor ion channel antagonist as a positive control. CGS 19755 and CGP 37849 (100 mg kg-1 i.p.) caused vacuolation in cortical pyramidal neurons in the posterior cingulate cortex four hours after dosing and this dose of CGP 37849 caused a pattern of limbic glucose metabolism activation similar to that seen after dizocilpine. CPP was without effect at 100 mg/kg i.p. probably due to poor brain penetration. The data indicates that the functional consequences (structural and metabolic) of NMDA receptor blockade with NMDA antagonists acting competitively at the glutamate recognition site and uncompetitively in the receptor ion channel are ultimately the same. Comparisons of the potential therapeutic window for CGS 19755 and CGP 37849 with dizocilpine (neuroprotection versus vacuolation) suggests that the window for the competitive antagonists is greater. This indicates that the potential therapeutic window for the different classes of NMDA antagonists may vary with the site in the receptor complex at which they interact. PMID:7903796

Hargreaves, R J; Rigby, M; Smith, D; Hill, R G; Iversen, L L

1993-12-01

278

A short-term high-dose administration of sodium pivalate impairs pyruvate metabolism without affecting cardiac function.  

PubMed

The pivalate moiety of some oral antibiotics enhances their intestinal absorption, but liberated pivalic acid decreases tissue carnitine concentration and could lead to impaired energy metabolism. The present study investigated the effects of short-term sodium pivalate administration on cardiac functionality and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Wistar rats received sodium pivalate (40 mM) in their drinking water for 14 days, and the carnitine content was measured in heart tissues. The activities of carnitine-dependent enzymes, including carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), and the mitochondrial respiration rate were also measured. The isolated rat heart ischemia-reperfusion injury assay was performed based on the Langendorff technique through the reversible occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The administration of sodium pivalate decreased carnitine concentration in the myocardium by 37 %. Sodium pivalate significantly decreased mitochondrial respiration on pyruvate/malate by 28 %. The activities of CrAT and CPT I in sodium pivalate-treated animals were decreased by 34 and 30 %, respectively. No differences were observed in the infarct size or in the heart functional parameters between the groups. Together, these results indicate that the short-term administration of a high dose of sodium pivalate impairs cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism without depressing cardiac function during ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:22539084

Kuka, Janis; Makrecka, Marina; Grinberga, Solveiga; Pugovics, Osvalds; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

2012-12-01

279

In vivo disruption of Xenopus U3 snRNA affects ribosomal RNA processing.  

PubMed Central

DNA oligonucleotide complementary to sequences in the 5' third of U3 snRNA were injected into Xenopus oocyte nuclei to disrupt endogenous U3 snRNA. The effect of this treatment on rRNA processing was examined. We found that some toads have a single rRNA processing pathway, whereas in other toads, two rRNA processing pathways can coexist in a single oocyte. U3 snRNA disruption in toads with the single rRNA processing pathway caused a reduction in 20S and '32S' pre-rRNA. In addition, in toads with two rRNA processing pathways, an increase in '36S' pre-rRNA of the second pathway is observed. This is the first in vivo demonstration that U3 snRNA plays a role in rRNA processing. Cleavage site #3 is at the boundary of ITS 1 and 5.8S and links all of the affected rRNA intermediates: 20S and '32S' are the products of site #3 cleavage in the first pathway and '36S' is the substrate for cleavage at site #3 in the second pathway. We postulate that U3 snRNP folds pre-rRNA into a conformation dictating correct cleavage at processing site #3. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8.

Savino, R; Gerbi, S A

1990-01-01

280

The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain ‘invulnerable’ children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental health consequences of war-related violence and loss, the focus on trauma alone has resulted in inadequate attention to factors associated with resilient mental health outcomes. This paper presents key studies in the literature that address the interplay between risk and protective processes in the mental health of war-affected children from an ecological, developmental perspective. It suggests that further research on war-affected children should pay particular attention to coping and meaning making at the individual level; the role of attachment relationships, caregiver health, resources and connection in the family, and social support available in peer and extended social networks. Cultural and community influences such as attitudes towards mental health and healing as well as the meaning given to the experience of war itself are also important aspects of the larger social ecology.

Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

2008-01-01

281

Does the processing fluency of a syllabus affect the forecasted grade and course difficulty?  

PubMed

Processing fluency is known to affect a variety of cognitive assessments, but most research has not examined such effects in the context of a real-life experience. In the first experiment, college students, enrolled in either a statistics or cognitive psychology course, read a course syllabus which varied in the clarity of its font and frequency of its vocabulary. Based on the syllabus, students then forecasted their final course grade and the course's difficulty. Despite methodological similarity to other fluency experiments and adequate statistical power, there were no significant differences in forecasts across fluency conditions. Fluency may be discounted in a task which provides information that affects people's lives. This interpretation was bolstered by a second experiment whose participants were students in a statistics course. These students read the cognitive course's syllabus and forecasted better grades and less difficulty in the cognitive course when the font of the syllabus was more clear than unclear. PMID:22897096

Guenther, R Kim

2012-06-01

282

Playing TETRIS for science counter-regulatory affective processing in a motivationally "hot" context.  

PubMed

We adapted the computer game TETRIS to investigate the process of affective-motivational counter-regulation, that is, attentional biases for emotional stimuli that are in opposition to the momentary motivational focus. Counter-regulation is seen as a mechanism which should prevent escalation and impulsivity, and it should help to avoid becoming "locked up" in affective-motivational states. Accordingly, for a negative outcome focus condition (i.e., risk of losing a current high score), we hypothesized greater interference by positive distractors that were included in the game, whereas for a positive outcome focus (i.e., chance to improve one's current high score), we hypothesized greater interference by negative distractors. Supporting our hypotheses, we found the predicted interactions between distractor valence and type of outcome focus. PMID:19555920

Wentura, Dirk; Voss, Andreas; Rothermund, Klaus

2009-07-01

283

TNF? Altered Inflammatory Responses, Impaired Health and Productivity, but Did Not Affect Glucose or Lipid Metabolism in Early-Lactation Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-? (rbTNF?), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNF?, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNF? administration. Plasma TNF? concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P<0.10) by rbTNF? administration, but no dose effect (P>0.10) was detected; rbTNF? treatments increased (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma haptoglobin. Most plasma eicosanoids were not affected (P>0.10) by rbTNF? administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P<0.05) over the first week of lactation, reflecting elevated inflammatory mediators in the days immediately following parturition. Dry matter and water intake, milk yield, and milk fat and protein yields were all decreased (P<0.05) by rbTNF? treatments by 15 to 18%. Concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, ?-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNF? treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P?=?0.18) by rbTNF? administration. The higher dose of rbTNF? tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P?=?0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNF? daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows.

Mamedova, Laman K.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Bradford, Barry J.

2013-01-01

284

Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts the core molecular clock and diurnal rhythms of metabolic genes in the liver without affecting the suprachiasmatic nucleus.  

PubMed

Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts several metabolic pathways including ?-oxidation and lipid biosynthesis, facilitating the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. Many of these same metabolic pathways are directly regulated by cell autonomous circadian clocks, and recent studies suggest that disruption of daily rhythms in metabolism contributes to multiple common cardiometabolic diseases (including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). However, it is not known whether ethanol disrupts the core molecular clock in the liver, nor whether this, in turn, alters rhythms in lipid metabolism. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption disrupts the molecular circadian clock in the liver and potentially changes the diurnal expression patterns of lipid metabolism genes. Consistent with previous studies, male C57BL/6J mice fed an ethanol-containing diet exhibited higher levels of liver triglycerides compared to control mice, indicating hepatic steatosis. Further, the diurnal oscillations of core clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Cry1, Cry2, Per1, and Per2) and clock-controlled genes (Dbp, Hlf, Nocturnin, Npas2, Rev-erb?, and Tef) were altered in livers from ethanol-fed mice. In contrast, ethanol had only minor effects on the expression of core clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These results were confirmed in Per2(Luciferase) knock-in mice, in which ethanol induced a phase advance in PER2::LUC bioluminescence oscillations in liver, but not SCN. Further, there was greater variability in the phase of PER2::LUC oscillations in livers from ethanol-fed mice. Ethanol consumption also affected the diurnal oscillations of metabolic genes, including Adh1, Cpt1a, Cyp2e1, Pck1, Pdk4, Ppargc1a, Ppargc1b and Srebp1c, in the livers of C57BL/6J mice. In summary, chronic ethanol consumption alters the function of the circadian clock in liver. Importantly, these results suggest that chronic ethanol consumption, at levels sufficient to cause steatosis, disrupts the core hepatic clock as well as the diurnal rhythms of key lipid metabolism genes. PMID:23951220

Filiano, Ashley N; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Johnson, Russell; Young, Martin E; Gamble, Karen L; Bailey, Shannon M

2013-01-01

285

Plasmalogens Inhibit APP Processing by Directly Affecting ?-Secretase Activity in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Lipids play an important role as risk or protective factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously it has been shown that plasmalogens, the major brain phospholipids, are altered in AD. However, it remained unclear whether plasmalogens themselves are able to modulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing or if the reduced plasmalogen level is a consequence of AD. Here we identify the plasmalogens which are altered in human AD postmortem brains and investigate their impact on APP processing resulting in A? production. All tested plasmalogen species showed a reduction in ?-secretase activity whereas ?- and ?-secretase activity mainly remained unchanged. Plasmalogens directly affected ?-secretase activity, protein and RNA level of the secretases were unaffected, pointing towards a direct influence of plasmalogens on ?-secretase activity. Plasmalogens were also able to decrease ?-secretase activity in human postmortem AD brains emphasizing the impact of plasmalogens in AD. In summary our findings show that decreased plasmalogen levels are not only a consequence of AD but that plasmalogens also decrease APP processing by directly affecting ?-secretase activity, resulting in a vicious cycle: A? reduces plasmalogen levels and reduced plasmalogen levels directly increase ?-secretase activity leading to an even stronger production of A? peptides.

Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Grosgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdorfer, Benjamin; Mett, Janine; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias; Grimm, Marcus O. W.

2012-01-01

286

Transcranial magnetic stimulation to the transverse occipital sulcus affects scene but not object processing.  

PubMed

Traditionally, it has been theorized that the human visual system identifies and classifies scenes in an object-centered approach, such that scene recognition can only occur once key objects within a scene are identified. Recent research points toward an alternative approach, suggesting that the global image features of a scene are sufficient for the recognition and categorization of a scene. We have previously shown that disrupting object processing with repetitive TMS to object-selective cortex enhances scene processing possibly through a release of inhibitory mechanisms between object and scene pathways [Mullin, C. R., & Steeves, J. K. E. TMS to the lateral occipital cortex disrupts object processing but facilitates scene processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 4174-4184, 2011]. Here we show the effects of TMS to the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS), an area implicated in scene perception, on scene and object processing. TMS was delivered to the TOS or the vertex (control site) while participants performed an object and scene natural/nonnatural categorization task. Transiently interrupting the TOS resulted in significantly lower accuracies for scene categorization compared with control conditions. This demonstrates a causal role of the TOS in scene processing and indicates its importance, in addition to the parahippocampal place area and retrosplenial cortex, in the scene processing network. Unlike TMS to object-selective cortex, which facilitates scene categorization, disrupting scene processing through stimulation of the TOS did not affect object categorization. Further analysis revealed a higher proportion of errors for nonnatural scenes that led us to speculate that the TOS may be involved in processing the higher spatial frequency content of a scene. This supports a nonhierarchical model of scene recognition. PMID:23410031

Ganaden, Rachel E; Mullin, Caitlin R; Steeves, Jennifer K E

2013-06-01

287

Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liver lipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat  

PubMed Central

Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong metabolic problems. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of protein restriction in pregnancy on maternal liver lipid metabolism at 19 days of gestation (dG) and its effect on fetal brain development. Control (C) and restricted (R) mothers were fed with isocaloric diets containing 20 and 10% of casein. At 19 dG, maternal blood and livers and fetal livers and brains were collected. Serum insulin and leptin levels were determinate in mothers. Maternal and fetal liver lipid and fetal brain lipid quantification were performed. Maternal liver and fetal brain fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography. In mothers, liver desaturase and elongase mRNAs were measured by RT-PCR. Maternal body and liver weights were similar in both groups. However, fat body composition, including liver lipids, was lower in R mothers. A higher fasting insulin at 19 dG in the R group was observed (C = 0.2 ± 0.04 vs. R = 0.9 ± 0.16 ng/ml, P < 0.01) and was inversely related to early growth retardation. Serum leptin in R mothers was significantly higher than that observed in C rats (C = 5 ± 0.1 vs. R = 7 ± 0.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In addition, protein restriction significantly reduced gene expression in maternal liver of desaturases and elongases and the concentration of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids. In fetus from R mothers, a low body weight (C = 3 ± 0.3 vs. R = 2 ± 0.1 g, P < 0.05), as well as liver and brain lipids, including the content of DHA in the brain, was reduced. This study showed that protein restriction during pregnancy may negatively impact normal fetal brain development by changes in maternal lipid metabolism.

Torres, Nimbe; Bautista, Claudia J.; Tovar, Armando R.; Ordaz, Guillermo; Rodriguez-Cruz, Maricela; Ortiz, Victor; Granados, Omar; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Larrea, Fernando

2010-01-01

288

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops.

2014-01-01

289

Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.  

PubMed

Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%)?+?casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis. PMID:22181072

Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

2012-03-01

290

Linking cytoarchitecture to metabolism: sarcolemma-associated plectin affects glucose uptake by destabilizing microtubule networks in mdx myofibers  

PubMed Central

Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most frequent forms of muscular disorders. It is caused by the absence of dystrophin, a core component of the sarcolemma-associated junctional complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. We showed previously that plectin 1f (P1f), one of the major muscle-expressed isoforms of the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin, accumulates at the sarcolemma of DMD patients as well as of mdx mice, a widely studied animal model for DMD. Based on plectin’s dual role as structural protein and scaffolding platform for signaling molecules, we speculated that the dystrophic phenotype observed after loss of dystrophin was caused, at least to some extent, by excess plectin. Thus, we hypothesized that elimination of plectin expression in mdx skeletal muscle, while probably resulting in an overall more severe phenotype, may lead to a partial phenotype rescue. In particular, we wanted to assess whether excess sarcolemmal plectin contributes to the dysregulation of sugar metabolism in mdx myofibers. Methods We generated plectin/dystrophin double deficient (dKO) mice by breeding mdx with conditional striated muscle-restricted plectin knockout (cKO) mice. The phenotype of these mice was comparatively analyzed with that of mdx, cKO, and wild-type mice, focusing on structural integrity and dysregulation of glucose metabolism. Results We show that the accumulation of plectin at the sarcolemma of mdx muscle fibers hardly compensated for their loss of structural integrity. Instead, it led to an additional metabolic deficit by impairing glucose uptake. While dKO mice suffered from an overall more severe form of muscular dystrophy compared to mdx or plectin-deficient mice, sarcolemmal integrity as well as glucose uptake of their myofibers were restored to normal levels upon ablation of plectin. Furthermore, microtubule (MT) networks in intact dKO myofibers, including subsarcolemmal areas, were found to be more robust than those in mdx mice. Finally, myotubes differentiated from P1f-overexpressing myoblasts showed an impairment of glucose transporter 4 translocation and a destabilization of MT networks. Conclusions Based on these results we propose that sarcolemma-associated plectin acts as an antagonist of MT network formation in myofibers, thereby hindering vesicle-mediated (MT-dependent) transport of glucose transporter 4. This novel role of plectin throws a bridge between extra-sarcomeric cytoarchitecture and metabolism of muscle fibers. Our study thus provides new insights into pathomechanisms of plectinopathies and muscular dystrophies in general.

2013-01-01

291

Metabolic heterogeneity of follicular amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome is affected by obesity and related to pregnancy outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder frequently accompanied by obesity and by insulin resistance, and patients with this syndrome suffer from infertility and poor pregnancy outcome. Disturbances in plasma amino acid (AA) metabolism have been implicated in women with PCOS. However, direct evidence on follicular AA metabolic profiles in PCOS patients and their relationship with pregnancy outcome is sparse. Methods We conducted a prospective study in 63 PCOS patients and 48 controls in the Division of Reproductive Center, Peking University Third Hospital. Follicular AA levels were measured by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method, and the results were analyzed based on different grouping criteria. Results The levels of aromatic amino acid (AAA) increased in PCOS patients independent of obesity (P?metabolic disturbances, with obesity exerting a more pronounced effect on AA metabolic profiles. The disruptions in specific AAs in the follicular fluid might account for the inferior pregnancy outcome in obese patients and increased risk of abortion in PCOS patients.

2014-01-01

292

Oxymorphone Extended Release Does Not Affect CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 Metabolic Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 14-day, randomized, open-label, parallel-group studies examined the effects of extended-release (ER) oxymorphone on CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 metabolic activities in healthy subjects. On days -1, 7, and 14, subjects received either a CYP2C9 probe (tolbutamide 500 mg) or CYP3A4 probes (midazolam and [14C N-methyl]-erythromycin for the erythromycin breath test). Subjects were randomized to 5 groups: high-dose oxymorphone ER (3 20

Michael Adams; Henry J. Pieniaszek; Arnold R. Gammaitoni; Harry Ahdieh

2005-01-01

293

Changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid release induced by topical administration of drugs affecting its metabolism and receptors: studies in freely moving guinea pigs with epidural cups.  

PubMed

The effect of local application of drugs affecting gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism and receptors on cortical aminoacid release has been investigated in freely-moving guinea pigs equipped with epidural cups. Topical treatment with gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake and/or metabolism inhibitors (alone and in combination) produced a slow and progressive increase in cortical aminoacid release. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-transaminase with ethanolamino-O-sulphate seemed to be a suitable procedure for enhancing the gamma-aminobutyric acid efflux without interfering with its autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback, tested with the gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist (+/-)baclofen and antagonist phaclofen. A substantial part of the gamma-aminobutyric acid outflowing from the cortex was of neuronal origin since tetrodotoxin halved the basal efflux in the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake and/or metabolism inhibitors. These results, considered together, indicate that the epidural cup technique may be a useful approach to study changes in cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid release induced by drugs acting on gabaergic transmission and directly applied on the surface of the cortex. PMID:1338898

Tanganelli, S; Ferraro, L; Bianchi, C; Beani, L

1992-07-01

294

Techniques for determining probabilities of events and processes affecting the performance of geologic repositories: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a probabilistic standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste. This report treats not only geologic events and processes like fault movement, but also events and processes that arise from the relationship between human actions and geology, like drilling for resources, and some that arise from nongeologic processes that in turn affect a geologic process, like climatic change. It reviews the literature in several fields to determine whether existing probabilistic methods for predicting events and processes are adequate for implementation of the standard. Techniques exist for qualitatively estimating the potential for endowment of portions of earth's crust with mineral resources, but such techniques cannot easily predict whether or not human intrusion will occur. The EPA standard offers explicit guidance for the treatment of human intrusion, however. A complete method for climatic prediction could be assembled from existing techniques, although such a combination has not been tested. Existing techniques to support a probabilistic assessment of tectonic activity and seismic hazard at a repository site should be combined with expert judgment in performance assessments. Depending on the regional setting, either analytic techniques or expert judgment may be appropriate in assigning probabilities to volcanic activity. The individual chapters of this report have been cataloged separately.

Hunter, R.L.; Mann, C.J. (eds.)

1989-06-01

295

Systematic Functional Comparative Analysis of Four Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Proteins and Their Affection on Viral RNA Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) proteins is essential for organisms and has various applications. However, no study has simultaneously and systematically compared the characteristics of SSB proteins. In addition, SSB proteins may bind RNA and play an unknown biological role in RNA metabolism. Here, we expressed a novel species of SSB protein derived from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (KOD), as well as SSB proteins from Thermus thermophilus (TTH), Escherichia coli, and Sulfolobus Solfataricus P2 (SSOB), abbreviated kod, tth, bl21, and ssob, respectively. These SSB proteins could bind ssDNA and viral RNA. bl21 resisted heat treatment for more than 9 h, Ssob and kod could withstand 95°C for 10 h and retain its ssDNA- and RNA-binding ability. Four SSB proteins promoted the specificity of the DNA polymerase in PCR-based 5- and 9-kb genome fragment amplification. kod also increased the amplification of a 13-kb PCR product, and SSB protein–bound RNA resisted Benzonase digestion. The SSB proteins could also enter the host cell bound to RNA, which resulted in modulation of viral RNA metabolism, particularly ssob and bl21.

Guo, Jinlei; Zhang, Xun; Song, Haiyan; Lv, Jianxin; Gao, Jimin; Wang, Yuepeng; Chen, Litian; Wang, Yue

2013-01-01

296

Alteration of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism affects murine sperm nuclear architecture by impairing pericentric heterochromatin condensation.  

PubMed

The mammalian sperm nucleus is characterized by unique properties that are important for fertilization. Sperm DNA retains only small numbers of histones in distinct positions, and the majority of the genome is protamine associated, which allows for extreme condensation and protection of the genetic material. Furthermore, sperm nuclei display a highly ordered architecture that is characterized by a centrally located chromocenter comprising the pericentromeric chromosome regions and peripherally positioned telomeres. Establishment of this unique and well-conserved nuclear organization during spermiogenesis is not well understood. Utilizing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we show that a large fraction of the histone-associated sperm genome is repetitive in nature, while a smaller fraction is associated with unique DNA sequences. Coordinated activity of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase and topoisomerase II beta has been shown to facilitate DNA relaxation and histone to protamine transition during spermatid condensation, and altered PAR metabolism is associated with an increase in sperm histone content. Combining FISH with three-dimensional laser scanning microscopy technology, we further show that altered PAR metabolism by genetic or pharmacological intervention leads to a disturbance of the overall sperm nuclear architecture with a lower degree of organization and condensation of the chromocenters formed by chromosomal pericentromeric heterochromatin. PMID:23729169

Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L; Lonchar, Julia D; Ihara, Motomasa; Bader, Jessica J; Meyer, Ralph G

2013-08-01

297

Continental Shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight  

SciTech Connect

Progress in studies of the physical processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight is reported. NCSU personnel efforts have been focused on processing and analyzing existing data sets as well as planning and preparing for the Georgia Atlantic Bight Experiment (GABEX-1). Three cruises were conducted between June 1979 and February 1980 for the temperature/pressure recording instruments (June to Oct) and for the deployment of the GABEX I and other arrays. The Onslow Bay data sets extend over four years of observations from the mid- and outer-shelf region. Each mooring cruise has been coordinated with similar mooring deployments off Savannah and off Cape Romain with hydrographic cruises and with interdisciplinary cruises following Gulf Stream filaments and involving biological, chemical and physical oceanographers. The current meter data collected in the Carolina Capes is listed. Preprints and reprints are included.

Pietrafesa, L.J.

1980-04-14

298

Relationship of blood flow and metabolism to acoustic processing centers of the dolphin brain.  

PubMed

Odontocete brain tissues associated with auditory processing are hypertrophied and modified relative to their terrestrial counterparts. The relationship between the functional demand on these tissues and metabolic substrate requirements is unknown. Using positron emission tomography (PET), relative cerebral blood flow was measured in a bottlenose dolphin. Approximately 60 mCi (13)NH(3) was administered to the dolphin via a catheter inserted into the hepatic vein and threaded proximate to the vena cava. Radiolabel initially appeared as distributed focal points in the cerebellum. Increasing scan time resulted in an increase in the number of focal regions and in the diffusivity of label activity throughout the brain. The time course and spatial distribution of radiolabel was consistent with a cerebral blood supply dominated by the spinal meningeal arteries. Blood flow was predominantly observed in the cerebellum and neocortex, particularly the auditory and visual cortex. Differential brain glucose uptake, previously measured in a separate dolphin, showed good agreement with the differential supply of blood to brain tissues. Rates of blood supply and glucose uptake in the auditory cortex, inferior colliculus, and cerebellum are consistent with a high metabolic demand of tissues which are important to the integration of auditory and other sensory inputs. PMID:20815480

Houser, Dorian S; Moore, Patrick W; Johnson, Shawn; Lutmerding, Betsy; Branstetter, Brian; Ridgway, Sam H; Trickey, Jennifer; Finneran, James J; Jensen, Eric; Hoh, Carl

2010-09-01

299

Assessing ER and Golgi N-glycosylation process using metabolic labeling in mammalian cultured cells.  

PubMed

Modifications of N-glycosylation in disease states are common and illustrate the crucial requirement of glycosylation in human biology. Mainly based on glycan permethylation and the use of mass spectrometry analysis, we can easily understand that many different methods to analyze the N-glycome have seen the day. While extremely powerful, these methods are mainly used to analyze qualitative variations of N-glycosylation of human serum proteins and do not necessarily reflect the glycosylation status of derived mammalian cultured cells. This chapter summarizes two methods that we are routinely using in our laboratory to assess the ER and Golgi N-glycosylation process. The proposed methodology allows pinpointing ER as well as Golgi glycosylation deficiencies in mammalian cultured cells. The first approach is based on direct metabolic labeling of cultured mammalian cells with [2-(3)H] mannose followed by sequential extraction and HPLC analysis of the purified oligosaccharides. The second one is based on the copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) strategy. We propose the use of alkyne-tagged sialic acid (SialNAl) to visualize the Golgi glycosylation efficiency. Their metabolic incorporation into newly synthesized glycoproteins can then be chemoselectively coupled to complementary azide-functionalized fluorophores, and visualized by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. To summarize, we present here a detailed description of our know-how in the field of ER and Golgi N-glycosylation. PMID:24295306

Péanne, Romain; Vanbeselaere, Jorick; Vicogne, Dorothée; Mir, Anne-Marie; Biot, Christophe; Matthijs, Gert; Guérardel, Yann; Foulquier, François

2013-01-01

300

Physical processes affecting circulation and hydrography in the Sable Gully of Nova Scotia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sable Gully is the largest submarine canyon along the shelf break off the east coast of North America. The circulation and hydrography in the Gully have significant temporal and spatial variability. This paper presents a numerical study of the three-dimensional circulation and hydrography in the Gully using a multi-nested ocean circulation model. The model is forced by tides, wind stress and surface heat/freshwater fluxes. Model results are in fair agreement with the current and hydrographic observations made in the Gully in 2006 and 2007. A process study is conducted to examine the main physical processes affecting the circulation and hydrography, including tide-topography interaction, wind forcing, and the shelf-scale circulation over the eastern Canadian Shelf. The model results demonstrate that the circulation and hydrography above the canyon rim are influenced significantly by wind, particularly during storm events, while the subsurface flow over the shelf slope is affected by the shelf-scale circulation. There is also significant tide-topography interaction inside the Gully.

Shan, Shiliang; Sheng, Jinyu; Greenan, Blair J. W.

2014-06-01

301

Overview of major processes and mechanisms affecting the mercury cycle on different spatial and temporal scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury emissions to the atmosphere and its transport, transformation and deposition to and re-emission from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems on hemispherical and global scales has received increasing attention from both the scientific and the regulatory communities during the last twenty years. It is well known that the atmosphere is the major transport media through which mercury is redistributed on global scale once it is released from point and diffuse emission sources. A substantial amount of research has been carried out worldwide aiming to assess the relationships between emissions from natural vs. anthropogenic sources, inter-hemispherical atmospheric transport patterns, and atmospheric deposition to and re-emission from oceans, its bioaccumulation in fish, and evaluation of policy strategies to reduce the impact of mercury emissions on human health and ecosystems. This chapter provides a highlight of key aspects related to mercury contamination, including: a) major processes affecting the mercury cycle between the atmosphere and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, b) mercury emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources, c) spatial and temporal distributions and trends of mercury species over the northern and southern hemispheres, d) the chemical and physical processes affecting the transport and fate of atmospheric mercury, and e)major policy frameworks aiming to control the impact of mercury on human health and ecosystems.

Pirrone, N.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Cinnirella, S.; Sprovieri, F.

2010-12-01

302

The expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism is affected by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism: a putative link between metabolism and an animal model of psychosis.  

PubMed

Psychosis has been associated with glucose metabolism impairment. Here, we explored the gene expression of hexokinase 1 (Hk1) and glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) after the administration of a subanesthetic or a subconvulsant dose of ketamine in rats, considered to provide an animal model of psychosis. Indeed, Hk1 and GLUT3 are crucially involved in the glucose utilization in brain tissues and have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Quantitative brain imaging of transcripts was used to evaluate Hk1 and GLUT3 mRNA in rat brain regions related to ketamine-induced behavioral abnormalities. Hk1 transcript was significantly increased by 50 mg/kg ketamine in cortical and subcortical areas, whereas 12 mg/kg ketamine affected Hk1 expression in the auditory cortex only. GLUT3 expression was increased by 12 mg/kg ketamine in the frontal cortex and decreased by 50 mg/kg ketamine in subcortical areas. The results show that Hk1 and GLUT3 are extensively and differentially affected by ketamine dose, supporting the view that glucose metabolism and psychosis may be causally related and suggesting that these molecules may play a role in the pathophysiology of ketamine-induced behavioral abnormalities. PMID:22605548

Iasevoli, Felice; Latte, Gianmarco; Avvisati, Livia; Sarappa, Chiara; Aloj, Luigi; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

2012-09-01

303

Environmental Noise Affects Auditory Temporal Processing Development and NMDA-2B Receptor Expression in Auditory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Auditory temporal processing is essential for sound discrimination and speech comprehension. Under normal developmental conditions, temporal processing acuity improves with age. As recent animal studies have shown that the functional development of the auditory cortex (AC) is impaired by early life exposure to environmental noise (i.e., continuous, moderate-level, white noise), here we investigated whether the normal age-related improvement in temporal processing acuity is sensitive to delayed development of the AC. We used a behavioral paradigm, the gap-induced prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex, to assess the gap detection threshold, and provide a comparison of temporal processing acuity between environmental noise-reared rats and age-matched controls. Moreover, because age-related changes normally occur in the relative expression of different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits, we assessed the level of protein expression of NMDA-2A and 2B receptors (NR2A and NR2B respectively) in the AC after environmental noise-rearing. As hypothesized, rats reared in environmental noise showed 1) poor temporal processing acuity as adults (i.e., gap detection threshold remained elevated at a juvenile-like level), and 2) an increased level of NR2B protein expression compared to age-matched controls. This poor temporal processing acuity represented delayed development rather than permanent impairment, as moving these environmental noise-reared rats to normal acoustic conditions improved their gap detection threshold to an age-appropriate level. Furthermore, housing normally-reared, adult rats in environmental noise for two months did not affect their already-mature gap detection threshold. Thus, masking normal sound inputs with environmental noise during early life, but not adulthood, impairs temporal processing acuity as assessed with the gap detection threshold.

Sun, Wei; Tang, Li; Allman, Brian L.

2010-01-01

304

Use of structured triacylglycerols containing predominantly stearic and oleic acids to probe early events in metabolic processing of dietary fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early events in the metabolic processing of dietary triacylglycerol may have an important impact on subsequent development of risk factors for coronary heart disease. We have used structured triacylglycerols containing predomi- nantly stearic or oleic acids at the sn -2 position to probe as- pects of the processing of dietary fatty acids presented to ad- ipose tissue in chylomicron-triacylglycerol. Studies

Lucinda K. M. Summers; Barbara A. Fielding; Sara L. Herd; Vera Ilic; Mo L. Clark; Paul T. Quinlan; Keith N. Frayn

305

Some pharmacokinetic and metabolic factors affecting the neonatal toxicity of chlorinated hydrocarbons found in the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Industrialization has resulted in the emission of a wide variety of organic chemicals into the biosphere. Despite the original source of the organic contaminant, these chemicals have managed to enter drinking-water supplies and bioaccumulate in food chains. Of particular interest are the organic contaminants that have been identified in fish and wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. As this waterway system functions as an important source of drinking water for North Americans, concern has been raised with respect to toxicity and bioaccumulation of these chemicals. Although a vast number of environmental pollutants have thus far been identified, this chapter will focus on just ten chemicals, principally chlorinated benzenes, octachlorostyrene, and hexachlorobutadiene. The adult, fetal, and neonatal toxicities of these compounds are discussed with emphasis on metabolic and pharmacokinetic factors which influence them.

Kitchin, K.T.; Kacew, S.

1987-01-01

306

Modulation of affective face processing deficits in Schizophrenia by congruent emotional sounds.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder resulting in prominent impairments in social functioning. Thus, clinical research has focused on underlying deficits of emotion processing and their linkage to specific symptoms and neurobiological dysfunctions. Although there is substantial research investigating impairments in unimodal affect recognition, studies in schizophrenia exploring crossmodal emotion processing are rare. Therefore, event-related potentials were measured in 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls while rating the expression of happy, fearful and neutral faces and concurrently being distracted by emotional or neutral sounds. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia revealed significantly decreased P1 and increased P2 amplitudes in response to all faces, independent of emotion or concurrent sound. Analyzing these effects with regard to audiovisual (in)congruence revealed that P1 amplitudes in patients were only reduced in response to emotionally incongruent stimulus pairs, whereas similar amplitudes between groups could be observed for congruent conditions. Correlation analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between general symptom severity (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-V4) and P1 amplitudes in response to congruent audiovisual stimulus pairs. These results indicate that early visual processing deficits in schizophrenia are apparent during emotion processing but, depending on symptom severity, these deficits can be restored by presenting concurrent emotionally congruent sounds. PMID:22977201

Müller, Veronika I; Kellermann, Tanja S; Seligman, Sarah C; Turetsky, Bruce I; Eickhoff, Simon B

2014-04-01

307

Combinatorial metabolism notably affects human systemic exposure to ginsenosides from orally administered extract of Panax notoginseng roots (Sanqi).  

PubMed

Ginsenosides are medicinal ingredients of the cardiovascular herb Panax notoginseng roots (Sanqi). Here, we implemented a human study (ChiCTR-ONC-09000603; www.chictr.org) to characterize pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ginsenosides from an orally ingested Sanqi-extract (a 1:10 water extract of Sanqi) and the human plasma and urine samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma and urinary compounds derived from ginsenosides included: 1) intestinally absorbed ginsenosides Ra3, Rb1, Rd, F2, Rg1, and notoginsenoside R1; and 2) the deglycosylated products compound-K, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, 20(S)-protopanaxatriol, and their oxidized metabolites. The systemic exposure levels of the first group compounds increased as the Sanqi-extract dose increased, but those of the second group compounds were dose-independent. The oxidized metabolites of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol represented the major circulating forms of ginsenosides in the bloodstream, despite their large interindividual differences in exposure level. The metabolites were formed via combinatorial metabolism that consisted of a rate-limiting step of ginsenoside deglycosylation by the colonic microflora and a subsequent step of sapogenin oxidation by the enterohepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. Significant accumulation of plasma ginsenosides and metabolites occurred in the human subjects receiving 3-week subchronic treatment with the Sanqi-extract. Plasma 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol could be used as pharmacokinetic markers to reflect the subjects' microbial activities, as well as the timely-changes and interindividual differences in plasma levels of their respective oxidized metabolites. The information gained from the current study is relevant to pharmacology and therapeutics of Sanqi. PMID:23649704

Hu, Zheyi; Yang, Junling; Cheng, Chen; Huang, Yuhong; Du, Feifei; Wang, Fengqing; Niu, Wei; Xu, Fang; Jiang, Rongrong; Gao, Xiumei; Li, Chuan

2013-07-01

308

Dietary amylose-amylopectin starch content affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adipocytes of normal and diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the chronic consumption of two starches, characterized by different glycemic indices and amylose-amylopectin content, on glucose metabolism in rat epididymal adipocytes. The two chosen starches were from mung bean (32% amylose) and cornstarch (0.5% amylose). The alpha-amylase digestibility was higher for the waxy cornstarch than that of the mung bean starch (60 +/- 4 vs. 45 +/- 3%, mean +/- SEM, respectively). The glycemic index of the waxy cornstarch diet (575 g starch /kg diet) was higher than that of the mung bean starch diet (107 +/- 7 vs. 67 +/- 5%, P < 0.01) when measured in vivo in two groups of normal rats (n = 9). In a subsequent study, normal and diabetic (streptozotocin-injected on d 2 of life) male Sprague-Dawley rats (18 per group) consumed a diet containing 575 g starch/kg diet as either waxy cornstarch or mung bean starch. After 3 wk, food intake, epididymal fat pad weights, and plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations did not differ between diet groups. Adipocyte diameter was smaller in rats that consumed mung bean starch compared with those that consumed the waxy cornstarch diet (P < 0.01). The mung bean diet increased maximal insulin-stimulated 14C-glucose oxidation (% of basal values, P < 0. 05). In contrast, incorporation of 14C-glucose into total lipids was significantly lower in rats that consumed the mung bean diet (P < 0. 05). We conclude that in both normal and diabetic rats, the chronic replacement of a high glycemic index starch by a low glycemic index one in a mixed diet increases insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation, decreases glucose incorporation into total lipids and decreases epididymal adipocyte diameter. Thus, the type of starch mixed into the diet has important metabolic consequences at the cellular level in both normal and diabetic rats. PMID:9430599

Kabir, M; Rizkalla, S W; Champ, M; Luo, J; Boillot, J; Bruzzo, F; Slama, G

1998-01-01

309

Exposure of embryos to cyclically cold incubation temperatures durably affects energy metabolism and antioxidant pathways in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Cyclically cold incubation temperatures have been suggested as a means to improve resistance of broiler chickens to ascites; however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Nine hundred eggs obtained from 48 wk Ross broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 incubation treatments: control I eggs were incubated at 37.6°C throughout, whereas for cold I eggs the incubation temperature was reduced by 1°C for 6 h daily from 10 to 18 d of incubation. Thereafter, chickens were reared at standard temperatures or under cold exposure that was associated or not with a postnatal cold acclimation at d 5 posthatch. At hatch, hepatic catalase activity and malondialdehyde content were measured. Serum thyroid hormone and triglyceride concentrations, and muscle expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress were also measured at hatch and 5 and 25 d posthatch. Cold incubation induced modifications in antioxidant pathways with higher catalase activity, but lower expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 at hatch. However, long-term enhancement in the expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 was observed, probably caused by an increase in the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? coactivator-1?. These effects were not systematically associated with an increase in serum triiodothyronine concentrations that were observed only in chickens exposed to both cold incubation and later acclimation at 5 d with cold rearing. Our results suggest that these conditions of cyclically cold incubation resulted in the long-term in changes in antioxidant pathways and energy metabolism, which could enhance the health of chickens reared under cold conditions. PMID:24894528

Loyau, T; Collin, A; Yenisey, C; Crochet, S; Siegel, P B; Ak?it, M; Yalçin, S

2014-08-01

310

Regulation of exocellular proteases in Neurospora crassa: metabolic requirements of the process.  

PubMed Central

To induce exocellular proteolytic enzyme from carbon-starved exponential-phase cells of Neurospora crassa, both a protein substrate and an activating protease of certain specific properties must be present at the same time. The cells must be capable of protein synthesis, since cycloheximide inhibits the process, but cell growth, as determined by increase in cell mass, does not appear to be required. Both soluble (bovine serum albumin, myoglobin) and insoluble protein substrates (collagen, corn zein) will affect protease induction, although certain soluble, globular proteins (egg white globulin, bovine gamma globulin) will not. In most cases, rates of protease induction are proportional to protein concentration, regardless of the nature of the inducing protein. All activating proteases capable of affecting induction in a manner similar to that of N. crassa exocellular protease were of bacterial origin and were exoproteases. Mammalian proteases and peptidases had little or no effect on the induction process.

Drucker, H

1975-01-01

311

Endogenous Enzymes, Heat, and pH Affect Flavone Profiles in Parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and Celery (Apium graveolens) during Juice Processing  

PubMed Central

Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds.

Hostetler, Gregory L.; Riedl, Ken M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

2013-01-01

312

Analysis of urban metabolic processes based on input-output method: model development and a case study for Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering ways in which to increase the sustainability of the metabolic processes involved in urbanization has become an urgent task for urban design and management in China. As cities are analogous to living organisms, the disorders of their metabolic processes can be regarded as the cause of "urban disease". Therefore, identification of these causes through metabolic process analysis and ecological element distribution through the urban ecosystem's compartments will be helpful. By using Beijing as an example, we have compiled monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007 and calculated the intensities of the embodied ecological elements to compile the corresponding implied physical input-output tables. We then divided Beijing's economy into 32 compartments and analyzed the direct and indirect ecological intensities embodied in the flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes. Based on the combination of input-output tables and ecological network analysis, the description of multiple ecological elements transferred among Beijing's industrial compartments and their distribution has been refined. This hybrid approach can provide a more scientific basis for management of urban resource flows. In addition, the data obtained from distribution characteristics of ecological elements may provide a basic data platform for exploring the metabolic mechanism of Beijing.

Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Bin; Zheng, Hongmei; Li, Yating

2014-06-01

313

Analysis of urban metabolic processes based on input-output method: model development and a case study for Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering ways in which to increase the sustainability of the metabolic processes involved in urbanization has become an urgent task for urban design and management in China. As cities are analogous to living organisms, the disorders of their metabolic processes can be regarded as the cause of "urban disease". Therefore, identification of these causes through metabolic process analysis and ecological element distribution through the urban ecosystem's compartments will be helpful. By using Beijing as an example, we have compiled monetary inputoutput tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007 and calculated the intensities of the embodied ecological elements to compile the corresponding implied physical input-output tables. We then divided Beijing's economy into 32 compartments and analyzed the direct and indirect ecological intensities embodied in the flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes. Based on the combination of input-output tables and ecological network analysis, the description of multiple ecological elements transferred among Beijing's industrial compartments and their distribution has been refined. This hybrid approach can provide a more scientific basis for management of urban resource flows. In addition, the data obtained from distribution characteristics of ecological elements may provide a basic data platform for exploring the metabolic mechanism of Beijing.

Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Bin; Zheng, Hongmei; Li, Yating

2014-04-01

314

Cholinesterase-Targeting microRNAs Identified in silico Affect Specific Biological Processes  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as important gene silencers affecting many target mRNAs. Here, we report the identification of 244 miRs that target the 3?-untranslated regions of different cholinesterase transcripts: 116 for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), 47 for the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) splice variant, and 81 for the normally rare splice variant AChE-R. Of these, 11 and 6 miRs target both AChE-S and AChE-R, and AChE-R and BChE transcripts, respectively. BChE and AChE-S showed no overlapping miRs, attesting to their distinct modes of miR regulation. Generally, miRs can suppress a number of targets; thereby controlling an entire battery of functions. To evaluate the importance of the cholinesterase-targeted miRs in other specific biological processes we searched for their other experimentally validated target transcripts and analyzed the gene ontology enriched biological processes these transcripts are involved in. Interestingly, a number of the resulting categories are also related to cholinesterases. They include, for BChE, response to glucocorticoid stimulus, and for AChE, response to wounding and two child terms of neuron development: regulation of axonogenesis and regulation of dendrite morphogenesis. Importantly, all of the AChE-targeting miRs found to be related to these selected processes were directed against the normally rare AChE-R splice variant, with three of them, including the neurogenesis regulator miR-132, also directed against AChE-S. Our findings point at the AChE-R splice variant as particularly susceptible to miR regulation, highlight those biological functions of cholinesterases that are likely to be subject to miR post-transcriptional control, demonstrate the selectivity of miRs in regulating specific biological processes, and open new venues for targeted interference with these specific processes.

Hanin, Geula; Soreq, Hermona

2011-01-01

315

Low and high dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy affect materno-fetal glucose metabolism in pigs.  

PubMed

Inadequate dietary protein during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth retardation. Whether this is related to altered maternal and fetal glucose metabolism was examined in pregnant sows comparing a high-protein:low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 30% protein, 39% carbohydrates) with a moderately low-protein:high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 6.5% protein, 68% carbohydrates) and the isoenergetic standard diet (ST; 12.1% protein, 60% carbohydrates). During late pregnancy, maternal and umbilical glucose metabolism and fetal hepatic mRNA expression of gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. During an i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the LP-HC-fed sows had lower insulin concentrations and area under the curve (AUC), and higher glucose:insulin ratios than the ST- and the HP-LC-fed sows (P < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity and glucose clearance were higher in the LP-HC sows compared with ST sows (P < 0.05). Glucagon concentrations during postabsorptive conditions and IVGTT, and glucose AUC during IVGTT, were higher in the HP-LC group compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). (13)C glucose oxidation was lower in the HP-LC sows than in the ST and LP-HC sows (P < 0.05). The HP-LC fetuses were lighter and had a higher brain:liver ratio than the ST group (P < 0.05). The umbilical arterial inositol concentration was greater in the HP-LC group (P < 0.05) and overall small fetuses (230-572 g) had higher values than medium and heavy fetuses (?573 g) (P < 0.05). Placental lactate release was lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P < 0.05). Fetal glucose extraction tended to be lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P = 0.07). In the HP-LC and LP-HC fetuses, hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) was higher than in the ST fetuses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the HP-LC and LP-HC sows adapted by reducing glucose turnover and oxidation and having higher glucose utilization, respectively. The HP-LC and LP-HC fetuses adapted via prematurely expressed hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. PMID:24353346

Metges, Cornelia C; Görs, Solvig; Lang, Iris S; Hammon, Harald M; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Weitzel, Joachim M; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

2014-02-01

316

?-Lipoic Acid in Liver Metabolism and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

R-?-Lipoic acid is found naturally occurring as a prosthetic group in ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes of the mitochondria, and as such plays a fundamental role in metabolism. Although this has been known for decades, only recently has free supplemented ?-lipoic acid been found to affect cellular metabolic processes in vitro, as it has the ability to alter the redox status

Juanita Bustamante; John K Lodge; Lucia Marcocci; Hans J Tritschler; Lester Packer; Bertrand H Rihn

1998-01-01

317

Agomelatine facilitates positive versus negative affective processing in healthy volunteer models.  

PubMed

Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with a novel profile of pharmacological action. The clinical efficacy of agomelatine has been established in major depression, but its actions on emotional bias are unknown. Consequently, the current experimental study assessed the effect of agomelatine on emotional processing in healthy volunteers using an Emotional Test Battery shown to be sensitive to serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors. Volunteers were randomized to receive placebo, 25?mg or 50?mg of agomelatine over a 7-day period in a double-blind parallel groups design. Emotional processing (n?=?48) was assessed on the morning of day 8 using the Emotional Test Battery which included facial expression recognition, emotional memory, attentional visual probe and emotion-potentiated startle. Mood and subjective state were monitored before and during treatment. Agomelatine (25?mg) decreased subjective ratings of sadness, reduced recognition of sad facial expressions, improved positive affective memory and reduced the emotion-potentiated startle response. The results show that agomelatine has more selective effects on the processing of social facial cues than conventional antidepressants, which could contribute to less blunting of emotional experience. The study highlights the potential value of volunteer models in drug development for screening and profiling of novel antidepressants. PMID:20660010

Harmer, Catherine J; de Bodinat, Christian; Dawson, Gerard R; Dourish, Colin T; Waldenmaier, Lara; Adams, Sally; Cowen, Philip J; Goodwin, Guy M

2011-09-01

318

Interaction Between Serine Phosphorylated IRS-1 and ?1-Integrin Affects the Stability of Neuronal Processes  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) released in the brain by HIV-activated macrophages/microglia is suspected to compromise neuronal survival. Previously, we have demonstrated that activated receptor for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-IR) protects neurons from TNF?induced neuronal damage (Wang et al. [2006] J. Neurosci. Res. 83:7–18). Because TNF? triggers phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) on serine residues (pS-IRS-1; Rui et al. [2001] J. Clin. Invest. 107:181–189), and pS-IRS-1 binds integrins (Reiss et al. [2001] Oncogene 20:490–500), we asked how these events affect neuronal processes. We show that ?1-integrin and pS-IRS-1 colocalize in PC12 cells and in primary cortical neurons. TNF? treatment elevated membrane-associated pS-IRS-1, enhanced pSIRS-1 interaction with ?1-integrin, and attenuated cell attachment to collagen IV. In contrast, IGF-I inhibited pS-IRS-1–?1-integrin complexes and improved cell attachment. The domain of IRS-1 involved in ?1-integrin binding mapped between amino acids 426 and 740, and the expression of 426–740/IRS-1 mutant attenuated neuronal outgrowth. Our results indicate that TNF? facilitates the interaction of pS-IRS-1 and ?1-integrin and destabilizes neuronal processes. IGF-I counteracts TNF?-mediated accumulation of pS-IRS-1–?1-integrin complexes supporting the stability of neuronal processes.

Wang, Jin Ying; Gualco, Elisa; Peruzzi, Francesca; Sawaya, Bassel E.; Passiatore, Giovanni; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Staniszewska, Izabella; Ferrante, Pasquale; Amini, Shohreh; Khalili, Kamel; Reiss, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

319

Analysis of Process Parameters Affecting Spray-Dried Oily Core Nanocapsules Using Factorial Design  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to optimize the process parameters required for the production of spray-dried oily core nanocapsules (NCs) with targeted size and drug yield using a two-level four-factor fractional factorial experimental design (FFED). The coded process parameters chosen were inlet temperature (X1), feed flow rate (X2), atomizing air flow (X3), and aspiration rate (X4). The produced NCs were characterized for size, yield, morphology, and powder flowability by dynamic light scattering, electron microscope, Carr’s index, and Hausner ratio measurement, respectively. The mean size of produced NCs ranged from 129.5 to 444.8 nm, with yield varying from 14.1% to 31.1%. The statistical analysis indicated an adequate model fit in predicting the effect of process parameters affecting yield. Predicted condition for maximum yield was: inlet temperature 140°C, atomizing air flow 600 L/h, feed flow rate 0.18 L/h, and aspiration air flow set at 100%, which led to a yield of 30.8%. The morphological analysis showed the existence of oily core and spherical nanostructure. The results from powder flowability analysis indicated average Carr’s index and Hausner ratio of 42.77% and 1.76, respectively. Spray-dried oily core NCs with size lower than 200 nm were successfully produced, and the FFED proved to be an effective approach in predicting the production of spray-dried NCs of targeted yield.

Zhang, Tao

2010-01-01

320

Similar Local and Landscape Processes Affect Both a Common and a Rare Newt Species  

PubMed Central

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species.

Denoel, Mathieu; Perez, Amelie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

2013-01-01

321

Comparing predicted and actual affective responses to process versus outcome: an emotion-as-feedback perspective.  

PubMed

One of the conjectures in affective forecasting literature is that people are advised to discount their anticipated emotions because their forecasts are often inaccurate. The present research distinguishes between emotional reactions to process versus those to outcome, and highlights an alternative view that affective misforecasts could indeed be adaptive to goal pursuit. Using an ultimatum game, Study 1 showed that people overpredicted how much they would regret and be disappointed by the amount of effort they exerted, should the outcomes turned out worse than expected; nonetheless, people could accurately predict their emotional responses to unfavorable outcomes per se. In a natural setting of a university examination, Study 2 demonstrated that actual regret and disappointment toward favorable outcomes were more intense than the level people expected, but this discrepancy was not observed in their emotional responses to efforts they had invested. These two distinct patterns of results substantiate the argument that the deviation between predicted and actual emotions is dependent on the referents of the emotional reactions. PMID:23831563

Kwong, Jessica Y Y; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Tang, Suki K Y

2013-10-01

322

Combined enzymatic and high-pressure processing affect cell wall polysaccharides in berries.  

PubMed

The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on cell wall polysaccharides in berries was investigated. HPP decreased the degree of methyl esterification (DM), probably by activation of pectin methyl esterase (PME), and improved the extractability of pectins. When commercial enzyme mixtures were added to mashed berries, a synergistic effect was observed between treatment with commercial enzymes and HPP. Compared to treatment at atmospheric pressure, pectic polysaccharides were degraded to a larger extent when HPP was used. In contrast, hemicelluloses were hardly affected by the added enzymes when HPP was included, although they were degraded during similar treatment at atmospheric pressure. Additionally, the activity of rhamnose-releasing enzymes present in minor quantities might be enhanced after HPP, resulting in a decrease of rhamnose in the polymeric cell wall material. These results exploring the effect of HPP at representative conditions clearly point out the potential of HPP for polysaccharide modification. PMID:16478255

Hilz, Hauke; Lille, Martina; Poutanen, Kaisa; Schols, Henk A; Voragen, Alphons G J

2006-02-22

323

Performance predictions affect attentional processes of event-based prospective memory.  

PubMed

To investigate whether making performance predictions affects prospective memory (PM) processing, we asked one group of participants to predict their performance in a PM task embedded in an ongoing task and compared their performance with a control group that made no predictions. A third group gave not only PM predictions but also ongoing-task predictions. Exclusive PM predictions resulted in slower ongoing-task responding both in a nonfocal (Experiment 1) and in a focal (Experiment 2) PM task. Only in the nonfocal task was the additional slowing accompanied by improved PM performance. Even in the nonfocal task, however, was the correlation between ongoing-task speed and PM performance reduced after predictions, suggesting that the slowing was not completely functional for PM. Prediction-induced changes could be avoided by asking participants to additionally predict their performance in the ongoing task. In sum, the present findings substantiate a role of metamemory for attention-allocation strategies of PM. PMID:23703025

Rummel, Jan; Kuhlmann, Beatrice G; Touron, Dayna R

2013-09-01

324

Modulation of Vitamin D Status and Dietary Calcium Affects Bone Mineral Density and Mineral Metabolism in G?ttingen Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6?g calcium and 6,500?IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2?g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with ?51.2 ± 14.7?mg/cm3 in contrast to controls (?2.3 ± 11.8?mg/cm3), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4?nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4?nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects.

Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E.; Gluer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Gunter; Acil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jurgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jurgen

2013-01-01

325

Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.  

PubMed

Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in ?-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of ?-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol. PMID:21548801

Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

2011-09-01

326

In vivo overproduction of the pentafunctional arom polypeptide in Aspergillus nidulans affects metabolic flux in the quinate pathway.  

PubMed

The shikimate pathway and the quinic acid utilisation (QUT) pathway of Aspergillus nidulans and other fungi share the two common metabolic intermediates, 3-dehydroquinic acid (DHQ) and dehydroshikimic acid (DHS), which are interconverted by two isoenzymes, catabolic 3-dehydroquinase, (cDHQase) and biosynthetic dehydroquinase, (bDHQase). bDHQase is one of five consecutive enzymatic activities associated with the pentafunctional arom protein encoded by the complex AROM locus, whereas cDHQase is encoded by the single-function QUTE gene, one of seven genes comprising the QUT gene cluster in A. nidulans, which is required for the catabolism of quinate to protocatechuate. We addressed the question of how much (if any) leakage there is of the two common substrates between the two pathways, by increasing the concentration of the arom protein in vivo by means of recombinant DNA technology. We demonstrated that constitutive overproduction of the arom protein by 12-fold in the presence of quinate inhibits germination of conidiospores, but showed that 12-fold quinate-inducible overproduction of arom protein does not have this effect. In addition we showed that a qutE mutant (lacking cDHQase) can grow with quinic acid as sole carbon source whtn the arom protein is overproduced fivefold. The data are most simply interpreted as simple competition for common substrates by the enzymes of the two pathways and demonstrate that any channelling function of the arom protein in vivo is relatively leaky. PMID:1648168

Lamb, H K; Bagshaw, C R; Hawkins, A R

1991-06-01

327

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery  

PubMed Central

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified.

Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Frederic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

328

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery.  

PubMed

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m(2)), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, (1)H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, (13)C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

Crouzier, David; Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

329

Abscisic acid metabolism and anthocyanin synthesis in grape skin are affected by light emitting diode (LED) irradiation at night.  

PubMed

The effects of blue and red light irradiation at night on abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and anthocyanin synthesis were examined in grape berries. The expressions of VlMYBA1-2, VlMYBA2, UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (VvUFGT), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1) were also investigated. Endogenous ABA, its metabolite phaseic acid (PA), and the expressions of VvNCED1 and VvCYP707A1 were highest in red light-emitting diode (LED)-treated skin. In contrast, anthocyanin concentrations were highest in blue LED-treated skin, followed by red LED treatment. However, the expressions of VlMYBA1-2, VlMYBA2, and VvUFGT did not necessarily coincide with anthocyanin concentrations. The quality of coloring may depend on the amount of malvidin-based anthocyanin, which increased toward harvest in blue and red LED-treated skin, unlike in untreated controls. An increase in sugars was also observed in blue and red LED-treated skin. These results suggest that blue LED irradiation at night may be effective in increasing anthocyanin and sugar concentrations in grape berries. However, there is evidence that another factor may influence anthocyanin concentrations in grape berry skin significantly more than endogenous ABA: ABA concentrations were highest in red LED-treated skin, which had lower anthocyanin concentrations than blue LED-treated skin. PMID:24877674

Kondo, Satoru; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Rodyoung, Abhichartbut; Okawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Sugaya, Sumiko; Terahara, Norihiko; Hirai, Nobuhiro

2014-06-15

330

Steroidal aromatic 'naphthenic acids' in oil sands process-affected water: structural comparisons with environmental estrogens.  

PubMed

The large volumes, acute toxicity, estrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity of process-affected waters accruing in tailings ponds from the operations of the Alberta oil sands industries pose a significant task for environmental reclamation. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) suggest that oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) may contain aromatic carboxylic acids, which are among the potentially environmentally important toxicants, but no such acids have yet been identified, limiting interpretations of the results of estrogenicity and other assays. Here we show that multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) of methyl esters of acids in an OSPW sample produces mass spectra consistent with their assignment as C(19) and C(20) C-ring monoaromatic hydroxy steroid acids, D-ring opened hydroxy and nonhydroxy polyhydrophenanthroic acids with one aromatic and two alicyclic rings and A-ring opened steroidal keto acids. High resolution MS data support the assignment of several of the so-called 'O3' species. When fractions of distilled, esterified, OSPW acid-extractable organics were examined, the putative aromatics were mainly present in a high boiling fraction; when examined by argentation thin layer chromatography, some were present in a fraction with a retardation factor between that of the methyl esters of synthetic monoalicyclic and monoaromatic acids. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of these fractions indicated the presence of benzenoid moieties. SFS of model octahydro- and tetrahydrophenanthroic acids produced emissions at the characteristic excitation wavelengths observed in some OSPW extracts, consistent with the postulations from ultraviolet spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. We suggest the acids originate from extensive biodegradation of C-ring monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons and offer a means of differentiating residues at different biodegradation stages in tailings ponds. Structural similarities with estrone and estradiol imply that such compounds may account for some of the environmental estrogenic activity reported in OSPW acid-extractable organics and naphthenic acids. PMID:22014158

Rowland, Steven J; West, Charles E; Jones, David; Scarlett, Alan G; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark

2011-11-15

331

Stochasticity and Determinism: How Density-Independent and Density-Dependent Processes Affect Population Variability  

PubMed Central

A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans.

Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-01-01

332

Faces in Context: A Review and Systematization of Contextual Influences on Affective Face Processing  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant “basic emotion” approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

Wieser, Matthias J.; Brosch, Tobias

2012-01-01

333

Early Affective Processing in Patients with Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Magnetoencephalographic Correlates  

PubMed Central

Background In chronic PTSD, a preattentive neural alarm system responds rapidly to emotional information, leading to increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation at early processing stages (<100 ms). Enhanced PFC responses are followed by a reduction in occipito-temporal activity during later processing stages. However, it remains unknown if this neuronal pattern is a result of a long lasting mental disorder or if it represents changes in brain function as direct consequences of severe trauma. Methodology The present study investigates early fear network activity in acutely traumatized patients with PTSD. It focuses on the question whether dysfunctions previously observed in chronic PTSD patients are already present shortly after trauma exposure. We recorded neuromagnetic activity towards emotional pictures in seven acutely traumatized PTSD patients between one and seven weeks after trauma exposure and compared brain responses to a balanced healthy control sample. Inverse modelling served for mapping sources of differential activation in the brain. Principal Findings Compared to the control group, acutely traumatized PTSD patients showed an enhanced PFC response to high-arousing pictures between 60 to 80 ms. This rapid prefrontal hypervigilance towards arousing pictorial stimuli was sustained during 120–300 ms, where it was accompanied by a reduced affective modulation of occipito-temporal neural processing. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the hypervigilance-avoidance pattern seen in chronic PTSD is not necessarily a product of an endured mental disorder, but arises as an almost immediate result of severe traumatisation. Thus, traumatic experiences can influence emotion processing strongly, leading to long-lasting changes in trauma network activation and expediting a chronic manifestation of maladaptive cognitive and behavioral symptoms.

Wrenger, Marco; Kandil, Judith; Heuft, Gereon; Steinberg, Christian; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Junghofer, Markus

2013-01-01

334

An Integrative Process Approach on Judgment and Decision Making: The Impact of Arousal, Affect, Motivation, and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to integrate the findings from various research traditions on human judgment and decision making, focusing on four process variables: arousal, affect, motivation, and cognitive capacity/ability. We advocate a broad perspective referred to as the integrative process approach (IPA) of decision making, in which these process

Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

2011-01-01

335

Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans.  

PubMed

Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

2014-07-15

336

Rhizospheric NO affects N uptake and metabolism in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings depending on soil N availability and N source.  

PubMed

We investigated the interaction of rhizospheric nitric oxide (NO) concentration (i.e. low, ambient or high) and soil nitrogen (N) availability (i.e. low or high) with organic and inorganic N uptake by fine roots of Pinus sylvestris?L. seedlings by (15) N feeding experiments under controlled conditions. N metabolites in fine roots were analysed to link N uptake to N nutrition. NO affected N uptake depending on N source and soil N availability. The suppression of nitrate uptake in the presence of ammonium and glutamine was overruled by high NO. The effects of NO on N uptake with increasing N availability showed different patterns: (1) increasing N uptake regardless of NO concentration (i.e. ammonium); (2) increasing N uptake only with high NO concentration (i.e. nitrate and arginine); and (3) decreasing N uptake (i.e. glutamine). At low N availability and high NO nitrate accumulated in the roots indicating insufficient substrates for nitrate reduction or its storage in root vacuoles. Individual amino acid concentrations were negatively affected with increasing NO (i.e. asparagine and glutamine with low N availability, serine and proline with high N availability). In conclusion, this study provides first evidence that NO affects N uptake and metabolism in a conifer. PMID:23146102

Simon, Judy; Dong, Fang; Buegger, Franz; Rennenberg, Heinz

2013-05-01

337

Nicotinamide improves glucose metabolism and affects the hepatic NAD-sirtuin pathway in a rodent model of obesity and type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAM) are major forms of niacin and exert their physiological functions as precursors of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Sirtuins, which are NAD-dependent deacetylases, regulate glucose and lipid metabolism and are implicated in the pathophysiology of aging, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two NAD donors, NA and NAM, on glucose metabolism and the hepatic NAD-sirtuin pathway. The effects were investigated in OLETF rats, a rodent model of obesity and type 2 diabetes. OLETF rats were divided into five groups: (1) high fat (HF) diet, (2) HF diet and 10 mg NA/kg body weight (BW)/day (NA 10), (3) HF diet and 100 mg NA/kg BW/day (NA 100), (4) HF diet and 10 mg NAM/kg BW/day (NAM 10), and (5) HF diet and 100 mg NAM/kg BW/day (NAM 100). NA and NAM were delivered via drinking water for four weeks. NAM 100 treatment affected glucose control significantly, as shown by lower levels of accumulative area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test, serum fasting glucose, serum fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and higher levels of serum adiponectin. With regard to NAD-sirtuin pathway, intracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, NAD, the NAD/NADH ratio, Sirt1, 2, 3, and 6 mRNA expressions, and Sirt1 activity all increased in livers of NAM 100-treated rats. These alterations were accompanied by the increased levels of proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha and mitochondrial DNA. The effect of NA treatment was less evident than that of NAM 100. These results demonstrate that NAM is more effective than NA on the regulation of glucose metabolism and the NAD-sirtuin pathway, which may relate to the altered mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:24314867

Yang, Soo Jin; Choi, Jung Mook; Kim, Lisa; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Cheol-Young

2014-01-01

338

Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W. O.; McFarlane, R. D.

1989-01-01

339

Unique affective and cognitive processes in contamination appraisals: Implications for contamination fear.  

PubMed

A large body of evidence suggests an important role of disgust in contamination fear (CF). A separate line of research implicates various cognitive mechanisms in contamination fear, including obsessive beliefs, memory biases, and delayed attentional disengagement from threat. This study is an initial attempt to integrate these two lines of research and examines whether disgust and delayed attention disengagement from threat explain unique or overlapping processes within CF. Non-clinical undergraduate students (N = 108) completed a spatial cueing task, which provided measures of delayed disengagement from frightening and disgusting cues, and a self-report measure of disgust propensity (DP). Participants also completed a chain of contagion task, in which they provided contamination appraisals of an object as a function of degrees of removal from an initial contaminant. Results demonstrated that DP predicted greater initial contamination appraisals, but a sharper decline in estimations across further degrees of removal from the contaminant. Delayed disengagement from disgust cues uniquely predicted sustained elevations in contamination estimations across further degrees of removal from the contaminant. These results suggest that DP and delayed disengagement from disgust cues explain unique and complimentary processes in contamination appraisals, which suggests the utility of incorporating the disparate affective and cognitive lines of research on CF. PMID:20691567

Cisler, Josh M; Adams, Thomas G; Brady, Robert E; Bridges, Ana J; Lohr, Jeffrey M; Olatunji, Bunmi O

2011-01-01

340

Unique Affective and Cognitive Processes in Contamination Appraisals: Implications for Contamination Fear  

PubMed Central

A large body of evidence suggests an important role of disgust in contamination fear (CF). A separate line of research implicates various cognitive mechanisms in contamination fear, including obsessive beliefs, memory biases, and delayed attentional disengagement from threat. This study is an initial attempt to integrate these two lines of research and examines whether disgust and delayed attention disengagement from threat explain unique or overlapping processes within CF. Non-clinical undergraduate students (N = 108) completed a spatial cueing task, which provided measures of delayed disengagement from frightening and disgusting cues, and a self-report measure of disgust propensity (DP). Participants also completed a chain of contagion task, in which they provided contamination appraisals of an object as a function of degrees of removal from an initial contaminant. Results demonstrated that DP predicted greater initial contamination appraisals, but a sharper decline in estimations across further degrees of removal from the contaminant. Delayed disengagement from disgust cues uniquely predicted sustained elevations in contamination estimations across further degrees of removal from the contaminant. These results suggest that DP and delayed disengagement from disgust cues explain unique and complimentary processes in contamination appraisals, which suggests the utility of incorporating the disparate affective and cognitive lines of research on CF.

Cisler, Josh M.; Adams, Thomas G.; Brady, Robert E.; Bridges, Ana J.; Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

2010-01-01

341

Overlapping and antagonistic activities of BASIC PENTACYSTEINE genes affect a range of developmental processes in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (BPC) proteins are a plant-specific transcription factor family that is present throughout land plants. The Arabidopsis BPC proteins have been categorized into three classes based on sequence similarity, and we demonstrate that there is functional overlap between classes. Single gene mutations produce no visible phenotypic effects, and severe morphological phenotypes occur only in higher order mutants between members of classes I and II, with the most severe phenotype observed in bpc1-1 bpc2 bpc4 bpc6 plants. These quadruple mutants are dwarfed and display small curled leaves, aberrant ovules, altered epidermal cells and reduced numbers of lateral roots. Affected processes include coordinated growth of cell layers, cell shape determination and timing of senescence. Disruption of BPC3 function rescues some aspects of the bpc1-1 bpc2 bpc4 bpc6 phenotype, indicating that BPC3 function may be antagonistic to other members of the family. Ethylene response is diminished in bpc1-1 bpc2 bpc4 bpc6 plants, although not all aspects of the phenotype can be explained by reduced ethylene sensitivity. Our data indicate that the BPC transcription factor family is integral for a wide range of processes that support normal growth and development. PMID:21435046

Monfared, Mona M; Simon, Marissa K; Meister, Robert J; Roig-Villanova, Irma; Kooiker, Maarten; Colombo, Lucia; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Gasser, Charles S

2011-06-01

342

Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types--an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, [e.g., stimulus-stimulus (S-S) or stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts] trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC) task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions [caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus (MOG)] during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

Korsch, Margarethe; Fruhholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

2014-01-01

343

Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

344

Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types-an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, [e.g., stimulus-stimulus (S-S) or stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts] trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC) task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions [caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus (MOG)] during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts. PMID:24778615

Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

2014-01-01

345

Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2012-06-15

346

Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.  

PubMed

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

347

Differential effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on certain metabolic processes in a chromatically adapting Nostoc.  

PubMed

The impact of UV-B radiation on growth, pigmentation and certain physiological processes has been studied in a N2-fixing chromatically adapting cyanobacterium, Nostoc spongiaeforme. A brownish form (phycoerythrin rich) was found to be more tolerant to UV-B than the blue-green (phycocyanin rich) form of N. spongiaeforme. Continuous exposure to UV-B (5.5 W m-2) for 90 min caused complete killing of the blue-green strain whereas the brown strain showed complete loss of survival after 180 min. Pigment content was more strongly inhibited in the blue-green strain than in the brown. Nitrogenase activity was completely abolished in both strains within 35 min of UV-B treatment. Restoration of nitrogenase occurred upon transfer to fluorescent or incandescent light after a lag of 5-6 h, suggesting fresh synthesis of nitrogenase. Unlike the above processes, in vivo nitrate reductase activity was stimulated by UV-B treatment, the degree of enhancement being significantly higher in the blue-green strain. Like the effect of UV-B on nitrogenase, 14CO2 uptake was also completely abolished by UV-B treatment in both strains. Our findings suggest that UV-B may produce a deleterious effect on several metabolic activities of cyanobacteria, especially in cells lacking phycoerythrin. Strains containing phycoerythrin appear to be more tolerant to UV-B, probably because of their inherent property of adapting to a variety of light qualities. PMID:1561238

Tyagi, R; Srinivas, G; Vyas, D; Kumar, A; Kumar, H D

1992-03-01

348

Complete Proteomic-Based Enzyme Reaction and Inhibition Kinetics Reveal How Monolignol Biosynthetic Enzyme Families Affect Metabolic Flux and Lignin in Populus trichocarpa.  

PubMed

We established a predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model for the 21 enzymes and 24 metabolites of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway using Populus trichocarpa secondary differentiating xylem. To establish this model, a comprehensive study was performed to obtain the reaction and inhibition kinetic parameters of all 21 enzymes based on functional recombinant proteins. A total of 104 Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters and 85 inhibition kinetic parameters were derived from these enzymes. Through mass spectrometry, we obtained the absolute quantities of all 21 pathway enzymes in the secondary differentiating xylem. This extensive experimental data set, generated from a single tissue specialized in wood formation, was used to construct the predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model to provide a comprehensive mathematical description of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. The model was validated using experimental data from transgenic P. trichocarpa plants. The model predicts how pathway enzymes affect lignin content and composition, explains a long-standing paradox regarding the regulation of monolignol subunit ratios in lignin, and reveals novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. This model provides an explanation of the effects of genetic and transgenic perturbations of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway in flowering plants. PMID:24619611

Wang, Jack P; Naik, Punith P; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Shuford, Christopher M; Li, Quanzi; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Williams, Cranos M; Muddiman, David C; Ducoste, Joel J; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

2014-03-01

349

Process-induced extracellular matrix alterations affect the mechanisms of soft tissue repair and regeneration  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrices derived from animal tissues for human tissue repairs are processed by various methods of physical, chemical, or enzymatic decellularization, viral inactivation, and terminal sterilization. The mechanisms of action in tissue repair vary among bioscaffolds and are suggested to be associated with process-induced extracellular matrix modifications. We compared three non-cross-linked, commercially available extracellular matrix scaffolds (Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix), and correlated extracellular matrix alterations to in vivo biological responses upon implantation in non-human primates. Structural evaluation showed significant differences in retaining native tissue extracellular matrix histology and ultrastructural features among bioscaffolds. Tissue processing may cause both the condensation of collagen fibers and fragmentation or separation of collagen bundles. Calorimetric analysis showed significant differences in the stability of bioscaffolds. The intrinsic denaturation temperature was measured to be 51°C, 38°C, and 44°C for Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, respectively, demonstrating more extracellular matrix modifications in the Veritas and XenMatrix scaffolds. Consequently, the susceptibility to collagenase degradation was increased in Veritas and XenMatrix when compared to their respective source tissues. Using a non-human primate model, three bioscaffolds were found to elicit different biological responses, have distinct mechanisms of action, and yield various outcomes of tissue repair. Strattice permitted cell repopulation and was remodeled over 6 months. Veritas was unstable at body temperature, resulting in rapid absorption with moderate inflammation. XenMatrix caused severe inflammation and sustained immune reactions. This study demonstrates that extracellular matrix alterations significantly affect biological responses in soft tissue repair and regeneration. The data offer useful insights into the rational design of extracellular matrix products and bioscaffolds of tissue engineering.

Xu, Hui; Sandor, Maryellen; Lombardi, Jared

2013-01-01

350

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.  

PubMed

Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 ?S/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ?40 mg/l and conductivity ?2000 ?S/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 ?S/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction. PMID:20980067

Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2011-01-17

351

Affective processing of loved faces: contributions from peripheral and central electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Research on the neural mechanisms of face identity constitutes a fruitful method to explore the affective contributions to face processing. Here, we investigated central and peripheral electrophysiological indices associated with the perception of loved faces. Subjects viewed black-and-white photographs of faces that belonged to one of five categories: loved ones, famous people, unknown people, babies, and neutral faces from the Eckman and Friesen system. Subcategories of loved faces included romantic partner, parents, siblings, second-degree relatives, and friends. Pictures were presented in two separate blocks, differing in viewing time (0.5s vs. 4s), inter-stimulus interval (1.2s vs. 18s), and number of face presentations (200 vs. 50). Heart rate, skin conductance, electromyography of the zygomatic muscle, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained while participants passively viewed the pictures. Subjective picture ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance were obtained at the end of the experiment. Both central and peripheral electrophysiological measures differentiated faces of loved ones from all other categories by eliciting higher heart rate, skin conductance, and zygomatic activity, as well as larger amplitudes of the late ERP components P3 and LPP. Loved faces also resulted in higher valence and arousal, but lower dominance ratings. Additional differences were found among subcategories of loved faces. Faces of romantic partners elicited higher physiological (skin conductance and zygomatic activity) and subjective (emotional arousal) responses than parents, siblings, or friends, suggesting that looking at the image of someone we love evokes strong positive affect and emotional/cognitive arousal that go beyond a feeling of familiarity or simple recognition. PMID:20678982

Vico, Cynthia; Guerra, Pedro; Robles, Humbelina; Vila, Jaime; Anllo-Vento, Lourdes

2010-08-01

352

Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of organic contaminants especially when the porous geological media have very low organic carbon contents.

Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

2012-04-01

353

The Investment in Scent: Time-Resolved Metabolic Processes in Developing Volatile-Producing Nigella sativa L. Seeds  

PubMed Central

The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids) and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol–3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18?3n-3 abundant in “green” seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs.

Toubiana, David; Botnick, Ilan; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Nikoloski, Zoran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fait, Aaron

2013-01-01

354

The investment in scent: time-resolved metabolic processes in developing volatile-producing Nigella sativa L. seeds.  

PubMed

The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids) and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol-3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18?3n-3 abundant in "green" seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs. PMID:24019893

Xue, Wentao; Batushansky, Albert; Toubiana, David; Botnick, Ilan; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Nikoloski, Zoran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fait, Aaron

2013-01-01

355

Spontaneous ultraweak photon emission imaging of oxidative metabolic processes in human skin: effect of molecular oxygen and antioxidant defense system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All living organisms emit spontaneous ultraweak photon emission as a result of cellular metabolic processes. In this study, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed as the byproduct of oxidative metabolic processes in spontaneous ultraweak photon emission was studied in human hand skin. The effect of molecular oxygen and ROS scavengers on spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from human skin was monitored using a highly sensitive photomultiplier tube and charged coupled device camera. When spontaneous ultraweak photon emission was measured under anaerobic conditions, the photon emission was decreased, whereas under hyperaerobic condition the enhancement in photon emission was observed. Spontaneous ultraweak photon emission measured after topical application of glutathione, ?-tocopherol, ascorbate, and coenzyme Q10 was observed to be decreased. These results reveal that ROS formed during the cellular metabolic processes in the epidermal cells play a significant role in the spontaneous ultraweak photon emission. It is proposed that spontaneous ultraweak photon emission can be used as a noninvasive tool for the temporal and spatial monitoring of the oxidative metabolic processes and intrinsic antioxidant system in human skin.

Rastogi, Anshu; Pospíšil, Pavel

2011-09-01

356

Culture temperature affects gene expression and metabolic pathways in the 2-methylisoborneol-producing cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata.  

PubMed

A volatile metabolite, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), causes an unpleasant taste and odor in tap water. Some filamentous cyanobacteria produce 2-MIB via a two-step biosynthetic pathway: methylation of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) by methyl transferase (GPPMT), followed by the cyclization of methyl-GPP by monoterpene cyclase (MIBS). We isolated the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS from Pseudanabaena galeata, a filamentous cyanobacterium known to be a major causal organism of 2-MIB production in Japanese lakes. The predicted amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that of Pseudanabaena limnetica (96% identity in GPPMT and 97% identity in MIBS). P. galeata was cultured at different temperatures to examine the effect of growth conditions on the production of 2-MIB and major metabolites. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements showed higher accumulation of 2-MIB at 30 °C than at 4 °C or 20 °C after 24 h of culture. Real-time-RT PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS decreased at 4 °C and increased at 30 °C, compared with at 20 °C. Furthermore, metabolite analysis showed dramatic changes in primary metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria grown at different temperatures. The data indicate that changes in carbon flow in the TCA cycle affect 2-MIB biosynthesis at higher temperatures. PMID:24140001

Kakimoto, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Miyagi, Atsuko; Saito, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Asaeda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

2014-02-15

357

SLOW-MAS NMR METHODS TO STUDY METABOLIC PROCESSES IN VIVO AND IN VITRO  

SciTech Connect

In vitro and in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy is widely used to measure metabolic profiles in cells, tissues, animals, and humans and to use them, e.g., for diagnosis and therapy response evaluations. However, the spectra often suffer from poor resolution due to variations in the isotropic bulk magnetic susceptibility present in biological objects, resulting in a broadening of the NMR lines. In principle this broadening can be averaged to zero by the technique of magic angle spinning (MAS), where the sample is rotated about an axis making an angle of 54o44’ relative to the external magnetic field. However, a problem is that in a standard MAS experiment spinning speeds of a kHz or more are required in order to avoid the occurrence of spinning sidebands (SSBs) in the spectra, which renders analysis of the spectra difficult again. At these spinning speeds the large centrifugal forces cause severe structural damage in larger biological objects, so that this method cannot be used to study metabolic processes in intact samples. In solid state NMR several methods have been developed where slow MAS is combined with special radio frequency pulse sequences to eliminate spinning side bands or separate them from the isotropic spectrum so that a SSB-free high-resolution isotropic spectrum is obtained. It has been shown recently that two methods, phase-adjusted spinning sidebands (PASS) and phase-corrected magic angle turning (PHORMAT), can successfully be modified for applications in biological materials (1, 2). With PASS MAS speeds as low as 40 Hz can be employed, allowing non or minimally invasive in vitro studies of excised tissues and organs. This method was used, amongst other things, to study post mortem changes in the proton metabolite spectra in excised rabbit muscle tissue (3). With PHORMAT the NMR sensitivity is reduced and longer measuring times are required, but with this methodology the MAS speed can be reduced to ~1 Hz. This makes PHORMAT amenable for in vivo applications, as was demonstrated in a living mouse (4). In this presentation the principles and limitations of PASS and PHORMAT will be briefly discussed and illustrated with spectra obtained on a variety of biological objects. Moreover, it will be shown that PASS can be employed to study metabolic processes in biofilms and other living microbial systems. Finally, on-going work to develop PASS and PHORMAT spectroscopic imaging and to improve the performance of both techniques will be discussed. It is anticipated that slow- and ultra-slow-MAS will significantly enhance the utility of proton MR spectroscopy for biomedical research in living cell systems and live animals, and in future perhaps even in the clinic, in the latter case by rotating the external magnetic field rather than the patient.

Wind, Robert A.; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Hu, Jian Zhi

2005-09-25

358

Transient effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure on some metabolic and free radical processes in goldfish white muscle.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess effects of 96 h goldfish exposure to 1, 10 and 100 mg/L of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on metabolic indices and free radical process markers in white muscle of a commercial fish, the goldfish Carassius auratus L. Most oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes were not affected at 2,4-D fish treatment. 2,4-D fish exposure induced the elevated levels of total (by 46% and 40%) and reduced (by 77% and 73%) glutathione in muscles of goldfish of 10 mg/L 2,4-D and recovery (after 100 mg/L of 2,4-D exposure) groups, respectively. However, in muscles of 100 mg/L 2,4-D exposed goldfish these parameters were depleted (by 47% and 64%). None of investigated parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolisms changed in white muscles of 2,4-D exposed fish, with exception of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which was slightly (by 11-15%) elevated in muscles of goldfish exposed to 10-100 mg/L of 2,4-D, but also recovered. Thus, the short term exposure of goldfish to the selected concentrations of 2,4-D does not substantially affect their white muscle, suggesting the absence of any effect under the environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:23806294

Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

2013-09-01

359

Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching in natural environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M. J.; Chalmers, A. T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K. K.

2006-01-01

360

Soil biota can change after exotic plant invasion: Does this affect ecosystem processes?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasion of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum into stands of the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii significantly reduced the abundance of soil biota, especially microarthropods and nematodes. Effects of invasion on active and total bacterial and fungal biomass were variable, although populations generally increased after 50+ years of invasion. The invasion of Bromus also resulted in a decrease in richness and a species shift in plants, microarthropods, fungi, and nematodes. However, despite the depauperate soil fauna at the invaded sites, no effects were seen on cellulose decomposition rates, nitrogen mineralization rates, or vascular plant growth. When Hilaria was planted into soils from not-invaded, recently invaded, and historically invaded sites (all currently or once dominated by Hilaria), germination and survivorship were not affected. In contrast, aboveground Hilaria biomass was significantly greater in recently invaded soils than in the other two soils. We attributed the Hilaria response to differences in soil nutrients present before the invasion, especially soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as these nutrients were elevated in the soils that produced the greatest Hilaria biomass. Our data suggest that it is not soil biotic richness per se that determines soil process rates or plant productivity, but instead that either (1) the presence of a few critical soil food web taxa can keep ecosystem function high, (2) nutrient loss is very slow in this ecosystem, and/or (3) these processes are microbially driven. However, the presence of Bromus may reduce key soil nutrients over time and thus may eventually suppress native plant success. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

Belnap, J.; Phillips, S. L.; Sherrod, S. K.; Moldenke, A.

2005-01-01

361

Improved vitamin B12 fermentation process by adding rotenone to regulate the metabolism of Pseudomonas denitrificans.  

PubMed

Our previous research had revealed that the dissolved oxygen limitation was more favorable for vitamin B12 fermentation, due to its inducement to the increased glycolytic flux in Pseudomonas denitrificans. In this paper, a novel strategy was implemented to further investigate the metabolic characteristics of P. denitrificans under different oxygen supply levels, by exogenously adding rotenone (a respiratory chain inhibitor interfering with the oxygen consumption) to the fermentation broths. Compared to the fermentation process without rotenone treatment, it was observed that 5 mg/L rotenone treatment could significantly strengthen the glycolytic flux of P. denitrificans via activating the key glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase), resulting in the accelerated generations of anterior precursors (glutamate and 5-aminolevulinic acid) for vitamin B12 biosynthesis. Although 5 mg/L rotenone treatment had a negative effect on cell growth of P. denitrificans, the vitamin B12 yield was increased from 48.28?±?0.62 mg/L to 54.70?±?0.45 mg/L, which further proved that an increased glycolytic flux in P. denitrificans was a consequence of higher vitamin B12 production. PMID:24687557

Cheng, Xin; Chen, Wei; Peng, Wei-Fu; Li, Kun-Tai

2014-06-01

362

Characterization of metabolic activities of waste-activated sludge from the SBR process.  

PubMed

The biological activity and sensitivities of volatile suspended solids (VSS) were studied using waste-activated sludge (WAS) from the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process. We also examined the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride-specific dehydrogenase activity (TTC-SDHA) for both the exogenous metabolism and heavy metal inhibition tests. The inhibiting effects of heavy metals on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were also examined. It was found that TTC-SDHA and SOUR were more sensitive than VSS in terms of the characterization of growth curve. The maximum biological activity of the growth curve was calculated by fitting polynomial functions for VSS and SOUR. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong correlation between TTC-SHDA and SOUR, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9117. In the inhibition test, TTC-SDHA and COD removal were inhibited at a similar level, while SOUR was more sensitive than the others to the toxicity of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of heavy metal was calculated by linearizing experimental data, and this also suggested that SOUR was the most sensitive to inhibition by heavy metals. PMID:19731832

Zhang, Li G; Yin, Jun; Liu, Lei

2009-07-01

363

Proteins involved in iron metabolism in beef cattle are affected by copper deficiency in combination with high dietary manganese, but not by copper deficiency alone.  

PubMed

A 493-d study was conducted to determine the impact of a severe, long-term Cu deficiency on Fe metabolism in beef cattle. Twenty-one Angus calves were born to cows receiving one of the following treatments: 1) adequate Cu (+Cu), 2) Cu deficient (-Cu), and 3) Cu deficient plus high Mn (-Cu+Mn). Copper deficiency was induced through the addition of 2 mg of Mo/kg of DM. After weaning, calves remained on the same treatment as their dam through growing (basal diet analyzed 7 mg of Cu/kg of DM) and finishing (analyzed 4 mg of Cu/kg of DM) phases. Plasma Fe concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0.01; r = 0.49) with plasma Cu concentrations. Liver Fe concentrations were greater (P = 0.05) in -Cu vs. +Cu calves and further increased (P = 0.07) in -Cu+Mn vs. -Cu calves. There was a negative relationship (P < 0.01; r = -0.31) between liver Cu and Fe concentrations. This relationship is likely explained by less (P < 0.01) plasma ceruloplasmin activity in -Cu than +Cu calves. As determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, relative expression of hepatic hepcidin was significantly downregulated (>1.5 fold) in -Cu compared with +Cu calves (P = 0.03), and expression of hepatic ferroportin tended (P = 0.09) to be downregulated in -Cu vs. +Cu. In the duodenum, ferritin tended to be upregulated in -Cu. vs. +Cu calves (P < 0.06). No significant change (P > 0.2) due to Cu-deficiency was detected at the transcriptional level for either isoform of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1 mRNA with or without an iron responsive element; dmt1IRE and dmt1-nonIRE) in liver or intestine. Duodenal expression of hephaestin and ferroportin protein was not affected by dietary treatment (P > 0.20). However, duodenal expression of DMT1 protein was less (P = 0.04) in -Cu+Mn steers vs. -Cu steers. In summary, Cu deficiency alone did affect hepatic gene expression of hepcidin and ferroportin, but did not affect duodenal expression of proteins important in Fe metabolism. However, the addition of 500 mg of Mn/kg of DM to a diet low in Cu reduced duodenal expression of the Fe import protein DMT1. PMID:19820055

Hansen, S L; Trakooljul, N; Liu, H-C S; Hicks, J A; Ashwell, M S; Spears, J W

2010-01-01

364

The effects of pretreatment on nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane filtration for desalination of oil sands process-affected water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is largely produced from the oil sands operational process and requires the removal of toxicants for reuse. Nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane applications can be used to remove salt ions from OSPW. However, membrane treatments of OSPW are impeded by membrane fouling due to suspended solids; therefore, feed water must be pretreated to

Eun-Sik Kim; Yang Liu; Mohamed Gamal El-Din

2011-01-01

365

Naphthenic acids speciation and removal during petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation of oil sands process-affected water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athabasca Oil Sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) as a result of bitumen extraction and upgrading processes. Constituents of OSPW include chloride, naphthenic acids (NAs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace heavy metals, among other inorganic and organic compounds. To address the environmental issues associated with the recycling and\\/or safe return of OSPW into the environment,

Mohamed Gamal El-Din; Hongjing Fu; Nan Wang; Pamela Chelme-Ayala; Leonidas Pérez-Estrada; Przemys?aw Drzewicz; Jonathan W. Martin; Warren Zubot; Daniel W. Smith

2011-01-01

366

43 CFR 2.20 - When will expedited processing be provided and how will it affect your request?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will expedited processing be provided and how will it affect your request? 2.20 Section 2...Timing of Responses to Requests § 2.20 When will expedited processing be provided and how...

2013-10-01

367

Family-Based Processes Associated with Adolescent Distress, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Families Affected by Maternal HIV  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…

Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2010-01-01