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1

Respiration, metabolic balance, and attention in affective picture processing.  

PubMed

The respiratory behavior during affective states is not completely understood. We studied breathing pattern responses to picture series in 37 participants. We also measured end-tidal pCO2 (EtCO2) to determine if ventilation is in balance with metabolic demands and spontaneous eye-blinking to investigate the link between respiration and attention. Minute ventilation (MV) and inspiratory drive increased with self-rated arousal. These relationships reflected increases in inspiratory volume rather than shortening of the time parameters. EtCO2 covaried with pleasantness but not arousal. Eye-blink rate decreased with increasing unpleasantness in line with a negativity bias in attention. This study confirms that respiratory responses to affective stimuli are organized to a certain degree along the dimensions of valence and arousal. It shows, for the first time, that during picture viewing, ventilatory increases with increasing arousal are in balance with metabolic activity and that inspiratory volume is modulated by arousal. MV emerges as the most reliable respiratory index of self-perceived arousal. PMID:18346833

Gomez, Patrick; Shafy, Samiha; Danuser, Brigitta

2008-02-12

2

Soy processing affects metabolism and disposition of dietary isoflavones in ovariectomized BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Soy foods and nutritional supplements are widely consumed for potential health benefits. It was previously shown that isoflavone-supplemented diets, which contained equal genistein equivalents, differentially stimulated mammary tumor growth in athymic mice based on the degree of processing. This paper reports plasma pharmacokinetic analysis and metabolite identification using the parental mouse strain fed the same diets, which contained genistin, mixed isoflavones, Novasoy, soy molasses, or soy flour plus mixed isoflavones. Whereas the degree of soy processing did affect several parameters reflecting isoflavone bioavailability and gut microflora metabolism of daidzein to equol, stimulation of tumor growth correlated significantly with only the plasma concentration of aglycon genistein produced by the diets. This conclusion is consistent with the known estrogen agonist activity of genistein aglycon on mammary tumor growth. Conversely, plasma equol concentration was inversely correlated with the degree of soy processing. Although antagonism of genistein-stimulated tumor growth by equol could explain this result, the very low concentration of aglycon equol in plasma (12-fold lower relative to genistein) is inconsistent with any effect. These findings underscore the importance of food processing, which can remove non-nutritive components from soy, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of isoflavones. Such changes in diet composition affect circulating, and presumably target tissue, concentrations of genistein aglycon, which initiates estrogen receptor-mediated processes required for the stimulation of tumor growth in a mouse model for postmenopausal breast cancer. PMID:16248551

Allred, Clinton D; Twaddle, Nathan C; Allred, Kimberly F; Goeppinger, Tracy S; Churchwell, Mona I; Ju, Young H; Helferich, William G; Doerge, Daniel R

2005-11-01

3

Dll1 Haploinsufficiency in Adult Mice Leads to a Complex Phenotype Affecting Metabolic and Immunological Processes  

PubMed Central

Background The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved signal transduction pathway involved in embryonic patterning and regulation of cell fates during development and self-renewal. Recent studies have demonstrated that this pathway is integral to a complex system of interactions, involving as well other signal transduction pathways, and implicated in distinct human diseases. Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is one of the known ligands of the Notch receptors. The role of the Notch ligands is less well understood. Loss-of-function of Dll1 leads to embryonic lethality, but reduction of Delta-like 1 protein levels has not been studied in adult stage. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the haploinsufficient phenotype of Dll1 and a missense mutant Dll1 allele (Dll1C413Y). Haploinsufficiency leads to a complex phenotype with several biological processes altered. These alterations reveal the importance of Dll1 mainly in metabolism, energy balance and in immunology. The animals are smaller, lighter, with altered fat to lean ratio and have increased blood pressure and a slight bradycardia. The animals have reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood. At the immunological level a subtle phenotype is observed due to the effect and fine-tuning of the signaling network at the different levels of differentiation, proliferation and function of lymphocytes. Moreover, the importance of the proteolytic regulation of the Notch signaling network emphasized. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, slight alterations in one player of Notch signaling alter the entire organism, emphasizing the fine-tuning character of this pathway in a high number of processes.

Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Przemeck, Gerhard K. H.; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Adler, Thure; Hans, Wolfgang; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Wagner, Sibylle; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Becker, Lore; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Wolf, Eckhard; Klingenspor, Martin; Ivandic, Boris T.; Busch, Dirk H.; Beckers, Johannes; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin

2009-01-01

4

Drugs affecting lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

This book contains over 60 selections. Some of the titles are: Relationship of cholesterol to DNA synthesis in normal and cancerous cells; A genetic marker in the apolipoprotein AI/CIII gene complex associated with hypercholesterolaemia; Cellular and molecular biology of apolipoproteins: Receptor-mediated regulation of cholesterol metabolism; Animal models for hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis; and Fatty acid-binding proteins of various tissues.

Paoletti, R. Kritchevsky, D. Holmes, W.L.

1987-01-01

5

Ibogaine affects brain energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid present in the root of the plant Tabernanthe iboga. It is known to attenuate abstinence syndrome in animal models of drug addiction. Since the anti-addiction effect lasts longer than the presence of ibogaine in the body, some profound metabolic changes are expected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ibogaine on protein expression in rat brains. Rats were treated with ibogaine at 20 mg/kg body weight i.p. and subsequently examined at 24 and 72 h. Proteins were extracted from whole brain and separated by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Individual proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Enzymes of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle namely glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase A, pyruvate kinase and malate dehydrogenase were induced. The results suggest that the remedial effect of ibogaine could be mediated by the change in energy availability. Since energy dissipating detoxification and reversion of tolerance to different drugs of abuse requires underlying functional and structural changes in the cell, higher metabolic turnover would be favourable. Understanding the pharmacodynamics of anti-addiction drugs highlights the subcellular aspects of addiction diseases, in addition to neurological and psychological perspectives. PMID:17054944

Paskulin, Roman; Jamnik, Polona; Zivin, Marko; Raspor, Peter; Strukelj, Borut

2006-09-16

6

Affective Disorders, Bone Metabolism, and Osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the relationship between affective disorders, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone metabolism is unresolved,\\u000a although there is growing evidence that many medications used to treat affective disorders are associated with low BMD or\\u000a alterations in neuroendocrine systems that influence bone turnover. The objective of this review is to describe the current\\u000a evidence regarding the association of unipolar

Briana Mezuk

2008-01-01

7

Metabolically efficient information processing.  

PubMed

Energy-efficient information transmission may be relevant to biological sensory signal processing as well as to low-power electronic devices. We explore its consequences in two different regimes. In an "immediate" regime, we argue that the information rate should be maximized subject to a power constraint, and in an "exploratory" regime, the transmission rate per power cost should be maximized. In the absence of noise, discrete inputs are optimally encoded into Boltzmann distributed output symbols. In the exploratory regime, the partition function of this distribution is numerically equal to 1. The structure of the optimal code is strongly affected by noise in the transmission channel. The Arimoto-Blahut algorithm, generalized for cost constraints, can be used to derive and interpret the distribution of symbols for optimal energy-efficient coding in the presence of noise. We outline the possibilities and problems in extending our results to information coding and transmission in neurobiological systems. PMID:11255570

Balasubramanian, V; Kimber, D; Berry, M J

2001-04-01

8

Metabolic disorders of purine metabolism affecting the nervous system.  

PubMed

The purines are a group of molecules used by all cells for many vital biochemical processes including energy-requiring enzymatic reactions, cofactor-requiring reactions, synthesis of DNA or RNA, signaling pathways within and between cells, and other processes. Defects in some of the enzymes of purine metabolism are known to be associated with specific clinical disorders, and neurological problems may be a presenting sign or the predominant clinical problem for several of them. This chapter describes three disorders for which the clinical features and metabolic basis are well characterized. Deficiency of adenylosuccinate-lyase (ADSL) causes psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, and autistic features. Lesch-Nyhan disease is caused by deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and is characterized by hyperuricemia, motor and cognitive disability, and self-injurious behavior. Deficiency of myoadenylate deaminase (mAMPD) is associated with myopathic features. In addition to these disorders, several other disorders are briefly summarized. These include defects of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PND), deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK), or IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Each of these disorders provides an unusual window on the unique importance of purine metabolism for function of different parts of the nervous system. PMID:23622405

Jinnah, H A; Sabina, Richard L; Van Den Berghe, Georges

2013-01-01

9

Biogenic Amine Metabolism and Neuroendocrine Function in Affective Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some interrelationships among the metabolism of biogenic amines and neuroendocrine functioning in affective disorders are discussed. There is considerable evidence that there may be abnormalities of biogenic amine metabolism in the clinical syndromes of m...

R. T. Rubin P. R. Gouin R. E. Poland

1971-01-01

10

Metabolically Efficient Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficient information transmission may be relevant to biological\\u000asensory signal processing as well as to low power electronic devices. We\\u000aexplore its consequences in two different regimes. In an ``immediate'' regime,\\u000awe argue that the information rate should be maximized subject to a power\\u000aconstraint, while in an ``exploratory'' regime, the transmission rate per power\\u000acost should be maximized.

Vijay Balasubramanian; Michael J. Berry

2001-01-01

11

Metabolic flux analysis in biotechnology processes.  

PubMed

Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) has become a fundamental tool of metabolic engineering to elucidate the metabolic state of the cell and has been applied to various biotechnological processes. In recent years, considerable technical advances have been made. Developments of analytical instruments allow us to determine (13)C labeling distribution of intracellular metabolites with high accuracy and sensitivity. Moreover, kinetic information of intracellular label distribution during isotopic instationary enables us to calculate metabolic fluxes with shortened experimental time and decreased amount of labeled substrate. The (13)C MFA may be one of the most promising approaches for the target estimation to improve strain performances and production processes. PMID:18224283

Iwatani, Shintaro; Yamada, Yohei; Usuda, Yoshihiro

2008-01-26

12

Metabolic flux analysis in biotechnology processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) has become a fundamental tool of metabolic engineering to elucidate the metabolic state of the\\u000a cell and has been applied to various biotechnological processes. In recent years, considerable technical advances have been\\u000a made. Developments of analytical instruments allow us to determine 13C labeling distribution of intracellular metabolites with high accuracy and sensitivity. Moreover, kinetic information of

Shintaro Iwatani; Yohei Yamada; Yoshihiro Usuda

2008-01-01

13

METALS: MICROBIAL PROCESSES AFFECTING METALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accumulation of metals in the environment due to anthropogenic activities has led to concern over the long-term fate of metal contaminants and the impact of metal accumulation on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In nature, microorganisms carry out many different processes that influence the b...

14

Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

2010-01-01

15

Hyperthyroidism affects lipid metabolism in lactating and suckling rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two per thousand pregnant women have hyperthyroidism (HT), and although the symptoms are attenuated during pregnancy, they\\u000a rebound after delivery, affecting infant development. To examine the effects of hyperthyroidism on lactation, we studied lipid\\u000a metabolism in maternal mammary glands and livers of hyperthyroid rats and their pups. Thyroxine (10 ?g\\/100 g body weight\\/d)\\u000a or vehicle-treated rats were made pregnant 2

Silvia Mabel Varas; Graciela Alma Jahn; María Sofía Giménez

2001-01-01

16

Characterizing the Network of Drugs and Their Affected Metabolic Subpathways  

PubMed Central

A fundamental issue in biology and medicine is illustration of the overall drug impact which is always the consequence of changes in local regions of metabolic pathways (subpathways). To gain insights into the global relationship between drugs and their affected metabolic subpathways, we constructed a drug–metabolic subpathway network (DRSN). This network included 3925 significant drug–metabolic subpathway associations representing drug dual effects. Through analyses based on network biology, we found that if drugs were linked to the same subpathways in the DRSN, they tended to share the same indications and side effects. Furthermore, if drugs shared more subpathways, they tended to share more side effects. We then calculated the association score by integrating drug-affected subpathways and disease-related subpathways to quantify the extent of the associations between each drug class and disease class. The results showed some close drug–disease associations such as sex hormone drugs and cancer suggesting drug dual effects. Surprisingly, most drugs displayed close associations with their side effects rather than their indications. To further investigate the mechanism of drug dual effects, we classified all the subpathways in the DRSN into therapeutic and non-therapeutic subpathways representing drug therapeutic effects and side effects. Compared to drug side effects, the therapeutic effects tended to work through tissue-specific genes and these genes tend to be expressed in the adrenal gland, liver and kidney; while drug side effects always occurred in the liver, bone marrow and trachea. Taken together, the DRSN could provide great insights into understanding the global relationship between drugs and metabolic subpathways.

Li, Jing; Han, Junwei; Wang, Shuyuan; Yao, Qianlan; Wang, Yingying; Zhang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Chunlong; Xu, Yanjun; Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia

2012-01-01

17

Polyhedral organelles compartmenting bacterial metabolic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial polyhedral organelles are extremely large macromolecular complexes consisting of metabolic enzymes encased within\\u000a a multiprotein shell that is somewhat reminiscent of a viral capsid. Recent investigations suggest that polyhedral organelles\\u000a are widely used by bacteria for optimizing metabolic processes. The distribution and diversity of these unique structures\\u000a has been underestimated because many are not formed during growth on standard

Thomas A. Bobik

2006-01-01

18

Image and Video Processing for Affective Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent advances in the research area of affective computing have broadened the range of application areas of its findings,\\u000a and additionally, as the state of the art advances in affective computing, other related research areas (computer vision,\\u000a pattern recognition, etc.) discover new challenges that are related to image and video processing related to the task of automatic\\u000a affective analysis. Although

Maja Pantic; George Caridakis

19

Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?  

PubMed

A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research. PMID:23163422

Pavlenko, Aneta

2012-01-01

20

MOLECULAR PROCESSES IN CELLULAR ARSENIC METABOLISM  

EPA Science Inventory

Elucidating molecular processes that underlie accumulation, metabolism, and binding of iAs and its methylated metabolites provides a basis for understanding the modes of action by which iAs acts as a toxin and a carcinogen. One approach to this problem is to construct a conceptu...

21

Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.  

PubMed

The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency-the subjective experience of ease of information processing-plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state-pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency. PMID:23614378

Holman, Andrei

2013-04-24

22

Cognitive and Affective Processes Underlying Career Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Aligning social identity and career identity has become increasingly complex due to growth in the pursuit of meaningful careers that offer very long-term personal satisfaction and stability. This paper aims to explore the complex cognitive and affective thought process involved in the conscious planning of voluntary career change.…

Muja, Naser; Appelbaum, Steven H.

2012-01-01

23

Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects.

CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

2012-01-01

24

Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

Campeau, Serge; Liberzon, Israel; Morilak, David; Ressler, Kerry

2011-07-26

25

Impact of chronic hypercortisolemia on affective processing.  

PubMed

Cushing syndrome (CS) is the classic condition of cortisol dysregulation, and cortisol dysregulation is the prototypic finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that subjects with active CS would show dysfunction in frontal and limbic structures relevant to affective networks, and also manifest poorer facial affect identification accuracy, a finding reported in MDD. Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent and 1 ACTH-independent) were compared to 21 healthy control subjects. Identification of affective facial expressions (Facial Emotion Perception Test) was conducted in a 3 Tesla GE fMRI scanner using BOLD fMRI signal. The impact of disease (illness duration, current hormone elevation and degree of disruption of circadian rhythm), performance, and comorbid conditions secondary to hypercortisolemia were evaluated. CS patients made more errors in categorizing facial expressions and had less activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region important in emotion processing. CS patients showed higher activation in frontal, medial, and subcortical regions relative to controls. Two regions of elevated activation in CS, left middle frontal and lateral posterior/pulvinar areas, were positively correlated with accuracy in emotion identification in the CS group, reflecting compensatory recruitment. In addition, within the CS group, greater activation in left dorsal anterior cingulate was related to greater severity of hormone dysregulation. In conclusion, cortisol dysregulation in CS patients is associated with problems in accuracy of affective discrimination and altered activation of brain structures relevant to emotion perception, processing and regulation, similar to the performance decrements and brain regions shown to be dysfunctional in MDD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21787793

Langenecker, Scott A; Weisenbach, Sara L; Giordani, Bruno; Briceńo, Emily M; Guidotti Breting, Leslie M; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Leon, Hadia M; Noll, Douglas C; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Schteingart, David E; Starkman, Monica N

2011-07-23

26

Impact of Chronic Hypercortisolemia on Affective Processing  

PubMed Central

Cushing syndrome (CS) is the classic condition of cortisol dysregulation, and cortisol dysregulation is the prototypic finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that subjects with active CS would show dysfunction in frontal and limbic structures relevant to affective networks, and also manifest poorer facial affect identification accuracy, a finding reported in MDD.Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent and 1 ACTH-independent) were compared to 21 healthy controlsubjects. Identification of affective facial expressions (Facial Emotion Perception Test) was conducted in a 3 Tesla GE fMRI scanner using BOLD fMRI signal. The impact of disease (illness duration, current hormone elevation and degree of disruption of circadian rhythm), performance, and comorbid conditions secondary to hypercortisolemia were evaluated.CS patients made more errors in categorizing facial expressions and had less activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region important in emotion processing. CS patients showed higher activation in frontal, medial, and subcortical regions relative to controls. Two regions of elevated activation in CS, left middle frontal and lateral posterior/pulvinar areas, were positively correlated with accuracy in emotion identification in the CS group, reflecting compensatory recruitment. In addition, within the CSgroup, greater activation in left dorsal anterior cingulatewas related to greater severity of hormone dysregulation. In conclusion, cortisol dysregulation in CS patients is associated with problems in accuracy of affective discrimination and altered activation of brain structures relevant to emotion perception, processing and regulation, similar to the performance decrements and brain regions shown to be dysfunctional in MDD.

Langenecker, Scott A.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Giordani, Bruno; Briceno, Emily M.; GuidottiBreting, Leslie M.; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Leon, Hadia M.; Noll, Douglas C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Schteingart, David E.; Starkman, Monica N.

2011-01-01

27

Leptin expression affects metabolic rate in zebrafish embryos (D. rerio)  

PubMed Central

We used antisense morpholino oligonucleotide technology to knockdown leptin-(A) gene expression in developing zebrafish embryos and measured its effects on metabolic rate and cardiovascular function. Using two indicators of metabolic rate, oxygen consumption was significantly lower in leptin morphants early in development [<48 hours post-fertilization (hpf)], while acid production was significantly lower in morphants later in development (>48 hpf). Oxygen utilization rates in <48 hpf embryos and acid production in 72 hpf embryos could be rescued to that of wildtype embryos by recombinant leptin coinjected with antisense morpholino. Leptin is established to influence metabolic rate in mammals, and these data suggest leptin signaling also influences metabolic rate in fishes.

Dalman, Mark R.; Liu, Qin; King, Mason D.; Bagatto, Brian; Londraville, Richard L.

2013-01-01

28

Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch.  

PubMed

Despite the crucial role of touch in social development, there is very little functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on brain mechanisms underlying social touch processing. The "skin as a social organ" hypothesis is supported by the discovery of C-tactile (CT) nerves that are present in hairy skin and project to the insular cortex. CT-fibers respond specifically well to slow, gentle touch such as that which occurs during close social interactions. Given the social significance of such touch researchers have proposed that the CT-system represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism important for normative social development. However, it is currently unknown whether brain regions other than the insula are involved in processing CT-targeted touch. In the current fMRI study, we sought to characterize the brain regions involved in the perception of CT-supported affective touch. Twenty-two healthy adults received manual brush strokes to either the arm or palm. A direct contrast of the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to gentle brushing of the arm and palm revealed the involvement of a network of brain regions, in addition to the posterior insula, during CT-targeted affective touch to the arm. This network included areas known to be involved in social perception and social cognition, including the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/dorso anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Connectivity analyses with an mPFC/dACC seed revealed coactivation with the left insula and amygdala during arm touch. These findings characterize a network of brain regions beyond the insula involved in coding CT-targeted affective touch. PMID:22125232

Gordon, Ilanit; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

2011-11-29

29

Resistin affects lipid metabolism during adipocyte maturation of 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Resistin, an adipose-tissue-specific secretory factor, aggravates metabolic syndrome through impairment of glucose metabolism. Previously, we demonstrated that resistin expression was induced in both 3T3-L1 cells and primary pre-adipocytes derived from Zucker obese rats during the process of differentiation and maturation (Ikeda Y, Hama S, Kajimoto K, Okuno T, Tsuchiya H & Kogure K (2011) Biol Pharm Bull 34, 865-870). However, the biological function of resistin in adipocytes is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of resistin knockdown on the biological features of 3T3-L1 cells. We found that lipid content was significantly decreased in 3T3-L1 cells transfected with anti-resistin small interfering RNA (siRNA) after adipocyte differentiation. While expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? was not affected, protein expression and transcriptional activity levels of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), which upregulates transcription of lipogenic genes, decreased after anti-resistin siRNA treatment. Moreover, gene expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, which are known to be regulated by ChREBP, were also suppressed by resistin knockdown. In contrast, activity of the fatty acid ?-oxidation-regulating protein carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 increased. These results suggest that resistin knockdown induces suppression of lipid production and activation of fatty acid ?-oxidation. Consequently, resistin may affect lipid metabolism during adipocyte maturation. PMID:24034627

Ikeda, Yoshito; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hama, Susumu; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Kogure, Kentaro

2013-09-25

30

Opioid use affects antioxidant activity and purine metabolism: preliminary results†,‡  

PubMed Central

Objective More must be learned about metabolic and biochemical alterations that contribute to the development and expression of drug dependence. Experimental opioid administration influences mechanisms and indices of oxidative stress, such as antioxidant compounds and purine metabolism. We examined perturbations of neurotransmitter-related pathways in opioid dependence (OD). Methods In this preliminary study, we used a targeted metabolomics platform to explore whether biochemical changes were associated with OD by comparing OD individuals (n = 14) and non-drug users (n = 10). Results OD patients undergoing short-term methadone detoxification showed altered oxidation–reduction activity, as confirmed by higher plasma levels of ?- and ?- tocopherol and increased GSH/GSSG ratio. OD individuals had also altered purine metabolism, showing increased concentration of guanine and xanthosine, with decreased guanosine, hypoxanthine and hypoxanthine/xanthine and xanthine/xanthosine ratios. Other drug use in addition to opioids was associated with partly different biochemical changes. Conclusions This is a preliminary investigation using metabolomics and showing multiple peripheral alterations of metabolic pathways in OD. Further studies should explore the metabolic profile of conditions of opioid abuse, withdrawal and long-term abstinence in relation to agonist and antagonist treatment and investigate biochemical signatures of opioid substances and medications.

Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin; Rozen, Steve; Matson, Wayne; Krishnan, Ranga; Kaddurah- Daouk, Rima

2011-01-01

31

Selective defoliation affects plant growth, fruit transcriptional ripening program and flavonoid metabolism in grapevine  

PubMed Central

Background The selective removal of grapevine leaves around berry clusters can improve the quality of ripening fruits by influencing parameters such as the berry sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. The outcome depends strongly on the timing of defoliation, which influences the source–sink balance and the modified microclimate surrounding the berries. We removed the basal leaves from Vitis vinifera L. cv Sangiovese shoots at the pre-bloom and veraison stages, and investigated responses such as shoot growth, fruit morphology and composition compared to untreated controls. Moreover, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis to explore the impact of these defoliation treatments on berry transcriptome. Results We found that pre-bloom defoliation improved berry quality traits such as sugar and anthocyanin content, whereas defoliation at veraison had a detrimental effect, e.g. less anthocyanin and higher incidence of sunburn damage. Genome-wide expression analysis during berry ripening revealed that defoliation at either stage resulted in major transcriptome reprogramming, which slightly delayed the onset of ripening. However, a closer investigation of individual gene expression profiles identified genes that were specifically modulated by defoliation at each stage, reflecting the uncoupling of metabolic processes such as flavonoid biosynthesis, cell wall and stress metabolism, from the general ripening program. Conclusions The specific transcriptional modifications we observed following defoliation at different time points allow the identification of the developmental or metabolic processes affected in berries thus deepening the knowledge of the mechanisms by which these agronomical practices impact the final berry ripening traits.

2013-01-01

32

Transcriptional regulation of metabolic processes: implications for cardiac metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under normal conditions the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose covers, respectively, approximately 65% and 30% of the energy\\u000a demand of the beating heart. Evidence is accumulating that various pathophysiological conditions are associated with overt\\u000a changes in cardiac energy metabolism. For instance, in diabetes cardiac energy conversion relies even more on fatty acid than\\u000a on glucose oxidation. In contrast, during

Marc van Bilsen; Ger J. van der Vusse; Robert S. Reneman

1998-01-01

33

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Elsas LJ II. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . ...

34

Osmoregulatory processes and skeletal muscle metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prolonged microgravity during space flight is associated with a decrease in blood and extracellular volume. These changes in water and electrolyte balance might activate catabolic processes which contribute finally to the loss of muscle and bone mass and strength. Recently, we found a prompt increase that energy expenditure by about 30% in both normal and overweight men and women after drinking 500 ml water. This effect is mediated by an increased sympathetic nervous system activity, obviously secondary to stimulation of osmosensitive afferent neurons in the liver, and skeletal muscle is possibly one effector organ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this thermogenic response to water is accompanied by a stimulation of aerobic glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. To this end, 16 young healthy volunteers (8 men) were studied. After an overnight fast (12h), a microdialysis probe was implanted into the right M. quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution (+50 mM ethanol). After 1h, volunteers were asked to drink 500 ml water (22° C) followed by continuing microdialysis for another 90 min. Dialysates (15 min fractions) were analyzed for [ethanol], [glucose], [lactate], [pyruvate], and [glycerol] in order to assess changes in muscle tissue perfusion (ethanol dilution technique), glycolysis and lipolysis. Blood samples were taken and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Neither HR and systolic and diastolic BP, nor plasma [glucose], [lactate], [insulin], and [C peptide] changed significantly after water drinking. Also, tissue perfusion and dialysate [glucose] did not change significantly. However, dialysate [lactate] increased by about 10 and 20% and dialysate [pyruvate] by about 100 and 200% in men and women, respectively. In contrast, dialysate [glycerol] decreased by about 30 and 20% in men and women, respectively. Therefore, drinking of 500 ml water stimulates aerobic glucose metabolism and inhibits lipolysis in skeletal muscle and this to a greater extent in women than men. These insulin-like effects after water drinking originate possibly from regulatory cell volume swelling in osmosensitive organs such as muscle. Therefore, a well-balanced water homeostasis might be important for preventing catabolic processes during long-term space expeditions.

Boschmann, Michael; Gottschalk, Simone; Adams, Frauke; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

35

Does Rimonabant Independently Affect Free Fatty Acid and Glucose Metabolism?  

PubMed Central

Context: Endocannabinoid receptor 1 blockade is proposed to improve metabolic complications of obesity via central and peripheral effects. Objective: Our objective was to test whether rimonabant improves insulin regulation of free fatty acid and glucose metabolism after controlling for fat loss. Design: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled substudy of the visceral fat reduction assessed by computed tomography scan on rimonabant (VICTORIA) trial. Participants and Setting: Sixty-seven abdominally obese, metabolic syndrome volunteers age 35–70 yr participated at academic medical center general clinical research centers. Intervention: Intervention included a 12-month lifestyle weight management program plus rimonabant 20 mg/d or placebo. Main Outcome Measures: Body composition and two-step euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp before and after intervention were performed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed as insulin concentration needed to suppress by 50% palmitate concentration [IC50(palmitate)], flux [IC50(palmitatef], and hepatic glucose output [IC50(HGO)] and as insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (? glucose disappearance per ? insulin concentration ? glucose slope). Results: Body fat decreased by 4.5 ± 2.9% (SD) in the rimonabant and 1.9 ± 4.5% in the placebo group (P < 0.005). The primary [improvement in IC50(palmitate) and IC50(palmitate)f] and secondary [improvement in IC50(HGO) and glucose slope] outcomes were not significantly different between the rimonabant and placebo groups. Post hoc analyses revealed that 1) changes in body mass index (BMI) and IC50(palmitate) were correlated (P = 0.005) in the rimonabant group; this relationship was not significantly different from placebo when controlling for greater BMI loss (P = 0.5); 2) insulin-regulated glucose disposal improved in both groups (P = 0.002) and correlated with changes in BMI. Conclusions: Improvements observed in insulin regulation of free fatty acid and glucose metabolism with rimonabant treatment in humans was not greater than that predicted by weight loss alone.

Triay, Jessica; Mundi, Manpreet; Klein, Samuel; Toledo, Frederico G.; Smith, Steven R.; Abu-Lebdeh, Haitham

2012-01-01

36

Growth and Metabolism of Senna as Affected by Salt Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot culture experiments were conducted using different NaCl concentrations to assess their impact on the growth and metabolic changes in senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.). Five treatments (0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mM NaCl) were given to the plants at three phenological stages, i.e. at pre-flowering, (45 days after sowing, DAS); flowering (75 DAS) and post-flowering (90 DAS) stages. A

A. Arshi; M. Z. Abdin; M. Iqbal

2002-01-01

37

Fusion and metabolism of plant cells as affected by microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Plant cell protoplasts derived from leaf tissue of two different tobacco species (Nicotiana tabacum L., N. rustica L.) were exposed to short-term (sounding rocket experiments) and long-term (spacelab) microgravity environments in order\\u000a to study both (electro) cell fusion and cell metabolism during early and later stages of tissue regeneration. The period of\\u000a exposure to microgravity varied from 10?min (sounding

Rüdiger Hampp; Ellen Hoffmann; Kristina Schönherr; Patrick Johann; Luigi De Filippis

1997-01-01

38

DAF-2 pathway mutations and food restriction in aging Caenorhabditis elegans differentially affect metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Caenorhabditis elegans, metabolism and life expectancy respond to environmental cues of food availability and temperature. Several genes act in a neuroendocrine, DAF-2, insulin\\/IGF-1 receptor-like pathway in which reduced signaling affects metabolism and increases longevity. Here we describe the effect of reduced DAF-2 signaling on several parameters of metabolism including rates of oxygen consumption and heat output, the calorimetric\\/respirometric ratio,

Koen Houthoofd; Bart P. Braeckman; Isabelle Lenaerts; Kristel Brys; Filip Matthijssens; Annemie De Vreese; Sylvie Van Eygen; Jacques R. Vanfleteren

2005-01-01

39

Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed Central

The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15 degrees C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction.

Madsen, E L; Francis, A J; Bollag, J M

1988-01-01

40

Microbial adaptation to metabolic processes in permafrost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation of a viable microbial community in permafrost for geological times at temperatures between (-7)-(-12) ? C in Arctic tundra and (-20)-(-27) ? C in Antarctic deserts raises the significant possibility of metabolic reactions at these conditions. The most sensitive method is measuring metabolic activity with 14 C labeled substrates. We represent the results of methane formation and methane

E. Rivkina; K. Laurinavichus; V. Shcherbakova; V. Khmelenina; Y. Trotsenko

2002-01-01

41

Infiltration Process in Fire-affected Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-wildfire infiltration is not well understood, which limits the ability to predict post-wildfire runoff. The time-to-start of runoff, soil-water content, rainfall intensity, and infiltration rates were measured on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire west of Boulder, Colorado during rainstorms in 2011. A 1-D numerical model of infiltration was calibrated and evaluated using these data and measured soil physical properties to provide insight into the post-wildfire infiltration process. Field saturated, vertical-hydraulic conductivity, Ks predicted by the model ranged from 0.1 to 10 mm/h, and only a shallow layer of soil of thickness, hw (the upper 10-20 mm) controlled runoff generation. Time-to-start of runoff, tp, was sensitive to the initial soil-water content at the start of rainfall, but tp did not correlate with initial soil-water content for all rainstorms. It was hypothesized that the shape of the rainfall profile affected tp. A simple analytical model was developed to predict tp by incorporating the soil saturation deficit (saturated soil-water content minus initial soil-water content) and a rainfall metric that estimates the initial rate of increase in the rainfall intensity. This model of tp explained about 92% of the variance of tp, and predicted values of tp that were nearly identical to observed values. These results strongly suggest that tp in burned soils, with low values of Ks, is probably controlled more by the rainstorm profile and the initial soil saturation deficit than by Ks.

Moody, John; Ebel, Brian

2013-04-01

42

Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL

Lisa Mosconi; Wai Tsui; John Murray; Pauline McHugh; Yi Li; Schantel Williams; Elizabeth Pirraglia; Lidia Glodzik; Susan De Santi; Shankar Vallabhajosula; Mony J. de Leon

43

Perception of Auditory Motion Affects Language Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous reports have demonstrated that the comprehension of sentences describing motion in a particular direction (toward, away, up, or down) is affected by concurrently viewing a stimulus that depicts motion in the same or opposite direction. We report 3 experiments that extend our understanding of the relation between perception and language…

Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Aveyard, Mark; Yaxley, Richard H.

2006-01-01

44

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex  

PubMed Central

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees.

Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd.-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd.-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

2012-01-01

45

Zinc uptake by rice, as affected by metabolic inhibitors and competing cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Absorption of Zn by 14-day-old intact rice seedlings was studied in short-term uptake experiments. Severe retardation of Zn absorption by various metabolic inhibitors indicated that an active process prevails at Zn concentrations often found in soil solutions. Several cultivars all showed similar sensitivity to the metabolic inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DPN).

P. M. Giordano; J C Noggle; J. J. Mortvedt

1974-01-01

46

Sound Affects the Speed of Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the effects of a task-irrelevant sound on visual processing. Participants were presented with revolving clocks at or around central fixation and reported the hand position of a target clock at the time an exogenous cue (1 clock turning red) or an endogenous cue (a line pointing toward 1 of the clocks) was presented. A…

Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

2011-01-01

47

Sound Affects the Speed of Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examined the effects of a task-irrelevant sound on visual processing. Participants were presented with revolving clocks at or around central fixation and reported the hand position of a target clock at the time an exogenous cue (1 clock turning red) or an endogenous cue (a line pointing toward 1 of the clocks) was presented. A…

Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

2011-01-01

48

Brain glucose metabolism in anorexia nervosa and affective disorders: influence of weight loss or depressive symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between eating and affective disorders remain complex and unclear. Brain glucose metabolism of anorectic patients has been demonstrated to be reduced both globally and regionally, with a particular relative hypometabolism in the parietal cortex. To explore the possible influence of weight loss or depressive symptomatology on brain metabolism, we studied age- and sex-matched low-weight anorectic and depressed patients, normal-weight

Véronique Delvenne; Serge Goldman; Viviane De Maertelaer; David Wikler; Philippe Damhaut; Françoise Lotstra

1997-01-01

49

The glycaemic index values of foods containing fructose are affected by metabolic differences between subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Glycaemic responses are influenced by carbohydrate absorption rate, type of monosaccharide absorbed and the presence of fat; the effect of some of these factors may be modulated by metabolic differences between subjects. We hypothesized that glycaemic index (GI) values are affected by the metabolic differences between subjects for foods containing fructose or fat, but not for starchy foods.Subjects\\/Methods:The GI values

T M S Wolever; A L Jenkins; V Vuksan; J Campbell; TMS Wolever

2009-01-01

50

Herbicide-affected plant metabolism reduces virus propagation.  

PubMed

It has been previously shown that certain herbicides or plant extracts inhibited the viral infection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) infection and herbicide or plant extract treatments on the photosynthetic processes of the host plants to get informations about the interactions of these factors. In Capsicum annuum-ObPV host-virus relations the virus infection slightly increased the activity of photosystem II (PSII), as it was supposed from fluorescence induction parameters. Chlorophyll content of leaves was also elevated probably due to virus-induced growth inhibition. The herbicide Stomp (active ingredient: pendimethalin) incorporated into the soil one week before planting (preplant treatment) together with virus infection even strengthened these effects in agreement with previous observations that this herbicide always did not prevent virus infection or reduce virus concentration in hosts. In ObPV-infected Nicotiana tabacum the structural changes showed similar tendency like in ObPV-infected C. annuum, but PSII efficiency did not significantly differ from that of the control. However, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased because of the strongly decreasing CO2 fixation activity. Though simultaneous application of a water extract of Cirsium arvense shoot caused a little stronger inhibition of CO2 fixation, little loss in production was obtained due to significant reduction in virus concentration. In Solanum nigrum-ObPV relation the slightly increasing tendency of the values of actual PSII quantum efficiency could be related to the probably elevated ratio of reaction centre components (increased chlorophyll a/b ratio) in the thylakoids. Application of the herbicide Fusilade S (active ingredient: fluazifop-P-butyl) at 4-6 leaf stage as a post-emergence treatment practically prevented systemic virus infection and the virus-induced changes of photosynthesis are probably due to inhibiting the virus infection/replication process. PMID:17139793

Kazinczi, Gabriella; Gáspár, László; Nyitrai, Péter; Gáborjányi, Richard; Sárvári, Eva; Takács, András; Horváth, József

51

Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

Nesbitt, H. W.; Bricker, O. P.

1978-01-01

52

How object shape affects visual metaphor processing.  

PubMed

In order to interpret novel metaphoric relations, we have to construct ad hoc categories under which the metaphorically related concepts can be subsumed. Shape is considered to be one of the primary vehicles of object categorization. Accordingly, shape might play a prominent role in interpreting visual metaphors (i.e., two metaphorically related objects depicted in one visual array). This study explores the role of object shape in visual metaphor interpretation of 10- to 12-year-olds. The experiment shows that participants can produce more correspondences between similarly shaped objects as compared to dissimilarly shaped objects and that they need less thinking time to do so. These findings suggest that similarity in shape facilitates the process of interpreting visual metaphors. PMID:22851379

van Weelden, Lisanne; Maes, Alfons; Schilperoord, Joost; Swerts, Marc

2012-01-01

53

Guidelines for affective signal processing (ASP): From lab to life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the rationale behind ACII2009's special session: Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life. Although affect is embraced by both science and engineering, its recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of ASP and the automatic classification of affect, we provide understanding for the problems encountered. Next, we identify guidelines for

Egon L. van den Broek; Joris H. Janssen; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; J. Cohn; A. Nijholt; M. Pantic

2009-01-01

54

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits.

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jerome; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

55

Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

1998-12-31

56

Affective Priming During the Processing of News Articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the role of affective priming during the processing of news articles. It is assumed that the valence of the affective response to a news article will influence the processing of subsequent news articles. More specifically, it is hypothesized that participants who read a positive article will recall subsequent positive information better than negative information. Similarly, participants

Susanne E. Baumgartner; Werner Wirth

2012-01-01

57

Identifying differences in biased affective information processing in major depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the extent to which participants with major depression differ from healthy comparison participants in the irregularities in affective information processing, characterized by deficits in facial expression recognition, intensity categorization, and reaction time to identifying emotionally salient and neutral information. Data on diagnoses, symptom severity, and affective information processing using a facial recognition task were collected from 66

Jackie K. Gollan; Heather T. Pane; Michael S. McCloskey; Emil F. Coccaro

2008-01-01

58

Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

2011-02-01

59

Inorganic nutrient availability affects organic matter fluxes and metabolic activity in the soft coral genus Xenia.  

PubMed

The release of organic matter (OM) by scleractinian corals represents a key physiological process that importantly contributes to coral reef ecosystem functioning, and is affected by inorganic nutrient availability. Although OM fluxes have been studied for several dominant reef taxa, no information is available for soft corals, one of the major benthic groups in tropical reef environments. Thus, this study investigates OM fluxes along with other key physiological parameters (i.e. photosynthesis, respiration and chlorophyll a tissue content) in the common soft coral genus Xenia after a 4-week exposure period to elevated ammonium (N; 20.0 ?mol l(-1)), phosphate (P; 2.0 ?mol l(-1)) and combined inorganic nutrient enrichment treatment (N+P). Corals maintained without nutrient enrichment served as non-treated controls and revealed constant uptake rates for particulate organic carbon (POC) (-0.315±0.161 mg POC m(-2) coral surface area h(-1)), particulate nitrogen (PN) (-0.053±0.018 mg PN m(-2) h(-1)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (-4.8±2.1 mg DOC m(-2) h(-1)). Although DOC uptake significantly increased in the N treatment, POC flux was not affected. The P treatment significantly enhanced PN release as well as photosynthesis and respiration rates, suggesting that autotrophic carbon acquisition of zooxanthellae endosymbionts influences OM fluxes by the coral host. Our physiological findings confirm the significant effect of inorganic nutrient availability on OM fluxes and key metabolic processes for the soft coral Xenia, and provide the first clues on OM cycles initiated by soft corals in reef environments exposed to ambient and elevated inorganic nutrient concentrations. PMID:22811248

Bednarz, Vanessa N; Naumann, Malik S; Niggl, Wolfgang; Wild, Christian

2012-07-18

60

How does surface life affect interior geological processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does surface life affect interior geological processes? We propose that biologically-mediated processes operating on the surface of the Earth need to be incorporated into our understanding of the geological evolution of the Earth. We argue that biotic effects may penetrate the lithosphere and be responsible for altering the dynamics of mantle convection. Geological processes have played a fundamental role

James Dyke; Fabian Gans; Axel Kleidon

2010-01-01

61

Articulation of three core metabolic processes in Arabidopsis: Fatty acid biosynthesis, leucine catabolism and starch metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Elucidating metabolic network structures and functions in multicellular organisms is an emerging goal of functional genomics. We describe the co-expression network of three core metabolic processes in the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana: fatty acid biosynthesis, starch metabolism and amino acid (leucine) catabolism. Results These co-expression networks form modules populated by genes coding for enzymes that represent the reactions generally considered to define each pathway. However, the modules also incorporate a wider set of genes that encode transporters, cofactor biosynthetic enzymes, precursor-producing enzymes, and regulatory molecules. We tested experimentally the hypothesis that one of the genes tightly co-expressed with starch metabolism module, a putative kinase AtPERK10, will have a role in this process. Indeed, knockout lines of AtPERK10 have an altered starch accumulation. In addition, the co-expression data define a novel hierarchical transcript-level structure associated with catabolism, in which genes performing smaller, more specific tasks appear to be recruited into higher-order modules with a broader catabolic function. Conclusion Each of these core metabolic pathways is structured as a module of co-expressed transcripts that co-accumulate over a wide range of environmental and genetic perturbations and developmental stages, and represent an expanded set of macromolecules associated with the common task of supporting the functionality of each metabolic pathway. As experimentally demonstrated, co-expression analysis can provide a rich approach towards understanding gene function.

Mentzen, Wieslawa I; Peng, Jianling; Ransom, Nick; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

2008-01-01

62

Food-seeking drive, affective process, and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is a study of the theoretical implications of the writer's experiments upon food acceptance and the relation of this work to current views concerning food-seeking drive, affective process, and learning.\\

Paul Thomas Young

1949-01-01

63

Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through an elevated polyamine turnover. Dietary lysine was held at a constant concentration, just below the requirement. All other amino acids were balanced and equal in the diets. Arginine supplementation increased protein and fat accretion, without affecting the hepatosomatic or visceralsomatic indices. Dietary arginine correlated with putrescine in the liver (R 0·78, P= 0·01) and with ornithine in the muscle, liver and plasma (P= 0·0002, 0·003 and 0·0002, respectively). The mRNA of ornithine decarboxylase, the enzyme producing putrescine, was up-regulated in the white adipose tissue of fish fed the high-arginine inclusion compared with those fed the low-arginine diet. Concomitantly, spermidine/spermine-(N1)-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine turnover that consumes acetyl-CoA, showed an increased activity in the liver of fish fed the arginine-supplemented diets. In addition, lower acetyl-CoA concentrations were observed in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet, while ATP, which is used in the process of synthesising spermidine and spermine, did not show a similar trend. Gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for ?-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was up-regulated in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet. Taken together, the data support that increased dietary arginine activates polyamine turnover and ?-oxidation in the liver of juvenile Atlantic salmon and may act to improve the metabolic status of the fish. PMID:23656796

Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rřnnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

2013-05-01

64

Multi-scale interactions affecting transport, storage, and processing of solutes and sediments in stream corridors (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface water and groundwater flow interact with the channel geomorphology and sediments in ways that determine how material is transported, stored, and transformed in stream corridors. Solute and sediment transport affect important ecological processes such as carbon and nutrient dynamics and stream metabolism, processes that are fundamental to stream health and function. Many individual mechanisms of transport and storage of

J. W. Harvey; A. I. Packman

2010-01-01

65

Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Co-Metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated solvent wastes (e.g., trichloroethene or TCE) often occur as diffuse subsurface plumes in complex geological environments where coupled processes must be understood in order to implement remediation strategies. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) warrants study as a remediation technology because it minimizes worker and environment exposure to the wastes and because it costs less than other technologies. However, to be accepted MNA requires different ?lines of evidence? indicating that the wastes are effectively destroyed. We are studying the coupled biogeochemical processes that dictate the rate of TCE co-metabolism first in the medial zone (TCE concentration: 1,000 to 20,000 ?g/L) of a plume at the Idaho National Laboratory?s Test Area North (TAN) site and then at Paducah or the Savannah River Site. We will use flow-through in situ reactors (FTISR) to investigate the rate of methanotrophic co-metabolism of TCE and the coupling of the responsible biological processes with the dissolved methane flux and groundwater flow velocity. TCE co-metabolic rates at TAN are being assessed and interpreted in the context of enzyme activity, gene expression, and cellular inactivation related to intermediates of TCE co-metabolism. By determining the rate of TCE co-metabolism at different groundwater flow velocities, we will derive key modeling parameters for the computational simulations that describe the attenuation, and thereby refine such models while assessing the contribution of microbial co-metabolism relative to other natural attenuation processes. This research will strengthen our ability to forecast the viability of MNA at DOE and other sites contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Rick Colwell; Corey Radtke; Mark Delwiche; Deborah Newby; Lynn Petzke; Mark Conrad; Eoin Brodie; Hope Lee; Bob Starr; Dana Dettmers; Ron Crawford; Andrzej Paszczynski; Nick Bernardini; Ravi Paidisetti; Tonia Green

2006-06-01

66

Uncinate Process Length in Birds Scales with Resting Metabolic Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum.

Peter Tickle; Robert Nudds; Jonathan Codd; Alejandro Lucia

2009-01-01

67

Temperature-induced elevation of basal metabolic rate does not affect testis growth in great tits.  

PubMed

The timing of reproduction varies from year to year in many bird species. To adjust their timing to the prevailing conditions of that year, birds use cues from their environment. However, the relative importance of these cues, such as the initial predictive (e.g. photoperiod) and the supplemental factors (e.g. temperature), on the seasonal sexual development are difficult to distinguish. In particular, the fine-tuning effect of temperature on gonadal growth is not well known. One way temperature may affect timing is via its strong effect on energy expenditure as gonadal growth is an energy-demanding process. To study the interaction of photoperiod and temperature on gonadal development, we first exposed 35 individually housed male great tits (Parus major) to mid-long days (after 6 weeks of 8 h L:16 h D at 15 degrees C, photoperiod was set to 13 h L:11 h D at 15 degrees C). Two weeks later, for half of the males the temperature was set to 8 degrees C, and for the other half to 22 degrees C. Unilateral laparotomies were performed at weeks 5 (i.e one week before the birds were transferred to mid-long days), 8 and 11 to measure testis size. Two measures of basal metabolic rate (BMR) were performed at the end of the experiment (weeks 11 and 12). Testis size increased significantly during the course of the experiment, but independently of the temperature treatment. BMR was significantly higher in birds exposed to the cold treatment. These results show that temperature-related elevation of BMR did not impair the long-day-induced testis growth in great tits. As a consequence, temperature may not be a crucial cue and/or constraint factor in the fine-tuning of the gonadal recrudescence in male great tits, and testis growth is not a high energy-demanding seasonal process. PMID:19525424

Caro, Samuel P; Visser, Marcel E

2009-07-01

68

How do heavy ions affect plasma entry and transport processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent ion composition measurements near the magnetopause have shown that heavy ionospheric ions can dominate the mass density as much as 30 percent of the time. Magnetopause transport processes, such as reconnection, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and kinetic-scale Alfvenic fluctuations, can all be significantly affected by the presence of heavy ions. We examine these processes using MHD, multifluid, and hybrid simulations. Heavy

S. A. Lazerson; J. Johnson; P. A. Delamere; A. Otto; Y. Lin; S. Wing; E. Kim

2010-01-01

69

Transcobalamin 776C3G polymorphism negatively affects vitamin B12 metabolism1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A common genetic polymorphism (transcobalamin (TC) 776C3G) may affect the function of transcobalamin, the pro- tein required for vitamin B-12 cellular uptake and metabolism. Re- methylation of homocysteine is dependent on the production of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and adequate vitamin B-12 for the methi- onine synthase reaction. Objectives: The objectives were to assess the influence of the TC 776C3 G polymorphism

Kristina M von Castel-Dunwoody; Karla P Shelnutt; Jaimie D Vaughn; Elizabeth R Griffin; David R Maneval; Douglas W Theriaque; Lynn B Bailey

70

Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Co-Metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated solvent wastes (e.g., trichloroethene or TCE) often occur as diffuse subsurface plumes in complex geological environments where coupled processes must be understood in order to implement remediation strategies. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) warrants study as a remediation technology because it minimizes worker and environment exposure to the wastes and because it costs less than other technologies. However, to be accepted MNA requires 'lines of evidence' indicating that the wastes are effectively destroyed. Our research will study the coupled biogeochemical processes that dictate the rate of TCE co-metabolism in contaminated aquifers first at the Idaho National Laboratory and then at Paducah or the Savannah River Site, where natural attenuation of TCE is occurring. We will use flow-through in situ reactors to investigate the rate of methanotrophic co-metabolism of TCE and the coupling of the responsible biological processes with the dissolved methane flux and groundwater flow velocity. We will use new approaches (e.g., stable isotope probing, enzyme activity probes, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, proteomics) to assay the TCE co-metabolic rates, and interpret these rates in the context of enzyme activity, gene expression, and cellular inactivation related to intermediates of TCE co-metabolism. By determining the rate of TCE co-metabolism at different methane concentrations and groundwater flow velocities, we will derive key modeling parameters for the computational simulations that describe the attenuation, and thereby refine such models while assessing the contribution of microbial relative to other natural attenuation processes. This research will strengthen our ability to forecast the viability of MNA at DOE and other sites that are contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Colwell, Frederick; Radtke, Corey; Newby, Deborah; Delwiche, Mark; Crawf, Ronald L.; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Strap, Janice; Conrad, Mark; Brodic, Eoin; Starr, Robert; Lee, Hope

2006-04-05

71

Diet quality does not affect resting metabolic rate or body temperatures selected by an herbivorous lizard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet quality can influence many aspects of digestion, but the links between diet quality and resting metabolism are poorly\\u000a understood. In nature, it might be beneficial to reduce energy expenditure when only poor quality diets are available. Alternatively,\\u000a animals might increase the processing capacity of the gut to more thoroughly extract energy. If maintaining the processing\\u000a capacity of the gut

K. E. Nussear; R. E. Espinoza; C. M. Gubbins; K. J. Field; J. P. Hayes

1998-01-01

72

Relationship between auditory processing and affective prosody in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Patients with schizophrenia have well-established deficits in their ability to identify emotion from facial expression and tone of voice. In the visual modality, there is strong evidence that basic processing deficits contribute to impaired facial affect recognition in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined the auditory modality for mechanisms underlying affective prosody identification. In this study, we explored links between different stages of auditory processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs), and affective prosody detection in schizophrenia. Thirty-six schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy control subjects received tasks of affective prosody, facial emotion identification, and tone matching, as well as two auditory oddball paradigms, one passive for mismatch negativity (MMN) and one active for P300. Patients had significantly reduced MMN and P300 amplitudes, impaired auditory and visual emotion recognition, and poorer tone matching performance, relative to healthy controls. Correlations between ERP and behavioral measures within the patient group revealed significant associations between affective prosody recognition and both MMN and P300 amplitudes. These relationships were modality specific, as MMN and P300 did not correlate with facial emotion recognition. The two ERP waves accounted for 49% of the variance in affective prosody in a regression analysis. Our results support previous suggestions of a relationship between basic auditory processing abnormalities and affective prosody dysfunction in schizophrenia, and indicate that both relatively automatic pre-attentive processes (MMN) and later attention-dependent processes (P300) are involved with accurate auditory emotion identification. These findings provide support for bottom-up (e.g., perceptually based) cognitive remediation approaches. PMID:23276478

Jahshan, Carol; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

2012-12-29

73

Dietary and genetic manipulations of folate metabolism differentially affect neocortical functions in mice.  

PubMed

Converging evidence suggests that folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism may modulate cognitive functioning throughout the lifespan, but few studies have directly tested this hypothesis. This study examined the separate and combined effects of dietary and genetic manipulations of folate metabolism on neocortical functions in mice, modeling a common genetic variant in the MTHFD1 gene in humans. Mutant (Mthfd1(gt/+)) and wildtype (WT) male mice were assigned to a folate sufficient or deficient diet at weaning and continued on these diets throughout testing on a series of visual attention tasks adapted from the 5-choice serial reaction time task. WT mice on a deficient diet exhibited impulsive responding immediately following a change in task parameters that increased demands on attention and impulse control, and on trials following an error. This pattern of findings indicates a heightened affective response to stress and/or an inability to regulate negative emotions. In contrast, Mthfd1(gt/+) mice (regardless of diet) exhibited attentional dysfunction and a blunted affective response to committing an error. The Mthfd1(gt/+) mice also showed significantly decreased expression levels for genes encoding choline dehydrogenase and the alpha 7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor. The effects of the MTHFD1 mutation were less pronounced when combined with a deficient diet, suggesting a compensatory mechanism to the combined genetic and dietary perturbation of folate metabolism. These data demonstrate that common alterations in folate metabolism can produce functionally distinct cognitive and affective changes, and highlight the importance of considering genotype when making dietary folate recommendations. PMID:23684804

Ash, J A; Jiang, X; Malysheva, O V; Fiorenza, C G; Bisogni, A J; Levitsky, D A; Strawderman, M S; Caudill, M A; Stover, P J; Strupp, B J

2013-05-15

74

Genetic modification of iron metabolism in mice affects the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by environmental factors as well as host genetics. Iron is one of the important elements essential for bacterial growth, thus we hypothesized that changes in host iron homeostasis, may affect the luminal iron content of the gut and thereby the composition of intestinal bacteria. The iron regulatory protein 2 (Irp2) and one of the genes mutated in hereditary hemochromatosis Hfe , are both proteins involved in the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. To test our hypothesis, fecal metal content and a selected spectrum of the fecal microbiota were analyzed from Hfe-/-, Irp2-/- and their wild type control mice. Elevated levels of iron as well as other minerals in feces of Irp2-/- mice compared to wild type and Hfe-/- mice were observed. Interestingly significant variation in the general fecal-bacterial population-patterns was observed between Irp2-/- and Hfe-/- mice. Furthermore the relative abundance of five species, mainly lactic acid bacteria, was significantly different among the mouse lines. Lactobacillus (L.) murinus and L. intestinalis were highly abundant in Irp2-/- mice, Enterococcus faecium species cluster and a species most similar to Olsenella were highly abundant in Hfe-/- mice and L. johnsonii was highly abundant in the wild type mice. These results suggest that deletion of iron metabolism genes in the mouse host affects the composition of its intestinal bacteria. Further studying the relationship between gut microbiota and genetic mutations affecting systemic iron metabolism in human should lead to clinical implications. PMID:22580926

Buhnik-Rosenblau, Keren; Moshe-Belizowski, Shirly; Danin-Poleg, Yael; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G

2012-05-13

75

Host-related metabolic cues affect colonization strategies of a root endophyte  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underpinning broad compatibility in root symbiosis are largely unexplored. The generalist root endophyte Piriformospora indica establishes long-lasting interactions with morphologically and biochemically different hosts, stimulating their growth, alleviating salt stress, and inducing local and systemic resistance to pathogens. Cytological studies and global investigations of fungal transcriptional responses to colonization of barley and Arabidopsis at different symbiotic stages identified host-dependent colonization strategies and host-specifically induced effector candidates. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, P. indica establishes and maintains biotrophic nutrition within living epidermal cells, whereas in barley the symbiont undergoes a nutritional switch to saprotrophy that is associated with the production of secondary thinner hyphae in dead cortex cells. Consistent with a diversified trophic behavior and with the occurrence of nitrogen deficiency at the onset of saprotrophy in barley, fungal genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes and nutrient transporters were highly induced in this host but not in Arabidopsis. Silencing of the high-affinity ammonium transporter PiAMT1 gene, whose transcripts are accumulating during nitrogen starvation and in barley, resulted in enhanced colonization of this host, whereas it had no effect on the colonization of Arabidopsis. Increased levels of free amino acids and reduced enzymatic activity for the cell-death marker VPE (vacuolar-processing enzyme) in colonized barley roots coincided with an extended biotrophic lifestyle of P. indica upon silencing of PiAMT1. This suggests that PiAmt1 functions as a nitrogen sensor mediating the signal that triggers the in planta activation of the saprotrophic program. Thus, host-related metabolic cues affect the expression of P. indica’s alternative lifestyles.

Lahrmann, Urs; Ding, Yi; Banhara, Aline; Rath, Magnus; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.; Dohlemann, Stefanie; von Wiren, Nicolaus; Parniske, Martin; Zuccaro, Alga

2013-01-01

76

Cell differentiation within a yeast colony: metabolic and regulatory parallels with a tumor-affected organism.  

PubMed

Nutrient sensing and metabolic reprogramming are crucial for metazoan cell aging and tumor growth. Here, we identify metabolic and regulatory parallels between a layered, multicellular yeast colony and a tumor-affected organism. During development, a yeast colony stratifies into U and L cells occupying the upper and lower colony regions, respectively. U cells activate a unique metabolism controlled by the glutamine-induced TOR pathway, amino acid-sensing systems (SPS and Gcn4p) and signaling from mitochondria with lowered respiration. These systems jointly modulate U cell physiology, which adapts to nutrient limitations and utilize the nutrients released from L cells. Stress-resistant U cells share metabolic pathways and other similar characteristics with tumor cells, including the ability to proliferate. L cells behave similarly to stressed and starving cells, which activate degradative mechanisms to provide nutrients to U cells. Our data suggest a nutrient flow between both cell types, resembling the Cori cycle and glutamine-NH(4)(+) shuttle between tumor and healthy metazoan cells. PMID:22560924

Cáp, Michal; St?pánek, Lud?k; Harant, Karel; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

2012-05-03

77

Antimicrobial drug resistance affects broad changes in metabolomic phenotype in addition to secondary metabolism  

PubMed Central

Bacteria develop resistance to many classes of antibiotics vertically, by engendering mutations in genes encoding transcriptional and translational apparatus. These severe adaptations affect global transcription, translation, and the correspondingly affected metabolism. Here, we characterize metabolome scale changes in transcriptional and translational mutants in a genomically characterized Nocardiopsis, a soil-derived actinomycete, in stationary phase. Analysis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography–ion mobility–mass spectrometry metabolomic features from a cohort of streptomycin- and rifampicin-resistant mutants grown in the absence of antibiotics exhibits clear metabolomic speciation, and loadings analysis catalogs a marked change in metabolic phenotype. Consistent with derepression, up to 311 features are observed in antibiotic-resistant mutants that are not detected in their progenitors. Mutants demonstrate changes in primary metabolism, such as modulation of fatty acid composition and the increased production of the osmoprotectant ectoine, in addition to the presence of abundant emergent potential secondary metabolites. Isolation of three of these metabolites followed by structure elucidation demonstrates them to be an unusual polyketide family with a previously uncharacterized xanthene framework resulting from sequential oxidative carbon skeletal rearrangements. Designated as “mutaxanthenes,” this family can be correlated to a type II polyketide gene cluster in the producing organism. Taken together, these data suggest that biosynthetic pathway derepression is a general consequence of some antibiotic resistance mutations.

Derewacz, Dagmara K.; Goodwin, Cody R.; McNees, C. Ruth; McLean, John A.; Bachmann, Brian O.

2013-01-01

78

Antimicrobial drug resistance affects broad changes in metabolomic phenotype in addition to secondary metabolism.  

PubMed

Bacteria develop resistance to many classes of antibiotics vertically, by engendering mutations in genes encoding transcriptional and translational apparatus. These severe adaptations affect global transcription, translation, and the correspondingly affected metabolism. Here, we characterize metabolome scale changes in transcriptional and translational mutants in a genomically characterized Nocardiopsis, a soil-derived actinomycete, in stationary phase. Analysis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry metabolomic features from a cohort of streptomycin- and rifampicin-resistant mutants grown in the absence of antibiotics exhibits clear metabolomic speciation, and loadings analysis catalogs a marked change in metabolic phenotype. Consistent with derepression, up to 311 features are observed in antibiotic-resistant mutants that are not detected in their progenitors. Mutants demonstrate changes in primary metabolism, such as modulation of fatty acid composition and the increased production of the osmoprotectant ectoine, in addition to the presence of abundant emergent potential secondary metabolites. Isolation of three of these metabolites followed by structure elucidation demonstrates them to be an unusual polyketide family with a previously uncharacterized xanthene framework resulting from sequential oxidative carbon skeletal rearrangements. Designated as "mutaxanthenes," this family can be correlated to a type II polyketide gene cluster in the producing organism. Taken together, these data suggest that biosynthetic pathway derepression is a general consequence of some antibiotic resistance mutations. PMID:23341601

Derewacz, Dagmara K; Goodwin, Cody R; McNees, C Ruth; McLean, John A; Bachmann, Brian O

2013-01-22

79

Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Several studies have observed decreased levels of lipophilic antioxidants after supplementation with phytosterols and stanols. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of phytosterol supplementation on plasma total antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome. In a parallel arm, randomized placebo-controlled design, 108 patients with metabolic syndrome were assigned to consume yogurt beverage which provided 4 g of phytosterols per day or yogurt beverage without phytosterols. The duration of the study was 2 months and the patients in both groups followed their habitual westernized type diet. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 2 months, and the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. After 2 months of intervention, plasma total antioxidant capacity did not differ between and within the intervention and the control groups. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant status. PMID:22816679

Sialvera, Theodora-Eirini; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Richter, Dimitris J; Yfanti, Georgia; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Micha, Renata; Goumas, Giorgos; Diamantopoulos, Emmanouil; Zampelas, Antonis

2012-07-20

80

Affective picture processing: An integrative review of ERP findings  

PubMed Central

The review summarizes and integrates findings from 40 years of event-related potential (ERP) studies using pictures that differ in valence (unpleasant-to-pleasant) and arousal (low-to-high) and that are used to elicit emotional processing. Affective stimulus factors primarily modulate ERP component amplitude, with little change in peak latency observed. Arousal effects are consistently obtained, and generally occur at longer latencies. Valence effects are inconsistently reported at several latency ranges, including very early components. Some affective ERP modulations vary with recording methodology, stimulus factors, as well as task-relevance and emotional state. Affective ERPs have been linked theoretically to attention orientation for unpleasant pictures at earlier components (< 300 ms). Enhanced stimulus processing has been associated with memory encoding for arousing pictures of assumed intrinsic motivational relevance, with task-induced differences contributing to emotional reactivity at later components (> 300 ms). Theoretical issues, stimulus factors, task demands, and individual differences are discussed.

Olofsson, Jonas K.; Nordin, Steven; Sequeira, Henrique; Polich, John

2008-01-01

81

Empathy as Either a Cognitive or an Affective Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empathy has been defined in a number of different ways. Some, such as Sarbin and Flavell, have emphasized the cognitive aspects of empathy by defining it as the ability to take-the-role-of-the-other. Others, such as Stewart, Borke, Iannotti, and Feshbach, have emphasized the affective processes involved in empathy. Although it is difficult,…

Kreiser, Jeanette S.

82

The role of affective processes in learning and motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective processes can be objectively defined in terms of sign, hedonistic intensity, and duration. That they are real is evidenced by a study of food acceptance. They are basic to concepts of motivation and reinforcement. Some objective principles of experimental hedonism are suggested as a basis for future studies. (25 ref.) From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:1CK04Y.

Paul Thomas Young

1959-01-01

83

Behavioural processes affecting development: Tinbergen's fourth question comes of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in relationships between behaviour and development has been spurred by research on related topics, including phenotypic plasticity, parental effects, extragenetic inheritance, individual differences and trait syndromes. Here, I consider several emerging areas of research in the interface between behaviour and development, with a focus on behavioural processes that are likely to affect the development and maintenance of interindividual variation

Judy Stamps

2003-01-01

84

Food Chain Transport of Nanoparticles Affects Behaviour and Fat Metabolism in Fish  

PubMed Central

Nano-sized (10?9–10?7 m) particles offer many technical and biomedical advances over the bulk material. The use of nanoparticles in cosmetics, detergents, food and other commercial products is rapidly increasing despite little knowledge of their effect on organism metabolism. We show here that commercially manufactured polystyrene nanoparticles, transported through an aquatic food chain from algae, through zooplankton to fish, affect lipid metabolism and behaviour of the top consumer. At least three independent metabolic parameters differed between control and test fish: the weight loss, the triglycerides?cholesterol ratio in blood serum, and the distribution of cholesterol between muscle and liver. Moreover, we demonstrate that nanoparticles bind to apolipoprotein A-I in fish serum in-vitro, thereby restraining them from properly utilising their fat reserves if absorbed through ingestion. In addition to the metabolic effects, we show that consumption of nanoparticle-containing zooplankton affects the feeding behaviour of the fish. The time it took the fish to consume 95% of the food presented to them was more than doubled for nanoparticle-exposed compared to control fish. Since many nano-sized products will, through the sewage system, end up in freshwater and marine habitats, our study provides a potential bioassay for testing new nano-sized material before manufacturing. In conclusion, our study shows that from knowledge of the molecular composition of the protein corona around nanoparticles it is possible to make a testable molecular hypothesis and bioassay of the potential biological risks of a defined nanoparticle at the organism and ecosystem level.

Cedervall, Tommy; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Lard, Mercy; Frohm, Birgitta; Linse, Sara

2012-01-01

85

Food chain transport of nanoparticles affects behaviour and fat metabolism in fish.  

PubMed

Nano-sized (10(-9)-10(-7) m) particles offer many technical and biomedical advances over the bulk material. The use of nanoparticles in cosmetics, detergents, food and other commercial products is rapidly increasing despite little knowledge of their effect on organism metabolism. We show here that commercially manufactured polystyrene nanoparticles, transported through an aquatic food chain from algae, through zooplankton to fish, affect lipid metabolism and behaviour of the top consumer. At least three independent metabolic parameters differed between control and test fish: the weight loss, the triglycerides?cholesterol ratio in blood serum, and the distribution of cholesterol between muscle and liver. Moreover, we demonstrate that nanoparticles bind to apolipoprotein A-I in fish serum in-vitro, thereby restraining them from properly utilising their fat reserves if absorbed through ingestion. In addition to the metabolic effects, we show that consumption of nanoparticle-containing zooplankton affects the feeding behaviour of the fish. The time it took the fish to consume 95% of the food presented to them was more than doubled for nanoparticle-exposed compared to control fish. Since many nano-sized products will, through the sewage system, end up in freshwater and marine habitats, our study provides a potential bioassay for testing new nano-sized material before manufacturing. In conclusion, our study shows that from knowledge of the molecular composition of the protein corona around nanoparticles it is possible to make a testable molecular hypothesis and bioassay of the potential biological risks of a defined nanoparticle at the organism and ecosystem level. PMID:22384193

Cedervall, Tommy; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Lard, Mercy; Frohm, Birgitta; Linse, Sara

2012-02-22

86

Chromosomal location of mutations affecting sucrose metabolism in Bacillus subtilis Marburg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations affecting sucrose metabolism have been mapped by PBS1 transduction on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome in seven loci sacA, sacB, sacQ, sacR, sacS, sacT and sacU. sacA and sacB are presumed to be the structural genes of a sucrase and a levansucrase respectively. sacR, sacS and sacT correspond to groups of mutations leading to constitutive synthesis of sucrase or both

Jean-Antoine Lepesant; Frank Kunst; Jana Lepesant-Kejzlarová; Raymond Dedonder

1972-01-01

87

Humans process dog and human facial affect in similar ways.  

PubMed

Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., social isolation) provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs. PMID:24023954

Schirmer, Annett; Seow, Cui Shan; Penney, Trevor B

2013-09-04

88

Perceptual, categorical, and affective processing of ambiguous smiling facial expressions.  

PubMed

Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of the expression (semantic), and valence evaluation (affective). The face stimulus display duration and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) were varied to assess the time course of each process. Results indicated that (a) a smiling mouth was visually more salient than the eyes both in truly happy and blended expressions; (b) a smile led viewers to categorize blended expressions as happy similarly for upright and inverted faces; (c) truly happy, but not blended, expressions primed the affective evaluation of probe scenes 550 ms following face onset; (d) both truly happy and blended expressions primed the detection of a smile in a probe scene by 170 ms post-stimulus; and (e) smile detection and expression categorization had similar processing thresholds and preceded affective evaluation. We conclude that the saliency of single physical features such as the mouth shape makes the smile quickly accessible to the visual system, which initially speeds up expression categorization regardless of congruence with the eyes. Only when the eye expression is later configurally integrated with the mouth, will affective discrimination begin. The present research provides support for serial models of facial expression processing. PMID:22939734

Calvo, Manuel G; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Nummenmaa, Lauri

2012-08-28

89

Crossmodal object-based attention: auditory objects affect visual processing.  

PubMed

According to the object-based view, visual attention can be deployed to "objects" or perceptual units, regardless of spatial locations. Recently, however, the notion of object has also been extended to the auditory domain, with some authors suggesting possible interactions between visual and auditory objects. Here we show that task-irrelevant auditory objects may affect the deployment of visual attention, providing evidence that crossmodal links can also occur at an object-based level. Hence, in addition to the well documented control of visual objects over what we hear, our findings demonstrate that, in some cases, auditory objects can affect visual processing. PMID:15925569

Turatto, Massimo; Mazza, Veronica; Umiltŕ, Carlo

2005-06-01

90

L-Carnosine Affects the Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Metabolism-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

The dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10–30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

Cartwright, Stephanie P.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Hipkiss, Alan R.

2012-01-01

91

The Rhizobium meliloti PII protein, which controls bacterial nitrogen metabolism, affects alfalfa nodule development.  

PubMed

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation involves the development of specialized organs called nodules within which plant photosynthates are exchanged for combined nitrogen of bacterial origin. To determine the importance of bacterial nitrogen metabolism in symbiosis, we have characterized a key regulator of this metabolism in Rhizobium meliloti, the uridylylatable P(II) protein encoded by glnB. We have constructed both a glnB null mutant and a point mutant making nonuridylylatable P(II). In free-living conditions, P(II) is required for expression of the ntrC-dependent gene glnII and for adenylylation of glutamine synthetase I. P(II) is also required for efficient infection of alfalfa but not for expression of nitrogenase. However alfalfa plants inoculated with either glnB mutant are nitrogen-starved in the absence of added combined nitrogen. We hypothesize that P(II) controls expression or activity of a bacteroid ammonium transporter required for a functional nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Therefore, the P(II) protein affects both Rhizobium nitrogen metabolism and alfalfa nodule development. PMID:9159400

Arcondéguy, T; Huez, I; Tillard, P; Gangneux, C; de Billy, F; Gojon, A; Truchet, G; Kahn, D

1997-05-01

92

Potato Snakin-1 Gene Silencing Affects Cell Division, Primary Metabolism, and Cell Wall Composition1[W  

PubMed Central

Snakin-1 (SN1) is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that was classified as a member of the Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis protein family. In this work, a transgenic approach was used to study the role of SN1 in planta. Even when overexpressing SN1, potato lines did not show remarkable morphological differences from the wild type; SN1 silencing resulted in reduced height, which was accompanied by an overall reduction in leaf size and severe alterations of leaf shape. Analysis of the adaxial epidermis of mature leaves revealed that silenced lines had 70% to 90% increases in mean cell size with respect to wild-type leaves. Consequently, the number of epidermal cells was significantly reduced in these lines. Confocal microscopy analysis after agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that SN1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in plasma membrane, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that SN1 self-interacted in vivo. We further focused our study on leaf metabolism by applying a combination of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric techniques. These targeted analyses allowed a detailed examination of the changes occurring in 46 intermediate compounds from primary metabolic pathways and in seven cell wall constituents. We demonstrated that SN1 silencing affects cell division, leaf primary metabolism, and cell wall composition in potato plants, suggesting that SN1 has additional roles in growth and development beyond its previously assigned role in plant defense.

Nahirnak, Vanesa; Almasia, Natalia Ines; Fernandez, Paula Virginia; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Estevez, Jose Manuel; Carrari, Fernando; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

2012-01-01

93

Bowman-Birk inhibitor affects pathways associated with energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is toxic when fed to certain insects, including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Dietary BBI has been demonstrated to slow growth and increase insect mortality by inhibiting the digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin, resulting in a reduced supply of amino acids. In mammals, BBI influences cellular energy metabolism. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dietary BBI affects energy-associated pathways in the D. melanogaster midgut. Through microarray and metabolomic analyses, we show that dietary BBI affects energy utilization pathways in the midgut cells of D. melanogaster. In addition, ultrastructure studies indicate that microvilli are significantly shortened in BBI-fed larvae. These data provide further insights into the complex cellular response of insects to dietary protease inhibitors. PMID:20113373

Li, H-M; Sun, L; Mittapalli, O; Muir, W M; Xie, J; Wu, J; Schemerhorn, B J; Jannasch, A; Chen, J Y; Zhang, F; Adamec, J; Murdock, L L; Pittendrigh, B R

2009-12-23

94

Branching process approach for Boolean bipartite networks of metabolic reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The branching process (BP) approach has been successful in explaining the avalanche dynamics in complex networks. However, its applications are mainly focused on unipartite networks, in which all nodes are of the same type. Here, motivated by a need to understand avalanche dynamics in metabolic networks, we extend the BP approach to a particular bipartite network composed of Boolean AND and OR logic gates. We reduce the bipartite network into a unipartite network by integrating out OR gates and obtain the effective branching ratio for the remaining AND gates. Then the standard BP approach is applied to the reduced network, and the avalanche-size distribution is obtained. We test the BP results with simulations on the model networks and two microbial metabolic networks, demonstrating the usefulness of the BP approach.

Lee, Deokjae; Goh, K.-I.; Kahng, B.

2012-08-01

95

Branching process approach for Boolean bipartite networks of metabolic reactions.  

PubMed

The branching process (BP) approach has been successful in explaining the avalanche dynamics in complex networks. However, its applications are mainly focused on unipartite networks, in which all nodes are of the same type. Here, motivated by a need to understand avalanche dynamics in metabolic networks, we extend the BP approach to a particular bipartite network composed of Boolean AND and OR logic gates. We reduce the bipartite network into a unipartite network by integrating out OR gates and obtain the effective branching ratio for the remaining AND gates. Then the standard BP approach is applied to the reduced network, and the avalanche-size distribution is obtained. We test the BP results with simulations on the model networks and two microbial metabolic networks, demonstrating the usefulness of the BP approach. PMID:23005888

Lee, Deokjae; Goh, K-I; Kahng, B

2012-08-21

96

Electrophysiological Differences in the Processing of Affect Misattribution  

PubMed Central

The affect misattribution procedure (AMP) was proposed as a technique to measure an implicit attitude to a prime image [1]. In the AMP, neutral symbols (e.g., a Chinese pictograph, called the target) are presented, following an emotional stimulus (known as the prime). Participants often misattribute the positive or negative affect of the priming images to the targets in spite of receiving an instruction to ignore the primes. The AMP effect has been investigated using behavioral measures; however, it is difficult to identify when the AMP effect occurs in emotional processing—whether the effect may occur in the earlier attention allocation stage or in the later evaluation stage. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of affect misattribution, using event-related potential (ERP) dividing the participants into two groups based on their tendency toward affect misattribution. The ERP results showed that the amplitude of P2 was larger for the prime at the parietal location in participants showing a low tendency to misattribution than for those showing a high tendency, while the effect of judging neutral targets amiss according to the primes was reflected in the late processing of targets (LPP). In addition, the topographic pattern analysis revealed that EPN-like component to targets was correlated with the difference of AMP tendency as well as P2 to primes and LPP to targets. Taken together, the mechanism of the affective misattribution was closely related to the attention allocation processing. Our findings provide neural evidence that evaluations of neutral targets are misattributed to emotional primes.

Hashimoto, Yohei; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

2012-01-01

97

Litter Environment Affects Behavior and Brain Metabolic Activity of Adult Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s), the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individual's behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for sex ratio and genotype ratio (wild type pups versus pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor ?). In both males and females, the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks.

Crews, David; Rushworth, David; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Ogawa, Sonoko

2009-01-01

98

Nonsense mutations in the human. beta. -globin gene affect mRNA metabolism  

SciTech Connect

A number of premature translation termination mutations (nonsense mutations) have been described in the human {alpha}- and {beta}-globin genes. Studies on mRNA isolated from patients with {beta}{sup 0}-thalassemia have shown that for both the {beta}-17 and the {beta}-39 mutations less than normal levels of {beta}-globin mRNA accumulate in peripheral blood cells. (The codon at which the mutation occurs designates the name of the mutation; there are 146 codons in human {beta}-globin mRNA). In vitro studies using the cloned {beta}-39 gene have reproduced this effect in a heterologous transfection system and have suggested that the defect resides in intranuclear metabolism. The authors have asked if this phenomenon of decreased mRNA accumulation is a general property of nonsense mutations and if the effect depends on the location or the type of mutation. Toward this end, they have studied the effect of five nonsense mutations and two missense mutations on the expression of human {beta}-globin mRNA in a heterologous transfection system. In all cases studied, the presence of a translation termination codon correlates with a decrease in the steady-state level of mRNA. The data suggest that the metabolism of a mammalian mRNA is affected by the presence of a mutation that affects translation.

Baserga, S.J.; Benz, E.J. Jr. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

1988-04-01

99

Processes affecting the oceanic distributions of dissolved calcium and alkalinity  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of the CO/sub 2/ system have suggested that chemical processes in addition to the dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate affect the oceanic calcium and alkalinity distributions. Calcium and alkalinity data from the North Pacific have been examined both by using the simple physical-chemical model of previous workers and by a study involving the broader oceanographic context of these data. The simple model is shown to be an inadequate basis for these studies. Although a proton flux associated with organic decomposition may affect the alkalinity, previously reported deviations of calcium-alkalinity correlations from expected trends appear to be related to boundary processes that have been neglected rather than to this proton flux. The distribution of calcium in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean is examined.

Shiller, A.M.; Gieskes, J.M.

1980-05-20

100

Application of ultrasound processed images in space: assessing diffuse affectations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate diffuse affectations in the liver using texture image processing techniques. Ultrasound diagnose equipments are the election of choice to be used in space environments as they are free from hazardous effects on health. However, due to the need for highly trained radiologists to assess the images, this imaging method is mainly applied on focal lesions rather than on non-focal ones. We have conducted a clinical study on 72 patients with different degrees of chronic hepatopaties and a group of control of 18 individuals. All subjects' clinical reports and results of biopsies were compared to the degree of affectation calculated by our computer system , thus validating the method. Full statistical results are given in the present paper showing a good correlation (r=0.61) between pathologist's report and analysis of the heterogenicity of the processed images from the liver. This computer system to analyze diffuse affectations may be used in-situ or via telemedicine to the ground.

Pérez-Poch, A.; Bru, C.; Nicolau, C.

101

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children.  

PubMed

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body. PMID:19860886

Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; Leblanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

2009-10-27

102

Capacity of bioregulators of stem and progenitor cells to strongly affect liver redox-dependent processes.  

PubMed

Abstract Effects of stem and progenitor cells or their compounds on recipient cells are investigated intensively today. In spite of this, their ability to interact with native cells and the final targets affected by them, particularly biochemical parameters that characterize cell redox-dependent processes, remain little studied. We have studied how bioregulators of stem and progenitor cells affect these processes in freshly isolated liver after animal pretreatment in vivo. Cytosol of human fetal mesenchymal-mesodermal tissues (8-10 weeks gestation) was administered intravenously; the control group was treated with Hanks' solution. After 4?hr, rats were sacrificed and their livers were isolated. To evaluate liver redox-dependent state, mitochondrial respiratory activity and nitroxyl radical and Alamar Blue™ reduction rates, mitochondrial and cytosolic glycerol kinase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent malate dehydrogenase activities were studied. The results obtained demonstrate that bioregulators strongly affect liver redox-dependent processes, increasing mitochondrial respiration in state III and spin probe reduction rate and enhancing Alamar Blue™ reduction by glycolytic and nonglycolytic postmitochondrial enzymes. In addition, mitochondrial glycerol kinase and both isoforms of NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase were inhibited. These data bring us closer to understanding stem and progenitor cell effects via directed regulation of metabolic redox-dependent processes. PMID:22007912

Cherkashina, Daria V; Tkacheva, Elena N; Somov, Alexander Y; Semenchenko, Olga A; Nardid, Oleg A; Petrenko, Alexander Y

2011-10-18

103

Species and Gender Differences Affect the Metabolism of Emodin via Glucuronidation  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to define the mechanisms responsible for poor bioavailability of emodin by determining its metabolism using in vitro and in situ disposition models of the intestine and liver. Liver microsomes of mice, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, and humans were used along with the rat intestinal perfusion model and the rat intestinal microsomes. In the rat intestine, excretion rates of emodin-3-O-glucuronide were significantly different (p?metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase is the major reason why emodin has poor bioavailability. Species and gender affected emodin metabolism to a different degree, and experimental animals are expected to be useful in predicting emodin glucuronidation in humans.

Liu, Wei; Tang, Lan; Ye, Ling; Cai, Zheng; Xia, Bijun; Zhang, Jiajie

2010-01-01

104

Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1) activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14) an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids) to the leaves.

2012-01-01

105

Rice Debranching Enzyme Isoamylase3 Facilitates Starch Metabolism and Affects Plastid Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Debranching enzymes, which hydrolyze ?-1 and 6-glucosidic linkages in ?-polyglucans, play a dual role in the synthesis and degradation of starch in plants. A transposon-inserted rice mutant of isoamylase3 (isa3) contained an increased amount of starch in the leaf blade at the end of the night, indicating that ISA3 plays a role in the degradation of transitory starch during the night. An epitope-tagged ISA3 expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited hydrolytic activity on ?-limit dextrin and amylopectin. We investigated whether ISA3 plays a role in amyloplast development and starch metabolism in the developing endosperm. ISA3–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein expressed under the control of the rice ISA3 promoter was targeted to the amyloplast stroma in the endosperm. Overexpression of ISA3 in the sugary1 mutant, which is deficient in ISA1 activity, did not convert water-soluble phytoglycogen to starch granules, indicating that ISA1 and ISA3 are not functionally redundant. Both overexpression and loss of function of ISA3 in the endosperm generated pleomorphic amyloplasts and starch granules. Furthermore, chloroplasts in the leaf blade of isa3 seedlings were large and pleomorphic. These results suggest that ISA3 facilitates starch metabolism and affects morphological characteristics of plastids in rice.

Yun, Min-Soo; Umemoto, Takayuki; Kawagoe, Yasushi

2011-01-01

106

Rice protein extracted by different methods affects cholesterol metabolism in rats due to its lower digestibility.  

PubMed

To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility was significantly reduced by RP-A and RP-E as compared to casein (CAS). The digestibility was lower in RP-E than that of RP-A. Compared with CAS, the significant cholesterol-lowering effects were observed in rats fed by RP-A and RP-E. Fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly stimulated by RP-E, but not by RP-A. The apparent cholesterol absorption was more effectively inhibited by RP-E than RP-A because more fecal neutral sterols were excreted in rats fed RP-E. There was a significant correlation between protein digestibility and cholesterol absorption (r = 0.8662, P < 0.01), resulting in a significant correlation between protein digestibility and plasma cholesterol level (r = 0.7357, P < 0.01) in this study. The present study demonstrates that the digestibility of rice protein affected by extraction method plays a major role in the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. Results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action induced by rice protein with lower digestibility primarily contribute to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption. PMID:22174619

Yang, Lin; Chen, Jiahou; Xu, Tong; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Lanwei; Xu, Fuping; Liu, Hongbo

2011-11-07

107

Rice Protein Extracted by Different Methods Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats Due to Its Lower Digestibility  

PubMed Central

To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility was significantly reduced by RP-A and RP-E as compared to casein (CAS). The digestibility was lower in RP-E than that of RP-A. Compared with CAS, the significant cholesterol-lowering effects were observed in rats fed by RP-A and RP-E. Fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly stimulated by RP-E, but not by RP-A. The apparent cholesterol absorption was more effectively inhibited by RP-E than RP-A because more fecal neutral sterols were excreted in rats fed RP-E. There was a significant correlation between protein digestibility and cholesterol absorption (r = 0.8662, P < 0.01), resulting in a significant correlation between protein digestibility and plasma cholesterol level (r = 0.7357, P < 0.01) in this study. The present study demonstrates that the digestibility of rice protein affected by extraction method plays a major role in the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. Results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action induced by rice protein with lower digestibility primarily contribute to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption.

Yang, Lin; Chen, Jiahou; Xu, Tong; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Lanwei; Xu, Fuping; Liu, Hongbo

2011-01-01

108

Glucoraphasatin and glucoraphenin, a redox pair of glucosinolates of brassicaceae, differently affect metabolizing enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

Brassica vegetables are an important dietary source of glucosinolates (GLs), whose breakdown products exhibit anticancer activity. The protective properties of Brassicaceae are believed to be due to the inhibition of Phase-I or induction of Phase-II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), thus enhancing carcinogen clearance. To study whether GLs affect XMEs and the role of their chemical structure, we focused on two alkylthio GLs differing in the oxidation degree of the side chain sulfur. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were supplemented (per oral somministration by gavage) with either glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl GL; GRH) or glucoraphenin (4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl GL; GRE), at 24 or 120 mg/kg body weight in a single or repeated fashion (daily for four consecutive days), and hepatic microsomes were prepared for XME analyses. Both GLs were able to induce XMEs, showing different induction profiles. While the inductive effect was stronger after multiple administration of the higher GRH dosage, the single lower GRE dose was the most effective in boosting cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-associated monooxygenases and the postoxidative metabolism. CYP3A1/2 were the most affected isoforms by GRH treatment, whereas GRE induced mainly CYP1A2 supported oxidase. Glutathione S-transferase increased up to approximately 3.2-fold after a single (lower) GRE dose and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase up to approximately 2-fold after four consecutive (higher) GRH doses. In conclusion, the induction profile of these GLs we found is not in line with the chemopreventive hypothesis. Furthermore, the oxidation degree of the side chain sulfur of GLs seems to exert a crucial role on XME modulation. PMID:17579433

Barillari, Jessica; Iori, Renato; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Pozzetti, Laura; Canistro, Donatella; Sapone, Andrea; Bonamassa, Barbara; Biagi, Gian Luigi; Paolini, Moreno

2007-06-19

109

Mineral absorption and excretion as affected by microbial phytase, and their effect on energy metabolism in young piglets.  

PubMed

Positive effects of dietary phytase supplementation on pig performance are observed not only when phosphorus is limiting. Improved energy utilization might be one explanation. Using indirect calorimetry, phytase-induced changes in energy metabolism were evaluated in young piglets with adequate phosphorus intake. Eight replicates of 8 group-housed barrows each were assigned to either a control or a phytase-supplemented diet [1500 phytase units (FTU)/kg feed]. Piglets were fed a restricted amount of the control or phytase diet. The diets were made limiting in energy content by formulating them to a high digestible lysine:DE ratio. Fecal nutrient digestibility, portal blood variables, organ weights, and apparent absorption and urinary excretion of ash, Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Cu, and Fe, were also measured. A model was developed to estimate energy required for absorption and excretion, which are partly active processes. Phytase tended to improve energy digestibility (P = 0.10), but not its metabolizability. Energy retention and heat production were not affected. At the end of the 3-wk period, pancreas weight (P < 0.05) and blood pH were lower (P < 0.01), and CO(2) pressure was higher (P < 0.01) due to phytase. This suggests that phytase reduced energy expenditure of the digestive tract, and increased metabolic activity in visceral organs. The potential increases in energy retention due to phytase were counterbalanced by increased energy expenditures for processes such as increased mineral absorption (for most P < 0.05), and their subsequent urinary excretion. Energy costs of increased absorption of nutrients, and deposition and excretion of minerals was estimated as 4.6 kJ/(kg(0.75) . d), which is 1% of the energy required for maintenance. The simultaneous existence of both increases and decreases in heat production processes resulted in the absence of a net effect on energy retention. PMID:15867293

Kies, Arie K; Gerrits, Walter J J; Schrama, Johan W; Heetkamp, Marcel J W; van der Linden, Koos L; Zandstra, Tamme; Verstegen, Martin W A

2005-05-01

110

Processes affecting the distribution and speciation of selenium in seawater  

SciTech Connect

The analyses of dissolved selenium species in the Pacific Ocean and anoxic waters of the Saanich Inlet, selenium in fluxing particles, and the regeneration of selenium from biogenic matter has been undertaken in order to evaluate the processes affecting selenium in the ocean. Analyses of oceanic surface waters show selenite to be severely depleted, and the degree of selenate depletion, a function of the oceanic regime (i.e. most depleted in oligotrophic regions). Both species are enriched in deeper waters with an approximately 60:40 ratio of Se +6 to +4. A major species in surface waters and the upper thermocline is organic selenide. A secondary maximum of organic selenide is seen in the suboxic oxygen minimum of the eastern tropical Pacific, while selenite shows a negative anomaly. The regeneration of selenium from biogenic matter shows a multistep behavior, with organic selenide being released rapidly and primarily, selenite and selenate being produced by the slow oxidation of this fraction. Selenium in the ocean is affected by several processes. First organisms preferentially take-up selenite over selenate. This incorporation of selenium into biological material involves reduction to selenide. As selenium is regenerated from biogenic matter, first organic selenide is released, which in turn oxidizes to selenite, which then oxidizes very slowly to selenate. Finally, selenium does appear to undergo redox reactions in anoxic systems, but the products of the reactions remain unidentified.

Cutter, G.A.

1982-01-01

111

Hepatitis C virus mutation affects proteasomal epitope processing  

PubMed Central

The high incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence raises the question of how HCV interferes with host immune responses. Studying a single-source HCV outbreak, we identified an HCV mutation that impaired correct carboxyterminal cleavage of an immunodominant HLA-A2–restricted CD8 cell epitope that is frequently recognized by recovered patients. The mutation, a conservative HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) tyrosine to phenylalanine substitution, was absent in 54 clones of the infectious source, but present in 15/21 (71%) HLA-A2–positive and in 11/24 (46%) HLA-A2–negative patients with chronic hepatitis C. In order to analyze whether the mutation affected the processing of the HLA-A2–restricted CD8 cell epitope, mutant and wild-type NS3 polypeptides were digested in vitro with 20S constitutive proteasomes and with immunoproteasomes. The presence of the mutation resulted in impaired carboxyterminal cleavage of the epitope. In order to analyze whether impaired epitope processing affected T cell priming in vivo, HLA-A2–transgenic mice were infected with vaccinia viruses encoding either wild-type or mutant HCV NS3. The mutant induced fewer epitope-specific, IFN-?;–producing and fewer tetramer+ cells than the wild type. These data demonstrate how a conservative mutation in the flanking region of an HCV epitope impairs the induction of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells and reveal a mechanism that may contribute to viral sequence evolution in infected patients.

Seifert, Ulrike; Liermann, Heike; Racanelli, Vito; Halenius, Anne; Wiese, Manfred; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Ruppert, Thomas; Rispeter, Kay; Henklein, Peter; Sijts, Alice; Hengel, Hartmut; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Rehermann, Barbara

2004-01-01

112

Cyanobacteria gene and protein sequences in diurnal oscillation metabolic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daytime photosynthesis and nighttime nitrogen fixation metabolic processes have been reported in the bacterium, Cyanothece 51142. The organism's auto-fluorescence with 532 nm excitation would place cyanobacteria at the forefront in the remote sensing of microbial activity in astrobiology. The sensitivity of nitrogenase to oxygen was studied in terms of sequence nucleotide fluctuation. A nucleotide sequence fractal dimension can be calculated from a numerical series consisting of the atomic numbers of each nucleotide. The fractal dimension and Shannon entropy form a two-dimensional measure that is useful in assessing evolutionary pressures. The studied sequences include nitrogenase iron protein NifH, nitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein alpha chain NifD and beta chain NifK. The photosynthesis-lacking UCYN-A cyanobacterium as reported recently in the journal, Nature, was observed to have the lowest entropy with relatively high fractal dimension values in the studied NifH, NifD and NifH sequences. The fractal dimension of NifH sequences correlates with the NifD sequence values with an R-square of 0.91 (N = 8). The Shannon mononucleotide entropy of NifD sequences correlates with the NifK sequence values with an R-square value of 0.92 (N = 8). The observed strong correlation suggests the presence of gradual evolutionary pressure among the studied cyanobacteria, and throws light on the reported paradox in evolution for the case of UCYN-A. The results show that diurnal oscillation metabolic processes in cyanobacteria (including the photosynthesis-deficient case) are not associated with extraordinary evolutionary pressures and thus are processes consistent with putative astrobiological organisms.

Tremberger, George, Jr.; Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Dehipawala, S.; Gadura, N.; Golebiewska, U.; Valentin, K.; Smulczeski, M.; Satizabal, W.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

2010-08-01

113

Affective and executive network processing associated with persuasive antidrug messages.  

PubMed

Previous research has highlighted brain regions associated with socioemotional processes in persuasive message encoding, whereas cognitive models of persuasion suggest that executive brain areas may also be important. The current study aimed to identify lateral prefrontal brain areas associated with persuasive message viewing and understand how activity in these executive regions might interact with activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Seventy adolescents were scanned using fMRI while they watched 10 strongly convincing antidrug public service announcements (PSAs), 10 weakly convincing antidrug PSAs, and 10 advertisements (ads) unrelated to drugs. Antidrug PSAs compared with nondrug ads more strongly elicited arousal-related activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Within antidrug PSAs, those that were prerated as strongly persuasive versus weakly persuasive showed significant differences in arousal-related activity in executive processing areas of the lateral pFC. In support of the notion that persuasiveness involves both affective and executive processes, functional connectivity analyses showed greater coactivation between the lateral pFC and amygdala during PSAs known to be strongly (vs. weakly) convincing. These findings demonstrate that persuasive messages elicit activation in brain regions responsible for both emotional arousal and executive control and represent a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neural processes responsible for persuasion and subsequent behavior change. PMID:23530896

Ramsay, Ian S; Yzer, Marco C; Luciana, Monica; Vohs, Kathleen D; MacDonald, Angus W

2013-03-26

114

Metabolic profile of antipsychotic-naive individuals with non-affective psychosis  

PubMed Central

Background Some studies suggest individuals with schizophrenia have an increased risk of diabetes prior to antipsychotic use. Small sample sizes and the potential for confounding by hypercortisolaemia have decreased confidence in those results. Aims To examine diabetes-related factors in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naive people with non-affective psychosis. Method Participants with psychosis (the psychosis group; n = 50) and matched controls (the control group; n = 50) were given a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting concentrations were also determined for adiponectin, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Results Compared with the control group, the psychosis group had significant increases in 2 h glucose and interleukin-6 concentrations, and in the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (16% of psychosis group v. 0% of control group). Adiponectin and C-reactive protein concentrations did not differ significantly between the two groups. These findings could not be attributed to differences in cortisol concentrations, smoking, gender, neighbourhood of residence, body mass index, aerobic conditioning, ethnicity, socioeconomic status or age. Conclusions Individuals with non-affective psychosis appear to have an increased prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance prior to antipsychotic treatment, as well as abnormalities in a related inflammatory molecule. These underlying problems may contribute to the metabolic side-effects of antipsychotic medications.

Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Bernardo, Miguel; Donner, Thomas; Conget, Ignacio; Parellada, Eduard; Justicia, Azucena; Esmatjes, Enric; Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Kirkpatrick, Brian

2009-01-01

115

Silicification of Thermophilic Biofilms: Do Aquificales Affect the Mineralisation Process?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geothermal environments, biomineralisation is an inevitable consequence of microbes growing in solute-rich waters. The process of silicification is of particular interest due to (1) apparent discrepancies between natural and laboratory silicification rates and (2) siliceous microfossils currently serve as the earliest physical evidence for life on Earth. Although mesophilic microbe-silica interactions have been studied in great detail, there is a paucity of information on the role that thermophiles play in the silicification process, i.e., does their metabolism in any way facilitate silicification and do their cellular remains fossilise? To help resolve some of these uncertainties, a thermophilic, biofilm-forming member of the Aquificales order, Sulfurihydrogenobium azorense, was grown in the presence of various concentrations of silica, ranging from undersaturated to those extremely supersaturated with respect to amorphous silica. Since the chemolithoautotrophic Aquificales use of a wide range and combination of electron donors and acceptors, the bacteria cultured were grown in the presence of H2 with O2, S and Fe(III) as terminal electron acceptors. This study focused on the rates of pH-induced silica polymerisation during a 48 hour interval, when the soluble silica phase was at its most reactive stage, and when the greatest amount of silica immobilisation was likely to occur. S. azorense was found to have no detectable effect on the polymerisation rate of silica under any condition tested, nor did it cause silica to precipitate in undersaturated conditions. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed that although silica did indeed precipitate from solution, there was no obvious association between solid-phase silica and the cells walls. This suggests that under high silica levels there is such a strong chemical driving force for silica polymerisation, homogeneous nucleation, and ultimately silica precipitation that there is no obvious need for microbial catalysis.

Konhauser, K.; Lalonde, S.; Aguiar, P.; Reysenbach, A.

2003-12-01

116

Decreased zinc availability affects glutathione metabolism in neuronal cells and in the developing brain.  

PubMed

A deficit in zinc (Zn) availability can increase cell oxidant production, affect the antioxidant defense system, and trigger oxidant-sensitive signals in neuronal cells. This work tested the hypothesis that a decreased Zn availability can affect glutathione (GSH) metabolism in the developing rat brain and in neuronal cells in culture, as well as the capacity of human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells to upregulate GSH when challenged with dopamine (DA). GSH levels were low in the brain of gestation day 19 (GD19) fetuses from dams fed marginal Zn diets throughout gestation and in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. ?-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCL), the first enzyme in the GSH synthetic pathway, was altered by Zn deficiency (ZD). The protein and mRNA levels of the GCL modifier (GCLM) and catalytic (GCLC) subunits were lower in the Zn-deficient GD19 fetal brain and in IMR-32 cells compared with controls. The nuclear translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, which controls GCL transcription, was impaired by ZD. Posttranslationally, the caspase-3-dependent GCLC cleavage was high in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. Cells challenged with DA showed an increase in GCLM and GCLC protein and mRNA levels and a consequent increase in GSH concentration. Although Zn-deficient cells partially upregulated GCL subunits after exposure to DA, GSH content remained low. In summary, results show that a low Zn availability affects the GSH synthetic pathway in neuronal cells and fetal brain both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. This can in part underlie the GSH depletion associated with ZD and the high sensitivity of Zn-deficient neurons to pro-oxidative stressors. PMID:23377617

Omata, Yo; Salvador, Gabriela A; Supasai, Suangsuda; Keenan, Alison H; Oteiza, Patricia I

2013-02-01

117

Facial affect processing in social anxiety: tasks and stimuli.  

PubMed

Social anxiety (SA) has as its main feature the fear of social situations, being characterized as social phobia or social anxiety disorder when functional impairment emerges as a result of that fear. Although the recognition of the condition has increased in recent years, it is believed that many patients and physicians still take the symptoms of the disorder for personality traits with no need for treatment. There is evidence that people with SA display abnormal patterns of facial emotion processing that could account for the onset and maintenance of the disorder. The objective of this review is to describe, compare, and discuss the methods used to study facial emotion processing in SA with an emphasis on the tasks and stimuli employed. Articles were searched for on online scientific databases. Forty research articles were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria established. The articles were read and information from them was gathered on a comparative table for analysis. Evidence available to date suggests that SA individuals have abnormal patterns of facial information processing characterized by a bias for negative emotions. The results of the articles analyzed have a high degree of concordance, in spite of the variety of tasks and stimuli employed. The similarity between results from non-clinical samples with SA and patients affected by social phobia speaks in favor of the current view that SA occurs as a continuum of severity, rather than a clearly circumscribed nosological entity. PMID:20800619

Machado-de-Sousa, Joăo Paulo; Arrais, Kátia C; Alves, Nelson T; Chagas, Marcos H N; de Meneses-Gaya, Carolina; Crippa, José Alexandre de S; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo C

2010-08-26

118

Benzothiadiazole (BTH) activates sterol pathway and affects vitamin D3 metabolism in Solanum malacoxylon cell cultures.  

PubMed

Benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), a particularly efficient inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was developed as an immunizing agent to sensitize various crop species against pathogen infections. Recent works highlighted its activating effect on different metabolic pathways, concerning both primary and secondary metabolites. In this study, we investigated the effect of BTH treatment on sterol levels and vitamin D(3) metabolism in Solanum malacoxylon cultures. Calli of S. malacoxylon were incubated in Gamborg B5 liquid medium alone or added with 50 ?M BTH for different times (one, two or three cycles of light). Histocytochemical investigations performed on our experimental system using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) for hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) detection and phloroglucinol for lignin staining showed that BTH causes H(2)O(2) accumulation and lignin deposition in treated calli. Gas chromatographic analysis of principal cell membrane sterols (?-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol) showed that BTH transiently increases their cellular levels. Callus cultures were found to contain also cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, the putative precursor of vitamin D(3), and the hydroxylated metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] and 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1?,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. BTH treatment enhanced 7-dehydrocholesterol while reduced cholesterol. HPLC analysis of sample extracts showed that BTH does not affect the cell content of vitamin D(3), though results of ELISA tests highlighted that this elicitor moderately enhances the levels of 25(OH)D(3) and 1?,25(OH)(2)D(3) metabolites. In conclusion, BTH treatment not only causes cell wall strengthening, a typical plant defence response, as just described in other experimental models, but in the same time increases the cellular level of the main sterols and 7-dehydrocholesterol. PMID:21779826

Burlini, Nedda; Iriti, Marcello; Daghetti, Anna; Faoro, Franco; Ruggiero, Antonietta; Bernasconi, Silvana

2011-07-16

119

Expression of vitamin D receptor and metabolizing enzymes in multiple sclerosis-affected brain tissue.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), but how vitamin D metabolism affects MS pathophysiology is not understood. We studied the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and related enzymes, including 1,25(OH)(2)D-24-hydroxylase (24-OHase; CYP24A1) and 25(OH)D-1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), in CNS tissues of 39 MS patients and 20 controls and in primary human glial cells in vitro. In control and MS normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), nuclear VDR immunostaining was observed in oligodendrocyte-like cells, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-positive microglia, and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. There was a 2-fold increase in VDR transcripts in MS NAWM versus control white matter (p = 0.03). In chronic active MS lesions, HLA-positive microglia/macrophages showed nuclear VDR staining; astrocytes showed nuclear and cytoplasmic VDR staining. Staining for 24-OHase was restricted to astrocytes.VDR and CYP27B1 mRNA expressions were increased in active MS lesions versus NAWM (p < 0.01, p = 0.04, respectively). In primary human astrocytes in vitro, the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), induced upregulation of VDR and CYP24A1. Tumor necrosis factor and interferon-? upregulated CYP27B1 mRNA in primary human microglia and astrocytes. Increased VDR expression in MS NAWM and inflammatory cytokine-induced amplified expression of VDR and CYP27B1 in chronic active MS lesions suggest increased sensitivity to vitamin D in NAWM and a possible endogenous role for vitamin D metabolism in the suppression of active MS lesions. PMID:23334593

Smolders, Joost; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Strien, Miriam E; Melief, Jeroen; Hendrickx, Debbie; Hol, Elly M; van Eden, Corbert; Luchetti, Sabina; Huitinga, Inge

2013-02-01

120

How do heavy ions affect plasma entry and transport processes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent ion composition measurements near the magnetopause have shown that heavy ionospheric ions can dominate the mass density as much as 30 percent of the time. Magnetopause transport processes, such as reconnection, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and kinetic-scale Alfvenic fluctuations, can all be significantly affected by the presence of heavy ions. We examine these processes using MHD, multifluid, and hybrid simulations. Heavy ions modify the onset and growth of the tearing mode as well as reduce the steady state reconnection rate by lowering the Alfven speed. Because increased mass density reduces the effect of magnetic tension, it lowers the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability threshold and increases the growth rate. In 3D MHD simulations, reconnection of the Kelvin-Helmholtz interchanged flux can lead to mass transport through competing processes (increased mass density leads to increased growth rate/vortex size but lower reconnection rate). However, we find that the reduced Alfven speed is compensated by increased shear in the boundary regions so that the reconnection rate adjusts as necessary to reconnect the interchanged flux, and transfer of flux is mostly determined by growth of the vortex (larger for heavier mass density and larger shear). We also examine the dependence of Kelvin-Helmholtz growth rate, nonlinear vortex development, and plasma mixing on heavy ion mass using hybrid simulations. We find that while heavier mass ions can increase growth rates when there is a gradient of the heavy ion population across the magnetopause boundary, that ion inertial effects can also play an important stabilizing role for ions with heavier mass. The presence of heavy ions can also increase the efficiency of mode conversion of compressional Pc3 waves to transverse, field-aligned Alfven modes with small-scale structure perpendicular the the magnetopause. We examine this process with hybrid simulations including heavy ions. We examine whether nonlinear heating and transport associated with mode converted waves will preferentially affect the heavy ions. Finally, we consider the implications of asymmetric distributions of heavy ions on plasma entry mechanisms.

Lazerson, S. A.; Johnson, J.; Delamere, P. A.; Otto, A.; Lin, Y.; Wing, S.; Kim, E.

2010-12-01

121

Acclimation temperature affects the metabolic response of amphibian skeletal muscle to insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frog skeletal muscle mainly utilizes the substrates glucose and lactate for energy metabolism. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of insulin on the uptake and metabolic fate of lactate and glucose at rest in skeletal muscle of the American bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeiana, under varying temperature regimens. We hypothesize that lactate and glucose metabolic pathways will respond

Ann M. Petersen; Todd T. Gleeson

2011-01-01

122

Does thermal history affect metabolic plasticity?: a study in three Phyllotis species along an altitudinal gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The aim of this study was to understand the effects of thermal history in metabolic features such as maximum (MMR) and basal (BMR) metabolic rates, as well as in metabolic plasticity, considered as the total variation of MMR and BMR during the acclimation period. (2) We studied three species of the genus Phyllotis, from different thermal environments, in an

Enrico L Rezende; Ibin Silva-Durán; F Fernando Novoa; Mario Rosenmann

2001-01-01

123

Diet-induced alterations of host cholesterol metabolism are likely to affect the gut microbiota composition in hamsters.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal microbiota affects the metabolism of the mammalian host and has consequences for health. However, the complexity of gut microbial communities and host metabolic pathways make functional connections difficult to unravel, especially in terms of causation. In this study, we have characterized the fecal microbiota of hamsters whose cholesterol metabolism was extensively modulated by the dietary addition of plant sterol esters (PSE). PSE intake induced dramatic shifts in the fecal microbiota, reducing several bacterial taxa within the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae. The abundance of these taxa displayed remarkably high correlations with host cholesterol metabolites. Most importantly, the associations between several bacterial taxa with fecal and biliary cholesterol excretion showed an almost perfect fit to a sigmoidal nonlinear model of bacterial inhibition, suggesting that host cholesterol excretion can shape microbiota structure through the antibacterial action of cholesterol. In vitro experiments suggested a modest antibacterial effect of cholesterol, and especially of cholesteryl-linoleate, but not plant sterols when included in model bile micelles. The findings obtained in this study are relevant to our understanding of gut microbiota-host lipid metabolism interactions, as they provide the first evidence for a role of cholesterol excreted with the bile as a relevant host factor that modulates the gut microbiota. The findings further suggest that the connections between Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae and host lipid metabolism, which have been observed in several studies, could be caused by a metabolic phenotype of the host (cholesterol excretion) affecting the gut microbiota. PMID:23124234

Martínez, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J; Brown, Andrew W; Hammons, Susan; Carden, Trevor J; Carr, Timothy P; Eskridge, Kent M; Walter, Jens

2012-11-02

124

Metabolic Parameters and Emotionality Are Little Affected in G-Protein Coupled Receptor 12 (Gpr12) Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Background G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) bear the potential to serve as yet unidentified drug targets for psychiatric and metabolic disorders. GPR12 is of major interest given its putative role in metabolic function and its unique brain distribution, which suggests a role in emotionality and affect. We tested Gpr12 deficient mice in a series of metabolic and behavioural tests and subjected them to a well-established high-fat diet feeding protocol. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparing the mutant mice with wild type littermates, no significant differences were seen in body weight, fatness or weight gain induced by a high-fat diet. The Gpr12 mutant mice displayed a modest but significant lowering of energy expenditure and a trend to lower food intake on a chow diet, but no other metabolic parameters, including respiratory rate, were altered. No emotionality-related behaviours (assessed by light-dark box, tail suspension, and open field tests) were affected by the Gpr12 gene mutation. Conclusions/Significance Studying metabolic and emotionality parameters in Gpr12 mutant mice did not reveal a major phenotypic impact of the gene mutation. Compared to previous results showing a metabolic phenotype in Gpr12 mice with a mixed 129 and C57Bl6 background, we suggest that a more pure C57Bl/6 background due to further backcrossing might have reduced the phenotypic penetrance.

Frank, Elisabeth; Wu, Yizhen; Piyaratna, Naomi; Body, William James; Snikeris, Peta; South, Timothy; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Huang, Xu-Feng

2012-01-01

125

Spectral context affects temporal processing in awake auditory cortex.  

PubMed

Amplitude modulation encoding is critical for human speech perception and complex sound processing in general. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a staple of auditory psychophysics, and has been shown to predict speech intelligibility performance in a range of adverse listening conditions and hearing impairments, including cochlear implant-supported hearing. Although both tonal and broadband carriers have been used in psychophysical studies of modulation detection and discrimination, relatively little is known about differences in the cortical representation of such signals. We obtained MTFs in response to sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) for both narrowband tonal carriers and two-octave bandwidth noise carriers in the auditory core of awake squirrel monkeys. MTFs spanning modulation frequencies from 4 to 512 Hz were obtained using 16 channel linear recording arrays sampling across all cortical laminae. Carrier frequency for tonal SAM and center frequency for noise SAM was set at the estimated BF for each penetration. Changes in carrier type affected both rate and temporal MTFs in many neurons. Using spike discrimination techniques, we found that discrimination of modulation frequency was significantly better for tonal SAM than for noise SAM, though the differences were modest at the population level. Moreover, spike trains elicited by tonal and noise SAM could be readily discriminated in most cases. Collectively, our results reveal remarkable sensitivity to the spectral content of modulated signals, and indicate substantial interdependence between temporal and spectral processing in neurons of the core auditory cortex. PMID:23719811

Malone, Brian J; Beitel, Ralph E; Vollmer, Maike; Heiser, Marc A; Schreiner, Christoph E

2013-05-29

126

Alkyl-methylimidazolium ionic liquids affect the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate [EMIM][DEP], and 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate [MMIM][DMP] on the growth and glucose fermentation of Clostridium sp. was investigated. Among the three ionic liquids tested, [MMIM][DMP] was found to be least toxic. Growth of Clostridium sp. was not inhibited up to 2.5, 4 and 4 g L(-1) of [EMIM][Ac], [EMIM][DEP] and [MMIM][DMP], respectively. [EMIM][Ac] at <2.5 g L(-1), showed hormetic effect and stimulated the growth and fermentation by modulating medium pH. Total organic acid production increased in the presence of 2.5 and 2 g L(-1) of [EMIM][Ac] and [MMIM][DMP]. Ionic liquids had no significant influence on alcohol production at <2.5 g L(-1). Total gas production was affected by ILs at ? 2.5 g L(-1) and varied with type of methylimidazolium IL. Overall, the results show that the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. is not impacted by ILs at concentrations below 2.5 g L(-1). PMID:21474305

Nancharaiah, Y Venkata; Francis, A J

2011-03-21

127

Genomewide transcriptional changes associated with genetic alterations and nutritional supplementation affecting tryptophan metabolism in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

DNA microarrays comprising ?95% of the Bacillus subtilis annotated protein coding ORFs were deployed to generate a series of snapshots of genomewide transcriptional changes that occur when cells are grown under various conditions that are expected to increase or decrease transcription of the trp operon segment of the aromatic supraoperon. Comparisons of global expression patterns were made between cells grown in the presence of indole acrylic acid, a specific inhibitor of tRNATrp charging; cells deficient in expression of the mtrB gene, which encodes the tryptophan-activated negative regulatory protein, TRAP; WT cells grown in the presence or absence of two or three of the aromatic amino acids; and cells harboring a tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase mutation conferring temperature-sensitive tryptophan-dependent growth. Our findings validate expected responses of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes and presumed regulatory interrelationships between genes in the different aromatic amino acid pathways and the histidine biosynthetic pathway. Using a combination of supervised and unsupervised statistical methods we identified ?100 genes whose expression profiles were closely correlated with those of the genes in the trp operon. This finding suggests that expression of these genes is influenced directly or indirectly by regulatory events that affect or are a consequence of altered tryptophan metabolism.

Berka, Randy M.; Cui, Xianju; Yanofsky, Charles

2003-01-01

128

Alkyl-methylimidazolium ionic liquids affect the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effect of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate [EMIM][DEP], and 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate [MMIM][DMP] on the growth and glucose fermentation of Clostridium sp. was investigated. Among the three ionic liquids tested, [MMIM][DMP] was found to be least toxic. Growth of Clostridium sp. was not inhibited up to 2.5, 4 and 4 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac], [EMIM][DEP] and [MMIM][DMP], respectively. [EMIM][Ac] at <2.5 g L{sup -1}, showed hormetic effect and stimulated the growth and fermentation by modulating medium pH. Total organic acid production increased in the presence of 2.5 and 2 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac] and [MMIM][DMP]. Ionic liquids had no significant influence on alcohol production at <2.5 g L{sup -1}. Total gas production was affected by ILs at {ge}2.5 g L{sup -1} and varied with type of methylimidazolium IL. Overall, the results show that the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. is not impacted by ILs at concentrations below 2.5 g L{sup -1}.

Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Francis, A.

2011-06-01

129

Zinc deficiency (ZD) without starvation affects thyroid hormone metabolism of rats  

SciTech Connect

Young rats fed diets severely deficient in Zn exhibit impaired growth and endocrine function. These hormone effects may be confounded by cyclical feeding and starvation. To examine the effects of zinc deficiency (ZD) with and without starvation, 40 male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semipurified diet containing all essential nutrients and 30 ppm Zn until they weighed 150 g, then were matched by weight into four groups and were fed one of the following diets for 28d: ad lib control Zn diet, marginal ZD diet, severe ZD diet, and C diet pair-fed (PF) in amounts consumed by matched ZD1 rat. Food intake was depressed in ZD1; body weights were reduced in ZD1 and PF. There was no difference in either food intake or weight gain between C and ZD6. ZD reduced liver and femur Zn concentrations. Plasma thyroxine (T{sub 4}) concentration was greater in ZD6 then ZD1 or PF, but less than C; triodothyronine concentration was less in PF than C, but similar to ZD1 and ZD6. Hepatic T{sub 4}-5{prime}-deiodinase activity was greater in ZD6 than ZD1 or PF, but less than C. These findings indicate that altered thyroid hormone metabolism of severe ZD is related to Zn intake and starvation, whereas ZD uncomplicated by starvation affects peripheral deiodination of T{sub 4}, and suggests altered rates of thyroid hormone synthesis or degradation.

Lukaski, H.C.; Smith, S.M.; Hall, C.B.; Bucher, D.R. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1991-03-15

130

Rearing temperature affects Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae protein metabolic capacity.  

PubMed

The present work examined the short- and long-term effects of three rearing temperatures on protein metabolism and growth trajectories of Senegalese sole larvae using (14)C-labelled Artemia protein as feed. A first feeding trial was performed on larvae reared at 15, 18 and 21 °C (at 26, 17 and 14 days post-hatching (dph), respectively) and a second trial conducted on post-larvae after transfer to the same rearing temperature (~20 °C) (49, 35 and 27 dph, in larvae initially reared at 15, 18 and 21 °C, respectively). Temperature greatly influenced larvae relative growth rate (RGR) and survival, since growth at 15 °C was severely depressed. Protein digestibility and retention was highest at 18 °C during the first trial (85.35 ± 1.16 and 86.34 ± 2.33 %, respectively). However, during the second trial, post-larvae from 15 °C had the highest feed intake and protein digestibility (3.58 ± 1.54 and 75.50 ± 1.35 %, respectively), although retention was similar between treatments. Furthermore, after transfer to 20 °C larvae from 15 °C experienced compensatory growth, which was observed until 121 dph, and confirmed by RGR values, which were significantly higher at 15 şC than at 21 şC or 18 şC. Results from the present study show that Solea senegalensis larval development, survival and protein digestion and retention are highly affected by thermal history. PMID:23644726

Campos, Catarina; Castanheira, M Filipa; Engrola, Sofia; Valente, Luísa M P; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Conceiçăo, Luís E C

2013-05-01

131

Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

132

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. RESULTS: The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of

Laurent G Deluc; David R Quilici; Alain Decendit; Jérôme Grimplet; Matthew D Wheatley; Karen A Schlauch; Jean-Michel Mérillon; John C Cushman; Grant R Cramer

2009-01-01

133

Thermal history can affect the short-term thermal acclimation of basal metabolic rate in the passerine Zonotrichia capensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The obligatory cost of living for endotherms is measured by basal metabolic rate (BMR), a variable that is known to change after thermal acclimation. However, the relative timing between variation in ambient temperature and BMR is not well understood. In this study, we addressed this problem in the sparrow Zonotrichia capensis, studying whether previous thermal history affects the response of

Gonzalo Barceló; Jonathan Salinas; Grisel Cavieres; Mauricio Canals; Pablo Sabat

2009-01-01

134

Emotional Language Processing: How Mood Affects Integration Processes during Discourse Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research tests whether mood affects semantic processing during discourse comprehension by facilitating integration of information congruent with moods' valence. Participants in happy, sad, or neutral moods listened to stories with positive or negative endings during EEG recording. N400 peak amplitudes showed mood congruence for happy and sad…

Egidi, Giovanna; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2012-01-01

135

Emotional Language Processing: How Mood Affects Integration Processes during Discourse Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research tests whether mood affects semantic processing during discourse comprehension by facilitating integration of information congruent with moods' valence. Participants in happy, sad, or neutral moods listened to stories with positive or negative endings during EEG recording. N400 peak amplitudes showed mood congruence for happy and sad…

Egidi, Giovanna; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2012-01-01

136

Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to compare the affective processing in 12 people with mild Alzheimer's disease and 12 matched controls. The main finding was that the clinical participants showed reduced activations in regions associated with the motor simulation system (the ventral premotor cortex) and in regions associated with emotional simulation-empathy (the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum). This regional decline in blood oxygen level-dependent signals appeared to be lateralized in the left hemisphere and was not related to any structural degeneration in the clinical participants. Furthermore, the regions that showed changes in neural activity differed for the 3 emotional facial expressions studied. Findings of our study indicate that neural changes in regions associated with the motor and emotional simulation systems might play an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22840336

Lee, Tatia M C; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

2012-07-27

137

Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and

J. P. Megonigal; M. E. Hines; P. T. Visscher

2003-01-01

138

Fibrotic process and drug metabolism in alcoholic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fibrosis on drug metabolism in alcoholic liver disease was evaluated in a comparison of the concentrations of serum aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen and basement membrane (BM; 7S domain of type IV collagen and laminin) antigens with in vitro (cytochrome P-450) and in vivo (antipyrine) drug metabolism in 67 alcoholics classified by liver histology. Alcoholics with

Eero A Sotaniemi; Onni Niemelä; Leila Risteli; Frej Stenbäck; R Olavi Pelkonen; Jorma T Lahtela; Juha Risteli

1986-01-01

139

Phonological processing is uniquely associated with neuro-metabolic concentration.  

PubMed

Reading is a complex process involving recruitment and coordination of a distributed network of brain regions. The present study sought to establish a methodologically sound evidentiary base relating specific reading and phonological skills to neuro-metabolic concentration. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed to measure metabolite concentration in a left hemisphere region around the angular gyrus for 31 young adults with a range of reading and phonological abilities. Correlation data demonstrated a significant negative association between phonological decoding and normalized choline concentration and as well as a trend toward a significant negative association between sight word reading and normalized choline concentration, indicating that lower scores on these measures are associated with higher concentrations of choline. Regression analyses indicated that choline concentration accounted for a unique proportion of variance in the phonological decoding measure after accounting for age, cognitive ability and sight word reading skill. This pattern of results suggests some specificity for the negative relationship between choline concentration and phonological decoding. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that choline concentration in the angular region may be related to phonological skills independently of other reading skills, general cognitive ability, and age. These results may have important implications for the study and treatment of reading disability, a disorder which has been related to deficits in phonological decoding and abnormalities in the angular gyrus. PMID:23147236

Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Manis, Franklin R

2012-11-10

140

Transcriptional responses of male fathead minnows exposed to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is produced by the oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. OSPW has acute and chronic effects on aquatic organisms, but the suite of effects of OSPW, and mechanisms of effects, are not understood. The goal of this study was to use RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to quantify abundances of transcripts in livers of male fathead minnows exposed to untreated OSPW and ozone-treated OSPW to investigate sublethal effects of untreated OSPW and to determine whether ozonation imparts toxicity upon OSPW. A reference transcriptome of 25,342 contigs was constructed from RNA from livers of fathead minnows exposed to various experimental conditions. Exposure to untreated OSPW resulted in greater abundances of 104 transcripts and lesser abundances of 91 transcripts. Oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and immune function were identified as processes affected by OSPW. Exposure to ozone-treated OSPW resulted in greater abundances of 57 transcripts and lesser abundances of 75 transcripts. However, in general, putative pathways for effects of OSPW in fathead minnows exposed to untreated OSPW were not identified in minnows exposed to ozone-treated OSPW, and pathways by which ozone-treated OSPW might have effects were not identified. PMID:23246600

Wiseman, Steve B; He, Yuhe; Gamal-El Din, Mohamed; Martin, Jonathan W; Jones, Paul D; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P

2012-12-14

141

Alpha-Tocopherol Modulates Transcriptional Activities that Affect Essential Biological Processes in Bovine Cells  

PubMed Central

Using global expression profiling and pathway analysis on ?-tocopherol-induced gene perturbation in bovine cells, this study has generated comprehensive information on the physiological functions of ?-tocopherol. The data confirmed ?-tocopherol is a potent regulator of gene expression and ?-tocopherol possesses novel transcriptional activities that affect essential biological processes. The genes identified fall within a broad range of functional categories and provide the molecular basis for its distinctive effects. Enrichment analyses of gene regulatory networks indicate ?-tocopherol alter the canonical pathway of lipid metabolism and transcription factors SREBP1 and SREBP2, (Sterol regulatory element binding proteins), which mediate the regulatory functions of lipid metabolism. Transcription factors HNF4-? (Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4), c-Myc, SP1 (Sp1 transcription factor), ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1, nuclear), and androgen receptor, along with several others, were centered as the hubs of transcription regulation networks. The data also provided direct evidence that ?-tocopherol is involved in maintaining immuno-homeostasis through targeting the C3 (Complement Component 3) gene.

Li, Cong-jun; Li, Robert W.; Elsasser, Theodore H.

2010-01-01

142

Clinical Factors Affecting Lipid Metabolism and Optimal Dose of Heparin in Preterm Infants on Parenteral Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Purpose Preterm infants on parenteral nutrition are at a relatively high risk for hypertriglyceridemia because they have immature lipoprotein lipase activity. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical factors affecting lipid metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition and to evaluate the influence of intravenous heparin on serum triglycerides to determine the adequate heparin dose to prevent hypertriglyceridemia in preterm infants. Methods A single-center retrospective review was conducted among preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition between January 2006 and February 2011. In 75 patients, 110 determinations were performed within 28 days postnatal age. Demographic and clinical data, including laboratory parameters, the dose and the duration of lipid administration, and the amount of intravenous heparin, were analyzed. Results Serum triglycerides were higher in the small for gestational age (SGA) infants than in the appropriate for gestational age infants (185.5±134.9 mg/dL vs. 126.9±101.9 mg/dL, p=0.019). Birth weight, gestational age, and body weight were negatively correlated with serum triglyceride level (r=-0.289, p=0.002; r=-0.208, p=0.029; r=-0.287, p=0.002, respectively). The serum triglyceride level was statistically lower in preterm infants receiving 1 U/mL of heparin than in those receiving 0.5 U/mL heparin or no heparin. Conclusion Preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition, particularly SGA and extremely low birth weight infants, tend to have hypertriglyceridemia. Thus, administration of 1 U/mL of heparin rather than 0.5 U/mL or none may be helpful to prevent hypertriglyceridemia in preterm infants.

Lim, Mi Sun; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Beyong Il

2013-01-01

143

Metabolic ecology: How do body size and temperature affect nutrient cycling rates?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this TIEE dataset, students answer the question of whether nutrient cycling (excretion) rates of fish in lakes scale with body size and temperature as predicted by The Metabolic Theory of Ecology.Students use data on the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of fish to test hypotheses related to metabolic ecology.

Vanni, Michael J.

2011-08-29

144

Metabolic traits affecting growth rates of pre-pubertal calves and their relationship with subsequent survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study related growth and metabolic traits in Holstein-Friesian calves (n=45) to subsequent performance and longevity. Animals were measured at birth, 3, 6 and 9 months (weight, crown rump length (CRL), heart girth and height). Endocrine and metabolic traits were assessed at 6 months of age. These traits were not influenced by sire (n=5). Milk production and mortality records were

A. Swali; Z. Cheng; N. Bourne; D. C. Wathes

2008-01-01

145

Butyrylcholinesterase: Association with the Metabolic Syndrome and Identification of 2 Gene Loci Affecting Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Plasma cholinesterase activity is known to be correlated with plasma triglycerides, HDL- and LDL- cholesterol, and other features of the metabolic syn- drome. A role in triglyceride metabolism has been proposed. Genetic variants that decrease activity have been studied extensively, but the factors contributing to overall variation in the population are poorly under- stood. We studied plasma cholinesterase activity

Anne Valle; Daniel T. O'Connor; Palmer Taylor; Gu Zhu; Grant W. Montgomery; P. Eline Slagboom; Nicholas G. Martin; John B. Whitfield

146

Maize source leaf adaptation to nitrogen deficiency affects not only nitrogen and carbon metabolism but also control of phosphate homeostasis.  

PubMed

Crop plant development is strongly dependent on the availability of nitrogen (N) in the soil and the efficiency of N utilization for biomass production and yield. However, knowledge about molecular responses to N deprivation derives mainly from the study of model species. In this article, the metabolic adaptation of source leaves to low N was analyzed in maize (Zea mays) seedlings by parallel measurements of transcriptome and metabolome profiling. Inbred lines A188 and B73 were cultivated under sufficient (15 mM) or limiting (0.15 mM) nitrate supply for up to 30 d. Limited availability of N caused strong shifts in the metabolite profile of leaves. The transcriptome was less affected by the N stress but showed strong genotype- and age-dependent patterns. N starvation initiated the selective down-regulation of processes involved in nitrate reduction and amino acid assimilation; ammonium assimilation-related transcripts, on the other hand, were not influenced. Carbon assimilation-related transcripts were characterized by high transcriptional coordination and general down-regulation under low-N conditions. N deprivation caused a slight accumulation of starch but also directed increased amounts of carbohydrates into the cell wall and secondary metabolites. The decrease in N availability also resulted in accumulation of phosphate and strong down-regulation of genes usually involved in phosphate starvation response, underlining the great importance of phosphate homeostasis control under stress conditions. PMID:22972706

Schlüter, Urte; Mascher, Martin; Colmsee, Christian; Scholz, Uwe; Bräutigam, Andrea; Fahnenstich, Holger; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-09-12

147

?-hexosaminidase over-expression affects lysosomal glycohydrolases expression and glycosphingolipid metabolism in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Lysosomes are not only degrading organelles but also involved in other critical cellular processes. In addition, active lysosomal glycohydrolases have been detected in an extra-lysosomal compartment: the presence of glycohydrolases on the plasma membrane (PM) has been widely demonstrated, and a possible role on the modification of the cell surface glycosphingolipids (GSL) participating in the modulation of cell functions such as cell-to-cell interactions and signal transduction pathways has been proposed. On this basis, the coordinated expression of lysosomal glycohydrolases and their translocation to the PM appear to be crucial for many cellular events. In this paper, we report evidence for the existence of a coordinated mechanism regulating the expression/activity of both lysosomal and PM-associated glycohydrolases. We show that the over-expression of the acidic glycohydrolase ?-hexosaminidase ?-subunit in mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts induces the increased expression of the Hex ?-subunit necessary to form the active isoenzyme dimers as well as of other glycohydrolases participating in the GSL catabolism, such as ?-galactosidase and ?-glucocerebrosidase. More interestingly, this regulatory effect was also extended to the PM-associated hydrolases. In addition, transfected cells displayed a rearrangement of the GSL expression pattern that cannot be simply explained by the increased activity of a single enzyme. These observations clearly indicate that the expression level of metabolically related glycohydrolases is regulated in a coordinated manner and this regulation mechanism also involves the PM-associated isoforms. PMID:22147196

Tancini, Brunella; Magini, Alessandro; Bortot, Barbara; Polchi, Alice; Urbanelli, Lorena; Sonnino, Sandro; Severini, Giovanni Maria; Emiliani, Carla

2011-12-07

148

Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and withdrawal, addicted organisms learn to

Timothy B. Baker; Megan E. Piper; Danielle E. McCarthy; Matthew R. Majeskie; Michael C. Fiore

2004-01-01

149

Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and…

Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Majeskie, Matthew R.; Fiore, Michael C.

2004-01-01

150

Affective recognition memory processing and event-related brain potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition memory was examined for visual affective stimuli using behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures.\\u000a Images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that varied systematically in arousal level (low, high) and\\u000a valence direction (unpleasant, pleasant) were first viewed passively. Then, during a response phase, the original images were\\u000a intermixed with an equal number of new images and presented,

Erik J. Kaestner; John Polich

2011-01-01

151

Analysis of aggregate size as a process variable affecting paclitaxel accumulation in Taxus suspension cultures  

PubMed Central

Plant cell aggregates have long been implicated in affecting cellular metabolism in suspension culture, yet the rigorous characterization of aggregate size as a process variable and its effect on bioprocess performance has not been demonstrated. Aggregate fractionation and analysis of biomass-associated product is commonly used to assess the effect of aggregation, but we establish that this method is flawed under certain conditions and does not necessarily agree with comprehensive studies of total culture performance. Leveraging recent advances to routinely measure aggregate size distributions, we developed a simple method to manipulate aggregate size and evaluate its effect on the culture as a whole, and found that Taxus suspension cultures with smaller aggregates produced significantly more paclitaxel than cultures with larger aggregates in two cell lines over a range of aggregate sizes, and where biomass accumulation was equivalent prior to elicitation with methyl jasmonate. T. cuspidata P93AF cultures with mean aggregate sizes of 690 ?m and 1100 ?m produced 22 mg/L and 11 mg/L paclitaxel, respectively, a 2-fold increase for smaller aggregates, and T. cuspidata P991 cultures with mean aggregate sizes of 400 ?m and 840 ?m produced 6 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L paclitaxel, respectively, an increase of 20-fold for smaller aggregates. These results demonstrate the importance of validating experiments aimed at a specific phenomenon with total process studies, and provide a basis for treating aggregate size as a targeted process variable for rational control strategies.

Kolewe, Martin E.; Henson, Michael A.; Roberts, Susan C.

2013-01-01

152

Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3\\/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature\\u000a data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show

Douglas Stewart Glazier

2009-01-01

153

Glutamate Catabolism of Rickettsia rickettsi and Factors Affecting Retention of Metabolic Activity1  

PubMed Central

Glutamate catabolism and the factors contributing to metabolic stability of purified suspensions of Rickettsia rickettsi were investigated. By use of 14C-glutamate, it was shown that CO2 was produced from all carbons of glutamate and that 14CO2 production was reduced by the addition of most of the unlabeled intermediates of the citric acid cycle and pyruvate. Oxalacetate, added in various concentrations, did not stimulate glutamate utilization. When the cells were suspended in bovine plasma albumin (BPA), CO2 production from glutamate proceeded at a nearly uniform rate for 8 hr at 32 C and for 24 hr at 15 C. When BPA was used, the cells retained their metabolic activity at 0 or 30 C regardless of cell concentration, and were not influenced by the addition of varoius metabolites. Without BPA, metabolic stability was directly related to concentration. Of the stabilizers tested on low concentrations of rickettsiae, reduced glutathione was the most effective, provided that the gas phase contained predominantly N2. Under these conditions of low partial pressure of O2, glutamate further stabilized metabolic activity and was actively metabolized. The cells were also stabilized by oxidized glutathione in a gas phase of air, but under these conditions glutamate was utilized at a more moderate rate and it impaired metabolic stability.

Rees, Horace B.; Weiss, Emilio

1968-01-01

154

Carbohydrate quality and quantity affect glucose and lipid metabolism during weight regain in healthy men.  

PubMed

In this controlled, parallel-group feeding trial, we examined the impact of carbohydrate (CHO) intake and glycemic index (GI) on glucose and lipid metabolism during refeeding after weight loss. Healthy men (n = 32 total, age: 25.5 ± 3.9 y, BMI: 23.5 ± 2.0 kg/m2) overconsumed diets containing either 50% or 65% CHO for 1 wk (+50% of energy requirements) and then underwent 3 wk of calorie restriction (CR; -50%) followed by 2 wk of overconsuming (refeeding, +50%) the same diet but with either a low or high GI (40 vs.70 during CR, 41 vs.74 during refeeding) so that glycemic load (GL; dietary CHO content x GI) differed between groups during all phases. Glucose profiles were assessed by continuous interstitial glucose monitoring, insulin sensitivity (IS) by fasting blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and liver fat by MRI. Daytime area under the curve-glucose during refeeding was higher with high compared with low GI (P = 0.01) and 65% compared with 50% CHO intake (P = 0.05) and correlated with dietary GL (r = 0.71; P < 0.001). IS increased with CR and decreased again with refeeding in all groups. The decrease in OGTT-derived IS was greater with high- than with low-GI diets (-41 vs. -15%; P-interaction = 0.01) and correlated with dietary GL during refeeding (r = -0.51; P < 0.01). Serum triglycerides (TGs) and liver fat also improved with CR (-17 ± 38 mg/dL and -1.1 ± 1.3%; P < 0.05 and <0.001) and increased again with refeeding (+48 ± 48 mg/dL and +2.2 ± 1.6%; P < 0.001). After refeeding, serum TGs and liver fat were elevated above baseline values with 65% CHO intake only (+59.9 ± 37.5 mg/dL and +1.1 ± 1.7%, P-interaction <0.001 and <0.05). In conclusion, a diet low in GI and moderate in CHO content (i.e., low GL) may have health benefits by positively affecting daylong glycemia, IS, and liver fat. PMID:23946346

Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Braun, Wiebke; Johannsen, Maike; Pape, Detlef; Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

2013-08-14

155

Mutations and Polymorphisms in Genes Affecting Hemostasis Proteins and Homocysteine Metabolism in Children with Arterial Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pathogenesis of thrombosis in childhood seems to be multifactorial implicating genetic and environmental factors. Aim: To compare the distributions of mutations\\/polymorphisms in genes affecting hemostasis (factor V Leiden – FVL, FV H1298R-FVR2, FII 20210A, b-Fib 455G>A, FXIII V34L, PAI-1 4G, HPA-1b) or homocysteine metabolism (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C) among 90 children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and 103

A. Komitopoulou; H. Platokouki; Z. Kapsimali; H. Pergantou; E. Adamtziki; S. Aronis

2006-01-01

156

Alterations in Cytosolic Glucose-Phosphate Metabolism Affect Structural Features and Biochemical Properties of Starch-Related Heteroglycans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytosolic pools of glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P) and glucose-6-phosphate areessential intermediates in several biosynthetic paths, including the formation of sucrose and cell wall constituents, and they are also linked to the cytosolic starch-related heteroglycans. In this work, structural features and biochemical properties of starch-related heteroglycans were analyzed as affected by the cytosolic glucose monophosphate metabolism using both source and sink organs

Joerg Fettke; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Jessica Alpers; Michal Szkop; Alisdair R. Fernie; Martin Steup

2008-01-01

157

Cobalt Targets Multiple Metabolic Processes in Salmonella enterica?  

PubMed Central

Cobalt is essential for growth of Salmonella enterica and other organisms, yet this metal can be toxic when present in excess. Wild-type Salmonella exhibits several metabolic defects when grown in the presence of cobalt, some of which generate visible growth consequences. Work herein identifies sulfur assimilation, iron homeostasis, and Fe-S cluster metabolism as targets for cobalt toxicity. In each case it is proposed that cobalt exerts its effect by one of two mechanisms: direct competition with iron or indirectly through a mechanism that involves the status of reduced thiols in the cell. Cobalt toxicity results in decreased siroheme production, increased expression of the Fur regulon, and decreased activity of Fe-S cluster proteins. The consequences of reduced sulfite reductase activity in particular are exacerbated by the need for glutathione in cobalt resistance. Significantly, independent metabolic perturbations could be detected at cobalt concentrations below those required to generate a detectable growth defect.

Thorgersen, Michael P.; Downs, Diana M.

2007-01-01

158

Embryonic temperature affects metabolic compensation and thyroid hormones in hatchling snapping turtles.  

PubMed

Temperature acclimation of adult vertebrates typically induces changes in metabolic physiology. During early development, such metabolic compensation might have profound consequences, yet acclimation of metabolism is little studied in early life stages. We measured the effect of egg incubation temperature on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood thyroid hormone levels of hatchling snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Like many reptiles, snapping turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), in which embryonic temperature determines sex. Therefore, we designed the experiments to separately measure effects of temperature and of sex on the response variables. We incubated eggs in the laboratory at 21. 5 degrees, 24.5 degrees, 27.5 degrees, and 30.5 degrees C, producing both sexes, all males, both sexes, and all females, respectively. Hatchling RMR, when measured at a common temperature (either 25 degrees or 31 degrees C), was negatively correlated with egg temperature in both males and females, such that RMR of turtles from 21.5 degrees C-incubated eggs averaged 160% that of turtles from 30.5 degrees C-incubated eggs. These results indicate that egg temperatures induced positive metabolic compensation in both sexes. Thyroid hormone levels of hatchlings showed similar correlations with egg temperature; thyroxine level of turtles from 21.5 degrees C-incubated eggs averaged 220% that of turtles from 30.5 degrees C-incubated eggs. To examine the possibility that thyroid hormones contribute to positive metabolic compensation, we added triiodothyronine to eggs during mid-incubation. RMR of hatchlings from these treated eggs averaged 131% that of controls, consistent with the previous possibility. Moreover, the effects of embryonic temperature on metabolic physiology, in combination with effects on sex, can result in differences in RMR and thyroid hormone levels between male and female hatchling turtles. Such differences may be important to the ecology and evolution of TSD. PMID:10521320

O'Steen, S; Janzen, F J

159

Processing of Affective Speech Prosody Is Impaired in Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many people with the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) show poorly developed skills in understanding emotional messages. The present study addressed discrimination of speech prosody in children with AS at neurophysiological level. Detection of affective prosody was investigated in one-word utterances as indexed by the N1 and the mismatch…

Korpilahti, Pirjo; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kuusikko, Sanna; Suominen, Kalervo; Rytky, Seppo; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma

2007-01-01

160

Dietary protein and sugar differentially affect development and metabolic pools in ecologically diverse Drosophila.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of 3 diets differing in their relative levels of sugar and protein on development and metabolic pools (protein, TG, and glycogen) among sets of isofemale lines of 2 ecologically distinct Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. mojavensis. Our high protein:sugar ratio diet contained 7.1% protein and 17.9% carbohydrate, the EPS diet was 4.3% protein and 21.2% carbohydrate, and the LPS was only 2.5% protein and 24.6% carbohydrate. Larvae of D. melanogaster, a generalist fruit breeder, were able to survive on all 3 diets, although all 3 metabolic pools responded with significant diet and diet × line interactions. Development was delayed by the diet with the most sugar relative to protein. The other species, D. mojavensis, a cactus breeder ecologically unaccustomed to encountering simple sugars, completely failed to survive when fed the diet with the highest sugar and showed very poor survival even with the diet with equal parts of protein and sugar. Furthermore, the D. mojavensis adult metabolic pools of protein, TG, and glycogen significantly differed from those of D. melanogaster adults fed the identical diet. Thus, considerable within- and between-species differences exist in how diets are metabolized. Given that the genomes of both of these Drosophila species have been sequenced, these differences and their genetic underpinnings hold promise for understanding human responses to nutrition and for developing strategies for dealing with metabolic disease. PMID:21525254

Matzkin, Luciano M; Johnson, Sarah; Paight, Christopher; Bozinovic, Goran; Markow, Therese A

2011-04-27

161

Anaerobic metabolic processes in the deep terrestrial subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic microorganisms were enumerated and metabolic activities measured in deep Coastal Plain sediments sampled from three water?bearing formations at depths down to 300 m. Aseptically obtained sediment cores harbored the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of various substrates in almost all samples. Although the sediments were not predominantly anaerobic, viable methanogens and sulfate?reducing bacteria (SRB) were present almost throughout the depth

Ralph E. Jones; Ralph E. Beeman; Joseph M. Suflita

1989-01-01

162

Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can compensate for progressive dopaminergic nerve degeneration in carriers of a single mutant Parkin or PINK1 gene, who show a mild but significant reduction of dopamine metabolism in the basal ganglia in the complete absence of clinical motor signs. However, it is currently unknown whether similar compensatory mechanisms are effective in non-motor basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Here, we ask whether asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers show altered patterns of brain activity during processing of facial gestures, and whether this might compensate for latent facial emotion recognition deficits. Current theories in social neuroscience assume that execution and perception of facial gestures are linked by a special class of visuomotor neurons ('mirror neurons') in the ventrolateral premotor cortex/pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44/6). We hypothesized that asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers would show increased activity in this area during processing of affective facial gestures, replicating the compensatory motor effects that have previously been observed in these individuals. Additionally, Parkin mutation carriers might show altered activity in other basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Eight asymptomatic heterozygous Parkin mutation carriers and eight matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent facial emotion recognition task. As predicted, Parkin mutation carriers showed significantly stronger activity in the right ventrolateral premotor cortex during execution and perception of affective facial gestures than healthy controls. Furthermore, Parkin mutation carriers showed a slightly reduced ability to recognize facial emotions that was least severe in individuals who showed the strongest increase of ventrolateral premotor activity. In addition, Parkin mutation carriers showed a significantly weaker than normal increase of activity in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis, Brodmann area 47), which was unrelated to facial emotion recognition ability. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that compensatory activity in the ventrolateral premotor cortex during processing of affective facial gestures can reduce impairments in facial emotion recognition in subclinical Parkin mutation carriers. A breakdown of this compensatory mechanism might lead to the impairment of facial expressivity and facial emotion recognition observed in manifest Parkinson's disease. PMID:22434215

Anders, Silke; Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

2012-03-20

163

Processing Deficits and the Mediation of Positive Affect in Persuasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational and cognitive mediators of the reduced processing of persuasive messages shown by recipients in a positive mood were tested. Ss in positive or neutral moods read strong or weak counterattitudinal advocacies for either a limited time or for as long as they wanted. Under limited exposure conditions, neutral mood Ss showed attitude change indicative of systematic processing, whereas positive

Diane M. Mackie; Leila T. Worth

1989-01-01

164

Respiratory responses associated with affective processing of film stimuli.  

PubMed

We investigated respiratory responses during film clip viewing and their relation to the affective dimensions of valence and arousal. Seventy-six subjects participated in a study using a between groups design. To begin with, all participants viewed an emotionally neutral film clip. Then, they were presented with one out of four emotional film clips: a positive high-arousal, a positive low-arousal, a negative high-arousal and a negative low-arousal clip. Respiration, skin conductance level, heart rate, corrugator activity and affective judgments were measured. Expiratory time was shorter and inspiratory duty cycle, mean expiratory flow and minute ventilation were larger during the high-arousal clips compared to the low-arousal clips. The pleasantness of the stimuli had no influence on any respiratory measure. These findings confirm the importance of arousal in respiratory responding but also evidence differences in comparison to previous studies using visual and auditory stimuli. PMID:15620792

Gomez, Patrick; Zimmermann, Philippe; Guttormsen-Schär, Sissel; Danuser, Brigitta

2005-03-01

165

Processing of Affective Speech Prosody is Impaired in Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people with the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) show poorly developed skills in understanding emotional messages.\\u000a The present study addressed discrimination of speech prosody in children with AS at neurophysiological level. Detection of\\u000a affective prosody was investigated in one-word utterances as indexed by the N1 and the mismatch negativity (MMN) of auditory\\u000a event-related potentials (ERPs). Data from fourteen boys

Pirjo Korpilahti; Eira Jansson-Verkasalo; Marja-Leena Mattila; Sanna Kuusikko; Kalervo Suominen; Seppo Rytky; David L. Pauls; Irma Moilanen

2007-01-01

166

Differences in the affective processing of words and pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often assumed that affective information is represented within a semantic network. This hypothesis is more closely examined here, using a picture-word variant of the Stroop task. The studies are inspired by a recent theory of W.R. Glaser and M.O. Glaser (1989), who proposed a distinction between a semantic system, to which pictures have privileged access, and a lexical

Jan De Houwer; Dirk Hermans

1994-01-01

167

Dietary l-Carnitine Affects Periparturient Nutrient Metabolism and Lactation in Multiparous Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on liver lipid accumulation, hepatic nutrient metabolism, and lactation in multiparous cows during the periparturient period. Cows were assigned to treatments at d ?25 rela- tive to expected calving date and remained on the exper- iment until 56 d in milk. Treatments were 4 amounts of

D. B. Carlson; J. W. McFadden; A. D’Angelo; J. C. Woodworth; J. K. Drackley

2007-01-01

168

Dietary Magnesium Depletion Affects Metabolic Responses during Submaximal Exercise in Postmenopausal Women1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium is an essential mineral that is required for optimal biological function including energy metabolism. Although national nutritional surveys indicate that usual magnesium intakes do not meet recommen- dations, particularly among older women, diet-induced magnesium depletion is considered rare among humans without concurrent illness. We examined the effects of dietary magnesium restriction on biochemical measures of magnesium nutriture and physiologic

Henry C. Lukaski; Forrest H. Nielsen

169

Dietary plant-protein substitution affects hepatic metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high dietary protein requirements of salmonid fish are met with fishmeal-based feed in commercial aquaculture. The sustainability of this practice is questionable and, therefore, the feasibility of substituting fishmeal with plant-based products needs to be investigated. We investigated growth and metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a diet composed of a mixture of plant proteins compared with those

Oddur T. Vilhelmsson; Samuel A. M. Martin; Françoise Médale; Sadasivam J. Kaushik; Dominic F. Houlihan

2004-01-01

170

Fat Intake Affects Adiposity, Comorbidity Factors, and Energy Metabolism of Sprague-Dawley Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Childhood obesity is an emerging health problem. This study assesses the effects of three levels of dietary fat (10%, 32%, and 45% measured by kilocalories) on weight gain, body composition, energy metabolism, and comorbidity factors in rats from weaning through maturation.Research Methods and Procedures: The role of dietary fat on the susceptibility to obesity was assessed by feeding diets

Lorraine Ghibaudi; John Cook; Constance Farley; Margaret van Heek; Joyce J. Hwa

2002-01-01

171

Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Gene Expression Is Not Affected by Dichloroacetate-Mediated Modulation of Substrate Utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study investigated whether changing fuel use, by increasing pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) flux, independently of plasma substrate availability and insulin signalling, would alter metabolic gene expression. Methods: The PDC activator, dichloroacetate (DCA), was administered as an intravenous infusion in healthy male subjects at a rate of 50 mg kg–1 min–1, for 90 min. Saline was infused as a

Paul B. Tisdale; Andrew J. Bennett; Nandini Seevaratnam; Ian A. Macdonald; Kostas Tsintzas

2011-01-01

172

Factors affecting the metabolic control of cytosolic and lysosomal glycogen levels in the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats with a gentic deficiency of phosphorylase kinase have been treated with the 1,4-a-glucosidase inhibitor, Acarbose. Lysosomal glycogen metabolism has been markedly altered and the results support the concept of a feedback control mechanism operating on the uptake mechanism into the lysosomal compartment.

Robert Geddes; Jacqueline A. Taylor

1985-01-01

173

Factors Affecting Quality and Postharvest Properties of Vegetables: Integration of Water Relations and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing of vegetables in the field, harvesting, handling in the packing house and storage are events in the lifetime of vegetables that are analysed from the point of view of the complex series of physiological transitions taking place in each of these events.Water is the major factor limiting plant metabolism and plants have developed fascinating mechanisms to cope with this

FEDERICO GÓMEZ GALINDO; WERNER HERPPICH; VASSILIS GEKAS; INGEGERD SJÖHOLM

2004-01-01

174

Failure of caffeine to affect metabolism during 60 min submaximal exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine consumption prior to athletic performance has become commonplace. The usual dosage is approximately 200 mg, a level of caffeine ingestion equivalent to two cups of brewed coffee. This study was designed to examine the effects of a common level of caffeine ingestion, specifically 200 mg, on metabolism during submaximal exercise performance in five males. The subjects performed two 60?min

Larry W. Titlow; Jimmy H. Ishee; Charles E. Riggs

1991-01-01

175

Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (mb), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We

Jakub P. Gutowski; Micha? S. Wojciechowski; Ma?gorzata Jefimow

2011-01-01

176

Glutamate Catabolism of Rickettsia Rickettsi and Factors Affecting Retention of Metabolic Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glutamate catabolism and the factors contributing to metabolic stability of purified suspensions of Rickettsia rickettsi were investigated. By use of 14C-glutamate, it was shown that CO2 was produced from all carbons of glutamate and that 14CO2 production...

H. B. Rees E. Weiss

1968-01-01

177

Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties  

SciTech Connect

The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

2012-09-28

178

Biogeochemical reduction processes in a hyperalkaline affected leachate soil profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperalkaline surface environments can occur naturally or because of contamination by hydroxide-rich wastes. The high pH produced in these areas has the potential to lead to highly specialised microbial communities and unusual biogeochemical processes. This paper reports an investigation into the geochemical processes that are occurring in a buried, saturated, organic–rich soil layer at pH 12.3. The soil has been

Ian T. Burke; Robert J. G. Mortimer; Shanmugam Palani; Robert A. Whittleston; Cindy L. Lockwood; David J. Ashley; Douglas I. Stewart

2012-01-01

179

Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. Prior attempts to uncouple and quantify these processes have relied on column experiments, where the effluent concentration was monitored under different conditions in an effort to quantify the contributions from a single process. In real porous media these processes occur simultaneously and are inter-related. Further, the contribution from each of these processes varies at the pore scale and with time. This research aims to determine the pore-scale processes that limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. The specific objectives are to: (1) determine the effect of unswept zones on DNAPL removal during SVE, (2) determine the effect of retarded vapor phase transport on DNAPL removal during SVE, and (3) determine the effect of interphase mass transfer on DNAPL removal during SVE, all as a function of changing moisture and DNAPL content. To fulfill these objectives we propose to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe and quantify the location and size of individual pores containing DNAPL, water, and vapor in flow through columns filled with model and natural sediments. Imaging results will be used in conjunction with modeling techniques to develop spatially and temporally dependent constitutive relations that describe the transient distribution of phases inside a column experiment. This work will lead to improved models that will allow decision makers to better assess the risk associated with vadose zone contamination and the effectiveness of SVE at hazardous waste sites.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Webb, Andrew G.

2003-06-01

180

Metabolic Process During the Repair of Freeze-Injury in Escherichia coli1  

PubMed Central

After Escherichia coli was injured by freezing, the repair process was studied during incubation of the cells for 2 hr at 25 C in 0.5% K2HPO4 at pH 7.0 in the presence of specific metabolic inhibitors. The repair in K2HPO4 was not affected by inhibitors of the synthesis of protein, nucleic acids, and mucopeptide. These inhibitors prevented growth of the repaired cells in a minimal broth at 35 C for 24 hr (except actinomycin D and hydroxyurea). Several uncouplers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis reduced the repair process in K2HPO4, but only cyanide and azide prevented growth in minimal medium. Data indicated that the cells synthesized energy in the form of ATP and probably utilized it for the repair process. Addition of ATP also facilitated the repair of injury. The freeze-injured cells showed extreme susceptibility to surface-active agents and lysozyme. The repaired cells, like the uninjured cells, became relatively resistant to these compounds.

Ray, B.; Speck, M. L.

1972-01-01

181

Preference and processing: The role of speech affect in early spoken word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants prefer to listen to happy speech. To assess influences of speech affect on early lexical processing, 7.5- and 10.5-month-old infants were familiarized with one word spoken with happy affect and another with neutral affect and then tested on recognition of these words in fluent passages. Infants heard all passages either with happy affect or with neutral affect. Contrary to

Leher Singh; James L. Morgan; Katherine S. Whiteb

2004-01-01

182

Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

2010-01-01

183

How community context affects entrepreneurial process: A diagnostic framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports a multi-faceted search to discover and articulate, in the form of a manageable framework, a diagnostic system for assessing the influence that community factors will have upon the conduct and outcome of any proposed entrepreneurial process. A methodological approach based on investigation of a rich empirical database supported by a wide examination of extant theory in several

Kevin Hindle

2010-01-01

184

Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

2008-01-01

185

Delay in processing porcine whole blood affects cytokine expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of cytokine messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in blood samples has become an important tool in the investigation of immune cell activation in a variety of clinical settings. It has been shown that the method of sample collection and processing influences the levels of several cytokine mRNAs. Therefore, it is generally accepted that blood samples for analysis of cytokine expression

J. C. Duvigneau; R. T. Hartl; M. Teinfalt; M. Gemeiner

2003-01-01

186

Processes Affecting Exchange of Mud between Tidal Channels and Flats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of our Tidal Flats research is to expand our understanding of the erosional and depositional processes that lead to exchange of mud between tidal channels and tidal flats. We also investigate the effect of sediment texture on sediment strength. O...

B. A. Law P. S. Hill T. G. Milligan

2011-01-01

187

Can Process Portfolios Affect Students' Writing Self-Efficacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Can process portfolios that support students in goal setting, reflection, self-evaluation and feedback have a positive impact on students' writing self-efficacy? This article presents the findings of a yearlong study conducted in three 4th grade elementary classes in Cyprus where paper-based and web-based portfolios were implemented to help…

Nicolaidou, Iolie

2012-01-01

188

Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm").…

Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

2008-01-01

189

Respiration rate of minimally processed lettuce as affected by packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study on the influence of films with different water and gas permeability on the quality decay of fresh processed lettuce is presented. The study was conducted by packaging two lettuce cultivars, Iceberg and Romaine, with three different plastic films, two commercially available polyolefines (PF1 and PF2) and a biodegradable film (BF), and storing the packages at 5°C. The

M. A. Del Nobile; A. Baiano; A. Benedetto; L. Massignan

2006-01-01

190

Preadult parental diet affects offspring development and metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

When Drosophila melanogaster larvae are reared on isocaloric diets differing in their amounts of protein relative to sugar, emerging adults exhibit significantly different development times and metabolic pools of protein, glycogen and trigylcerides. In the current study, we show that the influence of larval diet experienced during just one generation extends into the next generation, even when that subsequent generation had been shifted to a standard diet during development. Offspring of flies that were reared on high protein relative to sugar underwent metamorphosis significantly faster, had higher reproductive outputs, and different metabolic pool contents compared to the offspring of adults from low protein relative to sugar diets. In addition, isofemale lines differed in the degree to which parental effects were observed, suggesting a genetic component to the observed transgenerational influences. PMID:23555695

Matzkin, Luciano M; Johnson, Sarah; Paight, Christopher; Markow, Therese A

2013-03-26

191

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

When Drosophila melanogaster larvae are reared on isocaloric diets differing in their amounts of protein relative to sugar, emerging adults exhibit significantly different development times and metabolic pools of protein, glycogen and trigylcerides. In the current study, we show that the influence of larval diet experienced during just one generation extends into the next generation, even when that subsequent generation had been shifted to a standard diet during development. Offspring of flies that were reared on high protein relative to sugar underwent metamorphosis significantly faster, had higher reproductive outputs, and different metabolic pool contents compared to the offspring of adults from low protein relative to sugar diets. In addition, isofemale lines differed in the degree to which parental effects were observed, suggesting a genetic component to the observed transgenerational influences.

Matzkin, Luciano M.; Johnson, Sarah; Paight, Christopher; Markow, Therese A.

2013-01-01

192

Factors affecting bioabsorption, metabolism, and storage of organic compounds by aquatic biota  

SciTech Connect

Biological concentration and transfer of organic chemicals through aquatic food webs can be influenced by a variety of environmental, biological, and biochemical factors. Bioaccumulation can be significantly altered by the presence of suspended matter or complex organic mixtures in the water column. In addition, the bioaccumulation factor of a compound is dependent on the species of an organism, its life stage, and the available food supply. Metabolic changes in structure of absorbed organics can alter both the rate and the mechanism of absorption and elimination of organics. In the case of quinoline absorption by trout, both the rate of absorption and the metabolic disposition depended upon whether exposure was through ingestion or through direct water column exposure. All of these factors can be used to explain why the physical properties of organic compounds (most notably octanol/water partition coefficients) are unreliable predictors of bioaccumulation potential. 24 refs., 1 tab.

Bean, R.M.; Dauble, D.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Chess, E.K.

1985-12-01

193

Nonsense mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene affect RNA processing  

SciTech Connect

Steady-state dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mRNA levels were decreased as a result of nonsense mutations in the dhfr gene. Thirteen DHFR-deficient mutants were isolated after treatment of Chinese hamster ovary cells with UV irradiation. The positions of most point mutations were localized by RNA heteroduplex mapping, the mutated regions were isolated by cloning or by enzymatic amplification, and base changes were determined by DNA sequencing. Two of the mutants suffered large deletions that spanned the entire dhfr gene. The remaining 11 mutations consisted of nine single-base substitutions, one double-base substitution, and one single-base insertion. All of the single-base substitutions took place at the 3' position of a pyrimidine dinucleotide, supporting the idea that UV mutagenesis proceeds through the formation of pyrimidine dimers in mammalian cells. Of the 11 point mutations, 10 resulted in nonsense codons, either directly or by a frameshift, suggesting that the selection method favored a null phenotype. An examination of steady-state RNA levels in cells carrying these mutations and a comparison with similar data from other dhfr mutants showed that translation termination mutations in any of the internal exons of the gene gave rise to a low-RNA phenotype, whereas missense mutations in these exons or terminations in exon 6 (the final exon) did not affect dhfr mRNA levels. Nuclear run-on experiments showed that transcription of the mutant genes was normal. The stability of mature dhfr mRNA also was not affected, since (i) decay rates were the same in wild-type and mutant cells after inhibition of RNA synthesis with actinomycin D and (ii) intronless minigene versions of cloned wild-type and nonsense mutant genes were expressed equally after stable transfection.

Urlaub, G.; Mitchell, P.J.; Ciudad, C.J.; Chasin, L.A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

1989-07-01

194

Age at onset and long-term metabolic control affect height in type-1 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced height as a consequence of type-I-diabetes mellitus in childhood has been reported in many studies. However, it is\\u000a still debated whether good metabolic control can normalize the growth rate. A total of 436 children (204 boys, 232 girls,\\u000a mean age at diagnosis of diabetes 8.2±0.2 years) were followed at our outpatient diabetes centre. Z-scores for height were\\u000a evaluated in

R. W. Holl; M. Grabert; E. Heinze; W. Sorgo; K. M. Debatin

1998-01-01

195

Inhibition of long-chain fatty acid metabolism does not affect platelet aggregation responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of anti-anginal agents (perhexiline, amiodarone, trimetazidine) have been shown to inhibit myocardial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, which controls access of long-chain fatty acids to mitochondrial sites of ?-oxidation. In view of clinical data suggesting that perhexiline improves symptomatic status in unstable angina pectoris, and the known role of mitochondrial ?-oxidation in platelet metabolism, we compared the platelet carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitory

Scott R. Willoughby; Yuliy Y. Chirkov; Jennifer A. Kennedy; Geraldine A. Murphy; Larissa P. Chirkova; John D. Horowitz

1998-01-01

196

Bovine papillomavirus oncoprotein E5 affects the arachidonic acid metabolism in cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) oncoprotein encoded by the E5 ORF is a small highly hydrophobic protein, which is capable of inducing oncogenic transformation of cells. We studied the effect of the BPV-1 E5 protein expression on the arachidonic acid metabolism in monkey (COS1) and human (C33A) cells. At relatively low protein concentrations the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and

Ülo Väli; Ann Kilk; Mart Ustav

2001-01-01

197

Fish Oil and the Pan-PPAR Agonist Tetradecylthioacetic Acid Affect the Amino Acid and Carnitine Metabolism in Rats  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPAR?-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPAR? activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor ?-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPAR? activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms.

Bj?rndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevag; Svardal, Asbj?rn; Nygard, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

2013-01-01

198

Metabolic traits affecting growth rates of pre-pubertal calves and their relationship with subsequent survival.  

PubMed

This study related growth and metabolic traits in Holstein-Friesian calves (n=45) to subsequent performance and longevity. Animals were measured at birth, 3, 6 and 9 months (weight, crown rump length (CRL), heart girth and height). Endocrine and metabolic traits were assessed at 6 months of age. These traits were not influenced by sire (n=5). Milk production and mortality records were obtained through 3 lactations. Seven heifers failed to achieve a lactation, 6 were culled after one, 17 after two and 15 (33%) survived >/=3 lactations. Birth weight and girth but not skeletal measures were highly positively correlated with the repeated size measurements at 3-9 months. Calves with higher cortisol at 6 months were smaller in weight and girth at 3 months, with reduced 3-6 months skeletal growth. GH secretion was related to height, weight and growth, whereas urea was most strongly related to CRL. Calves not achieving a single lactation had lower IGF-I. Calves with higher glucose or BHB were more likely to be culled after 2 lactations, an effect which was independent of yield. Size and metabolic measurements of growing calves may therefore prove useful in predicting longevity. PMID:18675527

Swali, A; Cheng, Z; Bourne, N; Wathes, D C

2008-07-17

199

Dietary cystine level affects metabolic rate and glycaemic control in adult mice???  

PubMed Central

Plasma total cysteine (tCys) is strongly and independently associated with obesity in large human cohorts, but whether the association is causal is unknown. Dietary cyst(e)ine increases weight gain in some rodent models. We investigated the body composition, metabolic rate and metabolic phenotype of mature C3H/HeH mice assigned to low-cystine (LC) or high-cystine (HC) diets for 12 weeks. Compared to LC mice, HC mice gained more weight (P=.004 for 12-week weight gain %), with increased fat mass and lean mass, and lowered O2 consumption and CO2 production by calorimetry. The HC mice had 30% increase in intestinal fat/body weight % (P=.003) and ?twofold elevated hepatic triglycerides (P=.046), with increased expression of hepatic lipogenic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. Gene expression of both basal and catecholamine-stimulated lipolytic enzymes, adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase was inhibited in HC mice adipose tissue. The HC mice also had elevated fasting glucose (7.0 vs. 4.5 mmol/L, P<.001) and a greater area under the curve (P<.001) in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, with enhanced expression of the negative regulator of insulin signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B, in liver and adipose tissue. Overall, high cystine intake promotes adiposity and an adverse metabolic phenotype in mice, indicating that the positive association of plasma tCys with obesity in humans may be causal.

Elshorbagy, Amany K.; Church, Chris; Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Smith, A. David; Refsum, Helga; Cox, Roger

2012-01-01

200

Does seasonal proliferation of Enteromorpha sp. affect the annual benthic metabolism of a small macrotidal estuary? (Roscoff Aber Bay, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proliferation of fast growing ephemeral macroalgae may occur in intertidal environments and potentially affect the annual gross (GPP a) and net (NPP a) primary production of the system. Seasonal macroalgal proliferation was studied in situ in the Roscoff Aber bay and its influence on the annual benthic metabolism was investigated during low tide. CO 2 exchanges at the air-sediment interface were regularly measured within a benthic chamber in order to calculate in situ net (NPP), gross (GPP) primary production and benthic community respiration (BCR). These measurements were assessed on bare sediments at 3 representative sampling sites and in an additional sampling site regularly affected by macroalgae deposit. On bare sediments, under optimal irradiance daily GPP and NPP exhibited fortnightly fluctuations. Annual net primary production (NPP a) was net autotrophic at the coarsest sites (up to 16 gC m -2 y -1) and net heterotrophic at the muddiest station (up to -22 gC m -2 y -1). On macroalgal mats GPP and BCR increased respectively from 3 to 10 and 3 to 20 times compared to bare sediments. This indicated that, at an hourly scale, the impact of macroalgae deposit on benthic metabolism was very significant. However, at the annual scale, macroalgae deposit and sediment microalgae respectively accounted for 12% and 88% of the annual net benthic primary production indicating that macroalgae proliferation poorly affected the annual carbon budget.

Hubas, Cédric; Davoult, Dominique

2006-10-01

201

Mutants Affecting Processing of DNA in Macronuclear Development in Paramecium  

PubMed Central

In Paramecium tetraurelia, stock 51, the A surface protein is coded by the wild type A(51) gene, present in micronuclei in two copies and in macronuclei in about 1500 copies. DNA processing, comprised of DNA cleavage, copy number amplification and telomere addition occurs at autogamy and conjugation when old macronuclei degrade and new macronuclei are formed from micronuclei. In this paper we characterize mutants with macronuclear A gene deletions. These mutants are notable in three respects. First, the mutants do not appear to be simple micronuclear deletions. Although genetic analysis shows that the d12 mutant d12(-1300) is homozygous for the allele A(-1300) and the mutant d12(+1) for A(+1), analysis by the polymerase chain reaction indicates that the micronucIei in these two mutants contain intact, but presumably altered, micronuclear A genes. They undergo deletion during DNA processing when new macronuclei are formed. Second, the position of the deletions in these alleles has been shown to change. The deficiency present in the d12 allele A(-1300) was originally determined to extend from position -1300 (relative to the start of translation of the A gene) to the end of the chromosome. Later, a derivative of this strain, homozygous for the d12 allele A(+1) was isolated in which the start site of the deletion was found to have moved from -1300 to +1. Third, a surprising interaction occurs in crosses between a line homozygous for the d12 allele and one homozygous for the wild-type A(51) allele. Previous work on the non-Mendelian d48 mutant (which has intact A(51) genes in its micronucleus, but has truncated A(51) genes in its macronucleus) has shown that intact A(51) alleles must be present in the old macronucleus in order for A(51) alleles to undergo proper processing. We find that d12 alleles act on A(51) alleles in heterozygotes such that intact macronuclear A genes are no longer required for proper processing of A(51). Thus, in crosses of 51 X d12 (either +1 or -1300) d12 exconjugants, as well as 51 exconjugants, give rise to clones carrying both intact A(51) and truncated d12 alleles. Remarkably the d12 alleles, which are themselves deleted during processing, are capable in the heterozygote of fostering normal processing of the A(51) allele.

Rudman, B.; Preer, L. B.; Polisky, B.; Preer-Jr., J. R.

1991-01-01

202

Parameters affecting megasonic power transmittance in the megasonic cleaning process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of contaminants and particles on the surface has been long recognized as a cause of reduced wafer yields and delayed mask TAT. Especially, as the device pitch is continuously decreasing below submicron, the size of the contaminants and particles which must be controlled is decreasing below quarter-micron. It is believed that the megasonic process with the SC-1 chemical is the most important wet cleaning process in particle removal technology. The megasonic cleaning, which is dependent on the transmittance of megasonic power, is a commonly used technique for removing particles on the surface of a photomask. In this paper, in terms of both simulation and experiment, the transmittance of sound was obtained by varying the liquid temperature, the inclined angle, and the thickness of the bottom plate in the inner bath. Finally, after comparison of experimental results with simulation ones, we obtained the transmittance characteristics with similar tendency.

Kim, Yong H.; Park, Jin-Hong; Lee, Keumhee H.; Choi, Sung-Woon; Yoon, Hee-Sun; Sohn, Jung-Min

1998-09-01

203

The Intrinsic Variables affecting the Stick-Slip Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stick-slip oscillations are normally analysed in terms of the kinetic friction-velocity and the static friction-time of stick characteristics of the rubbing surfaces. It is shown that, in addition, a critical distance, of the order of 10-3 cm, enters into the calculations, being the minimum resolving power of the friction process. Stick-slip oscillations must normally have an amplitude greater than the

E. Rabinowicz

1958-01-01

204

Dopaminergic modulation of memory and affective processing in Parkinson depression.  

PubMed

Depression is common in Parkinson's disease and is associated with cognitive impairment. Dopaminergic medications are effective in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease; however, little is known regarding the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on cognitive function in depressed Parkinson patients. This study examines the neuropsychological effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy in Parkinsonian depression. We compared cognitive function in depressed and non-depressed Parkinson patients at two time-points: following overnight withdrawal and after the usual morning regimen of dopaminergic medications. A total of 28 non-demented, right-handed patients with mild to moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated. Ten of these patients were depressed according to DSM IV criteria. Results revealed a statistically significant interaction between depression and medication status on three measures of verbal memory and a facial affect naming task. In all cases, depressed Parkinson's patients performed significantly more poorly while on dopaminergic medication than while off. The opposite pattern emerged for the non-depressed Parkinson's group. The administration of dopaminergic medication to depressed Parkinson patients may carry unintended risks. PMID:23838419

Blonder, Lee X; Slevin, John T; Kryscio, Richard J; Martin, Catherine A; Andersen, Anders H; Smith, Charles D; Schmitt, Frederick A

2013-07-06

205

Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption. PMID:19913695

Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Vińas, Inmaculada

2009-08-27

206

Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk.  

PubMed

A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion. PMID:22392684

Picone, Sara; Valstar, Johan; van Gaans, Pauline; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub

2012-03-30

207

The HIV Tat protein affects processing of ribosomal RNA precursor  

PubMed Central

Background Inside the cell, the HIV Tat protein is mainly found in the nucleus and nucleolus. The nucleolus, the site of ribosome biogenesis, is a highly organized, non-membrane-bound sub-compartment where proteins with a high affinity for nucleolar components are found. While it is well known that Tat accumulates in the nucleolus via a specific nucleolar targeting sequence, its function in this compartment it still unknown. Results To clarify the significance of the Tat nucleolar localization, we induced the expression of the protein during oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster strain transgenic for HIV-tat gene. Here we show that Tat localizes in the nucleoli of Drosophila oocyte nurse cells, where it specifically co-localizes with fibrillarin. Tat expression is accompanied by a significant decrease of cytoplasmic ribosomes, which is apparently related to an impairment of ribosomal rRNA precursor processing. Such an event is accounted for by the interaction of Tat with fibrillarin and U3 snoRNA, which are both required for pre-rRNA maturation. Conclusion Our data contribute to understanding the function of Tat in the nucleolus, where ribosomal RNA synthesis and cell cycle control take place. The impairment of nucleolar pre-rRNA maturation through the interaction of Tat with fibrillarin-U3snoRNA complex suggests a process by which the virus modulates host response, thus contributing to apoptosis and protein shut-off in HIV-uninfected cells.

Ponti, Donatella; Troiano, Maria; Bellenchi, Gian Carlo; Battaglia, Piero A; Gigliani, Franca

2008-01-01

208

Processes affecting greenhouse gas production in experimental boreal reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding land for water reservoir creation has many environmental impacts including the production of the greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). To assess processes governing GHG emissions from the flooding of terrestrial carbon, three experimental reservoirs were constructed in upland boreal forest areas of differing carbon stores as part of the Flooded Upland Dynamics Experiment (FLUDEX). We calculated process-based GHG budgets for these reservoirs over 5 years following the onset of flooding. Stable isotopic budgets of carbon were necessary to separate community respiration (CR), which produces CO2, from net primary production (NPP), which consumes CO2, and to separate CH4 production from CH4 consumption via oxidation. NPP removed up to 44% of the CO2 produced from CR. CR and NPP exhibited different year-after-year trends. CH4 flux to the atmosphere increased about twofold over 3 years, yet isotopic budgets showed CH4 production in flooded soils increased nearly tenfold. CH4 oxidation near the flooded soil-water interface greatly decreased the CH4 flux from the water column to the atmosphere. Ebullition was the most important conduit of CH4 to the atmosphere after 3 years. Although CH4 production increased with time, the total GHG flux, in CO2 equivalents, declined. Contrary to expectations, neither CR nor total GHG fluxes were directly related to the quantity of organic carbon flooded. Instead, these reservoirs produced a strikingly similar amount of CO2 equivalents over 5 years.

Venkiteswaran, Jason J.; Schiff, Sherry L.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Matthews, Cory J. D.; Boudreau, Natalie M.; Joyce, Elizabeth M.; Beaty, Kenneth G.; Bodaly, R. Andrew

2013-04-01

209

Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.  

PubMed

The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is ? (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. PMID:22411724

Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

2012-03-12

210

Genetic manipulation of polyphosphate metabolism affects cadmium tolerance in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The polyphosphate metabolic pathways in Escherichia coli were genetically manipulated to test the effect of polyphosphate on tolerance to cadmium. A polyphosphate kinase (ppk) and polyphosphatase (ppx) mutant strain produced no polyphosphate, whereas the same strain carrying multiple copies of ppk on a high-copy plasmid produced significant quantities. The doubling times of both strains increased with increasing cadmium concentrations. In contrast, the mutant strain carrying multiple copies of ppk and ppx produced 1/20 of the polyphosphate found in the strain carrying multiple copies of ppk only and showed no significant increase in doubling time over the same cadmium concentration range.

Keasling, J D; Hupf, G A

1996-01-01

211

Factors affecting average daily metabolic rate of the fat mouse Steatomys pratensis (Dendromurinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Euthermic Steatomys pratensis showed a circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) ranging 31.1–32.6°C throughout day and 33.2–35.0°C at night.2.Tb of torpid mice was close to ambient temperature (Ta) in the early hours of the morning, higher in late morning.3.Daily torpor lasted 5.5 to 11.6h.4.Energy expenditure in thermoneutrality was 30.9kJday?1, about three times basal metabolic rate (BMR).5.For euthermic mice at Ta=20°C

M. R. Perrin; E. J. Richardson

2005-01-01

212

Processes affecting coastal wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nowhere are the problems of coastal wetland loss more serious and dramatic than in the Mississippi River deltaic plain region of south-central Louisiana. In that area, rates of shoreline erosion of 20 m.yr and loss of land area of up to 75 km/yr result from a complex combination of natural (delta switching, subsidence, sea-level rise, storms) and human (flood control, navigation, oil and gas development, land reclamation) factors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Coastal Geology Program, has undertaken joint filed investigations with Federal, State, and university partners. The objective of these long-term studies is to gather and interpret baseline information in order to improve our scientific understanding of the critical processes and responses responsible for creation, maintenance, and deterioration of coastal wetlands.

Williams, S. Jeffress; Penland, Shea; Roberts, Harry, H.

1993-01-01

213

Visual processing affects the neural basis of auditory discrimination.  

PubMed

The interaction between auditory and visual speech streams is a seamless and surprisingly effective process. An intriguing example is the "McGurk effect": The acoustic syllable /ba/ presented simultaneously with a mouth articulating /ga/ is typically heard as /da/ [McGurk, H., & MacDonald, J. Hearing lips and seeing voices. Nature, 264, 746-748, 1976]. Previous studies have demonstrated the interaction of auditory and visual streams at the auditory cortex level, but the importance of these interactions for the qualitative perception change remained unclear because the change could result from interactions at higher processing levels as well. In our electroencephalogram experiment, we combined the McGurk effect with mismatch negativity (MMN), a response that is elicited in the auditory cortex at a latency of 100-250 msec by any above-threshold change in a sequence of repetitive sounds. An "odd-ball" sequence of acoustic stimuli consisting of frequent /va/ syllables (standards) and infrequent /ba/ syllables (deviants) was presented to 11 participants. Deviant stimuli in the unisensory acoustic stimulus sequence elicited a typical MMN, reflecting discrimination of acoustic features in the auditory cortex. When the acoustic stimuli were dubbed onto a video of a mouth constantly articulating /va/, the deviant acoustic /ba/ was heard as /va/ due to the McGurk effect and was indistinguishable from the standards. Importantly, such deviants did not elicit MMN, indicating that the auditory cortex failed to discriminate between the acoustic stimuli. Our findings show that visual stream can qualitatively change the auditory percept at the auditory cortex level, profoundly influencing the auditory cortex mechanisms underlying early sound discrimination. PMID:18457500

Kislyuk, Daniel S; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko

2008-12-01

214

Redox driven metabolic tuning: carbon source and aeration affect synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Growth and polymer synthesis were studied in a recombinant E. coli strain carrying phaBAC and phaP of Azotobacter sp. strain FA8 using different carbon sources and oxygen availability conditions. The results obtained with glucose or glycerol were completely different, demonstrating that the metabolic routes leading to the synthesis of the polymer when using glycerol do not respond to environmental conditions such as oxygen availability in the same way as they do when other substrates, such as glucose, are used. When cells were grown in a bioreactor using glucose the amount of polymer accumulated at low aeration was reduced by half when compared to high aeration, while glycerol cultures produced at low aeration almost twice the amount of polymer synthesized at the higher aeration condition. The synthesis of other metabolic products, such as ethanol, lactate, formate and acetate, were also affected by both the carbon source used and aeration conditions. In glucose cultures, lactate and formate production increased in low agitation compared to high agitation, while poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis decreased. In glycerol cultures, the amount of acids produced also increased when agitation was lowered, but carbon flow was mostly redirected towards ethanol and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). These results indicated that carbon partitioning differed depending on both carbon source and oxygen availability, and that aeration conditions had different effects on the synthesis of the polymer and other metabolic products when glucose or glycerol were used. PMID:21327064

Nikel, Pablo I; de Almeida, Alejandra; Giordano, Andrea M; Pettinari, M Julia

2010-04-15

215

Metabolism of manganese in calves as affected by dietary manganese and intravenous or duodenal manganese-54 dosing  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen intact male Holstein calves averaging 101 d of age were utilized to determine the effects of dietary Mn concentration and routes of administration on its metabolism. They were fed a practical grain diet containing 23 ppm Mn with 0, 100, or 1000 ppm supplemental Mn (MnSO/sub 4/.H/sub 2/O) for 7 d prior to intravenous or duodenal dosing with /sup 54/Mn. Animals were killed 4 h later. With added Mn there was a significant decrease in /sup 54/Mn content of some small intestine parts. However, in most tissue, including organs, bones, intestinal tract tissues, and blood, added Mn did not have a significant effect on /sup 54/Mn concentrations. Concentrations of /sup 54/Mn in tissues, except in small intestine, were far higher following intravenous dosing than with duodenal dosing. This further confirms that absorption of Mn is very low. Dosing method had a sizable effect on the relative amounts of /sup 54/Mn in different tissues. This suggests that intravenously administered Mn, at least initially, is not metabolized in the same way as that absorbed. In most tissues, unlabeled Mn was not affected greatly by supplemental Mn. This is in contrast to earlier results with very young calves and indicates that Mn metabolism changes sharply before 3 to 4 mo of calf age.

Miller, W.J.; Stake, P.E.; Neathery, M.W.; Gentry, R.P.; Blackmon, D.M.

1987-10-01

216

The GEF1 Proton-Chloride Exchanger Affects Tombusvirus Replication via Regulation of Copper Metabolism in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses [(+)RNA viruses] is performed by viral replicases, whose function is affected by many cellular factors in infected cells. In this paper, we demonstrate a surprising role for Gef1p proton-chloride exchanger in replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) model (+)RNA virus. A genetic approach revealed that Gef1p, which is the only proton-chloride exchanger in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for TBSV replication in the yeast model host. We also show that the in vitro activity of the purified tombusvirus replicase from gef1? yeast was low and that the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase in a cell extract was inhibited by the cytosolic fraction obtained from gef1? yeast. Altogether, our data reveal that Gef1p modulates TBSV replication via regulating Cu2+ metabolism in the cell. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence, including the direct inhibitory effect of Cu2+ ions on the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase, on the activity of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and an inhibitory effect of deletion of CCC2 copper pump on TBSV replication in yeast, while altered iron metabolism did not reduce TBSV replication. In addition, applying a chloride channel blocker impeded TBSV replication in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts or in whole plants. Overall, blocking Gef1p function seems to inhibit TBSV replication through altering Cu2+ ion metabolism in the cytosol, which then inhibits the normal functions of the viral replicase.

Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Kovalev, Nikolay

2013-01-01

217

Exposure to atrazine affects the expression of key genes in metabolic pathways integral to energy homeostasis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.  

PubMed

In our laboratory, Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed throughout development to 200 or 400 ?g/L atrazine, concentrations reported to periodically occur in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application, were smaller and had smaller fat bodies (the tadpole's lipid storage organ) than controls. It was hypothesized that these changes were due to atrazine-related perturbations of energy homeostasis. To investigate this hypothesis, selected metabolic responses to exposure at the transcriptional and biochemical levels in atrazine-exposed tadpoles were measured. DNA microarray technology was used to determine which metabolic pathways were affected after developmental exposure to 400 ?g/L atrazine. From these data, genes representative of the affected pathways were selected for assay using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure changes in expression during a 2-week exposure to 400 ?g/L. Finally, ATP levels were measured from tadpoles both early in and at termination of exposure to 200 and 400 ?g/L. Microarray analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in metabolic pathways involved with energy homeostasis. Pathways with increased transcription were associated with the conversion of lipids and proteins into energy. Pathways with decreased transcription were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, and protein synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, changes in gene expression indicative of an early stress response to atrazine were noted. Exposed tadpoles had significant decreases in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) and glucocorticoid receptor protein (GR) mRNA after 24 h of exposure, and near-significant (p=0.07) increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) mRNA by 72 h. Decreases in AD suggested decreases in fatty acid ?-oxidation while decreases in GR may have been a receptor desensitization response to a glucocorticoid surge. Involvement of PPAR-?, an energy homeostasis regulatory molecule, also suggested changes in energy status. Despite, or possibly because of, these early gene changes, there were no differences in either absolute ATP levels or ADP:ATP ratios early in the exposure. However, livers from animals exposed to 200 ?g/L atrazine had near-significant (p=0.06) increases in ADP:ATP ratios at the end of exposure suggesting tadpoles may have had difficulty maintaining energy homeostasis. Perturbations in the expression of genes regulating energy metabolism by 24 h into exposure to 400 ?g/L atrazine was noteworthy, especially since these tadpoles were significantly smaller than controls by 72 h of exposure. PMID:21632027

Zaya, Renee M; Amini, Zakariya; Whitaker, Ashley S; Ide, Charles F

2011-05-06

218

Cell metabolism affects selective vulnerability in PINK1-associated Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in autosomal recessive forms of the disease caused by mutations encoding PINK1. Although mitochondrial pathology can be demonstrated in many cell types, it is neurons that bear the brunt of cell death in PD. We studied the mitochondrial physiology of neurons and muscle cells with loss of function of the nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein PINK1. PINK1 is widely expressed in many types of tissues, but deficiency selectively induces death in neurons. We report here that the same genetic defect results in opposing phenotypes in different cell types, depending on the metabolic properties of the cell. Thus, PINK1-deficient myocytes exhibit high basal mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), whereas PINK1-deficient neurons have been shown to exhibit a low ??m. PINK1 deficiency induces impaired respiration in both cell types, with a concomitant increase in glycolytic activity. We demonstrate that the high glycolytic capacity in myocytes compared with neurons enables them to produce more ATP and, therefore, compensates for the metabolic defects induced by PINK1 deficiency. Furthermore, the high ??m generated in PINK1 knockout (KO) muscle mitochondria enables them to buffer cytosolic Ca(2+) fluxes, rendering them resistant to Ca(2+) stress effectively. Conversely, PINK1 KO neurons were previously shown to develop mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial depolarisation. Prevention of Ca(2+) dysregulation in myocytes might therefore account for the sparing of these cells in PD. PMID:22223879

Yao, Zhi; Gandhi, Sonia; Burchell, Victoria S; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Wood, Nicholas W; Abramov, Andrey Y

2012-01-05

219

Alteration of fatty-acid-metabolizing enzymes affects mitochondrial form and function in hereditary spastic paraplegia.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A M; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M; Durand, Christelle M; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A; Kabiraj, Mohammad M; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-11-21

220

Variations in composition of dietary fats affect hepatic uptake and metabolism of chylomicron remnants.  

PubMed Central

The hepatic metabolism of [1-14C]oleate- and [1,2-3H]cholesterol-dual-labelled chylomicron remnants derived from olive, corn, palm and fish oil and butter fat was compared by adding each lipoprotein separately to the perfusate of isolated livers from rats fed on a normal diet. Labelled remnants from butter fat and fish oil were removed more rapidly from the perfusate than remnants derived from olive, corn and palm oil. The oxidation of labelled remnant fatty acid from olive oil, fish oil or butter fat was four to seven times greater than that from corn and palm oil. Labelled fatty acid in fish oil remnants was incorporated into phospholipid significantly more efficiently than the labelled fatty acid in olive, corn or palm oil remnants, with butter fat giving an intermediate value. For all the remnants, there was a significant amount of hydrolysis of labelled esterified cholesterol by the liver which was dependent on the magnitude of hepatic uptake of each type of remnant. The recovery of remnant [3H]cholesterol label in the bile was 50% less with palm oil remnants than with all the other remnants studied. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of chylomicron remnants has a major impact on their uptake and metabolism by the liver.

Lambert, M S; Botham, K M; Mayes, P A

1995-01-01

221

Changes in phosphoinositide metabolism with days in culture affect signal transduction pathways in galdieria sulphuraria  

PubMed

The metabolism of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) changed during the culture period of the thermoacidophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria. Seven days after inoculation, the amount of PIP2 in the cells was 910 +/- 100 pmol g-1 fresh weight; by 12 d, PIP2 levels increased to 1200 +/- 150 pmol g-1 fresh weight. In vitro assays indicated that phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) kinase specific activity increased from 75 to 230 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein between d 7 and 12. When G. sulphuraria cells were osmostimulated, transient increases of up to 4-fold could be observed in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels within 90 s, regardless of the age of the cells. In d-12 cells, the increase in IP3 was preceded by a transient increase of up to 5-fold in specific PIP kinase activity, whereas no such increase was detected after osmostimulation of d-7 cells. The increase in PIP kinase activity before IP3 signaling in d-12 cells indicates that there is an additional pathway for regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism after stimulation other than an initial activation of phospholipase C. Also, the rapid activation of PIP2 biosynthesis in cells with already-high PIP2 levels suggests that the PIP2 present was not available for signal transduction. By comparing the response of the cells at d 7 and 12, we have identified two potentially distinct pools of PIP2. PMID:10198092

Heilmann; Perera; Gross; Boss

1999-04-01

222

[Microcalorimetric study on the metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus affected by qingkailing injection].  

PubMed

This paper is to report the investigation on the metabolic behavior of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) after given Qingkailing injection, and with the aim of seeking for a new quality control method based on biological assessment. The growth thermogenic curves of S. aureus were determined by microcalorimetry and analyzed by computer. The results showed that in the concentration range of (0-5.00%), the growth thermogenic curves of S. aureus were declined and removed back with increasing dosage of Qingkailing injection; the main parameters (T1, T2, k1, P1, P2 and I) and the dosage of Qingkailing injection have good correlation. The 50% inhibiting dosage is 3.26 %, and the optimal inhibiting dosage is 5.47%. Difference could be detected among the Qingkailing injection samples from different factories and different batches. It is proved that Qingkailing injection could inhibit the metabolic behavior of S. aureus, and microcalorimetry might be applied in the quality assessment of Qingkailing injection. PMID:21542291

Jin, Cheng; Wu, Yan-shu; Zhang, Qian; Li, Xing-feng; Yan, Dan; Du Xiao-xi; Xiao, Xiao-he

2011-02-01

223

Placebo Analgesia Affects Brain Correlates of Error Processing  

PubMed Central

Placebo analgesia (PA) is accompanied by decreased activity in pain-related brain regions, but also by greater prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, which has been suggested to reflect increases in top-down cognitive control and regulation of pain. Here we test whether PA is associated with altered prefrontal monitoring functions that could adjust nociceptive processing to a mismatch between expected and experienced pain. We recorded event-related potentials to response errors in a go/nogo task during placebo vs. a matched control condition. Error commission was associated with two well-described components, the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Results show that the Pe, but not the ERN, was amplified during placebo analgesia compared to the control condition, with neural sources in the lateral and medial PFC. This Pe increase was driven by participants showing a placebo-induced change in pain tolerance, but was absent in the group of non-responders. Our results shed new light on the possible functional mechanisms underlying PA, suggesting a placebo-induced transient change in prefrontal error monitoring and control functions.

Koban, Leonie; Brass, Marcel; Lynn, Margaret T.; Pourtois, Gilles

2012-01-01

224

Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization  

SciTech Connect

Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir M. [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Riccio, Massimo [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Squarzoni, Stefano [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: lattanzi@jolly.bo.cnr.it

2008-02-01

225

Preliminary investigation of processes that affect source term identification  

SciTech Connect

Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 is known to be a significant source of contaminants, especially tritium ({sup 3}H), to the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. For example, Solomon et al. (1991) estimated the total {sup 3}H discharge in Melton Branch (most of which originates in SWSA 5) for the 1988 water year to be 1210 Ci. A critical issue for making decisions concerning remedial actions at SWSA 5 is knowing whether the annual contaminant discharge is increasing or decreasing. Because (1) the magnitude of the annual contaminant discharge is highly correlated to the amount of annual precipitation (Solomon et al., 1991) and (2) a significant lag may exist between the time of peak contaminant release from primary sources (i.e., waste trenches) and the time of peak discharge into streams, short-term stream monitoring by itself is not sufficient for predicting future contaminant discharges. In this study we use {sup 3}H to examine the link between contaminant release from primary waste sources and contaminant discharge into streams. By understanding and quantifying subsurface transport processes, realistic predictions of future contaminant discharge, along with an evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial action alternatives, will be possible. The objectives of this study are (1) to characterize the subsurface movement of contaminants (primarily {sup 3}H) with an emphasis on the effects of matrix diffusion; (2) to determine the relative strength of primary vs secondary sources; and (3) to establish a methodology capable of determining whether the {sup 3}H discharge from SWSA 5 to streams is increasing or decreasing.

Wickliff, D.S.; Solomon, D.K.; Farrow, N.D.

1991-09-01

226

Vitamin A status affects obesity development and hepatic expression of key genes for fuel metabolism in Zucker fatty rats.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that vitamin A (VA) status may affect obesity development. Male Zucker lean (ZL) and fatty (ZF) rats after weaning were fed a synthetic VA deficient (VAD) or VA sufficient (VAS) diet for 8 weeks before their plasma parameters and hepatic genes' expression were analyzed. The body mass (BM) of ZL or ZF rats fed the VAD diet was lower than that of their corresponding controls fed the VAS diet at 5 or 2 weeks, respectively. The VAD ZL and ZF rats had less food intake than the VAS rats after 5 weeks. The VAD ZL and ZF rats had lower plasma glucose, triglyceride, insulin, and leptin levels, as well as lower liver glycogen content, net mass of epididymal fat, and liver/BM and epididymal fat/BM ratios (ZL only) than their respective VAS controls. VAD rats had lower hepatic Cyp26a1, Srebp-1c, Fas, Scd1, Me1, Gck, and Pklr (ZL and ZF); and higher Igfbp1 (ZL and ZF), Pck1(ZF only), and G6pc (ZF only) mRNA levels than their respective VAS controls. We conclude that ZL and ZF rats responded differently to dietary VA deficiency. VA status affected obesity development and altered the expression of hepatic genes for fuel metabolism in ZF rats. The mechanisms will help us to combat metabolic diseases. PMID:22554462

Zhang, Yan; Li, Rui; Li, Yang; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Shi; Chen, Guoxun

2012-05-03

227

Hypoxia and the Presence of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Affect Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion and Metabolism1  

PubMed Central

Tumor progression and metastasis are influenced by hypoxia, as well as by interactions between cancer cells and components of the stroma, such as endothelial cells. Here, we have used a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible invasion assay to further understand the effects of hypoxia on human prostate cancer cell invasion and metabolism in the presence and absence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, we compared endogenous activities of selected proteases related to invasion in PC-3 cells and HUVECs, profiled gene expression of PC-3 cells by microarray, and evaluated cell proliferation of PC-3 cells and HUVECs by flow cytometry, under hypoxic and oxygenated conditions. The invasion of less-invasive DU-145 cells was not affected by either hypoxia or the presence of HUVECs. However, hypoxia significantly decreased the invasion of PC-3 cells. This hypoxia-induced decrease was attenuated by the presence of HUVECs, whereas under oxygenated conditions, HUVECs did not alter the invasion of PC-3 cells. Cell metabolism changed distinctly with hypoxia and invasion. The endogenous activity of selected extracellular proteases, although altered by hypoxia, did not fully explain the hypoxia-induced changes in invasion. Gene expression profiling indicated that hypoxia affects multiple cellular functions and pathways.

Ackerstaff, Ellen; Artemov, Dmitri; Gillies, Robert J.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

2007-01-01

228

Cognitive and Affective Processes Related to School Achievement: Implications for Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the last two decades of work in predicting and explaining school achievement, much research has emphasized the identification and measurement of student cognitive and affective processes which predict and also promise to help explain and facilitate school achievement. This review focuses on modifiable cognitive and affective processes, as…

Shaha, Steven H.; Wittrock, Merlin C.

229

Affective picture processing and motivational relevance: Arousal and valence effects on ERPs in an oddball task  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two dominant theories of affective picture processing; one that attention is more deeply engaged by motivationally relevant stimuli (i.e., stimuli that activate both the appetitive and aversive systems), and two that attention is more deeply engaged by aversive stimuli described as the negativity bias. In order to identify the theory that can best account for affective picture processing,

Kate E. Briggs; Frances H. Martin

2009-01-01

230

Atmospheric oxygen level affects growth trajectory, cardiopulmonary allometry and metabolic rate in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).  

PubMed

Recent palaeoatmospheric models suggest large-scale fluctuations in ambient oxygen level over the past 550 million years. To better understand how global hypoxia and hyperoxia might have affected the growth and physiology of contemporary vertebrates, we incubated eggs and raised hatchlings of the American alligator. Crocodilians are one of few vertebrate taxa that survived these global changes with distinctly conservative morphology. We maintained animals at 30 degrees C under chronic hypoxia (12% O(2)), normoxia (21% O(2)) or hyperoxia (30% O(2)). At hatching, hypoxic animals were significantly smaller than their normoxic and hyperoxic siblings. Over the course of 3 months, post-hatching growth was fastest under hyperoxia and slowest under hypoxia. Hypoxia, but not hyperoxia, caused distinct scaling of major visceral organs-reduction of liver mass, enlargement of the heart and accelerated growth of lungs. When absorptive and post-absorptive metabolic rates were measured in juvenile alligators, the increase in oxygen consumption rate due to digestion/absorption of food was greatest in hyperoxic alligators and smallest in hypoxic ones. Hyperoxic alligators exhibited the lowest breathing rate and highest oxygen consumption per breath. We suggest that, despite compensatory cardiopulmonary remodelling, growth of hypoxic alligators is constrained by low atmospheric oxygen supply, which may limit their food utilisation capacity. Conversely, the combination of elevated metabolism and low cost of breathing in hyperoxic alligators allows for a greater proportion of metabolised energy to be available for growth. This suggests that growth and metabolic patterns of extinct vertebrates would have been significantly affected by changes in the atmospheric oxygen level. PMID:19376944

Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Elsey, Ruth M; Hicks, James W

2009-05-01

231

"Predictability of body mass index for diabetes: Affected by the presence of metabolic syndrome?"  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and body mass index (BMI, kg.m-2) are established independent risk factors in the development of diabetes; we prospectively examined their relative contributions and joint relationship with incident diabetes in a Middle Eastern cohort. Method participants of the ongoing Tehran lipid and glucose study are followed on a triennial basis. Among non-diabetic participants aged? 20 years at baseline (8,121) those with at least one follow-up examination (5,250) were included for the current study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate sex-specific adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of baseline BMI-MetS categories (normal weight without MetS as reference group) for incident diabetes among 2186 men and 3064 women, aged ? 20 years, free of diabetes at baseline. Result During follow up (median 6.5 years); there were 369 incident diabetes (147 in men). In women without MetS, the multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) and obese (BMI?30) participants were 2.3 (1.2-4.3) and 2.2 (1.0-4.7), respectively. The corresponding ORs for men without MetS were 1.6 (0.9-2.9) and 3.6 (1.5-8.4) respectively. As compared to the normal-weight/without MetS, normal-weight women and men with MetS, had a multivariate-adjusted ORs for incident diabetes of 8.8 (3.7-21.2) and 3.1 (1.3-7.0), respectively. The corresponding ORs for overweight and obese women with MetS reached to 7.7 (4.0-14.9) and 12.6 (6.9-23.2) and for men reached to 3.4(2.0-5.8) and 5.7(3.9-9.9), respectively. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for MetS in normal weight individuals. Obesity increases diabetes risk in the absence of MetS, underscores the need for more stringent criteria to define healthy metabolic state among obese individuals. Weight reduction measures, thus, should be encouraged in conjunction with achieving metabolic targets not addressed by current definition of MetS, both in every day encounter and public health setting.

2011-01-01

232

Positive Affect and Flexibility: Overcoming the Precedence of Global over Local Processing of Visual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous findings on the relationship between positive mood and global processing are often based on visual matching tasks that involve a choice between global and local strategies. Preferences for global processing in positive mood, however, do not imply a reduced ability to process locally. The present experiment tested the assumption that positive affect increases flexibility in cognitive processing as indicated

Nicola Baumann; Julius Kuhl

2005-01-01

233

Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing.  

PubMed

Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all-trans isomers can be observed in the dehydrated tomato samples using the different dehydration methods. Frozen foods and heat-sterilized foods exhibit excellent lycopene stability throughout their normal temperature storage shelf life. Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. Food processing may improve lycopene bioavailability by breaking down cell walls, which weakens the bonding forces between lycopene and tissue matrix, thus making lycopene more accessible and enhancing the cis-isomerization. More information on lycopene bioavailability, however, is needed. The pharmacokinetic properties of lycopene remain particularly poorly understood. Further research on the bioavalability, pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology must be done to reveal the mechanism of lycopene in human diet, and the in vivo metabolism of lycopene. Consumer demand for healthy food products provides an opportunity to develop lycopene-rich food as new functional foods, as well as food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade lycopene as new nutraceutical products. An industrial scale, environmentally friendly lycopene extraction and purification procedure with minimal loss of bioactivities is highly desirable for the foods, feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. High-quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will offer potential benefits to the food industry. PMID:10674200

Shi, J; Le Maguer, M

2000-01-01

234

Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing.  

PubMed

Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all-trans isomers can be observed in the dehydrated tomato samples using the different dehydration methods. Frozen foods and heat-sterilized foods exhibit excellent lycopene stability throughout their normal temperature storage shelf life. Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. Food processing may improve lycopene bioavailability by breaking down cell walls, which weakens the bonding forces between lycopene and tissue matrix, thus making lycopene more accessible and enhancing the cis-isomerization. More information on lycopene bioavailability, however, is needed. The pharmacokinetic properties of lycopene remain particularly poorly understood. Further research on the bioavalability, pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology must be done to reveal the mechanism of lycopene in human diet, and the in vivo metabolism of lycopene. Consumer demand for healthy food products provides an opportunity to develop lycopene-rich food as new functional foods, as well as food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade lycopene as new nutraceutical products. An industrial scale, environmentally friendly lycopene extraction and purification procedure with minimal loss of bioactivities is highly desirable for the foods, feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. High-quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will offer potential benefits to the food industry. PMID:11192026

Shi, J; Le Maguer, M

2000-01-01

235

[Effect of folic acid on metabolic processes in wounds].  

PubMed

In experiments on rats the effect of folic acid on the redox and energy-producing processes as well as upon the synthesis of collagen and protein fractions of the muscular tissue in the area of the wound was investigated. Low doses of folic acid are shown to intensify in the muscles of intact animals anaerobic, and in the wound muscles--aerobic processes. High doses of folic acid produce an opposite effect on the wound muscles, by intensifying anaerobic processes. Folic acid manifests itself as an activator of anabolic processes by intensifying the gluconeogenesis in the wound tissues, the biosynthesis of collagen in the muscles of intact animals, and to a lesser degree in the muscles of surgically treated animals. PMID:421894

Nosova, I M; Za?denberg, M A; Korotkina, R N

236

Birth weight and postnatal dietary protein level affect performance, muscle metabolism and meat quality in pigs.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), resulting in low birth body weight (LBW) occurs naturally in pigs. However, IUGR may also cause persistent changes in physiology and metabolism resulting in poorer performance, organogenesis and meat quality. As IUGR pigs have a lower daily gain from birth to slaughter they may differ in utilization of nutrients and requirements for dietary protein compared with their larger littermates. Thus, the objective in this study was to examine the interaction between birth body weight (BW) and the postnatal dietary protein level, in relation to postnatal performance, organogenesis, muscle metabolism and meat quality. The experiment was carried out with offspring from 16 purebred Danish Landrace gilts mated to Danish Landrace boars. The female and entire male pigs with LBW that survived at weaning were compared with the female and male pigs with the highest/high birth body weight (HBW) within each litter. The offspring were reared individually from weaning and were fed ad libitum a diet containing either a normal level of protein (NP) for optimal growth or an isocaloric diet containing a 30% lower protein content (LP) from 3 weeks to 150 days of age. At slaughter, we found no interactions between birth weight group and dietary protein level for any of the measured traits. The relative crown-rump length (cm/kg) at birth indicates that LBW pigs were thinner than HBW pigs. Daily gain and feed intake were reduced by 14% and 10%, respectively, while the kg feed/kg gain was slightly increased by 3% in LBW pigs compared with HBW pigs. The LP diet reduced daily gain by 27% due to reduced feed intake and increased kg feed/kg gain by 12% and 21%, respectively compared with the NP diet. LBW male pigs produced meat with a higher shear force than male HBW pigs and also LP pigs produced meat with higher shear force than NP pigs. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) was reduced in pigs fed the LP diet. Calpastatin was increased in LD of LBW pigs and decreased in pigs fed the NP diet. In conclusion, these results suggest a rejection of our hypothesis that low birth weight littermates have a lower requirement for dietary protein compared with heavy weight littermates. Furthermore, LBW male pigs and LP fed pigs of both genders produced less tender meat than HBW pigs or NP fed pigs, respectively. PMID:22440283

Nissen, P M; Oksbjerg, N

2011-08-01

237

Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at risk of breast cancer, the INOSIDEX trial. All women were asked to follow a low-calorie diet and were assigned randomly to daily consumption of a combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid (77 pts) or placebo (78 pts) for six months. Primary outcomes we wanted to achieve were both reduction of more than 20% of the HOMA-IR index and of triglycerides serum levels. Secondary outcomes expected were both the improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the reduction of anthropometric features such as body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Results A significant HOMA-IR reduction of more than 20% was evidenced in 66.7% (P <0.0001) of patients, associated with a serum insulin level decrease in 89.3% (P <0.0000). A decrease in triglycerides was evidenced in 43.2% of patients consuming the supplement (P <0.0001). An increase in HDL cholesterol (48.6%) was found in the group consuming inositol with respect to the placebo group. A reduction in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was found in the treated group with respect to the placebo group. Conclusions Inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be used as a dietary supplement in insulin-resistant patients in order to increase their insulin sensitiveness. Daily consumption of inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid has a significant bearing on metabolic syndrome. As metabolic syndrome is considered a modifiable risk factor of breast tumorigenesis, further studies are required to assess whether inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be administered as a dietary supplement in breast cancer primary prevention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN74096908.

2013-01-01

238

The dynamic nature of the stress appraisal process and the infusion of affect.  

PubMed

Very little is known about the process in which people reappraise a stressful environment or the factors that may influence this process. In the current study, we address the several limitations to previous research regarding stress reappraisals and explore the role of affect on this process. A total of 320 participants (mean age = 20 years, 60% male) completed an increasingly demanding team-based coordination task. Mood and stress appraisals were assessed at three time points using self-report surveys during four different waves of data collection. The longitudinal design enabled us to assess primary and secondary reappraisals (change in appraisals during the experiment), task-irrelevant affect (affect assessed prior to experiment participation), and task-relevant affect (change in affect experienced during the experiment). Guided by the Transactional Theory of Stress, we argue that the relationship between primary reappraisal and secondary reappraisal is an accurate representation of a dynamic stress appraisal process. We found that participants were more likely to engage in the stress appraisal process when they experienced less task-irrelevant positive affect and greater task-relevant positive affect. Both task-irrelevant and task-relevant negative affect were not found to influence the stress appraisal process. PMID:21800952

Eschleman, Kevin J; Alarcon, Gene M; Lyons, Joseph B; Stokes, Charlene K; Schneider, Tamera

2011-07-29

239

Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation, and meat tenderization in beef.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine LM to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES; 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at an early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of creatine kinase M chain, fructose bisphosphate aldolase C-A, ?-enolase, and pyruvate kinase at 3 h postmortem. Zymography indicated an earlier (P < 0.05) activation of ?-calpain in ES muscles. Free lysosomal cathepsin B and L activity increased faster (P < 0.05) in ES muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at an early postmortem time. Electrical stimulation also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P < 0.05) the depletion of ATP, creatine phosphate, and glycogen, as well as a pH decline and the more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization, resulting in lesser (P < 0.05) shear force values than the control over the testing time. A possible relationship was suggested between a change in the phosphorylation of energy metabolic enzymes and the postmortem tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of the activation of ?-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins, and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle. PMID:22147478

Li, C B; Li, J; Zhou, G H; Lametsch, R; Ertbjerg, P; Brüggemann, D A; Huang, H G; Karlsson, A H; Hviid, M; Lundström, K

2011-12-06

240

Inactivation of the phosphoglucomutase gene pgm in Corynebacterium glutamicum affects cell shape and glycogen metabolism  

PubMed Central

In Corynebacterium glutamicum formation of glc-1-P (?-glucose-1-phosphate) from glc-6-P (glucose-6-phosphate) by ?-Pgm (phosphoglucomutase) is supposed to be crucial for synthesis of glycogen and the cell wall precursors trehalose and rhamnose. Furthermore, Pgm is probably necessary for glycogen degradation and maltose utilization as glucan phosphorylases of both pathways form glc-1-P. We here show that C. glutamicum possesses at least two Pgm isoenzymes, the cg2800 (pgm) encoded enzyme contributing most to total Pgm activity. By inactivation of pgm we created C. glutamicum IMpgm showing only about 12% Pgm activity when compared to the parental strain. We characterized both strains during cultivation with either glucose or maltose as substrate and observed that (i) the glc-1-P content in the WT (wild-type) and the mutant remained constant independent of the carbon source used, (ii) the glycogen levels in the pgm mutant were lower during growth on glucose and higher during growth on maltose, and (iii) the morphology of the mutant was altered with maltose as a substrate. We conclude that C. glutamicum employs glycogen as carbon capacitor to perform glc-1-P homeostasis in the exponential growth phase and is therefore able to counteract limited Pgm activity for both anabolic and catabolic metabolic pathways.

Seibold, Gerd M.; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

2013-01-01

241

Sodium nitroprusside affects the level of photosynthetic enzymes and glucose metabolism in Phaseolus aureus (mung bean).  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in plants. The present study aims to investigate the downstream signaling pathways of NO in plants using a proteomic approach. Phaseolus aureus (mung bean) leaf was treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which releases nitric oxide in the form of nitrosonium cation (NO+) upon light irradiation. Changes in protein expression profiles of the SNP treated mung bean leaf were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Comparison of 2-DE electropherograms revealed seven down-regulated and two up-regulated proteins after treatment with 0.5 mM SNP for 6 h. The identities of these proteins were analyzed by a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting and post-source decay using a matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionisation-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Six out of these nine proteins found are involved in either photosynthesis or cellular metabolism. We have taken our investigation further by studying the effect of NO+ on glucose contents in mung bean leaves. Our results clearly demonstrated that NO+ rapidly and drastically decrease the amount of glucose in mung bean leaves. Moreover, four out of nine of these proteins are chloroplastic isoforms. These results suggested that chloroplasts might be one of the main sub-cellular targets of NO in plants. PMID:15917215

Lum, Hon-Kei; Lee, Chi-Ho; Butt, Yoki Kwok-Chu; Lo, Samuel Chun-Lap

2005-04-14

242

A common telomeric gene silencing assay is affected by nucleotide metabolism  

PubMed Central

Telomere-associated position effect variegation (TPEV) in budding yeast has been used as a model for understanding epigenetic inheritance and gene silencing. A widely used assay to identify mutants with improper TPEV employs the URA3 gene at the telomere of chromosome VII-L that can be counter-selected with 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). 5-FOA resistance has been inferred to represent lack of transcription of URA3 and therefore to represent heterochromatin-induced gene silencing. For two genes implicated in telomere silencing, POL30 and DOT1, we show that the URA3 telomere reporter assay does not reflect their role in heterochromatin formation. Rather, an imbalance in ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which is induced by 5-FOA, and the specific promoter of URA3 fused to ADH4 at telomere VII-L are jointly responsible for the variegated phenotype. We conclude that metabolic changes caused by the drug employed and certain mutants being studied are incompatible with the use of certain prototrophic markers for TPEV.

Rossmann, Marlies P.; Luo, Weijun; Tsaponina, Olga; Chabes, Andrei; Stillman, Bruce

2011-01-01

243

Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.

Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

244

Molybdate:sulfate ratio affects redox metabolism and viability of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum.  

PubMed

Molybdenum is a transition metal used primarily (90% or more) as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys in metallurgical industries and its release into the environment is a growing problem. As a catalytic center of some redox enzymes, molybdenum is an essential element for inorganic nitrogen assimilation/fixation, phytohormone synthesis, and free radical metabolism in photosynthesizing species. In oceanic and estuarine waters, microalgae absorb molybdenum as the water-soluble molybdate anion (MoO4(2-)), although MoO4(2-) uptake is thought to compete with uptake of the much more abundant sulfate anion (SO4(2-), approximately 25mM in seawater). Thus, those aspects of microalgal biology impacted by molybdenum would be better explained by considering both MoO4(2-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in the aquatic milieu. This work examines toxicological, physiological and redox imbalances in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum that have been induced by changes in the molybdate:sulfate ratios. We prepared cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum grown in artificial seawater containing eight different MoO4(2-) concentrations (from 0 to 200?M) and three different SO4(2-) concentrations (3.5mM, 9.6mM and 25mM). We measured sulfur content in cells, the activities of the three major antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase), indexes of oxidative modifications in proteins (carbonyl content) and lipids (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), the activities of the molybdenum-dependent enzymes xanthine oxidase and nitrate reductase, expression of key protein components of dinoflagellate photosynthesis (peridinin-chlorophyll a protein and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxidase) and growth curves. We find evidence for Mo toxicity at relatively high [MoO4(2-)]:[SO4(2-)] ratios. We also find evidence for extensive redox adaptations at Mo levels well below lethal levels. PMID:24036534

Barros, M P; Hollnagel, H C; Glavina, A B; Soares, C O; Ganini, D; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, S; Morse, D; Colepicolo, P

2013-08-30

245

Transient exposure to low levels of insecticide affects metabolic networks of honeybee larvae.  

PubMed

The survival of a species depends on its capacity to adjust to changing environmental conditions, and new stressors. Such new, anthropogenic stressors include the neonicotinoid class of crop-protecting agents, which have been implicated in the population declines of pollinating insects, including honeybees (Apis mellifera). The low-dose effects of these compounds on larval development and physiological responses have remained largely unknown. Over a period of 15 days, we provided syrup tainted with low levels (2 µg/L(-1)) of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to beehives located in the field. We measured transcript levels by RNA sequencing and established lipid profiles using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry from worker-bee larvae of imidacloprid-exposed (IE) and unexposed, control (C) hives. Within a catalogue of 300 differentially expressed transcripts in larvae from IE hives, we detect significant enrichment of genes functioning in lipid-carbohydrate-mitochondrial metabolic networks. Myc-involved transcriptional response to exposure of this neonicotinoid is indicated by overrepresentation of E-box elements in the promoter regions of genes with altered expression. RNA levels for a cluster of genes encoding detoxifying P450 enzymes are elevated, with coordinated downregulation of genes in glycolytic and sugar-metabolising pathways. Expression of the environmentally responsive Hsp90 gene is also reduced, suggesting diminished buffering and stability of the developmental program. The multifaceted, physiological response described here may be of importance to our general understanding of pollinator health. Muscles, for instance, work at high glycolytic rates and flight performance could be impacted should low levels of this evolutionarily novel stressor likewise induce downregulation of energy metabolising genes in adult pollinators. PMID:23844170

Derecka, Kamila; Blythe, Martin J; Malla, Sunir; Genereux, Diane P; Guffanti, Alessandro; Pavan, Paolo; Moles, Anna; Snart, Charles; Ryder, Thomas; Ortori, Catharine A; Barrett, David A; Schuster, Eugene; Stöger, Reinhard

2013-07-02

246

Transient Exposure to Low Levels of Insecticide Affects Metabolic Networks of Honeybee Larvae  

PubMed Central

The survival of a species depends on its capacity to adjust to changing environmental conditions, and new stressors. Such new, anthropogenic stressors include the neonicotinoid class of crop-protecting agents, which have been implicated in the population declines of pollinating insects, including honeybees (Apis mellifera). The low-dose effects of these compounds on larval development and physiological responses have remained largely unknown. Over a period of 15 days, we provided syrup tainted with low levels (2 µg/L?1) of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to beehives located in the field. We measured transcript levels by RNA sequencing and established lipid profiles using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry from worker-bee larvae of imidacloprid-exposed (IE) and unexposed, control (C) hives. Within a catalogue of 300 differentially expressed transcripts in larvae from IE hives, we detect significant enrichment of genes functioning in lipid-carbohydrate-mitochondrial metabolic networks. Myc-involved transcriptional response to exposure of this neonicotinoid is indicated by overrepresentation of E-box elements in the promoter regions of genes with altered expression. RNA levels for a cluster of genes encoding detoxifying P450 enzymes are elevated, with coordinated downregulation of genes in glycolytic and sugar-metabolising pathways. Expression of the environmentally responsive Hsp90 gene is also reduced, suggesting diminished buffering and stability of the developmental program. The multifaceted, physiological response described here may be of importance to our general understanding of pollinator health. Muscles, for instance, work at high glycolytic rates and flight performance could be impacted should low levels of this evolutionarily novel stressor likewise induce downregulation of energy metabolising genes in adult pollinators.

Derecka, Kamila; Blythe, Martin J.; Malla, Sunir; Genereux, Diane P.; Guffanti, Alessandro; Pavan, Paolo; Moles, Anna; Snart, Charles; Ryder, Thomas; Ortori, Catharine A.; Barrett, David A.; Schuster, Eugene; Stoger, Reinhard

2013-01-01

247

Breakfast and exercise contingently affect postprandial metabolism and energy balance in physically active males.  

PubMed

The present study examined the impact of breakfast and exercise on postprandial metabolism, appetite and macronutrient balance. A sample of twelve (blood variables n 11) physically active males completed four trials in a randomised, crossover design comprising a continued overnight fast followed by: (1) rest without breakfast (FR); (2) exercise without breakfast (FE); (3) breakfast consumption (1859 kJ) followed by rest (BR); (4) breakfast consumption followed by exercise (BE). Exercise was continuous, moderate-intensity running (expending approximately 2·9 MJ of energy). The equivalent time was spent sitting during resting trials. A test drink (1500 kJ) was ingested on all trials followed 90 min later by an ad libitum lunch. The difference between the BR and FR trials in blood glucose time-averaged AUC following test drink consumption approached significance (BR: 4·33 (SEM 0·14) v. FR: 4·75 (SEM 0·16) mmol/l; P=0·08); but it was not different between FR and FE (FE: 4·77 (SEM 0·14) mmol/l; P=0·65); and was greater in BE (BE: 4·97 (SEM 0·13) mmol/l) v. BR (P=0·012). Appetite following the test drink was reduced in BR v. FR (P=0·006) and in BE v. FE (P=0·029). Following lunch, the most positive energy balance was observed in BR and least positive in FE. Regardless of breakfast, acute exercise produced a less positive energy balance following ad libitum lunch consumption. Energy and fat balance is further reduced with breakfast omission. Breakfast improved the overall appetite responses to foods consumed later in the day, but abrogated the appetite-suppressive effect of exercise. PMID:23340006

Gonzalez, Javier T; Veasey, Rachel C; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J

2013-01-29

248

Sex and long-term soy diets affect the metabolism and excretion of soy isoflavones in humans.  

PubMed

Soybean consumption may be protective against hormone-dependent cancers, possibly in part because of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, which are weakly estrogenic. This paper reviews our studies of the metabolism and disposition of these phytoestrogens in humans. During 1 mo of daily soy ingestion in a metabolic unit [1.065 L (36 oz) soymilk, providing 80-210 mg of each isoflavone daily], women initially excreted more isoflavone conjugates in urine than did men. Recoveries of conjugates of genistein, daidzein, and equol were 24%, 66%, and 28% of the amounts ingested in women, respectively, and 15%, 47%, and 15%, respectively, of those in men. A progressive decrease in urinary excretion of genistein and daidzein was observed in women but not in men during the study. At least 10% of ingested daidzin was excreted in urine as equol conjugate in one man and one woman after the first soy ingestion. Three more women but no more men developed the ability to produce and excrete large amounts of equol. Absorption rate constants (k(e)) of the isoflavones were estimated to be 0.24-0.50 h(-1). The elimination rates (k(e)) for genistein, daidzein, and equol were 0.1, 0.16, and 0.08 h(-1), respectively, in women and 0.19, 0.25, and 0.13 h(-1), respectively, in men. Thus, the excretion half-life values of genistein were longer in women (7, 4, and 9 h, respectively) than in men (4, 3, and 5 h, respectively) after the first soy ingestion. The excretion half-life shortened progressively in women but lengthened progressively in men over the study period. Thus, isoflavone metabolism and disposition were affected by the duration of soy ingestion and by sex. PMID:9848524

Lu, L J; Anderson, K E

1998-12-01

249

In ovo leptin administration affects hepatic lipid metabolism and microRNA expression in newly hatched broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

Background A leptin-like immunoreactive substance has been found in chicken eggs and has been implicated in serving as a maternal signal to program offspring growth and metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the effects of in ovo leptin administration on hatch weight, serum and hepatic concentrations of metabolites and hormones, as well as on the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and the predicted microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting the affected genes. To this end we injected fertile eggs with either 0.5 ?g of recombinant murine leptin or vehicle (PBS) before incubation. Results Prenatally leptin-exposed chicks showed lower hatch weight, but higher liver weight relative to the body weight, compared to the control group. In ovo leptin treatment increased the hepatic content and serum concentration of leptin in newly hatched chickens. The hepatic contents of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (Tch) were decreased, whereas the serum levels of TG, Tch and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) were increased. The hepatic mRNA expression of sterol regulator element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1c), SREBP-2, hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) was significantly up-regulated, as was the protein content of both SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 in hepatic nuclear extracts of leptin-treated chickens. Moreover, out of 12 miRNAs targeting SREBP-1c and/or HMGCR, five were significantly up-regulated in liver of leptin-treated chicks, including gga-miR-200b and gga-miR-429, which target both SREBP-1c and HMGCR. Conclusions These results suggest that leptin in ovo decreases hatch weight, and modifies hepatic leptin secretion and lipid metabolism in newly hatched broiler chickens, possibly via microRNA-mediated gene regulation.

2012-01-01

250

Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated

J. G. Dyke; F. Gans; A. Kleidon

2011-01-01

251

MiR-27a suppresses triglyceride accumulation and affects gene mRNA expression associated with fat metabolism in dairy goat mammary gland epithelial cells.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a well-defined group of small RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides, participate in various biological metabolic processes. miR-27a is a miRNA that is known to regulate fat synthesis and differentiation in preadipocyte cells. However, little is known regarding the role that miR-27a plays in regulating goat milk fat synthesis. In this study, we determined the miR-27a expression profile in goat mammary gland and found that miR-27a expression was correlated with the lactation cycle. Additionally, prolactin promoted miR-27a expression in goat mammary gland epithelial cells. Further functional analysis showed that over-expression of miR-27a down-regulated triglyceride accumulation and decreased the ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in mammary gland epithelial cells. miR-27a also significantly affected mRNA expression related to milk fat metabolism. Specifically, over-expression of miR-27a reduced gene mRNA expression associated with triglyceride synthesis by suppressing PPAR? protein levels. This study provides the first experimental evidence that miR-27a regulates triglyceride synthesis in goat mammary gland epithelial cells and improves our understanding about the importance of miRNAs in milk fat synthesis. PMID:23537996

Lin, Xian-Zi; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Li-Ping; Wang, Wei; Shi, Heng-Bo; Zhu, Jiang-Jiang

2013-03-26

252

Thermal and metabolic factors affecting PCB uptake by adult brown trout  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of PCBs from natural food and water by adult brown trout, Salmo trutta, were compared under three temperature treatments: (1) a diel temperature cycle simulating that selected by brown trout in thermal effluents; (2) a constant 13/sup 0/C, the optimum constant temperature for brown trout growth; (3) natural fluctuations in ambient inshore temperatures. Direct uptake from water accounted for approximately 10% of the uptake from food and water. Fish exposed to the diel cycle or the arhythmic ambient regime fed and grew as though they were acclimated to the maximum temperatures experienced and accumulated more PCBs than fish exposed to the constant 13/sup 0/C regime. Total food consumption or growth was the best correlate of PCB concentration in whole fish while lipid content of muscle was the best correlate of PCB concentration in muscle. PCB accumulation was affected by temperature magnitude and variation, because these factors controlled food consumption, growth, and lipid content of brown trout.

Spigarelli, S.A.; Thommes, M.M.; Prepejchal, W.

1983-02-01

253

Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psychopathy is a complex personality disorder of unknown etiology. Central to the disorder are anomalies or difficulties in affective processing.Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to elucidate the neurobiological correlates of these anomalies in criminal psychopaths during performance of an affective memory task.Results: Compared with criminal nonpsychopaths and noncriminal control participants, criminal psychopaths showed significantly less affect-related activity

Kent A. Kiehl; Andra M. Smith; Robert D. Hare; Adrianna Mendrek; Bruce B. Forster; Johann Brink; Peter F. Liddle

2001-01-01

254

Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults  

PubMed Central

Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11–16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24–40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing.

Fontaine, Nathalie M. G.; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; De Brito, Stephane A.; McCrory, Eamon J. P.; Viding, Essi

2012-01-01

255

Functional brain interactions that serve cognitive–affective processing during pain and placebo analgesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain requires the integration of sensory, cognitive, and affective information. The use of placebo is a common methodological ploy in many fields, including pain. Neuroimaging studies of pain and placebo analgesia (PA) have yet to identify a mechanism of action. Because PA must result from higher order processes, it is likely influenced by cognitive and affective dimensions of the pain

Jason G. Craggs; Donald D. Price; G. Nicholas Verne; William M. Perlstein; Michael M. Robinson

2007-01-01

256

Processes affecting subsurface transport of leaking underground-storage-tank fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document focuses solely on the process affecting migration of fluids from a leaking tank and their effects on monitoring methodologies. Based upon the reviews presented, soil heterogeneities and the potential for multiphase flow will lead to high monitoring uncertainties if leak-detection systems rely on liquid-sampling alone. Vapor transport is also affected by these properties although to a lesser degree.

S. W. Tyler; M. R. Whitbeck; M. W. Kirk; J. W. Hess; L. G. Everett

1987-01-01

257

Physiological and therapeutic factors affecting cholesterol metabolism: does a reciprocal relationship between cholesterol absorption and synthesis really exist?  

PubMed

Cholesterol absorption and synthesis contribute to maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. Several physiological and therapeutic factors affect cholesterol homeostasis, including: genetics, circadian rhythm, body weight, plant sterols, ezetimibe, and statin therapy. The present objective is to determine the main vector, i.e. cholesterol absorption or synthesis, affected by each of these factors, and to examine whether an alteration in one vector is linked to a reciprocal change in the other. Current techniques used to assess cholesterol absorption and synthesis are also reviewed. Review of physiological factors affecting cholesterol metabolism suggest a reciprocal relationship between these two vectors. Carriers of the E2 isoform of apolipoprotein E and ATP binding cassette (ABC) G8 19H (exon 1 mutation) show a decrease in cholesterol absorption accompanied by a corresponding increase in synthesis. Circadian rhythm affects cholesterol synthesis, however, its effect on absorption has yet to be established. Obese subjects show an increase in cholesterol synthesis with a subsequent decrease in cholesterol absorption. Weight loss down regulates cholesterol synthesis, but has little or no effect on absorption. In the case of therapeutic factors, plant sterols and stanols inhibit cholesterol absorption, which results in a compensatory increase in synthesis. Ezetimibe also decreases intestinal absorption, while reciprocally increasing synthesis. Statin therapy down regulates synthesis, which is accompanied by a rise in absorption. These findings suggest that a change in one vector, fairly consistently, results in a compensatory and opposing change in the other. An understanding of this reciprocal relationship between cholesterol absorption and synthesis may allow for the development of more effective interventions for dyslipidemic disorders. PMID:17113605

Santosa, Sylvia; Varady, Krista A; AbuMweis, Suhad; Jones, Peter J H

2006-10-17

258

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section 63.52 Protection...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

2009-07-01

259

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section 63.52 Protection...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

2013-07-01

260

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section 63.52 Protection...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

2010-07-01

261

Diet, hormonal, and metabolic factors affecting bone mineral density in adolescent amenorrheic and eumenorrheic female runners.  

PubMed

Seven adolescent female runners with secondary amenorrhea and six adolescent eumenorrheic female runners received dietary supplements of 1200 mg calcium carbonate and 400 IU vitamin D/d for 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the axial skeleton was measured by dual photon densitometry at the beginning and end of the 12 month period. Plasma estradiol and ionized calcium concentration were also determined. Bone mineral density decreased in two of the amenorrheic subjects, with the lowest estradiol values concurrent with the severest training regimen and highest calcium intake. There was a significant decrease in plasma estradiol concentration in the amenorrheic runners (p less than 0.05). Plasma ionized calcium and estradiol explained 99% of the variation in BMD (r2 = 0.999). A significant inverse relationship between plasma estradiol and miles run/week was observed (r2 = -0.748). Adolescent female runners who train extensively and have low plasma estradiol levels may be adversely affecting BMD despite supplemental calcium and vitamin D intake. PMID:1405575

Baer, J T; Taper, L J; Gwazdauskas, F G; Walberg, J L; Novascone, M A; Ritchey, S J; Thye, F W

1992-03-01

262

An overview of the crosstalk between inflammatory processes and metabolic dysregulation during diabetic cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are all linked to cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Diabetic cardiomyopathy in particular, is characterized by structural and functional alterations in the heart muscle of people with diabetes that finally lead to heart failure, and which is not directly attributable to coronary artery disease or hypertension. Several mechanisms have been involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, such as alterations in myocardial energy metabolism and calcium signaling. Metabolic disturbances during diabetic cardiomyopathy are characterized by increased lipid oxidation, intramyocardial triglyceride accumulation, and reduced glucose utilization. Overall changes result in enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis of the cardiomyocytes. On the other hand, the progression of heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy usually entails a local rise in cytokines in cardiac cells and the activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Interestingly, increasing evidences are arising in the recent years that point to a potential link between chronic low-grade inflammation in the heart and metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, in this review we summarize recent new insights into the crosstalk between inflammatory processes and metabolic dysregulation in the failing heart during diabetes, paying special attention to the role of NF-?B and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). In addition, we briefly describe the role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and other pathways regulating cardiac energy metabolism, as well as their relationship with diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23932046

Palomer, Xavier; Salvadó, Laia; Barroso, Emma; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

2013-08-06

263

Nutrient Enrichment and Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism in an Experimental Seagrass Habitat  

PubMed Central

Background Food web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower trophic levels, respectively. Yet, these interactions are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental seagrass mesocosm system, we factorially manipulated water column nutrient concentrations, food chain length, and diversity of crustacean grazers to address two questions: (1) Does food web composition modulate the effects of nutrient enrichment on plant and grazer biomasses and stoichiometry? (2) Do ecosystem fluxes of dissolved oxygen and nutrients more closely reflect above-ground biomass and community structure or sediment processes? Nutrient enrichment and grazer presence generally had strong effects on biomass accumulation, stoichiometry, and ecosystem fluxes, whereas predator effects were weaker or absent. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on producer biomass or net ecosystem production but strongly increased seagrass nutrient content, ecosystem flux rates, and grazer secondary production, suggesting that enhanced production was efficiently transferred from producers to herbivores. Gross ecosystem production (oxygen evolution) correlated positively with above-ground plant biomass, whereas inorganic nutrient fluxes were unrelated to plant or grazer biomasses, suggesting dominance by sediment microbial processes. Finally, grazer richness significantly stabilized ecosystem processes, as predators decreased ecosystem production and respiration only in the zero- and one- species grazer treatments. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that consumer presence and species composition strongly influence ecosystem responses to nutrient enrichment, and that increasing herbivore diversity can stabilize ecosystem flux rates in the face of perturbations.

Spivak, Amanda C.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Richardson, J. Paul

2009-01-01

264

Extracted Oat and Barley ?-Glucans Do Not Affect Cholesterol Metabolism in Young Healthy Adults.  

PubMed

?-Glucans are known to exhibit hypocholesterolemic effects. Increased intestinal viscosity is thought to be crucial for cholesterol lowering. It is suggested that concentration, molecular mass, and structure, including the ratio of (1?3) to (1?4) glucan bonds in the molecule, are of importance for ?-glucan functionality. This study investigated the effects of 3 different ?-glucan sources, incorporated into a beverage and yogurt, on blood lipids and fecal endpoints. Fourteen participants completed this randomized, crossover, single-blinded study with four 3-wk periods: control and 3.3 g/d oat, barley, and barley mutant ?-glucans of similar molecular mass. Before and after each period, fasting and postprandial blood samples were drawn and 3-d fecal samples were collected. Treatment did not affect changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol compared with control; however, consumption of 3.3 g/d of oat ?-glucans for 3 wk resulted in greater decreases in total (-0.29 ± 0.09 mmol/L, P < 0.01), LDL (-0.23 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P < 0.01), and HDL (-0.05 ± 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.05) cholesterol compared with baseline. Changes in LDL in the ?-glucan treatments were not related to ?-glucan structure (cellotriosyl:cellotetraosyl). Decreases in fasting triacylglycerol were substantially greater after oat ?-glucan treatment compared with control (P = 0.03). Fecal dry and wet weight, stool frequency, fecal pH, and energy excretion were unaffected. The results do not fully support the hypocholesterolemic effects by differently structured oat and barley ?-glucans. However, substantial differences compared with baseline suggest a potential for oat ?-glucan, presumably due to its higher solubility and viscosity. This underlines the importance of elusive structural ?-glucan features for beneficial physiologic effects. PMID:23946347

Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau; Ejsing, Johnny; Jespersen, Birthe Mřller; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Engelsen, Sřren Balling; Bügel, Susanne

2013-08-14

265

1-Methylguanosine-Deficient tRNA of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Affects Thiamine Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium a mutation in the purF gene encoding the first enzyme in the purine pathway blocks, besides the synthesis of purine, the synthesis of thiamine when glucose is used as the carbon source. On carbon sources other than glucose, a purF mutant does not require thiamine, since the alternative pyrimidine biosynthetic (APB) pathway is activated. This pathway feeds into the purine pathway just after the PurF biosynthetic step and upstream of the intermediate 4-aminoimidazolribotide, which is the common intermediate in purine and thiamine synthesis. The activity of this pathway is also influenced by externally added pantothenate. tRNAs from S. enterica specific for leucine, proline, and arginine contain 1-methylguanosine (m1G37) adjacent to and 3? of the anticodon (position 37). The formation of m1G37 is catalyzed by the enzyme tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase, which is encoded by the trmD gene. Mutations in this gene, which result in an m1G37 deficiency in the tRNA, in a purF mutant mediate PurF-independent thiamine synthesis. This phenotype is specifically dependent on the m1G37 deficiency, since several other mutations which also affect translation fidelity and induce slow growth did not cause PurF-independent thiamine synthesis. Some antibiotics that are known to reduce the efficiency of translation also induce PurF-independent thiamine synthesis. We suggest that a slow decoding event at a codon(s) read by a tRNA(s) normally containing m1G37 is responsible for the PurF-independent thiamine synthesis and that this event causes a changed flux in the APB pathway.

Bjork, Glenn R.; Nilsson, Kristina

2003-01-01

266

Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms and are the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian lifestyle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 produce oxygen and can also fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. To accommodate such antagonistic processes, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of the two processes: photosynthesis during the day and nitrogen fixation at night. Although previous studies have examined periodic changes in transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5,000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. Our analysis showed that approximately 30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece 51142. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes encoding enzymes in numerous individual biochemical pathways, such as glycolysis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and glycogen metabolism, were coregulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium. PMID:18427117

Stöckel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A; Liberton, Michelle; Kunnvakkam, Rangesh; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B

2008-04-21

267

Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms and are the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian lifestyle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 produce oxygen and can also fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. To accommodate such antagonistic processes, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day–night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of the two processes: photosynthesis during the day and nitrogen fixation at night. Although previous studies have examined periodic changes in transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5,000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. Our analysis showed that ?30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece 51142. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes encoding enzymes in numerous individual biochemical pathways, such as glycolysis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and glycogen metabolism, were coregulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light–dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium.

Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle; Kunnvakkam, Rangesh; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2008-01-01

268

PLANT SEEDS: AN EXCITING MODEL SYSTEM FOR DISSECTING MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR REGULATION OF METABOLIC PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic processes are regulated by complex networks of interacting mechanisms that utilize various cellular machineries. Such complex networks may be well exemplified by the synthesis, accumulation, and degradation of storage proteins in developing and germinating seeds. Our laboratories are using plant seeds as a model system for studying the regulation of production of the essential amino acid lysine, the control

GAD GALILI; GUILIANG TANG; XIAOHONG ZHU; RACHEL AMIR; HANNA LEVANONY; GALIA SHY; ELIOT M. HERMANb

2000-01-01

269

Computer-assisted image-processing system for the analysis of autoradiographs of cerebral metabolic activity  

SciTech Connect

Computerized image-processing system has been developed for quantitative analyses of the autoradiographs obtained with the (14C) deoxyglucose method. By means of this system, these cerebral metabolic images can be digitized and the resultant data can be manipulated for image construction, enhancement, enlargement, and microdensitometric analysis. It is also possible to generate quantitative color-coded metabolic maps tht display the distribution of the actual rates of local glucose utilization throughout the entire central nervous system with a resolution conservatively estimated to be equivalent to that of a full-width-half-maximum of approximately 100 micron.

Goochee, C.F.; Rasband, W.S.; Sokoloff, L.

1980-01-01

270

Pregnancy and lactation affect markers of calcium and bone metabolism differently in adolescent and adult women with low calcium intakes.  

PubMed

Physiologic adaptation to the high calcium demand during pregnancy and lactation may be different in adolescents than in adults, particularly at low calcium intake. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare biochemical markers of calcium and bone metabolism between adolescent (14-19 y) and adult (21-35 y) women with calcium intake approximately 500 mg/d, in three different physiologic states, i.e., control (nonpregnant, nonlactating; NPNL), pregnant and lactating. Markers of calcium metabolism [serum Ca, P and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH); urinary Ca and P] and of bone turnover [urinary deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr) and plasma bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)] were measured in NPNL (adolescents, n = 12 and adults, n = 25), pregnant (adolescents, n = 30 and adults, n = 36) and lactating (adolescents, n = 19 and adults, n = 26) women. In the NPNL women, iPTH, D-Pyr and BAP were higher (P < 0.001) and urinary Ca was lower (P < 0.001) in adolescents than in adults. Serum iPTH was higher (P < 0.001) and urinary Ca was lower (P < 0.01) in adolescents than in adults also in pregnancy and lactation. Compared with NPNL women, serum Ca decreased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy in adolescents but not in adults. The increase in D-Pyr with pregnancy and lactation was very pronounced in adults ( approximately 130%, P < 0.001) but less in adolescents (<25%, P < 0.01). BAP increased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy and lactation in adults ( approximately 60%) but decreased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy in adolescents ( approximately 13%). Pregnancy and lactation appear to affect bone turnover in adolescent and adult women with low calcium intake differently. PMID:12163659

Bezerra, Flávia F; Laboissičre, Fabrícia P; King, Janet C; Donangelo, Carmen M

2002-08-01

271

Systematic variation of prosthetic foot spring affects center-of-mass mechanics and metabolic cost during walking.  

PubMed

Lower-limb amputees expend more energy to walk than non-amputees and have an elevated risk of secondary disabilities. Insufficient push-off by the prosthetic foot may be a contributing factor. We aimed to systematically study the effect of prosthetic foot mechanics on gait, to gain insight into fundamental prosthetic design principles. We varied a single parameter in isolation, the energy-storing spring in a prototype prosthetic foot, the controlled energy storage and return (CESR) foot, and observed the effect on gait. Subjects walked on the CESR foot with three different springs. We performed parallel studies on amputees and on non-amputees wearing prosthetic simulators. In both groups, spring characteristics similarly affected ankle and body center-of-mass (COM) mechanics and metabolic cost. Softer springs led to greater energy storage, energy return, and prosthetic limb COM push-off work. But metabolic energy expenditure was lowest with a spring of intermediate stiffness, suggesting biomechanical disadvantages to the softest spring despite its greater push-off. Disadvantages of the softest spring may include excessive heel displacements and COM collision losses. We also observed some differences in joint kinetics between amputees and non-amputees walking on the prototype foot. During prosthetic push-off, amputees exhibited reduced energy transfer from the prosthesis to the COM along with increased hip work, perhaps due to greater energy dissipation at the knee. Nevertheless, the results indicate that spring compliance can contribute to push-off, but with biomechanical trade-offs that limit the degree to which greater push-off might improve walking economy. PMID:21708509

Zelik, Karl E; Collins, Steven H; Adamczyk, Peter G; Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K; Morgenroth, David C; Hahn, Michael E; Orendurff, Michael S; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Kuo, Arthur D

2011-06-23

272

The analysis of intuition: Processing fluency and affect in judgements of semantic coherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semantic coherence judgements individuals are able to intuitively discriminate whether a word triad has a common remote associate (coherent) or not (incoherent) without consciously retrieving the common associate. A processing-fluency account for these intuitions is proposed, which assumes that (a) coherent triads are processed more fluently than incoherent triads, (b) this high fluency triggers a subtle positive affect, and

Sascha Topolinski; Fritz Strack

2009-01-01

273

The effects of induced state negative affect on performance monitoring processes.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that performance-monitoring processes are related to personality traits; relationships with affective states, however, remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend previous findings that induced state negative affect alters electrophysiological reflections of performance monitoring. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 69 healthy individuals (41 female, 28 male) who completed an Eriksen flanker task and received either encouraging or derogatory feedback based on mean reaction times (RTs) for 30-trial sub-blocks. Affective state, behavioral measures (i.e. error rates, RTs) and ERP measures [i.e. error-related negativity (ERN), post-error positivity (Pe) and N2] were assessed. Reaction times did not differ between feedback groups. Participants who received derogatory feedback committed more errors over time. Despite changes in affect, no significant group differences were demonstrated for behavioral or ERP measures of performance monitoring. Increases in vigilance were associated with more negative N2 amplitudes; no other changes in affective state were associated with changes in ERP measures. Results are consistent with findings suggesting performance-monitoring processes are only slightly affected by changes in affective state and fail to replicate previous studies suggesting the ERN is related to state changes in affect-supporting the possibility of the ERN as an endophenotype. PMID:21685443

Clayson, Peter E; Clawson, Ann; Larson, Michael J

2011-06-17

274

Lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress as metabolic adaptation processes in dairy heifers during transition period.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in dairy heifers during the transition period. Possible relationships between lipid mobilisation indicators and oxidative stress markers were investigated as well. Nineteen dairy heifers were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the time of estrus synchronisation in heifers, at insemination, three weeks after insemination, one week before calving, at calving and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Common metabolic parameters, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidative status (TAS) were analysed. Around insemination, no significant difference was observed in the majority of tested parameters (P>0.05). However, the transition period markedly affected the concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, BHB, FFA, TAS and PON1activity. Positive correlations between PON1 activity and total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglycerides were noted but inverse correlations with FFA, BHB and bilirubin were found indicating that PON1 activity changed with lipid metabolism and was influenced by negative energy balance. These findings suggest that lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress are part of a complex metabolic adaptation to low energy balance which reaches equilibrium later in advanced lactation. PMID:23998495

Turk, R; Podpe?an, O; Mrkun, J; Kosec, M; Flegar-Meštri?, Z; Perkov, S; Stari?, J; Robi?, M; Beli?, M; Zrimšek, P

2013-08-12

275

Juvenile salmon with high standard metabolic rates have higher energy costs but can process meals faster  

PubMed Central

Basal or standard metabolic rate (SMR) has been found to exhibit substantial intraspecific variation in a range of taxa, but the consequences of this variation are little understood. Here we explore how SMR is related to the energy cost of processing food, known as apparent specific dynamic action or the heat increment of feeding. Using juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we show that fishes with a higher SMR had a higher peak and a greater total energy expenditure when digesting a given size of meal. However, the duration over which their metabolism was elevated after consuming the meal was shorter. The greater energy costs they incur for processing food may be related to their assimilation efficiency. These relationships are likely to have implications for feeding strategies and growth rates, since individuals with a higher SMR have higher routine costs of living but recover more quickly following feeding and so may have a greater potential for processing food.

Millidine, K.J.; Armstrong, J.D.; Metcalfe, N.B.

2009-01-01

276

Assessment of Heat Affected Zone of Submerged Arc Welding Process through Digital Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a high quality, high deposition rate welding process commonly used to join plates of higher thickness in load bearing components. This process of arc welding provides a purer and cleaner high volume weldment that has relatively a higher material deposition rate compared to the traditional welding methods. A common issue in the application of SAW

Aniruddha Ghosh; Somnath Chattopadhyaya; R. K. Das; P. K. Sarkar

2011-01-01

277

Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

Yeigh, Tony

2007-01-01

278

40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400...of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution...affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? This...

2013-07-01

279

Episodic Processes in Emotional Labor: Perceptions of Affective Delivery and Regulation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined emotional labor processes from a within-person, episodic framework. The authors hypothesized that the influence of negative emotions on affective delivery would be lessened by regulation strategies for supervisor perceptions but not self-perceptions. In addition, difficulty maintaining display rules was hypothesized to mediate the relation between negative emotions and self-perceptions of affective delivery. Finally, the influence of surface

Daniel J. Beal; John P. Trougakos; Howard M. Weiss; Stephen G. Green

2006-01-01

280

Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.  

PubMed

Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that cullin3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ethylene response factor (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by Math-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the wrinkled1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of Math-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members. PMID:23792371

Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hellmann, Hanjo

2013-06-21

281

Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

Dyke, J. G.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.

2011-06-01

282

Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations. PMID:19925192

Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

2009-11-19

283

Estrogen receptor ? activation impairs mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and affects malignant mesothelioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor (ER)-? has been shown to possess a tumor suppressive effect, and is a potential target for cancer therapy. Using gene-expression meta-analysis of human malignant pleural mesothelioma, we identified an ESR2 (ER? coding gene) signature. High ESR2 expression was strongly associated with low succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) (which encodes a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II subunit) expression. We demonstrate that SDHB loss induced ESR2 expression, and that activated ER?, by over-expression or by selective agonist stimulation, negatively affected oxidative phosphorylation compromising mitochondrial complex II and IV activity. This resulted in reduced mitochondrial ATP production, increased glycolysis dependence and impaired cell proliferation. The observed in vitro effects were phenocopied in vivo using a selective ER? agonist in a mesothelioma mouse model. On the whole, our data highlight an unforeseen interaction between ER?-mediated tumor suppression and energy metabolism that may be exploited to improve on the therapy for clinical management of malignant mesothelioma. PMID:24061575

Manente, A G; Valenti, D; Pinton, G; Jithesh, P V; Daga, A; Rossi, L; Gray, S G; O'Byrne, K J; Fennell, D A; Vacca, R A; Nilsson, S; Mutti, L; Moro, L

2013-09-23

284

Theoretical estimation of metabolic network robustness against multiple reaction knockouts using branching process approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous study, we showed that the branching process approximation is useful for estimating metabolic robustness, measured using the impact degree. By applying a theory of random family forests, we here extend the branching process approximation to consider the knockout of multiple reactions, inspired by the importance of multiple knockouts reported by recent computational and experimental studies. In addition, we propose a better definition of the number of offspring of each reaction node, allowing for an improved estimation of the impact degree distribution obtained as a result of a single knockout. Importantly, our proposed approach is also applicable to multiple knockouts. The comparisons between theoretical predictions and numerical results using real-world metabolic networks demonstrate the validity of the modeling based on random family forests for estimating the impact degree distributions resulting from the knockout of multiple reactions.

Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Takeyuki; Akutsu, Tatsuya

2013-11-01

285

Metabolic processes sustaining the reviviscence of lichen Xanthoria elegans (Link) in high mountain environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To survive in high mountain environments lichens must adapt themselves to alternating periods of desiccation and hydration.\\u000a Respiration and photosynthesis of the foliaceous lichen, Xanthoria elegans, in the dehydrated state were below the threshold of CO2-detection by infrared gas analysis. Following hydration, respiration totally recovered within seconds and photosynthesis\\u000a within minutes. In order to identify metabolic processes that may contribute

Serge Aubert; Christine Juge; Anne-Marie Boisson; Elisabeth Gout; Richard Bligny

2007-01-01

286

Halothane effects on metabolic processes in cholinergic synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebra  

SciTech Connect

Synaptosomes are an excellent model system for examining metabolic processes that occur in nerve endings. In this study they were used to examine the effects of halothane, an inhalational anesthetic, on metabolic processes associated with the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. They were also used to study possible mechanisms involved with supplying the cytosol with activated acetyl groups produced in the mitochondria. In synaptosomes, halothane reversibly inhibits acetylcholine synthesis, and inhibits choline uptake in a competitive-like manner. It also depresses /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution from labeled pyruvate, glucose and succinate, decreases the activity of ATP-citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, and completely inhibits pentose phosphate pathway activity. Halothane also significantly enhances glucose utilization and lactate production. However, halothane has no effect on choline acetyltransferases activity or total synaptosomal acetyl CoA levels. These alterations of metabolic processes leads to the suggestion that the primary effect of halothane is to decrease the NAD/sup +//NADH potential, possibly resulting from mitochondrial NADH-CoQ reductase inhibition. This in combination with halothane's inhibition of choline transport would reduce the availability of both choline and acetyl CoA, precursors required for acetylcholine synthesis.

Johnson, G.V.W.

1984-01-01

287

An Exometabolomics Approach to Monitoring Microbial Contamination in Microalgal Fermentation Processes by Using Metabolic Footprint Analysis?†  

PubMed Central

The early detection of microbial contamination is crucial to avoid process failure and costly delays in fermentation industries. However, traditional detection methods such as plate counting and microscopy are labor-intensive, insensitive, and time-consuming. Modern techniques that can detect microbial contamination rapidly and cost-effectively are therefore sought. In the present study, we propose gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic footprint analysis as a rapid and reliable method for the detection of microbial contamination in fermentation processes. Our metabolic footprint analysis detected statistically significant differences in metabolite profiles of axenic and contaminated batch cultures of microalgae as early as 3 h after contamination was introduced, while classical detection methods could detect contamination only after 24 h. The data were analyzed by discriminant function analysis and were validated by leave-one-out cross-validation. We obtained a 97% success rate in correctly classifying samples coming from contaminated or axenic cultures. Therefore, metabolic footprint analysis combined with discriminant function analysis presents a rapid and cost-effective approach to monitor microbial contamination in industrial fermentation processes.

Sue, Tiffany; Obolonkin, Victor; Griffiths, Hywel; Villas-Boas, Silas Granato

2011-01-01

288

Plasma metabolites reflect seasonally changing metabolic processes in a long-distance migrant shorebird (Calidris canutus).  

PubMed

Migrant birds have tightly scheduled annual cycles consisting of several distinct life cycle (sub-)stages such as reproduction, migration, moult and overwintering, each of which have specific metabolic requirements (e.g., fattening during migration, protein build-up during moult). This study examines changes in fat and protein metabolism during the annual cycle of body mass and moult over 1.5 years in a captive flock of an arctic-breeding shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica. 2-5 h after food withdrawal, plasma uric acid levels were still decreasing and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels were low, indicating prolonged catabolism of dietary protein, probably linked with a conversion into lipids. Such a late-resorptive state is achieved much earlier in passerines, but only after several days in penguins and, thus, seems to depend on meal size or mass-specific metabolic rate. Substages of body mass gain and high body mass were characterized by increased plasma triglyceride levels reflecting increased turnover of lipids, and low levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxy- butyrate, indicating that the bird is not short of glucose. The high uric acid levels during these substages indicated an increased breakdown of nutritional protein. During moult, plasma triglyceride levels were low, suggesting that lipids were less available than at other times of the year. It is concluded that plasma metabolite levels indicate the metabolic processes related to migratory fuelling and moult and the influence of exogeneous factors. PMID:16351872

Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas; Piersma, Theunis

2002-01-01

289

Proteomic analyses identify a diverse array of nuclear processes affected by small ubiquitin-like modifier conjugation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The covalent attachment of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) to other intracellular proteins affects a broad range of nuclear processes in yeast and animals, including chromatin maintenance, transcription, and transport across the nuclear envelope, as well as protects proteins from ubiquitin addition. Substantial increases in SUMOylated proteins upon various stresses have also implicated this modification in the general stress response. To help understand the role(s) of SUMOylation in plants, we developed a stringent method to isolate SUMO-protein conjugates from Arabidopsis thaliana that exploits a tagged SUMO1 variant that faithfully replaces the wild-type protein. Following purification under denaturing conditions, SUMOylated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry from both nonstressed plants and those exposed to heat and oxidative stress. The list of targets is enriched for factors that direct SUMOylation and for nuclear proteins involved in chromatin remodeling/repair, transcription, RNA metabolism, and protein trafficking. Targets of particular interest include histone H2B, components in the LEUNIG/TOPLESS corepressor complexes, and proteins that control histone acetylation and DNA methylation, which affect genome-wide transcription. SUMO attachment site(s) were identified in a subset of targets, including SUMO1 itself to confirm the assembly of poly-SUMO chains. SUMO1 also becomes conjugated with ubiquitin during heat stress, thus connecting these two posttranslational modifications in plants. Taken together, we propose that SUMOylation represents a rapid and global mechanism for reversibly manipulating plant chromosomal functions, especially during environmental stress.

Miller, Marcus J.; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A.; Hua, Zhihua; Vierstra, Richard D.

2010-01-01

290

Dll1 Haploinsufficiency in Adult Mice Leads to a Complex Phenotype Affecting Metabolic and Immunological Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved signal transduction pathway involved in embryonic patterning and regulation of cell fates during development and self-renewal. Recent studies have demonstrated that this pathway is integral to a complex system of interactions, involving as well other signal transduction pathways, and implicated in distinct human diseases. Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is one of the known

Isabel Rubio-Aliaga; Gerhard K. H. Przemeck; Helmut Fuchs; Valérie Gailus-Durner; Thure Adler; Wolfgang Hans; Marion Horsch; Birgit Rathkolb; Jan Rozman; Anja Schrewe; Sibylle Wagner; Sabine M. Hoelter; Lore Becker; Thomas Klopstock; Wolfgang Wurst; Eckhard Wolf; Martin Klingenspor; Boris T. Ivandic; Dirk H. Busch; Johannes Beckers; Martin Hrabé de Angelis; Derya Unutmaz

2009-01-01

291

Combined unilateral lesions of the amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex impair affective processing in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

The amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo) interact as part of a system for affective processing. To assess whether there is a hemispheric functional specialization for the processing of emotion or reward or both in nonhuman primates, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with combined lesions of the amygdala and PFo in one hemisphere, either left or right, were compared with unoperated controls on a battery of tasks that tax affective processing, including two tasks that tax reward processing and two that assess emotional reactions. Although the two operated groups did not differ from each other, monkeys with unilateral lesions, left and right, showed altered reward-processing abilities as evidenced by attenuated reinforcer devaluation effects and an impairment in object reversal learning relative to controls. In addition, both operated groups showed blunted emotional reactions to a rubber snake. By contrast, monkeys with unilateral lesions did not differ from controls in their responses to an unfamiliar human (human "intruder"). Although the results provide no support for a hemispheric specialization of function, they yield the novel finding that unilateral lesions of the amygdala-orbitofrontal cortical circuit in monkeys are sufficient to significantly disrupt affective processing. PMID:14711973

Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

2004-01-07

292

The impact of cognitive and\\/or affective processing styles on consumer response to advertising appeals  

Microsoft Academic Search

As advertisers increasingly seek greater communication effectiveness and new forms of media emerge, psychological differences amongst individuals are becoming essential criteria in the design of advertising appeals. The present study considers whether individuals differ in their propensity to rely on affective, cognitive or both systems to process information. This research suggests that persuasive appeals tend to be more effective when

Salvador Ruiz; Mar??a Sicilia

2004-01-01

293

Physicochemical and biological processes affecting the recovery of exogenously applied ferulic acid from tropical forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is found in both plants and soils, and some evidence suggests its involvement in biochemical interactions between plants (allelopathy) and other organisms living in the soil. Knowledge of the processes affecting the concentrations of such potential allelochemicals in soil is essential if we are to understand their roles in the soil environment. It was the intent

Barry R. Dalton

1989-01-01

294

Facial Affect Processing and Depression Susceptibility: Cognitive Biases and Cognitive Neuroscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal…

Bistricky, Steven L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2011-01-01

295

The moderating effects of contamination sensitivity on state affect and information processing: Examination of disgust specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although contamination sensitivity has been implicated in several disorders, there is a paucity of research examining the influence of this trait on various outcomes. Accordingly, the present study examined the extent to which individual differences in contamination sensitivity moderated state affect in response to a mood induction and subsequent information processing biases, as assessed by a lexical decision task (LDT).

Thomas Armstrong; Andrew J. Tomarken; Bunmi O. Olatunji

2011-01-01

296

The moderating effects of contamination sensitivity on state affect and information processing: Examination of disgust specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although contamination sensitivity has been implicated in several disorders, there is a paucity of research examining the influence of this trait on various outcomes. Accordingly, the present study examined the extent to which individual differences in contamination sensitivity moderated state affect in response to a mood induction and subsequent information processing biases, as assessed by a lexical decision task (LDT).

Thomas Armstrong; Andrew J. Tomarken; Bunmi O. Olatunji

2012-01-01

297

Affect and non-uniform characteristics of predictive processing in musical behaviour.  

PubMed

The important roles of prediction and prior experience are well established in music research and fit well with Clark's concept of unified perception, cognition, and action arising from hierarchical, bidirectional predictive processing. However, in order to fully account for human musical intelligence, Clark needs to further consider the powerful and variable role of affect in relation to prediction error. PMID:23663552

Schaefer, Rebecca S; Overy, Katie; Nelson, Peter

2013-05-10

298

Facial Affect Processing and Depression Susceptibility: Cognitive Biases and Cognitive Neuroscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal…

Bistricky, Steven L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2011-01-01

299

Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8–13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a vignette-based interview measure of SIP. Anxiety and depression were

Aaron M. Luebbe; Debora J. Bell; Maureen A. Allwood; Lance P. Swenson; Martha C. Early

2010-01-01

300

Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

2010-01-01

301

Semantic and affective processing in psychopaths: An event-related potential (ERP) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that psychopathy is associated with abnormal processing of semantic and affective verbal information. In Task 1, a lexical decision task, and in Task 2, a word identification task, participants responded faster to concrete than to abstract words. In Task 2, psychopaths made more errors identifying abstract words than concrete words. In Task 3, a word identification

KENT A. KIEHL; ROBERT D. HARE; JOHN J. MCDONALD; JOHANN BRINK

1999-01-01

302

Affective picture processing and motivational relevance: arousal and valence effects on ERPs in an oddball task.  

PubMed

There are two dominant theories of affective picture processing; one that attention is more deeply engaged by motivationally relevant stimuli (i.e., stimuli that activate both the appetitive and aversive systems), and two that attention is more deeply engaged by aversive stimuli described as the negativity bias. In order to identify the theory that can best account for affective picture processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 34 participants during a modified oddball paradigm in which levels of stimulus valence, arousal, and motivational relevance were systematically varied. Results were partially consistent with motivated attention models of emotional perception, as P3b amplitude was enhanced in response to highly arousing and motivationally relevant sexual and unpleasant stimuli compared to respective low arousing and less motivationally relevant stimuli. However P3b amplitudes were significantly larger in response to the highly arousing sexual stimuli compared to all other affective stimuli, which is not consistent with either dominant theory. The current study therefore highlights the need for a revised model of affective picture processing and provides a platform for further research investigating the independent effects of sexual arousal on cognitive processing. PMID:19232373

Briggs, Kate E; Martin, Frances H

2009-02-14

303

The embrace of Mother Nature: appraisal processes and the regulation of affect in attachment genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Except for a couple of articles from cognitive film theory, theoretical writing about film has shed little light on the underlying processes governing affective film experience in relation to attachment concerns. In this paper, I explore the relevance of neuro-psychoanalytic theory in laying down a framework for understanding the viewer's experience of emotional episodes of loss primarily in romantic films

Mette Kramer

2010-01-01

304

Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

2010-01-01

305

Atypical Sensory Processing in Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Non-Affected Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Atypical sensory processing is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specific profiles have been proposed in different age groups, but no study has focused specifically on adolescents. Identifying traits of ASD that are shared by individuals with ASD and their non-affected family members can shed light on the genetic underpinnings of ASD.…

De la Marche, Wouter; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse

2012-01-01

306

Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

307

Laboratory study of the clogging process and factors affecting clogging in a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory simulation of clogging in the Lixi tailings dam (Shaanxi Province, China) is urgently required because clogging is an important factor affecting the dam stability. This work firstly presents the results of ferrous iron oxidation experiments using buffer solution. The results indicate that the ferrous iron oxidation follows first order kinetics, and the oxidation process is strongly dependent on pH,

Jun Wu; Yanqing Wu; Jian Lu

2008-01-01

308

Long-Term Dietary Habits Affect Soy Isoflavone Metabolism and Accumulation in Prostatic Fluid in Caucasian Men1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein are believed to reduce prostate cancer risk in soy consumers. However, daidzein can be metabolized by the intestinal flora to form a variety of compounds with different bioactivities. In the current study, we investigated the influence of long-term dietary habits on daidzein metabolism in healthy Caucasian men (19 - 65 y old). A secondary

Tammy E. Hedlund; Paul D. Maroni; Paul G. Ferucci; Robert Dayton; Stephen Barnes; Kenneth Jones; Ray Moore; Lorraine G. Ogden; Kristiina Wah; Holly M. Sackett; Karen J. Gray

309

Intestinal and ruminal epithelial and hepatic metabolism regulatory gene expression as affected by forage to concentrate ratio in bulls  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In ruminants, we have demonstrated variable rates of oxidation of amino acids using isolated cell preparations. Few studies describe alterations in putative regulatory metabolic gene transcript expression of these metabolically active tissues in response to changes in ration. Angus bulls (n = 12; ...

310

Lyophilized carrot ingestion lowers lipemia and beneficially affects cholesterol metabolism in cholesterol–fed C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Several lines of evidence indicate that diet rich in fruit and vegetable can protect against cardiovascular diseases by acting on cholesterol metabolism and on oxidative stress. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to assess whether daily carrot consumption (provided as lyophilized powder) could differentially influence the consequences of cholesterol supplementation on lipid metabolism and

Catherine Nicolle; Elyett Gueux; Claudine Lab; Lydia Jaffrelo; E. Rock; A. Mazur; P. Amouroux; C. Rémésy

2004-01-01

311

Affective Assessment of a Computer User through the Processing of the Pupil Diameter Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposes to achieve the affective assessment of a computer user through the processing of the pupil diameter (PD) signal. An adaptive interference canceller (AIC) system using the H? time-varying (HITV) adaptive algorithm was developed to minimize the impact of the PLR (pupil size changes caused by light intensity variations) on the measured pupil diameter signal. The modified pupil diameter (MPD) signal, obtained from the AIC, was expected to reflect primarily the pupillary affective responses (PAR) of the subject. Additional manipulations of the AIC output resulted in a Processed MPD (PMPD) signal, from which a classification feature, “PMPDmean”, was extracted. This feature was used to train and test a support vector machine (SVM), for the identification of “stress” states in the subject, achieving an accuracy rate of 77.78%. The advantages of affective recognition through the PD signal were verified by comparatively investigating the classification of “stress” and “relaxation” states through features derived from the simultaneously recorded galvanic skin response (GSR) and blood volume pulse (BVP) signals, with and without the PD feature. Encouraging results in affective assessment based on pupil diameter monitoring were obtained in spite of intermittent illumination increases purposely introduced during the experiments. Therefore, these results confirmed the possibility of using PD monitoring to evaluate the evolving affective states of a computer user.

Gao, Ying; Barreto, Armando; Adjouadi, Malek

312

Automatic affective stimulus processing is intact after unilateral resection of the anterior temporal lobe in humans.  

PubMed

Only hundreds of milliseconds after an incoming stimulus is perceived, we make an evaluation of whether it is good or bad. This evaluation seems to occur automatically and can significantly influence behavior. According to several functional imaging studies, the amygdala, which is localized in the temporal lobes of the brain, is an important structure for the automatic processing of affective stimuli. To investigate how critical a role the amygdala plays in this process, we had 20 participants with unilateral resection of the temporal lobe and 20 controls perform an affective priming task. Both controls and patients demonstrated shorter response latencies on trials where prime and target had the same valence than on trials where prime and target had the opposite valence. This finding is generally known as the affective priming effect and is considered to reflect automatic stimulus evaluation. More specifically, it is assumed that the valence of the prime stimulus is activated automatically and exerts an influence on the speed by which the target stimulus is evaluated. Given that the affective priming effect is equally large in both groups, our results suggest that the automatic processing of stimulus valence is intact in participants who sustained unilateral resection of the temporal lobe. PMID:16996545

Coppens, Evelien; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Spruyt, Adriaan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Van Paesschen, Wim; Eelen, Paul

2006-09-22

313

Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review  

SciTech Connect

The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities) in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1) using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR) as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2) revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3) prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4) obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.

Yu,P.

2007-01-01

314

Teaching creativity involves both cognitive and affective learning processes organized as 3D cases on The Creative Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching creativity involves both a cognitive and an affective learning process. Creativity can be defined as our ability to perceive and respond to stimuli in a new way. Teaching creativity therefore involves both cognitive and affective learning processes. Cognitive because our thinking is cognitive and affective because our thinking is close related to our body movements and attitude in a

S. Hansen; C. Byrge

315

Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets  

SciTech Connect

The G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty-acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. We observed that glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, assessed by hyperglycemic clamps, was decreased by approximately 60% in GPR40 knock-out (KO) fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Glucose and palmitate metabolism were not affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling revealed a similar increase in triglyceride and decrease in lysophosphatidylethanolamine species in WT and KO islets in response to palmitate. These results demonstrate that GPR40 regulates insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism.

Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, M. G.; Kebede, Melkam; Sorensen, Christina M.; Gesta, Stephane; Kahn, C. R.; Smith, Richard D.; Jetton, Thomas L.; Metz, Thomas O.; Prentki, Marc; Poitout, Vincent J.

2009-11-01

316

Proposal for field sampling of plants and processing in the lab for environmental metabolic fingerprinting  

PubMed Central

Background Samples for plant metabolic fingerprinting are prepared generally by metabolism quenching, grinding of plant material and extraction of metabolites in solvents. Further concentration and derivatisation steps follow in dependence of the sample nature and the available analytical platform. For plant material sampled in the field, several methods are not applicable, such as, e.g., collection in liquid nitrogen. Therefore, a protocol was established for sample pre-treatment, grinding, extraction and storage, which can be used for analysis of field-collected plant material, which is further processed in the laboratory. Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., Plantaginaceae) was used as model plant. The quality criteria for method suitability were high reproducibility, extraction efficiency and handling comfort of each subsequent processing step. Results Highest reproducibility of results was achieved by sampling fresh plant material in a solvent mixture of methanol:dichloromethane (2:1), crushing the tissue with a hand-held disperser and storing the material until further processing. In the laboratory the material was extracted threefold at different pH. The gained extracts were separated with water (2:1:1 methanol:dichloromethane:water) and the aqueous phases used for analysis by LC-MS, because the polar metabolites were in focus. Chromatograms were compared by calculating a value ? for similarities. Advantages and disadvantages of different sample pre-treatment methods, use of solvents and solvent mixtures, influence of pH, extraction frequency and duration, and storing temperature are discussed with regard to the quality criteria. Conclusions The proposed extraction protocol leads to highly reproducible metabolic fingerprints and allows optimal handling of field-collected plant material and further processing in the laboratory, which is demonstrated for an exemplary field data-set. Calculation of ? values is a useful tool to judge similarities between chromatograms.

2010-01-01

317

Measurement of waist circumference at different sites affects the detection of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients.  

PubMed

There is a lack of understanding about the impact of different waist circumference (WC) measurements on the detection of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients. This cross-sectional study included a total of 382 inpatients with schizophrenia-related disorders to assess each component of metabolic syndrome. WC was measured at the lowest rib, midpoint between the iliac crest and lowest rib, iliac crest, minimal waist, and umbilicus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the ability of WC at each site to predict the presence of metabolic risk clustering. The mean WC values for all sites were significantly different from each other. The measurement site had an influence on the prevalence of abdominal obesity (30-38.2% in men and 53.9-86.3% in women). The influence on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was greater with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria (19.3-23.9% in men and 29.4-43.1% in women) than with the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria (26.1-28.6% in men and 37.3-44.1% in women). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for metabolic risk clustering were highest at the umbilicus and midpoint. Given that the WC measurement protocol has substantial influence on the prevalence of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, a predefined measurement site is required for all psychiatric studies. PMID:22370155

Lin, Chao-Cheng; Yu, Shun-Chieh; Wu, Bo-Jian; Chang, Da-Jen

2012-02-25

318

Is the processing of affective prosody influenced by spatial attention? an ERP study  

PubMed Central

Background The present study asked whether the processing of affective prosody is modulated by spatial attention. Pseudo-words with a neutral, happy, threatening, and fearful prosody were presented at two spatial positions. Participants attended to one position in order to detect infrequent targets. Emotional prosody was task irrelevant. The electro-encephalogram (EEG) was recorded to assess processing differences as a function of spatial attention and emotional valence. Results Event-related potentials (ERPs) differed as a function of emotional prosody both when attended and when unattended. While emotional prosody effects interacted with effects of spatial attention at early processing levels (< 200 ms), these effects were additive at later processing stages (> 200 ms). Conclusions Emotional prosody, therefore, seems to be partially processed outside the focus of spatial attention. Whereas at early sensory processing stages spatial attention modulates the degree of emotional voice processing as a function of emotional valence, emotional prosody is processed outside of the focus of spatial attention at later processing stages.

2013-01-01

319

Determining novel functions of Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins in central metabolic processes  

PubMed Central

Background 14-3-3 proteins are considered master regulators of many signal transduction cascades in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins have major roles as regulators of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, conclusions based on the studies of a few specific 14-3-3 targets. Results In this study, extensive novel roles of 14-3-3 proteins in plant metabolism were determined through combining the parallel analyses of metabolites and enzyme activities in 14-3-3 overexpression and knockout plants with studies of protein-protein interactions. Decreases in the levels of sugars and nitrogen-containing-compounds and in the activities of known 14-3-3-interacting-enzymes were observed in 14-3-3 overexpression plants. Plants overexpressing 14-3-3 proteins also contained decreased levels of malate and citrate, which are intermediate compounds of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. These modifications were related to the reduced activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of TCA cycle. In addition, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 proteins interacted with one isocitrate dehydrogenase and two malate dehydrogenases. There were also changes in the levels of aromatic compounds and the activities of shikimate dehydrogenase, which participates in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicate that 14-3-3 proteins play roles as crucial tuners of multiple primary metabolic processes including TCA cycle and the shikimate pathway.

2011-01-01

320

Atypical autonomic regulation, auditory processing, and affect recognition in women with HIV.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of HIV on visceromotor (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability) and somatomotor (i.e., auditory processing and affect recognition) components of a Social Engagement System defined by the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995) that links vagal regulation of the heart with brainstem regulation of the striated muscles of the face and head. Relative to at risk HIV-seronegative women, HIV-seropositive women had less heart rate variability (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and had poorer performance on auditory processing and affect recognition tasks. CD4 was negatively correlated with the accuracy to detect specific emotions. The observed indices of atypical autonomic and behavioral regulation may contribute to greater difficulties in social behavior and social communication between HIV-infected women and other individuals in their social network. PMID:23792136

Heilman, K J; Harden, E R; Weber, K M; Cohen, M; Porges, S W

2013-06-17

321

Episodic processes in emotional labor: perceptions of affective delivery and regulation strategies.  

PubMed

This study examined emotional labor processes from a within-person, episodic framework. The authors hypothesized that the influence of negative emotions on affective delivery would be lessened by regulation strategies for supervisor perceptions but not self-perceptions. In addition, difficulty maintaining display rules was hypothesized to mediate the relation between negative emotions and self-perceptions of affective delivery. Finally, the influence of surface acting strategies on these processes as well as correlations with individual differences was investigated. Hypotheses were tested using ecological momentary assessment of a sample of cheerleading instructors. Results suggest that surface actors can regulate emotions effectively on an episode-to-episode basis but find the episode more difficult. In addition, surface actors exhibit more general tendencies to devalue themselves and experience fewer positive emotions. PMID:16953767

Beal, Daniel J; Trougakos, John P; Weiss, Howard M; Green, Stephen G

2006-09-01

322

Adsorption, desorption and oxidation of arsenic affected by clay minerals and aging process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption\\/desorption and oxidation\\/reduction of arsenic at clay surfaces are very important to the natural attenuation of\\u000a arsenic in the subsurface environment. Although numerous studies have concluded that iron oxides have high affinities for\\u000a the adsorption of As(V), very little experimental work has addressed the arsenic attenuation capacities of different clay\\u000a minerals and aging process affecting the transformation of arsenic. The

Z. Lin; R. W. Puls

2000-01-01

323

Stressful events and information processing dispositions moderate the relationship between positive and negative affect: Implications for pain patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between positive affect, negative affect, and pain were analyzed as a prospective function of stressful events\\u000a in a sample of rheumatoid arthritis patients and as a cross-sectional function of an information processing disposition in\\u000a persons with fibromyalgia. Positive affect and negative affect were statistically separate factors overall in both samples.\\u000a In addition, negative affect and pain were related across

Phillip T. Potter; Alex J. Zautra; John W. Reich

2000-01-01

324

The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: measuring temporal and affective components of adolescent responses to peer stress.  

PubMed

The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Adolescent Coping Process Interview (ACPI), that is more in line with transactional and developmental models of coping. Results indicate that the ACPI displays good psychometric properties, captures significant intra-individual variability in coping over the process, and points to emotional arousal as informing several coping-adjustment relationships. Moreover, the ACPI and similar approaches may help promote the development of more adaptive patterns of coping in adolescents by helping to identify specific points within the coping process at which to intervene. PMID:18022684

Feagans Gould, Laura; Hussong, Andrea M; Keeley, Mary L

2007-11-26

325

The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: Measuring Temporal and Affective Components of Adolescent Responses to Peer Stress  

PubMed Central

The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Adolescent Coping Process Interview (ACPI), that is more in line with transactional and developmental models of coping. Results indicate that the ACPI displays good psychometric properties, captures significant intra-individual variability in coping over the process, and points to emotional arousal as informing several coping-adjustment relationships. Moreover, the ACPI and similar approaches may help promote the development of more adaptive patterns of coping in adolescents by helping to identify specific points within the coping process at which to intervene.

Gould, Laura Feagans; Hussong, Andrea M.; Keeley, Mary L.

2008-01-01

326

Metabolic processes involved in repair of Escherichia coli cells damaged by exposure to acid mine water.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli was stressed by exposure to filter-sterilized acid mine water. Synthetic processes required for repair of sublethally injured survivors were studied by the addition of specific metabolic inhibitors to a resuscitation broth. Inhibitors of protein, RNA, DNA, lipid, and peptidoglycan synthesis as well as uncouplers and inhibitors of electron transport and ATPase activity were used. Acid mine water injury was severe, causing damage to the outer and cytoplasmic membranes. Repair of sublethally injured cells required protein, RNA, and lipid synthesis as well as a proton motive force.

Wortman, A T; Bissonnette, G K

1988-01-01

327

Metabolic processes involved in repair of Escherichia coli cells damaged by exposure to acid mine water  

SciTech Connect

Escherichia coli was stressed by exposure to filter-sterilized acid mine water. Synthetic processes required for repair of sublethally injured survivors were studied by the addition of specific metabolic inhibitors to a resuscitation broth. Inhibitors of protein, RNA, DNA, lipid, and peptidoglycan synthesis as well as uncouplers and inhibitors of electron transport and ATPase activity were used. Acid mine water injury was severe, causing damage to the outer and cytoplasmic membranes. Repair of sublethally injured cells required protein, RNA, and lipid synthesis as well as a proton motive force.

Wortman, A.T.; Bissonnette, G.K.

1988-08-01

328

How work context affects operating room processes: using data mining and computer simulation to analyze facility and process design.  

PubMed

The complexity of the operating room (OR) requires that both structural (eg, department layout) and behavioral (eg, staff interactions) patterns of work be considered when developing quality improvement strategies. In our study, we investigated how these contextual factors influence outpatient OR processes and the quality of care delivered. The study setting was a German university-affiliated hospital performing approximately 6000 outpatient surgeries annually. During the 3-year-study period, the hospital significantly changed its outpatient OR facility layout from a decentralized (ie, ORs in adjacent areas of the building) to a centralized (ie, ORs in immediate vicinity of each other) design. To study the impact of the facility change on OR processes, we used a mixed methods approach, including process analysis, process modeling, and social network analysis of staff interactions. The change in facility layout was seen to influence OR processes in ways that could substantially affect patient outcomes. For example, we found a potential for more errors during handovers in the new centralized design due to greater interdependency between tasks and staff. Utilization of the mixed methods approach in our analysis, as compared with that of a single assessment method, enabled a deeper understanding of the OR work context and its influence on outpatient OR processes. PMID:19851238

Baumgart, André; Denz, Christof; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Schleppers, Alexander

329

Soil-inhabiting fungal community composition as qualitative indicator of C metabolism processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although fungi represent the greater part of soil microbial biomass, they play an important role in macro-aggregate formation and their carbon (C) assimilation efficiency is markedly higher than that of bacteria (Bailey et al., 2002), they have not yet been widely used as soil biological indicators. The reason is mainly due to the difficulties in application of molecular analysis tools due to limited availability of reference sequence of fungal strains in DNA database and to the low concentration of fungal DNA in soil and in isolating, enumerating and identifying groups of fungi differing for their functioning in soil and for biological characteristics. The presence of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes as the two main groups of soil-inhabiting fungi were investigated in four different cropping systems. The soil DNA of soil samples coming from twenty sites (five sites for each system), collected in two cropping systems in northern (soil organic matter - SOM content varying from 0.8 to 1.4 %) and two in southern Italy (SOM from 1.4 to 2.3%), was amplified using Ascomycete-specific primer ITS1F - ITS4A (Larena et al., 1999) and Basidiomycete-specific primer ITS1F -ITS4B (Gardes and Bruns, 1993). On the basis of soil DNA amplified with specific primers, Ascomycetes were much more represented than Basidiomycetes in the cultivated top soil. Basidiomycetes are usually reported to account for more than half of the fungal biomass in undisturbed soils. However the low ratio of Basidiomycete DNA to soil fungal DNA observed in this study could be a feature of soil fungal communities in arable soil affected by desertification problems as those of some Italian cropping systems mainly in Mediterranean area. This phenomenon could be due to soil tillage, which is well known to deeply reduce fungal biomass and to continuous incorporation into the soil of herbaceous crop residues. In fact, Ascomycetes decompose holocellulose in preference to lignin (Oslko & Takeda, 2002) and their growth may depend on readily available energy sources, such as soluble carbohydrates (Hudson, 1968). The high ratio of Ascomycetes in the top layer where crop residues of the recurrent had represented the main substrate for saprophytic fungi could explain these results. On the contrary, Basidiomycetes are the most important synthesizing biomass organisms in forest soils as well as the most effective organisms in lignin decomposition with an important role in humic substances processes (Hurst et al., 1963; Cook and Rayner, 1986). Preliminary results of this study suggest that the composition of soil-inhabiting fungal communities, which are the organisms most involved in C metabolism processes, could represents an useful indicator in programs aimed to increase the quality of organic matter in arable soils. Bailey V., Smith L., Bolton Jr K. 2002. Fungal-to-bacteria ratio investigated for enhanced C sequestration. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34, 997-1007. Cook R., Rayner A.D.M. 1984. Ecology of Saprotrophic Fungi. Longman, London, New York, 415 pp. Gardes M., Bruns T.D. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes: application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molec. Ecol. 2, 113-118. Hudson H.J. 1968. The ecology of fungi on plant remains above the soil. New Phytol. 67, 837-874. Hurst H.M., A. Burges, P. Latter. 1963. Some aspects of the biochemistry of humic acid decomposition by fungi. Phytochem. 1, 227-231. Larena I., Salazar O., González V, Julián M.C., Rubio V. 1999. Design of a primer for ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer with enhanced specificity for Ascomycetes. J. Biotech. 75, 187-194. Osolko T., Fukasawa Y., Takeda H. 2003. Roles of diverse fungi in Larch neerle-litter decomposition. Mycologia 95, 820-826.

Manici, L.; Ciavatta, C.; Caputo, F.

2009-04-01

330

Impaired glycogen synthesis causes metabolic overflow reactions and affects stress responses in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of glycogen or starch is one of the main strategies developed by living organisms for the intracellular storage of carbon and energy. In phototrophic organisms, such polyglucans accumulate due to carbon fixation during photosynthesis and are used to provide maintenance energy for cell integrity, function and viability in dark periods. Moreover, it is assumed that glycogen enables cyanobacteria to cope with transient starvation conditions, as observed in most micro-organisms. Here, glycogen accumulates when an appropriate carbon source is available in sufficient amounts but growth is inhibited by lack of other nutrients. In this study, the role of glycogen in energy and carbon metabolism of phototrophic cyanobacteria was first analysed via a comparative physiological and metabolic characterization of knockout mutants defective in glycogen synthesis. We first proved the role of glycogen as a respiratory substrate in periods of darkness, the role of glycogen as a reserve to survive starvation periods such as nitrogen depletion and the role of glycogen synthesis as an ameliorator of carbon excess conditions in the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We provide striking new insights into the complex carbon and nitrogen metabolism of non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria: a phenotype of sensitivity to photomixotrophic conditions and of reduced glucose uptake, a non-bleaching phenotype based on an impaired acclimation response to nitrogen depletion and furthermore a phenotype of energy spilling. This study shows that the analysis of deficiencies in glycogen metabolism is a valuable tool for the identification of metabolic regulatory principles and signals. PMID:23038809

Gründel, Marianne; Scheunemann, Ramon; Lockau, Wolfgang; Zilliges, Yvonne

2012-10-04

331

Phosphorus Effects on Metabolic Processes in Monoxenic Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Cultures1  

PubMed Central

The influence of external phosphorus (P) on carbon (C) allocation and metabolism as well as processes related to P metabolism was studied in monoxenic arbuscular mycorrhiza cultures of carrot (Daucus carota). Fungal hyphae of Glomus intraradices proliferated from the solid minimal medium containing the colonized roots into C-free liquid minimal medium with different P treatments. The fungus formed around three times higher biomass in P-free liquid medium than in medium with 2.5 mm inorganic P (high-P). Mycelium in the second experiment was harvested at an earlier growth stage to study metabolic processes when the mycelium was actively growing. P treatment influenced the root P content and [13C]glucose administered to the roots 7 d before harvest gave a negative correlation between root P content and 13C enrichment in arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal storage lipids in the extraradical hyphae. Eighteen percent of the enriched 13C in extraradical hyphae was recovered in the fatty acid 16:1?5 from neutral lipids. Polyphosphate accumulated in hyphae even in P-free medium. No influence of P treatment on fungal acid phosphatase activity was observed, whereas the proportion of alkaline-phosphatase-active hyphae was highest in high-P medium. We demonstrated the presence of a motile tubular vacuolar system in G. intraradices. This system was rarely seen in hyphae subjected to the highest P treatment. We concluded that the direct responses of the extraradical hyphae to the P concentration in the medium are limited. The effects found in hyphae seemed instead to be related to increased availability of P to the host root.

Olsson, Pal Axel; van Aarle, Ingrid M.; Allaway, William G.; Ashford, Anne E.; Rouhier, Herve

2002-01-01

332

The power of emotional valence-from cognitive to affective processes in reading.  

PubMed

The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy. PMID:22754519

Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M

2012-06-28

333

Application of ultrasound processed images in space: Quanitative assessment of diffuse affectations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate diffuse affectations in the liver using texture image processing techniques. Ultrasound diagnose equipments are the election of choice to be used in space environments as they are free from hazardous effects on health. However, due to the need for highly trained radiologists to assess the images, this imaging method is mainly applied on focal lesions rather than on non-focal ones. We have conducted a clinical study on 72 patients with different degrees of chronic hepatopaties and a group of control of 18 individuals. All subjects' clinical reports and results of biopsies were compared to the degree of affectation calculated by our computer system , thus validating the method. Full statistical results are given in the present paper showing a good correlation (r=0.61) between pathologist's report and analysis of the heterogenicity of the processed images from the liver. This computer system to analyze diffuse affectations may be used in-situ or via telemedicine to the ground.

Pérez-Poch, A.; Bru, C.; Nicolau, C.

334

Acetyl-L-carnitine affects nonassociative learning processes in the leech Hirudo medicinalis.  

PubMed

Acetyl-L-carnitine is a natural molecule widely distributed in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous system. It is known to have significant effects on neuronal activity playing a role as neuroprotective and anti-nociceptive agent, as well as neuromodulatory factor. About its capability of affecting learning processes the available data are controversial. In the present study, we utilized the simplified model system of the leech Hirudo medicinalis to analyze the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine, assessing whether and how it might affect elementary forms of nonassociative learning processes. In leeches with the head ganglion disconnected from the first segmental ganglion, repetitive application of weak electrical shocks onto the caudal portion of the body wall induces habituation of swim induction whereas brush strokes on the dorsal skin produces sensitization or dishabituation when the nociceptive stimulus is delivered on previously habituated animals. Herein, the effects of different concentrations of acetyl-L-carnitine (2 mM - 0.05 mM) have been tested at different times on both sensitization and dishabituation. The results show that a single treatment of acetyl-L-carnitine blocked the onset of sensitization in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In fact, the most effective concentration able to block this process was 2 mM, which induced its major effects 11 days after the treatment, whereas 0.05 mM was unable to affect the sensitization process at all considered time points. On the contrary, acetyl-L-carnitine did not completely abolish dishabituation at the tested concentrations and at every time point. Finally, acetyl-L-carnitine also impaired the habituation of swim induction, but only 11 days after treatment. PMID:16916587

Ristori, C; Cataldo, E; Zaccardi, M L; Traina, G; Calvani, M; Lombardo, P; Scuri, R; Brunelli, M

2006-08-17

335

Influence of formulation and processing on absorption and metabolism of flavan-3-ols from tea and cocoa.  

PubMed

Flavan-3-ols are a major subclass of the class of plant phytochemicals known as flavonoids. Flavan-3-ols are commonly found in fruit, vegetable, and botanical products, including tea, cocoa, grapes, and apples. Both monomeric catechins and polymeric procyanidins are common in the diet, along with several derivatives produced by degradation of these species during processing. Both epidemiological and biological evidence suggests a health-protective role for dietary flavan-3-ols, leading to increased interest in the bioavailability of these compounds from foods. Flavan-3-ol bioavailability depends on numerous factors, including digestive release, absorption, metabolism, and elimination. In addition to these in vivo factors, the complexity of whole-food systems (physical form, flavan-3-ol form and dose, macronutrient and micronutrient profile, processing, etc.) influences the absorption efficiency and circulating profile of flavan-3-ols. An understanding of how food matrices may influence flavan-3-ol absorption will provide a framework to design and develop functional products that positively affect flavan-3-ol absorption and, by extension, potential bioactivity. PMID:22129378

Neilson, Andrew P; Ferruzzi, Mario G

2011-01-01

336

Saliency affects feedforward more than feedback processing in early visual cortex.  

PubMed

Early visual cortex activity is influenced by both bottom-up and top-down factors. To investigate the influences of bottom-up (saliency) and top-down (task) factors on different stages of visual processing, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of areas V1/V2 to induce visual suppression at varying temporal intervals. Subjects were asked to detect and discriminate the color or the orientation of briefly-presented small lines that varied on color saliency based on color contrast with the surround. Regardless of task, color saliency modulated the magnitude of TMS-induced visual suppression, especially at earlier temporal processing intervals that reflect the feedforward stage of visual processing in V1/V2. In a second experiment we found that our color saliency effects were also influenced by an inherent advantage of the color red relative to other hues and that color discrimination difficulty did not affect visual suppression. These results support the notion that early visual processing is stimulus driven and that feedforward and feedback processing encode different types of information about visual scenes. They further suggest that certain hues can be prioritized over others within our visual systems by being more robustly represented during early temporal processing intervals. PMID:23643729

Emmanouil, Tatiana Aloi; Avigan, Philip; Persuh, Marjan; Ro, Tony

2013-04-30

337

Altered cytokinin metabolism affects cytokinin, auxin, and abscisic acid contents in leaves and chloroplasts, and chloroplast ultrastructure in transgenic tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokinins (CKs) are involved in the regulation of plant development including plastid differentiation and func- tion. Partial location of CK biosynthetic pathways in plastids suggests the importance of CKs for chloroplast development. The impact of genetically modified CK metabolism on endogenous CK, indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid contents in leaves and isolated intact chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum was deter- mined

Lenka Polanska ´; Anna Vicankova ´; Marie Novakova ´; J. Malbeck; Petre I. Dobrev; Bretislav Brzobohaty; Radomira Vankova ´; Ivana Machackova

2006-01-01

338

Exercise affects energy metabolism and neural plasticity-related proteins in the hippocampus as revealed by proteomic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of a brief voluntary exercise period on the expression pattern and post-translational modification of multiple protein classes in the rat hippocampus using proteomics. An analysis of 80 protein spots of relative high abundance on two-dimensional gels revealed that approximately 90% of the proteins identified were associated with energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity. Exercise

Qinxue Ding; Shoshanna Vaynman; Puneet Souda; Julian P. Whitelegge; Fernando Gomez-Pinilla

2006-01-01

339

Chronic ingestion of ethanol or glucose solutions affects hypothalamic and limbic TRH metabolism in dams and their pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of chronic ethanol consumption during pregnancy and lactation on thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) metabolism was investigated in the hypothalamus and limbic areas of female rats and their weaned pups. Pregnant female rats received ethanol or isocaloric glucose solution during pregnancy either alone, or also during the 3 weeks of lactation. Thyrotropin (TSH) and corticosterone levels were measured in

P de Gortari; M Cisneros; M. A Medell??n; P Joseph-Bravo

2002-01-01

340

Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Contributes to the Survival of T Lymphoma Cells by Affecting Cellular Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a metabolic regulator involved in maintaining glucose and fatty acid homeostasis. Besides its metabolic functions, the receptor has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. Ligands of PPAR? induce apoptosis in several types of tumor cells, leading to the proposal that these ligands may be used as antineoplastic agents. However, apoptosis induction requires high doses of ligands, suggesting the effect may not be receptor-dependent. In this report, we show that PPAR? is expressed in human primary T-cell lymphoma tissues and activation of PPAR? with low doses of ligands protects lymphoma cells from serum starvation-induced apoptosis. The prosurvival effect of PPAR? was linked to its actions on cellular metabolic activities. In serum-deprived cells, PPAR? attenuated the decline in ATP, reduced mitochondrial hyperpolarization, and limited the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in favor of cell survival. Moreover, PPAR? regulated ROS through coordinated transcriptional control of a set of proteins and enzymes involved in ROS metabolism. Our study identified cell survival promotion as a novel activity of PPAR?. These findings highlight the need for further investigation into the role of PPAR? in cancer before widespread use of its agonists as anticancer therapeutics.

Yang, Chunyan; Jo, Seung-Hee; Csernus, Balazs; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Liu, Yifang; Chadburn, Amy; Wang, Y. Lynn

2007-01-01

341

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma contributes to the survival of T lymphoma cells by affecting cellular metabolism.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a metabolic regulator involved in maintaining glucose and fatty acid homeostasis. Besides its metabolic functions, the receptor has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. Ligands of PPARgamma induce apoptosis in several types of tumor cells, leading to the proposal that these ligands may be used as antineoplastic agents. However, apoptosis induction requires high doses of ligands, suggesting the effect may not be receptor-dependent. In this report, we show that PPARgamma is expressed in human primary T-cell lymphoma tissues and activation of PPARgamma with low doses of ligands protects lymphoma cells from serum starvation-induced apoptosis. The prosurvival effect of PPARgamma was linked to its actions on cellular metabolic activities. In serum-deprived cells, PPARgamma attenuated the decline in ATP, reduced mitochondrial hyperpolarization, and limited the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in favor of cell survival. Moreover, PPARgamma regulated ROS through coordinated transcriptional control of a set of proteins and enzymes involved in ROS metabolism. Our study identified cell survival promotion as a novel activity of PPARgamma. These findings highlight the need for further investigation into the role of PPARgamma in cancer before widespread use of its agonists as anticancer therapeutics. PMID:17255338

Yang, Chunyan; Jo, Seung-Hee; Csernus, Balazs; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Liu, Yifang; Chadburn, Amy; Wang, Y Lynn

2007-02-01

342

Plasmalogens inhibit APP processing by directly affecting ?-secretase activity in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Lipids play an important role as risk or protective factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously it has been shown that plasmalogens, the major brain phospholipids, are altered in AD. However, it remained unclear whether plasmalogens themselves are able to modulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing or if the reduced plasmalogen level is a consequence of AD. Here we identify the plasmalogens which are altered in human AD postmortem brains and investigate their impact on APP processing resulting in A? production. All tested plasmalogen species showed a reduction in ?-secretase activity whereas ?- and ?-secretase activity mainly remained unchanged. Plasmalogens directly affected ?-secretase activity, protein and RNA level of the secretases were unaffected, pointing towards a direct influence of plasmalogens on ?-secretase activity. Plasmalogens were also able to decrease ?-secretase activity in human postmortem AD brains emphasizing the impact of plasmalogens in AD. In summary our findings show that decreased plasmalogen levels are not only a consequence of AD but that plasmalogens also decrease APP processing by directly affecting ?-secretase activity, resulting in a vicious cycle: A? reduces plasmalogen levels and reduced plasmalogen levels directly increase ?-secretase activity leading to an even stronger production of A? peptides. PMID:22547976

Rothhaar, Tatjana L; Grösgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J; Burg, Verena K; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Mett, Janine; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias; Grimm, Marcus O W

2012-04-01

343

Plasmalogens Inhibit APP Processing by Directly Affecting ?-Secretase Activity in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Lipids play an important role as risk or protective factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously it has been shown that plasmalogens, the major brain phospholipids, are altered in AD. However, it remained unclear whether plasmalogens themselves are able to modulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing or if the reduced plasmalogen level is a consequence of AD. Here we identify the plasmalogens which are altered in human AD postmortem brains and investigate their impact on APP processing resulting in A? production. All tested plasmalogen species showed a reduction in ?-secretase activity whereas ?- and ?-secretase activity mainly remained unchanged. Plasmalogens directly affected ?-secretase activity, protein and RNA level of the secretases were unaffected, pointing towards a direct influence of plasmalogens on ?-secretase activity. Plasmalogens were also able to decrease ?-secretase activity in human postmortem AD brains emphasizing the impact of plasmalogens in AD. In summary our findings show that decreased plasmalogen levels are not only a consequence of AD but that plasmalogens also decrease APP processing by directly affecting ?-secretase activity, resulting in a vicious cycle: A? reduces plasmalogen levels and reduced plasmalogen levels directly increase ?-secretase activity leading to an even stronger production of A? peptides.

Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Grosgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdorfer, Benjamin; Mett, Janine; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias; Grimm, Marcus O. W.

2012-01-01

344

Interdependence of Signal Processing and Analysis of Urine 1H NMR Spectra for Metabolic Profiling  

PubMed Central

Metabolic profiling of urine presents challenges due to the extensive random variation of metabolite concentrations, and to dilution resulting from changes in the overall urine volume. Thus statistical analysis methods play a particularly important role, however appropriate choices of these methods are not straightforward. Here we investigate constant and variance-stabilization normalization of raw and peak picked spectra, for use with exploratory analysis (principal component analysis) and confirmatory analysis (ordinary and Empirical Bayes t-test) in 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling of urine. We compare the performance of these methods using urine samples spiked with known metabolites according to a Latin square design. We find that analysis of peak picked and log-transformed spectra is preferred, and that signal processing and statistical analysis steps are interdependent. While variance-stabilizing transformation is preferred in conjunction with principal component analysis, constant normalization is more appropriate for use with a t-test. Empirical Bayes t-test provides more reliable conclusions when the number of samples in each group is relatively small. Performance of these methods is illustrated using a clinical metabolomics experiment on patients with type 1 diabetes to evaluate the effect of insulin deprivation.

Zhang, Shucha; Zheng, Cheng; Lanza, Ian R.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Raftery, Daniel; Vitek, Olga

2009-01-01

345

Physiological and therapeutic factors affecting cholesterol metabolism: Does a reciprocal relationship between cholesterol absorption and synthesis really exist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholesterol absorption and synthesis contribute to maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. Several physiological and therapeutic factors affect cholesterol homeostasis, including: genetics, circadian rhythm, body weight, plant sterols, ezetimibe, and statin therapy. The present objective is to determine the main vector, i.e. cholesterol absorption or synthesis, affected by each of these factors, and to examine whether an alteration in one vector is linked

Sylvia Santosa; Krista A. Varady; Suhad AbuMweis; Peter J. H. Jones

2007-01-01

346

NITROGEN AND PROTEIN METABOLISM IN YOUNG PEA PLANTS AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF NICKEL, CADMIUM, LEAD, AND MOLYBDENUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was carried out on the effect of molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) using concentrations of 1×10, 1×10, and 1×10 mol dm, on the metabolism of nitrogen and proteins in young pea plants (Pisum sativum L. ‘NS Lim’). The highest concentrations of the investigated metals were noted to suppress the development of the aboveground

Slavko Kevresan; Novica Petrovic; Milan Popovic; Julijan Kandrac

2001-01-01

347

Neuron- or glial-specific ablation of secreted renin does not affect renal renin, baseline arterial pressure, or metabolism  

PubMed Central

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), known for its roles in cardiovascular, metabolic, and developmental regulation, is present in both the circulation and in many individual tissues throughout the body. Substantial evidence supports the existence of a brain RAS, though quantification and localization of brain renin have been hampered by its low expression levels. We and others have previously determined that there are two isoforms of renin expressed in the brain. The classical isoform encoding secreted renin (sREN) and a novel isoform encoding intracellular renin (icREN), the product of an alternative promoter and first exon (exon 1b). The differential role that these two isoforms play in cardiovascular and metabolic regulation remains unclear. Here we examined the physiological consequences of neuron- and glia-specific knockouts of sREN by crossing mice in which the sREN promoter and isoform-specific first exon (exon-1a) is flanked by LoxP sequences (sRENflox mice) with mice expressing Cre-recombinase controlled by either the neuron-specific Nestin promoter or the glia-specific GFAP promoter. Resulting offspring exhibited selective knockout of sREN in either neurons or glia, while preserving expression of icREN. Consistent with a hypothesized role of icREN in the brain RAS, neuron- and glia-specific knockout of sREN had no effect on blood pressure or heart rate; food, water, or sodium intake; renal function; or metabolic rate. These data demonstrate that sREN is dispensable within the brain for normal physiological regulation of cardiovascular, hydromineral, and metabolic regulation, and thereby indirectly support the importance of icREN in brain RAS function.

Xu, Di; Borges, Giulianna R.; Davis, Deborah R.; Agassandian, Khristofor; Sequeira Lopez, Maria Luisa S.; Gomez, R. Ariel; Cassell, Martin D.; Grobe, Justin L.

2011-01-01

348

Adult sterol metabolism is not affected by a positive sterol balance in the neonatal Golden Syrian hamster.  

PubMed

Dietary components impact metabolism early in life. Some of the diet-induced effects are long lasting and can lead to various adult-based diseases. In the current studies, we examined the short-term effects of dietary cholesterol on neonatal hepatic sterol metabolism and the long-term effects that those early-life diets had on sterol metabolism in adulthood. Neonatal hamsters began consuming solid food as a supplement to milk by 5 days of age; diets contained 0 or 2% added cholesterol (wt/wt). By 10 days of age, plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were 3.2- and 2.5-fold greater, respectively, in the neonates fed cholesterol. Hepatic sterol synthesis rates were suppressed 65% in cholesterol-fed neonates compared with control neonates. By 20 days of age, plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were still greater and sterol synthesis rates were now suppressed maximally in neonates fed cholesterol compared with control neonates. The expression level of an apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein receptor (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein) was greater and the mature form of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 was similar in livers of 20-day-old control neonates compared with control neonates at 10 days of age. To test whether the change in sterol balance in the neonatal period had a lasting effect on hepatic sterol metabolism, all animals were weaned on a low-cholesterol diet. At 70 days of age, hepatic sterol synthesis rates, plasma lipoprotein and liver cholesterol concentrations, and bile acid pool sizes and compositions were measured. Sterol balance in the adults was similar between animals fed either diet early in life, as demonstrated by a lack of difference in any parameter measured. Thus, even though dietary cholesterol suppressed hepatic sterol synthesis rates dramatically in the neonatal hamster, the change has little impact on sterol balance later in life. PMID:15550619

Yao, Lihang; Woollett, Laura A

2004-11-18

349

Casein and soy protein meals differentially affect whole-body and splanchnic protein metabolism in healthy humans.  

PubMed

Dietary protein quality is considered to be dependent on the degree and velocity with which protein is digested, absorbed as amino acids, and retained in the gut as newly synthesized protein. Metabolic animal studies suggest that the quality of soy protein is inferior to that of casein protein, but confirmatory studies in humans are lacking. The study objective was to assess the quality of casein and soy protein by comparing their metabolic effects in healthy human subjects. Whole-body protein kinetics, splanchnic leucine extraction, and urea production rates were measured in the postabsorptive state and during 8-h enteral intakes of isonitrogenous [0.42 g protein/(kg body weight . 8 h)] protein-based test meals, which contained either casein (CAPM; n = 12) or soy protein (SOPM; n = 10) in 2 separate groups. Stable isotope techniques were used to study metabolic effects. With enteral food intake, protein metabolism changed from net protein breakdown to net protein synthesis. Net protein synthesis was greater in the CAPM group than in the SOPM group [52 +/- 14 and 17 +/- 14 nmol/(kg fat-free mass (FFM) . min), respectively; P < 0.02]. Urea synthesis rates decreased during consumption of both enteral meals, but the decrease tended to be greater in the subjects that consumed CAPM (P = 0.07). Absolute splanchnic extraction of leucine was higher in the subjects that consumed CAPM [306 +/- 31 nmol/(kg FFM . min)] vs. those that consumed SOPM [235 +/- 29 nmol/(kg FFM . min); P < 0.01]. In conclusion, a significantly larger portion of soy protein is degraded to urea, whereas casein protein likely contributes to splanchnic utilization (probably protein synthesis) to a greater extent. The biological value of soy protein must be considered inferior to that of casein protein in humans. PMID:15867285

Luiking, Yvette C; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Jäkel, Martin; Soeters, Peter B

2005-05-01

350

Environmental Noise Affects Auditory Temporal Processing Development and NMDA-2B Receptor Expression in Auditory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Auditory temporal processing is essential for sound discrimination and speech comprehension. Under normal developmental conditions, temporal processing acuity improves with age. As recent animal studies have shown that the functional development of the auditory cortex (AC) is impaired by early life exposure to environmental noise (i.e., continuous, moderate-level, white noise), here we investigated whether the normal age-related improvement in temporal processing acuity is sensitive to delayed development of the AC. We used a behavioral paradigm, the gap-induced prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex, to assess the gap detection threshold, and provide a comparison of temporal processing acuity between environmental noise-reared rats and age-matched controls. Moreover, because age-related changes normally occur in the relative expression of different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits, we assessed the level of protein expression of NMDA-2A and 2B receptors (NR2A and NR2B respectively) in the AC after environmental noise-rearing. As hypothesized, rats reared in environmental noise showed 1) poor temporal processing acuity as adults (i.e., gap detection threshold remained elevated at a juvenile-like level), and 2) an increased level of NR2B protein expression compared to age-matched controls. This poor temporal processing acuity represented delayed development rather than permanent impairment, as moving these environmental noise-reared rats to normal acoustic conditions improved their gap detection threshold to an age-appropriate level. Furthermore, housing normally-reared, adult rats in environmental noise for two months did not affect their already-mature gap detection threshold. Thus, masking normal sound inputs with environmental noise during early life, but not adulthood, impairs temporal processing acuity as assessed with the gap detection threshold.

Sun, Wei; Tang, Li; Allman, Brian L.

2010-01-01

351

Yeast genes involved in sulfur and nitrogen metabolism affect the production of volatile thiols from Sauvignon Blanc musts.  

PubMed

Two volatile thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), and 3-mercaptohexyl-acetate (3MHA), reminiscent of grapefruit and passion fruit respectively, are critical varietal aroma compounds in Sauvignon Blanc (SB) wines. These aromatic thiols are not present in the grape juice but are synthesized and released by the yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Single deletion mutants of 67 candidate genes in a laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for their thiol production after fermentation of SB grape juice. None of the deletions abolished production of the two volatile thiols. However, deletion of 17 genes caused increases or decreases in production by as much as twofold. These 17 genes, mostly related to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism in yeast, may act by altering the regulation of the pathway(s) of thiol production or altering substrate supply. Deleting subsets of these genes in a wine yeast strain gave similar results to the laboratory strain for sulfur pathway genes but showed strain differences for genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of two nitrogen sources, urea and di-ammonium phosphate, as well as two sulfur compounds, cysteine and S-ethyl-L-cysteine, increased 3MH and 3MHA concentrations in the final wines. Collectively these results suggest that sulfur and nitrogen metabolism are important in regulating the synthesis of 3MH and 3MHA during yeast fermentation of grape juice. PMID:22684328

Harsch, Michael J; Gardner, Richard C

2012-06-12

352

Reactive Metabolites and AGE\\/RAGE-Mediated Cellular Dysfunction Affect the Aging Process – A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is a dynamic process in which its rate and subsequent longevity of an organism are dependent upon the balance between the reactive intermediates of normal cellular metabolism and the ability of the body to reduce these by-products through a multifaceted antioxidant defence system. Every disturbance of this balance constitutes a clear and present danger to the macromolecular integrity of

Thomas H. Fleming; Per M. Humpert; Peter P. Nawroth; Angelika Bierhaus

2011-01-01

353

Binge drinking influences the cerebral processing of vocal affective bursts in young adults?  

PubMed Central

Binge drinking is now considered a central public health issue and is associated with emotional and interpersonal problems, but the neural implications of these deficits remain unexplored. The present study aimed at offering the first insights into the effects of binge drinking on the neural processing of vocal affect. On the basis of an alcohol-consumption screening phase (204 students), 24 young adults (12 binge drinkers and 12 matched controls, mean age: 23.8 years) were selected and performed an emotional categorisation task on morphed vocal stimuli (drawn from a morphed fear–anger continuum) during fMRI scanning. In comparison to controls, binge drinkers presented (1) worse behavioural performance in emotional affect categorisation; (2) reduced activation of bilateral superior temporal gyrus; and (3) increased activation of right middle frontal gyrus. These results constitute the first evidence of altered cerebral processing of emotional stimuli in binge drinking and confirm that binge drinking leads to marked cerebral changes, which has important implications for research and clinical practice.

Maurage, Pierre; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E.G.; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Belin, Pascal

2013-01-01

354

Chronic Ethanol Consumption Disrupts the Core Molecular Clock and Diurnal Rhythms of Metabolic Genes in the Liver without Affecting the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.  

PubMed

Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts several metabolic pathways including ?-oxidation and lipid biosynthesis, facilitating the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. Many of these same metabolic pathways are directly regulated by cell autonomous circadian clocks, and recent studies suggest that disruption of daily rhythms in metabolism contributes to multiple common cardiometabolic diseases (including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). However, it is not known whether ethanol disrupts the core molecular clock in the liver, nor whether this, in turn, alters rhythms in lipid metabolism. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption disrupts the molecular circadian clock in the liver and potentially changes the diurnal expression patterns of lipid metabolism genes. Consistent with previous studies, male C57BL/6J mice fed an ethanol-containing diet exhibited higher levels of liver triglycerides compared to control mice, indicating hepatic steatosis. Further, the diurnal oscillations of core clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Cry1, Cry2, Per1, and Per2) and clock-controlled genes (Dbp, Hlf, Nocturnin, Npas2, Rev-erb?, and Tef) were altered in livers from ethanol-fed mice. In contrast, ethanol had only minor effects on the expression of core clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These results were confirmed in Per2(Luciferase) knock-in mice, in which ethanol induced a phase advance in PER2::LUC bioluminescence oscillations in liver, but not SCN. Further, there was greater variability in the phase of PER2::LUC oscillations in livers from ethanol-fed mice. Ethanol consumption also affected the diurnal oscillations of metabolic genes, including Adh1, Cpt1a, Cyp2e1, Pck1, Pdk4, Ppargc1a, Ppargc1b and Srebp1c, in the livers of C57BL/6J mice. In summary, chronic ethanol consumption alters the function of the circadian clock in liver. Importantly, these results suggest that chronic ethanol consumption, at levels sufficient to cause steatosis, disrupts the core hepatic clock as well as the diurnal rhythms of key lipid metabolism genes. PMID:23951220

Filiano, Ashley N; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Johnson, Russell; Young, Martin E; Gamble, Karen L; Bailey, Shannon M

2013-08-12

355

Endogenous enzymes, heat, and pH affect flavone profiles in parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and celery (Apium graveolens) during juice processing.  

PubMed

Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds. PMID:22224550

Hostetler, Gregory L; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

2011-12-30

356

Evolution of Metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is devoted to the discussion of the evolution of metabolism, with a particular focus towards redox metabolism and the utilization of redox energy by life. We will deal with various aspects of metabolism that involve direct interaction with, and the extraction of energy from, the environment (catabolic metabolism) and will talk briefly of the reactions that affect mineral formation and dissolution. However, we will de-emphasize the aspects related to the formation of complex molecules and organisms. To some, it will be refreshingly brief; to others, somewhat superficial. This is unavoidable, as our knowledge of the details of the evolution of metabolism is at best slim. However, by piecing together aspects of the properties and history of the Earth and coupling these with what we know of today's metabolism, it is possible to at least frame several different hypotheses that, with time, should be possible to test and modify so that the next writing of this chapter might contain some intellectual entrees and not just the appetizers. Any discussion of metabolic evolution must occur in concert with a consideration of the Earth - the understanding of the forces that drove the co-evolution of life and Earth can be achieved only by considering them together. This theme will pervade this chapter, and any real understanding of the evolution of metabolism must be inexorably coupled to, and consistent with, the geological record of the Earth.The first aspect of evolution concerns the metabolic participants as we know them now (i.e., a definition of metabolic diversity), and the second concerns the sequence of events that have led to this remarkable metabolic diversity. The first part is fairly straightforward: a discussion of the domains of life, and the metabolic achievements that are expressed in the various domains, and relating metabolism to biogeochemical processes whenever possible. The second part is much more problematic. While it is possible to make up nearly any story regarding the evolution of metabolism (and nearly all have been attempted!), the starting point of life is not known (great debates still rage as to the nature and origin of the first living systems), and it is not a trivial matter to specify the sequence and timing of metabolic innovations. As will be discussed below, genetic and genomic data have revealed that genetic exchange between organisms has been so pervasive that it has essentially uncoupled the evolution of taxonomic groups from the evolution of metabolic processes, thus, obscuring the evolutionary trail with blurred signals. Given these challenges, it may be prudent at this time to admit what we do not know, and lay out the challenges for the coming years.

Nealson, K. H.; Rye, R.

2003-12-01

357

Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liver lipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat.  

PubMed

Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong metabolic problems. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of protein restriction in pregnancy on maternal liver lipid metabolism at 19 days of gestation (dG) and its effect on fetal brain development. Control (C) and restricted (R) mothers were fed with isocaloric diets containing 20 and 10% of casein. At 19 dG, maternal blood and livers and fetal livers and brains were collected. Serum insulin and leptin levels were determinate in mothers. Maternal and fetal liver lipid and fetal brain lipid quantification were performed. Maternal liver and fetal brain fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography. In mothers, liver desaturase and elongase mRNAs were measured by RT-PCR. Maternal body and liver weights were similar in both groups. However, fat body composition, including liver lipids, was lower in R mothers. A higher fasting insulin at 19 dG in the R group was observed (C = 0.2 +/- 0.04 vs. R = 0.9 +/- 0.16 ng/ml, P < 0.01) and was inversely related to early growth retardation. Serum leptin in R mothers was significantly higher than that observed in C rats (C = 5 +/- 0.1 vs. R = 7 +/- 0.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In addition, protein restriction significantly reduced gene expression in maternal liver of desaturases and elongases and the concentration of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids. In fetus from R mothers, a low body weight (C = 3 +/- 0.3 vs. R = 2 +/- 0.1 g, P < 0.05), as well as liver and brain lipids, including the content of DHA in the brain, was reduced. This study showed that protein restriction during pregnancy may negatively impact normal fetal brain development by changes in maternal lipid metabolism. PMID:19920218

Torres, Nimbe; Bautista, Claudia J; Tovar, Armando R; Ordáz, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Ortiz, Victor; Granados, Omar; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

2009-11-17

358

Neonatal maternal separation affects endocrine and metabolic stress responses to ether exposure but not to restraint exposure in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated prolactin secretion and metabolic changes in stress response in adult male rats submitted to periodic maternal\\u000a separation (MS; 180 min\\/day) at 2 weeks of life. Restraint and ether exposure were randomly performed when the animals were\\u000a 10–12 weeks of age. Restraint exposure: the animals were placed into plastic tubes (21 cm long, 4.5 cm diameter) for 20 min.\\u000a Ether exposure: the rats were exposed

Daniela Rocha Costa Fóscolo; Rodrigo Bastos Fóscolo; Umeko Marubayashi; Adelina Martha Reis; Cândido Celso Coimbra

2008-01-01

359

How cellular processing of superparamagnetic nanoparticles affects their magnetic behavior and NMR relaxivity.  

PubMed

Cellular processing of nanomaterials may affect their physical properties at the root of various biomedical applications. When nanoparticles interact with living cells, their spatial distribution is progressively modified by cellular activity, which tends to concentrate them into intracellular compartments, changing in turn their responsivity to physical stimuli. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of cellular uptake on the related magnetic properties and NMR relaxivity of iron oxide nanoparticles. The superparamagnetic behavior (field-dependent and temperature-dependent magnetization curves investigated by SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) measurements) and nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) R(1) profiles of citrate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (mean diameter 8 nm) were characterized in colloidal suspension and after being uptaken by several types of cells (tumor cells, stem cells and macrophages). The temperature-dependent magnetization as well as the NMRD profile were changed following cellular uptake depending on the stage of endocytosis process while the field-dependent magnetization at room temperature remained unchanged. Magnetic coupling between nanoparticles confined in cell lysosomes accounts for the modification in magnetic behavior, thereby reflecting the local organization of nanoparticles. NMR longitudinal relaxivity was directly sensitive to the intracellular distribution of nanoparticles, in line with Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM observations. This study is the first attempt to link up magnetic properties and NMR characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles before and after their cell processing. PMID:22649043

Lévy, Michael; Wilhelm, Claire; Devaud, Martin; Levitz, Pierre; Gazeau, Florence

360

Analysis of Process Parameters Affecting Spray-Dried Oily Core Nanocapsules Using Factorial Design  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to optimize the process parameters required for the production of spray-dried oily core nanocapsules (NCs) with targeted size and drug yield using a two-level four-factor fractional factorial experimental design (FFED). The coded process parameters chosen were inlet temperature (X1), feed flow rate (X2), atomizing air flow (X3), and aspiration rate (X4). The produced NCs were characterized for size, yield, morphology, and powder flowability by dynamic light scattering, electron microscope, Carr’s index, and Hausner ratio measurement, respectively. The mean size of produced NCs ranged from 129.5 to 444.8 nm, with yield varying from 14.1% to 31.1%. The statistical analysis indicated an adequate model fit in predicting the effect of process parameters affecting yield. Predicted condition for maximum yield was: inlet temperature 140°C, atomizing air flow 600 L/h, feed flow rate 0.18 L/h, and aspiration air flow set at 100%, which led to a yield of 30.8%. The morphological analysis showed the existence of oily core and spherical nanostructure. The results from powder flowability analysis indicated average Carr’s index and Hausner ratio of 42.77% and 1.76, respectively. Spray-dried oily core NCs with size lower than 200 nm were successfully produced, and the FFED proved to be an effective approach in predicting the production of spray-dried NCs of targeted yield.

Zhang, Tao

2010-01-01

361

Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.  

PubMed

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. PMID:23658765

Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

2013-05-03

362

Virus-induced gene silencing of pea CHLI and CHLD affects tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chloroplast development and the primary metabolic network.  

PubMed

The first committed and highly regulated step of chlorophyll biosynthesis is the insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX, which is catalyzed by Mg chelatase that consists of CHLH, CHLD and CHLI subunits. In this study, CHLI and CHLD genes were suppressed by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD) in pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD plants both showed yellow leaf phenotypes with the reduced Mg chelatase activity and the inactivated synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The lower chlorophyll accumulation correlated with undeveloped thylakoid membranes, altered chloroplast nucleoid structure, malformed antenna complexes and compromised photosynthesis capacity in the yellow leaf tissues of the VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD plants. Non-enzymatic antioxidant contents and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were altered in response to enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the chlorophyll deficient leaves of VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD plants. Furthermore, the results of metabolite profiling indicate a tight correlation between primary metabolic pathways and Mg chelatase activity. We also found that CHLD induces a feedback-regulated change of the transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes. CHLD and CHLI silencing resulted in a rapid reduction of photosynthetic proteins. Taken together, Mg chelatase is not only a key regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis but its activity also correlates with ROS homeostasis, primary interorganellar metabolism and retrograde signaling in plant cells. PMID:23416492

Luo, Tao; Luo, Sha; Araújo, Wagner L; Schlicke, Hagen; Rothbart, Maxi; Yu, Jing; Fan, Tingting; Fernie, Alisdair R; Grimm, Bernhard; Luo, Meizhong

2013-01-28

363

Regulators of protein metabolism are affected by cyclical nutritional treatments with diets varying in protein and energy content.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the E3 ubiquitin ligases muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) and atrogin-1, which mediate the ubiquitination of certain proteins and thereby their proteolysis, are regulated by cyclical nutritional treatments varying in lysine content. In order to explore further the regulatory mechanisms involved in metabolic adaptation to dietary changes, we investigated the effects of daily variations in energy [2800 (E-) followed by 3200 kcal/kg (E+)], protein [230 (P+) followed by 150g/kg (P-)] or both [E-P+ followed by E+P-] on muscle protein metabolism in 2-week-old male broiler chickens. Growth performance was similar for all treatments. Expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was changed by alternation of diets varying in protein (higher expression with P- vs. P+) and energy content (higher expression with E- vs. E+). The expression of atrogin-1 was regulated with mixed diets (increase in E+P- vs. E-P+) but not that of MuRF1. Such regulation may involve the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which was more phosphorylated with P+ than with P-. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein, p70S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6, which are mTOR targets known to control protein synthesis, were highly activated by increased protein content (P+ vs. P-). The mechanisms coordinating the protein synthesis/proteolysis balance remain to be characterized. PMID:22305405

Boussaid-Om Ezzine, Sourour; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Collin, Anne; Rideau, Nicole; Leterrier, Christine; Bouvarel, Isabelle; Seiliez, Iban; Tesseraud, Sophie

2012-02-02

364

Peroxisome Protein Transportation Affects Metabolism of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids That Critically Impact Growth and Development of C. elegans  

PubMed Central

The impact of specific lipid molecules, including fatty acid variants, on cellular and developmental regulation is an important research subject that remains under studied. Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are commonly present in multiple organisms including mammals, however our understanding of mmBCFA functions is very limited. C. elegans has been the premier model system to study the functions of mmBCFAs and their derived lipids, as mmBCFAs have been shown to play essential roles in post-embryonic development in this organism. To understand more about the metabolism of mmBCFAs in C. elegans, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 developmental arrest phenotype caused by mmBCFA depletion. Extensive characterization of one suppressor mutation identified prx-5, which encodes an ortholog of the human receptor for the type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal protein. Our study showed that inactivating prx-5 function compromised the peroxisome protein import, resulting in an increased level of branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO in animals lacking normal mmBCFA synthesis, thereby restoring wild-type growth and development. This work reveals a novel connection between peroxisomal functions and mmBCFA metabolism.

Wang, Rencheng; Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

2013-01-01

365

Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal\\u000a striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex.\\u000a We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of\\u000a affective stimuli in healthy subjects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography

Thorsten Kienast; Thomas Siessmeier; Jana Wrase; Dieter F. Braus; Michael N. Smolka; Hans Georg Buchholz; Michael Rapp; Mathias Schreckenberger; Frank Rösch; Paul Cumming; Gerhard Gruender; Karl Mann; Peter Bartenstein; Andreas Heinz

2008-01-01

366

Auditory processing deficits in growth restricted fetuses affect later language development.  

PubMed

An increased risk for language deficits in infants born growth restricted has been reported in follow-up studies for more than 20 years, suggesting a relation between fetal auditory system development and later language learning. Work with animal models indicate that there are at least two ways in which growth restriction could affect the development of auditory perception in human fetuses: a delay in myelination or conduction and an increase in sensorineural threshold. Systematic study of auditory function in growth restricted human fetuses has not been reported. However, results of studies employing low-risk fetuses delivering as healthy full-term infants demonstrate that, by late gestation, the fetus can hear, sound properties modulate behavior, and sensory information is available from both inside (e.g., maternal vascular) and outside (e.g., noise, voices, music) of the maternal body. These data provide substantive evidence that the auditory system is functioning and that environmental sounds are available for shaping neural networks and laying the foundation for language acquisition before birth. We hypothesize that fetal growth restriction affects auditory system development, resulting in atypical auditory information processing in growth restricted fetuses compared to healthy, appropriately-grown-for-gestational-age fetuses. Speech perception that lays the foundation for later language competence will differ in growth restricted compared to normally grown fetuses and be associated with later language abilities. PMID:17010528

Kisilevsky, Barbara S; Davies, Gregory A L

2006-09-28

367

Comparing predicted and actual affective responses to process versus outcome: an emotion-as-feedback perspective.  

PubMed

One of the conjectures in affective forecasting literature is that people are advised to discount their anticipated emotions because their forecasts are often inaccurate. The present research distinguishes between emotional reactions to process versus those to outcome, and highlights an alternative view that affective misforecasts could indeed be adaptive to goal pursuit. Using an ultimatum game, Study 1 showed that people overpredicted how much they would regret and be disappointed by the amount of effort they exerted, should the outcomes turned out worse than expected; nonetheless, people could accurately predict their emotional responses to unfavorable outcomes per se. In a natural setting of a university examination, Study 2 demonstrated that actual regret and disappointment toward favorable outcomes were more intense than the level people expected, but this discrepancy was not observed in their emotional responses to efforts they had invested. These two distinct patterns of results substantiate the argument that the deviation between predicted and actual emotions is dependent on the referents of the emotional reactions. PMID:23831563

Kwong, Jessica Y Y; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Tang, Suki K Y

2013-07-03

368

Influence of Lake-Affected Meteorology and Photochemical Processing on Aerosol Composition in Southwestern Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the BAQS-Met 2007 field campaign, Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (ToF- AMS) were deployed at two sites in southwestern Ontario from June 17 to July 11, 2007. One instrument was located at Harrow, ON, a rural, agriculture-dominated area approximately 40 km southeast of the Detroit/Windsor urban area and 5 km north of Lake Erie. The second instrument was located at Bear Creek, ON, a rural site approximately 70 km northeast of the Harrow site and 50 km east of Detroit. Both sites are influenced by emissions from the Detroit/Windsor area and the Ohio Valley, with regional transport affected by the proximity of Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair. The particulate organic fraction at both sites is analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), yielding factors related to hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol from primary emissions, biomass burning, and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA). Variation in the extent of oxidation of the OOA is represented by more oxygenated (OOA-I) and less oxygenated (OOA-II) factors. Comparison of the mass spectra and PMF factors at the two sites yields information on the rate of oxidative processing and the extent of regional inhomogeneity in aerosol composition. Aerosol composition at the Harrow site is influenced by diurnal lake breeze cycles. Specifically, sulfate concentrations correlate strongly with lake breezes, while organic concentrations are less affected. This difference is interpreted in terms of the sources and reactivity of VOC precursors, measured with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). The influence of meteorology and photochemical processing on particle mixing state and refractive index is determined using single particle mass spectra and optical scattering signals obtained from a light scattering module integrated with the AMS.

Slowik, J. G.; Chang, R. Y.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Vlasenko, A.; Jeong, C.; McGuire, M.; Evans, G. J.; Hayden, K.; Li, S.; Liggio, J.; Liu, P. S.; Abbatt, J. P.

2008-12-01

369

An Integrative Process Approach on Judgment and Decision Making: The Impact of Arousal, Affect, Motivation, and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to integrate the findings from various research traditions on human judgment and decision making, focusing on four process variables: arousal, affect, motivation, and cognitive capacity/ability. We advocate a broad perspective referred to as the integrative process approach (IPA) of decision making, in which these process

Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

2011-01-01

370

Metabolic processes sustaining the reviviscence of lichen Xanthoria elegans (Link) in high mountain environments  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to alternating periods of desiccation and hydration is one of the lichen’s requirements for survival in high mountain environment. In the dehydrated state, respiration and photosynthesis of the foliaceous lichen Xanthoria elegans were below the threshold of CO2-detection by infrared gas analysis. Following hydration, respiration totally recovered within seconds and photosynthesis within minutes. In order to identify metabolic processes that may contribute to restart so quickly and efficiently lichen physiological activity, we analysed the metabolite profile of lichen thalli step by step during hydration/dehydration cycles, using 31P-and 13C-NMR. It appeared that the recovery of respiration was anticipated during dehydration by the accumulation of important stores of gluconate 6-P (glcn-6-P) and by the preservation of the nucleotide pools, whereas glycolysis and photosynthesis intermediates like glucose 6-P and ribulose 1,5-diphosphate disappeared. The important pools of polyols present in both X. elegans photo- and mycobiont likely contributed to protect cells constituents like nucleotides, proteins, and membrane lipids, and to preserve the intactness of intracellular structures during desiccation. Our data indicate that glcn-6-P accumulated due to the activation of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, in response to cell need for reducing power (NADPH) during the dehydration-triggered down regulation of metabolism. On the contrary, glcn-6-P was metabolised immediately after hydration, supplying respiration with substrates during the recovery of the pools of glycolysis and photosynthesis intermediates. Finally, the high net photo synthetic activity of wet X. elegans thalli at low temperature may help this alpine lichen to take advantage of short hydration opportunities such as ice melting, thus favouring its growth in the harsh high mountain climate.

Aubert, Serge; Juge, Christine; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard

2007-01-01

371

?-Lipoic Acid in Liver Metabolism and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

R-?-Lipoic acid is found naturally occurring as a prosthetic group in ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes of the mitochondria, and as such plays a fundamental role in metabolism. Although this has been known for decades, only recently has free supplemented ?-lipoic acid been found to affect cellular metabolic processes in vitro, as it has the ability to alter the redox status

Juanita Bustamante; John K Lodge; Lucia Marcocci; Hans J Tritschler; Lester Packer; Bertrand H Rihn

1998-01-01

372

Sirtuins as potential targets for metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic syndrome threatens health gains made during the past century. Physiological processes degraded by this syndrome are often oppositely affected by calorie restriction, which extends lifespan and prevents disease in rodents. Recent research in the field of ageing has begun to identify important mediators of calorie restriction, offering the hope of new drugs to improve healthspan. Moreover, if metabolic syndrome

Leonard Guarente

2006-01-01

373

Early Affective Processing in Patients with Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Magnetoencephalographic Correlates  

PubMed Central

Background In chronic PTSD, a preattentive neural alarm system responds rapidly to emotional information, leading to increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation at early processing stages (<100 ms). Enhanced PFC responses are followed by a reduction in occipito-temporal activity during later processing stages. However, it remains unknown if this neuronal pattern is a result of a long lasting mental disorder or if it represents changes in brain function as direct consequences of severe trauma. Methodology The present study investigates early fear network activity in acutely traumatized patients with PTSD. It focuses on the question whether dysfunctions previously observed in chronic PTSD patients are already present shortly after trauma exposure. We recorded neuromagnetic activity towards emotional pictures in seven acutely traumatized PTSD patients between one and seven weeks after trauma exposure and compared brain responses to a balanced healthy control sample. Inverse modelling served for mapping sources of differential activation in the brain. Principal Findings Compared to the control group, acutely traumatized PTSD patients showed an enhanced PFC response to high-arousing pictures between 60 to 80 ms. This rapid prefrontal hypervigilance towards arousing pictorial stimuli was sustained during 120–300 ms, where it was accompanied by a reduced affective modulation of occipito-temporal neural processing. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the hypervigilance-avoidance pattern seen in chronic PTSD is not necessarily a product of an endured mental disorder, but arises as an almost immediate result of severe traumatisation. Thus, traumatic experiences can influence emotion processing strongly, leading to long-lasting changes in trauma network activation and expediting a chronic manifestation of maladaptive cognitive and behavioral symptoms.

Wrenger, Marco; Kandil, Judith; Heuft, Gereon; Steinberg, Christian; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Junghofer, Markus

2013-01-01

374

An examination of auditory processing and affective prosody in relatives of patients with auditory hallucinations.  

PubMed

Research on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) indicates that AVH schizophrenia patients show greater abnormalities on tasks requiring recognition of affective prosody (AP) than non-AVH patients. Detecting AP requires accurate perception of manipulations in pitch, amplitude and duration. Schizophrenia patients with AVHs also experience difficulty detecting these acoustic manipulations; with a number of theorists speculating that difficulties in pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination underlie AP abnormalities. This study examined whether both AP and these aspects of auditory processing are also impaired in first degree relatives of persons with AVHs. It also examined whether pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination were related to AP, and to hallucination proneness. Unaffected relatives of AVH schizophrenia patients (N = 19) and matched healthy controls (N = 33) were compared using tone discrimination tasks, an AP task, and clinical measures. Relatives were slower at identifying emotions on the AP task (p = 0.002), with secondary analysis showing this was especially so for happy (p = 0.014) and neutral (p = 0.001) sentences. There was a significant interaction effect for pitch between tone deviation level and group (p = 0.019), and relatives performed worse than controls on amplitude discrimination and duration discrimination. AP performance for happy and neutral sentences was significantly correlated with amplitude perception. Lastly, AVH proneness in the entire sample was significantly correlated with pitch discrimination (r = 0.44) and pitch perception was shown to predict AVH proneness in the sample (p = 0.005). These results suggest basic impairments in auditory processing are present in relatives of AVH patients; they potentially underlie processing speed in AP tasks, and predict AVH proneness. This indicates auditory processing deficits may be a core feature of AVHs in schizophrenia, and are worthy of further study as a potential endophenotype for AVHs. PMID:24046737

Tucker, Rachel; Farhall, John; Thomas, Neil; Groot, Christopher; Rossell, Susan L

2013-09-06

375

An examination of auditory processing and affective prosody in relatives of patients with auditory hallucinations  

PubMed Central

Research on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) indicates that AVH schizophrenia patients show greater abnormalities on tasks requiring recognition of affective prosody (AP) than non-AVH patients. Detecting AP requires accurate perception of manipulations in pitch, amplitude and duration. Schizophrenia patients with AVHs also experience difficulty detecting these acoustic manipulations; with a number of theorists speculating that difficulties in pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination underlie AP abnormalities. This study examined whether both AP and these aspects of auditory processing are also impaired in first degree relatives of persons with AVHs. It also examined whether pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination were related to AP, and to hallucination proneness. Unaffected relatives of AVH schizophrenia patients (N = 19) and matched healthy controls (N = 33) were compared using tone discrimination tasks, an AP task, and clinical measures. Relatives were slower at identifying emotions on the AP task (p = 0.002), with secondary analysis showing this was especially so for happy (p = 0.014) and neutral (p = 0.001) sentences. There was a significant interaction effect for pitch between tone deviation level and group (p = 0.019), and relatives performed worse than controls on amplitude discrimination and duration discrimination. AP performance for happy and neutral sentences was significantly correlated with amplitude perception. Lastly, AVH proneness in the entire sample was significantly correlated with pitch discrimination (r = 0.44) and pitch perception was shown to predict AVH proneness in the sample (p = 0.005). These results suggest basic impairments in auditory processing are present in relatives of AVH patients; they potentially underlie processing speed in AP tasks, and predict AVH proneness. This indicates auditory processing deficits may be a core feature of AVHs in schizophrenia, and are worthy of further study as a potential endophenotype for AVHs.

Tucker, Rachel; Farhall, John; Thomas, Neil; Groot, Christopher; Rossell, Susan L.

2013-01-01

376

Effects of process parameters on growth and metabolism of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida humilis during rye sourdough fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature, pH, inoculum level, and NaCl on the growth and metabolism of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida humilis in rye sourdough were determined. The temperature optima for growth of C. humilis and L. sanfranciscensis were 28 and 32 °C, respectively. Yeast growth was inhibited at 35 °C. The pH did not affect yeast growth in the range 3.5–5.5, whereas growth

Markus J. Brandt; Walter P. Hammes; Michael G. Gänzle

2004-01-01

377

Long-term dietary habits affect soy isoflavone metabolism and accumulation in prostatic fluid in caucasian men.  

PubMed

The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein are believed to reduce prostate cancer risk in soy consumers. However, daidzein can be metabolized by the intestinal flora to form a variety of compounds with different bioactivities. In the current study, we investigated the influence of long-term dietary habits on daidzein metabolism in healthy Caucasian men (19-65 y old). A secondary goal was to compare plasma and prostatic fluid concentrations of 5 isoflavonoids: genistein, daidzein, equol, dihydrodaidzein, and O-desmethylangolensin. Baseline plasma levels of isoflavonoids were quantitated in 45 men by HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Participants then consumed a soy beverage daily for 1 wk, and post-soy isoflavonoid levels were quantitated in plasma and prostatic fluid. Equol was the only metabolite that appeared to be influenced by routine dietary habits. Stratified analyses revealed that men who had consumed > or =30 mg soy isoflavones/d for at least 2 y had 5.3-times the probability of producing equol than men who had consumed < or =5 mg/d (P = 0.014). Additionally, those men who consumed animal meat regularly had 4.7-times the probability of producing equol than men who did not consume meat (P = 0.023). Equol production was not linked to age, BMI, or the consumption of yogurt, dairy, fruit, or American-style fast food. Daidzein and its metabolites (but not genistein) were typically present at higher levels in prostate fluid than plasma (median = 4-13 times that in plasma). In conclusion, our data suggest that the ability of Caucasian men to produce equol is favorably influenced by the long-term consumption of high amounts of soy and the consumption of meat. Last, the high concentrations of isoflavonoids in prostatic fluid increases the potential for these compounds to have direct effects in the prostate. PMID:15930444

Hedlund, Tammy E; Maroni, Paul D; Ferucci, Paul G; Dayton, Robert; Barnes, Stephen; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, Ray; Ogden, Lorraine G; Wähälä, Kristiina; Sackett, Holly M; Gray, Karen J

2005-06-01

378

Combinatorial metabolism notably affects human systemic exposure to ginsenosides from orally administered extract of Panax notoginseng roots (Sanqi).  

PubMed

Ginsenosides are medicinal ingredients of the cardiovascular herb Panax notoginseng roots (Sanqi). Here, we implemented a human study (ChiCTR-ONC-09000603; www.chictr.org) to characterize pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ginsenosides from an orally ingested Sanqi-extract (a 1:10 water extract of Sanqi) and the human plasma and urine samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma and urinary compounds derived from ginsenosides included: 1) intestinally absorbed ginsenosides Ra3, Rb1, Rd, F2, Rg1, and notoginsenoside R1; and 2) the deglycosylated products compound-K, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, 20(S)-protopanaxatriol, and their oxidized metabolites. The systemic exposure levels of the first group compounds increased as the Sanqi-extract dose increased, but those of the second group compounds were dose-independent. The oxidized metabolites of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol represented the major circulating forms of ginsenosides in the bloodstream, despite their large interindividual differences in exposure level. The metabolites were formed via combinatorial metabolism that consisted of a rate-limiting step of ginsenoside deglycosylation by the colonic microflora and a subsequent step of sapogenin oxidation by the enterohepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. Significant accumulation of plasma ginsenosides and metabolites occurred in the human subjects receiving 3-week subchronic treatment with the Sanqi-extract. Plasma 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol could be used as pharmacokinetic markers to reflect the subjects' microbial activities, as well as the timely-changes and interindividual differences in plasma levels of their respective oxidized metabolites. The information gained from the current study is relevant to pharmacology and therapeutics of Sanqi. PMID:23649704

Hu, Zheyi; Yang, Junling; Cheng, Chen; Huang, Yuhong; Du, Feifei; Wang, Fengqing; Niu, Wei; Xu, Fang; Jiang, Rongrong; Gao, Xiumei; Li, Chuan

2013-05-06

379

Do Problems with Information Processing Affect the Process of Psychotherapy for Adults with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problems in processing information can affect psychosocial functioning. Psychotherapy can be used to address psychosocial problems; however, the same information-processing problems that contribute to disabilities, such as learning disabilities (LD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly deficits in auditory processing

Cosden, Merith; Patz, Sarah; Smith, Steven

2009-01-01

380

Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2012-05-09

381

The importance of vocal affect to bimodal processing of emotion: implications for individuals with traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty recognizing emotion in others. This is likely due to difficulties in interpreting non-verbal cues of affect. Although deficits in interpreting facial cues of affect are being widely explored, interpretation of vocal cues of affect has received much less attention. Accurate interpretation of vocal affect cues is important, particularly when facial cues are absent or ambiguous. These cues also contribute to more accurate identification of emotion. The neural substrates of facial and vocal affect recognition appear to be shared, further contributing to improved bimodal processing. This article discusses the importance of vocal affect cues in interpreting emotion. Expression of vocal affect in persons with TBI is also briefly discussed since difficulty in controlling and manipulating vocal cues of emotion when speaking may also contribute to poor social outcomes. A review of the literature in acoustic parameters that contribute to identification and expression of emotions is followed by a discussion on the integration of visual and auditory cues in bimodal processing and the relationship between facial and vocal affect in persons with TBI. Learning Outcomes: Readers will be able to: 1) Identify the parameters primarily used to describe the acoustic characteristics of vocal affect; 2) Describe the acoustic parameters typically associated with Anger, Fear, Happiness and Sadness; 3) Describe the difficulties experienced by persons with TBI in the perception and integration of facial and vocal cues of affect. PMID:18692197

Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn; Babbage, Duncan R; Willer, Barry

2008-07-09

382

The Investment in Scent: Time-Resolved Metabolic Processes in Developing Volatile-Producing Nigella sativa L. Seeds  

PubMed Central

The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids) and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol–3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18?3n-3 abundant in “green” seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs.

Toubiana, David; Botnick, Ilan; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Nikoloski, Zoran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fait, Aaron

2013-01-01

383

Secretion of Parathyroid Hormone Oscillates Depending on the Change in Serum Ionized Calcium during Hemodialysis and May Affect Bone Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The current study was undertaken to clarify the dynamic response of parathyroid hormone (PTH) during hemodialysis and to determine whether or not such dynamic change of PTH affects bone turnover. Methods: Serum ionized calcium (iCa) and intact PTH (iPTH) were measured in 66 dialysis patients before (basal) and after each hemodialysis. The changes of iCa (?iCa) and iPTH (?iPTH)

Tokuyuki Kitahara; Kazue Ueki; Takashi Kuroiwa; Yoriaki Kaneko; Keiju Hiromura; Yoshihisa Nojima

2005-01-01

384

Transient effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure on some metabolic and free radical processes in goldfish white muscle.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess effects of 96 h goldfish exposure to 1, 10 and 100 mg/L of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on metabolic indices and free radical process markers in white muscle of a commercial fish, the goldfish Carassius auratus L. Most oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes were not affected at 2,4-D fish treatment. 2,4-D fish exposure induced the elevated levels of total (by 46% and 40%) and reduced (by 77% and 73%) glutathione in muscles of goldfish of 10 mg/L 2,4-D and recovery (after 100 mg/L of 2,4-D exposure) groups, respectively. However, in muscles of 100 mg/L 2,4-D exposed goldfish these parameters were depleted (by 47% and 64%). None of investigated parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolisms changed in white muscles of 2,4-D exposed fish, with exception of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which was slightly (by 11-15%) elevated in muscles of goldfish exposed to 10-100 mg/L of 2,4-D, but also recovered. Thus, the short term exposure of goldfish to the selected concentrations of 2,4-D does not substantially affect their white muscle, suggesting the absence of any effect under the environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:23806294

Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

2013-06-25

385

Modulation of vitamin d status and dietary calcium affects bone mineral density and mineral metabolism in göttingen minipigs.  

PubMed

Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6?g calcium and 6,500?IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2?g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with -51.2 ± 14.7?mg/cm(3) in contrast to controls (-2.3 ± 11.8?mg/cm(3)), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4?nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4?nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects. PMID:24062955

Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Günter; Açil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jürgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

2013-08-24

386

Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transferred to lysine residues of proteins, in a reaction regulated by acetyltransferases. The tight balance between acetyltransferases and their antagonistic counterparts histone deacetylases is a well-known determining factor for the acetylation status of proteins. However, the influence of Coenzyme A levels on protein acetylation is unknown. Here we investigate whether decreased levels of the central metabolite Coenzyme A induce alterations in protein acetylation and whether this correlates with specific phenotypes of PKAN models. We show that in various organisms proper Coenzyme A metabolism is required for maintenance of histone- and tubulin acetylation, and decreased acetylation of these proteins is associated with an impaired DNA damage response, decreased locomotor function and decreased survival. Decreased protein acetylation and the concurrent phenotypes are partly rescued by pantethine and HDAC inhibitors, suggesting possible directions for future PKAN therapy development.

Siudeja, Katarzyna; Srinivasan, Balaji; Xu, Lanjun; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Nollen, Ellen A A; Jackowski, Suzanne; Sanford, Lynn; Hayflick, Susan; Sibon, Ody C M

2011-01-01

387

Modulation of Vitamin D Status and Dietary Calcium Affects Bone Mineral Density and Mineral Metabolism in G?ttingen Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6?g calcium and 6,500?IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2?g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with ?51.2 ± 14.7?mg/cm3 in contrast to controls (?2.3 ± 11.8?mg/cm3), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4?nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4?nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects.

Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E.; Gluer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Gunter; Acil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jurgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jurgen

2013-01-01

388

Suspense, curiosity, and surprise: How discourse structure influences the affective and cognitive processing of a story  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural affect theory (Brewer and Lichtenstein, 1982) states that different affective responses can be evoked by manipulating the order in which a story's events are narrated. Suspense is evoked by postponing the story's outcome, curiosity is evoked by presenting the outcome before the preceding events, and surprise is evoked by an unexpected event. Apart from evoking different affective responses,

Hans Hoeken; Mario van Vliet

2000-01-01

389

Multi-scale interactions affecting transport, storage, and processing of solutes and sediments in stream corridors (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface water and groundwater flow interact with the channel geomorphology and sediments in ways that determine how material is transported, stored, and transformed in stream corridors. Solute and sediment transport affect important ecological processes such as carbon and nutrient dynamics and stream metabolism, processes that are fundamental to stream health and function. Many individual mechanisms of transport and storage of solute and sediment have been studied, including surface water exchange between the main channel and side pools, hyporheic flow through shallow and deep subsurface flow paths, and sediment transport during both baseflow and floods. A significant challenge arises from non-linear and scale-dependent transport resulting from natural, fractal fluvial topography and associated broad, multi-scale hydrologic interactions. Connections between processes and linkages across scales are not well understood, imposing significant limitations on system predictability. The whole-stream tracer experimental approach is popular because of the spatial averaging of heterogeneous processes; however the tracer results, implemented alone and analyzed using typical models, cannot usually predict transport beyond the very specific conditions of the experiment. Furthermore, the results of whole stream tracer experiments tend to be biased due to unavoidable limitations associated with sampling frequency, measurement sensitivity, and experiment duration. We recommend that whole-stream tracer additions be augmented with hydraulic and topographic measurements and also with additional tracer measurements made directly in storage zones. We present examples of measurements that encompass interactions across spatial and temporal scales and models that are transferable to a wide range of flow and geomorphic conditions. These results show how the competitive effects between the different forces driving hyporheic flow, operating at different spatial scales, creates a situation where hyporheic fluxes cannot be accurately estimated without considering multi-scale effects. Our modeling captures the dominance of small-scale features such as bedforms that drive the majority of hyporheic flow, but it also captures how hyporheic flow is substantially modified by relatively small changes in streamflow or groundwater flow. The additional field measurements add sensitivity and power to whole stream tracer additions by improving resolution of the relative importance of storage at different scales (e.g. bar-scale versus bedform-scale). This information is critical in identifying hot spots where important biogeochemical reactions occur. In summary, interpreting multi-scale interactions in streams requires models that are physically based and that incorporate non-linear process dynamics. Such models can take advantage of increasingly comprehensive field data to integrate transport processes across spatially variable flow and geomorphic conditions. The most useful field and modeling approaches will be those that are simple enough to be easily implemented by users from various disciplines but comprehensive enough to produce meaningful predictions for a wide range of flow and geomorphic scenarios. This capability is needed to support improved strategies for protecting stream ecological health in the face of accelerating land use and climate change.

Harvey, J. W.; Packman, A. I.

2010-12-01

390

Selective effects of social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity on the neural bases of emotional face processing.  

PubMed

Individuals with high anxiety show heightened neural activation in affective processing regions, including the amygdala and insula. Activations have been shown to be correlated with anxiety severity, but although anxiety is a heterogeneous state, prior studies have not systematically disentangled whether neural activity in affective processing circuitry is uniquely related to specific domains of anxiety. Forty-five young adults were tested on an emotional face processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Social Interactional Anxiety Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory. Using a robust multiple regression approach, we examined the effects of social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety (which overlapped with depressive symptoms, and can therefore be considered a measure of negative affectivity) on activation in insula, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex, in response to emotional faces. Adjusting for negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity, social anxiety was associated with activity in left amygdala, right insula, and subgenual anterior cingulate across all emotional faces. When comparing negative and positive faces directly, greater negative affectivity was uniquely associated with less activity to positive faces in left amygdala, left anterior insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate. The current findings support the hypothesis that hyperactivity in brain areas during general emotional face processing is predominantly a function of social anxiety. In comparison, hypoactivity to positively valenced faces was predominantly associated with negative affectivity. Implications for the understanding of emotion processing in anxiety are discussed. PMID:21920442

Ball, Tali Manber; Sullivan, Sarah; Flagan, Taru; Hitchcock, Carla A; Simmons, Alan; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

2011-09-02

391

Neuromuscular disorders of glycogen metabolism.  

PubMed

Disorders of glycogen metabolism are inborn errors of energy homeostasis affecting primarily skeletal muscle, heart, liver, and, less frequently, the central nervous system. These rare diseases are quite variable in age of onset, symptoms, morbidity, and mortality. This review provides an update on disorders of glycogen metabolism affecting skeletal muscle exclusively or predominantly. From a pathogenetic perspective, we classify these diseases as primary, if the defective enzyme is directly involved in glycogen/glucose metabolism, or secondary, if the genetic mutation affects proteins which indirectly regulate glycogen or glucose processing. In addition to summarizing the most recent clinical reports in this field, we briefly describe animal models of human glycogen disorders. These experimental models are greatly improving the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the muscle degenerative process associated to these diseases and provide in vivo platforms to test new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23335027

Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Andreu, Antoni L; Bruno, Claudio

2013-03-01

392

Modulation of intracellular iron metabolism by iron chelation affects chromatin remodeling proteins and corresponding epigenetic modifications in breast cancer cells and increases their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents.  

PubMed

Iron plays a vital role in the normal functioning of cells via the regulation of essential cellular metabolic reactions, including several DNA and histone-modifying proteins. The metabolic status of iron and the regulation of epigenetic mechanisms are well-balanced and tightly controlled in normal cells; however, in cancer cells these processes are profoundly disturbed. Cancer-related abnormalities in iron metabolism have been corrected through the use of iron-chelating agents, which cause an inhibition of DNA synthesis, G?-S phase arrest, an inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and the activation of apoptosis. In the present study, we show that, in addition to these well-studied molecular mechanisms, the treatment of wild-type TP53 MCF-7 and mutant TP53 MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with desferrioxamine (DFO), a model iron chelator, causes significant epigenetic alterations at the global and gene-specific levels. Specifically, DFO treatment decreased the protein levels of the histone H3 lysine 9 demethylase, Jumonji domain-containing protein 2A (JMJD2A), in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and down-regulated the levels of the histone H3 lysine 4 demethylase, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), in the MDA-MB-231 cells. These changes were accompanied by alterations in corresponding metabolically sensitive histone marks. Additionally, we demonstrate that DFO treatment activates apoptotic programs in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cisplatin; however, the mechanisms underlying this activation differ. The induction of apoptosis in wild-type TP53 MCF-7 cells was p53-dependent, triggered mainly by the down-regulation of the JMJD2A histone demethylase, while in mutant TP53 MDA-MB-231 cells, the activation of the p53-independent apoptotic program was driven predominantly by the epigenetic up-regulation of p21. PMID:23483119

Pogribny, Igor P; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P; Pogribna, Marta; Shpyleva, Svitlana; Surratt, Gordon; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Beland, Frederick A

2013-03-12

393

The 5% difference: early sensory processing predicts sarcasm perception in schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Intact sarcasm perception is a crucial component of social cognition and mentalizing (the ability to understand the mental state of oneself and others). In sarcasm, tone of voice is used to negate the literal meaning of an utterance. In particular, changes in pitch are used to distinguish between sincere and sarcastic utterances. Schizophrenia patients show well-replicated deficits in auditory function and functional connectivity (FC) within and between auditory cortical regions. In this study we investigated the contributions of auditory deficits to sarcasm perception in schizophrenia. Method Auditory measures including pitch processing, auditory emotion recognition (AER) and sarcasm detection were obtained from 76 patients with schizophrenia/schizo-affective disorder and 72 controls. Resting-state FC (rsFC) was obtained from a subsample and was analyzed using seeds placed in both auditory cortex and meta-analysis-defined core-mentalizing regions relative to auditory performance. RESULTS: Patients showed large effect-size deficits across auditory measures. Sarcasm deficits correlated significantly with general functioning and impaired pitch processing both across groups and within the patient group alone. Patients also showed reduced sensitivity to alterations in mean pitch and variability. For patients, sarcasm discrimination correlated exclusively with the level of rsFC within primary auditory regions whereas for controls, correlations were observed exclusively within core-mentalizing regions (the right posterior superior temporal gyrus, anterior superior temporal sulcus and insula, and left posterior medial temporal gyrus). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the contribution of auditory deficits to theory of mind (ToM) impairments in schizophrenia, and demonstrate that FC within auditory, but not core-mentalizing, regions is rate limiting with respect to sarcasm detection in schizophrenia. PMID:23611263

Kantrowitz, J T; Hoptman, M J; Leitman, D I; Silipo, G; Javitt, D C

2013-04-24

394

Rhizospheric NO affects N uptake and metabolism in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings depending on soil N availability and N source.  

PubMed

We investigated the interaction of rhizospheric nitric oxide (NO) concentration (i.e. low, ambient or high) and soil nitrogen (N) availability (i.e. low or high) with organic and inorganic N uptake by fine roots of Pinus sylvestris?L. seedlings by (15) N feeding experiments under controlled conditions. N metabolites in fine roots were analysed to link N uptake to N nutrition. NO affected N uptake depending on N source and soil N availability. The suppression of nitrate uptake in the presence of ammonium and glutamine was overruled by high NO. The effects of NO on N uptake with increasing N availability showed different patterns: (1) increasing N uptake regardless of NO concentration (i.e. ammonium); (2) increasing N uptake only with high NO concentration (i.e. nitrate and arginine); and (3) decreasing N uptake (i.e. glutamine). At low N availability and high NO nitrate accumulated in the roots indicating insufficient substrates for nitrate reduction or its storage in root vacuoles. Individual amino acid concentrations were negatively affected with increasing NO (i.e. asparagine and glutamine with low N availability, serine and proline with high N availability). In conclusion, this study provides first evidence that NO affects N uptake and metabolism in a conifer. PMID:23146102

Simon, Judy; Dong, Fang; Buegger, Franz; Rennenberg, Heinz

2012-12-03

395

The long summer: pre-wintering temperatures affect metabolic expenditure and winter survival in a solitary bee.  

PubMed

The impact of climate change on insect populations depends on specific life cycle traits and physiological adaptations. The solitary bee Osmia lignaria winters as a pre-emergent adult, and requires a period of cold temperature for winter diapause completion. It is a univoltine species, and diapause induction does not depend on photoperiod. To understand the potential effects of longer summers on O. lignaria populations, we exposed individuals to three treatments simulating early, mid and late winter arrivals, and measured respiration rates, metabolic expenditure, weight loss, fat body depletion, lipid levels and winter mortality. The early-winter treatment disrupted diapause development, but had no apparent negative effects on fitness. In contrast, late-winter bees had a greater energetic expenditure (1.5-fold), weight (1.4-fold) and lipid (2-fold) loss, greater fat body depletion, and a 19% increase in mortality compared to mid-winter bees. We also monitored adult eclosion and arrival of winter temperatures under natural conditions in four years. We found a positive correlation between mean degree-day accumulation during pre-wintering (a measure of asynchrony between adult eclosion and winter arrival) and yearly winter mortality. Individually, bees experiencing greater degree-day accumulations exhibited reduced post-winter longevity. Timing of adult eclosion in O. lignaria is dependent on the duration of the prepupal period, which occurs in mid-summer, is also diapause-mediated, and is longer in populations from southerly latitudes. In a global warming scenario, we expect long summer diapause phenotypes to replace short summer diapause phenotypes, effectively maintaining short pre-wintering periods in spite of delayed winter arrivals. PMID:21910996

Sgolastra, Fabio; K