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1

Ibogaine affects brain energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid present in the root of the plant Tabernanthe iboga. It is known to attenuate abstinence syndrome in animal models of drug addiction. Since the anti-addiction effect lasts longer than the presence of ibogaine in the body, some profound metabolic changes are expected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ibogaine on protein expression in rat brains. Rats were treated with ibogaine at 20 mg/kg body weight i.p. and subsequently examined at 24 and 72 h. Proteins were extracted from whole brain and separated by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Individual proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Enzymes of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle namely glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase A, pyruvate kinase and malate dehydrogenase were induced. The results suggest that the remedial effect of ibogaine could be mediated by the change in energy availability. Since energy dissipating detoxification and reversion of tolerance to different drugs of abuse requires underlying functional and structural changes in the cell, higher metabolic turnover would be favourable. Understanding the pharmacodynamics of anti-addiction drugs highlights the subcellular aspects of addiction diseases, in addition to neurological and psychological perspectives. PMID:17054944

Paskulin, Roman; Jamnik, Polona; Zivin, Marko; Raspor, Peter; Strukelj, Borut

2006-12-15

2

Metabolic disorders of purine metabolism affecting the nervous system.  

PubMed

The purines are a group of molecules used by all cells for many vital biochemical processes including energy-requiring enzymatic reactions, cofactor-requiring reactions, synthesis of DNA or RNA, signaling pathways within and between cells, and other processes. Defects in some of the enzymes of purine metabolism are known to be associated with specific clinical disorders, and neurological problems may be a presenting sign or the predominant clinical problem for several of them. This chapter describes three disorders for which the clinical features and metabolic basis are well characterized. Deficiency of adenylosuccinate-lyase (ADSL) causes psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, and autistic features. Lesch-Nyhan disease is caused by deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and is characterized by hyperuricemia, motor and cognitive disability, and self-injurious behavior. Deficiency of myoadenylate deaminase (mAMPD) is associated with myopathic features. In addition to these disorders, several other disorders are briefly summarized. These include defects of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PND), deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK), or IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Each of these disorders provides an unusual window on the unique importance of purine metabolism for function of different parts of the nervous system. PMID:23622405

Jinnah, H A; Sabina, Richard L; Van Den Berghe, Georges

2013-01-01

3

Motivational Processes Affecting Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills, yet educationally relevant conceptions of motivation have been elusive. Using recent research within the social-cognitive framework, Dweck describes adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns and presents a research-based model of motivational processes. This model shows how the particular goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to

Carol S. Dweck

1986-01-01

4

Sex affects health: women are different I. Body composition & metabolism  

E-print Network

1 Sex affects health: women are different than men I. Body composition & metabolism II Sex affects health Overview: n Males & females have different patterns of illness & health q Longevity serotonin q Smoking has a more negative effect on cardiovascular health in women than men. q Women are 2x

Dever, Jennifer A.

5

Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

2014-12-01

6

How does cancer cell metabolism affect tumor migration and invasion?  

PubMed Central

Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Accordingly, identification of the regulatory mechanisms that control whether or not tumor cells become “directed walkers” is a crucial issue of cancer research. The deregulation of cell migration during cancer progression determines the capacity of tumor cells to escape from the primary tumors and invade adjacent tissues to finally form metastases. The ability to switch from a predominantly oxidative metabolism to glycolysis and the production of lactate even when oxygen is plentiful is a key characteristic of cancer cells. This metabolic switch, known as the Warburg effect, was first described in 1920s, and affected not only tumor cell growth but also tumor cell migration. In this review, we will focus on the recent studies on how cancer cell metabolism affects tumor cell migration and invasion. Understanding the new aspects on molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways controlling tumor cell migration is critical for development of therapeutic strategies for cancer patients. PMID:24131935

Han, Tianyu; Kang, De; Ji, Daokun; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Weihua; Fu, Minggui; Xin, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jian-Bin

2013-01-01

7

Tobacco nicotine uptake permease (NUP1) affects alkaloid metabolism  

PubMed Central

An effective plant alkaloid chemical defense requires a variety of transport processes, but few alkaloid transporters have been characterized at the molecular level. Previously, a gene fragment encoding a putative plasma membrane proton symporter was isolated, because it was coordinately regulated with several nicotine biosynthetic genes. Here, we show that this gene fragment corresponds to a Nicotiana tabacum gene encoding a nicotine uptake permease (NUP1). NUP1 belongs to a plant-specific class of purine uptake permease-like transporters that originated after the bryophytes but before or within the lycophytes. NUP1 expressed in yeast cells preferentially transported nicotine relative to other pyridine alkaloids, tropane alkaloids, kinetin, and adenine. NUP1-GFP primarily localized to the plasma membrane of tobacco Bright Yellow-2 protoplasts. WT NUP1 transcripts accumulated to high levels in the roots, particularly in root tips. NUP1-RNAi hairy roots had reduced NUP1 mRNA accumulation levels, reduced total nicotine levels, and increased nicotine accumulation in the hairy root culture media. Regenerated NUP1-RNAi plants showed reduced foliar and root nicotine levels as well as increased seedling root elongation rates. Thus, NUP1 affected nicotine metabolism, localization, and root growth. PMID:22006310

Hildreth, Sherry B.; Gehman, Elizabeth A.; Yang, Haibing; Lu, Rong-He; K C, Ritesh; Harich, Kim C.; Yu, Shi; Sandoe, Jackson L.; Okumoto, Sakiko; Murphy, Angus S.; Jelesko, John G.

2011-01-01

8

Interactions between dietary boron and thiamine affect lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary boron impacts upon the function of various coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. In a 2 {times} 7 factorially-arranged experiment, weanling, vitamin D{sub 3}-deprived rats were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet supplemented with 0 or 2 mg boron/kg and 50% of the requirement for thiamine (TM), riboflavin (RF), pantothenic acid (PA) or pyridoxine (PX); 0% for folic acid (FA) or nicotinic acid (NA). All vitamins were supplemented in adequate amounts in the control diet. At 8 weeks of age, the TM dietary treatment was the one most affected by supplemental dietary boron (SDB). In rats that were fed 50% TM, SDB increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), and the liver to body weight (L/B) ratio. However, in the SDB animals, adequate amounts of TM decreased the means of those variables to near that observed in non-SDB rats fed 50% TM. The findings suggest that an interaction between dietary boron and TM affects lipid metabolism.

Herbel, J.L.; Hunt, C.D. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1991-03-15

9

Diagnosis of inherited metabolic disorders affecting the nervous system.  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the molecular causes for genetic diseases that affect the nervous system is rapidly expanding. Especially striking has been the finding in several autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that unstable expansions of trinucleotide repeats are responsible for the genetic disorder and that the length of the repeat can be correlated with the age of onset and the severity of symptoms. Phenotypic heterogeneity in many disorders associated with enzyme deficiencies can often be linked to the amount of residual enzyme activity occurring with different gene mutations. Making a specific diagnosis of a neurological disorder associated with genetically determined metabolic defects requires access to a laboratory that can assist in arranging for appropriate testing to be carried out. In some disorders such as the aminoacidurias diagnostic metabolic studies can be performed in hospital clinical chemistry laboratories. In others, such as the lysosomal storage diseases, a laboratory that carries out special lipid analyses and white blood cell enzyme assays will be necessary. DNA mutational analyses are becoming commercially available for diagnosing many disorders such as mitochondrial diseases and those conditions associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. It may be necessary to contact individual research laboratories when confronted with a disorder that has been newly discovered or that is very rare. A computerised directory of specialised laboratories that perform disease specific testing for genetic disorders should be useful in choosing the appropriate diagnostic or research laboratory. Images PMID:8530925

Swanson, P D

1995-01-01

10

Acute pancreatitis affects the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters in rats.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of mental status represent a severe complication and an important cause of death in acute pancreatitis (AP), which is characterized by a pattern of neurological signs and symptoms. As some of the symptoms of AP are also affected by catecholamine neurotransmitters, they cannot be ruled out of the pathophysiology of AP; however, little research has been performed exploring this hypothesis. Our study aimed to elucidate whether AP affects the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters in rats. A total of 300 male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, 6H, 24H, 48H and 72H experimental groups. AP was induced in rats by an injection of a sodium taurocholate solution via a cannulated bile-pancreatic duct. In the striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum, catecholamine neurotransmitters were tested using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a electrochemical detector, and the activities and protein concentration levels of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were also evaluated using ELISA and Western blotting analyses. In the hippocampus, the dopamine (DA) concentrations increased in the 48-h and 72-h groups. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) concentration of the 72-h group also increased. The MAO-A and TH activity of the 6-h and 24-h groups decreased, respectively. The TH activities of the 48-h groups also decreased. The MAO-A and TH protein concentration of the 6-h and 24-h groups decreased. In the corpus striatum, the homovanillic acid concentration of the 72-h group and norepinephrine concentrations of the 24-h and 48-h groups increased, respectively. The MAO-A and TH activities of the 6-h and 24-h groups decreased. The MAO-A and TH protein concentrations of the 6-h and 24-h groups decreased. In the prefrontal cortex (left prefrontal lobe), the DA and DOPAC concentrations of the 48-h group increased. The MAO-A and TH activities of the 6-h, 24-h and 48-h groups decreased. The MAO-A and TH protein concentrations of the 6-h and 24-h groups also decreased. The other catecholamine concentration and enzyme activities fluctuated, but there was no statistically significant difference compared with the control group. Catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolic systems are widely affected in AP, and these fluctuations may play an important role in determining the symptomatology of AP. PMID:24657461

Jiang, H; Li, F; Liu, S; Sun, H; Cui, Y; Wu, Y

2014-05-30

11

Incubation temperature affects the metabolic cost of thermoregulation in a young precocial bird  

E-print Network

Incubation temperature affects the metabolic cost of thermoregulation in a young precocial bird that incubation temperature would affect thermoregulation in wood duck (Aix sponsa) hatchlings. 3. We show that a reduction in temperature affects the metabolic costs of thermoregulation in offspring

Hopkins, William A.

12

Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health  

PubMed Central

Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

2014-01-01

13

Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24036417

Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

2013-09-01

14

Cognitive and Affective Processes Underlying Career Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Aligning social identity and career identity has become increasingly complex due to growth in the pursuit of meaningful careers that offer very long-term personal satisfaction and stability. This paper aims to explore the complex cognitive and affective thought process involved in the conscious planning of voluntary career change.…

Muja, Naser; Appelbaum, Steven H.

2012-01-01

15

Leptin expression affects metabolic rate in zebrafish embryos (D. rerio)  

PubMed Central

We used antisense morpholino oligonucleotide technology to knockdown leptin-(A) gene expression in developing zebrafish embryos and measured its effects on metabolic rate and cardiovascular function. Using two indicators of metabolic rate, oxygen consumption was significantly lower in leptin morphants early in development [<48 hours post-fertilization (hpf)], while acid production was significantly lower in morphants later in development (>48 hpf). Oxygen utilization rates in <48 hpf embryos and acid production in 72 hpf embryos could be rescued to that of wildtype embryos by recombinant leptin coinjected with antisense morpholino. Leptin is established to influence metabolic rate in mammals, and these data suggest leptin signaling also influences metabolic rate in fishes. PMID:23847542

Dalman, Mark R.; Liu, Qin; King, Mason D.; Bagatto, Brian; Londraville, Richard L.

2013-01-01

16

Spastin Binds to Lipid Droplets and Affects Lipid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Mutations in SPAST, encoding spastin, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). HSP is characterized by weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs, owing to progressive retrograde degeneration of the long corticospinal axons. Spastin is a conserved microtubule (MT)-severing protein, involved in processes requiring rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in concert to membrane remodeling, such as neurite branching, axonal growth, midbody abscission, and endosome tubulation. Two isoforms of spastin are synthesized from alternative initiation codons (M1 and M87). We now show that spastin-M1 can sort from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to pre- and mature lipid droplets (LDs). A hydrophobic motif comprised of amino acids 57 through 86 of spastin was sufficient to direct a reporter protein to LDs, while mutation of arginine 65 to glycine abolished LD targeting. Increased levels of spastin-M1 expression reduced the number but increased the size of LDs. Expression of a mutant unable to bind and sever MTs caused clustering of LDs. Consistent with these findings, ubiquitous overexpression of Dspastin in Drosophila led to bigger and less numerous LDs in the fat bodies and increased triacylglycerol levels. In contrast, Dspastin overexpression increased LD number when expressed specifically in skeletal muscles or nerves. Downregulation of Dspastin and expression of a dominant-negative variant decreased LD number in Drosophila nerves, skeletal muscle and fat bodies, and reduced triacylglycerol levels in the larvae. Moreover, we found reduced amount of fat stores in intestinal cells of worms in which the spas-1 homologue was either depleted by RNA interference or deleted. Taken together, our data uncovers an evolutionarily conserved role of spastin as a positive regulator of LD metabolism and open up the possibility that dysfunction of LDs in axons may contribute to the pathogenesis of HSP. PMID:25875445

Papadopoulos, Chrisovalantis; Orso, Genny; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Herholz, Marija; Gumeni, Sentiljana; Tadepalle, Nimesha; Jüngst, Christian; Tzschichholz, Anne; Schauss, Astrid; Höning, Stefan; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Daga, Andrea; Rugarli, Elena I.

2015-01-01

17

Selective defoliation affects plant growth, fruit transcriptional ripening program and flavonoid metabolism in grapevine  

PubMed Central

Background The selective removal of grapevine leaves around berry clusters can improve the quality of ripening fruits by influencing parameters such as the berry sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. The outcome depends strongly on the timing of defoliation, which influences the source–sink balance and the modified microclimate surrounding the berries. We removed the basal leaves from Vitis vinifera L. cv Sangiovese shoots at the pre-bloom and veraison stages, and investigated responses such as shoot growth, fruit morphology and composition compared to untreated controls. Moreover, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis to explore the impact of these defoliation treatments on berry transcriptome. Results We found that pre-bloom defoliation improved berry quality traits such as sugar and anthocyanin content, whereas defoliation at veraison had a detrimental effect, e.g. less anthocyanin and higher incidence of sunburn damage. Genome-wide expression analysis during berry ripening revealed that defoliation at either stage resulted in major transcriptome reprogramming, which slightly delayed the onset of ripening. However, a closer investigation of individual gene expression profiles identified genes that were specifically modulated by defoliation at each stage, reflecting the uncoupling of metabolic processes such as flavonoid biosynthesis, cell wall and stress metabolism, from the general ripening program. Conclusions The specific transcriptional modifications we observed following defoliation at different time points allow the identification of the developmental or metabolic processes affected in berries thus deepening the knowledge of the mechanisms by which these agronomical practices impact the final berry ripening traits. PMID:23433030

2013-01-01

18

Factors affecting the metabolism of resting rabbit papillary muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of resting heat production of 12 right ventricular rabbit papillary muscles was measured myothermically. Resting heat rate was measured at 4 temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30° C) in either 45% or 95% O2 while the muscle was passively stretched with various pre-loads. The metabolic substrate was pyruvate (10 mmol · l-1). The mean resting heat rate, averaged

D. S. Loiselle; C. L. Gibbs

1983-01-01

19

Aging of myelinating glial cells predominantly affects lipid metabolism and immune response pathways.  

PubMed

Both the central and the peripheral nervous systems are prone to multiple age-dependent neurological deficits, often attributed to still unknown alterations in the function of myelinating glia. To uncover the biological processes affected in glial cells by aging, we analyzed gene expression of the Schwann cell-rich mouse sciatic nerve at 17 time points throughout life, from day of birth until senescence. By combining these data with the gene expression data of myelin mouse mutants carrying deletions of either Pmp22, SCAP, or Lpin1, we found that the majority of age-related transcripts were also affected in myelin mutants (54.4%) and were regulated during PNS development (59.5%), indicating a high level of overlap in implicated molecular pathways. The expression profiles in aging copied the direction of transcriptional changes observed in neuropathy models; however, they had the opposite direction when compared with PNS development. The most significantly altered biological processes in aging involved the inflammatory/immune response and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, both these pathways were comparably changed in the aging optic nerve, suggesting that similar biological processes are affected in aging of glia-rich parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Our comprehensive comparison of gene expression in three distinct biological conditions including development, aging, and myelin disease thus revealed a previously unanticipated relationship among themselves and identified lipid metabolism and inflammatory/immune response pathways as potential therapeutical targets to prevent or delay so far incurable age-related and inherited forms of neuropathies. PMID:22337502

Verdier, Valérie; Csárdi, Gábor; de Preux-Charles, Anne-Sophie; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Smit, August B; Verheijen, Mark H G; Bergmann, Sven; Chrast, Roman

2012-05-01

20

Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch.  

PubMed

Despite the crucial role of touch in social development, there is very little functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on brain mechanisms underlying social touch processing. The "skin as a social organ" hypothesis is supported by the discovery of C-tactile (CT) nerves that are present in hairy skin and project to the insular cortex. CT-fibers respond specifically well to slow, gentle touch such as that which occurs during close social interactions. Given the social significance of such touch researchers have proposed that the CT-system represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism important for normative social development. However, it is currently unknown whether brain regions other than the insula are involved in processing CT-targeted touch. In the current fMRI study, we sought to characterize the brain regions involved in the perception of CT-supported affective touch. Twenty-two healthy adults received manual brush strokes to either the arm or palm. A direct contrast of the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to gentle brushing of the arm and palm revealed the involvement of a network of brain regions, in addition to the posterior insula, during CT-targeted affective touch to the arm. This network included areas known to be involved in social perception and social cognition, including the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/dorso anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Connectivity analyses with an mPFC/dACC seed revealed coactivation with the left insula and amygdala during arm touch. These findings characterize a network of brain regions beyond the insula involved in coding CT-targeted affective touch. PMID:22125232

Gordon, Ilanit; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

2013-04-01

21

Metabolic differences in temperamental Brahman cattle can affect productivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many factors may adversely affect the growth and productivity of livestock. These include stressors associated with management practices, such as weaning, handling relative to transportation, and vaccination, that can modulate growth through the production of stress-related hormones (i.e., cortisol,...

22

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex  

PubMed Central

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd.-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd.-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

2012-01-01

23

Respiratory muscle strength and muscle endurance are not affected by acute metabolic acidemia.  

PubMed

Respiratory muscle fatigue in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) contributes to respiratory failure with hypercapnia, and subsequent respiratory acidosis. Therapeutic induction of acute metabolic acidosis further increases the respiratory drive and, therefore, may diminish ventilatory failure and hypercapnia. On the other hand, it is known that acute metabolic acidosis can also negatively affect (respiratory) muscle function and, therefore, could lead to a deterioration of respiratory failure. Moreover, we reasoned that the impact of metabolic acidosis on respiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance could be more pronounced in COPD patients as compared to asthma patients and healthy subjects, due to already impaired respiratory muscle function. In this study, the effect of metabolic acidosis was studied on peripheral muscle strength, peripheral muscle endurance, airway resistance, and on arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)). Acute metabolic acidosis was induced by administration of ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl). The effect of metabolic acidosis was studied on inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength and on respiratory muscle endurance. Effects were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design in 15 healthy subjects (4 male; age 33.2 +/- 11.5 years; FEV(1) 108.3 +/- 16.2% predicted), 14 asthma patients (5 male; age 48.1 +/- 16.1 years; FEV(1) 101.6 +/- 15.3% predicted), and 15 moderate to severe COPD patients (9 male; age 62.8 +/- 6.8 years; FEV(1) 50.0 +/- 11.8% predicted). An acute metabolic acidemia of BE -3.1 mmol x L(-1) was induced. Acute metabolic acidemia did not significantly affect strength or endurance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, respectively. In all subjects airway resistance was significantly decreased after induction of metabolic acidemia (mean difference -0.1 kPa x sec x L(-1) [95%-CI: -0.1 - -0.02]. In COPD patients PaCO(2) was significantly lowered during metabolic acidemia (mean difference -1.73 mmHg [-3.0 - -0.08]. In healthy subjects and in asthma patients no such effect was found. Acute metabolic acidemia did not significantly decrease respiratory or peripheral muscle strength, respectively muscle endurance in nomal subjects, asthma, or COPD patients. Metabolic acidemia significantly decreased airway resistance in asthma and COPD patients, as well as in healthy subjects. Moreover, acute metabolic acidemia slightly improved blood gas values in COPD patients. The results suggest that stimulation of ventilation in respiratory failure, by induction of metabolic acidemia will not lead to deterioration of the respiratory failure. PMID:19624691

Nizet, Tessa A C; Heijdra, Yvonne F; van den Elshout, Frank J J; van de Ven, Marjo J T; Bosch, Frank H; Mulder, Paul H; Folgering, Hans Th M

2009-11-01

24

Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical processes which affect stratospheric aerosol particles include nucleation, condensation, evaporation, coagulation and sedimentation. Quantitative studies of these mechanisms to determine if they can account for some of the observed properties of the aerosol are carried out. It is shown that the altitude range in which nucleation of sulfuric acid-water solution droplets can take place corresponds to that region of the stratosphere where the aerosol is generally found. Since heterogeneous nucleation is the dominant nucleation mechanism, the stratospheric solution droplets are mainly formed on particles which have been mixed up from the troposphere or injected into the stratosphere by volcanoes or meteorites. Particle growth by heteromolecular condensation can account for the observed increase in mixing ratio of large particles in the stratosphere. Coagulation is important in reducing the number of particles smaller than 0.05 micron radius. Growth by condensation, applied to the mixed nature of the particles, shows that available information is consistent with ammonium sulfate being formed by liquid phase chemical reactions in the aerosol particles. The upper altitude limit of the aerosol layer is probably due to the evaporation of sulfuric acid aerosol particles, while the lower limit is due to mixing across the tropopause.

Hamill, P.; Toon, O. B.; Kiang, C. S.

1977-01-01

25

How does SIRT1 affect metabolism, senescence and cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIRT1 is a multifaceted, NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes from cancer to ageing. The function of SIRT1 in cancer is complex: SIRT1 has been shown to have oncogenic properties by downregulating p53 activity, but recent studies indicate that SIRT1 acts as a tumour suppressor in a mutated p53 background, raising intriguing questions

Christopher L. Brooks; Wei Gu

2008-01-01

26

Herbicide-affected plant metabolism reduces virus propagation.  

PubMed

It has been previously shown that certain herbicides or plant extracts inhibited the viral infection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) infection and herbicide or plant extract treatments on the photosynthetic processes of the host plants to get informations about the interactions of these factors. In Capsicum annuum-ObPV host-virus relations the virus infection slightly increased the activity of photosystem II (PSII), as it was supposed from fluorescence induction parameters. Chlorophyll content of leaves was also elevated probably due to virus-induced growth inhibition. The herbicide Stomp (active ingredient: pendimethalin) incorporated into the soil one week before planting (preplant treatment) together with virus infection even strengthened these effects in agreement with previous observations that this herbicide always did not prevent virus infection or reduce virus concentration in hosts. In ObPV-infected Nicotiana tabacum the structural changes showed similar tendency like in ObPV-infected C. annuum, but PSII efficiency did not significantly differ from that of the control. However, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased because of the strongly decreasing CO2 fixation activity. Though simultaneous application of a water extract of Cirsium arvense shoot caused a little stronger inhibition of CO2 fixation, little loss in production was obtained due to significant reduction in virus concentration. In Solanum nigrum-ObPV relation the slightly increasing tendency of the values of actual PSII quantum efficiency could be related to the probably elevated ratio of reaction centre components (increased chlorophyll a/b ratio) in the thylakoids. Application of the herbicide Fusilade S (active ingredient: fluazifop-P-butyl) at 4-6 leaf stage as a post-emergence treatment practically prevented systemic virus infection and the virus-induced changes of photosynthesis are probably due to inhibiting the virus infection/replication process. PMID:17139793

Kazinczi, Gabriella; Gáspár, László; Nyitrai, Péter; Gáborjányi, Richard; Sárvári, Eva; Takács, András; Horváth, József

2006-01-01

27

Is metabolic rate a universal 'pacemaker' for biological processes?  

PubMed

A common, long-held belief is that metabolic rate drives the rates of various biological, ecological and evolutionary processes. Although this metabolic pacemaker view (as assumed by the recent, influential 'metabolic theory of ecology') may be true in at least some situations (e.g. those involving moderate temperature effects or physiological processes closely linked to metabolism, such as heartbeat and breathing rate), it suffers from several major limitations, including: (i) it is supported chiefly by indirect, correlational evidence (e.g. similarities between the body-size and temperature scaling of metabolic rate and that of other biological processes, which are not always observed) - direct, mechanistic or experimental support is scarce and much needed; (ii) it is contradicted by abundant evidence showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors (e.g. hormonal action and temperature changes) can dissociate the rates of metabolism, growth, development and other biological processes; (iii) there are many examples where metabolic rate appears to respond to, rather than drive the rates of various other biological processes (e.g. ontogenetic growth, food intake and locomotor activity); (iv) there are additional examples where metabolic rate appears to be unrelated to the rate of a biological process (e.g. ageing, circadian rhythms, and molecular evolution); and (v) the theoretical foundation for the metabolic pacemaker view focuses only on the energetic control of biological processes, while ignoring the importance of informational control, as mediated by various genetic, cellular, and neuroendocrine regulatory systems. I argue that a comprehensive understanding of the pace of life must include how biological activities depend on both energy and information and their environmentally sensitive interaction. This conclusion is supported by extensive evidence showing that hormones and other regulatory factors and signalling systems coordinate the processes of growth, metabolism and food intake in adaptive ways that are responsive to an organism's internal and external conditions. Metabolic rate does not merely dictate growth rate, but is coadjusted with it. Energy and information use are intimately intertwined in living systems: biological signalling pathways both control and respond to the energetic state of an organism. This review also reveals that we have much to learn about the temporal structure of the pace of life. Are its component processes highly integrated and synchronized, or are they loosely connected and often discordant? And what causes the level of coordination that we see? These questions are of great theoretical and practical importance. PMID:24863680

Glazier, Douglas S

2014-05-23

28

Genomic and metabolic foundations of gut host-microbial relationships affect our predisposition to obesity, cardiovascular  

E-print Network

Genomic and metabolic foundations of gut host-microbial relationships affect our predisposition to obesity, cardiovascular disease and malnutrition. This meeting explores the microbiome and its role opportunities, please contact Cristine Barreto at cbarreto@nyas.org or 212.298.8652. The Microbiome and Disease

Mootha, Vamsi K.

29

Inorganic nutrient availability affects organic matter fluxes and metabolic activity in the soft coral genus Xenia.  

PubMed

The release of organic matter (OM) by scleractinian corals represents a key physiological process that importantly contributes to coral reef ecosystem functioning, and is affected by inorganic nutrient availability. Although OM fluxes have been studied for several dominant reef taxa, no information is available for soft corals, one of the major benthic groups in tropical reef environments. Thus, this study investigates OM fluxes along with other key physiological parameters (i.e. photosynthesis, respiration and chlorophyll a tissue content) in the common soft coral genus Xenia after a 4-week exposure period to elevated ammonium (N; 20.0 ?mol l(-1)), phosphate (P; 2.0 ?mol l(-1)) and combined inorganic nutrient enrichment treatment (N+P). Corals maintained without nutrient enrichment served as non-treated controls and revealed constant uptake rates for particulate organic carbon (POC) (-0.315±0.161 mg POC m(-2) coral surface area h(-1)), particulate nitrogen (PN) (-0.053±0.018 mg PN m(-2) h(-1)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (-4.8±2.1 mg DOC m(-2) h(-1)). Although DOC uptake significantly increased in the N treatment, POC flux was not affected. The P treatment significantly enhanced PN release as well as photosynthesis and respiration rates, suggesting that autotrophic carbon acquisition of zooxanthellae endosymbionts influences OM fluxes by the coral host. Our physiological findings confirm the significant effect of inorganic nutrient availability on OM fluxes and key metabolic processes for the soft coral Xenia, and provide the first clues on OM cycles initiated by soft corals in reef environments exposed to ambient and elevated inorganic nutrient concentrations. PMID:22811248

Bednarz, Vanessa N; Naumann, Malik S; Niggl, Wolfgang; Wild, Christian

2012-10-15

30

Absence of cumulus cells during in vitro maturation affects lipid metabolism in bovine oocytes.  

PubMed

Cumulus cells (CC) surround the oocyte and are coupled metabolically through regulation of nutrient intake. CC removal before in vitro maturation (IVM) decreases bovine oocyte developmental competence without affecting nuclear meiotic maturation. The objective was to investigate the influence of CC on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation in relation to energy metabolism. IVM with either cumulus-enclosed (CEO) or -denuded (DO) oocytes was performed in serum-free metabolically optimized medium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different distribution of membrane-bound vesicles and lipid droplets between metaphase II DO and CEO. By Nile Red staining, a significant reduction in total lipid level was evidenced in DO. Global transcriptomic analysis revealed differential expression of genes regulating energy metabolism, transcription, and translation between CEO and DO. By Western blot, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive phospholipase (HSL) proteins were detected in oocytes and in CC, indicating a local lipogenesis and lypolysis. FAS protein was significantly less abundant in DO that in CEO and more highly expressed in CC than in the oocytes. On the contrary, HSL protein was more abundant in oocytes than in CC. In addition, active Ser??³-phosphorylated HSL was detected in the oocytes only after IVM, and its level was similar in CEO and DO. In conclusion, absence of CC during IVM affected lipid metabolism in the oocyte and led to suboptimal cytoplasmic maturation. Thus, CC may influence the oocyte by orienting the consumption of nutritive storage via regulation of local fatty acid synthesis and lipolysis to provide energy for maturation. PMID:23321473

Auclair, Sylvain; Uzbekov, Rustem; Elis, Sébastien; Sanchez, Laura; Kireev, Igor; Lardic, Lionel; Dalbies-Tran, Rozenn; Uzbekova, Svetlana

2013-03-15

31

Factors affecting high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T elevation in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose The blood concentration of cardiac troponin T (ie, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T [hs-cTnT]), measured using a highly sensitive assay, represents a useful biomarker for evaluating the pathogenesis of heart failure or predicting cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the clinical significance of hs-cTnT in metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting hs-cTnT elevation in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients. Patients and methods We enrolled 258 metabolic syndrome patients who were middle-aged males without a history of cardiovascular events. We examined relationships between hs-cTnT and various clinical parameters, including diagnostic parameters of metabolic syndrome. Results There were no significant correlations between hs-cTnT and diagnostic parameters of metabolic syndrome. However, hs-cTnT was significantly correlated with age (P<0.01), blood concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (P<0.01), reactive oxygen metabolites (markers of oxidative stress, P<0.001), and the cardio–ankle vascular index (marker of arterial function, P<0.01). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that these factors were independent variables for hs-cTnT as a subordinate factor. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that in vivo oxidative stress and abnormality of arterial function are closely associated with an increase in hs-cTnT concentrations in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients.

Hitsumoto, Takashi; Shirai, Kohji

2015-01-01

32

Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight) were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01). The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health. PMID:24336061

Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

2013-01-01

33

Transcription Interference and ORF Nature Strongly Affect Promoter Strength in a Reconstituted Metabolic Pathway  

PubMed Central

Fine tuning of individual enzyme expression level is necessary to alleviate metabolic imbalances in synthetic heterologous pathways. A known approach consists of choosing a suitable combination of promoters, based on their characterized strengths in model conditions. We questioned whether each step of a multiple-gene synthetic pathway could be independently tunable at the transcription level. Three open reading frames, coding for enzymes involved in a synthetic pathway, were combinatorially associated to different promoters on an episomal plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We quantified the mRNA levels of the three genes in each strain of our generated combinatorial metabolic library. Our results evidenced that the ORF nature, position, and orientation induce strong discrepancies between the previously reported promoters’ strengths and the observed ones. We conclude that, in the context of metabolic reconstruction, the strength of usual promoters can be dramatically affected by many factors. Among them, transcriptional interference and ORF nature seem to be predominant. PMID:25767795

Carquet, Marie; Pompon, Denis; Truan, Gilles

2015-01-01

34

Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through an elevated polyamine turnover. Dietary lysine was held at a constant concentration, just below the requirement. All other amino acids were balanced and equal in the diets. Arginine supplementation increased protein and fat accretion, without affecting the hepatosomatic or visceralsomatic indices. Dietary arginine correlated with putrescine in the liver (R 0·78, P= 0·01) and with ornithine in the muscle, liver and plasma (P= 0·0002, 0·003 and 0·0002, respectively). The mRNA of ornithine decarboxylase, the enzyme producing putrescine, was up-regulated in the white adipose tissue of fish fed the high-arginine inclusion compared with those fed the low-arginine diet. Concomitantly, spermidine/spermine-(N1)-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine turnover that consumes acetyl-CoA, showed an increased activity in the liver of fish fed the arginine-supplemented diets. In addition, lower acetyl-CoA concentrations were observed in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet, while ATP, which is used in the process of synthesising spermidine and spermine, did not show a similar trend. Gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for ?-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was up-regulated in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet. Taken together, the data support that increased dietary arginine activates polyamine turnover and ?-oxidation in the liver of juvenile Atlantic salmon and may act to improve the metabolic status of the fish. PMID:23656796

Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rønnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

2013-12-14

35

How does emotional content affect lexical processing?  

PubMed

Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience. PMID:24215294

Vinson, David; Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

2014-01-01

36

Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and\\/or enstatite is

H. Wayne Nesbitt; O. P. Bricker

1978-01-01

37

Processing parameters affecting sorghum noodle qualities  

E-print Network

Processing variables of 100% sorghum noodles were investigated to determine effects on noodle quality. A dough was created by microwave heating a flour with 1 % salt (1 00 g): water (90 ml) mixture to 950C with a microwave. The dough was put through...

Kunetz, Christine Frances

1997-01-01

38

Sound Affects the Speed of Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the effects of a task-irrelevant sound on visual processing. Participants were presented with revolving clocks at or around central fixation and reported the hand position of a target clock at the time an exogenous cue (1 clock turning red) or an endogenous cue (a line pointing toward 1 of the clocks) was presented. A…

Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

2011-01-01

39

Elaboration Likelihood and the Counseling Process: The Role of Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of affect in counseling has been examined from several orientations. The depth of processing model views the efficiency of information processing as a function of the extent to which the information is processed. The notion of cognitive processing capacity states that processing information at deeper levels engages more of one's limited…

Stoltenberg, Cal D.; And Others

40

Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Co-Metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated solvent wastes (e.g., trichloroethene or TCE) often occur as diffuse subsurface plumes in complex geological environments where coupled processes must be understood in order to implement remediation strategies. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) warrants study as a remediation technology because it minimizes worker and environment exposure to the wastes and because it costs less than other technologies. However, to be accepted MNA requires different ?lines of evidence? indicating that the wastes are effectively destroyed. We are studying the coupled biogeochemical processes that dictate the rate of TCE co-metabolism first in the medial zone (TCE concentration: 1,000 to 20,000 ?g/L) of a plume at the Idaho National Laboratory?s Test Area North (TAN) site and then at Paducah or the Savannah River Site. We will use flow-through in situ reactors (FTISR) to investigate the rate of methanotrophic co-metabolism of TCE and the coupling of the responsible biological processes with the dissolved methane flux and groundwater flow velocity. TCE co-metabolic rates at TAN are being assessed and interpreted in the context of enzyme activity, gene expression, and cellular inactivation related to intermediates of TCE co-metabolism. By determining the rate of TCE co-metabolism at different groundwater flow velocities, we will derive key modeling parameters for the computational simulations that describe the attenuation, and thereby refine such models while assessing the contribution of microbial co-metabolism relative to other natural attenuation processes. This research will strengthen our ability to forecast the viability of MNA at DOE and other sites contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Rick Colwell; Corey Radtke; Mark Delwiche; Deborah Newby; Lynn Petzke; Mark Conrad; Eoin Brodie; Hope Lee; Bob Starr; Dana Dettmers; Ron Crawford; Andrzej Paszczynski; Nick Bernardini; Ravi Paidisetti; Tonia Green

2006-06-01

41

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in

Renee Dufault; Roseanne Schnoll; Walter J Lukiw; Blaise LeBlanc; Charles Cornett; Lyn Patrick; David Wallinga; Steven G Gilbert; Raquel Crider

2009-01-01

42

C282Y-HFE Gene Variant Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Human Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Although disruptions in the maintenance of iron and cholesterol metabolism have been implicated in several cancers, the association between variants in the HFE gene that is associated with cellular iron uptake and cholesterol metabolism has not been studied. The C282Y-HFE variant is a risk factor for different cancers, is known to affect sphingolipid metabolism, and to result in increased cellular iron uptake. The effect of this variant on cholesterol metabolism and its possible relevance to cancer phenotype was investigated using wild type (WT) and C282Y-HFE transfected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of C282Y-HFE in SH-SY5Y cells resulted in a significant increase in total cholesterol as well as increased transcription of a number of genes involved in its metabolism compared to cells expressing WT-HFE. The marked increase in expression of NPC1L1 relative to that of most other genes, was accompanied by a significant increase in expression of NPC1, a protein that functions in cholesterol uptake by cells. Because inhibitors of cholesterol metabolism have been proposed to be beneficial for treating certain cancers, their effect on the viability of C282Y-HFE neuroblastoma cells was ascertained. C282Y-HFE cells were significantly more sensitive than WT-HFE cells to U18666A, an inhibitor of desmosterol ?24-reductase the enzyme catalyzing the last step in cholesterol biosynthesis. This was not seen for simvastatin, ezetimibe, or a sphingosine kinase inhibitor. These studies indicate that cancers presenting in carriers of the C282Y-HFE allele might be responsive to treatment designed to selectively reduce cholesterol content in their tumor cells. PMID:24533143

Ali-Rahmani, Fatima; Huang, Michael A.; Schengrund, C.-L.; Connor, James R.; Lee, Sang Y.

2014-01-01

43

Perinatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Affects Glucose Metabolism in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally present in the environment and are widely distributed in human populations and wildlife. The chemicals are ubiquitous in human body fluids and have a long serum elimination half-life. The notorious member of PFAAs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is prioritized as a global concerning chemical at the Stockholm Convention in 2009, due to its harmful effects in mammals and aquatic organisms. PFOS is known to affect lipid metabolism in adults and was found to be able to cross human placenta. However the effects of in utero exposure to the susceptibility of metabolic disorders in offspring have not yet been elucidated. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were fed with 0, 0.3 or 3 mg PFOS/kg body weight/day in corn oil by oral gavage daily throughout gestational and lactation periods. We investigated the immediate effects of perinatal exposure to PFOS on glucose metabolism in both maternal and offspring after weaning (PND 21). To determine if the perinatal exposure predisposes the risk for metabolic disorder to the offspring, weaned animals without further PFOS exposure, were fed with either standard or high-fat diet until PND 63. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured while HOMA-IR index and glucose AUCs were reported. Our data illustrated the first time the effects of the environmental equivalent dose of PFOS exposure on the disturbance of glucose metabolism in F1 pups and F1 adults at PND 21 and 63, respectively. Although the biological effects of PFOS on the elevated levels of fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were observed in both pups and adults of F1, the phenotypes of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were only evident in the F1 adults. The effects were exacerbated under HFD, highlighting the synergistic action at postnatal growth on the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:24498028

Wan, Hin T.; Zhao, Yin G.; Leung, Pik Y.; Wong, Chris K. C.

2014-01-01

44

Crossmodal Interactions during Affective Picture Processing  

PubMed Central

"Natural" crossmodal correspondences, such as the spontaneous tendency to associate high pitches with high spatial locations, are often hypothesized to occur preattentively and independently of task instructions (top-down attention). Here, we investigate bottom-up attentional engagement by using emotional scenes that are known to naturally and reflexively engage attentional resources. We presented emotional (pleasant and unpleasant) or neutral pictures either below or above a fixation cross, while participants were required to discriminate between a high or a low pitch tone (experiment 1). Results showed that despite a robust crossmodal attentional capture of task-irrelevant emotional pictures, the general advantage in classifying the tones for congruent over incongruent visual-auditory stimuli was similar for emotional and neutral pictures. On the other hand, when picture position was task-relevant (experiment 2), task-irrelevant tones did not interact with pictures with regard to their combination of pitch and visual vertical spatial position, but instead they were effective in minimizing the interference effect of emotional picture processing on the ongoing task. These results provide constraints on our current understanding of natural crossmodal correspondences. PMID:24587078

Ferrari, Vera; Mastria, Serena; Bruno, Nicola

2014-01-01

45

Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

2011-02-01

46

Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

1998-12-31

47

Uncinate Process Length in Birds Scales with Resting Metabolic Rate  

PubMed Central

A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum. Uncinate process length (UPL) is important for determining the mechanical advantage for these respiratory movements. Here we report on the relationship between UPL, body size, metabolic demand and locomotor specialisation in birds. UPL was found to scale isometrically with body mass. Process length is greatest in specialist diving birds, shortest in walking birds and intermediate length in all others relative to body size. Examination of the interaction between the length of the UP and metabolic demand indicated that, relative to body size, species with high metabolic rates have corresponding elongated UP. We propose that elongated UP confer an advantage on the supply of oxygen, perhaps by improving the mechanical advantage and reducing the energetic cost of movements of the ribs and sternum. PMID:19479074

Tickle, Peter; Nudds, Robert; Codd, Jonathan

2009-01-01

48

Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

2014-01-01

49

Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Co-Metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated solvent wastes (e.g., trichloroethene or TCE) often occur as diffuse subsurface plumes in complex geological environments where coupled processes must be understood in order to implement remediation strategies. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) warrants study as a remediation technology because it minimizes worker and environment exposure to the wastes and because it costs less than other technologies. However, to be accepted MNA requires 'lines of evidence' indicating that the wastes are effectively destroyed. Our research will study the coupled biogeochemical processes that dictate the rate of TCE co-metabolism in contaminated aquifers first at the Idaho National Laboratory and then at Paducah or the Savannah River Site, where natural attenuation of TCE is occurring. We will use flow-through in situ reactors to investigate the rate of methanotrophic co-metabolism of TCE and the coupling of the responsible biological processes with the dissolved methane flux and groundwater flow velocity. We will use new approaches (e.g., stable isotope probing, enzyme activity probes, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, proteomics) to assay the TCE co-metabolic rates, and interpret these rates in the context of enzyme activity, gene expression, and cellular inactivation related to intermediates of TCE co-metabolism. By determining the rate of TCE co-metabolism at different methane concentrations and groundwater flow velocities, we will derive key modeling parameters for the computational simulations that describe the attenuation, and thereby refine such models while assessing the contribution of microbial relative to other natural attenuation processes. This research will strengthen our ability to forecast the viability of MNA at DOE and other sites that are contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Colwell, Frederick; Radtke, Corey; Newby, Deborah; Delwiche, Mark; Crawf, Ronald L.; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Strap, Janice; Conrad, Mark; Brodic, Eoin; Starr, Robert; Lee, Hope

2006-04-05

50

Food chain transport of nanoparticles affects behaviour and fat metabolism in fish.  

PubMed

Nano-sized (10(-9)-10(-7) m) particles offer many technical and biomedical advances over the bulk material. The use of nanoparticles in cosmetics, detergents, food and other commercial products is rapidly increasing despite little knowledge of their effect on organism metabolism. We show here that commercially manufactured polystyrene nanoparticles, transported through an aquatic food chain from algae, through zooplankton to fish, affect lipid metabolism and behaviour of the top consumer. At least three independent metabolic parameters differed between control and test fish: the weight loss, the triglycerides?cholesterol ratio in blood serum, and the distribution of cholesterol between muscle and liver. Moreover, we demonstrate that nanoparticles bind to apolipoprotein A-I in fish serum in-vitro, thereby restraining them from properly utilising their fat reserves if absorbed through ingestion. In addition to the metabolic effects, we show that consumption of nanoparticle-containing zooplankton affects the feeding behaviour of the fish. The time it took the fish to consume 95% of the food presented to them was more than doubled for nanoparticle-exposed compared to control fish. Since many nano-sized products will, through the sewage system, end up in freshwater and marine habitats, our study provides a potential bioassay for testing new nano-sized material before manufacturing. In conclusion, our study shows that from knowledge of the molecular composition of the protein corona around nanoparticles it is possible to make a testable molecular hypothesis and bioassay of the potential biological risks of a defined nanoparticle at the organism and ecosystem level. PMID:22384193

Cedervall, Tommy; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Lard, Mercy; Frohm, Birgitta; Linse, Sara

2012-01-01

51

Regulatory mutations affecting sulfur metabolism induce environmental stress response in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Mutations in the cysB, sconB and sconC genes affect sulfur metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans in different ways. The cysB mutation blocks synthesis of cysteine by the main pathway and leads to a shortage of this amino acid. The sconB and sconC mutations affect subunits of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, which inactivates the MetR transcription factor in the presence of an excess of cysteine. In effect, both cysB and scon mutations lead to permanent derepression of MetR-dependent genes. We compared transcriptomes of these three mutants with that of a wild type strain finding altered expression of a few hundred genes belonging to various functional categories. Besides those involved in sulfur metabolism, many up-regulated genes are related to stress responses including heat shock and osmotic stress. However, only the scon strains are more resistant to exogenous stress agents than the wild type strain while cysB is more sensitive. The two-component signal transduction system is a functional category, which is most enriched among genes up-regulated in the cysB, sconB and sconC mutants. A large group of up-regulated genes are involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, including genes coding for enzymes of trehalose and glycerol synthesis. The altered expression of these genes is accompanied by changes in sugar and polyol accumulation in conidia of the mutants. Genes encoding enzymes of the glyoxylate bypass and the GABA shunt are also up-regulated along with genes coding for enzymes of alcohol fermentation. Among the down-regulated genes the most numerous are those encoding membrane proteins and enzymes involved in secondary metabolism, including the penicillin biosynthesis cluster. PMID:24513272

Sie?ko, Marzena; Natorff, Renata; Skoneczny, Marek; Kruszewska, Joanna; Paszewski, Andrzej; Brzywczy, Jerzy

2014-04-01

52

Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-Franois DUMAS, Damien ROUSSEL, Gilles SIMARD, Olivier DOUAY, Franoise  

E-print Network

1 Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-François DUMAS, Damien metabolism, liver mitochondria were isolated from ad libitum and food restricted rats. Mitochondrial enzyme, in food restricted rats, liver mitochondria displayed diminished state 3 (-30%), state 4-oligomycin (-26

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Select nutrients, progesterone, and interferon tau affect conceptus metabolism and development  

PubMed Central

Interferon tau (IFNT), a novel multifunctional type I interferon secreted by trophectoderm, is the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants that also has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory bioactivities. IFNT, with progesterone, affects availability of the metabolic substrate in the uterine lumen by inducing expression of genes for transport of select nutrients into the uterine lumen that activate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling responsible for proliferation, migration, and protein synthesis by conceptus trophectoderm. As an immunomodulatory protein, IFNT induces an anti-inflammatory state affecting metabolic events that decrease adiposity and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 activity, while increasing insulin sensitivity, nitric oxide production by endothelial cells, and brown adipose tissue in rats. This short review focuses on effects of IFNT and progesterone affecting transport of select nutrients into the uterine lumen to stimulate mTOR cell signaling required for conceptus development, as well as effects of IFNT on the immune system and adiposity in rats with respect to its potential therapeutic value in reducing obesity. PMID:23050969

Bazer, Fuller W; Kim, Jingyoung; Song, Gwonhwa; Ka, Hakhyun; Tekwe, Carmen D; Wu, Guoyao

2012-01-01

54

Evidence for efficacy of drugs affecting bone metabolism in preventing hip fracture.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of taking drugs affecting bone metabolism on the risk of hip fracture in women aged over 50 years. DESIGN--Retrospective, population based, case-control study by questionnaire. SETTING--14 centres in six countries in southern Europe. SUBJECTS--2086 women with hip fracture and 3532 control women matched for age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of drugs affecting bone metabolism taken and length taken for. RESULTS--Women taking drugs affecting bone metabolism had a significantly decreased risk of hip fracture. After adjustment for differences in other risk factors, the relative risk of hip fractures was 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.85) in women taking oestrogens, 0.75 (0.60 to 0.94) in those taking calcium, and 0.69 (0.51 to 0.92) in those taking calcitonin. The fall in risk was not significant for anabolic steroids (0.6 (0.29 to 1.22)). Neither vitamin D nor fluorides were associated with a significant decrease in the risk of hip fracture. The effect on hip fracture risk increased significantly with increasing duration of exposure (risk ratio 0.8 (0.61 to 1.05) for less than median exposure v 0.66 (0.5 to 0.88) for greater than median exposure). Drugs were equally effective in older and younger women, with the exception of oestrogen. CONCLUSIONS--Oestrogen, calcium, and calcitonins significantly decrease the risk of hip fracture. Short term intervention late in the natural course of osteoporosis may have significant effects on the incidence of hip fracture. PMID:1463947

Kanis, J. A.; Johnell, O.; Gullberg, B.; Allander, E.; Dil?en, G.; Gennari, C.; Lopes Vaz, A. A.; Lyritis, G. P.; Mazzuoli, G.; Miravet, L.

1992-01-01

55

[The mineral dietary composition affects glucose metabolism and modulates insulin effect in intact rats].  

PubMed

The experiments on intact rats showed that an excess sodium chloride consumption and the use of giposol (NaCl substitute) produce a hypoglycemic effect. Giposol increases, whereas NaCl decreases, the glucose tolerance. Giposol activates hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (the key enzymes of the glucose metabolism in tissues) and reduces the effect of insulin. Both giposol and NaCl increase the level of glucose absorption in small intestine. The gastric motility is activated by NaCl and not affected by giposol. PMID:11022306

Ratyni, O A; Shtrygol', S Iu; Slobodin, V B; Sadin, A V; Nazarenko, M E

2000-01-01

56

Metabolic approaches for the optimisation of recombinant fermentation processes.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was the establishment of a novel method to determine the metabolic load on host-cell metabolism resulting from recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. This tool can be used to develop strategies to optimise recombinant fermentation processes through adjustment of recombinant-protein expression to the biosynthetic capacity of the host-cell. The signal molecule of the stringent-response network, guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), and its precursor nucleotides were selected for the estimation of the metabolic load relating to recombinant-protein production. An improved analytical method for the quantification of nucleotides by ion-pair, high-performance liquid chromatography was established. The host-cell response upon overexpression of recombinant protein in fed-batch fermentations was investigated using the production of human superoxide dismutase (rhSOD) as a model system. E. coli strains with different recombinant systems (the T7 and pKK promoter system) exerting different loads on host-cell metabolism were analysed with regard to intracellular nucleotide concentration, rate of product formation and plasmid copy number. PMID:10645624

Cserjan-Puschmann, M; Kramer, W; Duerrschmid, E; Striedner, G; Bayer, K

1999-12-01

57

L-Carnosine Affects the Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Metabolism-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

The dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10–30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types. PMID:22984600

Cartwright, Stephanie P.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Hipkiss, Alan R.

2012-01-01

58

Do the noncaffeine ingredients of energy drinks affect metabolic responses to heavy exercise?  

PubMed

Energy drinks (EDs) such as Red Bull (RB) are marketed to enhance metabolism. Secondary ingredients of EDs (e.g., taurine) have been purported to improve time trial performance; however, little research exists on how such secondary ingredients affect aerobic metabolism during heavy exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the secondary ingredients of RB on aerobic metabolism during and subsequent to heavy exercise. In double-blind, counterbalanced, and crossover fashion, 8 recreationally trained individuals completed a graded exercise test to determine the gas exchange threshold (GET). Subjects returned on 2 separate occasions and ingested either a 245 ml serving of RB or a control (CTRL) drink with the equivalent caffeine before engaging in two 10-minute constant-load cycling bouts, at an intensity equivalent to GET, with 3 minutes of rest between bouts. Accumulated liters of O2 (10 minutes) were higher for the first bout (17.1 ± 3.5 L) vs. the second bout (16.7 ± 3.5 L) but did not differ between drinks. Similarly, excess postexercise oxygen consumption was higher after the initial bout (RB mean, 2.6 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 2.9 ± 0.90 L) vs. the second bout (RB mean, 1.5 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 1.9 ± 0.87 L) but did not differ between drinks. No differences occurred between drinks for measures of heart rate or rating of perceived exertion. These results indicate that the secondary ingredients contained in a single serving of RB do not augment aerobic metabolism during or subsequent to heavy exercise. PMID:23037611

Pettitt, Robert W; Niemeyer, JoLynne D; Sexton, Patrick J; Lipetzky, Amanda; Murray, Steven R

2013-07-01

59

Plant maturity and nitrogen fertilization affected fructan metabolism in harvestable tissues of timothy (Phleum pratense L.).  

PubMed

Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) is an important grass forage used for pasture, hay, and silage in regions with cool and humid growth seasons. One of the factors affecting the nutritive value of this grass is the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), mainly represented by fructans. NSC concentration depends on multiple factors, making it hardly predictable. To provide a better understanding of NSC metabolism in timothy, the effects of maturity stage and nitrogen (N) fertilization level on biomass, NSC and N-compound concentrations were investigated in the tissues used for forage (leaf blades and stems surrounded by leaf sheaths) of hydroponically grown plants. Moreover, activities and relative expression level of enzymes involved in fructan metabolism were measured in the same tissues. Forage biomass was not altered by the fertilization level but was strongly modified by the stage of development. It increased from vegetative to heading stages while leaf-to-stem biomass ratio decreased. Total NSC concentration, which was not altered by N fertilization level, increased between heading and anthesis due to an accumulation of fructans in leaf blades. Fructan metabolizing enzyme activities (fructosyltransferase-FT and fructan exohydrolase-FEH) were not or only slightly altered by both maturity stage and N fertilization level. Conversely, the relative transcript levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in fructan metabolism were modified by N supply (PpFT1 and Pp6-FEH1) or maturity stage (PpFT2). The relative transcript level of PpFT1 was the highest in low N plants while that of Pp6-FEH1 was the highest in high N plants. Morevoer, transcript level of PpFT1 was negatively correlated with nitrate concentration while that of PpFT2 was positively correlated with sucrose concentration. This distinct regulation of the two genes coding for 6-sucrose:fructan fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) may allow a fine adequation of C allocation towards fructan synthesis in response to carbon and N availability. Contrary to fructans, starch content increased in low N plants, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms and/or sensitivity of starch and fructan metabolism in relation to the N status. PMID:25105233

Ould-Ahmed, Marouf; Decau, Marie-Laure; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Lafrenière, Carole; Drouin, Pascal

2014-10-15

60

Relationship between auditory processing and affective prosody in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Patients with schizophrenia have well-established deficits in their ability to identify emotion from facial expression and tone of voice. In the visual modality, there is strong evidence that basic processing deficits contribute to impaired facial affect recognition in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined the auditory modality for mechanisms underlying affective prosody identification. In this study, we explored links between different stages of auditory processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs), and affective prosody detection in schizophrenia. Thirty-six schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy control subjects received tasks of affective prosody, facial emotion identification, and tone matching, as well as two auditory oddball paradigms, one passive for mismatch negativity (MMN) and one active for P300. Patients had significantly reduced MMN and P300 amplitudes, impaired auditory and visual emotion recognition, and poorer tone matching performance, relative to healthy controls. Correlations between ERP and behavioral measures within the patient group revealed significant associations between affective prosody recognition and both MMN and P300 amplitudes. These relationships were modality specific, as MMN and P300 did not correlate with facial emotion recognition. The two ERP waves accounted for 49% of the variance in affective prosody in a regression analysis. Our results support previous suggestions of a relationship between basic auditory processing abnormalities and affective prosody dysfunction in schizophrenia, and indicate that both relatively automatic pre-attentive processes (MMN) and later attention-dependent processes (P300) are involved with accurate auditory emotion identification. These findings provide support for bottom-up (e.g., perceptually based) cognitive remediation approaches. PMID:23276478

Jahshan, Carol; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

2013-02-01

61

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children  

PubMed Central

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body. PMID:19860886

Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; LeBlanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

2009-01-01

62

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children.  

PubMed

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body. PMID:19860886

Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; Leblanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

2009-01-01

63

Maternal Obesity Affects Fetal Neurodevelopmental and Metabolic Gene Expression: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective One in three pregnant women in the United States is obese. Their offspring are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental and metabolic morbidity. Underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a global gene expression analysis of mid-trimester amniotic fluid cell-free fetal RNA in obese versus lean pregnant women. Methods This prospective pilot study included eight obese (BMI?30) and eight lean (BMI<25) women undergoing clinically indicated mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis. Subjects were matched for gestational age and fetal sex. Fetuses with abnormal karyotype or structural anomalies were excluded. Cell-free fetal RNA was extracted from amniotic fluid and hybridized to whole genome expression arrays. Genes significantly differentially regulated in 8/8 obese-lean pairs were identified using paired t-tests with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate of <0.05). Biological interpretation was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the BioGPS gene expression atlas. Results In fetuses of obese pregnant women, 205 genes were significantly differentially regulated. Apolipoprotein D, a gene highly expressed in the central nervous system and integral to lipid regulation, was the most up-regulated gene (9-fold). Apoptotic cell death was significantly down-regulated, particularly within nervous system pathways involving the cerebral cortex. Activation of the transcriptional regulators estrogen receptor, FOS, and STAT3 was predicted in fetuses of obese women, suggesting a pro-estrogenic, pro-inflammatory milieu. Conclusion Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression as early as the second trimester. These findings may have implications for postnatal neurodevelopmental and metabolic abnormalities described in the offspring of obese women. PMID:24558408

Edlow, Andrea G.; Vora, Neeta L.; Hui, Lisa; Wick, Heather C.; Cowan, Janet M.; Bianchi, Diana W.

2014-01-01

64

Staphylococcus aureus virulence and metabolism are dramatically affected by Lactococcus lactis in cheese matrix.  

PubMed

In complex environments such as cheeses, the lack of relevant information on the physiology and virulence expression of pathogenic bacteria and the impact of endogenous microbiota has hindered progress in risk assessment and control. Here, we investigated the behaviour of Staphylococcus aureus, a major foodborne pathogen, in a cheese matrix, either alone or in the presence of Lactococcus lactis, as a dominant species of cheese ecosystems. The dynamics of S. aureus was explored in situ by coupling a microbiological and, for the first time, a transcriptomic approach. Lactococcus lactis affected the carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolisms and the stress response of S. aureus by acidifying, proteolysing and decreasing the redox potential of the cheese matrix. Enterotoxin expression was positively or negatively modulated by both L. lactis and the cheese matrix itself, depending on the enterotoxin type. Among the main enterotoxins involved in staphylococcal food poisoning, sea expression was slightly favoured in the presence of L. lactis, whereas a strong repression of sec4 was observed in cheese matrix, even in the absence of L. lactis, and correlated with a reduced saeRS expression. Remarkably, the agr system was downregulated by the presence of L. lactis, in part because of the decrease in pH. This study highlights the intimate link between environment, metabolism and virulence, as illustrated by the influence of the cheese matrix context, including the presence of L. lactis, on two major virulence regulators, the agr system and saeRS. PMID:23761280

Cretenet, Marina; Nouaille, Sébastien; Thouin, Jennifer; Rault, Lucie; Stenz, Ludwig; François, Patrice; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Piot, Michel; Maillard, Marie Bernadette; Fauquant, Jacques; Loubière, Pascal; Loir, Yves Le; Even, Sergine

2011-06-01

65

Rice debranching enzyme isoamylase3 facilitates starch metabolism and affects plastid morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Debranching enzymes, which hydrolyze ?-1 and 6-glucosidic linkages in ?-polyglucans, play a dual role in the synthesis and degradation of starch in plants. A transposon-inserted rice mutant of isoamylase3 (isa3) contained an increased amount of starch in the leaf blade at the end of the night, indicating that ISA3 plays a role in the degradation of transitory starch during the night. An epitope-tagged ISA3 expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited hydrolytic activity on ?-limit dextrin and amylopectin. We investigated whether ISA3 plays a role in amyloplast development and starch metabolism in the developing endosperm. ISA3-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein expressed under the control of the rice ISA3 promoter was targeted to the amyloplast stroma in the endosperm. Overexpression of ISA3 in the sugary1 mutant, which is deficient in ISA1 activity, did not convert water-soluble phytoglycogen to starch granules, indicating that ISA1 and ISA3 are not functionally redundant. Both overexpression and loss of function of ISA3 in the endosperm generated pleomorphic amyloplasts and starch granules. Furthermore, chloroplasts in the leaf blade of isa3 seedlings were large and pleomorphic. These results suggest that ISA3 facilitates starch metabolism and affects morphological characteristics of plastids in rice. PMID:21551159

Yun, Min-Soo; Umemoto, Takayuki; Kawagoe, Yasushi

2011-06-01

66

How folate metabolism affects colorectal cancer development and treatment; a story of heterogeneity and pleiotropy.  

PubMed

Folate was identified as an essential micronutrient early in the twentieth century and anti-folate chemotherapy such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been central to the medical management of solid tumours including colorectal cancer for more than five decades. In the intervening years, evidence has been gathered which shows that folate deficiency leads to many human diseases throughout the life-course. However, we still do not know all of the mechanisms behind functional folate deficiency, or indeed its rescue through supplementation with natural and particularly synthetic folates. There is growing evidence that one adverse effect of folic acid fortification programmes is an increased risk of colorectal cancer within populations. The complexity of folate-dependent, one-carbon metabolism and the heterogeneity that exists between individuals with respect to the enzymes involved in the anabolic pathways, and the catabolism of 5-FU, are explored in this review. The enzyme products of some genes such as MTHFR exert multiple and perhaps unrelated effects on many phenotypes, including cancer development. We describe this pleiotropy and the common genetic variants that affect folate metabolism; and discuss some of the studies that have investigated their potential as predictive biomarkers. PMID:24614284

Jennings, Barbara Anne; Willis, Gavin

2015-01-28

67

Phosphate limited fed-batch processes: impact on carbon usage and energy metabolism in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Phosphate starvation is often applied as a tool to limit cell growth in microbial production processes without hampering carbon and/or nitrogen supply alternatively. This contribution focuses on the interplay of process induced phosphate starvation and microbial performance studying an l-tryptophan overproducing Escherichia coli strain as a model for highly ATP demanding processes in comparison with an E. coli wildtype strain. To enable a time-resolved analysis, constant phosphate feeding strategies were applied to elongate the transition from phosphate saturated to phosphate limited cell growth. With increasing phosphate limitation, a reduced cellular efficiency of ATP formation via respiratory chain activity and the ATP synthase complex was found for both strains. Process balancing, transcriptome analysis and flux balance analysis are pointing toward a multi-stage decoupling scenario, which in essence deteriorates the stoichiometric ratio of ATP formation to proton translocation, thereby affecting ATP availability from respiration and carbon usage. Starting off with a potential influence on ATP-synthase efficiency (stage 1), decoupling is further increased by modified respiratory activity (stage 2) and byproduct overflow (stage 3) finally resulting in a metabolic breakdown entering complete phosphate depletion (stage 4). The decoupling is initiated by phosphate limitation; further effects are mainly mediated on metabolic level through ATP availability and energy charge, additionally affected by ATP demanding product synthesis. PMID:24833421

Schuhmacher, Tom; Löffler, Michael; Hurler, Thilo; Takors, Ralf

2014-11-20

68

Investigating facial affect processing in psychosis: a study using the Comprehensive Affective Testing System.  

PubMed

Facial affect processing (FAP) deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have been widely reported; although effect sizes vary across studies, and there are limited direct comparisons of the two groups. Further, there is debate as to the influence of both psychotic and mood symptoms on FAP. This study aimed to address these limitations by recruiting groups of psychosis patients with either a diagnosis of SZ or BD and comparing them to healthy controls (HC) on a well validated battery of four FAP subtests: affect discrimination, name affect, select affect and match affect. Overall, both groups performed more poorly than controls in terms of accuracy. In SZ, this was largely driven by impairments on three of the four subtests. The BD patients showed impaired performance specifically on the match affect subtest, a task that had a high cognitive load. FAP performance in the psychosis patients was correlated with severity of positive symptoms and mania. This study confirmed that FAP deficits are a consistent finding in SZ that occur independent of task specific methodology; whilst FAP deficits in BD are more subtle. Further work in this group is needed to replicate these results. PMID:24924406

Rossell, Susan L; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Joshua, Nicole R; O'Regan, Alison; Gogos, Andrea

2014-08-01

69

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

70

Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. PMID:21889598

Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Micha? S; Jefimow, Ma?gorzata

2011-12-01

71

Sydnone SYD-1 affects the metabolic functions of isolated rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated that sydnone SYD-1 (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) impairs the mitochondrial functions linked to energy provision and suggested that this effect could be associated with its antitumor activity. Herein, we evaluated the effects of SYD-1 (25 and 50 ?M) on rat hepatocytes to determine its cytotoxicity on non-tumor cells. SYD-1 (25 and 50 ?M) did not affect the viability of hepatocytes in suspension after 1-40 min of incubation. However, the viability of the cultured hepatocytes was decreased by ?66% as a consequence of treatment with SYD-1 (50 ?M) for 18 h. Under the same conditions, SYD-1 promoted an increase in the release of LDH by ?19%. The morphological changes in the cultured cells treated with SYD-1 (50 ?M) were suggestive of cell distress, which was demonstrated by the presence of rounded hepatocytes, cell fragments and monolayer impairment. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopy showed an increase in the annexin label after treatment with SYD-1 (50 ?M), suggesting that apoptosis had been induced in these cells. SYD-1 did not affect the states of respiration in the suspended hepatocytes, but the pyruvate levels were decreased by ?36%, whereas the lactate levels were increased by ?22% (for the 50 ?M treatment). The basal and uncoupled states of respiration of the cultured hepatocytes were inhibited by ?79% and ?51%, respectively, by SYD-1 (50 ?M). In these cells, SYD-1 (50 ?M) increased the pyruvate and lactate levels by ?84% and ?16%, respectively. These results show that SYD-1 affects important metabolic functions related to energy provision in hepatocytes and that this effect was more pronounced on cells in culture than those in suspension. PMID:24836382

Brandt, Anna Paula; Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Acco, Alexandra; de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Echevarria, Aurea; Canuto, André Vinícius dos Santos; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

2014-07-25

72

Cyanobacteria gene and protein sequences in diurnal oscillation metabolic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daytime photosynthesis and nighttime nitrogen fixation metabolic processes have been reported in the bacterium, Cyanothece 51142. The organism's auto-fluorescence with 532 nm excitation would place cyanobacteria at the forefront in the remote sensing of microbial activity in astrobiology. The sensitivity of nitrogenase to oxygen was studied in terms of sequence nucleotide fluctuation. A nucleotide sequence fractal dimension can be calculated from a numerical series consisting of the atomic numbers of each nucleotide. The fractal dimension and Shannon entropy form a two-dimensional measure that is useful in assessing evolutionary pressures. The studied sequences include nitrogenase iron protein NifH, nitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein alpha chain NifD and beta chain NifK. The photosynthesis-lacking UCYN-A cyanobacterium as reported recently in the journal, Nature, was observed to have the lowest entropy with relatively high fractal dimension values in the studied NifH, NifD and NifH sequences. The fractal dimension of NifH sequences correlates with the NifD sequence values with an R-square of 0.91 (N = 8). The Shannon mononucleotide entropy of NifD sequences correlates with the NifK sequence values with an R-square value of 0.92 (N = 8). The observed strong correlation suggests the presence of gradual evolutionary pressure among the studied cyanobacteria, and throws light on the reported paradox in evolution for the case of UCYN-A. The results show that diurnal oscillation metabolic processes in cyanobacteria (including the photosynthesis-deficient case) are not associated with extraordinary evolutionary pressures and thus are processes consistent with putative astrobiological organisms.

Tremberger, George, Jr.; Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Dehipawala, S.; Gadura, N.; Golebiewska, U.; Valentin, K.; Smulczeski, M.; Satizabal, W.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

2010-09-01

73

Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardio-vascular health.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

2014-02-01

74

Acclimation temperature affects the metabolic response of amphibian skeletal muscle to insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frog skeletal muscle mainly utilizes the substrates glucose and lactate for energy metabolism. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of insulin on the uptake and metabolic fate of lactate and glucose at rest in skeletal muscle of the American bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeiana, under varying temperature regimens. We hypothesize that lactate and glucose metabolic pathways will respond

Ann M. Petersen; Todd T. Gleeson

2011-01-01

75

Does thermal history affect metabolic plasticity?: a study in three Phyllotis species along an altitudinal gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The aim of this study was to understand the effects of thermal history in metabolic features such as maximum (MMR) and basal (BMR) metabolic rates, as well as in metabolic plasticity, considered as the total variation of MMR and BMR during the acclimation period. (2) We studied three species of the genus Phyllotis, from different thermal environments, in an

Enrico L Rezende; Ibin Silva-Durán; F Fernando Novoa; Mario Rosenmann

2001-01-01

76

SOME MAGNESIUM STATUS INDICATORS AND OXIDATIVE METABOLISM RESPONSES TO LOW DIETARY MAGNESIUM ARE AFFECTED BY DIETARY COPPER IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In both animals and humans, deficiencies of both magnesium and copper result in undesirable changes in lipid and reactive oxygen metabolism that can adversely affect cardiovascular and bone health. Thus, a study with human volunteers was conducted with the objective of ascertaining whether a low in...

77

Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

78

Alkyl-methylimidazolium ionic liquids affect the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effect of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate [EMIM][DEP], and 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate [MMIM][DMP] on the growth and glucose fermentation of Clostridium sp. was investigated. Among the three ionic liquids tested, [MMIM][DMP] was found to be least toxic. Growth of Clostridium sp. was not inhibited up to 2.5, 4 and 4 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac], [EMIM][DEP] and [MMIM][DMP], respectively. [EMIM][Ac] at <2.5 g L{sup -1}, showed hormetic effect and stimulated the growth and fermentation by modulating medium pH. Total organic acid production increased in the presence of 2.5 and 2 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac] and [MMIM][DMP]. Ionic liquids had no significant influence on alcohol production at <2.5 g L{sup -1}. Total gas production was affected by ILs at {ge}2.5 g L{sup -1} and varied with type of methylimidazolium IL. Overall, the results show that the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. is not impacted by ILs at concentrations below 2.5 g L{sup -1}.

Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Francis, A.

2011-06-01

79

Zinc deficiency (ZD) without starvation affects thyroid hormone metabolism of rats  

SciTech Connect

Young rats fed diets severely deficient in Zn exhibit impaired growth and endocrine function. These hormone effects may be confounded by cyclical feeding and starvation. To examine the effects of zinc deficiency (ZD) with and without starvation, 40 male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semipurified diet containing all essential nutrients and 30 ppm Zn until they weighed 150 g, then were matched by weight into four groups and were fed one of the following diets for 28d: ad lib control Zn diet, marginal ZD diet, severe ZD diet, and C diet pair-fed (PF) in amounts consumed by matched ZD1 rat. Food intake was depressed in ZD1; body weights were reduced in ZD1 and PF. There was no difference in either food intake or weight gain between C and ZD6. ZD reduced liver and femur Zn concentrations. Plasma thyroxine (T{sub 4}) concentration was greater in ZD6 then ZD1 or PF, but less than C; triodothyronine concentration was less in PF than C, but similar to ZD1 and ZD6. Hepatic T{sub 4}-5{prime}-deiodinase activity was greater in ZD6 than ZD1 or PF, but less than C. These findings indicate that altered thyroid hormone metabolism of severe ZD is related to Zn intake and starvation, whereas ZD uncomplicated by starvation affects peripheral deiodination of T{sub 4}, and suggests altered rates of thyroid hormone synthesis or degradation.

Lukaski, H.C.; Smith, S.M.; Hall, C.B.; Bucher, D.R. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1991-03-15

80

Neural Correlates of Affect Processing and Aggression in Methamphetamine Dependence  

PubMed Central

Context Methamphetamine abuse is associated with high rates of aggression, but few studies have addressed the contributing neurobiological factors. Objective To quantify aggression, investigate function of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and assess relationships between brain function and behavior in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Design In a case-control study, aggression and brain activation were compared between methamphetamine-dependent and control participants. Setting Participants were recruited from the general community to an academic research center. Participants Thirty-nine methamphetamine-dependent volunteers (16 women) who were abstinent for 7 to 10 days and 37 drug-free control volunteers (18 women) participated in the study; subsets completed self-report and behavioral measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 25 methamphetamine-dependent and 23 control participants. Main outcome measures We measured self-reported and perpetrated aggression, and self-reported alexithymia. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI during visual processing of facial affect (affect matching), and symbolic processing (affect labeling), the latter representing an incidental form of emotion regulation. Results Methamphetamine-dependent participants self-reported more aggression and alexithymia than control participants and escalated perpetrated aggression more following provocation. Alexithymia scores correlated with measures of aggression. During affect matching, fMRI showed no differences between groups in amygdala activation, but found lower activation in methamphetamine-dependent than control participants in bilateral ventral inferior frontal gyrus. During affect labeling, participants recruited dorsal inferior frontal gyrus and exhibited decreased amygdala activity, consistent with successful emotion regulation; there was no group difference in this effect. The magnitude of decrease in amygdala activity during affect labeling correlated inversely with self-reported aggression in control participants, and perpetrated aggression in all participants. Ventral inferior frontal gyrus activation correlated inversely with alexithymia in control participants. Conclusions Contrary to the hypotheses, methamphetamine-dependent individuals may successfully regulate emotions through incidental means (affect labeling). Instead, low ventral inferior frontal gyrus activity may contribute to heightened aggression by limiting emotional insight. PMID:21041607

Payer, Doris E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; London, Edythe D.

2012-01-01

81

Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Perlut, N.G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Zalik, N.J.

2008-01-01

82

Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites.  

PubMed Central

The remediation of chromium-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the processes that control the migration and transformation of chromium. Advection, dispersion, and diffusion are physical processes affecting the rate at which contaminants can migrate in the subsurface. Heterogeneity is an important factor that affects the contribution of each of these mechanisms to the migration of chromium-laden waters. Redox reactions, chemical speciation, adsorption/desorption phenomena, and precipitation/dissolution reactions control the transformation and mobility of chromium. The reduction of CrVI to CrIII can occur in the presence of ferrous iron in solution or in mineral phases, reduced sulfur compounds, or soil organic matter. At neutral to alkaline pH, the CrIII precipitates as amorphous hydroxides or forms complexes with organic matter. CrIII is oxidized by manganese dioxide, a common mineral found in many soils. Solid-phase precipitates of hexavalent chromium such as barium chromate can serve either as sources or sinks for CrVI. Adsorption of CrVI in soils increases with decreasing chromium concentration, making it more difficult to remove the chromium as the concentration decreases during pump-and-treat remediation. Knowledge of these chemical and physical processes is important in developing and selecting effective, cost-efficient remediation designs for chromium-contaminated sites. PMID:1935849

Palmer, C D; Wittbrodt, P R

1991-01-01

83

Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird.  

PubMed

Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. PMID:18302687

Perlut, Noah G; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Strong, Allan M; Donovan, Therese M; Kilpatrick, C William; Zalik, Nathan J

2008-03-01

84

Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.  

PubMed

Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects? attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects? task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. PMID:24593900

Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

2014-04-01

85

Bole girdling affects metabolic properties and root, trunk and branch hydraulics of young ponderosa pine trees.  

PubMed

Effects of trunk girdling on seasonal patterns of xylem water status, water transport and woody tissue metabolic properties were investigated in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws.) trees. At the onset of summer, there was a sharp decrease in stomatal conductance (g(s)) in girdled trees followed by a full recovery after the first major rainfall in September. Eliminating the root as a carbohydrate sink by girdling induced a rapid reversible reduction in g(s). Respiratory potential (a laboratory measure of tissue-level respiration) increased above the girdle (branches and upper trunk) and decreased below the girdle (lower trunk and roots) relative to control trees during the growing season, but the effect was reversed after the first major rainfall. The increase in branch respiratory potential induced by girdling suggests that the decrease in g(s) was caused by the accumulation of carbohydrates above the girdle, which is consistent with an observed increase in leaf mass per area in the girdled trees. Trunk girdling did not affect native xylem embolism or xylem conductivity. Both treated and control trunks experienced loss of xylem conductivity ranging from 10% in spring to 30% in summer. Girdling reduced xylem growth and sapwood to leaf area ratio, which in turn reduced branch leaf specific conductivity (LSC). The girdling-induced reductions in g(s) and transpiration were associated with a decrease in leaf hydraulic conductance. Two years after girdling, when root-to-shoot phloem continuity had been restored, girdled trees had a reduced density of new wood, which increased xylem conductivity and whole-tree LSC, but also vulnerability to embolism. PMID:18708331

Domec, Jean-Christophe; Pruyn, Michele L

2008-10-01

86

Metabolic status and personality affect the prognosis of patients with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis  

PubMed Central

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is recognized as an effective and economical therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the drop-out and mortality rates of this treatment remain high. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of metabolic status and personality on the prognosis of ESRD patients receiving CAPD. A total of 835 patients (455 men and 380 women) were enrolled in the cross-sectional survey. Analysis of variance and Spearman correlations were used to analyze variables in two groups of ESRD patients: group L (dialysis duration < 3 years) and group H (dialysis duration ? 3 years). The variables included gender, age, duration of dialysis, primary diseases, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin (Hb), serum albumin, Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, renal function, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), serum phosphorus and calcium, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Kt/V, and Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) scores. Levels of DBP, BUN, glucose, CRP, SBP, SGA, TG, LDL, creatinine, iPTH, ESR, and LOT-R scores were significantly higher in group H than in Group L, whereas Hb and Kt/V were significantly lower in group H. The dialysis duration was positively correlated with the blood pressure, SGA scores, TG, LDL, PTH, CRP, and LOT-R scores, but negatively correlated with Kt/V. Our results suggest that hypertension, anemia, hypoproteinemia, SGA, TG, LDL, iPTH, CRP, Kt/V, and personalities are potentially important factors affecting the prognosis of ERSD patients with CAPD. PMID:25785015

Liu, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ke; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Liuchan; Liao, Xiangping; Cheng, Jianzhao; Deng, Xiaohua; Xia, Zhiming

2015-01-01

87

Carbon Availability Affects Diurnally Controlled Processes and Cell Morphology of Cyanothece 51142  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142. PMID:23457634

Stöckel, Jana; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2013-01-01

88

Major hydrogeochemical processes in an Acid Mine Drainage affected estuary.  

PubMed

This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion-ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH)3); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn). PMID:25530015

Asta, Maria P; Calleja, Maria Ll; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F

2015-02-15

89

Individual differences in video game experience: Cognitive control, affective processing, and visuospatial processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent groups of researchers have investigated video game effects on cognitive control (Mathews et al., 2005), affective processing (Kirsh & Mounts, 2007), and visuospatial processing (Green & Bavelier, 2003). However, no published research has studied all three domains in the same sample of gamers and non-gamers. In the current study nonviolent and violent gamers, and non-gamers performed two tasks tapping

Kira Bailey

2009-01-01

90

Assessment of Chitosan-Affected Metabolic Response by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Bioluminescent Imaging-Guided Transcriptomic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes

Chia-Hung Kao; Chien-Yun Hsiang; Tin-Yun Ho

2012-01-01

91

Green tea minimally affects biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveGreen tea (Camellia sinensis) has shown to exert cardioprotective benefits in observational studies. The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of green tea on features of metabolic syndrome and inflammation in obese subjects.

Arpita Basu; Mei Du; Karah Sanchez; Misti J. Leyva; Nancy M. Betts; Steve Blevins; Mingyuan Wu; Christopher E. Aston; Timothy J. Lyons

2011-01-01

92

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

... Some metabolic diseases and conditions include: Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism is caused ... or through surgery or radiation treatments. Hypothyroidism (pronounced: hi-po-THIGH-roy-dih-zum) . Hypothyroidism is caused ...

93

Isolation and characterization of Streptomyces griseolus deletion mutants affected in cytochrome P-450-mediated herbicide metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolism of sulfonylurea herbicides by Streptomyces griseolus ATCC 11796 is carried out via two cytochromes P-450, P-450SU1 and P-450SU2. Mutants of S. griseolus, selected by their reduced ability to metabolize a fluorescent sulfonylurea, do not synthesize cytochrome P-450SU1 when grown in the presence of sulfonylureas. Genetic evidence indicated that this phenotype was the result of a deletion of > 15

Patricia A. Harder; Daniel P. O'Keefe; James A. Romesser; Kenneth J. Leto; Charles A. Omer

1991-01-01

94

Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3\\/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature\\u000a data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show

Douglas Stewart Glazier

2009-01-01

95

The effects of perhexiline maleate on low density lipoprotein processing and cholesterol metabolism in cultured human fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The effects of perhexiline maleate (PM, Pexid) on low density lipoprotein (LDL) processing and cholesterol metabolism were investigated after a 24 h pretreatment with the drug. Perhexiline maleate increased LDL uptake in the range 10(-6) to 10(-5) M (180% of control for 10(-5) M), whereas LDL binding and degradation were not affected. Sterol synthesis from sodium acetate was enhanced by perhexiline maleate (X 2.2 for 10(-5) M), while cholesterol esterification with oleic acid was decreased (40% of control for 10(-5) M). These effects of perhexiline on cholesterol metabolism are specific, since the synthesis of triacylglycerols from sodium acetate is not affected and since the incorporation of oleic acid into triacylglycerols is much less impaired. The decreased cholesterol esterification is accompanied by a reduction of acylcoenzyme A-cholesterol-O-acyltransferase (ACAT) activity measured in vitro on cell extracts. PMID:3383991

Candide, C; Mazière, J C; Mazière, C; Lageron, A; Polonovski, J

1988-01-01

96

Assessment of metabolic flux distribution in the thermophilic hydrogen producer Caloramator celer as affected by external pH and hydrogen partial pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Caloramator celer is a strict anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium capable of converting glucose to hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide, acetate, ethanol and formate by a mixed acid fermentation. Depending on the growth conditions C. celer can produce H2 at high yields. For a biotechnological exploitation of this bacterium for H2 production it is crucial to understand the factors that regulate carbon and electron fluxes and therefore the final distribution of metabolites to channel the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Results Combining experimental results from batch fermentations with genome analysis, reconstruction of central carbon metabolism and metabolic flux analysis (MFA), this study shed light on glucose catabolism of the thermophilic alkalitolerant bacterium C. celer. Two innate factors pertaining to culture conditions have been identified to significantly affect the metabolic flux distribution: culture pH and partial pressures of H2 (PH2). Overall, at alkaline to neutral pH the rate of biomass synthesis was maximized, whereas at acidic pH the lower growth rate and the less efficient biomass formation are accompanied with more efficient energy recovery from the substrate indicating high cell maintenance possibly to sustain intracellular pH homeostasis. Higher H2 yields were associated with fermentation at acidic pH as a consequence of the lower synthesis of other reduced by-products such as formate and ethanol. In contrast, PH2 did not affect the growth of C. celer on glucose. At high PH2 the cellular redox state was balanced by rerouting the flow of carbon and electrons to ethanol and formate production allowing unaltered glycolytic flux and growth rate, but resulting in a decreased H2 synthesis. Conclusion C. celer possesses a flexible fermentative metabolism that allows redistribution of fluxes at key metabolic nodes to simultaneously control redox state and efficiently harvest energy from substrate even under unfavorable conditions (i.e. low pH and high PH2). With the H2 production in mind, acidic pH and low PH2 should be preferred for a high yield-oriented process, while a high productivity-oriented process can be achieved at alkaline pH and high PH2. PMID:24678972

2014-01-01

97

Embryonic temperature affects metabolic compensation and thyroid hormones in hatchling snapping turtles.  

PubMed

Temperature acclimation of adult vertebrates typically induces changes in metabolic physiology. During early development, such metabolic compensation might have profound consequences, yet acclimation of metabolism is little studied in early life stages. We measured the effect of egg incubation temperature on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood thyroid hormone levels of hatchling snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Like many reptiles, snapping turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), in which embryonic temperature determines sex. Therefore, we designed the experiments to separately measure effects of temperature and of sex on the response variables. We incubated eggs in the laboratory at 21. 5 degrees, 24.5 degrees, 27.5 degrees, and 30.5 degrees C, producing both sexes, all males, both sexes, and all females, respectively. Hatchling RMR, when measured at a common temperature (either 25 degrees or 31 degrees C), was negatively correlated with egg temperature in both males and females, such that RMR of turtles from 21.5 degrees C-incubated eggs averaged 160% that of turtles from 30.5 degrees C-incubated eggs. These results indicate that egg temperatures induced positive metabolic compensation in both sexes. Thyroid hormone levels of hatchlings showed similar correlations with egg temperature; thyroxine level of turtles from 21.5 degrees C-incubated eggs averaged 220% that of turtles from 30.5 degrees C-incubated eggs. To examine the possibility that thyroid hormones contribute to positive metabolic compensation, we added triiodothyronine to eggs during mid-incubation. RMR of hatchlings from these treated eggs averaged 131% that of controls, consistent with the previous possibility. Moreover, the effects of embryonic temperature on metabolic physiology, in combination with effects on sex, can result in differences in RMR and thyroid hormone levels between male and female hatchling turtles. Such differences may be important to the ecology and evolution of TSD. PMID:10521320

O'Steen, S; Janzen, F J

1999-01-01

98

Surface analysis, ion implantation and tribological processes affecting steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical approach is presented for investigating surface processing treatments used to improve the friction and wear (i.e., tribological) behavior of engineering alloys, with specific examples cited for ion implantation of steels. Surface composition techniques such as scanning Auger microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and secondary ion mass spectroscopy and microscopies such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), secondary electron microscopy and interferometry have eluciated the microstructure and chemistry of a variety of implant species (N, C, Ti and Ta) found to affect the tribological behavior of surfaces. Novel combinations of these techniques, along with metallography of ion-etched surfaces or TEM of ion-beam-etched foils, are shown to be useful methods for establishing microstructures of ion-implanted and worn surfaces. The tribological behavior of the thin implanted layer (˜ 200 nm) is examined by two devices: a stickslip machine and a polishing wear apparatus, the latter having wear rate versus depth resolution of 10 to 20 nm. Tribology studies of two implanted steels, 304 stainless steel and 52100 bearing steel, are presented, and analytical investigations which have led to models for their improved wear behavior are described. A process by which implanted metal ions can react with residual gases in the vacuum chamber to "carburize" steel and produce superior tribological surfaces is also discussed.

Singer, Irwin L.

1984-05-01

99

Alpha-Tocopherol Modulates Transcriptional Activities that Affect Essential Biological Processes in Bovine Cells.  

PubMed

Using global expression profiling and pathway analysis on ?-tocopherol-induced gene perturbation in bovine cells, this study has generated comprehensive information on the physiological functions of ?-tocopherol. The data confirmed ?-tocopherol is a potent regulator of gene expression and ?-tocopherol possesses novel transcriptional activities that affect essential biological processes. The genes identified fall within a broad range of functional categories and provide the molecular basis for its distinctive effects. Enrichment analyses of gene regulatory networks indicate ?-tocopherol alter the canonical pathway of lipid metabolism and transcription factors SREBP1 and SREBP2, (Sterol regulatory element binding proteins), which mediate the regulatory functions of lipid metabolism. Transcription factors HNF4-? (Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4), c-Myc, SP1 (Sp1 transcription factor), ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1, nuclear), and androgen receptor, along with several others, were centered as the hubs of transcription regulation networks. The data also provided direct evidence that ?-tocopherol is involved in maintaining immuno-homeostasis through targeting the C3 (Complement Component 3) gene. PMID:21157515

Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Robert W; Elsasser, Theodore H

2010-01-01

100

How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets.  

PubMed

For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell. PMID:18800972

Kuniansky, Eve L; Lowery, Mark A; Campbell, Bruce G

2009-01-01

101

Modulation of GR activity does not affect the in vitro metabolism of cortisol by rainbow trout ovarian follicles.  

PubMed

The goal of the study was to determine whether the metabolic clearance of cortisol from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles is affected by the level of ovarian steroidogenesis, and whether it involves the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Ovarian follicles were incubated in vitro; the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, was used to stimulate ovarian steroidogenesis, and the modulation of GR activity was brought about using GR agonists (cortisol and dexamethasone) or the GR antagonist, mifepristone (RU486). The follicles were co-incubated with [2, 4, 6, 7 (3)H] cortisol, and the tritium-labelled steroid products were separated by HPLC. In addition, the rates of expression of genes encoding for the two forms of GR (gr1 and gr2) were measured. Cortisone, cortisol sulphate, and cortisone sulphate were the major glucocorticoid products of cortisol metabolism, indicative of the action of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and glucocorticoid sulphotransferase in the follicular cells. There were no effects of RU486 or forskolin on the rates of [(3)H]cortisol metabolism suggesting that cortisol metabolism by ovarian follicles was independent of GR activation, and not influenced by increased activation of gonadal reproductive steroidogenesis. PMID:25148794

Li, Mao; Christie, Heather; Leatherland, John

2014-12-01

102

Silencing of the tomato sugar partitioning affecting protein (SPA) modifies sink strength through a shift in leaf sugar metabolism.  

PubMed

Limitations in our understanding about the mechanisms that underlie source-sink assimilate partitioning are increasingly becoming a major hurdle for crop yield enhancement via metabolic engineering. By means of a comprehensive approach, this work reports the functional characterization of a DnaJ chaperone related-protein (named as SPA; sugar partition-affecting) that is involved in assimilate partitioning in tomato plants. SPA protein was found to be targeted to the chloroplast thylakoid membranes. SPA-RNAi tomato plants produced more and heavier fruits compared with controls, thus resulting in a considerable increment in harvest index. The transgenic plants also displayed increased pigment levels and reduced sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in leaves. Detailed metabolic and enzymatic activities analyses showed that sugar phosphate intermediates were increased while the activity of phosphoglucomutase, sugar kinases and invertases was reduced in the photosynthetic organs of the silenced plants. These changes would be anticipated to promote carbon export from foliar tissues. The combined results suggested that the tomato SPA protein plays an important role in plastid metabolism and mediates the source-sink relationships by affecting the rate of carbon translocation to fruits. PMID:24372694

Bermúdez, Luisa; de Godoy, Fabiana; Baldet, Pierre; Demarco, Diego; Osorio, Sonia; Quadrana, Leandro; Almeida, Juliana; Asis, Ramón; Gibon, Yves; Fernie, Alisdair R; Rossi, Magdalena; Carrari, Fernando

2014-03-01

103

Cytosolic phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases affect Arabidopsis cellular metabolism and promote seed oil accumulation.  

PubMed

The cytosolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis, but its contribution to plant metabolism and growth are not well defined. Here, we show that two cytosolic GAPCs play important roles in cellular metabolism and seed oil accumulation. Knockout or overexpression of GAPCs caused significant changes in the level of intermediates in the glycolytic pathway and the ratios of ATP/ADP and NAD(P)H/NAD(P). Two double knockout seeds had ?3% of dry weight decrease in oil content compared with that of the wild type. In transgenic seeds under the constitutive 35S promoter, oil content was increased up to 42% of dry weight compared with 36% in the wild type and the fatty acid composition was altered; however, these transgenic lines exhibited decreased fertility. Seed-specific overexpression lines had >3% increase in seed oil without compromised seed yield or fecundity. The results demonstrate that GAPC levels play important roles in the overall cellular production of reductants, energy, and carbohydrate metabolites and that GAPC levels are directly correlated with seed oil accumulation. Changes in cellular metabolites and cofactor levels highlight the complexity and tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to the metabolic perturbation. Further implications for metabolic engineering of seed oil production are discussed. PMID:24989043

Guo, Liang; Ma, Fangfang; Wei, Fang; Fanella, Brian; Allen, Doug K; Wang, Xuemin

2014-07-01

104

Failure of caffeine to affect metabolism during 60 min submaximal exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine consumption prior to athletic performance has become commonplace. The usual dosage is approximately 200 mg, a level of caffeine ingestion equivalent to two cups of brewed coffee. This study was designed to examine the effects of a common level of caffeine ingestion, specifically 200 mg, on metabolism during submaximal exercise performance in five males. The subjects performed two 60?min

Larry W. Titlow; Jimmy H. Ishee; Charles E. Riggs

1991-01-01

105

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama, United States of America, 2 Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avancados, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome [1,2]. In Warner and Ozanne's [3] review

Markow, Therese

106

Factors Affecting Quality and Postharvest Properties of Vegetables: Integration of Water Relations and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing of vegetables in the field, harvesting, handling in the packing house and storage are events in the lifetime of vegetables that are analysed from the point of view of the complex series of physiological transitions taking place in each of these events.Water is the major factor limiting plant metabolism and plants have developed fascinating mechanisms to cope with this

FEDERICO GÓMEZ GALINDO; WERNER HERPPICH; VASSILIS GEKAS; INGEGERD SJÖHOLM

2004-01-01

107

Emotional Language Processing: How Mood Affects Integration Processes during Discourse Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research tests whether mood affects semantic processing during discourse comprehension by facilitating integration of information congruent with moods' valence. Participants in happy, sad, or neutral moods listened to stories with positive or negative endings during EEG recording. N400 peak amplitudes showed mood congruence for happy and sad…

Egidi, Giovanna; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2012-01-01

108

Pulsed Melodic Processing the Use of Melodies in Affective Computations for increased Processing  

E-print Network

that utilizes musically-based pulse sets ("melodies") for processing ­ capable of representing the arousal modification - a person's internal emotional state will affect the planning paths they take. For example it can allowing for a quicker reaction, or allowing the person to respond to emergencies when not able to think

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

109

In Ovo Injection of Betaine Affects Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolism through Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Newly Hatched Chicks  

PubMed Central

Betaine is reported to regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Chicken eggs contain considerable amount of betaine, yet it remains unknown whether and how betaine in the egg affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks. In this study, eggs were injected with betaine at 2.5 mg/egg and the hepatic cholesterol metabolism was investigated in newly hatched chicks. Betaine did not affect body weight or liver weight, but significantly increased the serum concentration (P < 0.05) and the hepatic content (P < 0.01) of cholesterol. Accordingly, the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMGCR was up-regulated (P < 0.05 for both mRNA and protein), while CYP7A1 which converts cholesterol to bile acids was down-regulated (P < 0.05 for mRNA and P = 0.07 for protein). Moreover, hepatic protein content of the sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 which regulates cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis, and the mRNA abundance of ATP binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1) which mediates cholesterol counter transport were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in betaine-treated chicks. Meanwhile, hepatic protein contents of DNA methyltransferases 1 and adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1 were increased (P < 0.05), which was associated with global genomic DNA hypermethylation (P < 0.05) and diminished gene repression mark histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, CpG methylation level on gene promoters was found to be increased (P < 0.05) for CYP7A1 yet decreased (P < 0.05) for ABCA1. These results indicate that in ovo betaine injection regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA and histone methylations. PMID:25860502

Hu, Yun; Sun, Qinwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Min; Cai, Demin; Li, Xi; Zhao, Ruqian

2015-01-01

110

Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to compare the affective processing in 12 people with mild Alzheimer's disease and 12 matched controls. The main finding was that the clinical participants showed reduced activations in regions associated with the motor simulation system (the ventral premotor cortex) and in regions associated with emotional simulation-empathy (the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum). This regional decline in blood oxygen level-dependent signals appeared to be lateralized in the left hemisphere and was not related to any structural degeneration in the clinical participants. Furthermore, the regions that showed changes in neural activity differed for the 3 emotional facial expressions studied. Findings of our study indicate that neural changes in regions associated with the motor and emotional simulation systems might play an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22840336

Lee, Tatia M C; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

2013-03-01

111

Fish oil and the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid affect the amino acid and carnitine metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPAR?-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPAR? activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor ?-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPAR? activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms. PMID:23826175

Bjørndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

2013-01-01

112

Fish Oil and the Pan-PPAR Agonist Tetradecylthioacetic Acid Affect the Amino Acid and Carnitine Metabolism in Rats  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPAR?-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPAR? activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor ?-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPAR? activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms. PMID:23826175

Bjørndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

2013-01-01

113

Social status does not affect resting metabolic rate in wintering dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).  

PubMed

Studies of wintering birds have demonstrated a correlation between social rank and energy expenditures. It is assumed that dominance is energetically costly because of increased activity, possibly caused by elevated androgen levels. As winter acclimatization leads to an increase in metabolic rate, maintaining dominance status in a cold climate can be a substantial challenge. We measured resting metabolic rates in dominant and subordinate dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) living in small groups in a controlled winter environment. We found no significant effect of social rank when controlling for body size. It has been shown previously that high testosterone levels during the nonbreeding season can lead to higher body conductance, fat loss, and higher nocturnal body temperature. A hypothesis explaining our result is that for juncos it is preferable to maintain low androgen levels during winter and to maintain social rank using a mechanism other than higher agonistic activity. PMID:10801401

Vézina, F; Thomas, D W

2000-01-01

114

Factors affecting bioabsorption, metabolism, and storage of organic compounds by aquatic biota  

SciTech Connect

Biological concentration and transfer of organic chemicals through aquatic food webs can be influenced by a variety of environmental, biological, and biochemical factors. Bioaccumulation can be significantly altered by the presence of suspended matter or complex organic mixtures in the water column. In addition, the bioaccumulation factor of a compound is dependent on the species of an organism, its life stage, and the available food supply. Metabolic changes in structure of absorbed organics can alter both the rate and the mechanism of absorption and elimination of organics. In the case of quinoline absorption by trout, both the rate of absorption and the metabolic disposition depended upon whether exposure was through ingestion or through direct water column exposure. All of these factors can be used to explain why the physical properties of organic compounds (most notably octanol/water partition coefficients) are unreliable predictors of bioaccumulation potential. 24 refs., 1 tab.

Bean, R.M.; Dauble, D.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Chess, E.K.

1985-12-01

115

Changes in Phosphoinositide Metabolism with Days in Culture Affect Signal Transduction Pathways in Galdieria sulphuraria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) changed during the culture period of the thermoacidophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria. Seven days after inoculation, the amount of PIP2 in the cells was 910 6 100 pmol g 21 fresh weight; by 12 d, PIP2 levels increased to 1200 6 150 pmol g21 fresh weight. In vitro assays indicated that phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) ki-

Ingo Heilmann; Imara Y. Perera; Wolfgang Gross; Wendy F. Boss

1999-01-01

116

Benzothiadiazole (BTH) activates sterol pathway and affects vitamin D 3 metabolism in Solanum malacoxylon cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), a particularly efficient inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was developed as an immunizing\\u000a agent to sensitize various crop species against pathogen infections. Recent works highlighted its activating effect on different\\u000a metabolic pathways, concerning both primary and secondary metabolites. In this study, we investigated the effect of BTH treatment\\u000a on sterol levels and vitamin D3

Nedda Burlini; Marcello Iriti; Anna Daghetti; Franco Faoro; Antonietta Ruggiero; Silvana Bernasconi

117

Feeding Status Affects Glucose Metabolism in Exercising Horses1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four standardised horses were used in a Latin square design experiment to evaluate the effects of feeding status on metabolic response to exercise. Horses were deprived of food overnight and then fed 0 (control condition), 1, 2 or 3 kg of corn grain approxi mately 2.5-3 h before exercise. The exercise test con sisted of a warm-up phase (heart rate

LAURIE LAWRENCE; L VINCENT SODERHOLM; ANDREW ROBERTS

118

Nitrogen-Sparing Mechanisms in Chlamydomonas Affect the Transcriptome, the Proteome, and Photosynthetic Metabolism[W  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient that limits global primary productivity; hence, N-use efficiency is of compelling interest in agriculture and aquaculture. We used Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a reference organism for a multicomponent analysis of the N starvation response. In the presence of acetate, respiratory metabolism is prioritized over photosynthesis; consequently, the N-sparing response targets proteins, pigments, and RNAs involved in photosynthesis and chloroplast function over those involved in respiration. Transcripts and proteins of the Calvin-Benson cycle are reduced in N-deficient cells, resulting in the accumulation of cycle metabolic intermediates. Both cytosolic and chloroplast ribosomes are reduced, but via different mechanisms, reflected by rapid changes in abundance of RNAs encoding chloroplast ribosomal proteins but not cytosolic ones. RNAs encoding transporters and enzymes for metabolizing alternative N sources increase in abundance, as is appropriate for the soil environmental niche of C. reinhardtii. Comparison of the N-replete versus N-deplete proteome indicated that abundant proteins with a high N content are reduced in N-starved cells, while the proteins that are increased have lower than average N contents. This sparing mechanism contributes to a lower cellular N/C ratio and suggests an approach for engineering increased N-use efficiency. PMID:24748044

Schmollinger, Stefan; Mühlhaus, Timo; Boyle, Nanette R.; Blaby, Ian K.; Casero, David; Mettler, Tabea; Moseley, Jeffrey L.; Kropat, Janette; Sommer, Frederik; Strenkert, Daniela; Hemme, Dorothea; Pellegrini, Matteo; Grossman, Arthur R.; Stitt, Mark; Schroda, Michael; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

2014-01-01

119

Dim Light at Night Disrupts Molecular Circadian Rhythms and Affects Metabolism  

PubMed Central

With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms which are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electrical lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to nighttime light and investigated changes in the circadian system and body weight. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night attenuate core circadian clock rhythms in the SCN at both the gene and protein level. Moreover, circadian clock rhythms were perturbed in the liver by nighttime light exposure. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide mechanistic evidence for how mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. PMID:23929553

Fonken, Laura K.; Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Meléndez-Fernández, O. Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

2014-01-01

120

SILICON NUTRITION AFFECTS URINARY AND PLASMA INDICATORS OF BONE AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE METABOLISM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was performed with the objectives of confirming that silicon status affects bone formation and turnover, and to test the hypothesis that silicon status can affect the interaction between one or more extracellular matrix glycoprotein/s and cell-surface receptors to alter the circulating...

121

Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and…

Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Majeskie, Matthew R.; Fiore, Michael C.

2004-01-01

122

STIMULUS AWARENESS AND AFFECTIVE PROCESSING Supplemental Material Online  

E-print Network

employed for the affect induction (i.e., the emotional and neutral images) consisted of 8 fearful faces://commons.wikimedia.org/). Scrambled versions of these stimuli, to be used during a 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) stimulus as the affective induction stimuli (hence preventing potential priming from lower-order effects). Development

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

123

Deiodinase Knockdown during Early Zebrafish Development Affects Growth, Development, Energy Metabolism, Motility and Phototransduction.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance during vertebrate embryonic development. PMID:25855985

Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries

2015-01-01

124

Deiodinase Knockdown during Early Zebrafish Development Affects Growth, Development, Energy Metabolism, Motility and Phototransduction  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance during vertebrate embryonic development. PMID:25855985

Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M.; Esguerra, Camila V.; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M.; Knapen, Dries

2015-01-01

125

Redox driven metabolic tuning: carbon source and aeration affect synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Growth and polymer synthesis were studied in a recombinant E. coli strain carrying phaBAC and phaP of Azotobacter sp. strain FA8 using different carbon sources and oxygen availability conditions. The results obtained with glucose or glycerol were completely different, demonstrating that the metabolic routes leading to the synthesis of the polymer when using glycerol do not respond to environmental conditions such as oxygen availability in the same way as they do when other substrates, such as glucose, are used. When cells were grown in a bioreactor using glucose the amount of polymer accumulated at low aeration was reduced by half when compared to high aeration, while glycerol cultures produced at low aeration almost twice the amount of polymer synthesized at the higher aeration condition. The synthesis of other metabolic products, such as ethanol, lactate, formate and acetate, were also affected by both the carbon source used and aeration conditions. In glucose cultures, lactate and formate production increased in low agitation compared to high agitation, while poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis decreased. In glycerol cultures, the amount of acids produced also increased when agitation was lowered, but carbon flow was mostly redirected towards ethanol and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). These results indicated that carbon partitioning differed depending on both carbon source and oxygen availability, and that aeration conditions had different effects on the synthesis of the polymer and other metabolic products when glucose or glycerol were used. PMID:21327064

Nikel, Pablo I; de Almeida, Alejandra; Giordano, Andrea M; Pettinari, M Julia

2010-01-01

126

Paternal low protein diet affects adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic function in mice.  

PubMed

Although the association between maternal periconceptional diet and adult offspring health is well characterised, our understanding of the impact of paternal nutrition at the time of conception on offspring phenotype remains poorly defined. Therefore, we determined the effect of a paternal preconception low protein diet (LPD) on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic health in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal protein diet (NPD; 18% casein) or LPD (9% casein) for 7 wk before mating. At birth, a reduced male-to-female ratio (P = 0.03) and increased male offspring weight (P = 0.009) were observed in litters from LPD compared with NPD stud males with no differences in mean litter size. LPD offspring were heavier than NPD offspring at 2 and 3 wk of age (P < 0.02). However, no subsequent differences in body weight were observed. Adult male offspring derived from LPD studs developed relative hypotension (decreased by 9.2 mmHg) and elevated heart rate (P < 0.05), whereas both male and female offspring displayed vascular dysfunction and impaired glucose tolerance relative to NPD offspring. At cull (24 wk), LPD males had elevated adiposity (P = 0.04), reduced heart-to-body weight ratio (P = 0.04), and elevated circulating TNF-? levels (P = 0.015) compared with NPD males. Transcript expression in offspring heart and liver tissue was reduced for genes involved in calcium signaling (Adcy, Plcb, Prkcb) and metabolism (Fto) in LPD offspring (P < 0.03). These novel data reveal the impact of suboptimal paternal nutrition on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, and provide some insight into the underlying regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24658019

Watkins, Adam J; Sinclair, Kevin D

2014-05-15

127

Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat  

PubMed Central

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5–7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10–12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnäs, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

128

Hypoxia and the Presence of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Affect Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion and Metabolism1  

PubMed Central

Tumor progression and metastasis are influenced by hypoxia, as well as by interactions between cancer cells and components of the stroma, such as endothelial cells. Here, we have used a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible invasion assay to further understand the effects of hypoxia on human prostate cancer cell invasion and metabolism in the presence and absence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, we compared endogenous activities of selected proteases related to invasion in PC-3 cells and HUVECs, profiled gene expression of PC-3 cells by microarray, and evaluated cell proliferation of PC-3 cells and HUVECs by flow cytometry, under hypoxic and oxygenated conditions. The invasion of less-invasive DU-145 cells was not affected by either hypoxia or the presence of HUVECs. However, hypoxia significantly decreased the invasion of PC-3 cells. This hypoxia-induced decrease was attenuated by the presence of HUVECs, whereas under oxygenated conditions, HUVECs did not alter the invasion of PC-3 cells. Cell metabolism changed distinctly with hypoxia and invasion. The endogenous activity of selected extracellular proteases, although altered by hypoxia, did not fully explain the hypoxia-induced changes in invasion. Gene expression profiling indicated that hypoxia affects multiple cellular functions and pathways. PMID:18084621

Ackerstaff, Ellen; Artemov, Dmitri; Gillies, Robert J.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

2007-01-01

129

Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele  

PubMed Central

Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can compensate for progressive dopaminergic nerve degeneration in carriers of a single mutant Parkin or PINK1 gene, who show a mild but significant reduction of dopamine metabolism in the basal ganglia in the complete absence of clinical motor signs. However, it is currently unknown whether similar compensatory mechanisms are effective in non-motor basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Here, we ask whether asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers show altered patterns of brain activity during processing of facial gestures, and whether this might compensate for latent facial emotion recognition deficits. Current theories in social neuroscience assume that execution and perception of facial gestures are linked by a special class of visuomotor neurons (‘mirror neurons’) in the ventrolateral premotor cortex/pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44/6). We hypothesized that asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers would show increased activity in this area during processing of affective facial gestures, replicating the compensatory motor effects that have previously been observed in these individuals. Additionally, Parkin mutation carriers might show altered activity in other basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Eight asymptomatic heterozygous Parkin mutation carriers and eight matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent facial emotion recognition task. As predicted, Parkin mutation carriers showed significantly stronger activity in the right ventrolateral premotor cortex during execution and perception of affective facial gestures than healthy controls. Furthermore, Parkin mutation carriers showed a slightly reduced ability to recognize facial emotions that was least severe in individuals who showed the strongest increase of ventrolateral premotor activity. In addition, Parkin mutation carriers showed a significantly weaker than normal increase of activity in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis, Brodmann area 47), which was unrelated to facial emotion recognition ability. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that compensatory activity in the ventrolateral premotor cortex during processing of affective facial gestures can reduce impairments in facial emotion recognition in subclinical Parkin mutation carriers. A breakdown of this compensatory mechanism might lead to the impairment of facial expressivity and facial emotion recognition observed in manifest Parkinson's disease. PMID:22434215

Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

2012-01-01

130

Natural allelic variations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes affect sexual dimorphism in Oryzias latipes.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphisms, which are phenotypic differences between males and females, are driven by sexual selection. Interestingly, sexually selected traits show geographical variations within species despite strong directional selective pressures. This paradox has eluded many evolutionary biologists for some time, and several models have been proposed (e.g. 'indicator model' and 'trade-off model'). However, disentangling which of these theories explains empirical patterns remains difficult, because genetic polymorphisms that cause variation in sexual differences are still unknown. In this study, we show that polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1, which encodes a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme, are associated with geographical differences in sexual dimorphism in the anal fin morphology of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Biochemical assays and genetic cross experiments show that high- and low-activity CYP1B1 alleles enhanced and declined sex differences in anal fin shapes, respectively. Behavioural and phylogenetic analyses suggest maintenance of the high-activity allele by sexual selection, whereas the low-activity allele possibly has experienced positive selection due to by-product effects of CYP1B1 in inferred ancestral populations. The present data can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms behind genetic variations in sexual dimorphism and indicate trade-off interactions between two distinct mechanisms acting on the two alleles with pleiotropic effects of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25377463

Katsumura, Takafumi; Oda, Shoji; Nakagome, Shigeki; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki

2014-12-22

131

Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein Regulates Glucose Metabolism and Affects Cytoplasmic Streaming in Mouse Oocytes  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) regulates intracellular redox state and prompts oxidative stress by binding to and inhibiting Thioredoxin (Trx). In addition, via a Trx-independent mechanism, Txnip regulates glucose metabolism and thus maintains intracellular glucose levels. Previously, we found Txnip mRNA highly expressed in immature germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, but currently there is no report describing the role of Txnip in oocytes. Therefore, we conducted the present study to determine the function of Txnip in mouse oocytes' maturation and meiosis by using RNA interference (RNAi) method. Upon specific depletion of Txnip, 79.5% of oocytes were arrested at metaphase I (MI) stage. Time-lapse video microscopy analysis revealed that the formation of granules in the oocyte cytoplasm increased concurrent with retarded cytoplasmic streaming after Txnip RNAi treatment. Txnip RNAi-treated oocytes had upregulated glucose uptake and lactate production. To confirm the supposition that mechanism responsible for these observed phenomena involves increased lactate in oocytes, we cultured oocytes in high lactate medium and observed the same increased granule formation and retarded cytoplasmic streaming as found by Txnip RNAi. The MI-arrested oocytes exhibited scattered microtubules and aggregated chromosomes indicating that actin networking was disturbed by Txnip RNAi. Therefore, we conclude that Txnip is a critical regulator of glucose metabolism in oocytes and is involved in maintaining cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes. PMID:23976953

Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Eun-Young; Ko, Jung-Jae; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo-Sik; Lee, Kyung-Ah

2013-01-01

132

Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the best-known protein acetyltransferase. For four growth conditions, more than 2,000 unique acetylated peptides, belonging to 809 proteins, were identified and differentially quantified. Nearly 65% of these proteins are related to metabolism. The global activity of CobB contributes to the deacetylation of a large number of substrates and has a major impact on physiology. Apart from the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, we found that CobB-controlled acetylation of isocitrate lyase contributes to the fine-tuning of the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylation of the transcription factor RcsB prevents DNA binding, activating flagella biosynthesis and motility, and increases acid stress susceptibility. Surprisingly, deletion of patZ increased acetylation in acetate cultures, which suggests that it regulates the levels of acetylating agents. The results presented offer new insights into functional roles of protein acetylation in metabolic fitness and global cell regulation. PMID:25518064

Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore; Sánchez-Díaz, Nerea C; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Cánovas, Manuel

2014-01-01

133

Trifluoperazine inhibits insulin action on glucose metabolism in fat cells without affecting inhibition of lipolysis.  

PubMed Central

One of the specific inhibitors of calmodulin action, trifluoperazine, blocked the stimulating action of insulin on 2-deoxyglucose uptake and glucose metabolism. The inhibitory effect of insulin on lipolysis was not altered by the drug. The active (insulin-stimulated) state and the basal state of lipogenesis were inhibited half-maximally at 80 and 550 microM trifluoperazine, respectively. 2-Deoxyglucose uptake was inhibited half-maximally at a trifluoperazine concentration of 70 microM. Other less potent calmodulin inhibitors also inhibited glucose metabolism in fat cells but in a nonspecific manner. The inhibition was noncompetitive and was not altered in Ca2+- free medium. The stimulating activity of wheat germ agglutinin and of sodium vanadate were also inhibited by trifluoperazine. The dose-dependent inhibitions were indistinguishable whether the active (stimulated) state was produced by insulin, wheat germ agglutinin, or vanadate. The data indicate that a late event in the sequence that ultimately leads to enhanced glucose transport activity in fat cells is specifically inhibited by trifluoperazine. The possible involvement of calmodulin or another related Ca2+-dependent regulatory protein in the exocytic (fusion) reaction that recruits glucose-transport activity from storage sites to the plasma membranes is discussed. PMID:6582491

Shechter, Y

1984-01-01

134

Alteration of Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Enzymes Affects Mitochondrial Form and Function in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia  

PubMed Central

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S.; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Durand, Christelle M.; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H.; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-01-01

135

Preference and Processing: The Role of Speech Affect in Early Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants prefer to listen to happy speech. To assess influences of speech affect on early lexical processing, 7.5- and 10.5-month-old infants were familiarized with one word spoken with happy affect and another with neutral affect and then tested on recognition of these words in fluent passages. Infants heard all passages either with happy affect

Singh, Leher; Morgan, James L.; White, Katherine S.

2004-01-01

136

Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

2014-01-01

137

Environmental Stress Affects the Activity of Metabolic and Growth Factor Signaling Networks and Induces Autophagy Markers in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells*  

PubMed Central

Phosphoproteomic techniques are contributing to our understanding of how signaling pathways interact and regulate biological processes. This technology is also being used to characterize how signaling networks are remodeled during disease progression and to identify biomarkers of signaling pathway activity and of responses to cancer therapy. A potential caveat in these studies is that phosphorylation is a very dynamic modification that can substantially change during the course of an experiment or the retrieval and processing of cellular samples. Here, we investigated how exposure of cells to ambient conditions modulates phosphorylation and signaling pathway activity in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. About 1.5% of 3,500 sites measured showed a significant change in phosphorylation extent upon exposure of cells to ambient conditions for 15 min. The effects of this perturbation in modifying phosphorylation patterns did not involve random changes due to stochastic activation of kinases and phosphatases. Instead, exposure of cells to ambient conditions elicited an environmental stress reaction that involved a coordinated response to a metabolic stress situation, which included: (1) the activation of AMPK; (2) the inhibition of PI3K, AKT, and ERK; (3) an increase in markers of protein synthesis inhibition at the level of translation elongation; and (4) an increase in autophagy markers. We also observed that maintaining cells in ice modified but did not completely abolish this metabolic stress response. In summary, exposure of cells to ambient conditions affects the activity of signaling networks previously implicated in metabolic and growth factor signaling. Mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000472. PMID:24425749

Casado, Pedro; Bilanges, Benoit; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Cutillas, Pedro R.

2014-01-01

138

Can N-acetyl-L-cysteine affect zinc metabolism when used as a paracetamol antidote?  

PubMed

N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) has long been used in the treatment of chronic lung diseases. Inhalation and oral administration of the drug are both effective in reducing mucus viscosity. In addition, NAC oral therapy allows to restore normal mucoprotein secretion in the long term. Although displaying heavy metal-complexing potential, NAC exerts no detectable influence on the metabolism of essential trace metals when used in the above context (i.e. at doses near 600 mg day-1). However, this may no longer be the case when NAC is used as an oxygen radical scavenger, like in the treatment of paracetamol poisoning. In the latter case, intravenous doses as high as 20 g day-1 are administered, which may induce excessive zinc urinary excretion. In order to allow a better appreciation of the risk of zinc depletion during NAC therapy, the present work addresses the role of this drug towards zinc metabolism at the molecular level. First, formation constants for zinc-NAC complexes have been determined under physiological conditions. Then, computer simulations for blood plasma and gastrointestinal fluid have been run to assess the influence of NAC and its metabolites (e.g. cysteine and glutathione) on zinc excretion and absorption. Blood plasma simulations reveal that NAC can effectively mobilise an important fraction of zinc into urinary excretable complexes as from concentrations of 10(-3) mol dm-3 (which corresponds to a dose of about 800 mg). This effect can still be enhanced by the action of NAC metabolites, among which cysteine is the most powerful zinc sequestering agent. In contrast, simulations relative to gastrointestinal conditions suggest that NAC should tend to increase zinc absorption, regardless of its dose. PMID:1529808

Brumas, V; Hacht, B; Filella, M; Berthon, G

1992-07-01

139

Brain potentials in affective picture processing: covariation with autonomic arousal and affective report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotionally arousing picture stimuli evoked scalp-recorded event-related potentials. A late, slow positive voltage change was observed, which was significantly larger for affective than neutral stimuli. This positive shift began 200–300 ms after picture onset, reached its maximum amplitude ?1 s after picture onset, and was sustained for most of a 6-s picture presentation period. The positive increase was not related

Bruce N. Cuthbert; Harald T. Schupp; Margaret M. Bradley; Niels Birbaumer; Peter J. Lang

2000-01-01

140

Air pollution oxidants - their effects on metabolic processes in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of exposures to ambient air, most investigations concerning the effect of pollutants on plant growth and development have been conducted with single pollutants. Recently, reports have appeared of synergistic effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide. Plants exposed to ozone and SOâ singly at subthreshold levels were not affected, but when they were exposed in combination, damage was

W. M. Dugger; I. P. Ting

1970-01-01

141

Perturbing the metabolic dynamics of myo-inositol in developing Brassica napus seeds through in vivo methylation impacts its utilization as phytate precursor and affects downstream metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

Background myo-Inositol (Ins) metabolism during early stages of seed development plays an important role in determining the distributional relationships of some seed storage components such as the antinutritional factors, sucrose galactosides (also known as raffinose oligosaccharides) and phytic acid (PhA) (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate). The former is a group of oligosaccharides, which plays a role in desiccation at seed maturation. They are not easily digested by monogastric animals, hence their flatulence-causing properties. Phytic acid is highly negatively charged, which chelates positive ions of essential minerals and decreases their bioavailability. It is also a major cause of phosphate-related water pollution. Our aim was to investigate the influence of competitive diversion of Ins as common substrate on the biosynthesis of phytate and sucrose galactosides. Results We have studied the initial metabolic patterns of Ins in developing seeds of Brassica napus and determined that early stages of seed development are marked by rapid deployment of Ins into a variety of pathways, dominated by interconversion of polar (Ins phosphates) and non-polar (phospholipids) species. In a time course experiment at early stages of seed development, we show Ins to be a highly significant constituent of the endosperm and seed coat, but with no phytate biosynthesis occurring in either tissue. Phytate accumulation appears to be confined mainly within the embryo throughout seed development and maturation. In our approach, the gene for myo-inositol methyltransferase (IMT), isolated from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant), was transferred to B. napus under the control of the seed-specific promoters, napin and phaseolin. Introduction of this new metabolic step during seed development prompted Ins conversion to the corresponding monomethyl ether, ononitol, and affected phytate accumulation. We were able to produce homozygous transgenic lines with 19% - 35% average phytate reduction. Additionally, changes in the raffinose content and related sugars occurred along with enhanced sucrose levels. Germination rates, viability and other seed parameters were unaffected by the IMT transgene over-expression. Conclusions Competitive methylation of Ins during seed development reduces seed antinutritional components and enhances its nutritional characteristics while maintaining adequate phosphate reserves. Such approach should potentially raise the canola market value and likely, that of other crops. PMID:23692661

2013-01-01

142

Perturbations of Amino Acid Metabolism Associated with Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Shikimic Acid Metabolism Affect Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Alter the Abundance of Proteins Involved in Photosynthesis and Photorespiration1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway. PMID:21757634

Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P.; Bulman, Christopher A.; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.

2011-01-01

143

Pinto bean hull extract supplementation favorably affects markers of bone metabolism and bone structure in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hulls from dry edible beans are rich in phenolic compounds recognized as possessing antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to characterize antioxidant properties of bean hull extract (BHE) and to determine whether BHE supplementation (at 400 or 800mg\\/kg for 3months) affects serum biochemical markers and bone structure in 12-month-old male C57BL\\/6 mice. Mice supplemented with 800mg BHE\\/kg had

Jay J. Cao; Brian R. Gregoire; Xiaoming Sheng; Juan P. Liuzzi

2010-01-01

144

Processing of Affective Speech Prosody is Impaired in Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people with the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) show poorly developed skills in understanding emotional messages.\\u000a The present study addressed discrimination of speech prosody in children with AS at neurophysiological level. Detection of\\u000a affective prosody was investigated in one-word utterances as indexed by the N1 and the mismatch negativity (MMN) of auditory\\u000a event-related potentials (ERPs). Data from fourteen boys

Pirjo Korpilahti; Eira Jansson-Verkasalo; Marja-Leena Mattila; Sanna Kuusikko; Kalervo Suominen; Seppo Rytky; David L. Pauls; Irma Moilanen

2007-01-01

145

Affect and Persuasion: Effects on Motivation for Information Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between mood and information processing, particularly when reviewing the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion, lacks conclusive evidence. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that information processing would be greater for mood-topic congruence than non mood-topic congruence. Undergraduate students (N=216)…

Leach, Mark M; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

146

Markers of Bone Metabolism Are Affected by Renal Function and Growth Hormone Therapy in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort. Methods Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6–18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10–60 ml/min/1.73m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Results Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score. Conclusion Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity. PMID:25659076

Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay; Canpolat, Nur; Duzova, Ali; Sözeri, Betül; Bacchetta, Justine; Balat, Ayse; Büscher, Anja; Candan, Cengiz; Cakar, Nilgun; Donmez, Osman; Dusek, Jiri; Heckel, Martina; Klaus, Günter; Mir, Sevgi; Özcelik, Gül; Sever, Lale; Shroff, Rukshana; Vidal, Enrico; Wühl, Elke; Gondan, Matthias; Melk, Anette; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz

2015-01-01

147

The GEF1 Proton-Chloride Exchanger Affects Tombusvirus Replication via Regulation of Copper Metabolism in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses [(+)RNA viruses] is performed by viral replicases, whose function is affected by many cellular factors in infected cells. In this paper, we demonstrate a surprising role for Gef1p proton-chloride exchanger in replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) model (+)RNA virus. A genetic approach revealed that Gef1p, which is the only proton-chloride exchanger in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for TBSV replication in the yeast model host. We also show that the in vitro activity of the purified tombusvirus replicase from gef1? yeast was low and that the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase in a cell extract was inhibited by the cytosolic fraction obtained from gef1? yeast. Altogether, our data reveal that Gef1p modulates TBSV replication via regulating Cu2+ metabolism in the cell. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence, including the direct inhibitory effect of Cu2+ ions on the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase, on the activity of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and an inhibitory effect of deletion of CCC2 copper pump on TBSV replication in yeast, while altered iron metabolism did not reduce TBSV replication. In addition, applying a chloride channel blocker impeded TBSV replication in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts or in whole plants. Overall, blocking Gef1p function seems to inhibit TBSV replication through altering Cu2+ ion metabolism in the cytosol, which then inhibits the normal functions of the viral replicase. PMID:23192874

Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Kovalev, Nikolay

2013-01-01

148

The GEF1 proton-chloride exchanger affects tombusvirus replication via regulation of copper metabolism in yeast.  

PubMed

Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses [(+)RNA viruses] is performed by viral replicases, whose function is affected by many cellular factors in infected cells. In this paper, we demonstrate a surprising role for Gef1p proton-chloride exchanger in replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) model (+)RNA virus. A genetic approach revealed that Gef1p, which is the only proton-chloride exchanger in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for TBSV replication in the yeast model host. We also show that the in vitro activity of the purified tombusvirus replicase from gef1? yeast was low and that the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase in a cell extract was inhibited by the cytosolic fraction obtained from gef1? yeast. Altogether, our data reveal that Gef1p modulates TBSV replication via regulating Cu(2+) metabolism in the cell. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence, including the direct inhibitory effect of Cu(2+) ions on the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase, on the activity of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and an inhibitory effect of deletion of CCC2 copper pump on TBSV replication in yeast, while altered iron metabolism did not reduce TBSV replication. In addition, applying a chloride channel blocker impeded TBSV replication in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts or in whole plants. Overall, blocking Gef1p function seems to inhibit TBSV replication through altering Cu(2+) ion metabolism in the cytosol, which then inhibits the normal functions of the viral replicase. PMID:23192874

Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Kovalev, Nikolay; Nagy, Peter D

2013-02-01

149

Aminocarnitine and acylaminocarnitines: Carnitine acyltransferase inhibitors affecting long-chain fatty acid and glucose metabolism  

SciTech Connect

DL-Aminocarnitine (DL-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyrate) and the acylaminocarnitines acetyl-, decanoyl- and palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine have been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase and carnitine acetyltransferase in vitro and in vivo. Acetyl-DL-aaminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine acetyltransferase reported to date, and is competitive with respect to acetyl-L-carnitine. Mice given acetyl-DL-aminocarnitine metabolize (U-{sup 14}C)acetyl-L-carnitine at about 60% of the rate of control mice. Palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase reported to date. Decanoyl-DL-aminocarnitine and DL-aminocarnitine are also very potent inhibitors; all compounds inhibit the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)palmitate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in intact mice by at least 50%. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase controls the entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for {beta}-oxidation. The inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by aminocarnitine or acylaminocarnitines in vivo prevents or reverses ketogenesis in fasted mice, and causes the reversible accumulation of triglycerides in liver, kidney and plasma. Administration of DL-aminocarnitine to streptozotocindiabetic mice lowers plasma glucose levels and improves the glucose tolerance test.

Clark, D.J.

1989-01-01

150

Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

1983-01-01

151

Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

152

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

... processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as: Breathing Circulating blood Controlling body temperature Contracting muscles Digesting food and nutrients Eliminating waste through urine and feces Functioning of the brain ...

153

Stimulus characteristics affect humor processing in individuals with Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS individuals did not differ to the control group in humor appreciation of visual puns. However, they had difficulty understanding and appreciating Theory of Mind cartoons and provided mentalistic explanations less frequently than controls suggesting that humor processing is strongly related to the cognitive requirements that the stimuli pose on the perceiver. Furthermore, AS individuals referred in all conditions more frequently to non-joke relevant details. Therefore, humor processing is also influenced by their detail-oriented processing style. PMID:19859795

Samson, Andrea C; Hegenloh, Michael

2010-04-01

154

High vitamin D3 diet administered during active colitis negatively affects bone metabolism in an adoptive T cell transfer model  

PubMed Central

Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D3 plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10?/? CD4+ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D3 diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D3 group. Our data suggest that vitamin D3, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with active IBD. PMID:23639807

Larmonier, C. B.; McFadden, R.-M. T.; Hill, F. M.; Schreiner, R.; Ramalingam, R.; Besselsen, D. G.; Ghishan, F. K.

2013-01-01

155

Simvastatin treatment restores vasoconstriction and the inhibitory effect of LPC on endothelial relaxation via affecting oxidizing metabolism in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia play an important role in the development of diabetes-induced vascular complications. The aim of this study was to examine the reversal effects of simvastatin on some metabolic and oxidative parameters, and vascular functions in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.). Eight weeks after STZ induction, some of the diabetic and control rats were treated with simvastatin (10 mg/kg rat/d) for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations were significantly increased in 12-week diabetic rats. Simvastatin treatment stopped the loss of body weight, completely normalized the increase of plasma lipids and partially reduced the hyperglycaemia in diabetic rats. Increased malondialdehyde levels, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were normalised by simvastatin treatment in diabetic aorta. Phenylephrine (PE)-induced contractility in aorta rings was unaffected by diabetes, but was markedly decreased after simvastatin treatment in both control and diabetic rats. Reduction of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in diabetes was significantly ameliorated by simvastatin treatment. Incubation of aorta rings with lysophosphatidylcholine, a component of the oxidized LDL, did not significantly affect PE-induced contractions, but reduced endothelium-dependent relaxations more in untreated-diabetic rats than in other experimental groups. The endothelium-independent vasorelaxations were similar in all ring preparations. These results indicate that simvastatin treatment may ameliorate diabetes-induced abnormal vasoconstriction and endothelial dysfunction via affecting general and oxidizing metabolism, nitric oxide disability and intracellular calcium mobilisation. PMID:15575340

Ceylan, A; Karasu, C; Aktan, F; Ozansoy, G

2004-08-01

156

Transient Exposure to Low Levels of Insecticide Affects Metabolic Networks of Honeybee Larvae  

PubMed Central

The survival of a species depends on its capacity to adjust to changing environmental conditions, and new stressors. Such new, anthropogenic stressors include the neonicotinoid class of crop-protecting agents, which have been implicated in the population declines of pollinating insects, including honeybees (Apis mellifera). The low-dose effects of these compounds on larval development and physiological responses have remained largely unknown. Over a period of 15 days, we provided syrup tainted with low levels (2 µg/L?1) of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to beehives located in the field. We measured transcript levels by RNA sequencing and established lipid profiles using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry from worker-bee larvae of imidacloprid-exposed (IE) and unexposed, control (C) hives. Within a catalogue of 300 differentially expressed transcripts in larvae from IE hives, we detect significant enrichment of genes functioning in lipid-carbohydrate-mitochondrial metabolic networks. Myc-involved transcriptional response to exposure of this neonicotinoid is indicated by overrepresentation of E-box elements in the promoter regions of genes with altered expression. RNA levels for a cluster of genes encoding detoxifying P450 enzymes are elevated, with coordinated downregulation of genes in glycolytic and sugar-metabolising pathways. Expression of the environmentally responsive Hsp90 gene is also reduced, suggesting diminished buffering and stability of the developmental program. The multifaceted, physiological response described here may be of importance to our general understanding of pollinator health. Muscles, for instance, work at high glycolytic rates and flight performance could be impacted should low levels of this evolutionarily novel stressor likewise induce downregulation of energy metabolising genes in adult pollinators. PMID:23844170

Derecka, Kamila; Blythe, Martin J.; Malla, Sunir; Genereux, Diane P.; Guffanti, Alessandro; Pavan, Paolo; Moles, Anna; Snart, Charles; Ryder, Thomas; Ortori, Catharine A.; Barrett, David A.; Schuster, Eugene; Stöger, Reinhard

2013-01-01

157

Breakfast and exercise contingently affect postprandial metabolism and energy balance in physically active males.  

PubMed

The present study examined the impact of breakfast and exercise on postprandial metabolism, appetite and macronutrient balance. A sample of twelve (blood variables n 11) physically active males completed four trials in a randomised, crossover design comprising a continued overnight fast followed by: (1) rest without breakfast (FR); (2) exercise without breakfast (FE); (3) breakfast consumption (1859 kJ) followed by rest (BR); (4) breakfast consumption followed by exercise (BE). Exercise was continuous, moderate-intensity running (expending approximately 2·9 MJ of energy). The equivalent time was spent sitting during resting trials. A test drink (1500 kJ) was ingested on all trials followed 90 min later by an ad libitum lunch. The difference between the BR and FR trials in blood glucose time-averaged AUC following test drink consumption approached significance (BR: 4·33 (SEM 0·14) v. FR: 4·75 (SEM 0·16) mmol/l; P=0·08); but it was not different between FR and FE (FE: 4·77 (SEM 0·14) mmol/l; P=0·65); and was greater in BE (BE: 4·97 (SEM 0·13) mmol/l) v. BR (P=0·012). Appetite following the test drink was reduced in BR v. FR (P=0·006) and in BE v. FE (P=0·029). Following lunch, the most positive energy balance was observed in BR and least positive in FE. Regardless of breakfast, acute exercise produced a less positive energy balance following ad libitum lunch consumption. Energy and fat balance is further reduced with breakfast omission. Breakfast improved the overall appetite responses to foods consumed later in the day, but abrogated the appetite-suppressive effect of exercise. PMID:23340006

Gonzalez, Javier T; Veasey, Rachel C; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J

2013-08-01

158

Benzoate Metabolism Intermediate Benzoyl Coenzyme A Affects Gentisate Pathway Regulation in Comamonas testosteroni  

PubMed Central

A previous study showed that benzoate was catabolized via a coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent epoxide pathway in Azoarcus evansii (R. Niemetz, U. Altenschmidt, S. Brucker, and G. Fuchs, Eur. J. Biochem. 227:161-168, 1995), but gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was induced. Similarly, we found that the Comamonas testosteroni strain CNB-1 degraded benzoate via a CoA-dependent epoxide pathway and that gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GenA) was also induced when benzoate or 3-hydroxybenzoate served as a carbon source for growth. Genes encoding the CoA-dependent epoxide (box genes) and gentisate (gen genes) pathways were identified. Genetic disruption revealed that the gen genes were not involved in benzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate degradation. Hence, we investigated gen gene regulation in the CNB-1 strain. The PgenA promoter, a MarR-type regulator (GenR), and the GenR binding site were identified. We found that GenR took gentisate, 3-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoyl-CoA as effectors and that binding of GenR to its target DNA sequence was prohibited when these effectors were present. In vivo studies showed that the CNB-1 mutant that lost benzoyl-CoA synthesis was not able to activate PgenA promoter, while transcription of genA was upregulated in another CNB-1 mutant that lost the ability to degrade benzoyl-CoA. The finding that benzoyl-CoA (a metabolic intermediate of benzoate degradation) and 3-hydroxybenzoate function as GenR effectors explains why GenA was induced when CNB-1 grew on benzoate or 3-hydroxybenzoate. Regulation of gentisate pathways by MarR-, LysR-, and IclR-type regulators in diverse bacterial groups is discussed in detail. PMID:24771026

Chen, Dong-Wei; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Cheng-Ying

2014-01-01

159

Ecdysteroids affect in vivo protein metabolism of the flight muscle of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ecdysteroid growth promotion of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle of Manduca sexta was studied by measuring in vivo protein metabolism using both "flooding-dose" and "non-carrier" techniques. These procedures differ in that the former method includes injection of non-labelled phenylalanine (30 micromoles/insect) together with the [3H]amino acid. Injected radioactivity plateaued in the haemolymph within 7 min. With the flooding-dose method, haemolymph and intramuscular specific radioactivities were similar between 15 min and 2 h. Incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into muscle protein was linear with either method between 30 and 120 min. Fractional rates (%/12 h) of synthesis with the flooding-dose technique were best measured after 1 h because of the initial delay in radioactivity equilibration. Estimation of body phenylalanine turnover with the non-carrier method showed 24-53%/h which was negligible with the flooding-dose method. Since the two methods yielded similar rates of protein synthesis, the large injection of non-labelled amino acid did not alter the rate of synthesis. Because the flooding-dose technique requires only a single time point measurement, it is the preferred method. The decline and eventual cessation of flight-muscle growth was mostly a consequence of declining protein synthesis though degradation increased between 76-86 h before eclosion and was relatively rapid. This decline in muscle growth could be prevented by treating pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (10 micrograms/insect). Protein accretion was promoted by a decline of up to 80% in protein breakdown, which was offset in part by a concurrent though much smaller decrease in protein synthesis. Therefore, ecdysteroids may increase flight-muscle growth by inhibiting proteolysis.

Tischler, M. E.; Wu, M.; Cook, P.; Hodsden, S.

1990-01-01

160

Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties  

SciTech Connect

The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

2012-09-28

161

Studies of dynamical processes affecting the distribution of stratospheric ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the research was to understand large-scale tracer transport processes in the stratosphere. Two approaches were taken. The first is analysis of tracer observations, especially satellite observations of ozone concentration and total column ozone. The second is numerical simulation of tracer transport processes. Topics researched include: quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and stratospheric ozone; mixing in the polar vortices; polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) properties from Antarctic lidar data; and statistical methods for numerical experiments.

Bowman, Kenneth P.

1993-01-01

162

Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local inhibition of gonadal activity by glucocorticoids. As the latter has not been tested in birds yet, we tested if corticosterone directly inhibits ovarian steroid synthesis under in vitro conditions. We hypothesized that degradation of corticosterone by follicular cells impairs their ability to synthesize reproductive hormones due to either inhibition of enzymes or competition for common co-factors. Therefore, we first established whether follicles degrade corticosterone. Follicular tissue was harvested from freshly euthanized laying hens and incubated with radiolabelled corticosterone. Radioactive metabolites were visualized and quantified by autoradiography. Follicles converted corticosterone in a time-dependent manner into metabolites with a higher polarity than corticosterone. The predominant metabolite co-eluted with 20?-dihydrocorticosterone. Other chicken tissues mostly formed the same metabolite when incubated with corticosterone. In a second experiment, follicles were incubated with either progesterone or dehydroepiandrosterone. Corticosterone was added in increasing dosages up to 1000 ng per ml medium. Corticosterone did not inhibit the conversion of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone into a number of different metabolites, including 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone. In conclusion, avian tissues degrade corticosterone mostly to 20?-dihydrocorticosterone and even high corticosterone dosages do not affect follicular hormone production under in vitro conditions. PMID:23333751

Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuids, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael

2013-01-01

163

Flawed processing of airborne EM data affecting hydrogeological interpretation.  

PubMed

Airborne electromagnetics (AEMs) is increasingly being used across the globe as a tool for groundwater and environmental management. Focus is on ensuring the quality of the source data, their processing and modeling, and the integration of results with ancillary information to generate accurate and relevant products. Accurate processing and editing of raw AEM data, the topic of this article, is one of the crucial steps in obtaining quantitative information for groundwater modeling and management. In this article, we examine the consequences that different levels of processing of helicopter transient electromagnetic method data have on the resulting electrical models and subsequently on hydrogeological models. We focus on different approaches used in the industry for processing of the raw data and show how the electrical resistivity-depth models, which is the end "geophysical" product (after data inversion) of an AEM survey, change with different levels of processing of the raw data. We then extend the study to show the impact on some of the hydrogeological parameters or models, which can be derived from the geophysical results. The consequences of improper handling of raw data to groundwater and environmental management can be significant and expensive. PMID:22775586

Viezzoli, Andrea; Jørgensen, Flemming; Sørensen, Camilla

2013-03-01

164

Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing.  

PubMed

Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound-specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009). In the present study, we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous) and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead) somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the ERP was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the ERP difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160 and 220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production. PMID:25452733

Ito, Takayuki; Gracco, Vincent L; Ostry, David J

2014-01-01

165

Temporal factors affecting somatosensory–auditory interactions in speech processing  

PubMed Central

Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound-specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009). In the present study, we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory–auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous) and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead) somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the ERP was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the ERP difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory–auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160 and 220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory–auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production. PMID:25452733

Ito, Takayuki; Gracco, Vincent L.; Ostry, David J.

2014-01-01

166

Thermal and metabolic factors affecting PCB uptake by adult brown trout  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of PCBs from natural food and water by adult brown trout, Salmo trutta, were compared under three temperature treatments: (1) a diel temperature cycle simulating that selected by brown trout in thermal effluents; (2) a constant 13/sup 0/C, the optimum constant temperature for brown trout growth; (3) natural fluctuations in ambient inshore temperatures. Direct uptake from water accounted for approximately 10% of the uptake from food and water. Fish exposed to the diel cycle or the arhythmic ambient regime fed and grew as though they were acclimated to the maximum temperatures experienced and accumulated more PCBs than fish exposed to the constant 13/sup 0/C regime. Total food consumption or growth was the best correlate of PCB concentration in whole fish while lipid content of muscle was the best correlate of PCB concentration in muscle. PCB accumulation was affected by temperature magnitude and variation, because these factors controlled food consumption, growth, and lipid content of brown trout.

Spigarelli, S.A.; Thommes, M.M.; Prepejchal, W.

1983-02-01

167

Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. Prior attempts to uncouple and quantify these processes have relied on column experiments, where the effluent concentration was monitored under different conditions in an effort to quantify the contributions from a single process. In real porous media these processes occur simultaneously and are inter-related. Further, the contribution from each of these processes varies at the pore scale and with time. This research aims to determine the pore-scale processes that limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. The specific objectives are to: (1) determine the effect of unswept zones on DNAPL removal during SVE, (2) determine the effect of retarded vapor phase transport on DNAPL removal during SVE, and (3) determine the effect of interphase mass transfer on DNAPL removal during SVE, all as a function of changing moisture and DNAPL content. To fulfill these objectives we propose to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe and quantify the location and size of individual pores containing DNAPL, water, and vapor in flow through columns filled with model and natural sediments. Imaging results will be used in conjunction with modeling techniques to develop spatially and temporally dependent constitutive relations that describe the transient distribution of phases inside a column experiment. This work will lead to improved models that will allow decision makers to better assess the risk associated with vadose zone contamination and the effectiveness of SVE at hazardous waste sites.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Webb, Andrew G.

2003-06-01

168

Hydrogen-affected cross-slip process in fcc nickel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of H on the cross-slip process of a dissociated screw dislocation in nickel are studied by atomistic simulations using a configuration-space-path technique. We find that H binding in the stacking fault exerts no effect on the activation energy of cross-slip. H that is bound to the cores of the partial dislocations and moves with the dislocations during cross-slip leads to an increase of the activation energy and thus induces slip planarity. Slip planarity is due only to a net decrease of the H-binding energy in the cross-slip process.

Wen, M.; Fukuyama, S.; Yokogawa, K.

2004-05-01

169

Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

2010-01-01

170

Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

2008-01-01

171

Can Process Portfolios Affect Students' Writing Self-Efficacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can process portfolios that support students in goal setting, reflection, self-evaluation and feedback have a positive impact on students' writing self-efficacy? This article presents the findings of a yearlong study conducted in three 4th grade elementary classes in Cyprus where paper-based and web-based portfolios were implemented to help…

Nicolaidou, Iolie

2012-01-01

172

REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity  

E-print Network

that influence plant diversity of permanent grasslands, and we describe underlying processes. These factors must indeed be identified to focus policies meant to preserve and restore plant diversity and to advise, and persistence--that are con- sidered to act as filters on plant diversity, and a graphical representation

Boyer, Edmond

173

PROCESSES AFFECTING THE FATE OF OIL IN THE SEA  

EPA Science Inventory

Using research results reported from oil spills, laboratory experiments and microcosm studies, this review outlines the many processes controlling the behavior of petroleum in marine waters. The fate of oil spilled at sea depends on the composition of the oil, and on such externa...

174

Feedstock and Processes Affect Environmental Properties of Biochars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biochar, a byproduct of the pyrolysis process of biomass-to-energy conversion, can be used as a soil amendment to improve soil health, providing beneficial use for biochar. The quality of the biochar as soil amendment and its environmental impact are likely to depend on feedstock source and processi...

175

The Role and Impact of Affect in the Process of Resistance to Persuasion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with the role and impact of affect in the process of resistance among undergraduate students. Notes that initial results indicated that the cognitive, affective-anger, and affective-happiness inoculation treatments all conferred resistance to persuasive attacks. Indicates that greater receiver involvement was positively associated with…

Pfau, Michael; Szabo, Erin Alison; Anderson, Jason; Morrill, Joshua; Zubric, Jessica; Wan, Hua-Hsin

2001-01-01

176

Nutrient Enrichment and Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism in an Experimental Seagrass Habitat  

PubMed Central

Background Food web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower trophic levels, respectively. Yet, these interactions are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental seagrass mesocosm system, we factorially manipulated water column nutrient concentrations, food chain length, and diversity of crustacean grazers to address two questions: (1) Does food web composition modulate the effects of nutrient enrichment on plant and grazer biomasses and stoichiometry? (2) Do ecosystem fluxes of dissolved oxygen and nutrients more closely reflect above-ground biomass and community structure or sediment processes? Nutrient enrichment and grazer presence generally had strong effects on biomass accumulation, stoichiometry, and ecosystem fluxes, whereas predator effects were weaker or absent. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on producer biomass or net ecosystem production but strongly increased seagrass nutrient content, ecosystem flux rates, and grazer secondary production, suggesting that enhanced production was efficiently transferred from producers to herbivores. Gross ecosystem production (oxygen evolution) correlated positively with above-ground plant biomass, whereas inorganic nutrient fluxes were unrelated to plant or grazer biomasses, suggesting dominance by sediment microbial processes. Finally, grazer richness significantly stabilized ecosystem processes, as predators decreased ecosystem production and respiration only in the zero- and one- species grazer treatments. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that consumer presence and species composition strongly influence ecosystem responses to nutrient enrichment, and that increasing herbivore diversity can stabilize ecosystem flux rates in the face of perturbations. PMID:19829713

Spivak, Amanda C.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Richardson, J. Paul

2009-01-01

177

Ammonium-related metabolic changes affect somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin can be induced on auxin-containing medium and also on hormone-free medium containing 1mM ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as the sole source of nitrogen. Growth of NH(4)(+)-induced embryogenic tissue was slow and caused considerable acidification of the culture medium. Small spherical cells with dense cytoplasma formed proembryogenic cell clusters that could not develop into late stage embryos. Buffering of NH(4)(+) medium with 25mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethane-sulfonic acid enhanced tissue proliferation, but no further differentiation was observed. Later stage embryos developed only after re-supply of nitrogen in form of nitrate or l-glutamine. Effects of nitrogen status and pH of culture media on ammonium assimilation were analyzed by following the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in relation to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Increased activity of GS and PAL in NH(4)(+) induced tissue coincided with significantly higher activity of stress-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble peroxidase (POD), indicating oxidative stress response of embryogenic tissue to NH(4)(+) as the sole source of nitrogen. In addition, considerable increase was observed in callose accumulation and esterase activity, the early markers of somatic embryogenesis. Activity of stress-related enzymes decreased after the re-supply of nitrate (20mM) or Gln (10mM) in combination with NH(4)(+) (1mM), which subsequently triggered globular embryo development. Together, these results suggest that stress responses, as affected by nitrogen supply, contribute to the regulation of embryogenic competence in pumpkin. PMID:21807439

Mihaljevi?, Snježana; Radi?, Sandra; Bauer, Nataša; Gari?, Rade; Mihaljevi?, Branka; Horvat, Gordana; Leljak-Levani?, Dunja; Jelaska, Sibila

2011-11-01

178

Extracted oat and barley ?-glucans do not affect cholesterol metabolism in young healthy adults.  

PubMed

?-Glucans are known to exhibit hypocholesterolemic effects. Increased intestinal viscosity is thought to be crucial for cholesterol lowering. It is suggested that concentration, molecular mass, and structure, including the ratio of (1?3) to (1?4) glucan bonds in the molecule, are of importance for ?-glucan functionality. This study investigated the effects of 3 different ?-glucan sources, incorporated into a beverage and yogurt, on blood lipids and fecal endpoints. Fourteen participants completed this randomized, crossover, single-blinded study with four 3-wk periods: control and 3.3 g/d oat, barley, and barley mutant ?-glucans of similar molecular mass. Before and after each period, fasting and postprandial blood samples were drawn and 3-d fecal samples were collected. Treatment did not affect changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol compared with control; however, consumption of 3.3 g/d of oat ?-glucans for 3 wk resulted in greater decreases in total (-0.29 ± 0.09 mmol/L, P < 0.01), LDL (-0.23 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P < 0.01), and HDL (-0.05 ± 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.05) cholesterol compared with baseline. Changes in LDL in the ?-glucan treatments were not related to ?-glucan structure (cellotriosyl:cellotetraosyl). Decreases in fasting triacylglycerol were substantially greater after oat ?-glucan treatment compared with control (P = 0.03). Fecal dry and wet weight, stool frequency, fecal pH, and energy excretion were unaffected. The results do not fully support the hypocholesterolemic effects by differently structured oat and barley ?-glucans. However, substantial differences compared with baseline suggest a potential for oat ?-glucan, presumably due to its higher solubility and viscosity. This underlines the importance of elusive structural ?-glucan features for beneficial physiologic effects. PMID:23946347

Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau; Ejsing, Johnny; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Bügel, Susanne

2013-10-01

179

Cognitive and Affective Processes Related to School Achievement: Implications for Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last two decades of work in predicting and explaining school achievement, much research has emphasized the identification and measurement of student cognitive and affective processes which predict and also promise to help explain and facilitate school achievement. This review focuses on modifiable cognitive and affective processes, as…

Shaha, Steven H.; Wittrock, Merlin C.

180

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Approval process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section...With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing affected sources. (a)...

2010-07-01

181

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Approval process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section...With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing affected sources. (a)...

2012-07-01

182

Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk.  

PubMed

A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion. PMID:22392684

Picone, Sara; Valstar, Johan; van Gaans, Pauline; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub

2012-05-01

183

Diesel oil volatilization processes affected by selected porous media.  

PubMed

Volatilization plays an important role in attenuating petroleum products in contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of wind speed, vessel diameter and mean grain size of porous media on diesel oil volatilization. Experiments were conducted to investigate the volatilization behavior of diesel oil from porous media by weighing contaminated samples pre- and post-volatilization. Three selected field porous media materials were evaluated: Silty Clay Loam, Fine Sand, and Coarse Sand along with six individual sand fractions of the Coarse Sand. Results indicate that increasing wind speed accelerates the diesel oil volatilization process, especially for wind speeds below 2.10ms(-1). The low-carbon components of diesel oil volatilize more rapidly, with the effects of wind speed more pronounced on C10 to C15 volatilization than on C16 and higher. The volatilization rate coefficient of diesel oil increases with decreasing mean grain size of porous media, and with increasing vessel diameter. A power function expressed the relationship with mean grain size. All processes (wind speed, vessel diameter, and mean grain size) were included in an equation which explained over 92% of the measured diesel oil volatilization rate coefficient variations for the experiments. Diesel oil volatilization appears to be boundary-layer regulated to some extent. PMID:24296030

Ma, Yanfei; Zheng, Xilai; Anderson, S H; Lu, Jie; Feng, Xuedong

2014-03-01

184

Suprasegmental information affects processing of talking faces at birth.  

PubMed

From birth, newborns show a preference for faces talking a native language compared to silent faces. The present study addresses two questions that remained unanswered by previous research: (a) Does the familiarity with the language play a role in this process and (b) Are all the linguistic and paralinguistic cues necessary in this case? Experiment 1 extended newborns' preference for native speakers to non-native ones. Given that fetuses and newborns are sensitive to the prosodic characteristics of speech, Experiments 2 and 3 presented faces talking native and nonnative languages with the speech stream being low-pass filtered. Results showed that newborns preferred looking at a person who talked to them even when only the prosodic cues were provided for both languages. Nonetheless, a familiarity preference for the previously talking face is observed in the "normal speech" condition (i.e., Experiment 1) and a novelty preference in the "filtered speech" condition (Experiments 2 and 3). This asymmetry reveals that newborns process these two types of stimuli differently and that they may already be sensitive to a mismatch between the articulatory movements of the face and the corresponding speech sounds. PMID:25531944

Guellai, Bahia; Mersad, Karima; Streri, Arlette

2015-02-01

185

PLANT SEEDS: AN EXCITING MODEL SYSTEM FOR DISSECTING MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR REGULATION OF METABOLIC PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic processes are regulated by complex networks of interacting mechanisms that utilize various cellular machineries. Such complex networks may be well exemplified by the synthesis, accumulation, and degradation of storage proteins in developing and germinating seeds. Our laboratories are using plant seeds as a model system for studying the regulation of production of the essential amino acid lysine, the control

GAD GALILI; GUILIANG TANG; XIAOHONG ZHU; RACHEL AMIR; HANNA LEVANONY; GALIA SHY; ELIOT M. HERMANb

2000-01-01

186

Factors Affecting Development of Peroxisomes and Glycolate Metabolism among Algae of Different Evolutionary Lines of the Prasinophyceae.  

PubMed Central

Leaf-type peroxisomes are not present in the primitive unicellular Prasinophycean line of algae but are present in the multicellular algae Mougeotia, Chara, and Nitella, which are in the one evolutionary line, Charophyceae, that led to higher plants. Processes related to glycolate metabolism that may have been modified or induced with the appearance of peroxisomes have been examined. The algal dissolved inorganic carbon-concentrating mechanism and alkalization of the medium during photosynthesis were not lost when peroxisomes appeared in the members of the Charophycean line of algae. Therefore, it is unlikely that lowering of the CO2 concentration in the environment was a major factor in the evolutionary appearance of peroxisomes. Multicellular Mougeotia, early members of the Charophycean line of algae, have peroxisomes, but they excrete excess glycolate into the medium. The cytosolic pyruvate reductase for D-lactate synthesis and the glycolate dehydrogenase activity almost disappeared when peroxisomal glycolate oxidase, which also oxidizes L-lactate, appeared. These biochemical changes do not indicate what caused the induction of leaf-type peroxisomes in this evolutionary line of algae. The oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and glycolate oxidase require about 200 to 400 [mu]M O2 for 0.5 Vmax. These high-O2-requiring steps in glycolate metabolism would have functioned faster with increasing atmospheric O2, which might have been the causative factor in the induction of peroxisomes. PMID:12228674

Kehlenbeck, P.; Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N. E.

1995-01-01

187

In vitro fertilization affects growth and glucose metabolism in a sex-specific manner in an outbred mouse model.  

PubMed

The preimplantation period is a time of reprogramming that may be vulnerable to disruption. This question has wide clinical relevance since the number of children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) is rising. To examine this question, outbred mice (CF1 × B6D2F1) conceived by IVF and cultured using Whitten medium and 20% O2 (IVFWM group, less optimal) or K simplex optimized medium with amino acids and 5% O2 (IVFKAA group, more optimal and similar to conditions used in human IVF) were studied postnatally. We found that flushed blastocysts transferred to recipient mice provided the best control group (FB group), as this accounted for the effects of superovulation, embryo transfer, and litter size. We observed that many physiological parameters were normal. Reassuringly, IVFKAA offspring did not differ significantly from FB offspring. However, male IVFWM mice (but not females) were larger during the first 19 wk of life and exhibited glucose intolerance. Male IVFWM mice also showed enlarged left heart despite normal blood pressure. Expression of candidate imprinted genes (H19, Igf2, and Slc38a4) in multiple adult tissues did not show differences among the groups; only Slc38a4 was down-regulated following IVF (in both culture conditions) in female adipose tissue. These studies demonstrate that adult metabolism is affected by the type of conditions encountered during the preimplantation stage. Further, the postnatal growth trajectory and glucose homeostasis following ex vivo manipulation may be sexual dimorphic. Future work on the long-term effects of IVF offspring should focus on glucose metabolism and the cardiovascular system. PMID:24621920

Donjacour, Annemarie; Liu, Xiaowei; Lin, Wingka; Simbulan, Rhodel; Rinaudo, Paolo F

2014-04-01

188

Processes affecting free-phase hydrocarbon removal by vapor extraction  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory-scale soil vapor extraction test was conducted to evaluate the mechanisms that affect removal of mobile free-phase hydrocarbon from the subsurface. The test was performed inside a steel-reinforced acrylic tank, 183 cm long by 183 cm high by 25 cm wide, which was filled with No. 60 industrial grade silica sand. A water table was initially established with a piezometric head of 54 cm above the base of the tank and a gradient of 0.01 to simulate a field groundwater system. Twenty liters (5.3 gallons) of gasoline (free-phase hydrocarbon) was added through the side of the tank to avoid residual phase hydrocarbon in the vadose zone. Upon equilibration, the oil/air interface at the inlet side was 68.5 cm and the piezometric surface was 54.1 cm above the base of the tank, respectively. Vapor extraction began at a rate of approximately 25.5 liters/min. (0.9 scfm), which resulted in an initially high mass removal rate of 3600 g/day (25 %/day) of gasoline range organics. This mass recovery rate decreased within the first 1.5 hours of extraction. During the course of five weeks of vapor extraction, cumulative mass recovery rates of total GRO (gasoline range organics) and eleven individual gasoline components, including BTEX and MTBE (methyl-tert-butyl-ether), continued to increase in a generally linear trend. Recovery rates at the end of five weeks were 50 g/day (0.35 %/day) for total GRO and 2 g/day (0.4 %/day) for benzene. MTBE showed an affinity to volatilize and be remediated through vapor extraction. MTBE comprised approximately 10.5 percent of the gasoline used for this experiment. Since vapor extraction began, approximately 40 percent of that initial mass had been removed and its mass removal rate continued to be approximately 13.5 g/day (0.88 %/day) at the end of the experiment.

Frank, R.J. [CH2M Hill, Tempe, AZ (United States); Huntley, D. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

1997-12-31

189

Hyperplastic forming: Process potential and factors affecting formability  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum has an outstanding potential for reducing the mass of automobiles. One of the key problems is that it is very difficult to form without tearing. This paper has two distinct goals. First, the authors argue in an extended introduction that high velocity forming, as can be implemented through electromagnetic forming, is a technology that should be developed. As a process used in conjunction with traditional stamping, it may offer dramatically improved formability, reduced wrinkling and active control of springback among other advantages. In the body of the paper they describe the important factors that lead to improved formability at high velocity. In particular, high sample velocity can inhibit neck growth. There is a sample size dependence where larger samples have better ductility than those of smaller dimensions. These aspects are at least partially described by the recent model of Freund and Shenoy. In addition to this, boundary conditions imposed by sample launch and die impact can have important effects on formability.

Daehn, G.S.; Vohnout, V.J.; Datta, S.

2000-07-01

190

Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

Calving body condition score (BCS) is an important determinant of early-lactation dry matter intake, milk yield, and disease incidence. The current study investigated the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the change in BCS. A group of cows of mixed age and breed were managed from the second half of the previous lactation to achieve mean group BCS (10-point scale) that were high (HBCS, 5.5; n=20), medium (MBCS, 4.5; n=18), or low (LBCS, 3.5; n=19). Blood was sampled at wk -4, -3, -2, 1, 3, 5, and 6 relative to parturition to measure biomarkers of energy balance, inflammation, and liver function. Liver was biopsied on wk 1, 3, and 5 relative to parturition, and 10 cows per BCS group were used for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR. Cows in HBCS and MBCS produced more milk and had greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate postpartum than LBCS. Peak concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate and greater hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were recorded in HBCS at wk 3. Consistent with blood biomarkers, HBCS and MBCS had greater expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (CPT1A, ACOX1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and hepatokines (FGF21, ANGPTL4), whereas HBCS had the lowest expression of APOB (lipoprotein transport). Greater expression during early lactation of BBOX1 in MBCS and LBCS suggested greater de novo carnitine synthesis. The greater BCS was associated with lower expression of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling axis genes (GHR1A, IGF1, and IGFALS) and greater expression of gluconeogenic genes. These likely contributed to the higher milk production and greater gluconeogenesis. Despite greater serum haptoglobin around calving, cows in HBCS and MBCS had greater blood albumin. Cows in MBCS, however, had a higher albumin:globulin ratio, probably indicating a less pronounced inflammatory status and better liver function. The marked decrease in expression of NFKB1, STAT3, HP, and SAA3 coupled with the increase in ALB on wk 3 in MBCS cows were consistent with blood measures. Overall, results suggest that the greater milk production of cows with higher calving BCS is associated with a proinflammatory response without negatively affecting expression of genes related to metabolism and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Results highlight the sensitivity of indicators of metabolic health and inflammatory state to subtle changes in calving BCS and, collectively, indicate a suboptimal health status in cows calving at either BCS 3.5 or 5.5 relative to BCS 4.5. PMID:25497809

Akbar, H; Grala, T M; Vailati Riboni, M; Cardoso, F C; Verkerk, G; McGowan, J; Macdonald, K; Webster, J; Schutz, K; Meier, S; Matthews, L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

2015-02-01

191

Impairment of vesicular ATP release affects glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine cells store ATP in secretory granules and release it along with hormones that may trigger a variety of cellular responses in a process called purinergic chemical transmission. Although the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) has been shown to be involved in vesicular storage and release of ATP, its physiological relevance in vivo is far less well understood. In Vnut knockout (Vnut?/?) mice, we found that the loss of functional VNUT in adrenal chromaffin granules and insulin granules in the islets of Langerhans led to several significant effects. Vesicular ATP accumulation and depolarization-dependent ATP release were absent in the chromaffin granules of Vnut?/? mice. Glucose-responsive ATP release was also absent in pancreatic ?-cells in Vnut?/? mice, while glucose-responsive insulin secretion was enhanced to a greater extent than that in wild-type tissue. Vnut?/? mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance and low blood glucose upon fasting due to increased insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrated an essential role of VNUT in vesicular storage and release of ATP in neuroendocrine cells in vivo and suggest that vesicular ATP and/or its degradation products act as feedback regulators in catecholamine and insulin secretion, thereby regulating blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:25331291

Sakamoto, Shohei; Miyaji, Takaaki; Hiasa, Miki; Ichikawa, Reiko; Uematsu, Akira; Iwatsuki, Ken; Shibata, Atsushi; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Omote, Hiroshi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

2014-01-01

192

Computer-assisted image-processing system for the analysis of autoradiographs of cerebral metabolic activity  

SciTech Connect

A computerized image-processing system has been developed for quantitative analyses of the autoradiographs obtained with the (/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method. By means of this system, these cerebral metabolic images can be digitized and the resultant data can be manipulated for image construction, enhancement, enlargement, and microdensitometric analysis. It is also possible to generate quantitative color-coded metabolic maps that display the distribution of the actual rates of local glucose utilization throughout the entire central nervous system with a resolution conservatively estimated to be equivalent to that of a full-width-half-maximum of approximately 100 micron.

Goochee, C.F.; Rasband, W.S.; Sokoloff, L.

1980-01-01

193

Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization  

SciTech Connect

Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir M. [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Riccio, Massimo [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Squarzoni, Stefano [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: lattanzi@jolly.bo.cnr.it

2008-02-01

194

Modeling Central Carbon Metabolic Processes in Soil Microbial Communities: Comparing Measured With Modeled  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms regulating C cycling is hindered by our inability to directly observe and measure the biochemical processes of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle in intact and complex microbial communities. Position-specific 13C labeled metabolic tracer probing is proposed as a new way to study microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, C use efficiency (the proportion of substrate incorporated into microbial biomass), and enables the quantification of C fluxes through the central C metabolic network processes (Dijkstra et al 2011a,b). We determined the 13CO2 production from U-13C, 1-13C, 2-13C, 3-13C, 4-13C, 5-13C, and 6-13C labeled glucose and 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate in parallel incubations in three soils along an elevation gradient. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the results indicate a high pentose phosphate pathway activity in soils. Agreement between modeled and measured CO2 production rates for the six C-atoms of 13C-labeled glucose indicate that the metabolic model used is appropriate for soil community processes, but that improvements can be made. These labeling and modeling techniques may improve our ability to analyze the biochemistry and (eco)physiology of intact microbial communities. Dijkstra, P., Blankinship, J.C., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011a. Probing C flux patterns of soil microbial metabolic networks using parallel position-specific tracer labeling. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 126-132. Dijkstra, P., Dalder, J.J., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011b. Modeling soil metabolic processes using isotopologue pairs of position-specific 13C-labeled glucose and pyruvate. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 1848-1857.

Dijkstra, P.; Fairbanks, D.; Miller, E.; Salpas, E.; Hagerty, S.

2013-12-01

195

Pinitol supplementation does not affect insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in older humans.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effect of oral pinitol supplementation on oral and intravenous glucose tolerances and on skeletal muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in older people. Fifteen people (6 men, 9 women; age 66 +/- 8 y; BMI 27.9 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2); hemoglobin A1c 5.39 +/- 0.46%, mean +/- SD) completed a 7-wk protocol. Subjects were randomly assigned to groups that during wk 2-7 consumed twice daily either a non-nutritive beverage (Placebo group, n = 8) or the same beverage with 1000 mg pinitol dissolved into it (Pinitol group, n = 7, total dose = 2000 mg pinitol/d). Testing was done at wk 1 and wk 7. In the Pinitol group with supplementation, 24-h urinary pinitol excretion increased 17-fold. The fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, and the 180-min area under the curve for these compounds, in response to oral (75 g) and intravenous (300 mg/kg) glucose tolerance challenges, were unchanged from wk 1 to wk 7 and were not influenced by pinitol. Also, pinitol did not affect indices of hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test and indices of insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response to glucose, and glucose effectiveness from the intravenous glucose tolerance test, estimated using minimal modeling. Pinitol did not differentially affect total insulin receptor content and insulin receptor phosphotyrosine 1158 and insulin receptor phosphotyrosine 1162/1163 activation in vastus lateralis samples taken during an oral-glucose-induced hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic state. These data suggest that pinitol supplementation does not influence whole-body insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in nondiabetic, older people. PMID:15514265

Campbell, Wayne W; Haub, Mark D; Fluckey, James D; Ostlund, Richard E; Thyfault, John P; Morse-Carrithers, Hannah; Hulver, Matthew W; Birge, Zonda K

2004-11-01

196

Kinetics of metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 in steers as affected by injecting phlorizin and feeding propionate  

SciTech Connect

Effects of injecting phlorizin subcutaneously and/or feeding propionate on metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 were determined for four steers used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Isotope dilution techniques were used to determine a four-pool kinetic solution for the flux of carbon among plasma glucose, rumen propionate, blood CO2 and rumen CO2. Injecting 1 g of phlorizin twice daily for 19 d resulted in 7.1 mol glucose C/d being excreted in urine. The basal glucose production of 13.4 mol C/d was increased to 17.9 mol C/d with phlorizin. There was no change in glucose oxidation or propionate production. The percentage of plasma glucose derived from propionate was unaffected by phlorizin, but 54 +/- 0.4% of total propionate was converted to plasma glucose during phlorizin treatment versus 40 +/- 0.6% during the basal treatment. When propionate was fed (18.3 mol C/d) glucose production increased to 21.2 mol C/d from the basal value of 13.4 mol C/d, and propionate oxidation to CO2 increased to 14.9 mol C/d from the basal value of 4.1 mol C/d. Glucose derived from propionate was 43 +/- 5% for the basal treatment and 67 +/- 3% during propionate feeding. The percentage of propionate converted to plasma glucose and blood and rumen CO2 was not affected by feeding propionate. An increased need for glucose, because of glucose excretion during phlorizin treatment, caused an increased utilization of propionate for gluconeogenesis, but an increased availability of propionate caused an increase in glucose production without affecting the relative distribution of carbon from propionate.

Veenhuizen, J.J.; Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

1988-11-01

197

Juvenile salmon with high standard metabolic rates have higher energy costs but can process meals faster  

PubMed Central

Basal or standard metabolic rate (SMR) has been found to exhibit substantial intraspecific variation in a range of taxa, but the consequences of this variation are little understood. Here we explore how SMR is related to the energy cost of processing food, known as apparent specific dynamic action or the heat increment of feeding. Using juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we show that fishes with a higher SMR had a higher peak and a greater total energy expenditure when digesting a given size of meal. However, the duration over which their metabolism was elevated after consuming the meal was shorter. The greater energy costs they incur for processing food may be related to their assimilation efficiency. These relationships are likely to have implications for feeding strategies and growth rates, since individuals with a higher SMR have higher routine costs of living but recover more quickly following feeding and so may have a greater potential for processing food. PMID:19324750

Millidine, K.J.; Armstrong, J.D.; Metcalfe, N.B.

2009-01-01

198

Epilithic Community Metabolism as an Indicator of Impact and Recovery in Streams Affected by Acid Mine Drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured biomass and metabolism of epilithic communities on five dates in different seasons at four sites in a watershed that has received extensive restoration for acid mine drainage (AMD) through the construction of passive treatment systems. Chlorophyll a biomass and productivity directly corresponded to AMD stress from coal mining. The site downstream of extensive passive treatment had significantly greater biomass and gross primary productivity rates than the site receiving only untreated AMD, but values were below those for two reference sites, indicating incomplete recovery. The degree of difference in these metrics among sites varied seasonally, primarily related to differences in canopy cover changes, but the ranking of sites in terms of stress generally was consistent. Reference sites had a significantly greater chlorophyll a/pheophytin ratio than untreated and treated sites, also indicating AMD stressed the communities. Community respiration was less affected by AMD stress than productivity or chlorophyll a. Productivity measures are not widely used to assess AMD impacts, and have been shown to both increase and decrease with AMD stress. The elimination of herbivores in AMD-impacted streams can increase productivity in the benthic algal community. Our study found productivity decreased with increasing AMD stress. Although sites with AMD stress had reduced herbivore populations, light, nutrients and metal precipitates appear to have limited growth of AMD-tolerant algal taxa. Therefore, it appears changes in food web structure due to AMD stress had less of an effect on epilithic productivity than environmental conditions within the stream.

DeNicola, Dean M.; Layton, Lee; Czapski, Tiffaney R.

2012-12-01

199

Epilithic community metabolism as an indicator of impact and recovery in streams affected by acid mine drainage.  

PubMed

We measured biomass and metabolism of epilithic communities on five dates in different seasons at four sites in a watershed that has received extensive restoration for acid mine drainage (AMD) through the construction of passive treatment systems. Chlorophyll a biomass and productivity directly corresponded to AMD stress from coal mining. The site downstream of extensive passive treatment had significantly greater biomass and gross primary productivity rates than the site receiving only untreated AMD, but values were below those for two reference sites, indicating incomplete recovery. The degree of difference in these metrics among sites varied seasonally, primarily related to differences in canopy cover changes, but the ranking of sites in terms of stress generally was consistent. Reference sites had a significantly greater chlorophyll a/pheophytin ratio than untreated and treated sites, also indicating AMD stressed the communities. Community respiration was less affected by AMD stress than productivity or chlorophyll a. Productivity measures are not widely used to assess AMD impacts, and have been shown to both increase and decrease with AMD stress. The elimination of herbivores in AMD-impacted streams can increase productivity in the benthic algal community. Our study found productivity decreased with increasing AMD stress. Although sites with AMD stress had reduced herbivore populations, light, nutrients and metal precipitates appear to have limited growth of AMD-tolerant algal taxa. Therefore, it appears changes in food web structure due to AMD stress had less of an effect on epilithic productivity than environmental conditions within the stream. PMID:22961617

DeNicola, Dean M; Layton, Lee; Czapski, Tiffaney R

2012-12-01

200

Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian cycle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece 51142 can fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. Thus, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of two processes: photosynthesis during the day, and nitrogen fixation at night. While previous studies have examined periodic changes transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. We found that ~30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes in numerous individual pathways, such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogen metabolism, were co-regulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. Our analyses suggest that the demands of nitrogen fixation greatly influence major metabolic activities inside Cyanothece cells and thus drive various cellular activities. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium

Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh V.; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2008-04-22

201

Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

Polá?ková Šolcová, Iva; La?ev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

2014-07-01

202

Metabolic depression during warm torpor in the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) does not affect mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide release.  

PubMed

Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during daily torpor and hibernation to save energy. Recently, depression of mitochondrial substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria was observed and associated to hypothermic/hypometabolic states in Djungarian hamsters, mice and hibernators. We aimed to clarify whether hypothermia or hypometabolism causes mitochondrial depression during torpor by studying the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus), a desert rodent which performs daily torpor at high ambient temperatures of 32°C. Notably, metabolic rate but not body temperature is significantly decreased under these conditions. In isolated liver, heart, skeletal muscle or kidney mitochondria we found no depression of respiration. Moderate cold exposure lowered torpor body temperature but had minor effects on minimal metabolic rate in torpor. Neither decreased body temperature nor metabolic rate impacted mitochondrial respiration. Measurements of mitochondrial proton leak kinetics and determination of P/O ratio revealed no differences in mitochondrial efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide release from mitochondria was not affected. We conclude that interspecies differences of mitochondrial depression during torpor do not support a general relationship between mitochondrial respiration, body temperature and metabolic rate. In Golden spiny mice, reduction of metabolic rate at mild temperatures is not triggered by depression of substrate oxidation as found in liver mitochondria from other cold-exposed rodents. PMID:24021912

Grimpo, Kirsten; Kutschke, Maria; Kastl, Anja; Meyer, Carola W; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin

2014-01-01

203

Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

2010-01-01

204

Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed by Japanese ideographs for which the participants provided liking ratings. In the HFPDD group, affective priming

Yoko Kamio; Julie Wolf; Deborah Fein

2006-01-01

205

The Influence of Negative Affect on Self-Referent Sentence Processing and Memory Performance  

E-print Network

The current study investigated how a negative mood state affects lexical and sentence processing in individuals that have never experienced depression. Specifically, the goal of this research was to investigate how an ...

Fitts, Austin Greg

2009-06-24

206

Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implications for Affect, Relationships, and Well-Being  

E-print Network

Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implications for Affect, Relationships studies tested two general hypotheses: Individuals differ in their use of emotion regulation strategies and express greater positive emotion and lesser negative emotion, whereas suppressors experience and express

Gross, James J.

207

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing...affected sources. (a) Sources subject to section 112(j) as of the section 112(j) deadline. The requirements of paragraphs...

2014-07-01

208

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing...affected sources. (a) Sources subject to section 112(j) as of the section 112(j) deadline. The requirements of paragraphs...

2013-07-01

209

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing...affected sources. (a) Sources subject to section 112(j) as of the section 112(j) deadline. The requirements of paragraphs...

2011-07-01

210

MOVING AHEAD: INTEGRATING INFLUENCES OF AFFECTIVE PROCESSES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND FOR PSYCHOANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,Psychoanalytic clinical thinking has evolved toward an organizational model of affect and multidisciplinary research broadens,this thinking. Integrative influences ofaffective processes have been given little attention in psychoanalytic theory. Such influences are reviewed using examples,from research in early development. Affective processes,are shown,to provide integrative influences across systems in an individual’s development, facilitating developmental change, as well as developmentalcontinuity. In a

Robert N. Emde

1999-01-01

211

Metabolic processes sustaining the reviviscence of lichen Xanthoria elegans (Link) in high mountain environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To survive in high mountain environments lichens must adapt themselves to alternating periods of desiccation and hydration.\\u000a Respiration and photosynthesis of the foliaceous lichen, Xanthoria elegans, in the dehydrated state were below the threshold of CO2-detection by infrared gas analysis. Following hydration, respiration totally recovered within seconds and photosynthesis\\u000a within minutes. In order to identify metabolic processes that may contribute

Serge Aubert; Christine Juge; Anne-Marie Boisson; Elisabeth Gout; Richard Bligny

2007-01-01

212

Plasma metabolites reflect seasonally changing metabolic processes in a long-distance migrant shorebird (Calidris canutus).  

PubMed

Migrant birds have tightly scheduled annual cycles consisting of several distinct life cycle (sub-)stages such as reproduction, migration, moult and overwintering, each of which have specific metabolic requirements (e.g., fattening during migration, protein build-up during moult). This study examines changes in fat and protein metabolism during the annual cycle of body mass and moult over 1.5 years in a captive flock of an arctic-breeding shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica. 2-5 h after food withdrawal, plasma uric acid levels were still decreasing and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels were low, indicating prolonged catabolism of dietary protein, probably linked with a conversion into lipids. Such a late-resorptive state is achieved much earlier in passerines, but only after several days in penguins and, thus, seems to depend on meal size or mass-specific metabolic rate. Substages of body mass gain and high body mass were characterized by increased plasma triglyceride levels reflecting increased turnover of lipids, and low levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxy- butyrate, indicating that the bird is not short of glucose. The high uric acid levels during these substages indicated an increased breakdown of nutritional protein. During moult, plasma triglyceride levels were low, suggesting that lipids were less available than at other times of the year. It is concluded that plasma metabolite levels indicate the metabolic processes related to migratory fuelling and moult and the influence of exogeneous factors. PMID:16351872

Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas; Piersma, Theunis

2002-01-01

213

Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets  

SciTech Connect

The G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty-acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. We observed that glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, assessed by hyperglycemic clamps, was decreased by approximately 60% in GPR40 knock-out (KO) fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Glucose and palmitate metabolism were not affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling revealed a similar increase in triglyceride and decrease in lysophosphatidylethanolamine species in WT and KO islets in response to palmitate. These results demonstrate that GPR40 regulates insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism.

Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, M. G.; Kebede, Melkam; Sorensen, Christina M.; Gesta, Stephane; Kahn, C. R.; Smith, Richard D.; Jetton, Thomas L.; Metz, Thomas O.; Prentki, Marc; Poitout, Vincent J.

2009-11-01

214

Thinking Back about a Positive Event: The Impact of Processing Style on Positive Affect.  

PubMed

The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory, which was self-generated (Study 1, n?=?70) or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n?=?159), followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects): in Study 1, a "concrete/imagery" vs. "abstract/verbal" processing style was compared. In Study 2, a "concrete/imagery," "abstract/verbal," and "comparative/verbal" processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavorable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather than general abstract/verbal processing per se). The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant's tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information. PMID:25806003

Nelis, Sabine; Holmes, Emily A; Palmieri, Rosa; Bellelli, Guglielmo; Raes, Filip

2015-01-01

215

Thinking Back about a Positive Event: The Impact of Processing Style on Positive Affect  

PubMed Central

The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory, which was self-generated (Study 1, n?=?70) or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n?=?159), followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects): in Study 1, a “concrete/imagery” vs. “abstract/verbal” processing style was compared. In Study 2, a “concrete/imagery,” “abstract/verbal,” and “comparative/verbal” processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavorable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather than general abstract/verbal processing per se). The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant’s tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information. PMID:25806003

Nelis, Sabine; Holmes, Emily A.; Palmieri, Rosa; Bellelli, Guglielmo; Raes, Filip

2015-01-01

216

The functional profile of the human amygdala in affective processing: insights from intracranial recordings.  

PubMed

The amygdala is suggested to serve as a key structure in the emotional brain, implicated in diverse affective processes. Still, the bulk of existing neuroscientific investigations of the amygdala relies on conventional neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, which are very useful but subject to limitations. These limitations are particular to their temporal resolution, but also to their spatial precision at a very fine-grained level. Here, we review studies investigating the functional profile of the human amygdala using intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), an invasive technique with high temporal and spatial precision. We conducted a systematic literature review of 47 iEEG studies investigating the human amygdala, and we focus on two content-related domains and one process-related domain: (1) memory formation and retrieval; (2) affective processing; and (3) latency components. This review reveals the human amygdala to engage in invariant semantic encoding and recognition of specific objects and individuals, independent of context or visuospatial attributes, and to discriminate between familiar and novel stimuli. The review highlights the amygdala's role in emotion processing witnessed in differential treatment of social-affective facial cues, differential neuronal firing to relevant novel stimuli, and habituation to familiar affective stimuli. Overall, the review suggests the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of affective relevance. Finally, this review delineates effects on amygdala neuronal activity into three time latency windows (post-stimulus onset). The early window (? 5 0-290 msec) subsumes effects respective to exogenous stimulus-driven affective processing of faces and emotion. The intermediate window (? 270-470 msec) comprises effects related to explicit attention to novel task-relevant stimuli, irrespective of sensory modality. The late window (? 600-1400 msec) subsumes effects from tasks soliciting semantic associations and working memory during affective processing. We juxtapose these iEEG data with current clinical topics relevant to amygdala activation and propose avenues for future investigation of the amygdala using iEEG methods. PMID:25043736

Murray, Ryan J; Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

2014-11-01

217

Applying the Cognitive-Affective Processing Systems Approach to Conceptualizing Rejection Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cognitive-Affective Processing Systems or CAPS theory (Mischel & Shoda, 1995) was proposed to account for the processes that explain why and how people's behavior varies stably across situations. Research on Rejection Sensitivity is reviewed as a programmatic attempt to illustrate how personality dispositions can be studied within the CAPS framework. This research reveals an if ... then ... (e.g.,

Özlem Ayduk; Anett Gyurak

2008-01-01

218

EVIDENCE FOR PHONETIC PROCESSING OF CUES TO PLACE OF ARTICULATION: PERCEIVED MANNER AFFECTS PERCEIVED PLACE  

E-print Network

EVIDENCE FOR PHONETIC PROCESSING OF CUES TO PLACE OF ARTICULATION: PERCEIVED MANNER AFFECTS of place of articulation involves phonetic processing, and could not be purely auditory. It is clear of the system. and speech- specific phonetic or phonological mechanisms at the output end where segments

219

Peanut skin procyanidins: Composition and antioxidant activities as affected by processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut skin was removed by direct peeling, blanching, and roasting. Total phenolics (TPs), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and free radical scavenging capacity of peanut skin extracts were determined. The composition of ethanolic extracts of peanut skin obtained from each processing method was determined by LC-MS and HPLC. Peanut skin processing methods significantly affected total extractable phenolics and their composition. Roasting

Jianmei Yu; Mohamed Ahmedna; Ipek Goktepe; Jian Dai

2006-01-01

220

Amino acid and glucose metabolism in fed-batch CHO cell culture affects antibody production and glycosylation.  

PubMed

Fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture is the most commonly used process for IgG production in the biopharmaceutical industry. Amino acid and glucose consumption, cell growth, metabolism, antibody titer, and N-glycosylation patterns are always the major concerns during upstream process optimization, especially media optimization. Gaining knowledge on their interrelations could provide insight for obtaining higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and better controlling glycosylation-related product quality. In this work, different fed-batch processes with two chemically defined proprietary media and feeds were studied using two IgG-producing cell lines. Our results indicate that the balance of glucose and amino acid concentration in the culture is important for cell growth, IgG titer and N-glycosylation. Accordingly, the ideal fate of glucose and amino acids in the culture could be mainly towards energy and recombinant product, respectively. Accumulation of by-products such as NH4(+) and lactate as a consequence of unbalanced nutrient supply to cell activities inhibits cell growth. The levels of Leu and Arg in the culture, which relate to cell growth and IgG productivity, need to be well controlled. Amino acids with the highest consumption rates correlate with the most abundant amino acids present in the produced IgG, and thus require sufficient availability during culture. Case-by-case analysis is necessary for understanding the effect of media and process optimization on glycosylation. We found that in certain cases the presence of Man5 glycan can be linked to limitation of UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis as a result of insufficient extracellular Gln. However, under different culture conditions, high Man5 levels can also result from low ?-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-?-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnTI) and UDP-GlcNAc transporter activities, which may be attributed to high level of NH4+ in the cell culture. Furthermore, galactosylation of the mAb Fc glycans was found to be limited by UDP-Gal biosynthesis, which was observed to be both cell line and cultivation condition-dependent. Extracellular glucose and glutamine concentrations and uptake rates were positively correlated with intracellular UDP-Gal availability. All these findings are important for optimization of fed-batch culture for improving IgG production and directing glycosylation quality. PMID:25220616

Fan, Yuzhou; Jimenez Del Val, Ioscani; Müller, Christian; Wagtberg Sen, Jette; Rasmussen, Søren Kofoed; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Weilguny, Dietmar; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

2015-03-01

221

Improved Release and Metabolism of Flavonoids by Steered Fermentation Processes: A Review  

PubMed Central

This paper provides an overview on steered fermentation processes to release phenolic compounds from plant-based matrices, as well as on their potential application to convert phenolic compounds into unique metabolites. The ability of fermentation to improve the yield and to change the profile of phenolic compounds is mainly due to the release of bound phenolic compounds, as a consequence of the degradation of the cell wall structure by microbial enzymes produced during fermentation. Moreover, the microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds results in a large array of new metabolites through different bioconversion pathways such as glycosylation, deglycosylation, ring cleavage, methylation, glucuronidation and sulfate conjugation, depending on the microbial strains and substrates used. A whole range of metabolites is produced, however metabolic pathways related to the formation and bioactivities, and often quantification of the metabolites are highly underinvestigated. This strategy could have potential to produce extracts with a high-added value from plant-based matrices. PMID:25347275

Nguyen Thai, Huynh; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy; Raes, Katleen

2014-01-01

222

Effects of naphthenic acid exposure on development and liver metabolic processes in anuran tadpoles.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NA) are used in a variety of commercial and industrial applications, and are primary toxic components of oil sands wastewater. We investigated developmental and metabolic responses of tadpoles exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of a commercial NA blend throughout development. We exposed Lithobates pipiens tadpoles to 1 and 2 mg/L NA for 75 days and monitored growth and development, condition factor, gonad and liver sizes, and levels of liver glucose, glycogen, lipids and cholesterol following exposure. NA decreased growth and development, significantly reduced glycogen stores and increased triglycerides, indicating disruption to processes associated with energy metabolism and hepatic glycolysis. Effects on liver function may explain reduced growth and delayed development observed in this and previous studies. Our data highlight the need for greater understanding of the mechanisms leading to hepatotoxicity in NA-exposed organisms, and indicate that strict guidelines may be needed for the release of NA into aquatic environments. PMID:23466728

Melvin, Steven D; Lanctôt, Chantal M; Craig, Paul M; Moon, Thomas W; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Trudeau, Vance L

2013-06-01

223

Do surface processes and/or the presence of an initial surface topography affect(s) the fold linkage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape geomorphology provides an indirect observation of the tectonic activity. Surface processes and tectonics interact one with another to create a wide variety of landscape. Geomorphic features such as wind gaps can record the amplification and lateral propagation of embryonic fold segments. Depending of their relative initial spacing, those growing fold segments can link and form long train folds. This mechanism has been suggested for the Zagros Folded Belt, where the axial lengths of folds can reach more than 100 km. Previous studies have focused on fold linkage or on the response of the drainage network to tectonic forcing. Using seeds in their setup to prescribe the fold orientation, Grasemann and Schmalholz (2012) numerically investigated the distance between two isolated laterally propagating folds to explain the different modes of linkage. However, the effects of surface processes on the fold development have not been considered. Our recent multilayer folding experiments, in which an initial random perturbation was prescribed, have shown that under efficient drainage network conditions, or when a non-zero initial topography was applied to the model, the type of fold linkage could be modified. In this study we systematically investigate the effects of surface processes on the mode of linkage and how the distance between two isolated growing perturbations, required for linkage, is affected. In order to address this question, we use the 3D thermo-mechanical code LaMEM, which has been coupled to a finite-element based landscape evolution model (both erosion and sedimentation). The landscape evolution model uses a non-linear diffusion formulation (Simpson and Schlunegger, 2003) taking into account both hillslopes and channel processes. Graseman, B., and Schmalholz, S. M., 2012, Lateral fold growth and fold linkage: Geology, v. 40. Simpson, G., and Schlunegger, F., 2003, Topographic evolution and morphology of surfaces evolving in repsonse to coupled fluvial and hillslope sediment transport: Journal of geophysical research, v. 108, p. 16p.

Collignon, Marine; Fernandez, Naiara; Kaus, Boris J. P.

2014-05-01

224

Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought.  

PubMed

The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val(158)Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. PMID:25190703

Kilford, Emma J; Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2014-09-01

225

[Processing mechanism of Epimedium fried with suet oil based on absorption and metabolism of flavonoids].  

PubMed

As beneficial traditional Chinese medicine, Epimedium fried with suet oil can enhance the effect of warming kidney yang. Previous literature studies about processing of Epimedium mainly focused on changes in chemical composition and pharmacological effect. From the angle of flavonoids absorption and metabolism, our group innovatively study the processing mechanism of Epimedium based on active component transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier. The processing effect of fried Epimedium can be divided into two key aspects of " heat" during processing and processing accessories "suet oil". Through continuous three National Natural Science Foundation items, the research group has clarified the scientific connotation of "heat" during processing with ADME, and explains the synergistic mechanism of processing accessories "suet oil" based on self-assembled micelles formation in vivo for the first time. This paper summarizes the research ideas and results of Epimedium processing mechanism of the project team for many years, and discusses the future research direction and content, in order to provide new ideas and new methods for modern Chinese medicine processing mechanism. PMID:24946535

Sun, E; Wei, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Cui, Li; Xu, Feng-Juan; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2014-02-01

226

Evolution of Metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is devoted to the discussion of the evolution of metabolism, with a particular focus towards redox metabolism and the utilization of redox energy by life. We will deal with various aspects of metabolism that involve direct interaction with, and the extraction of energy from, the environment (catabolic metabolism) and will talk briefly of the reactions that affect mineral formation and dissolution. However, we will de-emphasize the aspects related to the formation of complex molecules and organisms. To some, it will be refreshingly brief; to others, somewhat superficial. This is unavoidable, as our knowledge of the details of the evolution of metabolism is at best slim. However, by piecing together aspects of the properties and history of the Earth and coupling these with what we know of today's metabolism, it is possible to at least frame several different hypotheses that, with time, should be possible to test and modify so that the next writing of this chapter might contain some intellectual entrees and not just the appetizers. Any discussion of metabolic evolution must occur in concert with a consideration of the Earth - the understanding of the forces that drove the co-evolution of life and Earth can be achieved only by considering them together. This theme will pervade this chapter, and any real understanding of the evolution of metabolism must be inexorably coupled to, and consistent with, the geological record of the Earth.The first aspect of evolution concerns the metabolic participants as we know them now (i.e., a definition of metabolic diversity), and the second concerns the sequence of events that have led to this remarkable metabolic diversity. The first part is fairly straightforward: a discussion of the domains of life, and the metabolic achievements that are expressed in the various domains, and relating metabolism to biogeochemical processes whenever possible. The second part is much more problematic. While it is possible to make up nearly any story regarding the evolution of metabolism (and nearly all have been attempted!), the starting point of life is not known (great debates still rage as to the nature and origin of the first living systems), and it is not a trivial matter to specify the sequence and timing of metabolic innovations. As will be discussed below, genetic and genomic data have revealed that genetic exchange between organisms has been so pervasive that it has essentially uncoupled the evolution of taxonomic groups from the evolution of metabolic processes, thus, obscuring the evolutionary trail with blurred signals. Given these challenges, it may be prudent at this time to admit what we do not know, and lay out the challenges for the coming years.

Nealson, K. H.; Rye, R.

2003-12-01

227

Impaired glycogen synthesis causes metabolic overflow reactions and affects stress responses in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of glycogen or starch is one of the main strategies developed by living organisms for the intracellular storage of carbon and energy. In phototrophic organisms, such polyglucans accumulate due to carbon fixation during photosynthesis and are used to provide maintenance energy for cell integrity, function and viability in dark periods. Moreover, it is assumed that glycogen enables cyanobacteria to cope with transient starvation conditions, as observed in most micro-organisms. Here, glycogen accumulates when an appropriate carbon source is available in sufficient amounts but growth is inhibited by lack of other nutrients. In this study, the role of glycogen in energy and carbon metabolism of phototrophic cyanobacteria was first analysed via a comparative physiological and metabolic characterization of knockout mutants defective in glycogen synthesis. We first proved the role of glycogen as a respiratory substrate in periods of darkness, the role of glycogen as a reserve to survive starvation periods such as nitrogen depletion and the role of glycogen synthesis as an ameliorator of carbon excess conditions in the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We provide striking new insights into the complex carbon and nitrogen metabolism of non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria: a phenotype of sensitivity to photomixotrophic conditions and of reduced glucose uptake, a non-bleaching phenotype based on an impaired acclimation response to nitrogen depletion and furthermore a phenotype of energy spilling. This study shows that the analysis of deficiencies in glycogen metabolism is a valuable tool for the identification of metabolic regulatory principles and signals. PMID:23038809

Gründel, Marianne; Scheunemann, Ramon; Lockau, Wolfgang; Zilliges, Yvonne

2012-12-01

228

Effect of excessive saccharose administration on metabolic processes in the liver of rabbits with restricted mobility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The administration of saccharose (3 g per 1 kg for 2 months) intensified changes encountered in hypokinesia. There was a more marked increase in the content of cholesterol, pre-beta and beta-lipoproteins, phospholipids, and glycosaminoglycans in the blood. At the same time, the administration of saccharose improved the course of metabolic processes in the liver of immobilized rabbits, restored to normal levels the reduced glycogen level, the rate of glycolysis and the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and their discharge in the cystic bile.

Rylnikov, Y. P.

1980-01-01

229

An overview of lipid metabolism in yeasts and its impact on biotechnological processes.  

PubMed

High energy prices, depletion of crude oil supplies, and price imbalance created by the increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives such as lubricants, adhesives, and plastics have given rise to heated debates on land-use practices and to environmental concerns about oil production strategies. However, commercialization of microbial oils with similar composition and energy value to plant and animal oils could have many advantages, such as being non-competitive with food, having shorter process cycle and being independent of season and climate factors. This review focuses on the ongoing research on different oleaginous yeasts producing high added value lipids and on the prospects of such microbial oils to be used in different biotechnological processes and applications. It covers the basic biochemical mechanisms of lipid synthesis and accumulation in these organisms, along with the latest insights on the metabolic processes involved. The key elements of lipid accumulation, the mechanisms suspected to confer the oleaginous character of the cell, and the potential metabolic routes enhancing lipid production are also extensively discussed. PMID:21452033

Beopoulos, Athanasios; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Gaillardin, Claude

2011-05-01

230

Primary care-based educational interventions to decrease risk factors for metabolic syndrome for adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with major psychotic and/or affective disorders are at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome due to lifestyle- and treatment-related factors. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been tested in inpatient and outpatient mental health settings to decrease these risk factors. This review focuses on primary care-based non-pharmacological (educational or behavioral) interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk factors in adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders. Methods The authors conducted database searches of PsychINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as manual searches and gray literature searches to identify included studies. Results The authors were unable to identify any studies meeting a priori inclusion criteria because there were no primary care-based studies. Conclusions This review was unable to demonstrate effectiveness of educational interventions in primary care. Interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk have been demonstrated to be effective in mental health and other outpatient settings. The prevalence of mental illness in primary care settings warrants similar interventions to improve health outcomes for this population. PMID:24369749

2013-01-01

231

Soil-inhabiting fungal community composition as qualitative indicator of C metabolism processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although fungi represent the greater part of soil microbial biomass, they play an important role in macro-aggregate formation and their carbon (C) assimilation efficiency is markedly higher than that of bacteria (Bailey et al., 2002), they have not yet been widely used as soil biological indicators. The reason is mainly due to the difficulties in application of molecular analysis tools due to limited availability of reference sequence of fungal strains in DNA database and to the low concentration of fungal DNA in soil and in isolating, enumerating and identifying groups of fungi differing for their functioning in soil and for biological characteristics. The presence of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes as the two main groups of soil-inhabiting fungi were investigated in four different cropping systems. The soil DNA of soil samples coming from twenty sites (five sites for each system), collected in two cropping systems in northern (soil organic matter - SOM content varying from 0.8 to 1.4 %) and two in southern Italy (SOM from 1.4 to 2.3%), was amplified using Ascomycete-specific primer ITS1F - ITS4A (Larena et al., 1999) and Basidiomycete-specific primer ITS1F -ITS4B (Gardes and Bruns, 1993). On the basis of soil DNA amplified with specific primers, Ascomycetes were much more represented than Basidiomycetes in the cultivated top soil. Basidiomycetes are usually reported to account for more than half of the fungal biomass in undisturbed soils. However the low ratio of Basidiomycete DNA to soil fungal DNA observed in this study could be a feature of soil fungal communities in arable soil affected by desertification problems as those of some Italian cropping systems mainly in Mediterranean area. This phenomenon could be due to soil tillage, which is well known to deeply reduce fungal biomass and to continuous incorporation into the soil of herbaceous crop residues. In fact, Ascomycetes decompose holocellulose in preference to lignin (Oslko & Takeda, 2002) and their growth may depend on readily available energy sources, such as soluble carbohydrates (Hudson, 1968). The high ratio of Ascomycetes in the top layer where crop residues of the recurrent had represented the main substrate for saprophytic fungi could explain these results. On the contrary, Basidiomycetes are the most important synthesizing biomass organisms in forest soils as well as the most effective organisms in lignin decomposition with an important role in humic substances processes (Hurst et al., 1963; Cook and Rayner, 1986). Preliminary results of this study suggest that the composition of soil-inhabiting fungal communities, which are the organisms most involved in C metabolism processes, could represents an useful indicator in programs aimed to increase the quality of organic matter in arable soils. Bailey V., Smith L., Bolton Jr K. 2002. Fungal-to-bacteria ratio investigated for enhanced C sequestration. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34, 997-1007. Cook R., Rayner A.D.M. 1984. Ecology of Saprotrophic Fungi. Longman, London, New York, 415 pp. Gardes M., Bruns T.D. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes: application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molec. Ecol. 2, 113-118. Hudson H.J. 1968. The ecology of fungi on plant remains above the soil. New Phytol. 67, 837-874. Hurst H.M., A. Burges, P. Latter. 1963. Some aspects of the biochemistry of humic acid decomposition by fungi. Phytochem. 1, 227-231. Larena I., Salazar O., González V, Julián M.C., Rubio V. 1999. Design of a primer for ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer with enhanced specificity for Ascomycetes. J. Biotech. 75, 187-194. Osolko T., Fukasawa Y., Takeda H. 2003. Roles of diverse fungi in Larch neerle-litter decomposition. Mycologia 95, 820-826.

Manici, L.; Ciavatta, C.; Caputo, F.

2009-04-01

232

Instinctual Affective Forces in the Internalization Process: Contributions of Hans Loewald  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the role of instinctual\\/affective forces in internalization, a process that both Piaget and Vygotsky identified as the primary mechanism underlying the development of higher mental structures and functions. Although important differences exist in these two theorists’ conceptualizations of internalization, they shared the view that internalization builds cognitive structure by reconstituting external interactions in a new form

Anne L. Dean

1994-01-01

233

The embrace of Mother Nature: appraisal processes and the regulation of affect in attachment genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Except for a couple of articles from cognitive film theory, theoretical writing about film has shed little light on the underlying processes governing affective film experience in relation to attachment concerns. In this paper, I explore the relevance of neuro-psychoanalytic theory in laying down a framework for understanding the viewer's experience of emotional episodes of loss primarily in romantic films

Mette Kramer

2010-01-01

234

Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

2010-01-01

235

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Executive Self, Self-Esteem, and Negative Affectivity: Relations at the  

E-print Network

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Executive Self, Self-Esteem, and Negative and negative affectivity. A 3rd study (N 878 twin pairs) replicated this pattern and examined genetic of the self. Much of current research on the self in personality and social psychology examines two components

Reber, Paul J.

236

Genome-wide analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies cellular processes affecting intracellular aggregation of Alzheimer's amyloid-?42: importance of lipid homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Amyloid-? (A?)–containing plaques are a major neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two major isoforms of A? peptide associated with AD are A?40 and A?42, of which the latter is highly prone to aggregation. Increased presence and aggregation of intracellular A?42 peptides is an early event in AD progression. Improved understanding of cellular processes affecting A?42 aggregation may have implications for development of therapeutic strategies. A?42 fused to green fluorescent protein (A?42-GFP) was expressed in ?4600 mutants of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide deletion library to identify proteins and cellular processes affecting intracellular A?42 aggregation by assessing the fluorescence of A?42-GFP. This screening identified 110 mutants exhibiting intense A?42-GFP–associated fluorescence. Four major cellular processes were overrepresented in the data set, including phospholipid homeostasis. Disruption of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylethanolamine metabolism had a major effect on intracellular A?42 aggregation and localization. Confocal microscopy indicated that A?42-GFP localization in the phospholipid mutants was juxtaposed to the nucleus, most likely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/ER membrane. These data provide a genome-wide indication of cellular processes that affect intracellular A?42-GFP aggregation and may have important implications for understanding cellular mechanisms affecting intracellular A?42 aggregation and AD disease progression. PMID:24870034

Nair, S.; Traini, M.; Dawes, I. W.; Perrone, G. G.

2014-01-01

237

Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants  

PubMed Central

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant’s circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source–sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant–nematode interactions. PMID:24187419

Hofmann, Julia

2014-01-01

238

Mutations in nicastrin protein differentially affect amyloid beta-peptide production and Notch protein processing.  

PubMed

The ?-secretase complex is responsible for intramembrane processing of over 60 substrates and is involved in Notch signaling as well as in the generation of the amyloid ?-peptide (A?). Aggregated forms of A? have a pathogenic role in Alzheimer disease and, thus, reducing the A? levels by inhibiting ?-secretase is a possible treatment strategy for Alzheimer disease. Regrettably, clinical trials have shown that inhibition of ?-secretase results in Notch-related side effects. Therefore, it is of great importance to find ways to inhibit amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing without disturbing vital signaling pathways such as Notch. Nicastrin (Nct) is part of the ?-secretase complex and has been proposed to be involved in substrate recognition and selection. We have investigated how the four evenly spaced and conserved cysteine residues in the Nct ectodomain affect APP and Notch processing. We mutated these cysteines to serines and analyzed them in cells lacking endogenous Nct. We found that two mutants, C213S (C2) and C230S (C3), differentially affected APP and Notch processing. Both the formation of A? and the intracellular domain of amyloid precursor protein (AICD) were reduced, whereas the production of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) was maintained on a high level, although C230S (C3) showed impaired complex assembly. Our data demonstrate that single residues in a ?-secretase component besides presenilin are able to differentially affect APP and Notch processing. PMID:21768095

Pamrén, Annelie; Wanngren, Johanna; Tjernberg, Lars O; Winblad, Bengt; Bhat, Ratan; Näslund, Jan; Karlström, Helena

2011-09-01

239

Metabolic Myopathies  

MedlinePLUS

... that affect the body’s muscles. [Metabolism refers to chemical reactions that provide energy and nutrients, or substances necessary ... made in cells from sugars or fats by chemical reactions called pathways. Normally, most ATP is produced in ...

240

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an affect-processing and thought disorder?  

PubMed

In the literature on child and adolescent psychoanalysis attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as complex syndrome with wide-ranging psychodynamic features. Broadly speaking, the disorder is divided into three categories: 1. a disorder in early object relations leading to the development of a maniform defence organization in which object-loss anxieties and depressed affects are not worked through via symbolization but are organized in a body-near manner; 2. a triangulation disorder in which the cathexis of the paternal position is not stable; structures providing little support alternate with excessive arousal, affect regulation is restricted; 3. current emotional stress or a traumatic experience. I suggest taking a fresh look at ADHD from a psychoanalytic vantage point. With respect to the phenomenology of the disorder, the conflict-dynamic approach should be supplemented by a perspective regarding deficits in ?-function as constitutive for ADHD. These deficits cause affect-processing and thought disorders compensated for (though not fully) by the symptomatology. At a secondary level, a vicious circle develops through the mutual reinforcement of defective processing of sense data and affects into potential thought content, on the one hand, and secondary, largely narcissistic defence processes on the other. These considerations have major relevance for the improved understanding of ADHD and for psychoanalytic technique. PMID:24628222

Günter, Michael

2014-02-01

241

TNF? Altered Inflammatory Responses, Impaired Health and Productivity, but Did Not Affect Glucose or Lipid Metabolism in Early-Lactation Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-? (rbTNF?), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNF?, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNF? administration. Plasma TNF? concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P<0.10) by rbTNF? administration, but no dose effect (P>0.10) was detected; rbTNF? treatments increased (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma haptoglobin. Most plasma eicosanoids were not affected (P>0.10) by rbTNF? administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P<0.05) over the first week of lactation, reflecting elevated inflammatory mediators in the days immediately following parturition. Dry matter and water intake, milk yield, and milk fat and protein yields were all decreased (P<0.05) by rbTNF? treatments by 15 to 18%. Concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, ?-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNF? treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P?=?0.18) by rbTNF? administration. The higher dose of rbTNF? tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P?=?0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNF? daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24260367

Mamedova, Laman K.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Bradford, Barry J.

2013-01-01

242

Casein and soy protein meals differentially affect whole-body and splanchnic protein metabolism in healthy humans.  

PubMed

Dietary protein quality is considered to be dependent on the degree and velocity with which protein is digested, absorbed as amino acids, and retained in the gut as newly synthesized protein. Metabolic animal studies suggest that the quality of soy protein is inferior to that of casein protein, but confirmatory studies in humans are lacking. The study objective was to assess the quality of casein and soy protein by comparing their metabolic effects in healthy human subjects. Whole-body protein kinetics, splanchnic leucine extraction, and urea production rates were measured in the postabsorptive state and during 8-h enteral intakes of isonitrogenous [0.42 g protein/(kg body weight . 8 h)] protein-based test meals, which contained either casein (CAPM; n = 12) or soy protein (SOPM; n = 10) in 2 separate groups. Stable isotope techniques were used to study metabolic effects. With enteral food intake, protein metabolism changed from net protein breakdown to net protein synthesis. Net protein synthesis was greater in the CAPM group than in the SOPM group [52 +/- 14 and 17 +/- 14 nmol/(kg fat-free mass (FFM) . min), respectively; P < 0.02]. Urea synthesis rates decreased during consumption of both enteral meals, but the decrease tended to be greater in the subjects that consumed CAPM (P = 0.07). Absolute splanchnic extraction of leucine was higher in the subjects that consumed CAPM [306 +/- 31 nmol/(kg FFM . min)] vs. those that consumed SOPM [235 +/- 29 nmol/(kg FFM . min); P < 0.01]. In conclusion, a significantly larger portion of soy protein is degraded to urea, whereas casein protein likely contributes to splanchnic utilization (probably protein synthesis) to a greater extent. The biological value of soy protein must be considered inferior to that of casein protein in humans. PMID:15867285

Luiking, Yvette C; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Jäkel, Martin; Soeters, Peter B

2005-05-01

243

NITROGEN AND PROTEIN METABOLISM IN YOUNG PEA PLANTS AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF NICKEL, CADMIUM, LEAD, AND MOLYBDENUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was carried out on the effect of molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) using concentrations of 1×10, 1×10, and 1×10 mol dm, on the metabolism of nitrogen and proteins in young pea plants (Pisum sativum L. ‘NS Lim’). The highest concentrations of the investigated metals were noted to suppress the development of the aboveground

Slavko Kevresan; Novica Petrovic; Milan Popovic; Julijan Kandrac

2001-01-01

244

Interactions of the PPAR?2 Polymorphism with Fat Intake Affecting Energy Metabolism and Nutritional Outcomes in Obese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To determine the influence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR?2 gene and the dietary lipid intake on energy metabolism and nutritional outcomes in obese women after an acute fat load or following a low-calorie diet for 10 weeks. Methods: Sixty obese women (aged 30–46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to 2 groups depending on the

Eliane L. Rosado; Josefina Bressan; J. Alfredo Martínez; Iva Marques-Lopes

2010-01-01

245

Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing  

PubMed Central

Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25352672

Hang, Runlai; Liu, Chunyan; Ahmad, Ayaz; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Falong; Cao, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

246

Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review  

SciTech Connect

The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities) in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1) using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR) as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2) revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3) prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4) obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.

Yu,P.

2007-01-01

247

Early visual processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia during spatial frequency-dependent facial affect processing.  

PubMed

Abnormal facial emotion recognition is considered as one of the key symptoms of schizophrenia. Only few studies have considered deficits in the spatial frequency (SF)-dependent visual pathway leading to abnormal facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 19 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited for this study. Event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during presentation of SF-modulated face stimuli and their source imaging was analyzed. The patients showed reduced P100 amplitude for low-spatial frequency (LSF) pictures of fearful faces compared with the HC group. The P100 amplitude for high-spatial frequency (HSF) pictures of neutral faces was increased in the schizophrenia group, but not in the HC group. The neural source activities of the LSF fearful faces and HSF neutral faces led to hypo- and hyperactivation of the frontal lobe of subjects from the schizophrenia group and HC group, respectively. In addition, patients with schizophrenia showed enhanced N170 activation in the right hemisphere in the LSF condition, while the HC group did not. Our results suggest that deficits in the LSF-dependent visual pathway, which involves magnocellular neurons, impair early visual processing leading to dysfunctional facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Moreover, it suggests impaired bottom-up processing rather than top-down dysfunction for facial emotion recognition in these patients. PMID:25553978

Kim, Do-Won; Shim, Miseon; Song, Myeong Ju; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan

2015-02-01

248

Proteomic analyses reveal that loss of TDP-43 affects RNA processing and intracellular transport.  

PubMed

Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a predominantly nuclear, ubiquitously expressed RNA and DNA-binding protein. It recognizes and binds to UG repeats and is involved in pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA stability and microRNA metabolism. TDP-43 is essential in early embryonic development but accumulates in cytoplasmic aggregates in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and tau-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is not known yet whether cytoplasmic aggregates of TDP-43 are toxic or protective but they are often associated with a loss of TDP-43 from the nucleus and neurodegeneration may be caused by a loss of normal TDP-43 function or a gain of toxic function. Here we present a proteomic study to analyze the effect of loss of TDP-43 on the proteome. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001668. Our results indicate that TDP-43 is an important regulator of RNA metabolism and intracellular transport. We show that Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1), DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (Dnmt3a) and chromogranin B (CgB) are downregulated upon TDP-43 knockdown. Subsequently, transportin 1 level is increased as a result of RanBP1 depletion. Improper regulation of these proteins and the subsequent disruption of cellular processes may play a role in the pathogenesis of the TDP-43 proteinopathies ALS and FTLD. PMID:25743254

Štalekar, M; Yin, X; Rebolj, K; Darovic, S; Troakes, C; Mayr, M; Shaw, C E; Rogelj, B

2015-05-01

249

Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory  

PubMed Central

Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

2010-01-01

250

Threat processing in generalized social phobia: an investigation of interpretation biases in ambiguous facial affect.  

PubMed

Facial affect is one of the most important information sources during the course of social interactions, but it is susceptible to distortion due to the complex and dynamic nature. Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit alterations in the processing of social information, such as an attentional and interpretative bias toward threatening information. This may be one of the key factors contributing to the development and maintenance of anxious psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a threat-related interpretation bias is evident for ambiguous facial stimuli in a population of individuals with a generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (gSAD) as compared to healthy controls. Participants judged ambiguous happy/fearful, angry/fearful and angry/happy blends varying in intensity and rated the predominant affective expression. The results obtained in this study do not indicate that gSAD is associated with a biased interpretation of ambiguous facial affect. PMID:24656896

Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael

2014-06-30

251

Analysis of urban metabolic processes based on input-output method: model development and a case study for Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering ways in which to increase the sustainability of the metabolic processes involved in urbanization has become an urgent task for urban design and management in China. As cities are analogous to living organisms, the disorders of their metabolic processes can be regarded as the cause of "urban disease". Therefore, identification of these causes through metabolic process analysis and ecological element distribution through the urban ecosystem's compartments will be helpful. By using Beijing as an example, we have compiled monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007 and calculated the intensities of the embodied ecological elements to compile the corresponding implied physical input-output tables. We then divided Beijing's economy into 32 compartments and analyzed the direct and indirect ecological intensities embodied in the flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes. Based on the combination of input-output tables and ecological network analysis, the description of multiple ecological elements transferred among Beijing's industrial compartments and their distribution has been refined. This hybrid approach can provide a more scientific basis for management of urban resource flows. In addition, the data obtained from distribution characteristics of ecological elements may provide a basic data platform for exploring the metabolic mechanism of Beijing.

Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Bin; Zheng, Hongmei; Li, Yating

2014-06-01

252

Abnormal Neural Processing during Emotional Salience Attribution of Affective Asymmetry in Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Aberrant emotional salience attribution has been reported to be an important clinical feature in patients with schizophrenia. Real life stimuli that incorporate both positive and negative emotional traits lead to affective asymmetry such as negativity bias and positivity offset. In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of emotional salience attribution in patients with schizophrenia when affective asymmetry was processed. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotion judgment task in which two pictures were juxtaposed. The task consisted of responding to affective asymmetry condition (ambivalent and neutral) and affective symmetry conditions (positive and negative), and group comparisons were performed for each condition. Significantly higher activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus was observed for the ambivalent condition than for the other conditions in controls, but not in patients. Compared with controls, patients showed decreased activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and putamen for the ambivalent condition, but no changes were observed for the neutral condition. Multiple prefrontal hypoactivities during salience attribution of negativity bias in schizophrenia may underlie deficits in the integrative processing of emotional information. Regional abnormalities in the salience network may be the basis of defective emotional salience attribution in schizophrenia, which is likely involved in symptom formation and social dysfunction. PMID:24619004

Lee, Seon-Koo; Chun, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Suk; Park, Hae-Jeong; Jung, Young-Chul; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin

2014-01-01

253

Light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by metabolite signal from mitochondrial alternative oxidase in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play essential roles in high light stress tolerance, the effects of AOX on chlorophyll synthesis are unclear. Previous studies indicated that during greening, chlorophyll accumulation was largely delayed in plants whose mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was inhibited by knocking out nuclear encoded AOX gene. Here, we showed that this delay of chlorophyll accumulation was more significant under high light condition. Inhibition of cyanide-resistant respiration was also accompanied by the increase of plastid NADPH/NADP(+) ratio, especially under high light treatment which subsequently blocked the import of multiple plastidial proteins, such as some components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, the Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and malate/oxaloacetate shuttle components. Overexpression of AOX1a rescued the aox1a mutant phenotype, including the chlorophyll accumulation during greening and plastidial protein import. It thus suggests that light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by a metabolic signal, the AOX-derived plastidial NADPH/NADP(+) ratio change. Further, our results thus revealed a molecular mechanism of chloroplast-mitochondria interactions. PMID:25158995

Zhang, DA-Wei; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Feng; Yuan, Ming; Ye, Hua-Xun; Guo, Hong-Qing; Lv, Xin; Yin, Yanhai; Lin, Hong-Hui

2014-08-27

254

The expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism is affected by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism: a putative link between metabolism and an animal model of psychosis.  

PubMed

Psychosis has been associated with glucose metabolism impairment. Here, we explored the gene expression of hexokinase 1 (Hk1) and glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) after the administration of a subanesthetic or a subconvulsant dose of ketamine in rats, considered to provide an animal model of psychosis. Indeed, Hk1 and GLUT3 are crucially involved in the glucose utilization in brain tissues and have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Quantitative brain imaging of transcripts was used to evaluate Hk1 and GLUT3 mRNA in rat brain regions related to ketamine-induced behavioral abnormalities. Hk1 transcript was significantly increased by 50 mg/kg ketamine in cortical and subcortical areas, whereas 12 mg/kg ketamine affected Hk1 expression in the auditory cortex only. GLUT3 expression was increased by 12 mg/kg ketamine in the frontal cortex and decreased by 50 mg/kg ketamine in subcortical areas. The results show that Hk1 and GLUT3 are extensively and differentially affected by ketamine dose, supporting the view that glucose metabolism and psychosis may be causally related and suggesting that these molecules may play a role in the pathophysiology of ketamine-induced behavioral abnormalities. PMID:22605548

Iasevoli, Felice; Latte, Gianmarco; Avvisati, Livia; Sarappa, Chiara; Aloj, Luigi; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

2012-09-01

255

Episodic processes in emotional labor: perceptions of affective delivery and regulation strategies.  

PubMed

This study examined emotional labor processes from a within-person, episodic framework. The authors hypothesized that the influence of negative emotions on affective delivery would be lessened by regulation strategies for supervisor perceptions but not self-perceptions. In addition, difficulty maintaining display rules was hypothesized to mediate the relation between negative emotions and self-perceptions of affective delivery. Finally, the influence of surface acting strategies on these processes as well as correlations with individual differences was investigated. Hypotheses were tested using ecological momentary assessment of a sample of cheerleading instructors. Results suggest that surface actors can regulate emotions effectively on an episode-to-episode basis but find the episode more difficult. In addition, surface actors exhibit more general tendencies to devalue themselves and experience fewer positive emotions. PMID:16953767

Beal, Daniel J; Trougakos, John P; Weiss, Howard M; Green, Stephen G

2006-09-01

256

Atypical autonomic regulation, auditory processing, and affect recognition in women with HIV  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of HIV on visceromotor (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability) and somatomotor (i.e., auditory processing and affect recognition) components of a social engagement system defined by the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995) that links vagal regulation of the heart with brainstem regulation of the striated muscles of the face and head. Relative to at risk HIV- seronegative women, HIV-seropositive women had less heart rate variability (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and had poorer performance on auditory processing and affect recognition tasks. CD4 was negatively correlated with the accuracy to detect specific emotions. The observed indices of atypical autonomic and behavioral regulation may contribute to greater difficulties in social behavior and social communication between HIV- infected women and other individuals in their social network. PMID:23792136

Heilman, K.J.; Harden, E.R.; Weber, K.M.; Cohen, M.; Porges, S.W.

2013-01-01

257

[TOR-centric concept of regulation mitogenic, metabolic and energetic signal processing in cell].  

PubMed

Kinase TOR (target of rapamycin), discovered as a target of antibiotic rapamycin, the evolutionarily conservative serine/threonine kinase that integrates numerous extra-cellular and intracellular signals, regulating cell growth, protein synthesis and metabolism. Mammalian kinase (mTOR) exists in two complexes: the rapamycin-sensitive TORC1 and rapamycin resistant mTORC2, controlling in the cell different programs. Identification of mTOR as integral component PI3/Akt way that deregulated during carcinogenesis, as well as the existence of a cross-talk between the tumor-suppressor p53 cascade and mTOR demonstrates its unique role in the process of neoplastic growth. This review discusses the various aspects of the regulation of the kinase mTOR, the relationship with the general cell-signaling pathways and its use as a target for the cancer, diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative changes and hereditary syndromes of aging. PMID:23074850

Zubova, S G; Shitikova, Zh V; Pospelova, T V

2012-01-01

258

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops. PMID:24655934

2014-01-01

259

The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

Kubrak, Olga I.; Ku?erová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R.

2014-01-01

260

Attitude and Norm Accessibility Affect Processing of Anti-Smoking Messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Anti-smoking PSAs are not always effective in reducing cigarette smoking, and there is a lack of research into mechanisms through which PSAs affect the attitudes and behaviors of viewers. The present research was designed to better understand how smokers and non-smokers process anti-smoking ads. Design: In a repeated measures design, the accessibility of smokers' (N = 70) and non-smokers'

Nancy Rhodes; David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen; Aimee Edison; Mary Beth Bradford

2008-01-01

261

The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Cognitive Processes and Affect in Patients with Past Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effects of an 8-week course in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; J. Kabat-Zinn, 1982, 1990) on affective symptoms (depression and anxiety), dysfunctional attitudes, and rumination. Given the focus of mindfulness meditation (MM) in modifying cognitive processes, it was hypothesized that the primary change in MM practice involves reductions in ruminative tendencies. We studied a sample of individuals

Wiveka Ramel; Philippe R. Goldin; Paula E. Carmona; John R. McQuaid

2004-01-01

262

Demographic Processes Affect HIV-1 Evolution in Primary Infection before the Onset of Selective Processes?  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 transmission and viral evolution in the first year of infection were studied in 11 individuals representing four transmitter-recipient pairs and three independent seroconverters. Nine of these individuals were enrolled during acute infection; all were men who have sex with men (MSM) infected with HIV-1 subtype B. A total of 475 nearly full-length HIV-1 genome sequences were generated, representing on average 10 genomes per specimen at 2 to 12 visits over the first year of infection. Single founding variants with nearly homogeneous viral populations were detected in eight of the nine individuals who were enrolled during acute HIV-1 infection. Restriction to a single founder variant was not due to a lack of diversity in the transmitter as homogeneous populations were found in recipients from transmitters with chronic infection. Mutational patterns indicative of rapid viral population growth dominated during the first 5 weeks of infection and included a slight contraction of viral genetic diversity over the first 20 to 40 days. Subsequently, selection dominated, most markedly in env and nef. Mutants were detected in the first week and became consensus as early as day 21 after the onset of symptoms of primary HIV infection. We found multiple indications of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations while reversions appeared limited. Putative escape mutations were often rapidly replaced with mutually exclusive mutations nearby, indicating the existence of a maturational escape process, possibly in adaptation to viral fitness constraints or to immune responses against new variants. We showed that establishment of HIV-1 infection is likely due to a biological mechanism that restricts transmission rather than to early adaptive evolution during acute infection. Furthermore, the diversity of HIV strains coupled with complex and individual-specific patterns of CTL escape did not reveal shared sequence characteristics of acute infection that could be harnessed for vaccine design. PMID:21593162

Herbeck, Joshua T.; Rolland, Morgane; Liu, Yi; McLaughlin, Sherry; McNevin, John; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Kim; Stoddard, Julia N.; Raugi, Dana; Sorensen, Stephanie; Genowati, Indira; Birditt, Brian; McKay, Angela; Diem, Kurt; Maust, Brandon S.; Deng, Wenjie; Collier, Ann C.; Stekler, Joanne D.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Mullins, James I.

2011-01-01

263

Metabolic heterogeneity of follicular amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome is affected by obesity and related to pregnancy outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder frequently accompanied by obesity and by insulin resistance, and patients with this syndrome suffer from infertility and poor pregnancy outcome. Disturbances in plasma amino acid (AA) metabolism have been implicated in women with PCOS. However, direct evidence on follicular AA metabolic profiles in PCOS patients and their relationship with pregnancy outcome is sparse. Methods We conducted a prospective study in 63 PCOS patients and 48 controls in the Division of Reproductive Center, Peking University Third Hospital. Follicular AA levels were measured by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method, and the results were analyzed based on different grouping criteria. Results The levels of aromatic amino acid (AAA) increased in PCOS patients independent of obesity (P?metabolic disturbances, with obesity exerting a more pronounced effect on AA metabolic profiles. The disruptions in specific AAs in the follicular fluid might account for the inferior pregnancy outcome in obese patients and increased risk of abortion in PCOS patients. PMID:24410809

2014-01-01

264

Linking cytoarchitecture to metabolism: sarcolemma-associated plectin affects glucose uptake by destabilizing microtubule networks in mdx myofibers  

PubMed Central

Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most frequent forms of muscular disorders. It is caused by the absence of dystrophin, a core component of the sarcolemma-associated junctional complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. We showed previously that plectin 1f (P1f), one of the major muscle-expressed isoforms of the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin, accumulates at the sarcolemma of DMD patients as well as of mdx mice, a widely studied animal model for DMD. Based on plectin’s dual role as structural protein and scaffolding platform for signaling molecules, we speculated that the dystrophic phenotype observed after loss of dystrophin was caused, at least to some extent, by excess plectin. Thus, we hypothesized that elimination of plectin expression in mdx skeletal muscle, while probably resulting in an overall more severe phenotype, may lead to a partial phenotype rescue. In particular, we wanted to assess whether excess sarcolemmal plectin contributes to the dysregulation of sugar metabolism in mdx myofibers. Methods We generated plectin/dystrophin double deficient (dKO) mice by breeding mdx with conditional striated muscle-restricted plectin knockout (cKO) mice. The phenotype of these mice was comparatively analyzed with that of mdx, cKO, and wild-type mice, focusing on structural integrity and dysregulation of glucose metabolism. Results We show that the accumulation of plectin at the sarcolemma of mdx muscle fibers hardly compensated for their loss of structural integrity. Instead, it led to an additional metabolic deficit by impairing glucose uptake. While dKO mice suffered from an overall more severe form of muscular dystrophy compared to mdx or plectin-deficient mice, sarcolemmal integrity as well as glucose uptake of their myofibers were restored to normal levels upon ablation of plectin. Furthermore, microtubule (MT) networks in intact dKO myofibers, including subsarcolemmal areas, were found to be more robust than those in mdx mice. Finally, myotubes differentiated from P1f-overexpressing myoblasts showed an impairment of glucose transporter 4 translocation and a destabilization of MT networks. Conclusions Based on these results we propose that sarcolemma-associated plectin acts as an antagonist of MT network formation in myofibers, thereby hindering vesicle-mediated (MT-dependent) transport of glucose transporter 4. This novel role of plectin throws a bridge between extra-sarcomeric cytoarchitecture and metabolism of muscle fibers. Our study thus provides new insights into pathomechanisms of plectinopathies and muscular dystrophies in general. PMID:23758845

2013-01-01

265

Metabolic processes sustaining the reviviscence of lichen Xanthoria elegans (Link) in high mountain environments.  

PubMed

To survive in high mountain environments lichens must adapt themselves to alternating periods of desiccation and hydration. Respiration and photosynthesis of the foliaceous lichen, Xanthoria elegans, in the dehydrated state were below the threshold of CO2-detection by infrared gas analysis. Following hydration, respiration totally recovered within seconds and photosynthesis within minutes. In order to identify metabolic processes that may contribute to the quick and efficient reactivation of lichen physiological processes, we analysed the metabolite profile of lichen thalli step by step during hydration/dehydration cycles, using 31P- and 13C-NMR. It appeared that the recovery of respiration was prepared during dehydration by the accumulation of a reserve of gluconate 6-P (glcn-6-P) and by the preservation of nucleotide pools, whereas glycolytic and photosynthetic intermediates like glucose 6-P and ribulose 1,5-diphosphate were absent. The large pools of polyols present in both X. elegans photo- and mycobiont are likely to contribute to the protection of cell constituents like nucleotides, proteins, and membrane lipids, and to preserve the integrity of intracellular structures during desiccation. Our data indicate that glcn-6-P accumulated due to activation of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, in response to a need for reducing power (NADPH) during the dehydration-triggered down-regulation of cell metabolism. On the contrary, glcn-6-P was metabolised immediately after hydration, supplying respiration with substrates during the replenishment of pools of glycolytic and photosynthetic intermediates. Finally, the high net photosynthetic activity of wet X. elegans thalli at low temperature may help this alpine lichen to take advantage of brief hydration opportunities such as ice melting, thus favouring its growth in harsh high mountain climates. PMID:17574473

Aubert, Serge; Juge, Christine; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard

2007-10-01

266

Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward. PMID:21892693

Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

2012-08-01

267

TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing  

PubMed Central

Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome. PMID:24592204

Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T.; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2014-01-01

268

Early neural activation during facial affect processing in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder?  

PubMed Central

Impaired social interaction is one of the hallmarks of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Emotional faces are arguably the most critical visual social stimuli and the ability to perceive, recognize, and interpret emotions is central to social interaction and communication, and subsequently healthy social development. However, our understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD is limited. We recruited 48 adolescents, 24 with high functioning ASD and 24 typically developing controls. Participants completed an implicit emotional face processing task in the MEG. We examined spatiotemporal differences in neural activation between the groups during implicit angry and happy face processing. While there were no differences in response latencies between groups across emotions, adolescents with ASD had lower accuracy on the implicit emotional face processing task when the trials included angry faces. MEG data showed atypical neural activity in adolescents with ASD during angry and happy face processing, which included atypical activity in the insula, anterior and posterior cingulate and temporal and orbitofrontal regions. Our findings demonstrate differences in neural activity during happy and angry face processing between adolescents with and without ASD. These differences in activation in social cognitive regions may index the difficulties in face processing and in comprehension of social reward and punishment in the ASD group. Thus, our results suggest that atypical neural activation contributes to impaired affect processing, and thus social cognition, in adolescents with ASD. PMID:25610782

Leung, Rachel C.; Pang, Elizabeth W.; Cassel, Daniel; Brian, Jessica A.; Smith, Mary Lou; Taylor, Margot J.

2014-01-01

269

Sodium replacement of potassium in physiological processes of olive trees (var. Barnea) as affected by drought.  

PubMed

Potassium (K) is a macro-nutrient understood to play a role in the physiological performance of plants under drought. In some plant species, sodium (Na) can partially substitute K. Although a beneficial role of Na is well established, information regarding its nutritional role in trees is scant and its function under conditions of drought is not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of K and its possible replacement by Na in olive's (Olea europaea L.) response to drought. Young and bearing olive trees were grown in soilless culture and exposed to gradual drought. In the presence of Na, trees were tolerant of extremely low K concentrations. Depletion of K and Na resulted in ?50% reduction in CO2 assimilation rate when compared with sufficiently fertilized control plants. Sodium was able to replace K and recover the assimilation rate to nearly optimum level. The inhibitory effect of K deficiency on photosynthesis was more pronounced under high stomatal conductance. Potassium was not found to facilitate drought tolerance mechanisms in olives. Moreover, stomatal control machinery was not significantly impaired by K deficiency, regardless of water availability. Under drought, leaf water potential was affected by K and Na. High environmental K and Na increased leaf starch content and affected the soluble carbohydrate profile in a similar manner. These results identify olive as a species capable of partly replacing K by Na. The nutritional effect of K and Na was shown to be independent of plant water status. The beneficial effect of Na on photosynthesis and carbohydrates under insufficient K indicates a positive role of Na in metabolism and photosynthetic reactions. PMID:25281842

Erel, Ran; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Yermiyahu, Uri

2014-10-01

270

Neural, Parallel, and Scientific Computations 20 (2012) 227-240 PULSED MELODIC AFFECTIVE PROCESSING -USING MUSIC FOR  

E-print Network

music systems [4] two dimensions are used: Valence and Arousal (see Figure 1). In that model, emotions), and the second dimension being how intense the physical arousal of the emotion is (Arousal). For example "Happy ­ capable of representing the arousal and valence of affective states. Affective processing and affective

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

271

The power of emotional valence—from cognitive to affective processes in reading  

PubMed Central

The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy. PMID:22754519

Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C.; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2012-01-01

272

Exposure of embryos to cyclically cold incubation temperatures durably affects energy metabolism and antioxidant pathways in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Cyclically cold incubation temperatures have been suggested as a means to improve resistance of broiler chickens to ascites; however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Nine hundred eggs obtained from 48 wk Ross broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 incubation treatments: control I eggs were incubated at 37.6°C throughout, whereas for cold I eggs the incubation temperature was reduced by 1°C for 6 h daily from 10 to 18 d of incubation. Thereafter, chickens were reared at standard temperatures or under cold exposure that was associated or not with a postnatal cold acclimation at d 5 posthatch. At hatch, hepatic catalase activity and malondialdehyde content were measured. Serum thyroid hormone and triglyceride concentrations, and muscle expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress were also measured at hatch and 5 and 25 d posthatch. Cold incubation induced modifications in antioxidant pathways with higher catalase activity, but lower expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 at hatch. However, long-term enhancement in the expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 was observed, probably caused by an increase in the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? coactivator-1?. These effects were not systematically associated with an increase in serum triiodothyronine concentrations that were observed only in chickens exposed to both cold incubation and later acclimation at 5 d with cold rearing. Our results suggest that these conditions of cyclically cold incubation resulted in the long-term in changes in antioxidant pathways and energy metabolism, which could enhance the health of chickens reared under cold conditions. PMID:24894528

Loyau, T; Collin, A; Yenisey, C; Crochet, S; Siegel, P B; Ak?it, M; Yalçin, S

2014-08-01

273

Metabolic processes sustaining the reviviscence of lichen Xanthoria elegans (Link) in high mountain environments  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to alternating periods of desiccation and hydration is one of the lichen’s requirements for survival in high mountain environment. In the dehydrated state, respiration and photosynthesis of the foliaceous lichen Xanthoria elegans were below the threshold of CO2-detection by infrared gas analysis. Following hydration, respiration totally recovered within seconds and photosynthesis within minutes. In order to identify metabolic processes that may contribute to restart so quickly and efficiently lichen physiological activity, we analysed the metabolite profile of lichen thalli step by step during hydration/dehydration cycles, using 31P-and 13C-NMR. It appeared that the recovery of respiration was anticipated during dehydration by the accumulation of important stores of gluconate 6-P (glcn-6-P) and by the preservation of the nucleotide pools, whereas glycolysis and photosynthesis intermediates like glucose 6-P and ribulose 1,5-diphosphate disappeared. The important pools of polyols present in both X. elegans photo- and mycobiont likely contributed to protect cells constituents like nucleotides, proteins, and membrane lipids, and to preserve the intactness of intracellular structures during desiccation. Our data indicate that glcn-6-P accumulated due to the activation of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, in response to cell need for reducing power (NADPH) during the dehydration-triggered down regulation of metabolism. On the contrary, glcn-6-P was metabolised immediately after hydration, supplying respiration with substrates during the recovery of the pools of glycolysis and photosynthesis intermediates. Finally, the high net photo synthetic activity of wet X. elegans thalli at low temperature may help this alpine lichen to take advantage of short hydration opportunities such as ice melting, thus favouring its growth in the harsh high mountain climate. PMID:17574473

Aubert, Serge; Juge, Christine; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard

2007-01-01

274

The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure. PMID:21461985

Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

2011-06-01

275

Application of a solar UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process to oil sands process-affected water remediation.  

PubMed

The solar UV/chlorine process has emerged as a novel advanced oxidation process for industrial and municipal wastewaters. Currently, its practical application to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) remediation has been studied to treat fresh OSPW retained in large tailings ponds, which can cause significant adverse environmental impacts on ground and surface waters in Northern Alberta, Canada. Degradation of naphthenic acids (NAs) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW was investigated. In a laboratory-scale UV/chlorine treatment, the NAs degradation was clearly structure-dependent and hydroxyl radical-based. In terms of the NAs degradation rate, the raw OSPW (pH ? 8.3) rates were higher than those at an alkaline condition (pH = 10). Under actual sunlight, direct solar photolysis partially degraded fluorophore organic compounds, as indicated by the qualitative synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) of the OSPW, but did not impact NAs degradation. The solar/chlorine process effectively removed NAs (75-84% removal) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW in the presence of 200 or 300 mg L(-1) OCl(-). The acute toxicity of OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was reduced after the solar/chlorine treatment. However, the OSPW toxicity toward goldfish primary kidney macrophages after solar/chlorine treatment showed no obvious toxicity reduction versus that of untreated OSPW, which warrants further study for process optimization. PMID:25051215

Shu, Zengquan; Li, Chao; Belosevic, Miodrag; Bolton, James R; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

2014-08-19

276

The investment in scent: time-resolved metabolic processes in developing volatile-producing Nigella sativa L. seeds.  

PubMed

The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids) and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol-3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18?3n-3 abundant in "green" seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs. PMID:24019893

Xue, Wentao; Batushansky, Albert; Toubiana, David; Botnick, Ilan; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Nikoloski, Zoran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fait, Aaron

2013-01-01

277

Endogenous Enzymes, Heat, and pH Affect Flavone Profiles in Parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and Celery (Apium graveolens) during Juice Processing  

PubMed Central

Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds. PMID:22224550

Hostetler, Gregory L.; Riedl, Ken M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

2013-01-01

278

Spontaneous ultraweak photon emission imaging of oxidative metabolic processes in human skin: effect of molecular oxygen and antioxidant defense system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All living organisms emit spontaneous ultraweak photon emission as a result of cellular metabolic processes. In this study, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed as the byproduct of oxidative metabolic processes in spontaneous ultraweak photon emission was studied in human hand skin. The effect of molecular oxygen and ROS scavengers on spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from human skin was monitored using a highly sensitive photomultiplier tube and charged coupled device camera. When spontaneous ultraweak photon emission was measured under anaerobic conditions, the photon emission was decreased, whereas under hyperaerobic condition the enhancement in photon emission was observed. Spontaneous ultraweak photon emission measured after topical application of glutathione, ?-tocopherol, ascorbate, and coenzyme Q10 was observed to be decreased. These results reveal that ROS formed during the cellular metabolic processes in the epidermal cells play a significant role in the spontaneous ultraweak photon emission. It is proposed that spontaneous ultraweak photon emission can be used as a noninvasive tool for the temporal and spatial monitoring of the oxidative metabolic processes and intrinsic antioxidant system in human skin.

Rastogi, Anshu; Pospíšil, Pavel

2011-09-01

279

Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

2000-01-01

280

Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading to coniferyl alcohol, was not up-regulated under any of the conditions employed, suggesting that it is not, in fact, involved in monolignol biosynthesis.

Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

2002-01-01

281

Waterlogging during flowering and boll forming stages affects sucrose metabolism in the leaves subtending the cotton boll and its relationship with boll weight.  

PubMed

The work explored sucrose metabolism in the leaves subtending the cotton boll (SBL) and its role in boll weight after waterlogging in cotton. Results showed that net photosynthesis rate (Pn), relative water content, contents of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b, initial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) activity and cytosolic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (cy-FBPase) activity decreased with waterlogging in the SBL on fruiting branches 2-3 (FB2-3) and FB6-7. Activities of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) increased to the maximum up to 6 days of waterlogging then decreased with prolonged waterlogging. Rubisco activation and specific leaf weight increased and gene expressions of SuSy, SPS and rubisco activase (RCA) were all up-regulated with the duration of waterlogging, especially for the SBL on FB6-7. The induction of activity and gene expression of SuSy was most significant indicating its crucial role in sucrose metabolism after waterlogging. For the SBL in the later period of boll development on upper FB10-11 and FB14-15, the pattern seemed opposite to that of FB2-3 and FB6c7 as compensation effect in vegetative growth existed. Correlation analysis revealed that initial Rubisco activity and cy-FBPase activity were the main limitation to Pn reduction after waterlogging. Reduction in Pn, sucrose transformation rate and initial Rubisco activity directly decrease boll weight in waterlogged cotton. Besides the role in sucrose metabolism after waterlogging, SuSy also had a positive significant correlation with the duration of rapid-accumulation period for seed fiber weight (P<0.05). These findings elucidated mechanisms to waterlogging that affected seed fiber weight, which resulted from alteration in carbohydrates, enzymes and genes. PMID:24767118

Kuai, Jie; Liu, Zhaowei; Wang, Youhua; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M

2014-06-01

282

Modulation of Vitamin D Status and Dietary Calcium Affects Bone Mineral Density and Mineral Metabolism in Göttingen Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6?g calcium and 6,500?IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2?g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with ?51.2 ± 14.7?mg/cm3 in contrast to controls (?2.3 ± 11.8?mg/cm3), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4?nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4?nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects. PMID:24062955

Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E.; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Günter; Açil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jürgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

2013-01-01

283

Interactions between genetic variants of folate metabolism genes and lifestyle affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican population  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate genetic and lifestyle factors and their interactions on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican population. Design Cross-sectional study. Plasma concentrations of Hcy, folate, vitamin B12 and pyridoxal phosphate were measured, and genetic polymorphisms were determined. Data on lifestyle factors were collected in interviews. Setting A population survey of health and nutritional measures. Subjects A total of 994 Puerto Rican men and women residing in the Boston metropolitan area. Results Smoking status was positively associated with plasma Hcy. Genetic polymorphisms MTHFR 677C?T, FOLH1 1561C?T, FOLH1 rs647370 and PCFT 928A? G interacted significantly with smoking for Hcy. MTHFR 1298A?C (P=0.040) and PCFT 928A?G (P=0.002) displayed significant interactions with alcohol intake in determining plasma Hcy. Subjects with PCFT 928GG genotype had significantly higher plasma Hcy concentrations compared with carriers of the A allele (AA+AG; P=0.030) among non-drinking subjects. When consuming alcohol, GG subjects had lower plasma Hcy levels compared with AA+AG subjects. Physical activity interacted significantly with MTR 2756A?G in determining plasma Hcy (P for interaction = 0.002). Smoking interacted with physical activity for plasma Hcy (P for interaction = 0.023). Conclusions Smoking and drinking were associated plasma Hcy concentrations. Genetic variants involved in folate metabolism further modify the effects of lifestyle on plasma Hcy. PMID:21338559

Huang, Tao; Tucker, Katherine L; Lee, Yu-Chi; Crott, Jimmy W; Parnell, Laurence D; Shen, Jian; Smith, Caren E; Ordovas, Jose M; Li, Duo; Lai, Chao-Qiang

2015-01-01

284

Life span and stress resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans are differentially affected by glutathione transferases metabolizing 4-hydroxynon-2-enal  

PubMed Central

The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynon-2-enal (4-HNE) forms as a consequence of oxidative stress, and acts as a signaling molecule or, at superphysiological levels, as a toxicant. The steady-state concentration of the compound reflects the balance between its generation and its metabolism, primarily through glutathione conjugation. Using an RNAi-based screen, we identified in Caenorhabditis elegans five glutathione transferases (GSTs) capable of catalyzing 4-HNE conjugation. RNAi knock-down of these GSTs (products of the gst-5, gst-6, gst-8, gst-10, and gst-24 genes) sensitized the nematode to electrophilic stress elicited by exposure to 4-HNE. However, interference with the expression of only two of these genes (gst-5 and gst-10) significantly shortened the life span of the organism. RNAi knock-down of the other GSTs resulted in at least as much 4-HNE adducts, suggesting tissue-specificity of effects on longevity. Our results are consistent with the oxidative stress theory of organismal aging, broadened by considering electrophilic stress as a contributing factor. According to this extended hypothesis, peroxidation of lipids leads to the formation of 4-HNE in a chain reaction which amplifies the original damage. 4-HNE then acts as an "aging effector" via the formation of 4-HNE-protein adducts, and a resulting change in protein function. PMID:17157356

Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Dandapat, Abhijit; Singh, Sharda P.; Siegel, Eric R.; Shmookler Reis, Robert J.; Zimniak, Ludwika; Zimniak, Piotr

2007-01-01

285

Altitude, pasture type, and sheep breed affect bone metabolism and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in grazing lambs.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the bone development of two mountain sheep breeds during natural summer grazing either in the lowlands or on different characteristic alpine pastures. Pasture types differed in topographic slope, plant species composition, general nutritional feeding value, Ca and P content, and Ca:P ratio of herbage. Twenty-seven Engadine sheep (ES) lambs and 27 Valaisian Black Nose sheep (VS) lambs were divided into four groups of 6 to 7 animals per breed and allocated to three contrasting alpine pasture types and one lowland pasture type. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 wk of experimental grazing. The steep alpine pastures in combination with a high (4.8) to very high (13.6) Ca:P ratio in the forage decreased total bone mineral content as measured in the middle of the left metatarsus of the lambs from both breeds, and cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone mineral density of ES lambs. Breed × pasture type interactions occurred in the development of total and cortical bone mineral content, and in cortical thickness, indicating that bone metabolism of different genotypes obviously profited differently from the varying conditions. An altitude effect occurred for 25-hydroxyvitamin D with notably higher serum concentrations on the three alpine sites, and a breed effect led to higher concentrations for ES than VS. Despite a high variance, there were pasture-type effects on serum markers of bone formation and resorption. PMID:23471950

Willems, Helen; Leiber, Florian; Kohler, Martina; Kreuzer, Michael; Liesegang, Annette

2013-05-15

286

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery.  

PubMed

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m(2)), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, (1)H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, (13)C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

Crouzier, David; Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

287

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery  

PubMed Central

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

288

High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).  

PubMed

Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant protein (PP) and a high (70 %) or medium (35 %) vegetable oil (VO) blend (trial 1); or 70 % PP with either 100 % FO or 80 % of the FO replaced with olive, rapeseed or soyabean oil (trial 2). Replacing ? 70 % of FM with PP and ? 70 % of FO with either a VO blend or rapeseed oil increased plasma and liver TAG concentrations. These diets contained high levels of phytosterols and low levels of cholesterol. Fish fed low-cholesterol diets, but with less phytosterols, exhibited an increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol uptake and synthesis. The expression of these genes was, however, partially inhibited in rapeseed oil-fed fish possibly due to the high dietary and tissue phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Atlantic salmon tissue and plasma cholesterol concentrations were maintained stable independent of the dietary sterol content. PMID:23631850

Liland, Nina S; Espe, Marit; Rosenlund, Grethe; Waagbø, Rune; Hjelle, Jan I; Lie, Øyvind; Fontanillas, Ramon; Torstensen, Bente E

2013-12-14

289

Abscisic acid metabolism and anthocyanin synthesis in grape skin are affected by light emitting diode (LED) irradiation at night.  

PubMed

The effects of blue and red light irradiation at night on abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and anthocyanin synthesis were examined in grape berries. The expressions of VlMYBA1-2, VlMYBA2, UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (VvUFGT), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1) were also investigated. Endogenous ABA, its metabolite phaseic acid (PA), and the expressions of VvNCED1 and VvCYP707A1 were highest in red light-emitting diode (LED)-treated skin. In contrast, anthocyanin concentrations were highest in blue LED-treated skin, followed by red LED treatment. However, the expressions of VlMYBA1-2, VlMYBA2, and VvUFGT did not necessarily coincide with anthocyanin concentrations. The quality of coloring may depend on the amount of malvidin-based anthocyanin, which increased toward harvest in blue and red LED-treated skin, unlike in untreated controls. An increase in sugars was also observed in blue and red LED-treated skin. These results suggest that blue LED irradiation at night may be effective in increasing anthocyanin and sugar concentrations in grape berries. However, there is evidence that another factor may influence anthocyanin concentrations in grape berry skin significantly more than endogenous ABA: ABA concentrations were highest in red LED-treated skin, which had lower anthocyanin concentrations than blue LED-treated skin. PMID:24877674

Kondo, Satoru; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Rodyoung, Abhichartbut; Okawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Sugaya, Sumiko; Terahara, Norihiko; Hirai, Nobuhiro

2014-06-15

290

Pollen density on the stigma affects endogenous gibberellin metabolism, seed and fruit set, and fruit quality in Pyrus pyrifolia  

PubMed Central

To clarify the relationship between pollen density and gametophytic competition in Pyrus pyrifolia, gametophytic performance, gibberellin metabolism, fruit set, and fruit quality were investigated by modifying P. pyrifolia pollen grain number and density with Lycopodium spores. Higher levels of pollen density improved seed viability, fruit set, and fruit quality. Treatments with the highest pollen density showed a significantly increased fruit growth rate and larger fruit at harvest. High pollen density increased germination rate and gave a faster pollen tube growth, both in vivo and in vitro. Endogenous gibberellin (GA) concentrations increased in pollen tubes soon after germination and the concentration of two growth-active GAs, GA3, and GA4, was positively correlated to final fruit size, cell numbers in the mesocarp, and pollen tube growth rate. These two GAs appear to be biosynthesized de novo in pollen tube and are the main pollen-derived bioactive GAs found after pollen germination. GA1 levels in the pollen tube appear to be related to a pollen–style interaction that occurred after the pollen grains landed on the stigma. PMID:20713466

Zhang, Caixi; Tateishi, Naoya; Tanabe, Kenji

2010-01-01

291

Impaired Cross-Talk between Mesolimbic Food Reward Processing and Metabolic Signaling Predicts Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food, which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food-related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum (VS) in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e., monetary) and food-related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20?kg/m2) over a normal (20–25?kg/m2) and overweight (25–30?kg/m2) BMI, to class I (30–35?kg/m2) and class II (35–40?kg/m2) obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn “snack points” or “money coins,” which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the VS, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime). This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e., increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling. PMID:25368558

Simon, Joe J.; Skunde, Mandy; Hamze Sinno, Maria; Brockmeyer, Timo; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

2014-01-01

292

Nutritive value of corn silage as affected by maturity and mechanical processing: a contemporary review.  

PubMed

Stage of maturity at harvest and mechanical processing affect the nutritive value of corn silage. The change in nutritive value of corn silage as maturity advances can be measured by animal digestion and macro in situ degradation studies among other methods. Predictive equations using climatic data, vitreousness of corn grain in corn silage, starch reactivity, gelatinization enthalpy, dry matter (DM) of corn grain in corn silage, and DM of corn silage can be used to estimate starch digestibility of corn silage. Whole plant corn silage can be mechanically processed either pre- or postensiling with a kernel processor mounted on a forage harvester, a recutter screen on a forage harvester, or a stationary roller mill. Mechanical processing of corn silage can improve ensiling characteristics, reduce DM losses during ensiling, and improve starch and fiber digestion as a result of fracturing the corn kernels and crushing and shearing the stover and cobs. Improvements in milk production have ranged from 0.2 to 2.0 kg/d when cows were fed mechanically processed corn silage. A consistent improvement in milk protein yield has also been observed when mechanically processed corn silage has been fed. With the advent of mechanical processors, alternative strategies are evident for corn silage management, such as a longer harvest window. PMID:10629831

Johnson, L; Harrison, J H; Hunt, C; Shinners, K; Doggett, C G; Sapienza, D

1999-12-01

293

Altered Xylem-Phloem Transfer of Amino Acids Affects Metabolism and Leads to Increased Seed Yield and Oil Content in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Seed development and nitrogen (N) storage depend on delivery of amino acids to seed sinks. For efficient translocation to seeds, amino acids are loaded into the phloem in source leaves and along the long distance transport pathway through xylem-phloem transfer. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana AMINO ACID PERMEASE2 (AAP2) localizes to the phloem throughout the plant. AAP2 T-DNA insertion lines showed changes in source-sink translocation of amino acids and a decrease in the amount of seed total N and storage proteins, supporting AAP2 function in phloem loading and amino acid distribution to the embryo. Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. Moreover, branch and silique numbers per plant and seed yield were strongly increased. This suggests changes in N and C delivery to sinks and subsequent modulations of sink development and seed metabolism. This is supported by tracer experiments, expression studies of genes of N/C transport and metabolism in source and sink, and by phenotypic and metabolite analyses of aap2 plants. Thus, AAP2 is key for xylem to phloem transfer and sink N and C supply; moreover, modifications of N allocation can positively affect C assimilation and source-sink transport and benefit sink development and oil yield. PMID:21075769

Zhang, Lizhi; Tan, Qiumin; Lee, Raymond; Trethewy, Alexander; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Tegeder, Mechthild

2010-01-01

294

Complete Proteomic-Based Enzyme Reaction and Inhibition Kinetics Reveal How Monolignol Biosynthetic Enzyme Families Affect Metabolic Flux and Lignin in Populus trichocarpa[W  

PubMed Central

We established a predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model for the 21 enzymes and 24 metabolites of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway using Populus trichocarpa secondary differentiating xylem. To establish this model, a comprehensive study was performed to obtain the reaction and inhibition kinetic parameters of all 21 enzymes based on functional recombinant proteins. A total of 104 Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters and 85 inhibition kinetic parameters were derived from these enzymes. Through mass spectrometry, we obtained the absolute quantities of all 21 pathway enzymes in the secondary differentiating xylem. This extensive experimental data set, generated from a single tissue specialized in wood formation, was used to construct the predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model to provide a comprehensive mathematical description of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. The model was validated using experimental data from transgenic P. trichocarpa plants. The model predicts how pathway enzymes affect lignin content and composition, explains a long-standing paradox regarding the regulation of monolignol subunit ratios in lignin, and reveals novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. This model provides an explanation of the effects of genetic and transgenic perturbations of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway in flowering plants. PMID:24619611

Wang, Jack P.; Naik, Punith P.; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Shuford, Christopher M.; Li, Quanzi; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Williams, Cranos M.; Muddiman, David C.; Ducoste, Joel J.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

2014-01-01

295

Altered xylem-phloem transfer of amino acids affects metabolism and leads to increased seed yield and oil content in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Seed development and nitrogen (N) storage depend on delivery of amino acids to seed sinks. For efficient translocation to seeds, amino acids are loaded into the phloem in source leaves and along the long distance transport pathway through xylem-phloem transfer. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana AMINO ACID PERMEASE2 (AAP2) localizes to the phloem throughout the plant. AAP2 T-DNA insertion lines showed changes in source-sink translocation of amino acids and a decrease in the amount of seed total N and storage proteins, supporting AAP2 function in phloem loading and amino acid distribution to the embryo. Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. Moreover, branch and silique numbers per plant and seed yield were strongly increased. This suggests changes in N and C delivery to sinks and subsequent modulations of sink development and seed metabolism. This is supported by tracer experiments, expression studies of genes of N/C transport and metabolism in source and sink, and by phenotypic and metabolite analyses of aap2 plants. Thus, AAP2 is key for xylem to phloem transfer and sink N and C supply; moreover, modifications of N allocation can positively affect C assimilation and source-sink transport and benefit sink development and oil yield. PMID:21075769

Zhang, Lizhi; Tan, Qiumin; Lee, Raymond; Trethewy, Alexander; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Tegeder, Mechthild

2010-11-01

296

Complete proteomic-based enzyme reaction and inhibition kinetics reveal how monolignol biosynthetic enzyme families affect metabolic flux and lignin in Populus trichocarpa.  

PubMed

We established a predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model for the 21 enzymes and 24 metabolites of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway using Populus trichocarpa secondary differentiating xylem. To establish this model, a comprehensive study was performed to obtain the reaction and inhibition kinetic parameters of all 21 enzymes based on functional recombinant proteins. A total of 104 Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters and 85 inhibition kinetic parameters were derived from these enzymes. Through mass spectrometry, we obtained the absolute quantities of all 21 pathway enzymes in the secondary differentiating xylem. This extensive experimental data set, generated from a single tissue specialized in wood formation, was used to construct the predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model to provide a comprehensive mathematical description of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. The model was validated using experimental data from transgenic P. trichocarpa plants. The model predicts how pathway enzymes affect lignin content and composition, explains a long-standing paradox regarding the regulation of monolignol subunit ratios in lignin, and reveals novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. This model provides an explanation of the effects of genetic and transgenic perturbations of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway in flowering plants. PMID:24619611

Wang, Jack P; Naik, Punith P; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Shuford, Christopher M; Li, Quanzi; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Williams, Cranos M; Muddiman, David C; Ducoste, Joel J; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

2014-03-01

297

Continental Shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight  

SciTech Connect

Progress in studies of the physical processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight is reported. NCSU personnel efforts have been focused on processing and analyzing existing data sets as well as planning and preparing for the Georgia Atlantic Bight Experiment (GABEX-1). Three cruises were conducted between June 1979 and February 1980 for the temperature/pressure recording instruments (June to Oct) and for the deployment of the GABEX I and other arrays. The Onslow Bay data sets extend over four years of observations from the mid- and outer-shelf region. Each mooring cruise has been coordinated with similar mooring deployments off Savannah and off Cape Romain with hydrographic cruises and with interdisciplinary cruises following Gulf Stream filaments and involving biological, chemical and physical oceanographers. The current meter data collected in the Carolina Capes is listed. Preprints and reprints are included.

Pietrafesa, L.J.

1980-04-14

298

Antioxidant and functional properties of tea protein as affected by the different tea processing methods.  

PubMed

The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was used to optimize alkali extraction of protein from tea. Three independent extraction variables (extraction time: X1; extraction temperature: X2; alkali concentration: X3) were evaluated. The antioxidant and functional properties of tea protein as affected by different tea processing were compared. The optimum conditions were: extraction time of 85 min, extraction temperature of 80 °C, and alkali concentration of 0.15 M. Under such conditions, the predicted maximum protein extracted yield was 20.73 %, which coincided with the experimental values. Three kinds of tea protein showed good antioxidant and functional properties. Tea processing method had a significant impact on the properties of tea protein. Protein from oolong tea showed the best properties and it might be used as a good source of potential antioxidant and additives in food industry. PMID:25694682

Zhang, Yu; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Lishuai

2015-02-01

299

Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans.  

PubMed

Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

2014-07-15

300

The long summer: pre-wintering temperatures affect metabolic expenditure and winter survival in a solitary bee.  

PubMed

The impact of climate change on insect populations depends on specific life cycle traits and physiological adaptations. The solitary bee Osmia lignaria winters as a pre-emergent adult, and requires a period of cold temperature for winter diapause completion. It is a univoltine species, and diapause induction does not depend on photoperiod. To understand the potential effects of longer summers on O. lignaria populations, we exposed individuals to three treatments simulating early, mid and late winter arrivals, and measured respiration rates, metabolic expenditure, weight loss, fat body depletion, lipid levels and winter mortality. The early-winter treatment disrupted diapause development, but had no apparent negative effects on fitness. In contrast, late-winter bees had a greater energetic expenditure (1.5-fold), weight (1.4-fold) and lipid (2-fold) loss, greater fat body depletion, and a 19% increase in mortality compared to mid-winter bees. We also monitored adult eclosion and arrival of winter temperatures under natural conditions in four years. We found a positive correlation between mean degree-day accumulation during pre-wintering (a measure of asynchrony between adult eclosion and winter arrival) and yearly winter mortality. Individually, bees experiencing greater degree-day accumulations exhibited reduced post-winter longevity. Timing of adult eclosion in O. lignaria is dependent on the duration of the prepupal period, which occurs in mid-summer, is also diapause-mediated, and is longer in populations from southerly latitudes. In a global warming scenario, we expect long summer diapause phenotypes to replace short summer diapause phenotypes, effectively maintaining short pre-wintering periods in spite of delayed winter arrivals. PMID:21910996

Sgolastra, Fabio; Kemp, William P; Buckner, James S; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Maini, Stefano; Bosch, Jordi

2011-12-01

301

Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans  

PubMed Central

Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial–venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12–23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension () (R2 ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

2014-01-01

302

17-? Oestradiol prevents cardiovascular dysfunction in post-menopausal metabolic syndrome by affecting SIRT1/AMPK/H3 acetylation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Oestrogen therapy is known to induce cardioprotection in post-menopausal metabolic syndrome (PMS). Hence, we investigated the effect of 17-? oestradiol (E2) on functional responses to angiotensin II and cardiovascular dysfunction in a rat model of PMS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH PMS was induced in ovariectomized rats by feeding a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. Isometric tension responses of aortic rings to angiotensin II were recorded using an isometric force transducer. TUNEL assay and immunoblotting was performed to assess apoptosis and protein expression respectively in PMS. KEY RESULTS Endothelial dysfunction in PMS was characterized by enhanced angiotensin II-induced contractile responses and impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation. This was associated with an increased protein expression of AT1 receptors in the aorta and heart in PMS. PMS induced cardiac apoptosis by activating Bax and PARP protein expression. These changes were associated with a down-regulation in the expression of silent information regulation 2 homologue (SIRT1)/P-AMP-activated PK (AMPK) and increased H3 acetylation in aorta and heart. E2 partially suppressed angiotensin II-induced contractions, restored the protein expression of SIRT1/P-AMPK and suppressed H3 acetylation. The role of SIRT1/AMPK was further highlighted by administration of sirtinol and compound C (ex vivo), which enhanced angiotensin II contractile responses and ablated the protective effect of E2 on PMS. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Our results provide novel mechanisms for PMS-induced cardiovascular dysfunction involving SIRT1/AMPK/ histone H3 acetylation, which was prevented by E2. The study suggests that therapies targeting SIRT1/AMPK/epigenetic modifications may be beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:23826814

Bendale, Dhaval Sharad; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Chhabra, Richa; Shete, Sachin Prabhakarrao; Shah, Heta; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

2013-01-01

303

Metabolic Induction and Early Responses of Mouse Blastocyst Developmental Programming following Maternal Low Protein Diet Affecting Life-Long Health  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have shown that a maternal low protein diet, fed exclusively during the preimplantation period of mouse development (Emb-LPD), is sufficient to induce by the blastocyst stage a compensatory growth phenotype in late gestation and postnatally, correlating with increased risk of adult onset cardiovascular disease and behavioural dysfunction. Here, we examine mechanisms of induction of maternal Emb-LPD programming and early compensatory responses by the embryo. Emb-LPD induced changes in maternal serum metabolites at the time of blastocyst formation (E3.5), notably reduced insulin and increased glucose, together with reduced levels of free amino acids (AAs) including branched chain AAs leucine, isoleucine and valine. Emb-LPD also caused reduction in the branched chain AAs within uterine fluid at the blastocyst stage. These maternal changes coincided with an altered content of blastocyst AAs and reduced mTORC1 signalling within blastocysts evident in reduced phosphorylation of effector S6 ribosomal protein and its ratio to total S6 protein but no change in effector 4E-BP1 phosphorylated and total pools. These changes were accompanied by increased proliferation of blastocyst trophectoderm and total cells and subsequent increased spreading of trophoblast cells in blastocyst outgrowths. We propose that induction of metabolic programming following Emb-LPD is achieved through mTORC1signalling which acts as a sensor for preimplantation embryos to detect maternal nutrient levels via branched chain AAs and/or insulin availability. Moreover, this induction step associates with changes in extra-embryonic trophectoderm behaviour occurring as early compensatory responses leading to later nutrient recovery. PMID:23300778

Eckert, Judith J.; Porter, Richard; Watkins, Adam J.; Burt, Elizabeth; Brooks, Suzanne; Leese, Henry J.; Humpherson, Peter G.; Cameron, Iain T.; Fleming, Tom P.

2012-01-01

304

Does domestication process affect stress response in juvenile Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis?  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate the impact of domestication process on the physiological stress response of cultured Eurasian perch confronted to a chronic stress situation. Briefly, F1 and F4 juveniles were submitted to chronic confinement and investigated on days 5, 15 and 30. Capture and 15min-anesthesia were imposed on fish to assess the effect of preceding confinement on acute stress response. On day 30, the fish were finally challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled after 5 and 10 days for immune parameter measurements. Cortisol and glucose levels were not affected by confinement but increased significantly after acute stressor exposure. Moreover, cortisol rise following capture and anesthesia was higher in F1 confined-fish, suggesting that they have previously been affected by chronic confinement. A higher HSP70 level was also observed on day 30 in F1 confined-juveniles. During bacterial challenge, regardless of confinement level, F4 juveniles displayed higher lysozyme activity and agglutination response than F1 which may indicate a higher immune capacity in domesticated fish. In conclusion, chronic confinement stressor induced few physiological responses but may increase the responsiveness to other aquacultural stressors. Domestication process also seems to improve chronic stress resistance, growth as well as the immune status of the fish. PMID:21300167

Douxfils, J; Mandiki, S N M; Marotte, G; Wang, N; Silvestre, F; Milla, S; Henrotte, E; Vandecan, M; Rougeot, C; Mélard, C; Kestemont, P

2011-05-01

305

Health of domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) following exposure to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of northern Alberta produces large volumes of process-affected water that contains substances toxic to wildlife. Recent monitoring has shown that tens of thousands of birds land on ponds containing this water annually, creating an urgent need to understand its effects on bird health. We emulated the repeated, short-term exposures that migrating water birds are thought to experience by exposing pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) to recycled oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As indicators of health, we measured a series of physiological (electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, hormones, and blood cells) and toxicological (metals and minerals) variables. Relative to controls, juvenile birds exposed to OSPW had higher potassium following the final exposure, and males had a higher thyroid hormone ratio (T3/T4). In adults, exposed birds had higher vanadium, and, following the final exposure, higher bicarbonate. Exposed females had higher bile acid, globulin, and molybdenum levels, and males, higher corticosterone. However, with the exception of the metals, none of these measures varied from available reference ranges for ducks, suggesting OSPW is not toxic to juvenile or adult birds after three and six weekly, 1 h exposures, but more studies are needed to know the generality of this result. PMID:25003652

Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

2014-08-01

306

Biomechanical organization of gait initiation depends on the timing of affective processing.  

PubMed

Gait initiation (GI) from a quiet bipedal posture has been shown to be influenced by the emotional state of the actor. The literature suggests that the biomechanical organization of forward GI is facilitated when pleasant pictures are shown, as compared to unpleasant pictures. However, there are inconsistencies in the literature, which could be due to the neural dynamics of affective processing. This study aimed to test this hypothesis, using a paradigm whereby participants initiated a step as soon as they saw an affective picture (i.e., onset), or as soon as the picture disappeared from the screen (i.e., offset). Pictures were a priori categorized as pleasant or unpleasant, and could also vary in their arousing properties. We analyzed center-of-pressure and center-of-gravity dynamics as a function of emotional content. We found that gait was initiated faster with pleasant images at onset, and faster with unpleasant images at offset. Also, with offset GI the peak velocity of the COG was reduced, and subjects took smaller steps, with unpleasant images relative to pleasant images. The results are discussed in terms of current knowledge regarding temporal processing of emotions, and its effects on GI. PMID:25455703

Stins, John F; van Gelder, Linda M A; Oudenhoven, Laura M; Beek, Peter J

2015-01-01

307

Modulation of affective face processing deficits in Schizophrenia by congruent emotional sounds  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder resulting in prominent impairments in social functioning. Thus, clinical research has focused on underlying deficits of emotion processing and their linkage to specific symptoms and neurobiological dysfunctions. Although there is substantial research investigating impairments in unimodal affect recognition, studies in schizophrenia exploring crossmodal emotion processing are rare. Therefore, event-related potentials were measured in 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls while rating the expression of happy, fearful and neutral faces and concurrently being distracted by emotional or neutral sounds. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia revealed significantly decreased P1 and increased P2 amplitudes in response to all faces, independent of emotion or concurrent sound. Analyzing these effects with regard to audiovisual (in)congruence revealed that P1 amplitudes in patients were only reduced in response to emotionally incongruent stimulus pairs, whereas similar amplitudes between groups could be observed for congruent conditions. Correlation analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between general symptom severity (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-V4) and P1 amplitudes in response to congruent audiovisual stimulus pairs. These results indicate that early visual processing deficits in schizophrenia are apparent during emotion processing but, depending on symptom severity, these deficits can be restored by presenting concurrent emotionally congruent sounds. PMID:22977201

Müller, Veronika I.; Kellermann, Tanja S.; Seligman, Sarah C.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

2014-01-01

308

Modulation of affective face processing deficits in Schizophrenia by congruent emotional sounds.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder resulting in prominent impairments in social functioning. Thus, clinical research has focused on underlying deficits of emotion processing and their linkage to specific symptoms and neurobiological dysfunctions. Although there is substantial research investigating impairments in unimodal affect recognition, studies in schizophrenia exploring crossmodal emotion processing are rare. Therefore, event-related potentials were measured in 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls while rating the expression of happy, fearful and neutral faces and concurrently being distracted by emotional or neutral sounds. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia revealed significantly decreased P1 and increased P2 amplitudes in response to all faces, independent of emotion or concurrent sound. Analyzing these effects with regard to audiovisual (in)congruence revealed that P1 amplitudes in patients were only reduced in response to emotionally incongruent stimulus pairs, whereas similar amplitudes between groups could be observed for congruent conditions. Correlation analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between general symptom severity (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-V4) and P1 amplitudes in response to congruent audiovisual stimulus pairs. These results indicate that early visual processing deficits in schizophrenia are apparent during emotion processing but, depending on symptom severity, these deficits can be restored by presenting concurrent emotionally congruent sounds. PMID:22977201

Müller, Veronika I; Kellermann, Tanja S; Seligman, Sarah C; Turetsky, Bruce I; Eickhoff, Simon B

2014-04-01

309

Processing Conditions Affecting Grain Size and Mechanical Properties in Nanocomposites Produced via Cold Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold spray is a coating technology based on aerodynamics and high-speed impact dynamics. In this process, spray particles (usually 1-50 ?m in diameter) are accelerated to a high velocity (typically 300-1200 m/s) by a high-speed gas (pre-heated air, nitrogen, or helium) flow that is generated through a convergent-divergent de Laval-type nozzle. A coating is formed through the intensive plastic deformation of particles impacting on a substrate at a temperature below the melting point of the spray material. In the present paper the main processing parameters affecting the microstructural and mechanical behavior of metal-metal cold spray deposits are described. The effect of process parameters on grain refinement and mechanical properties were analyzed for composite particles of Al-Al2O3, Ni-BN, Cu-Al2O3, and Co-SiC. The properties of the formed nanocomposites were compared with those of the parent materials sprayed under the same conditions. The process conditions, leading to a strong grain refinement with an acceptable level of the deposit mechanical properties such as porosity and adhesion strength, are discussed.

Cavaliere, P.; Perrone, A.; Silvello, A.

2014-10-01

310

Improved curdlan fermentation process based on optimization of dissolved oxygen combined with pH control and metabolic characterization of Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749.  

PubMed

A significant problem in scale-down cultures, rarely studied for metabolic characterization and curdlan-producing Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749, is the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) gradients combined with pH control. Constant DO, between 5% and 75%, was maintained during batch fermentations by manipulating the agitation with PID system. Fermentation, metabolic and kinetic characterization studies were conducted in a scale-down system. The curdlan yield, intracellular nucleotide levels and glucose conversion efficiency into curdlan were significantly affected by DO concentrations. The optimum DO concentrations for curdlan production were 45-60%. The average curdlan yield, curdlan productivity and glucose conversion efficiency into curdlan were enhanced by 80%, 66% and 32%, respectively, compared to that at 15% DO. No apparent difference in the gel strength of the resulting curdlan was detected. The comparison of curdlan biosynthesis and cellular nucleotide levels showed that curdlan production had positive relationship with intracellular levels of UTP, ADP, AMP, NAD(+), NADH and UDP-glucose. The curdlan productivity under 45% DO and 60% DO was different during 20-50 h. However, after 60 h curdlan productivity of both conditions was similar. On that basis, a simple and reproducible two-stage DO control process for curdlan production was developed. Curdlan production yield reached 42.8 g/l, an increase of 30% compared to that of the single agitation speed control process. PMID:21739265

Zhang, Hong-Tao; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jian-Rong; English, Nike; Yu, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Chi-Chung

2012-01-01

311

Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on aerobic metabolic processes in northern elephant seals.  

PubMed

An hypoxia-induced metabolic down-regulation has been implicated as an important protective mechanism against tissue deoxygenation in mammals. Whether the same response to hypoxia occurs in northern elephant seals was studied. The effects of hypercapnia were also examined to determine whether the reduced ventilatory response of seals to CO2 is associated with an analogous protective metabolic down-regulation. Thirty three seals (7-300-days-old) were studied using open-flow respirometry with simultaneous monitoring of apnea frequencies and heart rates. Hypoxia (11% O2) and hypercapnia (7% CO2) caused increases in metabolism of up to 38% with corresponding decreases in the percent time spent apneic (%AP) and increases in heart rate. The metabolic, breathing and heart rate responses to altered inspired gases were independent of age. Metabolism was strongly negatively correlated with %AP suggesting that elevated metabolism during hypoxia and hypercapnia exposure is attributable to decreases in %AP. In young elephant seals metabolic down-regulation is not an automatic protective response to experimentally-imposed hypoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:10505480

Kohin, S; Williams, T M; Ortiz, C L

1999-09-01

312

Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism  

PubMed Central

Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies. PMID:24812437

Miyares, Rosa L.; de Rezende, Vitor B.; Farber, Steven A.

2014-01-01

313

Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens in adult male rats affects hypothalamic regulation of food intake, induces obesity and alters glucose metabolism.  

PubMed

The absence of phytoestrogens in the diet during pregnancy has been reported to result in obesity later in adulthood. We investigated whether phytoestrogen withdrawal in adult life could alter the hypothalamic signals that regulate food intake and affect body weight and glucose homeostasis. Male Wistar rats fed from conception to adulthood with a high phytoestrogen diet were submitted to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding a low phytoestrogen diet, or a high phytoestrogen-high fat diet. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake through an orexigenic hypothalamic response characterized by upregulation of AGRP and downregulation of POMC. This was associated with elevated leptin and T4, reduced TSH, testosterone and estradiol, and diminished hypothalamic ER? expression, concomitant with alterations in glucose tolerance. Removing dietary phytoestrogens caused manifestations of obesity and diabetes that were more pronounced than those induced by the high phytoestrogen-high fat diet intake. PMID:25486512

Andreoli, María Florencia; Stoker, Cora; Rossetti, María Florencia; Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge Guillermo

2015-02-01

314

Arginine Depletion by Arginine Deiminase Does Not Affect Whole Protein Metabolism or Muscle Fractional Protein Synthesis Rate in Mice  

PubMed Central

Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depletion can potentially exacerbate the progressive loss of body weight, and especially lean body mass, in cancer patients we determined the effect of arginine depletion by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) on whole body protein synthesis and fractional protein synthesis rate in multiple tissues of mice. ADI-PEG 20 successfully depleted circulating arginine (<1 ?mol/L), and increased citrulline concentration more than tenfold. Body weight and body composition, however, were not affected by ADI-PEG 20. Despite the depletion of arginine, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown were maintained in the ADI-PEG 20 treated mice. The fractional protein synthesis rate of muscle was also not affected by arginine depletion. Most tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas) were able to maintain their fractional protein synthesis rate; however, the fractional protein synthesis rate of brain, thymus and testicles was reduced due to the ADI-PEG 20 treatment. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by the incorporation of ureido [14C]citrulline, which indicate the local conversion into arginine, into protein. In conclusion, the intracellular recycling pathway of citrulline is able to provide enough arginine to maintain protein synthesis rate and prevent the loss of lean body mass and body weight. PMID:25775142

Marini, Juan C.; Didelija, Inka Cajo

2015-01-01

315

Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below uranyl phosphate saturation there is evidence of uranyl-phosphate ternary complexes. These species may prove to be of substantial importance in reducing aqueous uranium concentrations when uranyl phosphate solubility is greater than water quality standards, as occurs in calcite-saturated fluids because of the formation of aqueous calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes. Uranyl-phosphate ternary surface complexes may also represent precursors required for the nucleation of uranyl phosphate minerals; similar processes may occur in the uranyl silicate system. Major knowledge gaps still exist in our understanding of how these processes occur in complex subsurface materials rather than controlled laboratory systems and the dominant chemical controls on specific adsorption and precipitation processes in contaminated soils and sediments. In addition, contaminated sediments in contact with aqueous uranium concentrations near water quality standards often have solid phase concentrations in ranges that make characterization of sorption mechanisms challenging. Novel combinations of analytical methods are needed to overcome this challenge to understanding the mineral-water interface processes that control uranium fate in the environment.

Catalano, J. G.

2011-12-01

316

Protein corona composition of gold nanoparticles/nanorods affects amyloid beta fibrillation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (A?) and ?-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) were recognized as one of the most promising tools for inhibiting the progress of the disease by controlling the fibrillation kinetic process; for instance, gold NPs have a strong capability to inhibit A? fibrillations. It is now well understood that a layer of biomolecules would cover the surface of NPs (so called ``protein corona'') upon the interaction of NPs with protein sources. Due to the fact that the biological species (e.g., cells and amyloidal proteins) ``see'' the protein corona coated NPs rather than the pristine coated particles, one should monitor the fibrillation process of amyloidal proteins in the presence of corona coated NPs (and not pristine coated ones). Therefore, the previously obtained data on NPs effects on the fibrillation process should be modified to achieve a more reliable and predictable in vivo results. Herein, we probed the effects of various gold NPs (with different sizes and shapes) on the fibrillation process of A? in the presence and absence of protein sources (i.e., serum and plasma). We found that the protein corona formed a shell at the surface of gold NPs, regardless of their size and shape, reducing the access of A? to the gold inhibitory surface and, therefore, affecting the rate of A? fibril formation. More specifically, the anti-fibrillation potencies of various corona coated gold NPs were strongly dependent on the protein source and their concentrations (10% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vitro milieu) and 100% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vivo milieu)).Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (A?) and ?-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) were recognized as one of the most promising tools for inhibiting the progress of the disease by controlling the fibrillation kinetic process; for instance, gold NPs have a strong capability to inhibit A? fibrillations. It is now well understood that a layer of biomolecules would cover the surface of NPs (so called ``protein corona'') upon the interaction of NPs with protein sources. Due to the fact that the biological species (e.g., cells and amyloidal proteins) ``see'' the protein corona coated NPs rather than the pristine coated particles, one should monitor the fibrillation process of amyloidal proteins in the presence of corona coated NPs (and not pristine coated ones). Therefore, the previously obtained data on NPs effects on the fibrillation process should be modified to achieve a more reliable and predictable in vivo results. Herein, we probed the effects of various gold NPs (with different sizes and shapes) on the fibrillation process of A? in the presence and absence of protein sources (i.e., serum and plasma). We found that the protein corona formed a shell at the surface of gold NPs, regardless of their size and shape, reducing the access of A? to the gold inhibitory surface and, therefore, affecting the rate of A? fibril formation. More specifically, the anti-fibrillation potencies of various corona coated gold NPs were strongly dependent on the protein source and their concentrations (10% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vitro milieu) and 100% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vivo milieu)). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full characterization results of the nanoparticles, protein corona, and fibrillation process. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06009a

Mirsadeghi, Somayeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Zohreh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ghavami, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Morteza

2015-03-01

317

Gas transport processes in sea ice: How convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent data from a year-round survey of landfast sea ice growth in Barrow (Alaska) have shown how O2/N2 and O2/Ar ratios could be used to pinpoint primary production in sea ice and derive net productivity rates from the temporal evolution of the oxygen concentration at a given depth within the sea ice cover. These rates were however obtained surmising that neither convection, nor diffusion had affected the gas concentration profiles in the ice between discrete ice core collections. This paper discusses examples from three different field surveys (the above-mentioned Barrow experiment, the INTERICE IV tank experiment in Hamburg and a short field survey close to the Kapisilit locality in the South-East Greenland fjords) where convection or diffusion processes have clearly affected the temporal evolution of the gas profiles in the ice, therefore potentially affecting biological signatures. The INTERICE IV and Barrow experiment show that the initial equilibrium dissolved gas entrapment within the skeletal layer basically governs most of the profiles higher up in the sea ice cover during the active sea ice growth. However, as the ice layers age and cool down under the temperature gradient, bubble nucleation occurs while the concentration in the ice goes well above the theoretical one, calculated from brine equilibrium under temperature and salinity changes and observed brine volumes. This phase change locks the gases within the sea ice structure, preventing "degassing" of the ice, as is observed for salts under the mushy layer brine convection process. In some cases, mainly in the early stages of the freezing process (first 10-20 cm) where temperature gradients are strong and the ice still permeable on its whole thickness, repeated convection and bubble nucleation can actually increase the gas concentration in the ice above the one initially acquired within the skeletal layer. Convective processes will also occur on ice decay, when ice permeability is restored and the Rayleigh number reaches a critical value. The Barrow data set shows that these events, can be strong enough to redistribute the gases within the sea ice cover, including in the gaseous form. Diffusive processes will become dominant once internal melting is strong enough to stratify the brine network within the ice. In the Kapisilit case, the regular decrease of an internal gas peak intensity due to external forcing during ice growth (change of water type) has allowed us to deduce gas diffusivities from the temporal evolution of the peak. The values fit to the few previous estimates from experimental work, and lie close to diffusivity values in water. Finally, at the end of the decay phase, when the temperature profile is isothermal, the whole ice cover returns to ice concentrations equivalent to those calculated using gas solubility in water and observed brine volumes, to the exception of the very surface layer, generally for textural reasons.

Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, J.; Thomas, D. N.; Rysgaard, S.; Eicken, H.; Crabeck, O.; Deleu, F.; Delille, B.

2012-04-01

318

Culture temperature affects gene expression and metabolic pathways in the 2-methylisoborneol-producing cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata.  

PubMed

A volatile metabolite, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), causes an unpleasant taste and odor in tap water. Some filamentous cyanobacteria produce 2-MIB via a two-step biosynthetic pathway: methylation of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) by methyl transferase (GPPMT), followed by the cyclization of methyl-GPP by monoterpene cyclase (MIBS). We isolated the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS from Pseudanabaena galeata, a filamentous cyanobacterium known to be a major causal organism of 2-MIB production in Japanese lakes. The predicted amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that of Pseudanabaena limnetica (96% identity in GPPMT and 97% identity in MIBS). P. galeata was cultured at different temperatures to examine the effect of growth conditions on the production of 2-MIB and major metabolites. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements showed higher accumulation of 2-MIB at 30 °C than at 4 °C or 20 °C after 24 h of culture. Real-time-RT PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS decreased at 4 °C and increased at 30 °C, compared with at 20 °C. Furthermore, metabolite analysis showed dramatic changes in primary metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria grown at different temperatures. The data indicate that changes in carbon flow in the TCA cycle affect 2-MIB biosynthesis at higher temperatures. PMID:24140001

Kakimoto, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Miyagi, Atsuko; Saito, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Asaeda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

2014-02-15

319

Cold exposure affects carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, and induces Hog1p phosphorylation in Dekkera bruxellensis strain CBS 2499.  

PubMed

Dekkera bruxellensis is a yeast known to affect the quality of wine and beer. This species, due to its high ethanol and acid tolerance, has been reported also to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries producing fuel ethanol. In order to understand how this species responds when exposed to low temperatures, some mechanisms like synthesis and accumulation of intracellular metabolites, changes in lipid composition and activation of the HOG-MAPK pathway were investigated in the genome sequenced strain CBS 2499. We show that cold stress caused intracellular accumulation of glycogen, but did not induce accumulation of trehalose and glycerol. The cellular fatty acid composition changed after the temperature downshift, and a significant increase of palmitoleic acid was observed. RT-PCR analysis revealed that OLE1 encoding for ?9-fatty acid desaturase was up-regulated, whereas TPS1 and INO1 didn't show changes in their expression. In D. bruxellensis Hog1p was activated by phosphorylation, as described in S. cerevisiae, highlighting a conserved role of the HOG-MAP kinase signaling pathway in cold stress response. PMID:25697274

Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambelli, Paolo; Simonetti, Paolo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta

2015-05-01

320

Plasma metabolites reflect seasonally changing metabolic processes in a long-distance migrant shorebird (Calidris canutus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Migrant birds have tightly scheduled annual cycles consisting of several distinct life cycle (sub-)stages such as reproduction, migration, moult and overwintering, each of which have specific metabolic requirements (e.g., fattening during migration, protein build-up during moult). This study examines changes in fat and protein metabolism during the annual cycle of body mass and moult over 1.5 years in a

Susanne Jenni-Eiermann; Lukas Jenni; Theunis Piersma

2006-01-01

321

An Intact Social Cognitive Process in Schizophrenia: Situational Context Effects on Perception of Facial Affect  

PubMed Central

Background Impaired facial affect recognition is the most consistent social cognitive finding in schizophrenia. Although social situations provide powerful constraints on our perception, little is known about how situational context modulates facial affect recognition in schizophrenia. Methods Study 1 was a single-site study with 34 schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls. Study 2 was a 2-site study with 68 schizophrenia patients and 28 controls. Both studies administered a Situational Context Facial Affect Recognition Task with 2 conditions: a situational context condition and a no-context condition. For the situational context condition, a briefly shown face was preceded by a sentence describing either a fear- or surprise-inducing event. In the no-context condition, a face was presented without a sentence. For both conditions, subjects rated how fearful or surprised the face appeared on a 9-point Likert scale. Results For the situational context condition of study 1, both patients and controls rated faces as more afraid when they were paired with fear-inducing sentences and as more surprised when they were paired with surprise-inducing sentences. The degree of modulation was comparable across groups. For the no-context condition, patients rated faces comparably to controls. The findings of study 2 replicated those from study 1. Conclusions Despite previous abnormalities in other types of context paradigms, this study found intact situational context processing in schizophrenia, suggesting that patients benefit from situational context when interpreting ambiguous facial expression. This area of relative social cognitive strength in schizophrenia has implications for social cognitive training programs. PMID:22532704

Lee, Junghee; Kern, Robert S.; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Horan, William P.; Kee, Kimmy S.; Ochsner, Kevin; Penn, David L.; Green, Michael F.

2013-01-01

322

General anesthesia as a possible GABAergic modulator affects visual processing in children  

PubMed Central

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) inhibitory interneurons play an important role in visual processing, as is revealed by studies administering drugs in human and monkey adults. Investigating this process in children requires different methodologies, due to ethical considerations. The current study aimed to investigate whether a new method, being general anesthesia using Sevoflurane, can be used to trace the effects of GABAergic modulation on visual brain functioning in children. To this aim, visual processing was investigated in children aged 4–12 years who were scheduled for minor urologic procedures under general anesthesia in day-care treatment. In a visual segmentation task, the difference in Event-Related Potential (ERP) response to homogeneous and textured stimuli was investigated. In addition, psychophysical performance on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured. Results were compared between before and shortly after anesthesia. In two additional studies, effects at 1 day after anesthesia and possible effects of task-repetition were investigated. ERP results showed longer latency and lower amplitude of the Texture Negativity (TN) component shortly after compared to before anesthesia. No effects of anesthesia on psychophysical measurements were found. No effects at 1 day after anesthesia or of repetition were revealed either. These results show that GABAergic modulation through general anesthesia affects ERP reflections of visual segmentation in a similar way in children as benzodiazepine does in adults, but that effects are not permanent. This demonstrates that ERP measurement after anesthesia is a successful method to study effects of GABAergic modulation in children. PMID:23630461

Van den Boomen, C.; de Graaff, J. C.; de Jong, T. P. V. M.; Kalkman, C. J.; Kemner, C.

2013-01-01

323

Similar Local and Landscape Processes Affect Both a Common and a Rare Newt Species  

PubMed Central

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. PMID:23658765

Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

2013-01-01

324

Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.  

PubMed

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. PMID:23658765

Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

2013-01-01

325

Neuronal correlates of three attentional strategies during affective picture processing: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study directly compared the neurocircuitry involved in three different attentional strategies during affective picture processing. We exposed 40 participants (20 men, 20 women) to images depicting dental treatment, as well as neutral scenes. They were asked to do one of three tasks while watching the same pictures: directing their attention toward a foreground object within the picture (distraction), classifying whether the image showed dental treatment, or deciding whether the scene elicited fear of pain (introspection). The participants performed the distraction and classification task with high accuracy and rated only 11 % of the dental treatment pictures as pain relevant. Introspection was associated with increased activation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), relative to the two other conditions. Since the dental, relative to the neutral, pictures elicited enhanced DMPFC activation across all conditions, this underlines the role of this brain region for the assignment, as well as self-reference, of affective meaning. Moreover, self-reported dental anxiety was positively correlated with activation of a pain modulatory network (DMPFC, basal ganglia) when the participants focused on the pain relevance of the dental treatment cues. For future studies, it seems promising to study a high-anxious group or even patients afflicted with dental phobia. PMID:24710652

Schienle, Anne; Wabnegger, Albert; Schoengassner, Florian; Scharmüller, Wilfried

2014-12-01

326

Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data.  

PubMed

This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water uptake pathways and processes such as assimilation and excretion, (ii) the possibility to extrapolate within element groups (a common requirement in many risk assessments when initial model parameters are scarce) and (iii) predictions of radionuclide uptake in the ecosystem after changes in ecosystem structure or environmental conditions. These features are important for the longterm (>1000 year) risk assessments that need to be considered for a deep nuclear waste repository. PMID:23768872

Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Kumblad, L; Kautsky, U

2014-07-01

327

Metabolic ecology.  

PubMed

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

328

Affective processing in positive schizotypy: Loose control of social-emotional information.  

PubMed

Behavioral studies suggested heightened impact of emotionally laden perceptual input in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in particular in patients with prominent positive symptoms. De-coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortices during stimulus processing, which is related to loosening of control of the prefrontal cortex over incoming affectively laden information, may underlie this abnormality. Pre-selected groups of individuals with low versus high positive schizotypy (lower and upper quartile of a large screening sample) were tested. During exposure to auditory displays of strong emotions (anger, sadness, cheerfulness), individuals with elevated levels of positive schizotypal symptoms showed lesser prefrontal-posterior coupling (EEG coherence) than their symptom-free counterparts (right hemisphere). This applied to negative emotions in particular and was most pronounced during confrontation with anger. The findings indicate a link between positive symptoms and a heightened impact particularly of threatening emotionally laden stimuli which might lead to exacerbation of positive symptoms and inappropriate behavior in interpersonal situations. PMID:25463142

Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mosbacher, Jochen A; Reiser, Eva M; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas

2014-10-30

329

Changes of pathological and physiological indicators affecting drug metabolism in rats after acute exposure to high altitude  

PubMed Central

High altitude environments cause the human body to undergo a series of pathological, physiological and biochemical changes, which have a certain effect on drug pharmacokinetics. The objective of the present study was to observe changes in factors affecting pharmacokinetics in rats following acute exposure to high altitude and return to low altitude. A total of 21 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. The rats in group A were maintained at low altitude in Shanghai, 55 m above sea level; those in group B were acutely exposed to high altitude in Maqu, Gansu, 4,010 m above sea level; and those in group C were acutely exposed to high altitude and then returned to low altitude. Blood was collected from the orbit for the analysis of significant biochemical indicators and from the abdominal aorta for blood gas analysis. Brain, lung and kidney tissues were removed to observe pathological changes. In group B, the pH, buffer base (BB), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide content (ctCO2), oxygen saturation of arterial blood (sO2), oxygen tension of arterial blood (pO2), serum sodium (Na+) concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and total protein (TP) level were significantly reduced, and the carbon dioxide tension of arterial blood (pCO2), serum chloride (Cl?) concentration, serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly increased compared with those in group A (P<0.05). In group C, the pH, BB, BE, sO2, pO2, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum Na+ concentration, LDH activity and TP level were significantly reduced, and the pCO2, serum Cl? concentration, alanine transaminase activity, TBIL and urea levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with those in group A. The Hb and ALP levels in group C were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05); and the TP, TBIL and urea levels in group C were significantly higher than those in group B (P<0.05). Pathological observation revealed that the alveolar wall was hyperemic, edematous and incrassate, the alveolar epithelium was hyperplastic and infiltrated with neutrophilic granulocytes and the alveolar septum was widened; brain neurons were edematous with enlarged perivascular spaces, and hippocampal neurons were metamorphic and karyopyknotic; and kidney mesangial cells were hyperplastic, both following acute exposure to high altitude and after returning to low altitude. In conclusion, blood gas indices, biochemical indicators and functions of the heart, liver, kidney were significantly changed, and marked pathological changes occurred in the brain, liver and kidney following acute exposure to high altitude and also after returning to low altitude. These changes are likely to seriously affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs. PMID:25452782

LI, WENBIN; WANG, RONG; XIE, HUA; ZHANG, JUANHONG; JIA, ZHENGPING

2015-01-01

330

Non-linear processes affecting the deposition and accumulation of mud on continental margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition and accumulation of mud is affected by nonlinear processes associated with particle adhesion. Specifically, particle adhesion in suspension produces aggregate particles that increase the deposition rate of muds. Particle adhesion in the seabed reduces erosion rates and limits the sorting of fine particles, which enhances accumulation rate of muds. This talk brings together results from a decade of work on these processes, synthesizing how they affect the position of mud depo-centers on river-influenced continental margins. While in suspension, silts and clays collide and adhere in a process called "flocculation". The resulting aggregate particles, called "flocs", sink faster than their component grains and are the primary vector for delivery of clays, very fine silts and fine silts to the seabed. The rate of aggregation scales generally with the square of particle concentration, so deposition rates of the finest sediment particles are greater where concentrations are larger. This general trend is modulated by turbulence, which can break flocs when it is energetic. The ideal conditions for flocculation, therefore, are large sediment concentrations and weak turbulence, conditions which typically do not co-occur. Riverine sediment plumes entering quiet receiving basins and bottom boundary layers where turbulence has been damped by suspended sediment density stratification are two important environments where large concentrations and weak turbulence co-occur. Deposition of sediments rich in fines occurs when there is rapid delivery of riverine sediment to sections of the seabed where the stress is imparted primarily by waves rather than currents. The deposition of clays, very fine silts and fine silts to the seabed is important to accumulation of mud because the presence of these finest fractions decreases the erodibility and sorting of a sediment deposit. Once the clay content of a deposit exceeds 5-10%, the erosion rate at a given applied stress decreases, but more importantly, particles finer than 16 micrometers adhere to one another, making it challenging to winnow these fine sediments from the bed. In summary, clays, very fine silts and silts deposit due to flocculation. The presence of these sizes in sediment decreases the erodibility and sortability of that sediment, leading to the accumulation of mud. These non-linear processes must be considered when predicting eventual depo-centers of mud on continental margins.

Hill, P. S.

2012-12-01

331

43 CFR 3602.12 - How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of the same public lands?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

2014-10-01

332

43 CFR 3602.12 - How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of the same public lands?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

2013-10-01

333

43 CFR 3602.12 - How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of the same public lands?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

2011-10-01

334

43 CFR 3602.12 - How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of the same public lands?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

2012-10-01

335

64 Am J Psychiatry 160:1, January 2003http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org The Neural Substrates of Affective Processing  

E-print Network

of Affective Processing in Depressed Patients Treated With Venlafaxine Richard J. Davidson, Ph.D. William Irwin and after 2 and 8 weeks of treat- ment with venlafaxine. Relations between baseline neural activation

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

336

RNAi-mediated silencing of the HD-Zip gene HD20 in Nicotiana attenuata affects benzyl acetone emission from corollas via ABA levels and the expression of metabolic genes  

PubMed Central

Background The N. attenuata HD20 gene belongs to the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) type I family of transcription factors and it has been previously associated with the regulation of ABA accumulation in leaves and the emission of benzyl acetone (BA; 4-phenyl-2-butanone) from night flowers. In this study, N. attenuata plants stably reduced in the expression of HD20 (ir-hd20) were generated to investigate the mechanisms controlling the emission of BA from night flowers. Results The expression of HD20 in corollas of ir-hd20 plants was reduced by 85 to 90% compared to wild-type plants (WT) without affecting flower morphology and development. Total BA emitted from flowers of ir-hd20 plants was reduced on average by 60%. This reduction occurred mainly at the late phase of BA emission and it was correlated with 2-fold higher levels of ABA in the corollas of ir-hd20 plants. When a 2-fold decline in ABA corolla levels of these plants was induced by salt stress, BA emissions recovered to WT levels. Supplying ABA to WT flowers either through the cuticle or by pedicle feeding reduced the total BA emissions by 25 to 50%; this reduction occurred primarily at the late phase of emission (similar to the reduction observed in corollas of ir-hd20 plants). Gene expression profiling of corollas collected at 12?pm (six hours before the start of BA emission) revealed that 274 genes changed expression levels significantly in ir-hd20 plants compared to WT. Among these genes, more than 35% were associated with metabolism and the most prominent group was associated with the metabolism of aromatic compounds and phenylpropanoid derivatives. Conclusions The results indicated that regulation of ABA levels in corollas is associated with the late phase of BA emission in N. attenuata plants and that HD20 affects this latter process by mediating changes in both ABA levels and metabolic gene expression. PMID:22548747

2012-01-01

337

Nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions affect in utero developmental capacity, phenotype, and cellular metabolism of bovine nuclear transfer fetuses.  

PubMed

We generated a clone of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos using oocyte pools from defined maternal sources to study nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions. Nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were reconstructed with Bos taurus (Brown Swiss) granulosa cells and oocytes that contained B. taurus A (Simmental), B. taurus B (Simmental), or Bos indicus (Dwarf Zebu) cytoplasm. Another set of embryos was reconstructed with randomly selected Brown Swiss (B. taurus R) oocytes. Embryo transfer resulted in nine (12.5%), nine (13.8%), three (50%), and 11 (16.7%) Day 80 fetuses, of which eight (11.1%), three (4.6%), three (50%), and 10 (15.2%) were viable, respectively. The proportion of viable fetuses was affected by cytoplasm (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.02) and was higher for embryos with B. indicus cytoplasm than for the B. taurus A (P < 0.05) and B (P < 0.01) groups. Furthermore, the proportion of surviving Day 80 fetuses was reduced for B. taurus B as compared with B. taurus A and B. taurus R cytoplasm (P < 0.05 and P < 0.02). Body weight of nucleocytoplasmic hybrid fetuses was not significantly different from Brown Swiss control fetuses produced by artificial insemination (AI), but fetuses reconstructed with random cytoplasts of the same breed as the nuclear donor exhibited overgrowth (P < 0.01) and a higher coefficient of variation in weight. Furthermore, body weight, crown rump length, thorax circumference (P < 0.05), and femur length (P < 0.01) of fetuses with B. taurus A cytoplasm differed from fetuses with B. taurus R cytoplasms. Fetal skin, heart, and liver cells with B. indicus cytoplasm showed a greater increase in number per time period (P < 0.001) and oxygen consumption rate per cell (skin and liver, P < 0.001; heart, P < 0.08) in comparison with their counterparts with B. taurus A cytoplasm. These data point to complex oocyte cytoplasm-dependent epigenetic modifications and/or nuclear DNA-mitochondrial DNA interactions with relevance to nuclear transfer and other reproductive technologies such as ooplasmic transfer in human assisted reproduction. PMID:14681199

Hiendleder, Stefan; Prelle, Katja; Brüggerhoff, Katja; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Wenigerkind, Hendrik; Bebbere, Daniela; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Müller, Sigrid; Brem, Gottfried; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Wolf, Eckhard

2004-04-01

338

Stochasticity and determinism: how density-independent and density-dependent processes affect population variability.  

PubMed

A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans. PMID:24893001

Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2014-01-01

339

Stochasticity and Determinism: How Density-Independent and Density-Dependent Processes Affect Population Variability  

PubMed Central

A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans. PMID:24893001

Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-01-01

340

Transfection of L6 myoblasts with adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein cDNA does not affect fatty acid uptake but disturbs lipid metabolism and fusion.  

PubMed Central

We studied the involvement of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) in growth, differentiation and fatty acid metabolism of muscle cells by lipofection of rat L6 myoblasts with rat heart (H) FABP cDNA or with rat adipocyte (A) FABP cDNA in a eukaryotic expression vector which contained a puromycin acetyltransferase cassette. Stable transfectants showed integration into the genome for all constructs and type-specific overexpression at the mRNA and protein level for the clones with H-FABP and A-FABP cDNA constructs. The rate of proliferation of myoblasts transfected with rat A-FABP cDNA was 2-fold higher compared with all other transfected cells. In addition, these myoblasts showed disturbed fusion and differentiation, as assessed by morphological examination and creatine kinase activity. Uptake rates of palmitate were equal for all clone types, in spite of different FABP content and composition. Palmitate oxidation over a 3 h period was similar in all clones from growth medium. After being cultured in differentiation medium, mock- and H-FABP-cDNA-transfected cells showed a lower fatty acid-oxidation rate, in contrast with A-FABP-cDNA-transfected clones. The ratio of [14C]palmitic acid incorporation into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine of A-FABP-cDNA-transfected clones changed in the opposite direction in differentiation medium from that of mock- and H-FABP-cDNA-transfected clones. In conclusion, transfection of L6 myoblasts with A-FABP cDNA does not affect H-FABP content and fatty acid uptake, but changes fatty acid metabolism. The latter changes may be related to the observed fusion defect. PMID:9425108

Prinsen, C F; Veerkamp, J H

1998-01-01

341

Do Problems with Information Processing Affect the Process of Psychotherapy for Adults with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems in processing information can affect psychosocial functioning. Psychotherapy can be used to address psychosocial problems; however, the same information-processing problems that contribute to disabilities, such as learning disabilities (LD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly deficits in auditory processing

Cosden, Merith; Patz, Sarah; Smith, Steven

2009-01-01

342

SREBPs: Metabolic Integrators in Physiology and Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Recent advances have significantly increased our understanding of how sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to cellular signaling. The phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and SREBP pathways intersect at multiple points and recent insights demonstrate the importance of tight regulation of the PI3K pathway for regulating SREBPs in the adaptation to fluctuating dietary calorie load in the mammalian liver. Additionally, genetic and genome-wide approaches highlight new functions for SREBPs in connecting lipid metabolism with other cellular processes where lipid pathway flux affects physiologic or pathophysiologic adaptation, such as cancer, steatosis and innate immunity. This review focuses on recent advances and new roles for mammalian SREBPs in physiology and metabolism. PMID:22154484

Jeon, Tae-Il; Osborne, Timothy F.

2011-01-01

343

Inhibition of GM3 Synthase Attenuates Neuropathology of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C by Affecting Sphingolipid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In several lysosomal storage disorders, including Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C), sphingolipids, including glycosphingolipids, particularly gangliosides, are the predominant storage materials in the brain, raising the possibility that accumulation of these lipids may be involved in the NP-C neurodegenerative process. However, correlation of these accumulations and NP-C neuropathology has not been fully characterized. Here we derived NP-C mice with complete and partial deletion of the Siat9 (encoding GM3 synthase) gene in order to investigate the role of ganglioside in NP-C pathogenesis. According to our results, NPC mice with homozygotic deletion of GM3 synthase exhibited an enhanced neuropathological phenotype and died significantly earlier than NP-C mice. Notably, in contrast to complete depletion, NP-C mice with partial deletion of the GM3 synthase gene showed ameliorated NP-C neuropathology, including motor disability, demyelination, and abnormal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids. These findings indicate the crucial role of GM3 synthesis in the NP-C phenotype and progression of CNS pathologic abnormality, suggesting that well-controlled inhibition of GM3 synthesis could be used as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:24599001

Lee, Hyun; Lee, Jong Kil; Bae, Yong Chul; Yang, Song Hyun; Okino, Nozomu; Schuchman, Edward H.; Yamashita, Tadashi; Bae, Jae-sung; Jin, Hee Kyung

2014-01-01

344

Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.  

PubMed

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

345

Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

346

Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2012-06-15

347

Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

1989-01-01

348

Whey Protein Supplementation Does Not Affect Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Body Composition and Indices of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults1234  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the effects of different quantities of whey protein on exercise training–induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults. Therefore, we examined the effects of consuming 0.8-MJ supplements with 0 (n = 126), 10 (n = 112), 20 (n = 44), or 30 (n = 45) g whey protein twice daily in conjunction with resistance (2 d/wk) and aerobic (1 d/wk) exercise training in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based 9-mo study in men (n = 117) and women (n = 210); (age: 48 ± 7.9 y; BMI: 30.0 ± 2.8 kg/m2). Whey protein supplementation did not influence any of the following outcomes, some of which were affected by training. Among all participants, strength increased by 15 ± 12% (P < 0.001) and maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO2max) increased by 9 ± 15% (P < 0.001). Body weight was unchanged (0.1 ± 3.7 kg, P = 0.80), lean body mass increased by 1.9 ± 2.8% (0.95 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.001), and fat mass decreased by 2.6 ± 9.4% (?0.86 ± 3.1 kg, P = 0.001). Oral-glucose-tolerance testing showed that plasma glucose AUC was unchanged (?18.0 ± 170 mmol/L·??3 h, P = 0.16), insulin AUC decreased by 2.6 ± 32% (?7.5 ± 29 nmol/L·??3 h, P = 0.01), and HOMA-IR (0.2 ± 2.0, P = 0.81) and the insulin sensitivity index (0.3 ± 3.0, P = 0.63) were unchanged. Plasma concentrations of TG; total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; C-reactive protein; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; blood pressure; and waist circumference were unchanged. Whey protein supplementation did not affect exercise training–induced responses in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults who maintained body weight. PMID:22718030

Weinheimer, Eileen M.; Conley, Travis B.; Kobza, Vanessa M.; Sands, Laura P.; Lim, Eunjung; Janle, Elsa M.; Campbell, Wayne W.

2012-01-01

349

Process-induced extracellular matrix alterations affect the mechanisms of soft tissue repair and regeneration  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrices derived from animal tissues for human tissue repairs are processed by various methods of physical, chemical, or enzymatic decellularization, viral inactivation, and terminal sterilization. The mechanisms of action in tissue repair vary among bioscaffolds and are suggested to be associated with process-induced extracellular matrix modifications. We compared three non-cross-linked, commercially available extracellular matrix scaffolds (Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix), and correlated extracellular matrix alterations to in vivo biological responses upon implantation in non-human primates. Structural evaluation showed significant differences in retaining native tissue extracellular matrix histology and ultrastructural features among bioscaffolds. Tissue processing may cause both the condensation of collagen fibers and fragmentation or separation of collagen bundles. Calorimetric analysis showed significant differences in the stability of bioscaffolds. The intrinsic denaturation temperature was measured to be 51°C, 38°C, and 44°C for Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, respectively, demonstrating more extracellular matrix modifications in the Veritas and XenMatrix scaffolds. Consequently, the susceptibility to collagenase degradation was increased in Veritas and XenMatrix when compared to their respective source tissues. Using a non-human primate model, three bioscaffolds were found to elicit different biological responses, have distinct mechanisms of action, and yield various outcomes of tissue repair. Strattice permitted cell repopulation and was remodeled over 6 months. Veritas was unstable at body temperature, resulting in rapid absorption with moderate inflammation. XenMatrix caused severe inflammation and sustained immune reactions. This study demonstrates that extracellular matrix alterations significantly affect biological responses in soft tissue repair and regeneration. The data offer useful insights into the rational design of extracellular matrix products and bioscaffolds of tissue engineering. PMID:24555005

Xu, Hui; Sandor, Maryellen; Lombardi, Jared

2013-01-01

350

Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Background In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. Methods In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response conflicts. Three groups of 8–11-year-old children – bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1) – were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Results Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. Conclusion The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life. PMID:25328840

Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

2014-01-01

351

Bilateral dorsal and ventral fiber pathways for the processing of affective prosody identified by probabilistic fiber tracking.  

PubMed

Dorsal and ventral pathways for syntacto-semantic speech processing in the left hemisphere are represented in the dual-stream model of auditory processing. Here we report new findings for the right dorsal and ventral temporo-frontal pathway during processing of affectively intonated speech (i.e. affective prosody) in humans, together with several left hemispheric structural connections, partly resembling those for syntacto-semantic speech processing. We investigated white matter fiber connectivity between regions responding to affective prosody in several subregions of the bilateral superior temporal cortex (secondary and higher-level auditory cortex) and of the inferior frontal cortex (anterior and posterior inferior frontal gyrus). The fiber connectivity was investigated by using probabilistic diffusion tensor based tractography. The results underscore several so far underestimated auditory pathway connections, especially for the processing of affective prosody, such as a right ventral auditory pathway. The results also suggest the existence of a dual-stream processing in the right hemisphere, and a general predominance of the dorsal pathways in both hemispheres underlying the neural processing of affective prosody in an extended temporo-frontal network. PMID:25583613

Frühholz, Sascha; Gschwind, Markus; Grandjean, Didier

2015-04-01

352

Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of organic contaminants especially when the porous geological media have very low organic carbon contents.

Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

2012-04-01

353

Cholinesterase-Targeting microRNAs Identified in silico Affect Specific Biological Processes  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as important gene silencers affecting many target mRNAs. Here, we report the identification of 244 miRs that target the 3?-untranslated regions of different cholinesterase transcripts: 116 for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), 47 for the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) splice variant, and 81 for the normally rare splice variant AChE-R. Of these, 11 and 6 miRs target both AChE-S and AChE-R, and AChE-R and BChE transcripts, respectively. BChE and AChE-S showed no overlapping miRs, attesting to their distinct modes of miR regulation. Generally, miRs can suppress a number of targets; thereby controlling an entire battery of functions. To evaluate the importance of the cholinesterase-targeted miRs in other specific biological processes we searched for their other experimentally validated target transcripts and analyzed the gene ontology enriched biological processes these transcripts are involved in. Interestingly, a number of the resulting categories are also related to cholinesterases. They include, for BChE, response to glucocorticoid stimulus, and for AChE, response to wounding and two child terms of neuron development: regulation of axonogenesis and regulation of dendrite morphogenesis. Importantly, all of the AChE-targeting miRs found to be related to these selected processes were directed against the normally rare AChE-R splice variant, with three of them, including the neurogenesis regulator miR-132, also directed against AChE-S. Our findings point at the AChE-R splice variant as particularly susceptible to miR regulation, highlight those biological functions of cholinesterases that are likely to be subject to miR post-transcriptional control, demonstrate the selectivity of miRs in regulating specific biological processes, and open new venues for targeted interference with these specific processes. PMID:22007158

Hanin, Geula; Soreq, Hermona

2011-01-01

354

Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism  

SciTech Connect

There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 ?M, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 ?M B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 ?M) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells. • 608 different protein spots of Jurkat T cells were quantified using 2-DE-DIGE. • Pathway analysis identified Nrf2 and AhR pathway as regulated.

Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

2013-06-15

355

Suspense, curiosity, and surprise: How discourse structure influences the affective and cognitive processing of a story  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural affect theory (Brewer and Lichtenstein, 1982) states that different affective responses can be evoked by manipulating the order in which a story's events are narrated. Suspense is evoked by postponing the story's outcome, curiosity is evoked by presenting the outcome before the preceding events, and surprise is evoked by an unexpected event. Apart from evoking different affective responses,

Hans Hoeken; Mario van Vliet

2000-01-01

356

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AND GROUP PROCESSES Individual Differences in the Activation and Control of Affective Race  

E-print Network

participants' affective responses to Black people. More recent work has begun to elucidate the neural of Affective Race Bias as Assessed by Startle Eyeblink Response and Self-Report David M. Amodio, Eddie Harmon-Jones, and Patricia G. Devine University of Wisconsin--Madison The activation and control of affective race bias were

357

Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet  

PubMed Central

Objective To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in ?-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively) can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber) diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal ?-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet. PMID:25636326

Jurgo?ski, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Ju?kiewicz, Jerzy

2015-01-01

358

Pinitol Supplementation Does Not Affect Insulin-Mediated Glucose Metabolism and Muscle Insulin Receptor Content and Phosphorylation in Older Humans12  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the effect of oral pinitol supplementation on oral and intravenous glucose tolerances and on skeletal muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in older people. Fifteen people (6 men, 9 women; age 66 ± 8 y; BMI 27.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c 5.39 ± 0.46%, mean ± SD) completed a 7-wk protocol. Subjects were randomly assigned to groups that during wk 2?7 consumed twice daily either a non-nutritive beverage (Placebo group, n = 8) or the same beverage with 1000 mg pinitol dissolved into it (Pinitol group, n = 7, total dose = 2000 mg pinitol/d). Testing was done at wk 1 and wk 7. In the Pinitol group with supplementation, 24-h urinary pinitol excretion increased 17-fold. The fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, and the 180-min area under the curve for these compounds, in response to oral (75 g) and intravenous (300 mg/kg) glucose tolerance challenges, were unchanged from wk 1 to wk 7 and were not influenced by pinitol. Also, pinitol did not affect indices of hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test and indices of insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response to glucose, and glucose effectiveness from the intravenous glucose tolerance test, estimated using minimal modeling. Pinitol did not differentially affect total insulin receptor content and insulin receptor phosphotyrosine 1158 and insulin receptor phosphotyrosine 1162/1163 activation in vastus lateralis samples taken during an oral-glucose–induced hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic state. These data suggest that pinitol supplementation does not influence whole-body insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in nondiabetic, older people. PMID:15514265

Campbell, Wayne W.; Haub, Mark D.; Fluckey, James D.; Ostlund, Richard E.; Thyfault, John P.; Morse-Carrithers, Hannah; Hulver, Matthew W.; Birge, Zonda K.

2008-01-01

359

Family-Based Processes Associated with Adolescent Distress, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Families Affected by Maternal HIV  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…

Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2010-01-01

360

TMS to pars triangularis affects the semantic processing of sentences Sylvia Vitello, Joseph T. Devlin & Jennifer M. Rodd  

E-print Network

TMS to pars triangularis affects the semantic processing of sentences Sylvia Vitello, Joseph T presented 300ms post-sentence offset to allow TMS to target disambiguation processes occurring prior in sentence disambiguation, then TMS should selectively disrupt ambiguous probes, especially related

361

Chronic exposure to a 2 mT static magnetic field affects the morphology, the metabolism and the function of in vitro cultured swine granulosa cells.  

PubMed

In recent years, the exposure of organisms to static magnetic fields (SMFs) is continuously increasing. Thus, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure to a 2 mT SMF on in vitro cultured swine granulosa cells (GCs). In particular, the culture expansion (cell viability and doubling time), the cell phenotype (cell morphology and orientation, actin and ?-tubulin cytoskeleton), the cell metabolism (intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)]i and mitochondrial activity) and the cell function (endocrine activity) were assessed. It has been found that the exposure to the field did not affect the cell viability, but the doubling time was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in exposed samples after 72 h of culture. At the same time, the cell length and thickness significantly changed (p < 0.05), while the cell orientation was unaffected. Evident modifications were induced on actin and ?-tubulin cytoskeleton after 3 days of exposure and, simultaneously, a change in [Ca(2+)]i and mitochondrial activity started to become evident. Finally, the SMF exposure of GCs longer than 72 h determined a significant alteration of progesterone and estrogen production (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the chronic exposure of swine GCs to a 2 mT SMF exerts a negative effect on cell proliferation, morphology, biochemistry and endocrine function in an in vitro model. PMID:23631680

Gioia, Luisa; Saponaro, Ilaria; Bernabò, Nicola; Tettamanti, Enzo; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

2013-12-01

362

A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

Jurgo?ski, Adam; Ju?kiewicz, Jerzy; Zdu?czyk, Zenon

2014-01-01

363

Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching in natural environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K.K.

2006-01-01

364

Pyridine nucleotide analog interference with metabolic processes in mitogen-stimulated human T lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

The differential metabolic effects of three nicotinamide analogs, 6-aminonicotinamide, 3-aminobenzamide, and 5-methylnicotinamide, were analyzed in mitogen-stimulated preparations of human T lymphocytes. Mitogen stimulation with the phorbol ester TPA and a monoclonal antibody to the T3 cell surface antigen caused an increase in cellular NAD and ATP levels and a marked increase in glucose metabolism as demonstrated by an increase in cellular levels of glucose 6-phosphate and a sevenfold increase in radioactive CO{sub 2} formation from (1-{sup 14}C)glucose. 6-Aminonicotinamide had drastic inhibitory effects on the mitogen-stimulated increases in NAD and ATP levels as well as on the metabolism of glucose. Treatment of the mitogen-stimulated cells with 6-aminonicotinamide also caused a marked increase in cellular levels of 6-phosphogluconate, suggesting inhibition of the hexose monophosphate shunt at 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Radioactive CO{sub 2} formation from (6-{sup 14}C)glucose showed that metabolism through the tricarboxylic acid cycle was not used to compensate for the inhibition of the hexose monophosphate shunt pathway. Treatment of cells with 3-aminobenzamide had the opposite effect of 6-aminonicotinamide in that cellular NAD levels increased, presumably due to inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.

Berger, S.J.; Manory, I.; Sudar, D.C.; Krothapalli, D.; Berger, N.A. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

1987-12-01

365

Transcription dynamics in a physiological process: ?-catenin signaling directs liver metabolic zonation.  

PubMed

The liver displays a remarkable phenomenon known as metabolic zonation. Highly specialized hepatocytes fulfill different metabolic functions that depend on their position along the porto-central axis, distinguishing "periportal" hepatocytes from "pericentral" hepatocytes. The mechanisms by which zonation is established have been extensively investigated since its initial discovery. Using murine models with ?-catenin conditional activation or invalidation in the liver, a major role for the Wnt/?-catenin developmental pathway has been demonstrated in this functional heterogeneity of hepatocytes. Under physiological conditions, this pathway is activated in pericentral hepatocytes. This is partly due to the absence in the pericentral area of adenomatous polyposis coli, a negative regulator also known as the "zonation-keeper" of the liver lobule. The Wnt pathway induces a pericentral genetic program and represses a periportal genetic program in these hepatocytes. In mice with aberrant activation of ?-catenin signaling, Wnt signaling also controls hepatocyte proliferation through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism. This pathway therefore controls metabolism and proliferation in liver cells, its role in proliferation being consistent with its involvement in liver cancer. Finally, the hepatic-enriched transcription factor Hnf4 has been shown to play a role in the Wnt-dependent transcription of zonated genes. From these findings, it now appears that the combinatorial interplay of different transcription factors with ?-catenin supports liver metabolic zonation. We propose that genome-wide approaches using chromatin immunoprecipitation will allow to further explore the molecular determinants of ?-catenin-dependent liver zonation. PMID:19914393

Torre, Cyril; Perret, Christine; Colnot, Sabine

2011-02-01

366

Polyacrylamide nanosensor embedded with phosphate sensitive protein for detection of metabolic process in living cells  

E-print Network

Polyacrylamide nanosensor embedded with phosphate sensitive protein for detection of metabolic are embedded by cross-linked polymer in nanometer scale, have several advantages over direct loading of cells by embedding a phosphate sensor (FLIPPi-4µ) in polyacrylamide matrix through water-in-oil microemulsion

367

Insulin Prohormone Processing, Distribution, and Relation to Metabolism in Aplysia californica  

Microsoft Academic Search

within the F and C clusters, and AI is transported to neurohemal release sites located on the upper labial and anterior tentacular nerves. The expression of AI mRNA decreases when the animal is deprived of food, and injections of AI reduce hemolymph glucose levels, suggesting that the function of insulin-regulating metabolism has been conserved.

Philip D. Floyd; Lingjun Li; Stanislav S. Rubakhin; Jonathan V. Sweedler; Charles C. Horn; Irving Kupfermann; Vera Y. Alexeeva; Timothy A. Ellis; Nikolai C. Dembrow; Klaudiusz R. Weiss; Ferdinand S. Vilim

1999-01-01

368

Providing assistive technology in Italy: the perceived delivery process quality as affecting abandonment.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The study brings together three aspects rarely observed at once in assistive technology (AT) surveys: (i) the assessment of user interaction/satisfaction with AT and service delivery, (ii) the motivational analysis of AT abandonment, and (iii) the management/design evaluation of AT delivery services. Methods: 15 health professionals and 4 AT experts were involved in modelling and assessing four AT Local Health Delivery Service (Centres) in Italy through a SWOT analysis and a Cognitive Walkthrough. In addition 558 users of the same Centres were interviewed in a telephone survey to rate their satisfaction and AT use. Results: The overall AT abandonment was equal to 19.09%. Different Centres' management strategies resulted in different percentages of AT disuse, with a range from 12.61% to 24.26%. A significant difference between the declared abandonment and the Centres' management strategies (p?=?0.012) was identified. A strong effect on abandonment was also found due to professionals' procedures (p?=?0.005) and follow-up systems (p?=?0.002). Conclusions: The user experience of an AT is affected not only by the quality of the interaction with the AT, but also by the perceived quality of the Centres in support and follow-up. Implications for Rehabilitation AT abandonment surveys provide useful information for modelling AT assessment and delivery process. SWOT and Cognitive Walkthrough analyses have shown suitable methods for exploring limits and advantages in AT service delivery systems. The study confirms the relevance of person centredness for a successful AT assessment and delivery process. PMID:24936571

Federici, Stefano; Borsci, Simone

2014-06-17

369

Carbon and arsenic metabolism in Thiomonas strains: differences revealed diverse adaptation processes  

PubMed Central

Background Thiomonas strains are ubiquitous in arsenic-contaminated environments. Differences between Thiomonas strains in the way they have adapted and respond to arsenic have never been studied in detail. For this purpose, five Thiomonas strains, that are interesting in terms of arsenic metabolism were selected: T. arsenivorans, Thiomonas spp. WJ68 and 3As are able to oxidise As(III), while Thiomonas sp. Ynys1 and T. perometabolis are not. Moreover, T. arsenivorans and 3As present interesting physiological traits, in particular that these strains are able to use As(III) as an electron donor. Results The metabolism of carbon and arsenic was compared in the five Thiomonas strains belonging to two distinct phylogenetic groups. Greater physiological differences were found between these strains than might have been suggested by 16S rRNA/rpoA gene phylogeny, especially regarding arsenic metabolism. Physiologically, T. perometabolis and Ynys1 were unable to oxidise As(III) and were less arsenic-resistant than the other strains. Genetically, they appeared to lack the aox arsenic-oxidising genes and carried only a single ars arsenic resistance operon. Thiomonas arsenivorans belonged to a distinct phylogenetic group and increased its autotrophic metabolism when arsenic concentration increased. Differential proteomic analysis revealed that in T. arsenivorans, the rbc/cbb genes involved in the assimilation of inorganic carbon were induced in the presence of arsenic, whereas these genes were repressed in Thiomonas sp. 3As. Conclusion Taken together, these results show that these closely related bacteria differ substantially in their response to arsenic, amongst other factors, and suggest different relationships between carbon assimilation and arsenic metabolism. PMID:19549320

2009-01-01

370

Network reconstruction of platelet metabolism identifies metabolic signature for aspirin resistance  

PubMed Central

Recently there has not been a systematic, objective assessment of the metabolic capabilities of the human platelet. A manually curated, functionally tested, and validated biochemical reaction network of platelet metabolism, iAT-PLT-636, was reconstructed using 33 proteomic datasets and 354 literature references. The network contains enzymes mapping to 403 diseases and 231 FDA approved drugs, alluding to an expansive scope of biochemical transformations that may affect or be affected by disease processes in multiple organ systems. The effect of aspirin (ASA) resistance on platelet metabolism was evaluated using constraint-based modeling, which revealed a redirection of glycolytic, fatty acid, and nucleotide metabolism reaction fluxes in order to accommodate eicosanoid synthesis and reactive oxygen species stress. These results were confirmed with independent proteomic data. The construction and availability of iAT-PLT-636 should stimulate further data-driven, systems analysis of platelet metabolism towards the understanding of pathophysiological conditions including, but not strictly limited to, coagulopathies. PMID:24473230

Thomas, Alex; Rahmanian, Sorena; Bordbar, Aarash; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.; Jamshidi, Neema

2014-01-01

371

Network reconstruction of platelet metabolism identifies metabolic signature for aspirin resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has not been a systematic, objective assessment of the metabolic capabilities of the human platelet. A manually curated, functionally tested, and validated biochemical reaction network of platelet metabolism, iAT-PLT-636, was reconstructed using 33 proteomic datasets and 354 literature references. The network contains enzymes mapping to 403 diseases and 231 FDA approved drugs, alluding to an expansive scope of biochemical transformations that may affect or be affected by disease processes in multiple organ systems. The effect of aspirin (ASA) resistance on platelet metabolism was evaluated using constraint-based modeling, which revealed a redirection of glycolytic, fatty acid, and nucleotide metabolism reaction fluxes in order to accommodate eicosanoid synthesis and reactive oxygen species stress. These results were confirmed with independent proteomic data. The construction and availability of iAT-PLT-636 should stimulate further data-driven, systems analysis of platelet metabolism towards the understanding of pathophysiological conditions including, but not strictly limited to, coagulopathies.

Thomas, Alex; Rahmanian, Sorena; Bordbar, Aarash; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.; Jamshidi, Neema

2014-01-01

372

Factors affecting the harem formation process by young Misaki feral stallions.  

PubMed

For the past 12 years, a study was conducted in the Misaki area (southern Kyushu Island, Japan) to investigate young males form new harems, how they acquire the mares and the factors affecting the process of new harem formation. Young males formed new harems between the ages of 3.8 and 7.6 yr, and 93% of these new harem groups were formed at the beginning of the breeding season. The most common way (87%) for young males to form a new harem was by acquiring wandering mares which had separated from their groups, whereas 13% stole unstable mares from established bands. The fact that all young males obtained harems the new at an early age, with an average age of 5.2 yr (n = 15) could be explained high female biased sex ratio (3:1), and great number of wandering mares per stallion (2.5:1). At the time new harem groups were formed, aggression, fighting or such behavior as active herding or driving mares was not observed among stallions because the "unstable" mares were most likely to be abducted by stallions. PMID:10423690

Khalil, A M; Murakami, N

1999-06-01

373

Declarative interference affects off-line processing of motor imagery learning during both sleep and wakefulness.  

PubMed

Retroactive interference from a declarative memory can prevent the consolidation of motor skill memories over wakefulness, but not over a night of sleep. Recently, motor imagery (MI) learning has been showed to allow for a stronger resistance against procedural interference rather than physical practice, but whether declarative interference might impact sleep-dependent consolidation process of an explicit finger tapping task learned with MI remains unknown. To address this issue, 57 subjects mentally rehearsed an explicit finger tapping sequence, and half of them were then requested to practice an interferential declarative task. All participants were re-tested on the initial procedural task either after a night of sleep or a similar daytime interval. The main findings provided evidence that declarative interference affected MI consolidation both over the night- and wakefulness intervals. These results extend our previous findings by underlying that declarative interference might impact more strongly explicit MI practice than physical practice, hence suggesting that MI might rely on declarative memory rather than exclusively on procedural memory system. The relationship between declarative and procedural memories during MI practice, as well as during off-line consolidation, is discussed. PMID:23103616

Debarnot, Ursula; Castellani, Eleonora; Guillot, Aymeric; Giannotti, Veronica; Dimarco, Mattia; Sebastiani, Laura

2012-11-01

374

Engulfment adapter PTB domain containing 1 interacts with and affects processing of the amyloid-? precursor protein.  

PubMed

Previous studies identified engulfment adapter phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain containing 1 (GULP1) as an NPXY-motif interactor of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and suggested a potential relevance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since AD associated proteins amyloid-? A4 precursor protein (APP) and LRP1 were shown to interact with the PTB domain of Fe65 and several other adapters via their intracellular NPXY-motifs, we examined a possible interaction of GULP1 PTB domain with the YENPTY-motif of APP. Here we demonstrate that GULP1 is present in human hippocampal and neocortical neurons. Confocal live cell imaging revealed that coexpressed and endogenous GULP1 colocalizes with APP in the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Analysis of the interacting domains by co-immunoprecipitation of point and deletion mutants revealed that the interaction depends on the PTB domain of GULP1 and the YENPTY-motif of APP. Coexpression of GULP1 affected APP cell surface localization and suppressed generation of A?40/42 and sAPP?. Taken together, these data identify GULP1 as a novel neuronal APP interacting protein that alters trafficking and processing of APP. PMID:20674096

Beyer, Anja-Silke; von Einem, Bjoern; Schwanzar, Daniel; Keller, Ilona E; Hellrung, Anke; Thal, Dietmar R; Ingelsson, Martin; Makarova, Alexandra; Deng, Meihua; Chhabra, Ekta S; Pröpper, Christian; Böckers, Tobias M; Hyman, Bradley T; von Arnim, Christine A F

2012-04-01

375

Lipid metabolism in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The malignant transformation of cells requires adaptations across multiple metabolic processes to satisfy the energy required for their increased rate of proliferation. Dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been a hallmark of the malignant phenotype; increased lipid accumulation secondary to changes in the levels of a variety of lipid metabolic enzymes has been documented in a variety of tumors, including prostate. Alterations in prostate lipid metabolism include upregulation of several lipogenic enzymes as well as of enzymes that function to oxidize fatty acids as an energy source. Cholesterol metabolism and phospholipid metabolism are also affected. With respect to lipogenesis, most studies have concentrated on increased expression and activity ofthe de novo fatty acid synthesis enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FASN), with suggestions that FASN might function as an oncogene. A central role for fatty acid oxidation in supplying energy to the prostate cancer cell is supported by the observation that the peroxisomal enzyme, ?-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), which facilitates the transformation of branched chain fatty acids to a form suitable for ?-oxidation, is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer compared with normal prostate. Exploitation of the alterations in lipid metabolic pathways in prostate cancer could result in the development of new therapeutic modalities as well as provide candidates for new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AMACR has already proven to be a valuable biomarker in distinguishing normal from malignant prostate tissue, and is used routinely in clinical practice. PMID:25374912

Wu, Xinyu; Daniels, Garrett; Lee, Peng; Monaco, Marie E

2014-01-01

376

Evaluation of Geochemical Processes Affecting Uranium Sequestration and Longevity of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of effective remediation techniques for protecting existing drinking water supplies and for mitigating existing contamination problems requires evaluating both the contaminant sequestration processes and the secondary reactions affecting the long term stability of contaminant attenuation. Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) provide a means for passive remediation of dissolved groundwater contaminants and may be an effective strategy for remediation of uranium (U) groundwater contamination provided that long term stability of the sequestered U can be achieved for the geochemical conditions of the aquifer expected subsequent to remediation. Understanding the chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in U uptake and PRB performance are critical to evaluating the potential for release of sequestered U and for improved design of remediation devices. We are using synchrotron X-ray techniques to investigate U sequestration reaction mechanisms and biogeochemical processes in PRB materials recovered from a 9-year field demonstration of zero-valent iron (ZVI) and bone char apatite PRBs in a U contaminated aquifer near Fry Canyon, Utah. X-ray microprobe mapping of iron phases shows that extensive secondary precipitation of mackinawite, siderite and aragonite in the ZVI PRB has resulted from ZVI corrosion coupled with microbial sulfate reduction. Bulk U-EXAFS measurements and micron-scale U-oxidation state mapping indicates that U removal occurs largely by reduction and precipitation of a UO2-like U(IV) phase on the ZVI surfaces, and that the sequestered U is often buried by the secondary Fe precipitates. These findings are significant to the efficacy of ZVI PRBs for remediation of U and other contaminants in that the ongoing secondary phase precipitation cements grains and fills internal porosity resulting in the observed decreased PRB permeability and limits subsequent U removal, but likely limits oxidative remobilization of U. In the bone char apatite PRB, elevated levels of U uptake were observed at up to 20-times above the maximum for U(VI) sorption by surface complexation expected for this material. XAS measurements show that the sequestered U is predominantly in the +4 oxidation state, instead of +6, indicating a reduction process. Bulk U-EXAFS is consistent with the reduced U(IV) occurring as a sorbed species instead of forming biogenic urananite, and thus may be more likely to undergo re-oxidation and mobilization.

Fuller, C. C.; Webb, S.; Bargar, J.; Naftz, D. L.

2009-12-01

377

EBPR using crude glycerol: assessing process resiliency and exploring metabolic anomalies.  

PubMed

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is predicated on exposing bacteria to cyclical anaerobic/aerobic environments while providing volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Combined, this environment enriches for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and induces metabolisms to ensure excess phosphorus removal. Crude glycerol (CG), a byproduct of biodiesel manufacturing, is an alternate waste stream that could be substituted to achieve excess phosphorus removal; research into the use of CG yielded unexpected findings. While CG was an excellent substrate to accomplish and/or help achieve excess phosphorus removal, CG-fed bacteria did not consistently exhibit theoretical EBPR metabolisms. Specifically, anaerobic phosphorus release was not required for successful EBPR; however, carbon cycling patterns were consistent with theory. Analysis of results suggests that PAOs will first leverage carbon to generate energy anaerobically; only as needed will the bacteria utilize polyphosphate reserves anaerobically. Results also demonstrated that excess phosphorus removal can be achieved with a small fraction of PAOs. PMID:25630129

Coats, Erik R; Dobroth, Zachary T; Brinkman, Cynthia K

2015-01-01

378

Leucine affects the fibroblastic Vero cells stimulating the cell proliferation and modulating the proteolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, exert regulatory influences on protein and carbohydrate metabolism, ribosome\\u000a biogenesis and gene expression. This study investigated the effects of leucine in fibroblastic cells analysing viability,\\u000a proliferation, morphology, proteolysis enzymes activities and protein turnover. After exposure to culture medium enriched\\u000a with 25 or 50 ?M leucine for 24, 48 and 72 h, Vero cells have no alterations on

Estela Maria Gonçalves; Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes

2010-01-01

379

Inflorescences vs leaves: a distinct modulation of carbon metabolism process during Botrytis infection.  

PubMed

Plant growth and survival depends critically on photo assimilates. Pathogen infection leads to changes in carbohydrate metabolism of plants. In this study, we monitored changes in the carbohydrate metabolism in the grapevine inflorescence and leaves using Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis pseudo cinerea. Fluctuations in gas exchange were correlated with variations in chlorophyll a fluorescence. During infection, the inflorescences showed an increase in net photosynthesis (Pn) with a stomatal limitation. In leaves, photosynthesis decreased, with a non-stomatal limitation. A decrease in the effective photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield (?PSII) was accompanied by an increase in photochemical quenching (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (qN). The enhancement of qP and ?PSII could explain the observed increase in Pn. In leaves, the significant decline in ?PSII and qP, and increase in qN suggest that energy was mostly oriented toward heat dissipation instead of CO2 fixation. The accumulation of glucose and sucrose in inflorescences and glucose and fructose in the leaves during infection indicate that the plant's carbon metabolism is differently regulated in these two organs. While a strong accumulation of starch was observed at 24 and 48?hours post-inoculation (hpi) with both species of Botrytis in the inflorescences, a significant decrease with B. cinerea at 24?hpi and a significant increase with B. pseudo cinerea at 48?hpi were observed in the leaves. On the basis of these results, it can be said that during pathogen attack, the metabolism of grapevine inflorescence and leaf is modified suggesting distinct mechanisms modifying gas exchange, PSII activity and sugar contents in these two organs. PMID:25251162

Vatsa-Portugal, Parul; Walker, Anne-Sophie; Jacquens, Lucile; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid Ait; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie

2014-09-24

380

Clinical Process Studies on Anxiety and Aggressiveness Affects in the Inpatient Therapy of Anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the assumption of affect defense (alexithymia), 20 anorexia nervosa patients being treated in the University Hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf were examined with respect to their affects of anxiety and aggressivity by employing speech samples (three times a week) – according to Gottschalk-Gleser – and questionnaires (ANIS) during hospitalization and compared to 10 control patients from somatic clinics (orthopedics, surgery, gynecology).

Klaus Engel; Iris Meier

1988-01-01