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1

Affective Disorders, Bone Metabolism, and Osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the relationship between affective disorders, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone metabolism is unresolved,\\u000a although there is growing evidence that many medications used to treat affective disorders are associated with low BMD or\\u000a alterations in neuroendocrine systems that influence bone turnover. The objective of this review is to describe the current\\u000a evidence regarding the association of unipolar

Briana Mezuk

2008-01-01

2

Affective Disorders, Bone Metabolism, and Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

The nature of the relationship between affective disorders, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone metabolism is unresolved, although there is growing evidence that many medications used to treat affective disorders are associated with low BMD or alterations in neuroendocrine systems that influence bone turnover. The objective of this review is to describe the current evidence regarding the association of unipolar and bipolar depression with BMD and indicators of bone metabolism, and to explore potential mediating and confounding influences of those relationships. The majority of studies of unipolar depression and BMD indicate that depressive symptoms are associated with low BMD. In contrast, evidence regarding the relationship between bipolar depression and BMD is inconsistent. There is limited but suggestive evidence to support an association between affective disorders and some markers of bone turnover. Many medications used to treat affective disorders have effects on physiologic systems that influence bone metabolism, and these conditions are also associated with a range of health behaviors that can influence osteoporosis risk. Future research should focus on disentangling the pathways linking psychotropic medications and their clinical indications with BMD and fracture risk. PMID:23874147

2013-01-01

3

Metabolic disorders of purine metabolism affecting the nervous system.  

PubMed

The purines are a group of molecules used by all cells for many vital biochemical processes including energy-requiring enzymatic reactions, cofactor-requiring reactions, synthesis of DNA or RNA, signaling pathways within and between cells, and other processes. Defects in some of the enzymes of purine metabolism are known to be associated with specific clinical disorders, and neurological problems may be a presenting sign or the predominant clinical problem for several of them. This chapter describes three disorders for which the clinical features and metabolic basis are well characterized. Deficiency of adenylosuccinate-lyase (ADSL) causes psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, and autistic features. Lesch-Nyhan disease is caused by deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and is characterized by hyperuricemia, motor and cognitive disability, and self-injurious behavior. Deficiency of myoadenylate deaminase (mAMPD) is associated with myopathic features. In addition to these disorders, several other disorders are briefly summarized. These include defects of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PND), deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK), or IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Each of these disorders provides an unusual window on the unique importance of purine metabolism for function of different parts of the nervous system. PMID:23622405

Jinnah, H A; Sabina, Richard L; Van Den Berghe, Georges

2013-01-01

4

Protein metabolism in coronary wall affected by cardiac load.  

PubMed

The relation between biomechanics of conduit coronary artery and metabolic processes in its wall were studied in cardiac pressure overload, in anaesthetized dogs. Two sorts of forces and/or coronary deformations were followed: (1) radial and length deformation of ramus interventricularis anterior (RIA) due to ventricle volume changes, and (2) shear stress in ramus circumflexus (RC) ensuing the blood flow changes. Increase in aortic pressure (33.9 +/- 2.30%) accompanied an increase in RIA diameter (4.6 +/- 0.38%) and an increase in segment length (8.0 +/- 1.0%) indicating that both circumferential and longitudinal oriented muscle bundles were loaded. Increase in RC blood flow (55.6 +/- 4.0%) and diameter (3.8 +/- 0.3%) resulted in an increase of shear stress (35.15 +/- 11.16%) that affects particularly the endothelial cells. Two hours lasting cardiac load suggested a tendency, 4 h lasting load resulted in a significant increase both in RNA content (11.06 +/- 4.68% and 9.05 +/- 0.72%) and in [14C]leucine incorporation (53.59 +/- 13.75% and 48.41 +/- 16.16%) in the myocardium and RIA wall, respectively. No change was found in RC wall. The process was reversible, 2 h after the load had ceased. The heterogeneity of metabolic processes reflected closely the heterogeneity in coronary deformation. PMID:7531557

Gerova, M; Pechanova, O; Stoev, V; Kittova, M; Bernatova, I

1994-01-01

5

Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: Endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

2014-12-01

6

Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

1987-01-01

7

How information processing mode could affect prostaglandin E1 metabolism and lung inactivation: relevance of hemispheric specialization, neurotransmitter asymmetry and brain reactivity.  

PubMed

Due to asymmetry of brain neurotransmitters and differential hemispheric information processing modes, it is suggested that the excessive use of one information processing mode could engender a state of brain reactivity whose neurochemical correlates would be either a rise in melatonin or beta-endorphin in systemic circulation. Since melatonin and beta-endorphin have opposite effects on lung-mediated regulation of prostaglandins, it is further suggested that the pulmonary inactivation of prostaglandin E1 would either be increased or inhibited. Low levels of PGE1 would engender high levels of PGE2 whose effects would explain the findings in schizophrenics of: 'reducing' pattern of visual evoked response, cerebral atrophy, and viral and autoimmune phenomena. The primacy of the disordered cognitive style in leading up to the immunological, biochemical and neuropathological processes is stressed. Implications of this model for understanding depression, anxiety and phobic disorders, autism, attention deficit disorder, obesity, alcoholism, smoking, drug addiction, sexual deviations, and certain psychosomatic and psychophysiological disorders are suggested. PMID:6146917

Backon, J

1984-06-01

8

Interactions between dietary boron and thiamine affect lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary boron impacts upon the function of various coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. In a 2 {times} 7 factorially-arranged experiment, weanling, vitamin D{sub 3}-deprived rats were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet supplemented with 0 or 2 mg boron/kg and 50% of the requirement for thiamine (TM), riboflavin (RF), pantothenic acid (PA) or pyridoxine (PX); 0% for folic acid (FA) or nicotinic acid (NA). All vitamins were supplemented in adequate amounts in the control diet. At 8 weeks of age, the TM dietary treatment was the one most affected by supplemental dietary boron (SDB). In rats that were fed 50% TM, SDB increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), and the liver to body weight (L/B) ratio. However, in the SDB animals, adequate amounts of TM decreased the means of those variables to near that observed in non-SDB rats fed 50% TM. The findings suggest that an interaction between dietary boron and TM affects lipid metabolism.

Herbel, J.L.; Hunt, C.D. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1991-03-15

9

Diagnosis of inherited metabolic disorders affecting the nervous system.  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the molecular causes for genetic diseases that affect the nervous system is rapidly expanding. Especially striking has been the finding in several autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that unstable expansions of trinucleotide repeats are responsible for the genetic disorder and that the length of the repeat can be correlated with the age of onset and the severity of symptoms. Phenotypic heterogeneity in many disorders associated with enzyme deficiencies can often be linked to the amount of residual enzyme activity occurring with different gene mutations. Making a specific diagnosis of a neurological disorder associated with genetically determined metabolic defects requires access to a laboratory that can assist in arranging for appropriate testing to be carried out. In some disorders such as the aminoacidurias diagnostic metabolic studies can be performed in hospital clinical chemistry laboratories. In others, such as the lysosomal storage diseases, a laboratory that carries out special lipid analyses and white blood cell enzyme assays will be necessary. DNA mutational analyses are becoming commercially available for diagnosing many disorders such as mitochondrial diseases and those conditions associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. It may be necessary to contact individual research laboratories when confronted with a disorder that has been newly discovered or that is very rare. A computerised directory of specialised laboratories that perform disease specific testing for genetic disorders should be useful in choosing the appropriate diagnostic or research laboratory. Images PMID:8530925

Swanson, P D

1995-01-01

10

Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24036417

Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

2013-09-01

11

Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health  

PubMed Central

Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

2014-01-01

12

Cognitive and Affective Processes Underlying Career Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Aligning social identity and career identity has become increasingly complex due to growth in the pursuit of meaningful careers that offer very long-term personal satisfaction and stability. This paper aims to explore the complex cognitive and affective thought process involved in the conscious planning of voluntary career change.…

Muja, Naser; Appelbaum, Steven H.

2012-01-01

13

Leptin expression affects metabolic rate in zebrafish embryos (D. rerio)  

PubMed Central

We used antisense morpholino oligonucleotide technology to knockdown leptin-(A) gene expression in developing zebrafish embryos and measured its effects on metabolic rate and cardiovascular function. Using two indicators of metabolic rate, oxygen consumption was significantly lower in leptin morphants early in development [<48 hours post-fertilization (hpf)], while acid production was significantly lower in morphants later in development (>48 hpf). Oxygen utilization rates in <48 hpf embryos and acid production in 72 hpf embryos could be rescued to that of wildtype embryos by recombinant leptin coinjected with antisense morpholino. Leptin is established to influence metabolic rate in mammals, and these data suggest leptin signaling also influences metabolic rate in fishes. PMID:23847542

Dalman, Mark R.; Liu, Qin; King, Mason D.; Bagatto, Brian; Londraville, Richard L.

2013-01-01

14

Selective defoliation affects plant growth, fruit transcriptional ripening program and flavonoid metabolism in grapevine  

PubMed Central

Background The selective removal of grapevine leaves around berry clusters can improve the quality of ripening fruits by influencing parameters such as the berry sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. The outcome depends strongly on the timing of defoliation, which influences the source–sink balance and the modified microclimate surrounding the berries. We removed the basal leaves from Vitis vinifera L. cv Sangiovese shoots at the pre-bloom and veraison stages, and investigated responses such as shoot growth, fruit morphology and composition compared to untreated controls. Moreover, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis to explore the impact of these defoliation treatments on berry transcriptome. Results We found that pre-bloom defoliation improved berry quality traits such as sugar and anthocyanin content, whereas defoliation at veraison had a detrimental effect, e.g. less anthocyanin and higher incidence of sunburn damage. Genome-wide expression analysis during berry ripening revealed that defoliation at either stage resulted in major transcriptome reprogramming, which slightly delayed the onset of ripening. However, a closer investigation of individual gene expression profiles identified genes that were specifically modulated by defoliation at each stage, reflecting the uncoupling of metabolic processes such as flavonoid biosynthesis, cell wall and stress metabolism, from the general ripening program. Conclusions The specific transcriptional modifications we observed following defoliation at different time points allow the identification of the developmental or metabolic processes affected in berries thus deepening the knowledge of the mechanisms by which these agronomical practices impact the final berry ripening traits. PMID:23433030

2013-01-01

15

Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

2012-01-01

16

Impact of Chronic Hypercortisolemia on Affective Processing  

PubMed Central

Cushing syndrome (CS) is the classic condition of cortisol dysregulation, and cortisol dysregulation is the prototypic finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that subjects with active CS would show dysfunction in frontal and limbic structures relevant to affective networks, and also manifest poorer facial affect identification accuracy, a finding reported in MDD.Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent and 1 ACTH-independent) were compared to 21 healthy controlsubjects. Identification of affective facial expressions (Facial Emotion Perception Test) was conducted in a 3 Tesla GE fMRI scanner using BOLD fMRI signal. The impact of disease (illness duration, current hormone elevation and degree of disruption of circadian rhythm), performance, and comorbid conditions secondary to hypercortisolemia were evaluated.CS patients made more errors in categorizing facial expressions and had less activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region important in emotion processing. CS patients showed higher activation in frontal, medial, and subcortical regions relative to controls. Two regions of elevated activation in CS, left middle frontal and lateral posterior/pulvinar areas, were positively correlated with accuracy in emotion identification in the CS group, reflecting compensatory recruitment. In addition, within the CSgroup, greater activation in left dorsal anterior cingulatewas related to greater severity of hormone dysregulation. In conclusion, cortisol dysregulation in CS patients is associated with problems in accuracy of affective discrimination and altered activation of brain structures relevant to emotion perception, processing and regulation, similar to the performance decrements and brain regions shown to be dysfunctional in MDD. PMID:21787793

Langenecker, Scott A.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Giordani, Bruno; Briceno, Emily M.; GuidottiBreting, Leslie M.; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Leon, Hadia M.; Noll, Douglas C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Schteingart, David E.; Starkman, Monica N.

2011-01-01

17

Growth and Metabolism of Senna as Affected by Salt Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot culture experiments were conducted using different NaCl concentrations to assess their impact on the growth and metabolic changes in senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.). Five treatments (0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mM NaCl) were given to the plants at three phenological stages, i.e. at pre-flowering, (45 days after sowing, DAS); flowering (75 DAS) and post-flowering (90 DAS) stages. A

A. Arshi; M. Z. Abdin; M. Iqbal

2002-01-01

18

Transcriptional regulation of metabolic processes: implications for cardiac metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under normal conditions the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose covers, respectively, approximately 65% and 30% of the energy\\u000a demand of the beating heart. Evidence is accumulating that various pathophysiological conditions are associated with overt\\u000a changes in cardiac energy metabolism. For instance, in diabetes cardiac energy conversion relies even more on fatty acid than\\u000a on glucose oxidation. In contrast, during

Marc van Bilsen; Ger J. van der Vusse; Robert S. Reneman

1998-01-01

19

Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch.  

PubMed

Despite the crucial role of touch in social development, there is very little functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on brain mechanisms underlying social touch processing. The "skin as a social organ" hypothesis is supported by the discovery of C-tactile (CT) nerves that are present in hairy skin and project to the insular cortex. CT-fibers respond specifically well to slow, gentle touch such as that which occurs during close social interactions. Given the social significance of such touch researchers have proposed that the CT-system represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism important for normative social development. However, it is currently unknown whether brain regions other than the insula are involved in processing CT-targeted touch. In the current fMRI study, we sought to characterize the brain regions involved in the perception of CT-supported affective touch. Twenty-two healthy adults received manual brush strokes to either the arm or palm. A direct contrast of the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to gentle brushing of the arm and palm revealed the involvement of a network of brain regions, in addition to the posterior insula, during CT-targeted affective touch to the arm. This network included areas known to be involved in social perception and social cognition, including the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/dorso anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Connectivity analyses with an mPFC/dACC seed revealed coactivation with the left insula and amygdala during arm touch. These findings characterize a network of brain regions beyond the insula involved in coding CT-targeted affective touch. PMID:22125232

Gordon, Ilanit; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

2013-04-01

20

Osmoregulatory processes and skeletal muscle metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prolonged microgravity during space flight is associated with a decrease in blood and extracellular volume. These changes in water and electrolyte balance might activate catabolic processes which contribute finally to the loss of muscle and bone mass and strength. Recently, we found a prompt increase that energy expenditure by about 30% in both normal and overweight men and women after drinking 500 ml water. This effect is mediated by an increased sympathetic nervous system activity, obviously secondary to stimulation of osmosensitive afferent neurons in the liver, and skeletal muscle is possibly one effector organ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this thermogenic response to water is accompanied by a stimulation of aerobic glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. To this end, 16 young healthy volunteers (8 men) were studied. After an overnight fast (12h), a microdialysis probe was implanted into the right M. quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution (+50 mM ethanol). After 1h, volunteers were asked to drink 500 ml water (22° C) followed by continuing microdialysis for another 90 min. Dialysates (15 min fractions) were analyzed for [ethanol], [glucose], [lactate], [pyruvate], and [glycerol] in order to assess changes in muscle tissue perfusion (ethanol dilution technique), glycolysis and lipolysis. Blood samples were taken and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Neither HR and systolic and diastolic BP, nor plasma [glucose], [lactate], [insulin], and [C peptide] changed significantly after water drinking. Also, tissue perfusion and dialysate [glucose] did not change significantly. However, dialysate [lactate] increased by about 10 and 20% and dialysate [pyruvate] by about 100 and 200% in men and women, respectively. In contrast, dialysate [glycerol] decreased by about 30 and 20% in men and women, respectively. Therefore, drinking of 500 ml water stimulates aerobic glucose metabolism and inhibits lipolysis in skeletal muscle and this to a greater extent in women than men. These insulin-like effects after water drinking originate possibly from regulatory cell volume swelling in osmosensitive organs such as muscle. Therefore, a well-balanced water homeostasis might be important for preventing catabolic processes during long-term space expeditions.

Boschmann, Michael; Gottschalk, Simone; Adams, Frauke; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

21

Factors affecting the process performance of biofiltration  

SciTech Connect

Biofiltration is an emerging biological treatment technology for the removal of airborne VOCs from industrial process waste streams. Removal of air-phase VOCs by biofiltration is accomplished by contacting a process airstream with an active microbial biofilm attached to a solid phase packing. VOCs that partition into the biofilm are aerobically oxidized to the endproducts of water, carbon dioxide and salts. A multiple reactor biofiltration pilot plant test program has been in progress at the University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering Laboratories since 1992. The primary goal of the program is to study factors that affect biofiltration process performance. Initial results of this test program were reported in a previous conference paper and master`s thesis. This paper presents the results of more recent studies that focus on the effects of: (1) biofilm accumulation (which in turn causes a decrease in biofilter bed porosity and packing bed surface area), (2) rates of nutrient addition, and (3) chemical properties of the target contaminant, on biofiltration removal performance. Removal performance was evaluated by determining biofilter removal capacities and efficiencies for various substrate feeds. The performance parameters were measured under constant contaminant inlet concentrations and under constant temperature. Three VOCs were selected for study and they are: MEK, (methyl ethyl ketone), xylene, and hexane. MEK, xylene, and hexane were chosen because they are representative of widely used industrial solvents and they have significantly different Henry`s law constants relative to each other (the MEK value < Xylene value < Hexane value). Henry`s law constants quantify the partitioning of a chemical between the air and water-biofilm phase and therefore can be used to correlate the effect of chemical properties on biofilter removal capacities. This paper also introduces a new model for the biofiltration process.

Kopchynski, D.M.; Farmer, R.W.; Maier, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01

22

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice.  

PubMed

Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of ?-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM. PMID:24717228

Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

2014-01-01

23

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

PubMed

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

2012-03-01

24

Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical processes which affect stratospheric aerosol particles include nucleation, condensation, evaporation, coagulation and sedimentation. Quantitative studies of these mechanisms to determine if they can account for some of the observed properties of the aerosol are carried out. It is shown that the altitude range in which nucleation of sulfuric acid-water solution droplets can take place corresponds to that region of the stratosphere where the aerosol is generally found. Since heterogeneous nucleation is the dominant nucleation mechanism, the stratospheric solution droplets are mainly formed on particles which have been mixed up from the troposphere or injected into the stratosphere by volcanoes or meteorites. Particle growth by heteromolecular condensation can account for the observed increase in mixing ratio of large particles in the stratosphere. Coagulation is important in reducing the number of particles smaller than 0.05 micron radius. Growth by condensation, applied to the mixed nature of the particles, shows that available information is consistent with ammonium sulfate being formed by liquid phase chemical reactions in the aerosol particles. The upper altitude limit of the aerosol layer is probably due to the evaporation of sulfuric acid aerosol particles, while the lower limit is due to mixing across the tropopause.

Hamill, P.; Toon, O. B.; Kiang, C. S.

1977-01-01

25

How does SIRT1 affect metabolism, senescence and cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIRT1 is a multifaceted, NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes from cancer to ageing. The function of SIRT1 in cancer is complex: SIRT1 has been shown to have oncogenic properties by downregulating p53 activity, but recent studies indicate that SIRT1 acts as a tumour suppressor in a mutated p53 background, raising intriguing questions

Christopher L. Brooks; Wei Gu

2008-01-01

26

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Metabolism. In: Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology . 14th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John H Wiley and Sons; 2013: ...

27

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

28

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico Abstract When Drosophila melanogaster larvae are reared on isocaloric diets that the influence of larval diet experienced during just one generation extends into the next generation, even when

Markow, Therese

29

Perception of Auditory Motion Affects Language Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous reports have demonstrated that the comprehension of sentences describing motion in a particular direction (toward, away, up, or down) is affected by concurrently viewing a stimulus that depicts motion in the same or opposite direction. We report 3 experiments that extend our understanding of the relation between perception and language…

Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Aveyard, Mark; Yaxley, Richard H.

2006-01-01

30

PPAR gene level differently affects lipid metabolism and inflammation in apolipoprotein E2 knock-in mice  

E-print Network

1 PPAR gene level differently affects lipid metabolism and inflammation in apolipoprotein E2 knock. Interestingly, fenofibrate treatment induced a similar response on hepatic lipid metabolism in PPAR+/+ and PPAR metabolism, murine model inserm-00587128,version1-19Apr2011 #12;3 Introduction Fibrates are lipid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-Franois DUMAS, Damien ROUSSEL, Gilles SIMARD, Olivier DOUAY, Franoise  

E-print Network

metabolism, liver mitochondria were isolated from ad libitum and food restricted rats. Mitochondrial enzyme1 Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-François DUMAS, Damien restriction, energy metabolism, mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation, respiratory chain complexes. inserm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Absence of cumulus cells during in vitro maturation affects lipid metabolism in bovine oocytes.  

PubMed

Cumulus cells (CC) surround the oocyte and are coupled metabolically through regulation of nutrient intake. CC removal before in vitro maturation (IVM) decreases bovine oocyte developmental competence without affecting nuclear meiotic maturation. The objective was to investigate the influence of CC on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation in relation to energy metabolism. IVM with either cumulus-enclosed (CEO) or -denuded (DO) oocytes was performed in serum-free metabolically optimized medium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different distribution of membrane-bound vesicles and lipid droplets between metaphase II DO and CEO. By Nile Red staining, a significant reduction in total lipid level was evidenced in DO. Global transcriptomic analysis revealed differential expression of genes regulating energy metabolism, transcription, and translation between CEO and DO. By Western blot, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive phospholipase (HSL) proteins were detected in oocytes and in CC, indicating a local lipogenesis and lypolysis. FAS protein was significantly less abundant in DO that in CEO and more highly expressed in CC than in the oocytes. On the contrary, HSL protein was more abundant in oocytes than in CC. In addition, active Ser??³-phosphorylated HSL was detected in the oocytes only after IVM, and its level was similar in CEO and DO. In conclusion, absence of CC during IVM affected lipid metabolism in the oocyte and led to suboptimal cytoplasmic maturation. Thus, CC may influence the oocyte by orienting the consumption of nutritive storage via regulation of local fatty acid synthesis and lipolysis to provide energy for maturation. PMID:23321473

Auclair, Sylvain; Uzbekov, Rustem; Elis, Sébastien; Sanchez, Laura; Kireev, Igor; Lardic, Lionel; Dalbies-Tran, Rozenn; Uzbekova, Svetlana

2013-03-15

33

Dilution, Not Load, Affects Distractor Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lavie and Tsal (1994) proposed that spare attentional capacity is allocated involuntarily to the processing of irrelevant stimuli, thereby enabling interference. Under this view, when task demands increase, spare capacity should decrease and distractor interference should decrease. In support, Lavie and Cox (1997) found that increasing perceptual…

Wilson, Daryl E.; Muroi, Miya; MacLeod, Colin M.

2011-01-01

34

Rice folate enhancement through metabolic engineering has an impact on rice seed metabolism, but does not affect the expression of the endogenous folate biosynthesis genes.  

PubMed

Folates are key-players in one-carbon metabolism in all organisms. However, only micro-organisms and plants are able to synthesize folates de novo and humans rely entirely on their diet as a sole folate source. As a consequence, folate deficiency is a global problem. Although different strategies are currently implemented to fight folate deficiency, up until now, all of them have their own drawbacks. As an alternative and complementary means to those classical strategies, folate biofortification of rice by metabolic engineering was successfully achieved a couple of years ago. To gain more insight into folate biosynthesis regulation and the effect of folate enhancement on general rice seed metabolism, a transcriptomic study was conducted in developing transgenic rice seeds, overexpressing 2 genes of the folate biosynthetic pathway. Upon folate enhancement, the expression of 235 genes was significantly altered. Here, we show that rice folate biofortification has an important effect on folate dependent, seed developmental and plant stress response/defense processes, but does not affect the expression of the endogenous folate biosynthesis genes. PMID:23771598

Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Daele, Jeroen; Storozhenko, Sergei; Stove, Christophe; Lambert, Willy; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

2013-11-01

35

Methionine intake affect hepatic sulphur metabolism in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic salmon with body weight of 493 g were fed 6 graded levels of methionine in diets based on plant proteins for a period of 85 days with the aim to test whether methionine intake affected growth, nutrient accretion and hepatic sulphur metabolism. A negative control based on a mixture of plant proteins with low fish meal inclusion (5%) containing 1.64 g methionine

Marit Espe; Ernst M. Hevrøy; Bjørn Liaset; Andreas Lemme; Adel El-Mowafi

2008-01-01

36

Affective Priming During the Processing of News Articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the role of affective priming during the processing of news articles. It is assumed that the valence of the affective response to a news article will influence the processing of subsequent news articles. More specifically, it is hypothesized that participants who read a positive article will recall subsequent positive information better than negative information. Similarly, participants

Susanne E. Baumgartner; Werner Wirth

2012-01-01

37

Crossmodal Interactions during Affective Picture Processing  

PubMed Central

"Natural" crossmodal correspondences, such as the spontaneous tendency to associate high pitches with high spatial locations, are often hypothesized to occur preattentively and independently of task instructions (top-down attention). Here, we investigate bottom-up attentional engagement by using emotional scenes that are known to naturally and reflexively engage attentional resources. We presented emotional (pleasant and unpleasant) or neutral pictures either below or above a fixation cross, while participants were required to discriminate between a high or a low pitch tone (experiment 1). Results showed that despite a robust crossmodal attentional capture of task-irrelevant emotional pictures, the general advantage in classifying the tones for congruent over incongruent visual-auditory stimuli was similar for emotional and neutral pictures. On the other hand, when picture position was task-relevant (experiment 2), task-irrelevant tones did not interact with pictures with regard to their combination of pitch and visual vertical spatial position, but instead they were effective in minimizing the interference effect of emotional picture processing on the ongoing task. These results provide constraints on our current understanding of natural crossmodal correspondences. PMID:24587078

Ferrari, Vera; Mastria, Serena; Bruno, Nicola

2014-01-01

38

Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

2014-01-01

39

Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

1998-12-31

40

Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

2011-02-01

41

Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.  

PubMed

Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis. PMID:15194428

de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

2004-07-01

42

Antimicrobial drug resistance affects broad changes in metabolomic phenotype in addition to secondary metabolism  

PubMed Central

Bacteria develop resistance to many classes of antibiotics vertically, by engendering mutations in genes encoding transcriptional and translational apparatus. These severe adaptations affect global transcription, translation, and the correspondingly affected metabolism. Here, we characterize metabolome scale changes in transcriptional and translational mutants in a genomically characterized Nocardiopsis, a soil-derived actinomycete, in stationary phase. Analysis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography–ion mobility–mass spectrometry metabolomic features from a cohort of streptomycin- and rifampicin-resistant mutants grown in the absence of antibiotics exhibits clear metabolomic speciation, and loadings analysis catalogs a marked change in metabolic phenotype. Consistent with derepression, up to 311 features are observed in antibiotic-resistant mutants that are not detected in their progenitors. Mutants demonstrate changes in primary metabolism, such as modulation of fatty acid composition and the increased production of the osmoprotectant ectoine, in addition to the presence of abundant emergent potential secondary metabolites. Isolation of three of these metabolites followed by structure elucidation demonstrates them to be an unusual polyketide family with a previously uncharacterized xanthene framework resulting from sequential oxidative carbon skeletal rearrangements. Designated as “mutaxanthenes,” this family can be correlated to a type II polyketide gene cluster in the producing organism. Taken together, these data suggest that biosynthetic pathway derepression is a general consequence of some antibiotic resistance mutations. PMID:23341601

Derewacz, Dagmara K.; Goodwin, Cody R.; McNees, C. Ruth; McLean, John A.; Bachmann, Brian O.

2013-01-01

43

Evidence that high pCO2 affects protein metabolism in tropical reef corals.  

PubMed

Early life stages of the coral Seriatopora caliendrum were used to test the hypothesis that the depression of dark respiration in coral recruits by high pCO2 is caused by perturbed protein metabolism. First, the contribution of protein anabolism to respiratory costs under high pCO2 was evaluated by measuring the aerobic respiration of S. caliendrum recruits with and without the protein synthesis inhibitor emetine following 1 to 4 days at 45 Pa versus 77 Pa pCO2. Second, protein catabolism under high pCO2 was evaluated by measuring the flux of ammonium (NH4 (+)) from juvenile colonies of S. caliendrum incubated in darkness at 47 Pa and 90 Pa pCO2. Two days after settlement, respiration of recruits was affected by an interaction between emetine and pCO2, with emetine reducing respiration 63% at 45 Pa pCO2 and 27% at 77 Pa pCO2. The interaction disappeared 5 days after settlement, when respiration was reduced 27% by emetine under both pCO2 conditions. These findings suggest that protein anabolism accounted for a large proportion of metabolic costs in coral recruits and was affected by high pCO2, with consequences detected in aerobic respiration. Juvenile S. caliendrum showed net uptake of NH4 (+) at 45 Pa pCO2 but net release of NH4 (+) at 90 Pa pCO2, indicating that protein catabolism, NH4 (+) recycling, or both were affected by high pCO2. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that high pCO2 affects protein metabolism in corals. PMID:25216504

Edmunds, Peter J; Wall, Christopher B

2014-08-01

44

Uncinate Process Length in Birds Scales with Resting Metabolic Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum.

Peter Tickle; Robert Nudds; Jonathan Codd; Alejandro Lucia

2009-01-01

45

Green Tea minimally affects Biomarkers of Inflammation in Obese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has shown to exert cardio-protective benefits in observational studies. The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of green tea on features of metabolic syndrome and inflammation in obese subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five subjects [age (mean±SE) 42.5±1.7 years, BMI 36.1±1.3 kg/m2] completed the 8-week study and were randomly assigned to receive green tea (4 cups/day), green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water/day), or no treatment (4 cups water/day). Both the beverage and extract groups had similar dosing of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the active green tea polyphenol. Fasting blood samples were collected at screening, four, and eight weeks of the study. Results Green tea beverage or extract supplementation did not significantly alter features of metabolic syndrome or biomarkers of inflammation including adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), leptin, or leptin:adiponectin ratio. However, both green tea beverage and extracts significantly reduced plasma serum amyloid alpha (SAA) versus no treatment (p<0.005). Conclusion This study suggests that the daily consumption of green tea beverage or extracts for 8 weeks was well tolerated but did not affect the features of metabolic syndrome. However, green tea significantly reduced plasma SAA, an independent CVD risk factor, in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. PMID:20605696

Basu, Arpita; Du, Mei; Sanchez, Karah; Leyva, Misti J.; Betts, Nancy M.; Blevins, Steve; Wu, Mingyuan; Aston, Christopher E.; Lyons, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

46

Brief report Affect processing and positive syndrome schizotypy  

E-print Network

Brief report Affect processing and positive syndrome schizotypy in cannabis users Patrick D 2006; received in revised form 6 October 2006; accepted 6 February 2007 Abstract While cannabis to negative symptoms such as affective blunting. We examined whether cannabis use is associated

Park, Sohee

47

Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages  

PubMed Central

Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting affective images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using early posterior negativity (EPN, 175–300 ms) as well as P3-like (P3, 300–500 ms) and slow wave (SW, 500–1500 ms) portions of the late positive potential. All analyzed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli. PMID:24421772

Uusberg, Andero; Uibo, Helen; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Tamm, Maria; Raidvee, Aire; Allik, Jüri

2013-01-01

48

Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Interleukin 6 Affect Tacrolimus Metabolism in Liver Transplant Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Tacrolimus is the first-line immunosuppressant after organ transplantation. It is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A (CYP3A) enzymes, but there are large individual differences in metabolism. Interleukin 6 (IL6) has been shown to cause a pan-suppression of mRNA levels of ten major CYP enzymes in human hepatocyte cultures. IL6 has been shown to provide hepatoprotection in various models of liver injury. Rs1800796 is a locus in the IL6 gene promoter region which regulates cytokine production. We speculated that IL6 rs1800796 polymorphisms may lead to individual differences in tacrolimus metabolism by affecting CYP3A enzymes levels and liver function after liver transplantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Ninety-six liver transplant patients receiving tacrolimus were enrolled in the study. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), CYP3A5 rs776746 and IL6 rs1800796, were genotyped in both donors and recipients. The effects of SNPs on tacrolimus concentration/dose (C/D ratio) at four weeks after transplantation were studied, as well as the effects of donor IL6 rs1800796 polymorphisms on liver function. Both donor and recipient CYP3A5 rs776746 allele A showed association with lower C/D ratios, while donor IL6 rs1800796 allele G showed an association with higher C/D ratios. Donor CYP3A5 rs776746 allele A, IL6 rs1800796 allele C, and recipient CYP3A5 rs776746 allele A were associated with fast tacrolimus metabolism. With increasing numbers of these alleles, patients were found to have increasingly lower tacrolimus C/D ratios at time points after transplantation. Donor IL6 rs1800796 allele G carriers showed an association with higher glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels. Conclusions Combined analysis of donor CYP3A5 rs776746, IL6 rs1800796, and recipient CYP3A5 rs776746 polymorphisms may distinguish tacrolimus metabolism better than CYP3A5 rs776746 alone. IL6 may lead to individual differences in tacrolimus metabolism mainly by affecting liver function. PMID:23991193

Guo, Feng; Qin, Shengying; Wang, Zhaowen; Peng, Zhihai

2013-01-01

49

L-Carnosine Affects the Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Metabolism-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

The dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10–30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types. PMID:22984600

Cartwright, Stephanie P.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Hipkiss, Alan R.

2012-01-01

50

Viral affects on metabolism: changes in glucose and glutamine utilization during human cytomegalovirus infection  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection causes dramatic alterations of intermediary metabolism, similar to those found in tumor cells. In infected cells, glucose carbon is not completely broken down by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle for energy; instead it is used biosynthetically. This process requires increased glucose uptake, increased glycolysis and the diversion of glucose carbon, in the form of citrate, from the TCA cycle for use in HCMV-induced fatty acid biosynthesis. The diversion of citrate from the TCA cycle (cataplerosis) requires induction of enzymes to promote glutaminolysis, the conversion of glutamine to -ketoglutarate in order to maintain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis) and ATP production. Such changes could result in heretofore uncharacterized pathogenesis, potentially implicating HCMV as a subtle co-factor in many maladies, including oncogenesis. Recognition of the effects of HCMV, and other viruses, on host cell metabolism will provide new understanding of viral pathogenesis and novel avenues for antiviral therapy. PMID:21570293

Yu, Yongjun; Clippinger, Amy J.; Alwine, James C.

2011-01-01

51

Positive and negative affective processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs during the viewing of affective pictures.  

PubMed

Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using graph theory metrics have revealed that the functional network of the human brain possesses small-world characteristics and comprises several functional hub regions. However, it is unclear how the affective functional network is organized in the brain during the processing of affective information. In this study, the fMRI data were collected from 25 healthy college students as they viewed a total of 81 positive, neutral, and negative pictures. The results indicated that affective functional networks exhibit weaker small-worldness properties with higher local efficiency, implying that local connections increase during viewing affective pictures. Moreover, positive and negative emotional processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs, emerging mainly in task-positive regions. These functional hubs, which are the centers of information processing, have nodal betweenness centrality values that are at least 1.5 times larger than the average betweenness centrality of the network. Positive affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the right putamen in the positive emotional network; negative affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the left OFC and the left amygdala in the negative emotional network. The local efficiencies in the left superior and inferior parietal lobe correlated with subsequent arousal ratings of positive and negative pictures, respectively. These observations provide important evidence for the organizational principles of the human brain functional connectome during the processing of affective information. Hum Brain Mapp, 36:415-426, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25220389

Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Pan, Xiaohong

2015-02-01

52

Plant maturity and nitrogen fertilization affected fructan metabolism in harvestable tissues of timothy (Phleum pratense L.).  

PubMed

Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) is an important grass forage used for pasture, hay, and silage in regions with cool and humid growth seasons. One of the factors affecting the nutritive value of this grass is the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), mainly represented by fructans. NSC concentration depends on multiple factors, making it hardly predictable. To provide a better understanding of NSC metabolism in timothy, the effects of maturity stage and nitrogen (N) fertilization level on biomass, NSC and N-compound concentrations were investigated in the tissues used for forage (leaf blades and stems surrounded by leaf sheaths) of hydroponically grown plants. Moreover, activities and relative expression level of enzymes involved in fructan metabolism were measured in the same tissues. Forage biomass was not altered by the fertilization level but was strongly modified by the stage of development. It increased from vegetative to heading stages while leaf-to-stem biomass ratio decreased. Total NSC concentration, which was not altered by N fertilization level, increased between heading and anthesis due to an accumulation of fructans in leaf blades. Fructan metabolizing enzyme activities (fructosyltransferase-FT and fructan exohydrolase-FEH) were not or only slightly altered by both maturity stage and N fertilization level. Conversely, the relative transcript levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in fructan metabolism were modified by N supply (PpFT1 and Pp6-FEH1) or maturity stage (PpFT2). The relative transcript level of PpFT1 was the highest in low N plants while that of Pp6-FEH1 was the highest in high N plants. Morevoer, transcript level of PpFT1 was negatively correlated with nitrate concentration while that of PpFT2 was positively correlated with sucrose concentration. This distinct regulation of the two genes coding for 6-sucrose:fructan fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) may allow a fine adequation of C allocation towards fructan synthesis in response to carbon and N availability. Contrary to fructans, starch content increased in low N plants, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms and/or sensitivity of starch and fructan metabolism in relation to the N status. PMID:25105233

Ould-Ahmed, Marouf; Decau, Marie-Laure; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Lafrenière, Carole; Drouin, Pascal

2014-10-15

53

Affective, cognitive, and motivational processes of maternal care.  

PubMed

The present chapter reviews current knowledge of the neurobiology of maternal behavior in mammals. In the first section, we present existing information of the affective, motivational, and cognitive processes that characterize maternal behavior, primarily discussing research findings in rats and humans, because most of the work on the neurobiological basis of this behavior has been done in these species. The second section outlines the maternal neural circuitry, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms that underlie the affective, motivational, and cognitive processes of motherhood. Finally, we summarize some of the main themes raised in the chapter and issues yet to be explored. PMID:25287542

Pereira, Mariana; Ferreira, Annabel

2015-01-01

54

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children  

PubMed Central

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body. PMID:19860886

Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; LeBlanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

2009-01-01

55

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children.  

PubMed

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body. PMID:19860886

Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; Leblanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

2009-01-01

56

Dietary protein intake affects amino acid and acylcarnitine metabolism in infants aged 6 months.  

PubMed

Context: The protective effect of breastfeeding against later obesity may be explained by the lower protein content compared to formula milk. However, the metabolic mechanisms remain unknown. Objective: We studied the metabolic response to a higher or lower protein supply in infancy. Design and Setting: The Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP) study is a double-blind, randomized, multicenter intervention trial. Infants were randomized to receive a higher (HP) or lower protein (LP) content infant formula or were breastfed. Patients and Interventions: Plasma samples of 691 infants who received formula milk with different protein content (HP, 2.05 g/100ml; LP, 1.25 g/100ml) or were breastfed were collected. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in plasma amino acid and acylcarnitine concentrations of 6-months old infants according to different dietary protein supply were determined by LC-MS/MS. Results: Twenty-nine metabolites differed significantly between the formula groups. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were the most discriminant metabolites. Their degradation products, the short-chain acylcarnitines C3, C4 and C5, were also significantly elevated in the HP group. A breakpoint analysis confirmed that with increasing BCAA, the ratio between acylcarnitines and BCAA decreases. Long-chain acylcarnitines were decreased in HP-infants. Conclusions: BCAA seem to play a pivotal role in the effect of a high protein diet on ß-oxidation and fat storage. We provide new evidence for a possible saturation of the BCAA degradation pathway that may represent the mechanism by which high protein intake affects the metabolic regulation. Moreover, it appears to inhibit the initial step of the ß-oxidation, thus leading to high early weight gain and body fat deposition. PMID:25368978

Kirchberg, Franca F; Harder, Ulrike; Weber, Martina; Grote, Veit; Demmelmair, Hans; Peissner, Wolfgang; Rzehak, Peter; Xhonneux, Annick; Carlier, Clotilde; Ferre, Natalia; Escribano, Joaquin; Verduci, Elvira; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold; Hellmuth, Christian

2014-11-01

57

Potato Snakin-1 Gene Silencing Affects Cell Division, Primary Metabolism, and Cell Wall Composition1[W  

PubMed Central

Snakin-1 (SN1) is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that was classified as a member of the Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis protein family. In this work, a transgenic approach was used to study the role of SN1 in planta. Even when overexpressing SN1, potato lines did not show remarkable morphological differences from the wild type; SN1 silencing resulted in reduced height, which was accompanied by an overall reduction in leaf size and severe alterations of leaf shape. Analysis of the adaxial epidermis of mature leaves revealed that silenced lines had 70% to 90% increases in mean cell size with respect to wild-type leaves. Consequently, the number of epidermal cells was significantly reduced in these lines. Confocal microscopy analysis after agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that SN1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in plasma membrane, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that SN1 self-interacted in vivo. We further focused our study on leaf metabolism by applying a combination of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric techniques. These targeted analyses allowed a detailed examination of the changes occurring in 46 intermediate compounds from primary metabolic pathways and in seven cell wall constituents. We demonstrated that SN1 silencing affects cell division, leaf primary metabolism, and cell wall composition in potato plants, suggesting that SN1 has additional roles in growth and development beyond its previously assigned role in plant defense. PMID:22080603

Nahirñak, Vanesa; Almasia, Natalia Inés; Fernandez, Paula Virginia; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Estevez, José Manuel; Carrari, Fernando; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

2012-01-01

58

fMRI Scanner Noise Interaction with Affective Neural Processes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=34, 19 female) were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier) and emotion (fear, neutral, joy) were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus). Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes. PMID:24260420

Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

2013-01-01

59

Incubation temperature affects growth and energy metabolism in blue tit nestlings.  

PubMed

Because the maintenance of proper developmental temperatures during avian incubation is costly to parents, embryos of many species experience pronounced variation in incubation temperature. However, the effects of such temperature variation on nestling development remain relatively unexplored. To investigate this, we artificially incubated wild blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus L.) clutches at 35.0°, 36.5°, or 38.0°C for two-thirds of the incubation period. We returned clutches to their original nests before hatching and subsequently recorded nestling growth and resting metabolic rate. The length of the incubation period decreased with temperature, whereas hatching success increased. Nestlings from the lowest incubation temperature group had shorter tarsus lengths at 2 weeks of age, but body mass and wing length were not affected by temperature. In addition, nestlings from the lowest temperature group had a significantly higher resting metabolic rate compared with mid- and high-temperature nestlings, which may partly explain observed size differences between the groups. These findings suggest that nest microclimate can influence nestling phenotype, but whether observed differences carry over to later life-history stages remains unknown. PMID:22030733

Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

2011-11-01

60

How folate metabolism affects colorectal cancer development and treatment; a story of heterogeneity and pleiotropy.  

PubMed

Folate was identified as an essential micronutrient early in the twentieth century and anti-folate chemotherapy such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been central to the medical management of solid tumours including colorectal cancer for more than five decades. In the intervening years, evidence has been gathered which shows that folate deficiency leads to many human diseases throughout the life-course. However, we still do not know all of the mechanisms behind functional folate deficiency, or indeed its rescue through supplementation with natural and particularly synthetic folates. There is growing evidence that one adverse effect of folic acid fortification programmes is an increased risk of colorectal cancer within populations. The complexity of folate-dependent, one-carbon metabolism and the heterogeneity that exists between individuals with respect to the enzymes involved in the anabolic pathways, and the catabolism of 5-FU, are explored in this review. The enzyme products of some genes such as MTHFR exert multiple and perhaps unrelated effects on many phenotypes, including cancer development. We describe this pleiotropy and the common genetic variants that affect folate metabolism; and discuss some of the studies that have investigated their potential as predictive biomarkers. PMID:24614284

Jennings, Barbara Anne; Willis, Gavin

2015-01-28

61

Investigating facial affect processing in psychosis: a study using the Comprehensive Affective Testing System.  

PubMed

Facial affect processing (FAP) deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have been widely reported; although effect sizes vary across studies, and there are limited direct comparisons of the two groups. Further, there is debate as to the influence of both psychotic and mood symptoms on FAP. This study aimed to address these limitations by recruiting groups of psychosis patients with either a diagnosis of SZ or BD and comparing them to healthy controls (HC) on a well validated battery of four FAP subtests: affect discrimination, name affect, select affect and match affect. Overall, both groups performed more poorly than controls in terms of accuracy. In SZ, this was largely driven by impairments on three of the four subtests. The BD patients showed impaired performance specifically on the match affect subtest, a task that had a high cognitive load. FAP performance in the psychosis patients was correlated with severity of positive symptoms and mania. This study confirmed that FAP deficits are a consistent finding in SZ that occur independent of task specific methodology; whilst FAP deficits in BD are more subtle. Further work in this group is needed to replicate these results. PMID:24924406

Rossell, Susan L; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Joshua, Nicole R; O'Regan, Alison; Gogos, Andrea

2014-08-01

62

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

63

REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity  

E-print Network

REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity in permanent grasslands. A review delivered convincing findings on the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and humankind. Indeed evaluation of biodiversity benefits remains challenging. This issue is due to valuation methods, subjective

Boyer, Edmond

64

DYNAMIC MODELLING OF PROCESSES IN RIVERS AFFECTED BY  

E-print Network

, and appraisal of water qual­ ity and urban impact from precipitation runoff, on the other. The work is focusedDYNAMIC MODELLING OF PROCESSES IN RIVERS AFFECTED BY PRECIPITATION RUNOFF Judith L. Jacobsen Lyngby is given in the Technical Report Technolog­ ical management of the transfer of knowledge within stochastic

65

Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. PMID:21889598

Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Micha? S; Jefimow, Ma?gorzata

2011-12-01

66

Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

2003-12-01

67

Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardio-vascular health.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

2014-02-01

68

Spelling-to-sound correspondences affect acronym recognition processes.  

PubMed

A large body of research has examined the factors that affect the speed with which words are recognized in lexical decision tasks. Nothing has yet been reported concerning the important factors in differentiating acronyms (e.g., BBC, HIV, NASA) from nonwords. It appears that this task poses little problem for skilled readers, in spite of the fact that acronyms have uncommon, even illegal, spellings in English. We used regression techniques to examine the role of a number of lexical and nonlexical variables known to be important in word processing in relation to lexical decision for acronym targets. Findings indicated that acronym recognition is affected by age of acquisition and imageability. In a departure from findings in word recognition, acronym recognition was not affected by frequency. Lexical decision responses for acronyms were also affected by the relationship between spelling and sound-a pattern not usually observed in word recognition. We argue that the complexity of acronym recognition means that the process draws phonological information in addition to semantics. PMID:25337636

Playfoot, David; Izura, Cristina

2014-11-14

69

Diet-Induced Alterations of Host Cholesterol Metabolism Are Likely To Affect the Gut Microbiota Composition in Hamsters  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal microbiota affects the metabolism of the mammalian host and has consequences for health. However, the complexity of gut microbial communities and host metabolic pathways make functional connections difficult to unravel, especially in terms of causation. In this study, we have characterized the fecal microbiota of hamsters whose cholesterol metabolism was extensively modulated by the dietary addition of plant sterol esters (PSE). PSE intake induced dramatic shifts in the fecal microbiota, reducing several bacterial taxa within the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae. The abundance of these taxa displayed remarkably high correlations with host cholesterol metabolites. Most importantly, the associations between several bacterial taxa with fecal and biliary cholesterol excretion showed an almost perfect fit to a sigmoidal nonlinear model of bacterial inhibition, suggesting that host cholesterol excretion can shape microbiota structure through the antibacterial action of cholesterol. In vitro experiments suggested a modest antibacterial effect of cholesterol, and especially of cholesteryl-linoleate, but not plant sterols when included in model bile micelles. The findings obtained in this study are relevant to our understanding of gut microbiota-host lipid metabolism interactions, as they provide the first evidence for a role of cholesterol excreted with the bile as a relevant host factor that modulates the gut microbiota. The findings further suggest that the connections between Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae and host lipid metabolism, which have been observed in several studies, could be caused by a metabolic phenotype of the host (cholesterol excretion) affecting the gut microbiota. PMID:23124234

Martínez, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J.; Brown, Andrew W.; Hammons, Susan; Carden, Trevor J.; Carr, Timothy P.; Eskridge, Kent M.

2013-01-01

70

Altering cytochrome P4501A activity affects polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism and toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) phenanthrene and retene (7-isopropyl-1-methyl phenanthrene) are lethal to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae during chronic exposures. Phenanthrene is a low-toxicity, non-cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-inducing compound that accumulates in fish tissues during exposure to lethal concentrations in water. Retene is a higher toxicity CYP1A-inducing compound that is not detectable in tissue at lethal exposure concentrations. The metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of retene and phenanthrene were examined in juvenile and larval rainbow trout during coexposure to the model CYP1A inducer beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF), or to the inducer-inhibitor piperonyl butoxide to determine if modulating CYP1A activity affected PAH metabolism and toxicity. Phenanthrene metabolism, excretion rate, and toxicity increased with coexposure to betaNE Piperonyl butoxide inhibited phenanthrene metabolism and reduced the excretion of all phenanthrene metabolites. As a consequence, embryo mortality rates increased but rates of sublethal effects did not. Coexposure of trout to retene and betaNF caused no change in retene metabolism and excretion, but retene toxicity increased, perhaps due to additivity. Piperonyl butoxide inhibited retene metabolism, decreased the excretion of some retene metabolites while increasing the excretion of others, and increased the toxicity of retene. These results support the role of CYP1A activity in PAH metabolism and excretion, and the role ofthe CYP1A-generatedmetabolites of PAHs in chronic toxicity to larval fish. PMID:12206424

Hawkins, Stephanie A; Billiard, Sonya M; Tabash, Samir P; Brown, R Stephen; Hodson, Peter V

2002-09-01

71

GENOME-WIDE LINKAGE ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY CHROMOSOMAL REGIONS AFFECTING PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN THE CHICKEN. IV. METABOLIC TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study is a comprehensive genome analysis to detect QTL affecting metabolic traits in chickens. Two unique F2 crosses generated from a commercial broiler male line and two genetically distinct lines (Leghorn and Fayoumi) were used in the present study. The plasma glucagons, insulin, lactate, g...

72

Apolipoprotein M affecting lipid metabolism or just catching a ride with lipoproteins in the circulation?  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a novel apolipoprotein found mainly in high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Its function is yet to be defined. ApoM (25 kDa) has a typical lipocalin ss-barrel fold and a hydrophobic pocket. Retinoids bind apoM but with low affinity and may not be the natural ligands. ApoM retains its signal peptide, which serves as a hydrophobic anchor to the lipoproteins. This prevents apoM from being lost in the urine. Approximately 5% of HDL carries an apoM molecule. ApoM in plasma (1 microM) correlates strongly with both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL cholesterol, suggesting a link to cholesterol metabolism. However, in casecontrol studies, apoM levels in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and controls were similar, suggesting apoM levels not to affect the risk for CHD in humans. Experiments in transgenic mice suggested apoM to have antiatherogenic properties; possible mechanisms include increased formation of pre-ss HDL, enhanced cholesterol mobilization from foam cells, and increased antioxidant properties. PMID:19153651

Dahlbäck, B; Nielsen, L B

2009-02-01

73

Water Deficit Affected Flavonoid Accumulation by Regulating Hormone Metabolism in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Roots  

PubMed Central

The content of flavonoids especially baicalin and baicalein determined the medical quality of Scutellaria baicalensis which is a Chinese traditional medicinal plant. Here, we investigated the mechanism responsible for the content and composition of flavonoids in S. baicalensis under water deficit condition. The transcription levels of several genes which are involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were stimulated by water deficit. Under water deficit condition, fifteen up-regulated proteins, three down-regulated proteins and other six proteins were detected by proteomic analysis. The identified proteins include three gibberellin (GA)- or indoleacetic acid (IAA)-related proteins. Decreased endogenous GAs level and increased IAA level were observed in leaves of S. baicalensis which was treated with water deficit. Exogenous application of GA or ?-naphthalene acelic acid (NAA) to plants grown under water deficit conditions led to the increase of endogenous GAs and the decrease of IAA and flavonoids, respectively. When the synthesis pathway of GA or IAA in plants was inhibited by application with the inhibitors, flavonoid levels were recovered. These results indicate that water deficit affected flavonoid accumulation might through regulating hormone metabolism in S. baicalensis Georgi. PMID:23077481

Wu, Chong; Chen, Shunqin; Wang, Zhouyong; Yang, Zhaochun; Qin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Luqi

2012-01-01

74

Genomewide transcriptional changes associated with genetic alterations and nutritional supplementation affecting tryptophan metabolism in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

DNA microarrays comprising approximately 95% of the Bacillus subtilis annotated protein coding ORFs were deployed to generate a series of snapshots of genomewide transcriptional changes that occur when cells are grown under various conditions that are expected to increase or decrease transcription of the trp operon segment of the aromatic supraoperon. Comparisons of global expression patterns were made between cells grown in the presence of indole acrylic acid, a specific inhibitor of tRNA(Trp) charging; cells deficient in expression of the mtrB gene, which encodes the tryptophan-activated negative regulatory protein, TRAP; WT cells grown in the presence or absence of two or three of the aromatic amino acids; and cells harboring a tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase mutation conferring temperature-sensitive tryptophan-dependent growth. Our findings validate expected responses of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes and presumed regulatory interrelationships between genes in the different aromatic amino acid pathways and the histidine biosynthetic pathway. Using a combination of supervised and unsupervised statistical methods we identified approximately 100 genes whose expression profiles were closely correlated with those of the genes in the trp operon. This finding suggests that expression of these genes is influenced directly or indirectly by regulatory events that affect or are a consequence of altered tryptophan metabolism. PMID:12719520

Berka, Randy M; Cui, Xianju; Yanofsky, Charles

2003-05-13

75

Alkyl-methylimidazolium ionic liquids affect the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effect of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate [EMIM][DEP], and 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate [MMIM][DMP] on the growth and glucose fermentation of Clostridium sp. was investigated. Among the three ionic liquids tested, [MMIM][DMP] was found to be least toxic. Growth of Clostridium sp. was not inhibited up to 2.5, 4 and 4 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac], [EMIM][DEP] and [MMIM][DMP], respectively. [EMIM][Ac] at <2.5 g L{sup -1}, showed hormetic effect and stimulated the growth and fermentation by modulating medium pH. Total organic acid production increased in the presence of 2.5 and 2 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac] and [MMIM][DMP]. Ionic liquids had no significant influence on alcohol production at <2.5 g L{sup -1}. Total gas production was affected by ILs at {ge}2.5 g L{sup -1} and varied with type of methylimidazolium IL. Overall, the results show that the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. is not impacted by ILs at concentrations below 2.5 g L{sup -1}.

Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Francis, A.

2011-06-01

76

Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Perlut, N.G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Zalik, N.J.

2008-01-01

77

Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird.  

PubMed

Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. PMID:18302687

Perlut, Noah G; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Strong, Allan M; Donovan, Therese M; Kilpatrick, C William; Zalik, Nathan J

2008-03-01

78

Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites.  

PubMed Central

The remediation of chromium-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the processes that control the migration and transformation of chromium. Advection, dispersion, and diffusion are physical processes affecting the rate at which contaminants can migrate in the subsurface. Heterogeneity is an important factor that affects the contribution of each of these mechanisms to the migration of chromium-laden waters. Redox reactions, chemical speciation, adsorption/desorption phenomena, and precipitation/dissolution reactions control the transformation and mobility of chromium. The reduction of CrVI to CrIII can occur in the presence of ferrous iron in solution or in mineral phases, reduced sulfur compounds, or soil organic matter. At neutral to alkaline pH, the CrIII precipitates as amorphous hydroxides or forms complexes with organic matter. CrIII is oxidized by manganese dioxide, a common mineral found in many soils. Solid-phase precipitates of hexavalent chromium such as barium chromate can serve either as sources or sinks for CrVI. Adsorption of CrVI in soils increases with decreasing chromium concentration, making it more difficult to remove the chromium as the concentration decreases during pump-and-treat remediation. Knowledge of these chemical and physical processes is important in developing and selecting effective, cost-efficient remediation designs for chromium-contaminated sites. PMID:1935849

Palmer, C D; Wittbrodt, P R

1991-01-01

79

Anxiety Moderates the Interplay Between Cognitive and Affective Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT—Evidence suggests that focus of attention and cognitive load may,each affect emotional,processing,and that individual differences in anxiety moderate,such ef- fects. We examined,(a) fear-potentiated startle (FPS) underthreat-focused(TF),low-load\\/alternative-set(LL\\/AS), and high-load\\/alternative-set (HL\\/AS) conditions and (b) the moderating,effect of trait anxiety on FPS across these conditions. As predicted, redirecting attentional focus away,from,threat cues and,increasing,cognitive load reduced FPS. However, the moderating effects of anx- iety

Jeremy D. Dvorak-Bertsch; John J. Curtin; Tal J. Rubinstein; Joseph P. Newman

2007-01-01

80

Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch  

PubMed Central

Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

Björnsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Håkan; Kaiser, Martha D.

2014-01-01

81

Bole girdling affects metabolic properties and root, trunk and branch hydraulics of young ponderosa pine trees.  

PubMed

Effects of trunk girdling on seasonal patterns of xylem water status, water transport and woody tissue metabolic properties were investigated in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws.) trees. At the onset of summer, there was a sharp decrease in stomatal conductance (g(s)) in girdled trees followed by a full recovery after the first major rainfall in September. Eliminating the root as a carbohydrate sink by girdling induced a rapid reversible reduction in g(s). Respiratory potential (a laboratory measure of tissue-level respiration) increased above the girdle (branches and upper trunk) and decreased below the girdle (lower trunk and roots) relative to control trees during the growing season, but the effect was reversed after the first major rainfall. The increase in branch respiratory potential induced by girdling suggests that the decrease in g(s) was caused by the accumulation of carbohydrates above the girdle, which is consistent with an observed increase in leaf mass per area in the girdled trees. Trunk girdling did not affect native xylem embolism or xylem conductivity. Both treated and control trunks experienced loss of xylem conductivity ranging from 10% in spring to 30% in summer. Girdling reduced xylem growth and sapwood to leaf area ratio, which in turn reduced branch leaf specific conductivity (LSC). The girdling-induced reductions in g(s) and transpiration were associated with a decrease in leaf hydraulic conductance. Two years after girdling, when root-to-shoot phloem continuity had been restored, girdled trees had a reduced density of new wood, which increased xylem conductivity and whole-tree LSC, but also vulnerability to embolism. PMID:18708331

Domec, Jean-Christophe; Pruyn, Michele L

2008-10-01

82

Maize source leaf adaptation to nitrogen deficiency affects not only nitrogen and carbon metabolism but also control of phosphate homeostasis.  

PubMed

Crop plant development is strongly dependent on the availability of nitrogen (N) in the soil and the efficiency of N utilization for biomass production and yield. However, knowledge about molecular responses to N deprivation derives mainly from the study of model species. In this article, the metabolic adaptation of source leaves to low N was analyzed in maize (Zea mays) seedlings by parallel measurements of transcriptome and metabolome profiling. Inbred lines A188 and B73 were cultivated under sufficient (15 mM) or limiting (0.15 mM) nitrate supply for up to 30 d. Limited availability of N caused strong shifts in the metabolite profile of leaves. The transcriptome was less affected by the N stress but showed strong genotype- and age-dependent patterns. N starvation initiated the selective down-regulation of processes involved in nitrate reduction and amino acid assimilation; ammonium assimilation-related transcripts, on the other hand, were not influenced. Carbon assimilation-related transcripts were characterized by high transcriptional coordination and general down-regulation under low-N conditions. N deprivation caused a slight accumulation of starch but also directed increased amounts of carbohydrates into the cell wall and secondary metabolites. The decrease in N availability also resulted in accumulation of phosphate and strong down-regulation of genes usually involved in phosphate starvation response, underlining the great importance of phosphate homeostasis control under stress conditions. PMID:22972706

Schlüter, Urte; Mascher, Martin; Colmsee, Christian; Scholz, Uwe; Bräutigam, Andrea; Fahnenstich, Holger; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-11-01

83

Distinct dedifferentiation processes affect caveolin-1 expression in hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Dedifferentiation and loss of hepatocyte polarity during primary culture of hepatocytes are major drawbacks for metabolic analyses. As a prominent profibrotic cytokine and potent inducer of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), TGF-? contributes to these processes in liver epithelial cells. Yet, a distinction between culture dependent and TGF-? driven hepatocyte dedifferentiation has not been shown to date. Results Here, we show that in both settings, mesenchymal markers are induced. However, upregulation of Snai1 and downregulation of E-Cadherin are restricted to TGF-? effects, neglecting a full EMT of culture dependent hepatocyte dedifferentiation. Mechanistically, the latter is mediated via FAK/Src/ERK/AKT pathways leading to the induction of the oncogene caveolin-1 (Cav1). Cav1 was recently proposed as a new EMT marker, but our results demonstrate Cav1 is not up-regulated in TGF-? mediated hepatocyte EMT, thus limiting validity of its use for this purpose. Importantly, marking differences on Cav1 expression exist in HCC cell lines. Whereas well differentiated HCC cell lines exhibit low and inducible Cav1 protein levels - by TGF-? in a FAK/Src dependent manner, poorly differentiated cell lines display high Cav1 expression levels which are not further modulated by TGF-?. Conclusions This study draws a detailed distinction between intrinsic and TGF-? mediated hepatocyte dedifferentiation and elucidates cellular pathways involved. Additionally, by evaluating the regulation of the oncogene Cav1, we provide evidence to argue against Cav1 as a reliable EMT marker. PMID:23339737

2013-01-01

84

Free Fatty Acids and Their Metabolism Affect Function and Survival of Podocytes  

PubMed Central

Podocyte injury and loss critically contribute to the pathogenesis of proteinuric kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Deregulated lipid metabolism with disturbed free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism is a characteristic of metabolically unhealthy obesity and type 2 diabetes and likely contributes to end-stage kidney disease irrespective of the underlying kidney disease. In the current review, we summarize recent findings related to FFAs and altered renal FFA metabolism with a special focus on podocytes. We will outline the opposing effects of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs and a particular emphasis will be given to the underlying molecular mechanisms involving insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. Finally, recent data suggesting a critical role of renal FFA metabolism to adapt to an altered lipid environment will be discussed. PMID:25386168

Sieber, Jonas; Jehle, Andreas Werner

2014-01-01

85

The “Musical Emotional Bursts”: a validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing  

PubMed Central

The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB) consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear) and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analog of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV)—a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 s) improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]), or a clarinet (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]). The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, non-linguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli [30 stimuli × 4 (3 emotions + neutral) × 2 instruments] by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task); 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80) was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0%) and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each) MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems. PMID:23964255

Paquette, Sébastien; Peretz, Isabelle; Belin, Pascal

2013-01-01

86

Major hydrogeochemical processes in an Acid Mine Drainage affected estuary.  

PubMed

This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion-ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH)3); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn). PMID:25530015

Asta, Maria P; Calleja, Maria Ll; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F

2015-02-15

87

Triglyceride level affecting shared susceptibility genes in metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is characterized primarily by abdominal obesity, high triglyceride- and low HDL cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and increased fasting glucose levels, which are often associated with coronary heart diseases. Several factors, such as physical inactivity, age, and several endocrine and genetic factors can increase the risk of the development of the disease. Gathered evidence shows, that metabolic syndrome is not only a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but often both of them have the same shared susceptibility genes, as several genetic variants have shown a predisposition to both diseases. Due to the spread of robust genome wide association studies, the number of candidate genes in metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease susceptibility increases very rapidly. From the growing spectrum of the genes influencing lipid metabolism (like the LPL; PPARA; APOE; APOAI/CIII/AIV genecluster and APOAS5), the current review focuses on shared susceptibility variants involved in triglyceride metabolism and consequently the effects on the circulating triglyceride levels. As the elevated levels of triglycerides can be associated with disease phenotypes, some of these SNPs can have susceptibility features in both metabolic syndrome and in coronary heart disease, thereby some of them can even represent a kind of susceptibility link between metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. PMID:20738247

Kisfali, P; Polgár, N; Sáfrány, E; Sümegi, K; Melegh, B I; Bene, J; Wéber, A; Hetyésy, K; Melegh, B

2010-01-01

88

Cobalt Targets Multiple Metabolic Processes in Salmonella enterica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt is essential for growth of Salmonella enterica and other organisms, yet this metal can be toxic when present in excess. Wild-type Salmonella exhibits several metabolic defects when grown in the presence of cobalt, some of which generate visible growth consequences. Work herein identifies sulfur assimilation, iron homeosta- sis, and Fe-S cluster metabolism as targets for cobalt toxicity. In each

Michael P. Thorgersen; Diana M. Downs

2007-01-01

89

Carbohydrate quality and quantity affect glucose and lipid metabolism during weight regain in healthy men.  

PubMed

In this controlled, parallel-group feeding trial, we examined the impact of carbohydrate (CHO) intake and glycemic index (GI) on glucose and lipid metabolism during refeeding after weight loss. Healthy men (n = 32 total, age: 25.5 ± 3.9 y, BMI: 23.5 ± 2.0 kg/m2) overconsumed diets containing either 50% or 65% CHO for 1 wk (+50% of energy requirements) and then underwent 3 wk of calorie restriction (CR; -50%) followed by 2 wk of overconsuming (refeeding, +50%) the same diet but with either a low or high GI (40 vs.70 during CR, 41 vs.74 during refeeding) so that glycemic load (GL; dietary CHO content x GI) differed between groups during all phases. Glucose profiles were assessed by continuous interstitial glucose monitoring, insulin sensitivity (IS) by fasting blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and liver fat by MRI. Daytime area under the curve-glucose during refeeding was higher with high compared with low GI (P = 0.01) and 65% compared with 50% CHO intake (P = 0.05) and correlated with dietary GL (r = 0.71; P < 0.001). IS increased with CR and decreased again with refeeding in all groups. The decrease in OGTT-derived IS was greater with high- than with low-GI diets (-41 vs. -15%; P-interaction = 0.01) and correlated with dietary GL during refeeding (r = -0.51; P < 0.01). Serum triglycerides (TGs) and liver fat also improved with CR (-17 ± 38 mg/dL and -1.1 ± 1.3%; P < 0.05 and <0.001) and increased again with refeeding (+48 ± 48 mg/dL and +2.2 ± 1.6%; P < 0.001). After refeeding, serum TGs and liver fat were elevated above baseline values with 65% CHO intake only (+59.9 ± 37.5 mg/dL and +1.1 ± 1.7%, P-interaction <0.001 and <0.05). In conclusion, a diet low in GI and moderate in CHO content (i.e., low GL) may have health benefits by positively affecting daylong glycemia, IS, and liver fat. PMID:23946346

Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Braun, Wiebke; Johannsen, Maike; Pape, Detlef; Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

2013-10-01

90

Embryonic temperature affects metabolic compensation and thyroid hormones in hatchling snapping turtles.  

PubMed

Temperature acclimation of adult vertebrates typically induces changes in metabolic physiology. During early development, such metabolic compensation might have profound consequences, yet acclimation of metabolism is little studied in early life stages. We measured the effect of egg incubation temperature on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood thyroid hormone levels of hatchling snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Like many reptiles, snapping turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), in which embryonic temperature determines sex. Therefore, we designed the experiments to separately measure effects of temperature and of sex on the response variables. We incubated eggs in the laboratory at 21. 5 degrees, 24.5 degrees, 27.5 degrees, and 30.5 degrees C, producing both sexes, all males, both sexes, and all females, respectively. Hatchling RMR, when measured at a common temperature (either 25 degrees or 31 degrees C), was negatively correlated with egg temperature in both males and females, such that RMR of turtles from 21.5 degrees C-incubated eggs averaged 160% that of turtles from 30.5 degrees C-incubated eggs. These results indicate that egg temperatures induced positive metabolic compensation in both sexes. Thyroid hormone levels of hatchlings showed similar correlations with egg temperature; thyroxine level of turtles from 21.5 degrees C-incubated eggs averaged 220% that of turtles from 30.5 degrees C-incubated eggs. To examine the possibility that thyroid hormones contribute to positive metabolic compensation, we added triiodothyronine to eggs during mid-incubation. RMR of hatchlings from these treated eggs averaged 131% that of controls, consistent with the previous possibility. Moreover, the effects of embryonic temperature on metabolic physiology, in combination with effects on sex, can result in differences in RMR and thyroid hormone levels between male and female hatchling turtles. Such differences may be important to the ecology and evolution of TSD. PMID:10521320

O'Steen, S; Janzen, F J

1999-01-01

91

Acclimation temperature affects the metabolic response of amphibian skeletal muscle to insulin.  

PubMed

Frog skeletal muscle mainly utilizes the substrates glucose and lactate for energy metabolism. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of insulin on the uptake and metabolic fate of lactate and glucose at rest in skeletal muscle of the American bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeiana, under varying temperature regimens. We hypothesize that lactate and glucose metabolic pathways will respond differently to the presence of insulin in cold versus warm acclimated frog tissues, suggesting an interaction between temperature and metabolism under varying environmental conditions. We employed radiolabeled tracer techniques to measure in vitro uptake, oxidation, and incorporation of glucose and lactate into glycogen by isolated muscles from bullfrogs acclimated to 5 °C (cold) or 25 °C (warm). Isolated bundles from Sartorius muscles were incubated at 5 °C, 15 °C, or 25 °C, and in the presence and absence of 0.05 IU/mL bovine insulin. Insulin treatment in the warm acclimated and incubated frogs resulted in an increase in glucose incorporation into glycogen, and an increase in intracellular [glucose] of 0.5 ?mol/g (P<0.05). Under the same conditions lactate incorporation into glycogen was reduced (P<0.05) in insulin-treated muscle. When compared to the warm treatment group, cold acclimation and incubation resulted in increased rates of glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis, and a reduction in free intracellular glucose levels (P<0.05). When muscles from either acclimation group were incubated at an intermediate temperature of 15 °C, insulin's effect on substrate metabolism was attenuated or even reversed. Therefore, a significant interaction between insulin and acclimation condition in controlling skeletal muscle metabolism appears to exist. Our findings further suggest that one of insulin's actions in frog muscle is to increase glucose incorporation into glycogen, and to reduce reliance on lactate as the primary metabolic fuel. PMID:21605693

Petersen, Ann M; Gleeson, Todd T

2011-09-01

92

Metabolic syndrome affects cardiovascular risk profile and response to treatment in hypertensive postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is increasingly recognized as an important cardiovascular risk factor in hypertension, but its influence on the cardiovascular risk profile in hypertensive postmenopausal women has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of metabolic syndrome on the cardiovascular risk profile and the response to treatment. We enrolled 350 hypertensive postmenopausal women, 55+/-6 years of age (range 47 to 60 years of age). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Compared with those without, women with metabolic syndrome had higher waist circumference, body mass index, and levels of glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol, as would be expected, based on definition. In addition, patients with metabolic syndrome had a cardiovascular risk profile less favorable, characterized by a significantly higher highly sensitive C-reactive protein (2.2+/-0.6 versus 1.7+/-0.7 ng/L; P<0.01), a more compromised endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilation 2.4+/-2.2 versus 4.4+/-2.5%; P=0.01), and a significantly higher left ventricular mass (44+/-15 versus 41+/-16 g/m(2.7)). Also, antihypertensive treatment induced a more modest improvement of both endothelial dysfunction and subclinical inflammation in women with metabolic syndrome. The results of our study show that in postmenopausal women, there are 2 different forms of hypertension: that which is isolated, and that which is associated with metabolic syndrome. This last form is related to a more severe risk profile, and response to therapy is less favorable. PMID:18852391

Rossi, Rosario; Nuzzo, Annachiara; Origliani, Giorgia; Modena, Maria Grazia

2008-11-01

93

Improvement of Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Cellfood Administration in Patients Affected by Neurodegenerative Diseases on Chelation Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective. This prospective pilot study aimed at evaluating the effects of therapy with antioxidant compounds (Cellfood, and other antioxidants) on patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases (ND), who displayed toxic metal burden and were subjected to chelation treatment with the chelating agent calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA or EDTA). Methods. Two groups of subjects were studied: (a) 39 patients affected by ND and (b) 11 subjects unaffected by ND (controls). The following blood parameters were analyzed before and after three months' treatment with chelation + Cellfood or chelation + other antioxidants: oxidative status (reactive oxygen species, ROS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC; oxidized LDL, oxLDL; glutathione), homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate. Results. After 3-months' chelation + Cellfood administration oxLDL decreased, ROS levels were significantly lower, and TAC and glutathione levels were significantly higher than after chelation + other antioxidants treatment, both in ND patients and in controls. Moreover, homocysteine metabolism had also improved in both groups. Conclusions. Chelation + Cellfood treatment was more efficient than chelation + other antioxidants improving oxidative status and homocysteine metabolism significantly in ND patients and controls. Although limited to a small number of cases, this study showed how helpful antioxidant treatment with Cellfood was in improving the subjects' metabolic conditions. PMID:25114898

Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Giuseppe, Rachele De; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Ferrero, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

94

Emotional Language Processing: How Mood Affects Integration Processes during Discourse Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research tests whether mood affects semantic processing during discourse comprehension by facilitating integration of information congruent with moods' valence. Participants in happy, sad, or neutral moods listened to stories with positive or negative endings during EEG recording. N400 peak amplitudes showed mood congruence for happy and sad…

Egidi, Giovanna; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2012-01-01

95

Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (mb), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We

Jakub P. Gutowski; Micha? S. Wojciechowski; Ma?gorzata Jefimow

2011-01-01

96

Factors Affecting Quality and Postharvest Properties of Vegetables: Integration of Water Relations and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing of vegetables in the field, harvesting, handling in the packing house and storage are events in the lifetime of vegetables that are analysed from the point of view of the complex series of physiological transitions taking place in each of these events.Water is the major factor limiting plant metabolism and plants have developed fascinating mechanisms to cope with this

FEDERICO GÓMEZ GALINDO; WERNER HERPPICH; VASSILIS GEKAS; INGEGERD SJÖHOLM

2004-01-01

97

Tissue Composition Affects Measures of Postabsorptive Human Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Comparison across Genders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite clear anthropomorphic differences, gender differences in human skeletal muscle protein and carbohydrate metabolism have not been carefully examined. We compared postabsorptive forearm glucose, oxygen, and lactate balances and forearm protein kinetics between 40 male and 36 female subjects. Forearm composition was measured in a subset of 17 subjects (8 males and 9 females) using multislice magnetic resonance imaging. Oxygen

LINDA A. JAHN; EUGENE J. BARRETT; MICHAEL L. GENCO; LIPING WEI; THOMAS A. SPRAGGINS; DAVID A. FRYBURG

98

Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and…

Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Majeskie, Matthew R.; Fiore, Michael C.

2004-01-01

99

Polysaccharide from seeds of Plantago asiatica L. affects lipid metabolism and colon microbiota of mouse.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. was given via oral administration to mice (0.4 g/kg body weight, 30 days) to observe its effects on mouse nutrient metabolism and colon microbiota. It was found the polysaccharide intake could lower the apparent absorption of lipid. Total triglyceride, cholesterol, and atherogenic index in blood serum with total lipid and cholesterol levels in liver of polysaccharide group mice were all significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect of the polysaccharide intake on mouse colon bacterial communities was investigated. Mice from the polysaccharide group showed a higher colon bacterial diversity than the control group. Bacteroides sp., Eubacterium sp., butyrate-producing bacteria Butyrivibrio sp., and probiotics Bifidobacterium bifidum , Lactobacillus fermentum , and Lactobacillus reuteri in mouse colon were all increased after polysaccharide intake. These indicated that the intake of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. could be beneficial for lipid metabolism and colon microbiota. PMID:24341731

Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Wu, Qi-Meng; Li, Chang; Fu, Zhi-Hong; Gong, Joshua; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

2014-01-01

100

Social status does not affect resting metabolic rate in wintering dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).  

PubMed

Studies of wintering birds have demonstrated a correlation between social rank and energy expenditures. It is assumed that dominance is energetically costly because of increased activity, possibly caused by elevated androgen levels. As winter acclimatization leads to an increase in metabolic rate, maintaining dominance status in a cold climate can be a substantial challenge. We measured resting metabolic rates in dominant and subordinate dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) living in small groups in a controlled winter environment. We found no significant effect of social rank when controlling for body size. It has been shown previously that high testosterone levels during the nonbreeding season can lead to higher body conductance, fat loss, and higher nocturnal body temperature. A hypothesis explaining our result is that for juncos it is preferable to maintain low androgen levels during winter and to maintain social rank using a mechanism other than higher agonistic activity. PMID:10801401

Vézina, F; Thomas, D W

2000-01-01

101

Species and Gender Differences Affect the Metabolism of Emodin via Glucuronidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to define the mechanisms responsible for poor bioavailability of emodin by determining its\\u000a metabolism using in vitro and in situ disposition models of the intestine and liver. Liver microsomes of mice, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, and humans were used along\\u000a with the rat intestinal perfusion model and the rat intestinal microsomes. In the

Wei Liu; Lan Tang; Ling Ye; Zheng Cai; Bijun Xia; Jiajie Zhang; Ming Hu; Zhongqiu Liu

2010-01-01

102

Retrospective surveillance of metabolic parameters affecting reproductive performance of Japanese Black breeding cows  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study was conducted to confirm the relationship between pre- and postpartum metabolic parameters and postpartum reproductive performance and to clarify seasonal characteristics of the metabolic parameters by using our metabolic profile test (MPT) database of Japanese Black breeding herds. In evaluation 1, MPT databases of blood samples from multiparous cows collected prepartum and postpartum were divided into two groups according to calving interval, and each MPT parameter was compared. In evaluation 2, the same MPT databases used in evaluation 1 were divided into two groups according to the sampling period. Significant differences were found in the prepartal total protein and postpartal ?-glutamyltransferase in evaluation 1. In evaluation 2, significant differences were found in the prepartal and postpartal total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and glucose. Clear seasonal differences in MPT results emphasized the usefulness of the MPT in breeding cattle herds fed home-pasture roughage and suggest that unsatisfactory reproductive performance during hot periods reflects inadequate nutritional content of the diet and possible reduced feed intake due to heat stress. PMID:24675835

Watanabe, Urara; Yamato, Osamu; Otoi, Takeshige; Okamoto, Koji

2014-01-01

103

Deletion of TRAAK Potassium Channel Affects Brain Metabolism and Protects against Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Cerebral stroke is a worldwide leading cause of disability. The two-pore domain K+ channels identified as background channels are involved in many functions in brain under physiological and pathological conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that TRAAK, a mechano-gated and lipid-sensitive two-pore domain K+ channel, is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. We studied the effects of TRAAK deletion on brain morphology and metabolism under physiological conditions, and during temporary focal cerebral ischemia in Traak?/? mice using a combination of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We provide the first in vivo evidence establishing a link between TRAAK and neurometabolism. Under physiological conditions, Traak?/? mice showed a particular metabolic phenotype characterized by higher levels of taurine and myo-inositol than Traak+/+ mice. Upon ischemia, Traak?/? mice had a smaller infarcted volume, with lower contribution of cellular edema than Traak+/+ mice. Moreover, brain microcirculation was less damaged, and brain metabolism and pH were preserved. Our results show that expression of TRAAK strongly influences tissue levels of organic osmolytes. Traak?/? mice resilience to cellular edema under ischemia appears related to their physiologically high levels of myo-inositol and of taurine, an aminoacid involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity and cell death. The beneficial effects of TRAAK deletion designate this channel as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment against stroke. PMID:23285272

Laigle, Christophe; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Viola, Angèle

2012-01-01

104

SILICON NUTRITION AFFECTS URINARY AND PLASMA INDICATORS OF BONE AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE METABOLISM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was performed with the objectives of confirming that silicon status affects bone formation and turnover, and to test the hypothesis that silicon status can affect the interaction between one or more extracellular matrix glycoprotein/s and cell-surface receptors to alter the circulating...

105

Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.  

PubMed

The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is ? (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. PMID:22411724

Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

2012-05-01

106

Dietary cystine level affects metabolic rate and glycaemic control in adult mice???  

PubMed Central

Plasma total cysteine (tCys) is strongly and independently associated with obesity in large human cohorts, but whether the association is causal is unknown. Dietary cyst(e)ine increases weight gain in some rodent models. We investigated the body composition, metabolic rate and metabolic phenotype of mature C3H/HeH mice assigned to low-cystine (LC) or high-cystine (HC) diets for 12 weeks. Compared to LC mice, HC mice gained more weight (P=.004 for 12-week weight gain %), with increased fat mass and lean mass, and lowered O2 consumption and CO2 production by calorimetry. The HC mice had 30% increase in intestinal fat/body weight % (P=.003) and ?twofold elevated hepatic triglycerides (P=.046), with increased expression of hepatic lipogenic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. Gene expression of both basal and catecholamine-stimulated lipolytic enzymes, adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase was inhibited in HC mice adipose tissue. The HC mice also had elevated fasting glucose (7.0 vs. 4.5 mmol/L, P<.001) and a greater area under the curve (P<.001) in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, with enhanced expression of the negative regulator of insulin signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B, in liver and adipose tissue. Overall, high cystine intake promotes adiposity and an adverse metabolic phenotype in mice, indicating that the positive association of plasma tCys with obesity in humans may be causal. PMID:21543215

Elshorbagy, Amany K.; Church, Chris; Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Smith, A. David; Refsum, Helga; Cox, Roger

2012-01-01

107

Thyroid hormone's role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes.  

PubMed

Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often encountered in combination with metabolic disorders such as diabetes, and may cause additional metabolic dysregulation and hence worsening of disease states. TH's potential as a regulator of brain glucose metabolism is heightened by interactions with insulin signaling, but there have been relatively few studies on this topic or on the actions of TH in a mature brain. This review discusses evidence for mechanistic links between TH, insulin, cognitive function, and brain glucose metabolism, and reaches the conclusion that TH may modulate memory processes, likely at least in part by modulation of central insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. PMID:22437199

Jahagirdar, V; McNay, E C

2012-06-01

108

Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes  

PubMed Central

Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often encountered in combination with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, and may cause additional metabolic dysregulation and hence worsening of disease states. TH’s potential as a regulator of brain glucose metabolism is heightened by interactions with insulin signaling, but there have been relatively few studies on this topic or on the actions of TH in a mature brain. This review discusses evidence for mechanistic links between TH, insulin, cognitive function, and brain glucose metabolism, and suggests that TH is a good candidate to be a modulator of memory processes, likely at least in part by modulation of central insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. PMID:22437199

Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

2012-01-01

109

Dynamic Analysis of Integrated Signaling, Metabolic, and Regulatory Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular cues affect signaling, metabolic, and regulatory processes to elicit cellular responses. Although intracellular signaling, metabolic, and regulatory networks are highly integrated, previous analyses have largely focused on independent processes (e.g., metabolism) without considering the interplay that exists among them. However, there is evidence that many diseases arise from multifunctional components with roles throughout signaling, metabolic, and regulatory networks. Therefore,

Jong Min Lee; Erwin P. Gianchandani; James A. Eddy; Jason A. Papin

2008-01-01

110

Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat  

PubMed Central

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5–7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10–12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnäs, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

111

Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.  

PubMed

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

112

MicroRNA-370 controls the expression of microRNA-122 and Cpt1alpha and affects lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

We previously observed that treatment of mice with a dominant negative form of cJun (dn-cJun) increased the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and modulated the expression of nine microRNAs (miR). To investigate the potential effect of these miRs on the expression of the genes of lipid metabolism, we performed studies in cultured HepG2 cells. Transfection of HepG2 cells with sense or antisense miR-370 or miR-122 upregulated and downregulated, respectively, the transcription factor sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and the enzymes diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) that regulate fatty acid and triglyceride biosynthesis. The other seven miRs identified by the miR array screening did not affect the expression of lipogenic genes. miR-370 upregulated the expression of miR-122. Furthermore, the effect of miR-370 on the expression of the lipogenic genes was abolished by antisense miR-122. miR-370 targets the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Cpt1alpha, and it downregulated the expression of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1alpha (Cpt1alpha) gene as well as the rate of beta oxidation. Our data suggest that miR-370 acting via miR-122 may have a causative role in the accumulation of hepatic triglycerides by modulating initially the expression of SREBP-1c, DGAT2, and Cpt1alpha and, subsequently, the expression of other genes that affect lipid metabolism. PMID:20124555

Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Hiyama, Yaeko; Goldberg, Ira J; Zannis, Vassilis I

2010-06-01

113

Natural allelic variations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes affect sexual dimorphism in Oryzias latipes.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphisms, which are phenotypic differences between males and females, are driven by sexual selection. Interestingly, sexually selected traits show geographical variations within species despite strong directional selective pressures. This paradox has eluded many evolutionary biologists for some time, and several models have been proposed (e.g. 'indicator model' and 'trade-off model'). However, disentangling which of these theories explains empirical patterns remains difficult, because genetic polymorphisms that cause variation in sexual differences are still unknown. In this study, we show that polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1, which encodes a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme, are associated with geographical differences in sexual dimorphism in the anal fin morphology of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Biochemical assays and genetic cross experiments show that high- and low-activity CYP1B1 alleles enhanced and declined sex differences in anal fin shapes, respectively. Behavioural and phylogenetic analyses suggest maintenance of the high-activity allele by sexual selection, whereas the low-activity allele possibly has experienced positive selection due to by-product effects of CYP1B1 in inferred ancestral populations. The present data can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms behind genetic variations in sexual dimorphism and indicate trade-off interactions between two distinct mechanisms acting on the two alleles with pleiotropic effects of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25377463

Katsumura, Takafumi; Oda, Shoji; Nakagome, Shigeki; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki

2014-12-22

114

Variations in composition of dietary fats affect hepatic uptake and metabolism of chylomicron remnants.  

PubMed Central

The hepatic metabolism of [1-14C]oleate- and [1,2-3H]cholesterol-dual-labelled chylomicron remnants derived from olive, corn, palm and fish oil and butter fat was compared by adding each lipoprotein separately to the perfusate of isolated livers from rats fed on a normal diet. Labelled remnants from butter fat and fish oil were removed more rapidly from the perfusate than remnants derived from olive, corn and palm oil. The oxidation of labelled remnant fatty acid from olive oil, fish oil or butter fat was four to seven times greater than that from corn and palm oil. Labelled fatty acid in fish oil remnants was incorporated into phospholipid significantly more efficiently than the labelled fatty acid in olive, corn or palm oil remnants, with butter fat giving an intermediate value. For all the remnants, there was a significant amount of hydrolysis of labelled esterified cholesterol by the liver which was dependent on the magnitude of hepatic uptake of each type of remnant. The recovery of remnant [3H]cholesterol label in the bile was 50% less with palm oil remnants than with all the other remnants studied. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of chylomicron remnants has a major impact on their uptake and metabolism by the liver. PMID:7575417

Lambert, M S; Botham, K M; Mayes, P A

1995-01-01

115

Alteration of fatty-acid-metabolizing enzymes affects mitochondrial form and function in hereditary spastic paraplegia.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A M; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M; Durand, Christelle M; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A; Kabiraj, Mohammad M; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-12-01

116

Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the best-known protein acetyltransferase. For four growth conditions, more than 2,000 unique acetylated peptides, belonging to 809 proteins, were identified and differentially quantified. Nearly 65% of these proteins are related to metabolism. The global activity of CobB contributes to the deacetylation of a large number of substrates and has a major impact on physiology. Apart from the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, we found that CobB-controlled acetylation of isocitrate lyase contributes to the fine-tuning of the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylation of the transcription factor RcsB prevents DNA binding, activating flagella biosynthesis and motility, and increases acid stress susceptibility. Surprisingly, deletion of patZ increased acetylation in acetate cultures, which suggests that it regulates the levels of acetylating agents. The results presented offer new insights into functional roles of protein acetylation in metabolic fitness and global cell regulation. PMID:25518064

Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore; Sánchez-Díaz, Nerea C; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Cánovas, Manuel

2014-01-01

117

Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein Regulates Glucose Metabolism and Affects Cytoplasmic Streaming in Mouse Oocytes  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) regulates intracellular redox state and prompts oxidative stress by binding to and inhibiting Thioredoxin (Trx). In addition, via a Trx-independent mechanism, Txnip regulates glucose metabolism and thus maintains intracellular glucose levels. Previously, we found Txnip mRNA highly expressed in immature germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, but currently there is no report describing the role of Txnip in oocytes. Therefore, we conducted the present study to determine the function of Txnip in mouse oocytes' maturation and meiosis by using RNA interference (RNAi) method. Upon specific depletion of Txnip, 79.5% of oocytes were arrested at metaphase I (MI) stage. Time-lapse video microscopy analysis revealed that the formation of granules in the oocyte cytoplasm increased concurrent with retarded cytoplasmic streaming after Txnip RNAi treatment. Txnip RNAi-treated oocytes had upregulated glucose uptake and lactate production. To confirm the supposition that mechanism responsible for these observed phenomena involves increased lactate in oocytes, we cultured oocytes in high lactate medium and observed the same increased granule formation and retarded cytoplasmic streaming as found by Txnip RNAi. The MI-arrested oocytes exhibited scattered microtubules and aggregated chromosomes indicating that actin networking was disturbed by Txnip RNAi. Therefore, we conclude that Txnip is a critical regulator of glucose metabolism in oocytes and is involved in maintaining cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes. PMID:23976953

Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Eun-Young; Ko, Jung-Jae; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo-Sik; Lee, Kyung-Ah

2013-01-01

118

The alternative sigma factor, sigmaS, affects polyhydroxyalkanoate metabolism in Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed

To determine whether the stationary sigma factor, sigma(S), influences polyhydroxyalkanoate metabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440, an rpoS-negative mutant was constructed to evaluate polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulation and expression of a translational fusion to the promoter region of the genes that code for polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase 1 (phaC1) and polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase (phaZ). By comparison with the wild-type, the rpoS mutant showed a higher polyhydroxyalkanoate degradation rate and increased expression of the translational fusion during the stationary growth phase. These results suggest that sigma(S) might control the genes involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate metabolism, possibly in an indirect manner. In addition, survival and oxidative stress assays performed under polyhydroxyalkanoate- and nonpolyhydroxyalkanoate- accumulating conditions demonstrated that the accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoate increased the survival and stress tolerance of the rpoS mutant. According to this, polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulation would help cells to overcome the adverse conditions encountered during the stationary phase in the strain that lacks RpoS. PMID:18498401

Raiger-Iustman, Laura J; Ruiz, Jimena A

2008-07-01

119

Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

2014-01-01

120

Connecting with Learning: Motivation, Affect and Cognition in Interest Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we draw on our research on interest to explore the questions posed for this special issue. Interest is conceptualized as an affective state that represents students' subjective experience of learning; the state that arises from either situational triggers or a well-developed individual interest. Drawing on the broad research…

Ainley, Mary

2006-01-01

121

Connecting with Learning: Motivation, Affect and Cognition in Interest Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we draw on our research on interest to explore the questions posed for this special issue. Interest is conceptualized as an affective state that represents students’ subjective experience of learning; the state that arises from either situational triggers or a well-developed individual interest. Drawing on the broad research literature on interest, and using our own findings in

Mary Ainley

2006-01-01

122

Can N-acetyl-L-cysteine affect zinc metabolism when used as a paracetamol antidote?  

PubMed

N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) has long been used in the treatment of chronic lung diseases. Inhalation and oral administration of the drug are both effective in reducing mucus viscosity. In addition, NAC oral therapy allows to restore normal mucoprotein secretion in the long term. Although displaying heavy metal-complexing potential, NAC exerts no detectable influence on the metabolism of essential trace metals when used in the above context (i.e. at doses near 600 mg day-1). However, this may no longer be the case when NAC is used as an oxygen radical scavenger, like in the treatment of paracetamol poisoning. In the latter case, intravenous doses as high as 20 g day-1 are administered, which may induce excessive zinc urinary excretion. In order to allow a better appreciation of the risk of zinc depletion during NAC therapy, the present work addresses the role of this drug towards zinc metabolism at the molecular level. First, formation constants for zinc-NAC complexes have been determined under physiological conditions. Then, computer simulations for blood plasma and gastrointestinal fluid have been run to assess the influence of NAC and its metabolites (e.g. cysteine and glutathione) on zinc excretion and absorption. Blood plasma simulations reveal that NAC can effectively mobilise an important fraction of zinc into urinary excretable complexes as from concentrations of 10(-3) mol dm-3 (which corresponds to a dose of about 800 mg). This effect can still be enhanced by the action of NAC metabolites, among which cysteine is the most powerful zinc sequestering agent. In contrast, simulations relative to gastrointestinal conditions suggest that NAC should tend to increase zinc absorption, regardless of its dose. PMID:1529808

Brumas, V; Hacht, B; Filella, M; Berthon, G

1992-07-01

123

GENOTYPIC VARIATION IN TOMATOES AFFECTING PROCESSING AND ANTIOXIDANT ATTRIBUTES.  

PubMed

Abstract Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/ discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status. PMID:24279355

Siddiqui, Md Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Dhua, R S

2013-11-26

124

PROCESSES AFFECTING FREE-PHASE HYDROCARBON REMOVAL BY VAPOR EXTRACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale soil vapor extraction test was conducted to evaluate the mechanisms that affect removal of subsurface free-phase hydrocarbon. The test was performed inside a steel-reinforced acrylic tank, 185 cm long by 185 cm high by 25 cm wide, which was filled with #60 industrial grade silica sand. A gradient-driven water table was established to simulate a field groundwater system.

Robert J. Frank; David Huntley

125

Preference and processing: The role of speech affect in early spoken word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants prefer to listen to happy speech. To assess influences of speech affect on early lexical processing, 7.5- and 10.5-month-old infants were familiarized with one word spoken with happy affect and another with neutral affect and then tested on recognition of these words in fluent passages. Infants heard all passages either with happy affect or with neutral affect. Contrary to

Leher Singh; James L. Morgan; Katherine S. Whiteb

2004-01-01

126

Perturbing the metabolic dynamics of myo-inositol in developing Brassica napus seeds through in vivo methylation impacts its utilization as phytate precursor and affects downstream metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

Background myo-Inositol (Ins) metabolism during early stages of seed development plays an important role in determining the distributional relationships of some seed storage components such as the antinutritional factors, sucrose galactosides (also known as raffinose oligosaccharides) and phytic acid (PhA) (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate). The former is a group of oligosaccharides, which plays a role in desiccation at seed maturation. They are not easily digested by monogastric animals, hence their flatulence-causing properties. Phytic acid is highly negatively charged, which chelates positive ions of essential minerals and decreases their bioavailability. It is also a major cause of phosphate-related water pollution. Our aim was to investigate the influence of competitive diversion of Ins as common substrate on the biosynthesis of phytate and sucrose galactosides. Results We have studied the initial metabolic patterns of Ins in developing seeds of Brassica napus and determined that early stages of seed development are marked by rapid deployment of Ins into a variety of pathways, dominated by interconversion of polar (Ins phosphates) and non-polar (phospholipids) species. In a time course experiment at early stages of seed development, we show Ins to be a highly significant constituent of the endosperm and seed coat, but with no phytate biosynthesis occurring in either tissue. Phytate accumulation appears to be confined mainly within the embryo throughout seed development and maturation. In our approach, the gene for myo-inositol methyltransferase (IMT), isolated from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant), was transferred to B. napus under the control of the seed-specific promoters, napin and phaseolin. Introduction of this new metabolic step during seed development prompted Ins conversion to the corresponding monomethyl ether, ononitol, and affected phytate accumulation. We were able to produce homozygous transgenic lines with 19% - 35% average phytate reduction. Additionally, changes in the raffinose content and related sugars occurred along with enhanced sucrose levels. Germination rates, viability and other seed parameters were unaffected by the IMT transgene over-expression. Conclusions Competitive methylation of Ins during seed development reduces seed antinutritional components and enhances its nutritional characteristics while maintaining adequate phosphate reserves. Such approach should potentially raise the canola market value and likely, that of other crops. PMID:23692661

2013-01-01

127

Diet-induced hyperinsulinemia differentially affects glucose and protein metabolism: a high-throughput metabolomic approach in rats.  

PubMed

Metabolomics is a high-throughput tool that quantifies and identifies the complete set of biofluid metabolites. This "omics" science is playing an increasing role in understanding the mechanisms involved in disease progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether a nontargeted metabolomic approach could be applied to investigate metabolic differences between obese rats fed a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for 9 weeks and control diet-fed rats. Animals fed with the HFS diet became obese, hyperleptinemic, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and resistant to insulin. Serum samples of overnight-fasted animals were analyzed by (1)H NMR technique, and 49 metabolites were identified and quantified. The biochemical changes observed suggest that major metabolic processes like carbohydrate metabolism, ?-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, Kennedy pathway, and folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism were altered in obese rats. The circulating levels of most amino acids were lower in obese animals. Serum levels of docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, unsaturated n-6 fatty acids, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids also decreased in HFS-fed rats. The circulating levels of urea, six water-soluble metabolites (creatine, creatinine, choline, acetyl carnitine, formate, and allantoin), and two lipid compounds (phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelin) were also significantly reduced by the HFS diet intake. This study offers further insight of the possible mechanisms implicated in the development of diet-induced obesity. It suggests that the HFS diet-induced hyperinsulinemia is responsible for the decrease in the circulating levels of urea, creatinine, and many amino acids, despite an increase in serum glucose levels. PMID:23334844

Etxeberria, U; de la Garza, A L; Martínez, J A; Milagro, F I

2013-09-01

128

Methyl jasmonate affects phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum).  

PubMed

Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a fruit very much appreciated by consumers for its antioxidant potential and health-promoting traits. Its beneficial potential properties are mainly due to a high content of anthocyanins and their amount can change after elicitation with methyl jasmonate. The aim of this work is to evaluate the changes in expression of several genes, accumulation of phenolic compounds and alterations in antioxidant potential in two different blueberry cultivars ('Duke' and 'Blueray') in response to methyl jasmonate (0.1 mM). Results showed that 9 h after treatment, the expression of phenylalanine ammonium lyase, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase genes was stimulated more in the 'Blueray' variety. Among the phenols measured an increase was recorded also for epicatechin and anthocyanin concentrations. 'Duke' is a richer sourche of anthocyanins compared to 'Blueray', treatment with methyl jasmonate promoted in 'Blueray' an increase in pigments as well as in the antioxidant potential, especially in fully ripe berries, but treated 'Duke' berries had greater levels, which were not induced by methyl jasmonate treatment. In conclusion, methyl jasmonate was, in some cases, an effective elicitor of phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry, though with different intensity between cultivars. PMID:24943920

Cocetta, Giacomo; Rossoni, Mara; Gardana, Claudio; Mignani, Ilaria; Ferrante, Antonio; Spinardi, Anna

2015-02-01

129

Inactivation of the phosphoglucomutase gene pgm in Corynebacterium glutamicum affects cell shape and glycogen metabolism  

PubMed Central

In Corynebacterium glutamicum formation of glc-1-P (?-glucose-1-phosphate) from glc-6-P (glucose-6-phosphate) by ?-Pgm (phosphoglucomutase) is supposed to be crucial for synthesis of glycogen and the cell wall precursors trehalose and rhamnose. Furthermore, Pgm is probably necessary for glycogen degradation and maltose utilization as glucan phosphorylases of both pathways form glc-1-P. We here show that C. glutamicum possesses at least two Pgm isoenzymes, the cg2800 (pgm) encoded enzyme contributing most to total Pgm activity. By inactivation of pgm we created C. glutamicum IMpgm showing only about 12% Pgm activity when compared to the parental strain. We characterized both strains during cultivation with either glucose or maltose as substrate and observed that (i) the glc-1-P content in the WT (wild-type) and the mutant remained constant independent of the carbon source used, (ii) the glycogen levels in the pgm mutant were lower during growth on glucose and higher during growth on maltose, and (iii) the morphology of the mutant was altered with maltose as a substrate. We conclude that C. glutamicum employs glycogen as carbon capacitor to perform glc-1-P homeostasis in the exponential growth phase and is therefore able to counteract limited Pgm activity for both anabolic and catabolic metabolic pathways. PMID:23863124

Seibold, Gerd M.; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

2013-01-01

130

Electrospun scaffold topography affects endothelial cell proliferation, metabolic activity, and morphology.  

PubMed

A family of methacrylic terpolymer biomaterials was electrospun into three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds. The glass transition temperature of the polymer correlates with the morphology of the resulting scaffold. Glassy materials produce scaffolds with discrete fibers and a high percent void space (84%) while the rubbery materials produced scaffolds with fused fibers and a much lower percent void space (18%). By electrospinning onto a rotating mandrel, aligned fiber scaffolds were fabricated, and it was shown that controlling the rotation speed of the collector allowed for control over the degree of fiber alignment. The electrospinning was shown to not degrade the number average molecular weight of the polymer chains. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded onto the electrospun scaffolds under static conditions and it was found that the morphology of the scaffold controlled the cellular proliferation, the metabolic activity, and the morphology of adherent cells. In particular, HUVECs seeded onto low void space scaffolds exhibited enhanced cellular spreading, enzymatic activity, and proliferation. HUVECs seeded onto aligned fiber scaffolds did not demonstrate increased proliferation; however, the cells did organize themselves in the direction of fiber alignment resulting in cells with elongated morphology. PMID:20694986

Heath, Daniel E; Lannutti, John J; Cooper, Stuart L

2010-09-15

131

Perturbations of Amino Acid Metabolism Associated with Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Shikimic Acid Metabolism Affect Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Alter the Abundance of Proteins Involved in Photosynthesis and Photorespiration1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway. PMID:21757634

Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P.; Bulman, Christopher A.; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.

2011-01-01

132

Markers of Bone Metabolism Are Affected by Renal Function and Growth Hormone Therapy in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort. Methods Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6–18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10–60 ml/min/1.73m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Results Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score. Conclusion Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity. PMID:25659076

Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay; Canpolat, Nur; Duzova, Ali; Sözeri, Betül; Bacchetta, Justine; Balat, Ayse; Büscher, Anja; Candan, Cengiz; Cakar, Nilgun; Donmez, Osman; Dusek, Jiri; Heckel, Martina; Klaus, Günter; Mir, Sevgi; Özcelik, Gül; Sever, Lale; Shroff, Rukshana; Vidal, Enrico; Wühl, Elke; Gondan, Matthias; Melk, Anette; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz

2015-01-01

133

Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties  

SciTech Connect

The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

2012-09-28

134

Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

1983-01-01

135

Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

136

GAZE LOCATIONS AFFECT EXPLICIT PROCESS BUT NOT IMPLICIT PROCESS DURING VISUOMOTOR ADAPTATION.  

PubMed

The role of vision in implicit and explicit processes involved in adaptation to novel visuomotor transformations is not well understood. We manipulated subjects' gaze locations through instructions during a visuomotor rotation task that established a conflict between implicit and explicit processes. Subjects were informed of a rotated visual feedback (45° counterclockwise from the desired target) and instructed to counteract it by using an explicit aiming strategy to the neighboring target (45° clockwise from the target). Simultaneously, they were instructed to gaze at either the desired target (target-gaze group), the neighboring target (hand-target-gaze group), or anywhere (free-gaze group) during aiming. After initial elimination of behavioral errors caused by strategic aiming, the subjects gradually overcompensated the rotation in the early practice, thereby increasing behavioral errors (i.e., a drift). This was caused by an implicit adaptation overriding the explicit strategy. Notably, prescribed gaze locations did not affect this implicit adaptation. In the late practice, the target-gaze and free-gaze groups reduced the drift, whereas the hand-target-gaze group did not. Furthermore, the free-gaze group changed gaze locations for strategic aiming through practice from the neighboring target to the desired target. The onset of this change was correlated with the onset of the drift reduction. These results suggest that gaze locations critically affect explicit adjustments of aiming directions to reduce the drift by taking into account the implicit adaptation that is occurring in parallel. Taken together, spatial eye-hand coordination that ties the gaze and the reach target influences the explicit process but not the implicit process. PMID:25253477

Rand, Miya Kato; Rentsch, Sebastian

2014-09-24

137

Temporal factors affecting somatosensory–auditory interactions in speech processing  

PubMed Central

Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound-specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009). In the present study, we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory–auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous) and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead) somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the ERP was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the ERP difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory–auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160 and 220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory–auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production. PMID:25452733

Ito, Takayuki; Gracco, Vincent L.; Ostry, David J.

2014-01-01

138

Transient exposure to low levels of insecticide affects metabolic networks of honeybee larvae.  

PubMed

The survival of a species depends on its capacity to adjust to changing environmental conditions, and new stressors. Such new, anthropogenic stressors include the neonicotinoid class of crop-protecting agents, which have been implicated in the population declines of pollinating insects, including honeybees (Apis mellifera). The low-dose effects of these compounds on larval development and physiological responses have remained largely unknown. Over a period of 15 days, we provided syrup tainted with low levels (2 µg/L(-1)) of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to beehives located in the field. We measured transcript levels by RNA sequencing and established lipid profiles using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry from worker-bee larvae of imidacloprid-exposed (IE) and unexposed, control (C) hives. Within a catalogue of 300 differentially expressed transcripts in larvae from IE hives, we detect significant enrichment of genes functioning in lipid-carbohydrate-mitochondrial metabolic networks. Myc-involved transcriptional response to exposure of this neonicotinoid is indicated by overrepresentation of E-box elements in the promoter regions of genes with altered expression. RNA levels for a cluster of genes encoding detoxifying P450 enzymes are elevated, with coordinated downregulation of genes in glycolytic and sugar-metabolising pathways. Expression of the environmentally responsive Hsp90 gene is also reduced, suggesting diminished buffering and stability of the developmental program. The multifaceted, physiological response described here may be of importance to our general understanding of pollinator health. Muscles, for instance, work at high glycolytic rates and flight performance could be impacted should low levels of this evolutionarily novel stressor likewise induce downregulation of energy metabolising genes in adult pollinators. PMID:23844170

Derecka, Kamila; Blythe, Martin J; Malla, Sunir; Genereux, Diane P; Guffanti, Alessandro; Pavan, Paolo; Moles, Anna; Snart, Charles; Ryder, Thomas; Ortori, Catharine A; Barrett, David A; Schuster, Eugene; Stöger, Reinhard

2013-01-01

139

Transient Exposure to Low Levels of Insecticide Affects Metabolic Networks of Honeybee Larvae  

PubMed Central

The survival of a species depends on its capacity to adjust to changing environmental conditions, and new stressors. Such new, anthropogenic stressors include the neonicotinoid class of crop-protecting agents, which have been implicated in the population declines of pollinating insects, including honeybees (Apis mellifera). The low-dose effects of these compounds on larval development and physiological responses have remained largely unknown. Over a period of 15 days, we provided syrup tainted with low levels (2 µg/L?1) of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to beehives located in the field. We measured transcript levels by RNA sequencing and established lipid profiles using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry from worker-bee larvae of imidacloprid-exposed (IE) and unexposed, control (C) hives. Within a catalogue of 300 differentially expressed transcripts in larvae from IE hives, we detect significant enrichment of genes functioning in lipid-carbohydrate-mitochondrial metabolic networks. Myc-involved transcriptional response to exposure of this neonicotinoid is indicated by overrepresentation of E-box elements in the promoter regions of genes with altered expression. RNA levels for a cluster of genes encoding detoxifying P450 enzymes are elevated, with coordinated downregulation of genes in glycolytic and sugar-metabolising pathways. Expression of the environmentally responsive Hsp90 gene is also reduced, suggesting diminished buffering and stability of the developmental program. The multifaceted, physiological response described here may be of importance to our general understanding of pollinator health. Muscles, for instance, work at high glycolytic rates and flight performance could be impacted should low levels of this evolutionarily novel stressor likewise induce downregulation of energy metabolising genes in adult pollinators. PMID:23844170

Derecka, Kamila; Blythe, Martin J.; Malla, Sunir; Genereux, Diane P.; Guffanti, Alessandro; Pavan, Paolo; Moles, Anna; Snart, Charles; Ryder, Thomas; Ortori, Catharine A.; Barrett, David A.; Schuster, Eugene; Stöger, Reinhard

2013-01-01

140

Molybdate:sulfate ratio affects redox metabolism and viability of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum.  

PubMed

Molybdenum is a transition metal used primarily (90% or more) as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys in metallurgical industries and its release into the environment is a growing problem. As a catalytic center of some redox enzymes, molybdenum is an essential element for inorganic nitrogen assimilation/fixation, phytohormone synthesis, and free radical metabolism in photosynthesizing species. In oceanic and estuarine waters, microalgae absorb molybdenum as the water-soluble molybdate anion (MoO4(2-)), although MoO4(2-) uptake is thought to compete with uptake of the much more abundant sulfate anion (SO4(2-), approximately 25 mM in seawater). Thus, those aspects of microalgal biology impacted by molybdenum would be better explained by considering both MoO4(2-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in the aquatic milieu. This work examines toxicological, physiological and redox imbalances in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum that have been induced by changes in the molybdate:sulfate ratios. We prepared cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum grown in artificial seawater containing eight different MoO4(2-) concentrations (from 0 to 200 ?M) and three different SO4(2-) concentrations (3.5 mM, 9.6 mM and 25 mM). We measured sulfur content in cells, the activities of the three major antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase), indexes of oxidative modifications in proteins (carbonyl content) and lipids (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), the activities of the molybdenum-dependent enzymes xanthine oxidase and nitrate reductase, expression of key protein components of dinoflagellate photosynthesis (peridinin-chlorophyll a protein and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxidase) and growth curves. We find evidence for Mo toxicity at relatively high [MoO4(2-)]:[SO4(2-)] ratios. We also find evidence for extensive redox adaptations at Mo levels well below lethal levels. PMID:24036534

Barros, M P; Hollnagel, H C; Glavina, A B; Soares, C O; Ganini, D; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, S; Morse, D; Colepicolo, P

2013-10-15

141

Ecdysteroids affect in vivo protein metabolism of the flight muscle of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ecdysteroid growth promotion of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle of Manduca sexta was studied by measuring in vivo protein metabolism using both "flooding-dose" and "non-carrier" techniques. These procedures differ in that the former method includes injection of non-labelled phenylalanine (30 micromoles/insect) together with the [3H]amino acid. Injected radioactivity plateaued in the haemolymph within 7 min. With the flooding-dose method, haemolymph and intramuscular specific radioactivities were similar between 15 min and 2 h. Incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into muscle protein was linear with either method between 30 and 120 min. Fractional rates (%/12 h) of synthesis with the flooding-dose technique were best measured after 1 h because of the initial delay in radioactivity equilibration. Estimation of body phenylalanine turnover with the non-carrier method showed 24-53%/h which was negligible with the flooding-dose method. Since the two methods yielded similar rates of protein synthesis, the large injection of non-labelled amino acid did not alter the rate of synthesis. Because the flooding-dose technique requires only a single time point measurement, it is the preferred method. The decline and eventual cessation of flight-muscle growth was mostly a consequence of declining protein synthesis though degradation increased between 76-86 h before eclosion and was relatively rapid. This decline in muscle growth could be prevented by treating pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (10 micrograms/insect). Protein accretion was promoted by a decline of up to 80% in protein breakdown, which was offset in part by a concurrent though much smaller decrease in protein synthesis. Therefore, ecdysteroids may increase flight-muscle growth by inhibiting proteolysis.

Tischler, M. E.; Wu, M.; Cook, P.; Hodsden, S.

1990-01-01

142

Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local inhibition of gonadal activity by glucocorticoids. As the latter has not been tested in birds yet, we tested if corticosterone directly inhibits ovarian steroid synthesis under in vitro conditions. We hypothesized that degradation of corticosterone by follicular cells impairs their ability to synthesize reproductive hormones due to either inhibition of enzymes or competition for common co-factors. Therefore, we first established whether follicles degrade corticosterone. Follicular tissue was harvested from freshly euthanized laying hens and incubated with radiolabelled corticosterone. Radioactive metabolites were visualized and quantified by autoradiography. Follicles converted corticosterone in a time-dependent manner into metabolites with a higher polarity than corticosterone. The predominant metabolite co-eluted with 20?-dihydrocorticosterone. Other chicken tissues mostly formed the same metabolite when incubated with corticosterone. In a second experiment, follicles were incubated with either progesterone or dehydroepiandrosterone. Corticosterone was added in increasing dosages up to 1000 ng per ml medium. Corticosterone did not inhibit the conversion of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone into a number of different metabolites, including 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone. In conclusion, avian tissues degrade corticosterone mostly to 20?-dihydrocorticosterone and even high corticosterone dosages do not affect follicular hormone production under in vitro conditions. PMID:23333751

Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuids, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael

2013-01-01

143

Conserved Changes in the Dynamics of Metabolic Processes during Fruit Development and Ripening across Species1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Computational analyses of molecular phenotypes traditionally aim at identifying biochemical components that exhibit differential expression under various scenarios (e.g. environmental and internal perturbations) in a single species. High-throughput metabolomics technologies allow the quantification of (relative) metabolite levels across developmental stages in different tissues, organs, and species. Novel methods for analyzing the resulting multiple data tables could reveal preserved dynamics of metabolic processes across species. The problem we address in this study is 2-fold. (1) We derive a single data table, referred to as a compromise, which captures information common to the investigated set of multiple tables containing data on different fruit development and ripening stages in three climacteric (i.e. peach [Prunus persica] and two tomato [Solanum lycopersicum] cultivars, Ailsa Craig and M82) and two nonclimacteric (i.e. strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa] and pepper [Capsicum chilense]) fruits; in addition, we demonstrate the power of the method to discern similarities and differences between multiple tables by analyzing publicly available metabolomics data from three tomato ripening mutants together with two tomato cultivars. (2) We identify the conserved dynamics of metabolic processes, reflected in the data profiles of the corresponding metabolites that contribute most to the determined compromise. Our analysis is based on an extension to principal component analysis, called STATIS, in combination with pathway overenrichment analysis. Based on publicly available metabolic profiles for the investigated species, we demonstrate that STATIS can be used to identify the metabolic processes whose behavior is similarly affected during fruit development and ripening. These findings ultimately provide insights into the pathways that are essential during fruit development and ripening across species. PMID:24243932

Klie, Sebastian; Osorio, Sonia; Tohge, Takayuki; Drincovich, María F.; Fait, Aaron; Giovannoni, James J.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nikoloski, Zoran

2014-01-01

144

Magnetoresistance monitoring of processes that affect thin film exchange bias  

E-print Network

training effect dependence of HEX on the number of field reversals , and iv enhanced coercivity. This has effects on magnetic heterostructures. In unbiased systems, the positive sweep and the negative sweep by external process, is measured by taking only two magnetoresistance readings at a selected field value

Idzerda, Yves

145

PROCESSES AFFECTING THE FATE OF OIL IN THE SEA  

EPA Science Inventory

Using research results reported from oil spills, laboratory experiments and microcosm studies, this review outlines the many processes controlling the behavior of petroleum in marine waters. The fate of oil spilled at sea depends on the composition of the oil, and on such externa...

146

Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

2008-01-01

147

Respiration rate of minimally processed lettuce as affected by packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study on the influence of films with different water and gas permeability on the quality decay of fresh processed lettuce is presented. The study was conducted by packaging two lettuce cultivars, Iceberg and Romaine, with three different plastic films, two commercially available polyolefines (PF1 and PF2) and a biodegradable film (BF), and storing the packages at 5°C. The

M. A. Del Nobile; A. Baiano; A. Benedetto; L. Massignan

2006-01-01

148

Ad libitum feeding during the peripartal period affects body condition, reproduction results and metabolism of sows.  

PubMed

To overcome negative energy balance during the peripartal period of sows, an ad libitum feeding strategy (ADLIB) as alternative for commonly used restricted feeding (STANDARD, on average 3kg feed/day) was evaluated. Plasma metabolites and thyroid hormones, change of back fat thickness (BF), reproductive traits, and piglet performance were monitored. Voluntary feed intake of ADLIB sows declined at farrowing but was still more than twice the amount of what was offered to STANDARD sows. Consequently, ADLIB sows lost less BF than STANDARD sows (P=0.041). Additionally, BF change was affected by body condition. LEAN sows (BF<18mm on d 105 of gestation) lost less BF than MODERATE sows (18mm?BF?22mm) which lost less BF than FAT sows (BF>22mm) (P<0.001). Except for a decreased percentage of stillborn piglets for MODERATE sows (P=0.044), reproduction results were not affected. Piglet weaning weight of ADLIB-FAT and STANDARD-MODERATE sows was reduced in comparison with that of ADLIB-LEAN sows (P=0.005). Regardless of body condition, all metabolites and thyroid hormones measured showed a time dependent profile (P<0.001). On d 112 of gestation increased concentrations of creatinine (P=0.004), non-esterified fatty acids (P=0.039), and serum crosslaps (P=0.016) for STANDARD sows were observed. Triglycerides were increased for FAT sows (P<0.001), and decreased faster over time for ADLIB (P=0.013) and for FAT (P=0.012). Although ad libitum feeding during the peripartal period only resulted in less mobilization of muscle, fat, and bone reserves on d 112 of gestation, results of BF change and piglet weaning weight indicated that ad libitum feeding is beneficial for sow performance provided that BF is below 22mm. PMID:24559972

Cools, A; Maes, D; Decaluwé, R; Buyse, J; van Kempen, T A T G; Liesegang, A; Janssens, G P J

2014-03-01

149

Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.  

PubMed

A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P < 0.001) at wk 14 and improved (P = 0.002) ileal total AA digestibility. Although DG or FD exhibited moderate effects on intestinal brush border protease activities and mRNA levels of duodenal transporters Pept1, Lat1, and Cat1, both substantially enhanced (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of hepatic protein synthesis key regulator S6 ribosomal protein (S6) and the ratio of phospho-S6 to S6 in the liver of hens. However, DG and FD manifested with different impacts on weights of egg and egg albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived. PMID:25568377

Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

2015-01-01

150

Factors affecting the rheology and processability of highly filled suspensions.  

PubMed

Suspensions filled with rigid particles at volume-loading levels that approach their maximum packing fraction are widely encountered, especially in the energetics, ceramics, pharmaceutical, magnetics, composites, food, and personal care industries. Highly filled suspensions, regardless of industrial application, exhibit a number of common rheological and processability traits, including viscoplasticity and wall slip, that necessitate special rheometers and appropriate characterization and numerical simulation methods. Furthermore, various factors, including the dispersion and distribution of the particles and their agglomerates, the entrainment of air, the filtration-based migration of the binder phase, and the shear-induced migration of particles, play important roles and must be considered in the design and optimization of manufacturing operations for processing of highly filled suspensions. PMID:24910916

Kalyon, Dilhan M; Akta?, Seda

2014-01-01

151

Diesel oil volatilization processes affected by selected porous media.  

PubMed

Volatilization plays an important role in attenuating petroleum products in contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of wind speed, vessel diameter and mean grain size of porous media on diesel oil volatilization. Experiments were conducted to investigate the volatilization behavior of diesel oil from porous media by weighing contaminated samples pre- and post-volatilization. Three selected field porous media materials were evaluated: Silty Clay Loam, Fine Sand, and Coarse Sand along with six individual sand fractions of the Coarse Sand. Results indicate that increasing wind speed accelerates the diesel oil volatilization process, especially for wind speeds below 2.10ms(-1). The low-carbon components of diesel oil volatilize more rapidly, with the effects of wind speed more pronounced on C10 to C15 volatilization than on C16 and higher. The volatilization rate coefficient of diesel oil increases with decreasing mean grain size of porous media, and with increasing vessel diameter. A power function expressed the relationship with mean grain size. All processes (wind speed, vessel diameter, and mean grain size) were included in an equation which explained over 92% of the measured diesel oil volatilization rate coefficient variations for the experiments. Diesel oil volatilization appears to be boundary-layer regulated to some extent. PMID:24296030

Ma, Yanfei; Zheng, Xilai; Anderson, S H; Lu, Jie; Feng, Xuedong

2014-03-01

152

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Approval process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section...With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing affected sources. (a)...

2012-07-01

153

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Approval process for new and existing affected sources. 63.52 Section...With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.52 Approval process for new and existing affected sources. (a)...

2010-07-01

154

Water Removal in Bioretention Devices by Evapotranspiration Processes and Related Issues Affecting Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many soil processes that affect stormwater bioretention facility performance. This paper stresses evapotranspiration (ET) and how it affects the water balance in these stormwater control practices. Other processes discussed in this paper include clogging from the capture of sediment on the bioretention facility, cation exchange capacity (CEC) which is one measure of dissolved pollutant retention to protect groundwater,

Robert Pitt; Shirley Clark; John Voorhees

155

Important role of autophagy in regulation of metabolic processes in health, disease and aging.  

PubMed

Autophagy is the basic catabolic mechanism that involves degradation of dysfunctional cellular components through the action of lysosome as well as supplying energy and compounds for the synthesis of essential biomacromolecules. This process enables cells to survive stress from the external environment like nutrient deprivation. Autophagy is important in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids as well. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that autophagy is critical in wide range of normal human physiological processes, and defective autophagy is associated with diverse diseases, including lysosomal storage disease, myopathies, neurodegeneration and various metabolic disorders. This review summarizes the most up-to-date findings on what role autophagy plays in metabolism. PMID:24702497

Papá?ková, Z; Cahová, M

2014-09-01

156

Nutrient Enrichment and Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism in an Experimental Seagrass Habitat  

PubMed Central

Background Food web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower trophic levels, respectively. Yet, these interactions are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental seagrass mesocosm system, we factorially manipulated water column nutrient concentrations, food chain length, and diversity of crustacean grazers to address two questions: (1) Does food web composition modulate the effects of nutrient enrichment on plant and grazer biomasses and stoichiometry? (2) Do ecosystem fluxes of dissolved oxygen and nutrients more closely reflect above-ground biomass and community structure or sediment processes? Nutrient enrichment and grazer presence generally had strong effects on biomass accumulation, stoichiometry, and ecosystem fluxes, whereas predator effects were weaker or absent. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on producer biomass or net ecosystem production but strongly increased seagrass nutrient content, ecosystem flux rates, and grazer secondary production, suggesting that enhanced production was efficiently transferred from producers to herbivores. Gross ecosystem production (oxygen evolution) correlated positively with above-ground plant biomass, whereas inorganic nutrient fluxes were unrelated to plant or grazer biomasses, suggesting dominance by sediment microbial processes. Finally, grazer richness significantly stabilized ecosystem processes, as predators decreased ecosystem production and respiration only in the zero- and one- species grazer treatments. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that consumer presence and species composition strongly influence ecosystem responses to nutrient enrichment, and that increasing herbivore diversity can stabilize ecosystem flux rates in the face of perturbations. PMID:19829713

Spivak, Amanda C.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Richardson, J. Paul

2009-01-01

157

A mitochondrial-vacuolar signaling pathway in yeast that affects iron and copper metabolism.  

PubMed

Mitochondria utilize iron, but the transporters that mediate mitochondrial iron uptake and efflux are largely unknown. Cells with a deletion in the vacuolar iron/manganese transporter Ccc1p are sensitive to high iron. Overexpression of MRS3 or MRS4 suppresses the high iron sensitivity of Deltaccc1 cells. MRS3 and MRS4 have recently been suggested to encode mitochondrial iron transporters. We demonstrate that deletion of MRS3 and MRS4 severely affects cellular and mitochondrial metal homeostasis, including a reduction in cytosolic and mitochondrial iron acquisition. We show that vacuolar iron transport is increased in Deltamrs3Deltamrs4 cells, resulting in decreased cytosolic iron and activation of the iron-sensing transcription factor Aft1p. Activation of Aft1p leads to increased expression of the high affinity iron transport system and increased iron uptake. Deletion of CCC1 in Deltamrs3Deltamrs4 cells restores cellular and mitochondrial iron homeostasis to near normal levels. Deltamrs3Deltamrs4 cells also show increased resistance to cobalt but decreased resistance to copper and cadmium. These phenotypes are also corrected by deletion of CCC1 in Deltamrs3Deltamrs4 cells. Decreased copper resistance in Deltamrs3Deltamrs4 cells results from activation of Aft1p by Ccc1p-mediated iron depletion, as deletion of CCC1 or AFT1 in Deltamrs3Deltamrs4 cells restores copper resistance. These results suggest that deletion of mitochondrial proteins can alter vacuolar metal homeostasis. The data also indicate that increased expression of the AFT1-regulated gene(s) can disrupt copper homeostasis. PMID:15161905

Li, Liangtao; Kaplan, Jerry

2004-08-01

158

Systematic variation of prosthetic foot spring affects center-of-mass mechanics and metabolic cost during walking  

PubMed Central

Lower-limb amputees expend more energy to walk than non-amputees and have an elevated risk of secondary disabilities. Insufficient push-off by the prosthetic foot may be a contributing factor. We aimed to systematically study the effect of prosthetic foot mechanics on gait, to gain insight into fundamental prosthetic design principles. We varied a single parameter in isolation, the energy-storing spring in a prototype prosthetic foot, the Controlled Energy Storage and Return (CESR) foot, and observed the effect on gait. Subjects walked on the CESR foot with three different springs. We performed parallel studies on amputees and on non-amputees wearing prosthetic simulators. In both groups, spring characteristics similarly affected ankle and body center-of-mass (COM) mechanics and metabolic cost. Softer springs led to greater energy storage, energy return and prosthetic limb COM push-off work. But metabolic energy expenditure was lowest with a spring of intermediate stiffness, suggesting biomechanical disadvantages to the softest spring despite its greater push-off. Disadvantages of the softest spring may include excessive heel displacements and COM collision losses. We also observed some differences in joint kinetics between amputees and non-amputees walking on the prototype foot. During prosthetic push-off, amputees exhibited reduced energy transfer from the prosthesis to the COM along with increased hip work, perhaps due to greater energy dissipation at the knee. Nevertheless, the results indicate that spring compliance can contribute to push-off, but with biomechanical trade-offs that limit the degree to which greater push-off might improve walking economy. PMID:21708509

Zelik, Karl E.; Collins, Steven H.; Adamczyk, Peter G.; Segal, Ava D.; Klute, Glenn K.; Morgenroth, David C.; Hahn, Michael E.; Orendurff, Michael S.; Czerniecki, Joseph M.; Kuo, Arthur D.

2014-01-01

159

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation does not affect changes of lipid metabolism induced in rats by altered thyroid status.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. It is well known that lipid metabolism is also influenced by thyroid hormones. The aim of our study was to test whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (200 mg/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks given intragastrically) would affect lipid metabolism in Lewis male rats with altered thyroid status. Euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid status of experimental groups was well defined by plasma levels of triiodothyronine, the activity of liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and by relative heart weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid compared to the euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (5.0±0.2 vs. 3.7±0.4 and 4.4±0.2 mmol/l, respectively). In hyperthyroid animals, the concentration of plasma postprandial triglycerides was also increased compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.5±0.1 and 0.4±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). On the other hand, hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was associated with elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (2.6±0.2 vs. 1.5±0.1 and 1.6±0.1 mmol/l, respectively), LDL cholesterol (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.4±0.1 and 0.2±0.1 mmol/l, respectively) as well as HDL cholesterol (1.6±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). Supplementation of n-3 PUFA in the present study did not significantly modify either relative heart weight or glucose and lipid levels in any thyroid status. PMID:23508715

Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Behuliak, M; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

2013-07-01

160

Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

Calving body condition score (BCS) is an important determinant of early-lactation dry matter intake, milk yield, and disease incidence. The current study investigated the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the change in BCS. A group of cows of mixed age and breed were managed from the second half of the previous lactation to achieve mean group BCS (10-point scale) that were high (HBCS, 5.5; n=20), medium (MBCS, 4.5; n=18), or low (LBCS, 3.5; n=19). Blood was sampled at wk -4, -3, -2, 1, 3, 5, and 6 relative to parturition to measure biomarkers of energy balance, inflammation, and liver function. Liver was biopsied on wk 1, 3, and 5 relative to parturition, and 10 cows per BCS group were used for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR. Cows in HBCS and MBCS produced more milk and had greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate postpartum than LBCS. Peak concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate and greater hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were recorded in HBCS at wk 3. Consistent with blood biomarkers, HBCS and MBCS had greater expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (CPT1A, ACOX1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and hepatokines (FGF21, ANGPTL4), whereas HBCS had the lowest expression of APOB (lipoprotein transport). Greater expression during early lactation of BBOX1 in MBCS and LBCS suggested greater de novo carnitine synthesis. The greater BCS was associated with lower expression of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling axis genes (GHR1A, IGF1, and IGFALS) and greater expression of gluconeogenic genes. These likely contributed to the higher milk production and greater gluconeogenesis. Despite greater serum haptoglobin around calving, cows in HBCS and MBCS had greater blood albumin. Cows in MBCS, however, had a higher albumin:globulin ratio, probably indicating a less pronounced inflammatory status and better liver function. The marked decrease in expression of NFKB1, STAT3, HP, and SAA3 coupled with the increase in ALB on wk 3 in MBCS cows were consistent with blood measures. Overall, results suggest that the greater milk production of cows with higher calving BCS is associated with a proinflammatory response without negatively affecting expression of genes related to metabolism and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Results highlight the sensitivity of indicators of metabolic health and inflammatory state to subtle changes in calving BCS and, collectively, indicate a suboptimal health status in cows calving at either BCS 3.5 or 5.5 relative to BCS 4.5. PMID:25497809

Akbar, H; Grala, T M; Vailati Riboni, M; Cardoso, F C; Verkerk, G; McGowan, J; Macdonald, K; Webster, J; Schutz, K; Meier, S; Matthews, L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

2015-02-01

161

Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization  

SciTech Connect

Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir M. [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Riccio, Massimo [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Squarzoni, Stefano [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: lattanzi@jolly.bo.cnr.it

2008-02-01

162

Defects in GABA metabolism affect selective autophagy pathways and are alleviated by mTOR inhibition  

PubMed Central

In addition to key roles in embryonic neurogenesis and myelinogenesis, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) serves as the primary inhibitory mammalian neurotransmitter. In yeast, we have identified a new role for GABA that augments activity of the pivotal kinase, Tor1. GABA inhibits the selective autophagy pathways, mitophagy and pexophagy, through Sch9, the homolog of the mammalian kinase, S6K1, leading to oxidative stress, all of which can be mitigated by the Tor1 inhibitor, rapamycin. To confirm these processes in mammals, we examined the succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH)-deficient mouse model that accumulates supraphysiological GABA in the central nervous system and other tissues. Mutant mice displayed increased mitochondrial numbers in the brain and liver, expected with a defect in mitophagy, and morphologically abnormal mitochondria. Administration of rapamycin to these mice reduced mTOR activity, reduced the elevated mitochondrial numbers, and normalized aberrant antioxidant levels. These results confirm a novel role for GABA in cell signaling and highlight potential pathomechanisms and treatments in various human pathologies, including SSADH deficiency, as well as other diseases characterized by elevated levels of GABA. PMID:24578415

Lakhani, Ronak; Vogel, Kara R; Till, Andreas; Liu, Jingjing; Burnett, Sarah F; Gibson, K Michael; Subramani, Suresh

2014-01-01

163

Interleukin 1B genetic polymorphisms interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids to affect risk of the metabolic syndrome in the GOLDN Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic inflammation has been identified as an important component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, environmental and genetic factors contributing to the variation of inflammatory responses could affect individuals’ susceptibility to the MetS. We investigated the association between comm...

164

Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

Polá?ková Šolcová, Iva; La?ev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

2014-07-01

165

Epilithic Community Metabolism as an Indicator of Impact and Recovery in Streams Affected by Acid Mine Drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured biomass and metabolism of epilithic communities on five dates in different seasons at four sites in a watershed that has received extensive restoration for acid mine drainage (AMD) through the construction of passive treatment systems. Chlorophyll a biomass and productivity directly corresponded to AMD stress from coal mining. The site downstream of extensive passive treatment had significantly greater biomass and gross primary productivity rates than the site receiving only untreated AMD, but values were below those for two reference sites, indicating incomplete recovery. The degree of difference in these metrics among sites varied seasonally, primarily related to differences in canopy cover changes, but the ranking of sites in terms of stress generally was consistent. Reference sites had a significantly greater chlorophyll a/pheophytin ratio than untreated and treated sites, also indicating AMD stressed the communities. Community respiration was less affected by AMD stress than productivity or chlorophyll a. Productivity measures are not widely used to assess AMD impacts, and have been shown to both increase and decrease with AMD stress. The elimination of herbivores in AMD-impacted streams can increase productivity in the benthic algal community. Our study found productivity decreased with increasing AMD stress. Although sites with AMD stress had reduced herbivore populations, light, nutrients and metal precipitates appear to have limited growth of AMD-tolerant algal taxa. Therefore, it appears changes in food web structure due to AMD stress had less of an effect on epilithic productivity than environmental conditions within the stream.

DeNicola, Dean M.; Layton, Lee; Czapski, Tiffaney R.

2012-12-01

166

Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psychopathy is a complex personality disorder of unknown etiology. Central to the disorder are anomalies or difficulties in affective processing.Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to elucidate the neurobiological correlates of these anomalies in criminal psychopaths during performance of an affective memory task.Results: Compared with criminal nonpsychopaths and noncriminal control participants, criminal psychopaths showed significantly less affect-related activity

Kent A. Kiehl; Andra M. Smith; Robert D. Hare; Adrianna Mendrek; Bruce B. Forster; Johann Brink; Peter F. Liddle

2001-01-01

167

Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

Zhang, Yuanxing

168

A study of specific visual stimuli that affect the learning process  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF SPECIFIC VISUAL STIMULI THAT AFFECT THE LEARNING PROCESS A Senior Honors Thesis by BLAKE STEVEN GODKIN Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2002 Group: Health and Education A STUDY OF SPECIFIC VISUAL STIMULI THAT AFFECT THE LEARNING PROCESS A Senior Honors Thesis by BLAKE STEVEN GODKIN Submitted to the Office of Honors...

Godkin, Blake Steven

2013-02-22

169

MOVING AHEAD: INTEGRATING INFLUENCES OF AFFECTIVE PROCESSES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND FOR PSYCHOANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,Psychoanalytic clinical thinking has evolved toward an organizational model of affect and multidisciplinary research broadens,this thinking. Integrative influences ofaffective processes have been given little attention in psychoanalytic theory. Such influences are reviewed using examples,from research in early development. Affective processes,are shown,to provide integrative influences across systems in an individual’s development, facilitating developmental change, as well as developmentalcontinuity. In a

Robert N. Emde

1999-01-01

170

X-linked dystonia parkinsonism syndrome (XDP, lubag): disease-specific sequence change DSC3 in TAF1/DYT3 affects genes in vesicular transport and dopamine metabolism.  

PubMed

X-chromosomal dystonia parkinsonism syndrome (XDP, 'lubag') is associated with sequence changes within the TAF1/DYT3 multiple transcript system. Although most sequence changes are intronic, one, disease-specific single-nucleotide change 3 (DSC3), is located within an exon (d4). Transcribed exon d4 occurs as part of multiple splice variants. These variants include exons d3 and d4 spliced to exons of TAF1, and an independent transcript composed of exons d2-d4. Location of DSC3 in exon d4 and utilization of this exon in multiple splice variants suggest an important role of DSC3 in the XDP pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we transfected neuroblastoma cells with four expression constructs, including exons d2-d4 [d2-d4/wild-type (wt) and d2-d4/DSC3] and d3-d4 (d3-d4/wt and d3-d4/DSC3). Expression profiling revealed a dramatic effect of DSC3 on overall gene expression. Three hundred and sixty-two genes differed between cells containing d2-d4/wt and d2-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering revealed enrichment of genes related to vesicular transport, dopamine metabolism, synapse function, Ca(2+) metabolism and oxidative stress. Two hundred and eleven genes were differentially expressed in d3-d4/wt versus d3-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering highlighted genes in signal transduction and cell-cell interaction. The data show an important role of physiologically occurring transcript d2-d4 in normal brain function. Interference with this role by DSC3 is a likely pathological mechanism in XDP. Disturbance of dopamine function and of Ca(2+) metabolism can explain abnormal movement; loss of protection against reactive oxygen species may account for the neurodegenerative changes in XDP. Although d3-d4 also affect genes potentially related to neurodegenerative processes, their physiologic role as splice variants of TAF1 awaits further exploration. PMID:23184149

Herzfeld, Thilo; Nolte, Dagmar; Grznarova, Maria; Hofmann, Andrea; Schultze, Joachim L; Müller, Ulrich

2013-03-01

171

Positive Affect and Processes of Recovery among Treatment-Seeking Methamphetamine Users  

PubMed Central

Background Revised Stress and Coping Theory proposes that positive affect serves adaptive functions, independent of negative affect. However, scant research has examined whether, how, and under what circumstances positive affect is associated with decreased substance use. Methods Eighty-eight methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) completed the baseline assessment for substance abuse treatment outcome study which included measures of positive and negative affect, cognitive-behavioral change processes (i.e., approach-oriented coping, self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, and abstinence-related action tendencies), abstinence-specific social support, and self-reported substance use. Participants also provided a urine sample for toxicology screening. Results After controlling for demographic characteristics and negative affect, higher positive affect was independently associated with greater approach-oriented coping, abstinence-related action tendencies, and abstinence-specific social support. Positive affect was also independently associated with greater self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, but only at lower levels of negative affect. Through these cognitive-behavioral and social pathways, positive affect was indirectly associated with lower frequency of stimulant use in the past 30 days, lower odds of reporting stimulant use two or more days in a row, and lower odds of providing a urine sample that was reactive for stimulant metabolites. On the other hand, negative affect was not indirectly associated with any measure of stimulant use. Conclusions Clinical research is needed to examine the pathways whereby positive affect may predict better substance abuse treatment outcomes. PMID:23684632

Carrico, Adam W.; Woods, William J.; Siever, Michael D.; Discepola, Michael V.; Dilwort, Samantha E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Miller, Nicole; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie

2015-01-01

172

Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian cycle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece 51142 can fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. Thus, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of two processes: photosynthesis during the day, and nitrogen fixation at night. While previous studies have examined periodic changes transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. We found that ~30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes in numerous individual pathways, such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogen metabolism, were co-regulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. Our analyses suggest that the demands of nitrogen fixation greatly influence major metabolic activities inside Cyanothece cells and thus drive various cellular activities. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium

Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh V.; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2008-04-22

173

Relation Between Facial Affect Recognition and Configural Face Processing in Antipsychotic-Free Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Objective: Deficit in facial affect recognition is a well-documented impairment in schizophrenia, closely connected to social outcome. This deficit could be related to psychopathology, but also to a broader dysfunction in processing facial information. In addition, patients with schizophrenia inadequately use configural information-a type of processing that relies on spatial relationships between facial features. To date, no study has specifically examined the link between symptoms and misuse of configural information in the deficit in facial affect recognition. Method: Unmedicated schizophrenia patients (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 30) performed a facial affect recognition task and a face inversion task, which tests aptitude to rely on configural information. In patients, regressions were carried out between facial affect recognition, symptom dimensions and inversion effect. Results: Patients, compared with controls, showed a deficit in facial affect recognition and a lower inversion effect. Negative symptoms and lower inversion effect could account for 41.2% of the variance in facial affect recognition. Conclusion: This study confirms the presence of a deficit in facial affect recognition, and also of dysfunctional manipulation in configural information in antipsychotic-free patients. Negative symptoms and poor processing of configural information explained a substantial part of the deficient recognition of facial affect. We speculate that this deficit may be caused by several factors, among which independently stand psychopathology and failure in correctly manipulating configural information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25222201

Fakra, Eric; Jouve, Elisabeth; Guillaume, Fabrice; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Blin, Olivier

2014-09-15

174

Induced lung inflammation and dietary protein supply affect nitrogen retention and amino acid metabolism in growing pigs.  

PubMed

It is hypothesised that during immune system activation, there is a competition for amino acids (AA) between body protein deposition and immune system functioning. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effect of immune system activation on N retention and AA metabolism in growing pigs, depending on dietary protein supply. A total of sixteen barrows received an adequate (Ad) or restricted (Res) amount of dietary protein, and were challenged at day 0 with intravenous complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). At days - 5, 3 and 8, an irreversible loss rate (ILR) of eight AA was determined. CFA successfully activated the immune system, as indicated by a 2- to 4-fold increase in serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APP). Pre-challenge C-reactive protein concentrations were lower (P< 0·05) and pre- and post-challenge albumin tended to be lower in Res-pigs. These findings indicate that a restricted protein supply can limit the acute-phase response. CFA increased urinary N losses (P= 0·04) and tended to reduce N retention in Ad-pigs, but not in Res-pigs (P= 0·07). The ILR for Val was lower (P= 0·05) at day 8 than at day 3 in the post-challenge period. The ILR of most AA, except for Trp, were strongly affected by dietary protein supply and positively correlated with N retention. The correlations between the ILR and APP indices were absent or negative, indicating that changes in AA utilisation for APP synthesis were either not substantial or more likely outweighed by a decrease in muscle protein synthesis during immune system activation in growing pigs. PMID:25604632

Kampman-van de Hoek, Esther; Sakkas, Panagiotis; Gerrits, Walter J J; van den Borne, Joost J G C; van der Peet-Schwering, Carola M C; Jansman, Alfons J M

2015-02-01

175

Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans Affects Vitamin B6 Metabolism, Acid Tolerance Response and Biofilm Formation.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR-deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared to its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly less biofilms (P<0.01). When analyzed by RealTime-PCR, PdxR-deficiency was found to drastically reduce expression of an apparent operon encoding a pyridoxal kinase (SMU865) and a pyridoxal permease (SMU866) of the salvage pathway of vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In addition, PdxR-deficiency also altered the expression of genes for ClpL protease, glucosyltransferase B and adhesin SpaP, which are known to play important roles in stress tolerance and biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that while S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25421565

Liao, Sumei; Bitoun, Jacob P; Nguyen, Anne H; Bozner, Diana; Yao, Xin; Wen, Zezhang T

2014-11-25

176

Maize Source Leaf Adaptation to Nitrogen Deficiency Affects Not Only Nitrogen and Carbon Metabolism But Also Control of Phosphate Homeostasis1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Crop plant development is strongly dependent on the availability of nitrogen (N) in the soil and the efficiency of N utilization for biomass production and yield. However, knowledge about molecular responses to N deprivation derives mainly from the study of model species. In this article, the metabolic adaptation of source leaves to low N was analyzed in maize (Zea mays) seedlings by parallel measurements of transcriptome and metabolome profiling. Inbred lines A188 and B73 were cultivated under sufficient (15 mm) or limiting (0.15 mm) nitrate supply for up to 30 d. Limited availability of N caused strong shifts in the metabolite profile of leaves. The transcriptome was less affected by the N stress but showed strong genotype- and age-dependent patterns. N starvation initiated the selective down-regulation of processes involved in nitrate reduction and amino acid assimilation; ammonium assimilation-related transcripts, on the other hand, were not influenced. Carbon assimilation-related transcripts were characterized by high transcriptional coordination and general down-regulation under low-N conditions. N deprivation caused a slight accumulation of starch but also directed increased amounts of carbohydrates into the cell wall and secondary metabolites. The decrease in N availability also resulted in accumulation of phosphate and strong down-regulation of genes usually involved in phosphate starvation response, underlining the great importance of phosphate homeostasis control under stress conditions. PMID:22972706

Schlüter, Urte; Mascher, Martin; Colmsee, Christian; Scholz, Uwe; Bräutigam, Andrea; Fahnenstich, Holger; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-01-01

177

EVIDENCE FOR PHONETIC PROCESSING OF CUES TO PLACE OF ARTICULATION: PERCEIVED MANNER AFFECTS PERCEIVED PLACE  

E-print Network

EVIDENCE FOR PHONETIC PROCESSING OF CUES TO PLACE OF ARTICULATION: PERCEIVED MANNER AFFECTS of place of articulation involves phonetic processing, and could not be purely auditory. It is clear of the system. and speech- specific phonetic or phonological mechanisms at the output end where segments

178

The analysis of intuition: Processing fluency and affect in judgements of semantic coherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semantic coherence judgements individuals are able to intuitively discriminate whether a word triad has a common remote associate (coherent) or not (incoherent) without consciously retrieving the common associate. A processing-fluency account for these intuitions is proposed, which assumes that (a) coherent triads are processed more fluently than incoherent triads, (b) this high fluency triggers a subtle positive affect, and

Sascha Topolinski; Fritz Strack

2009-01-01

179

The Mechanism of Valence-Space Metaphors: ERP Evidence for Affective Word Processing  

PubMed Central

Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say “feeling down” or “cheer up” in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding locations. Valence-space metaphors might be grounded in attention allocation. PMID:24923271

Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

2014-01-01

180

Proteomic Profile of Cryptococcus neoformans Biofilm Reveals Changes in Metabolic Processes  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans, a pathogenic yeast, causes meningoencephalitis, especially in immunocompromised patients, leading in some cases to death. Microbes in biofilms can cause persistent infections, which are harder to treat. Cryptococcal biofilms are becoming common due to the growing use of brain valves and other medical devices. Using shotgun proteomics we determine the differences in protein abundance between biofilm and planktonic cells. Applying bioinformatic tools, we also evaluated the metabolic pathways involved in biofilm maintenance and protein interactions. Our proteomic data suggest general changes in metabolism, protein turnover, and global stress responses. Biofilm cells show an increase in proteins related to oxidation–reduction, proteolysis, and response to stress and a reduction in proteins related to metabolic process, transport, and translation. An increase in pyruvate-utilizing enzymes was detected, suggesting a shift from the TCA cycle to fermentation-derived energy acquisition. Additionally, we assign putative roles to 33 proteins previously categorized as hypothetical. Many changes in metabolic enzymes were identified in studies of bacterial biofilm, potentially revealing a conserved strategy in biofilm lifestyle. PMID:24467693

2015-01-01

181

Interactive performances of betaine on the metabolic processes of Pseudomonas denitrificans.  

PubMed

The performances of betaine on the metabolic processes of vitamin B12-producing Pseudomonas denitrificans were investigated in this paper. The results showed that betaine was an indispensable methyl-group donor for vitamin B12 biosynthesis, but large amounts of the extracellular glycine accompanied by betaine metabolism would impose a severe restriction on the cell growth of P. denitrificans. By further using a comparative metabolomics approach coupled with intracellular free amino acids analysis for the fermentation processes with betaine addition (10 g/l) or not, it was found that betaine could highly strengthen the formation of some key precursors and intermediates facilitating vitamin B12 biosynthesis, such as ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, the first precursor of vitamin B12), glutamate (an intermediate of ALA via C5 pathway), glycine (an intermediate of ALA via C4 pathway), and methionine (directly participating in the methylation reaction involved in vitamin B12 biosynthetic pathway). Therefore, the performances of betaine on P. denitrificans metabolic processes were not only serving as a decisive methyl-group donor for vitamin B12 biosynthesis, but also playing a powerfully promoting role in the generation of vitamin B12 precursors and intermediates. PMID:25502424

Xia, Wei; Peng, Wei-Fu; Chen, Wei; Li, Kun-Tai

2015-02-01

182

An Exometabolomics Approach to Monitoring Microbial Contamination in Microalgal Fermentation Processes by Using Metabolic Footprint Analysis?†  

PubMed Central

The early detection of microbial contamination is crucial to avoid process failure and costly delays in fermentation industries. However, traditional detection methods such as plate counting and microscopy are labor-intensive, insensitive, and time-consuming. Modern techniques that can detect microbial contamination rapidly and cost-effectively are therefore sought. In the present study, we propose gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic footprint analysis as a rapid and reliable method for the detection of microbial contamination in fermentation processes. Our metabolic footprint analysis detected statistically significant differences in metabolite profiles of axenic and contaminated batch cultures of microalgae as early as 3 h after contamination was introduced, while classical detection methods could detect contamination only after 24 h. The data were analyzed by discriminant function analysis and were validated by leave-one-out cross-validation. We obtained a 97% success rate in correctly classifying samples coming from contaminated or axenic cultures. Therefore, metabolic footprint analysis combined with discriminant function analysis presents a rapid and cost-effective approach to monitor microbial contamination in industrial fermentation processes. PMID:21890679

Sue, Tiffany; Obolonkin, Victor; Griffiths, Hywel; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato

2011-01-01

183

Amino acid and glucose metabolism in fed-batch CHO cell culture affects antibody production and glycosylation.  

PubMed

Fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture is the most commonly used process for IgG production in the biopharmaceutical industry. Amino acid and glucose consumption, cell growth, metabolism, antibody titer, and N-glycosylation patterns are always the major concerns during upstream process optimization, especially media optimization. Gaining knowledge on their interrelations could provide insight for obtaining higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and better controlling glycosylation-related product quality. In this work, different fed-batch processes with two chemically defined proprietary media and feeds were studied using two IgG-producing cell lines. Our results indicate that the balance of glucose and amino acid concentration in the culture is important for cell growth, IgG titer and N-glycosylation. Accordingly, the ideal fate of glucose and amino acids in the culture could be mainly towards energy and recombinant product, respectively. Accumulation of by-products such as NH4(+) and lactate as a consequence of unbalanced nutrient supply to cell activities inhibits cell growth. The levels of Leu and Arg in the culture, which relate to cell growth and IgG productivity, need to be well controlled. Amino acids with the highest consumption rates correlate with the most abundant amino acids present in the produced IgG, and thus require sufficient availability during culture. Case-by-case analysis is necessary for understanding the effect of media and process optimization on glycosylation. We found that in certain cases the presence of Man5 glycan can be linked to limitation of UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis as a result of insufficient extracellular Gln. However, under different culture conditions, high Man5 levels can also result from low ?-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-?-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnTI) and UDP-GlcNAc transporter activities, which may be attributed to high level of NH4+ in the cell culture. Furthermore, galactosylation of the mAb Fc glycans was found to be limited by UDP-Gal biosynthesis, which was observed to be both cell line and cultivation condition-dependent. Extracellular glucose and glutamine concentrations and uptake rates were positively correlated with intracellular UDP-Gal availability. All these findings are important for optimization of fed-batch culture for improving IgG production and directing glycosylation quality. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 521-535. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25220616

Fan, Yuzhou; Jimenez Del Val, Ioscani; Müller, Christian; Wagtberg Sen, Jette; Rasmussen, Søren Kofoed; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Weilguny, Dietmar; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

2015-03-01

184

Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity are not affected by an acute increase of metabolic rate in zebra finches.  

PubMed

Understanding the sources of variation in oxidative stress level is a challenging issue due to the implications of oxidative stress for late age diseases, longevity and life-history trade-offs. Reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative stress are mostly a by-product of energy metabolism and it is therefore often assumed that oxidative stress is proportional to energy consumption. In mammals, an increased metabolic rate induced by cold exposure generally increases oxidative stress. However, compared to mammals, birds generate fewer free radicals per ATP produced and hence it is not obvious that, in birds, a cold-induced increase of metabolic rate increase oxidative stress. We tested whether cold-induced increase in metabolic rate increased oxidative stress in zebra finches by exposing individuals to cold and warm overnight temperatures. We registered metabolic rate and plasma levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), a measure of oxidative damage. Metabolic rate was on average 88 % higher in cold compared to warm temperature, with females being stronger affected than males. However, temperature had no effect on plasma antioxidants or our measure of oxidative damage. Middle-age birds had higher levels of plasma antioxidants than younger and older birds, but age was unrelated to ROMs. Birds showed repeatability of plasma ROMs across temperatures but not of non-enzymatic antioxidants. In contrast to similar studies in mammals, our results do not show evidence of increased oxidative stress in plasma after an acute cold-induced increase of metabolic rate but research in more bird species is needed to assess the generality of this pattern. PMID:23358864

Beamonte-Barrientos, Rene; Verhulst, Simon

2013-07-01

185

Are Developmental Processes Affected by Immigration? Family Processes, Internalizing Behaviors, and Externalizing Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study compared levels of family processes, internalizing behaviors, and externalizing behaviors as well as developmental processes, namely the associations among family processes and measures of internalizing or externalizing behaviors, in native Swiss, 2nd and 1st generation immigrant adolescents (N=3,540). Findings provided evidence…

Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth; Huang, Li

2006-01-01

186

Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

Dyke, J. G.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.

2011-06-01

187

Effects of naphthenic acid exposure on development and liver metabolic processes in anuran tadpoles.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NA) are used in a variety of commercial and industrial applications, and are primary toxic components of oil sands wastewater. We investigated developmental and metabolic responses of tadpoles exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of a commercial NA blend throughout development. We exposed Lithobates pipiens tadpoles to 1 and 2 mg/L NA for 75 days and monitored growth and development, condition factor, gonad and liver sizes, and levels of liver glucose, glycogen, lipids and cholesterol following exposure. NA decreased growth and development, significantly reduced glycogen stores and increased triglycerides, indicating disruption to processes associated with energy metabolism and hepatic glycolysis. Effects on liver function may explain reduced growth and delayed development observed in this and previous studies. Our data highlight the need for greater understanding of the mechanisms leading to hepatotoxicity in NA-exposed organisms, and indicate that strict guidelines may be needed for the release of NA into aquatic environments. PMID:23466728

Melvin, Steven D; Lanctôt, Chantal M; Craig, Paul M; Moon, Thomas W; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Trudeau, Vance L

2013-06-01

188

Improved Release and Metabolism of Flavonoids by Steered Fermentation Processes: A Review  

PubMed Central

This paper provides an overview on steered fermentation processes to release phenolic compounds from plant-based matrices, as well as on their potential application to convert phenolic compounds into unique metabolites. The ability of fermentation to improve the yield and to change the profile of phenolic compounds is mainly due to the release of bound phenolic compounds, as a consequence of the degradation of the cell wall structure by microbial enzymes produced during fermentation. Moreover, the microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds results in a large array of new metabolites through different bioconversion pathways such as glycosylation, deglycosylation, ring cleavage, methylation, glucuronidation and sulfate conjugation, depending on the microbial strains and substrates used. A whole range of metabolites is produced, however metabolic pathways related to the formation and bioactivities, and often quantification of the metabolites are highly underinvestigated. This strategy could have potential to produce extracts with a high-added value from plant-based matrices. PMID:25347275

Nguyen Thai, Huynh; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy; Raes, Katleen

2014-01-01

189

Genome-Wide Reprogramming of Primary and Secondary Metabolism, Protein Synthesis, Cellular Growth Processes, and the Regulatory Infrastructure of Arabidopsis in Response to Nitrogen1[w  

PubMed Central

Transcriptome analysis, using Affymetrix ATH1 arrays and a real-time reverse transcription-PCR platform for >1,400 transcription factors, was performed to identify processes affected by long-term nitrogen-deprivation or short-term nitrate nutrition in Arabidopsis. Two days of nitrogen deprivation led to coordinate repression of the majority of the genes assigned to photosynthesis, chlorophyll synthesis, plastid protein synthesis, induction of many genes for secondary metabolism, and reprogramming of mitochondrial electron transport. Nitrate readdition led to rapid, widespread, and coordinated changes. Multiple genes for the uptake and reduction of nitrate, the generation of reducing equivalents, and organic acid skeletons were induced within 30 min, before primary metabolites changed significantly. By 3 h, most genes assigned to amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis and scavenging were induced, while most genes assigned to amino acid and nucleotide breakdown were repressed. There was coordinate induction of many genes assigned to RNA synthesis and processing and most of the genes assigned to amino acid activation and protein synthesis. Although amino acids involved in central metabolism increased, minor amino acids decreased, providing independent evidence for the activation of protein synthesis. Specific genes encoding expansin and tonoplast intrinsic proteins were induced, indicating activation of cell expansion and growth in response to nitrate nutrition. There were rapid responses in the expression of many genes potentially involved in regulation, including genes for trehalose metabolism and hormone metabolism, protein kinases and phosphatases, receptor kinases, and transcription factors. PMID:15375205

Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Morcuende, Rosa; Czechowski, Tomasz; Fritz, Christina; Osuna, Daniel; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Schindelasch, Dana; Thimm, Oliver; Udvardi, Michael K.; Stitt, Mark

2004-01-01

190

Proposal for field sampling of plants and processing in the lab for environmental metabolic fingerprinting  

PubMed Central

Background Samples for plant metabolic fingerprinting are prepared generally by metabolism quenching, grinding of plant material and extraction of metabolites in solvents. Further concentration and derivatisation steps follow in dependence of the sample nature and the available analytical platform. For plant material sampled in the field, several methods are not applicable, such as, e.g., collection in liquid nitrogen. Therefore, a protocol was established for sample pre-treatment, grinding, extraction and storage, which can be used for analysis of field-collected plant material, which is further processed in the laboratory. Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., Plantaginaceae) was used as model plant. The quality criteria for method suitability were high reproducibility, extraction efficiency and handling comfort of each subsequent processing step. Results Highest reproducibility of results was achieved by sampling fresh plant material in a solvent mixture of methanol:dichloromethane (2:1), crushing the tissue with a hand-held disperser and storing the material until further processing. In the laboratory the material was extracted threefold at different pH. The gained extracts were separated with water (2:1:1 methanol:dichloromethane:water) and the aqueous phases used for analysis by LC-MS, because the polar metabolites were in focus. Chromatograms were compared by calculating a value ? for similarities. Advantages and disadvantages of different sample pre-treatment methods, use of solvents and solvent mixtures, influence of pH, extraction frequency and duration, and storing temperature are discussed with regard to the quality criteria. Conclusions The proposed extraction protocol leads to highly reproducible metabolic fingerprints and allows optimal handling of field-collected plant material and further processing in the laboratory, which is demonstrated for an exemplary field data-set. Calculation of ? values is a useful tool to judge similarities between chromatograms. PMID:20181048

2010-01-01

191

SVD Identifies Transcript Length Distribution Functions from DNA Microarray Data and Reveals Evolutionary Forces Globally Affecting GBM Metabolism  

PubMed Central

To search for evolutionary forces that might act upon transcript length, we use the singular value decomposition (SVD) to identify the length distribution functions of sets and subsets of human and yeast transcripts from profiles of mRNA abundance levels across gel electrophoresis migration distances that were previously measured by DNA microarrays. We show that the SVD identifies the transcript length distribution functions as “asymmetric generalized coherent states” from the DNA microarray data and with no a-priori assumptions. Comparing subsets of human and yeast transcripts of the same gene ontology annotations, we find that in both disparate eukaryotes, transcripts involved in protein synthesis or mitochondrial metabolism are significantly shorter than typical, and in particular, significantly shorter than those involved in glucose metabolism. Comparing the subsets of human transcripts that are overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or normal brain tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we find that GBM maintains normal brain overexpression of significantly short transcripts, enriched in transcripts that are involved in protein synthesis or mitochondrial metabolism, but suppresses normal overexpression of significantly longer transcripts, enriched in transcripts that are involved in glucose metabolism and brain activity. These global relations among transcript length, cellular metabolism and tumor development suggest a previously unrecognized physical mode for tumor and normal cells to differentially regulate metabolism in a transcript length-dependent manner. The identified distribution functions support a previous hypothesis from mathematical modeling of evolutionary forces that act upon transcript length in the manner of the restoring force of the harmonic oscillator. PMID:24282503

Bertagnolli, Nicolas M.; Drake, Justin A.; Tennessen, Jason M.; Alter, Orly

2013-01-01

192

Writing and Reading Software Documentation: How the Development Process may Affect Understanding  

E-print Network

Writing and Reading Software Documentation: How the Development Process may Affect Understanding and analyzed the mental models of software documentation from eight members of a single development team. We development knowledge can be shared through software documentation. 1 Introduction During software development

van Vliet, Hans

193

Facial Affect Processing and Depression Susceptibility: Cognitive Biases and Cognitive Neuroscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal…

Bistricky, Steven L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2011-01-01

194

Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

2010-01-01

195

Selective Attention to Affective Value Alters How the Brain Processes Olfactory Stimuli  

E-print Network

Selective Attention to Affective Value Alters How the Brain Processes Olfactory Stimuli Edmund T the instruction before odor delivery, and continued after termination of the odor in a short-term memory period for understanding the effects not only of olfactory but also of other sensory stimuli. & INTRODUCTION The primary

Rolls, Edmund T.

196

Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

2006-01-01

197

Transactional Distance among Open University Students: How Does it Affect the Learning Process?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the presence of transactional distance among students, the factors affecting it, as well as the way it influences the learning process of students in a blended distance learning setting in Greece. The present study involved 12 postgraduate students of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). A qualitative research was conducted,…

Kassandrinou, Amanda; Angelaki, Christina; Mavroidis, Ilias

2014-01-01

198

Electrophysiological Evidence Reveals Affective Evaluation Deficits Early in Stimulus Processing in Patients With Panic Disorder  

E-print Network

in Patients With Panic Disorder Sabine Windmann University of California, San Diego, and Ruhr University) recorded from patients with panic disorder and healthy controls as they performed an old/new recognition. This provides evidence for dysfunctional inhibitory modulation of affective information processing in panic

Kutas, Marta

199

Abnormal, affect-specific modulatory effects on early auditory processing in schizophrenia: Magnetoencephalographic evidence.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in the perception and identification of emotions have frequently been reported in schizophrenia. Hemodynamic neuroimaging studies found functional abnormalities in cortical and subcortical brain circuits that are involved in normal affective processing, but the temporal dynamics of abnormal emotion processing in schizophrenia remain largely elusive. To investigate this issue, we recorded early auditory evoked field components by means of whole-head magnetoencephalography that were in response to emotion-associated tones in seventeen patients with schizophrenia and in seventeen healthy, matched controls. Forty-two click-like tones (conditioned stimuli; CS) acquired differential emotional meaning through an affective associative learning procedure by pairing each CS three times with either pleasant, unpleasant or neutral auditory scenes. As expected, differential affect-specific modulation in patients vs. controls was evident, starting at the auditory N1m onset latency of approximately 70ms, extending to 230ms. While controls showed the expected enhanced processing of emotion associated CS, patients revealed an inverted pattern with reduced processing of arousal, when compared to neutral stimuli, in the right prefrontal cortex. The present finding suggests impairments in the prioritization of emotionally salient vs. non-salient stimuli in patients with schizophrenia. Dysfunction in higher cognitive processes and behavior in schizophrenia may therefore reflect dysfunction in fundamental, early emotion processing stages. PMID:25497223

Junghöfer, Markus; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Küppers, Kerstin; Ohrmann, Patricia; Pedersen, Anya

2015-02-01

200

Primary care-based educational interventions to decrease risk factors for metabolic syndrome for adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with major psychotic and/or affective disorders are at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome due to lifestyle- and treatment-related factors. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been tested in inpatient and outpatient mental health settings to decrease these risk factors. This review focuses on primary care-based non-pharmacological (educational or behavioral) interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk factors in adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders. Methods The authors conducted database searches of PsychINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as manual searches and gray literature searches to identify included studies. Results The authors were unable to identify any studies meeting a priori inclusion criteria because there were no primary care-based studies. Conclusions This review was unable to demonstrate effectiveness of educational interventions in primary care. Interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk have been demonstrated to be effective in mental health and other outpatient settings. The prevalence of mental illness in primary care settings warrants similar interventions to improve health outcomes for this population. PMID:24369749

2013-01-01

201

Effect of excessive saccharose administration on metabolic processes in the liver of rabbits with restricted mobility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The administration of saccharose (3 g per 1 kg for 2 months) intensified changes encountered in hypokinesia. There was a more marked increase in the content of cholesterol, pre-beta and beta-lipoproteins, phospholipids, and glycosaminoglycans in the blood. At the same time, the administration of saccharose improved the course of metabolic processes in the liver of immobilized rabbits, restored to normal levels the reduced glycogen level, the rate of glycolysis and the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and their discharge in the cystic bile.

Rylnikov, Y. P.

1980-01-01

202

An overview of lipid metabolism in yeasts and its impact on biotechnological processes.  

PubMed

High energy prices, depletion of crude oil supplies, and price imbalance created by the increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives such as lubricants, adhesives, and plastics have given rise to heated debates on land-use practices and to environmental concerns about oil production strategies. However, commercialization of microbial oils with similar composition and energy value to plant and animal oils could have many advantages, such as being non-competitive with food, having shorter process cycle and being independent of season and climate factors. This review focuses on the ongoing research on different oleaginous yeasts producing high added value lipids and on the prospects of such microbial oils to be used in different biotechnological processes and applications. It covers the basic biochemical mechanisms of lipid synthesis and accumulation in these organisms, along with the latest insights on the metabolic processes involved. The key elements of lipid accumulation, the mechanisms suspected to confer the oleaginous character of the cell, and the potential metabolic routes enhancing lipid production are also extensively discussed. PMID:21452033

Beopoulos, Athanasios; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Gaillardin, Claude

2011-05-01

203

Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants.  

PubMed

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant's circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source-sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant-nematode interactions. PMID:24187419

Cabello, Susana; Lorenz, Cindy; Crespo, Sara; Cabrera, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Escobar, Carolina; Hofmann, Julia

2014-01-01

204

Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants  

PubMed Central

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant’s circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source–sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant–nematode interactions. PMID:24187419

Hofmann, Julia

2014-01-01

205

Affective Assessment of a Computer User through the Processing of the Pupil Diameter Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposes to achieve the affective assessment of a computer user through the processing of the pupil diameter (PD) signal. An adaptive interference canceller (AIC) system using the H? time-varying (HITV) adaptive algorithm was developed to minimize the impact of the PLR (pupil size changes caused by light intensity variations) on the measured pupil diameter signal. The modified pupil diameter (MPD) signal, obtained from the AIC, was expected to reflect primarily the pupillary affective responses (PAR) of the subject. Additional manipulations of the AIC output resulted in a Processed MPD (PMPD) signal, from which a classification feature, “PMPDmean”, was extracted. This feature was used to train and test a support vector machine (SVM), for the identification of “stress” states in the subject, achieving an accuracy rate of 77.78%. The advantages of affective recognition through the PD signal were verified by comparatively investigating the classification of “stress” and “relaxation” states through features derived from the simultaneously recorded galvanic skin response (GSR) and blood volume pulse (BVP) signals, with and without the PD feature. Encouraging results in affective assessment based on pupil diameter monitoring were obtained in spite of intermittent illumination increases purposely introduced during the experiments. Therefore, these results confirmed the possibility of using PD monitoring to evaluate the evolving affective states of a computer user.

Gao, Ying; Barreto, Armando; Adjouadi, Malek

206

Facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of antipsychotic treatment effects.  

PubMed

Social cognition, including emotion processing, is a recognised deficit observed in patients with schizophrenia. It is one cognitive domain which has been emphasised as requiring further investigation, with the efficacy of antipsychotic treatment on this deficit remaining unclear. Nine studies met our criteria for entry into a meta-analysis of the effects of medication on facial affect processing, including data from 1162 patients and six antipsychotics. Overall we found a small, positive effect (Hedge's g = 0.13, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.21, p = 0.002). In a subgroup analysis this was statistically significant for atypical, but not typical, antipsychotics. It should be noted that the pooled sample size of the typical subgroup was significantly lower than the atypical. Meta-regression analyses revealed that age, gender and changes in symptom severity were not moderating factors. For the small, positive effect on facial affect processing, the clinical significance is questionable in terms of treating deficits in emotion identification in schizophrenia. We show that antipsychotic medications are poor at improving facial affect processing compared to reducing symptoms. This highlights the need for further investigation into the neuropharmacological mechanisms associated with accurate emotion processing, to inform treatment options for these deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:25492885

Gabay, Anthony S; Kempton, Matthew J; Mehta, Mitul A

2015-02-01

207

Increased Phloem Transport of S-Methylmethionine Positively Affects Sulfur and Nitrogen Metabolism and Seed Development in Pea Plants1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Seeds of grain legumes are important energy and food sources for humans and animals. However, the yield and quality of legume seeds are limited by the amount of sulfur (S) partitioned to the seeds. The amino acid S-methylmethionine (SMM), a methionine derivative, has been proposed to be an important long-distance transport form of reduced S, and we analyzed whether SMM phloem loading and source-sink translocation are important for the metabolism and growth of pea (Pisum sativum) plants. Transgenic plants were produced in which the expression of a yeast SMM transporter, S-Methylmethionine Permease1 (MMP1, YLL061W), was targeted to the phloem and seeds. Phloem exudate analysis showed that concentrations of SMM are elevated in MMP1 plants, suggesting increased phloem loading. Furthermore, expression studies of genes involved in S transport and metabolism in source organs, as well as xylem sap analyses, support that S uptake and assimilation are positively affected in MMP1 roots. Concomitantly, nitrogen (N) assimilation in root and leaf and xylem amino acid profiles were changed, resulting in increased phloem loading of amino acids. When investigating the effects of increased S and N phloem transport on seed metabolism, we found that protein levels were improved in MMP1 seeds. In addition, changes in SMM phloem loading affected plant growth and seed number, leading to an overall increase in seed S, N, and protein content in MMP1 plants. Together, these results suggest that phloem loading and source-sink partitioning of SMM are important for plant S and N metabolism and transport as well as seed set. PMID:20923886

Tan, Qiumin; Zhang, Lizhi; Grant, Jan; Cooper, Pauline; Tegeder, Mechthild

2010-01-01

208

Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces.  

PubMed

According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M; Köhler, Stefan

2014-01-01

209

Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces  

PubMed Central

According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Köhler, Stefan

2014-01-01

210

Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing.  

PubMed

Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25352672

Hang, Runlai; Liu, Chunyan; Ahmad, Ayaz; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Falong; Cao, Xiaofeng

2014-11-11

211

Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review  

SciTech Connect

The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities) in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1) using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR) as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2) revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3) prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4) obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.

Yu,P.

2007-01-01

212

Metabolic Fingerprint of Dimethyl Sulfone (DMSO2) in Microbial-Mammalian Co-metabolism.  

PubMed

There is growing awareness that intestinal microbiota alters the energy harvesting capacity of the host and regulates metabolism. It has been postulated that intestinal microbiota are able to degrade unabsorbed dietary components and transform xenobiotic compounds. The resulting microbial metabolites derived from the gastrointestinal tract can potentially enter the circulation system, which, in turn, affects host metabolism. Yet, the metabolic capacity of intestinal microbiota and its interaction with mammalian metabolism remains largely unexplored. Here, we review a metabolic pathway that integrates the microbial catabolism of methionine with mammalian metabolism of methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which together provide evidence that supports the microbial origin of dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) in the human metabolome. Understanding the pathway of DMSO2 co-metabolism expends our knowledge of microbial-derived metabolites and motivates future metabolomics-based studies on ascertaining the metabolic consequences of intestinal microbiota on human health, including detoxification processes and sulfur xenobiotic metabolism. PMID:25245235

He, Xuan; Slupsky, Carolyn M

2014-12-01

213

Chronic Ethanol Consumption Disrupts the Core Molecular Clock and Diurnal Rhythms of Metabolic Genes in the Liver without Affecting the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus  

PubMed Central

Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts several metabolic pathways including ?-oxidation and lipid biosynthesis, facilitating the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. Many of these same metabolic pathways are directly regulated by cell autonomous circadian clocks, and recent studies suggest that disruption of daily rhythms in metabolism contributes to multiple common cardiometabolic diseases (including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). However, it is not known whether ethanol disrupts the core molecular clock in the liver, nor whether this, in turn, alters rhythms in lipid metabolism. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption disrupts the molecular circadian clock in the liver and potentially changes the diurnal expression patterns of lipid metabolism genes. Consistent with previous studies, male C57BL/6J mice fed an ethanol-containing diet exhibited higher levels of liver triglycerides compared to control mice, indicating hepatic steatosis. Further, the diurnal oscillations of core clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Cry1, Cry2, Per1, and Per2) and clock-controlled genes (Dbp, Hlf, Nocturnin, Npas2, Rev-erb?, and Tef) were altered in livers from ethanol-fed mice. In contrast, ethanol had only minor effects on the expression of core clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These results were confirmed in Per2Luciferase knock-in mice, in which ethanol induced a phase advance in PER2::LUC bioluminescence oscillations in liver, but not SCN. Further, there was greater variability in the phase of PER2::LUC oscillations in livers from ethanol-fed mice. Ethanol consumption also affected the diurnal oscillations of metabolic genes, including Adh1, Cpt1a, Cyp2e1, Pck1, Pdk4, Ppargc1a, Ppargc1b and Srebp1c, in the livers of C57BL/6J mice. In summary, chronic ethanol consumption alters the function of the circadian clock in liver. Importantly, these results suggest that chronic ethanol consumption, at levels sufficient to cause steatosis, disrupts the core hepatic clock as well as the diurnal rhythms of key lipid metabolism genes. PMID:23951220

Filiano, Ashley N.; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Johnson, Russell; Young, Martin E.; Gamble, Karen L.; Bailey, Shannon M.

2013-01-01

214

Early visual processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia during spatial frequency-dependent facial affect processing.  

PubMed

Abnormal facial emotion recognition is considered as one of the key symptoms of schizophrenia. Only few studies have considered deficits in the spatial frequency (SF)-dependent visual pathway leading to abnormal facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 19 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited for this study. Event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during presentation of SF-modulated face stimuli and their source imaging was analyzed. The patients showed reduced P100 amplitude for low-spatial frequency (LSF) pictures of fearful faces compared with the HC group. The P100 amplitude for high-spatial frequency (HSF) pictures of neutral faces was increased in the schizophrenia group, but not in the HC group. The neural source activities of the LSF fearful faces and HSF neutral faces led to hypo- and hyperactivation of the frontal lobe of subjects from the schizophrenia group and HC group, respectively. In addition, patients with schizophrenia showed enhanced N170 activation in the right hemisphere in the LSF condition, while the HC group did not. Our results suggest that deficits in the LSF-dependent visual pathway, which involves magnocellular neurons, impair early visual processing leading to dysfunctional facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Moreover, it suggests impaired bottom-up processing rather than top-down dysfunction for facial emotion recognition in these patients. PMID:25553978

Kim, Do-Won; Shim, Miseon; Song, Myeong Ju; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan

2015-02-01

215

Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory  

PubMed Central

Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

2010-01-01

216

Cadmium causes oxidative stress in mung bean by affecting the antioxidant enzyme system and ascorbate-glutathione cycle metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism is an essential mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress conditions.\\u000a In a greenhouse pot experiment, the influence of cadmium (Cd) (25, 50, and 100 mg\\/kg soil) on plant dry weight and leaf area,\\u000a photosynthetic parameters (net photosynthetic rate (PN) and chlorophyll (Chl) content) and oxidative stress, and the possible protective role of AsA-GSH

N. A. Anjum; S. Umar; M. Iqbal; N. A. Khan

2011-01-01

217

Self-selected unrefined and refined carbohydrate diets do not affect metabolic control in pump-treated diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study investigated whether unrefined or refined carbohydrate diets have any effect on metabolic control and on insulin requirement in near-normoglycaemic Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic out-patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Two females and 8 males (aged 27±9 years; diabetes duration 13±8 years; duration of insulin pump therapy 22±5 months; means±SD) participated in a randomised cross-over study with two

A. Venhaus; E. Chantelau

1988-01-01

218

The effect of meaningfulness and integrative processing in expressive writing on positive and negative affect and life satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meaningfulness and integrative processing of expressive writing may influence the effect of expressive writing. Participants completed measures of positive affect, negative affect and life satisfaction before and after an expressive writing intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four expressive writing instruction conditions, which combined higher and lower levels of meaning and integrative processing instructions. Meaningfulness and integrative processing

Nicola S. Schutte; Trudy Searle; Stephen Meade; Neill A. Dark

2011-01-01

219

The effect of meaningfulness and integrative processing in expressive writing on positive and negative affect and life satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meaningfulness and integrative processing of expressive writing may influence the effect of expressive writing. Participants completed measures of positive affect, negative affect and life satisfaction before and after an expressive writing intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four expressive writing instruction conditions, which combined higher and lower levels of meaning and integrative processing instructions. Meaningfulness and integrative processing

Nicola S. Schutte; Trudy Searle; Stephen Meade; Neill A. Dark

2012-01-01

220

Light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by metabolite signal from mitochondrial alternative oxidase in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play essential roles in high light stress tolerance, the effects of AOX on chlorophyll synthesis are unclear. Previous studies indicated that during greening, chlorophyll accumulation was largely delayed in plants whose mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was inhibited by knocking out nuclear encoded AOX gene. Here, we showed that this delay of chlorophyll accumulation was more significant under high light condition. Inhibition of cyanide-resistant respiration was also accompanied by the increase of plastid NADPH/NADP(+) ratio, especially under high light treatment which subsequently blocked the import of multiple plastidial proteins, such as some components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, the Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and malate/oxaloacetate shuttle components. Overexpression of AOX1a rescued the aox1a mutant phenotype, including the chlorophyll accumulation during greening and plastidial protein import. It thus suggests that light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by a metabolic signal, the AOX-derived plastidial NADPH/NADP(+) ratio change. Further, our results thus revealed a molecular mechanism of chloroplast-mitochondria interactions. PMID:25158995

Zhang, DA-Wei; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Feng; Yuan, Ming; Ye, Hua-Xun; Guo, Hong-Qing; Lv, Xin; Yin, Yanhai; Lin, Hong-Hui

2014-08-27

221

The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing\\u000a of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the\\u000a association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective\\u000a picture

Kira Bailey; Robert West; Craig A. Anderson

2011-01-01

222

The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Cognitive Processes and Affect in Patients with Past Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effects of an 8-week course in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; J. Kabat-Zinn, 1982, 1990) on affective symptoms (depression and anxiety), dysfunctional attitudes, and rumination. Given the focus of mindfulness meditation (MM) in modifying cognitive processes, it was hypothesized that the primary change in MM practice involves reductions in ruminative tendencies. We studied a sample of individuals

Wiveka Ramel; Philippe R. Goldin; Paula E. Carmona; John R. McQuaid

2004-01-01

223

Is the processing of affective prosody influenced by spatial attention? an ERP study  

PubMed Central

Background The present study asked whether the processing of affective prosody is modulated by spatial attention. Pseudo-words with a neutral, happy, threatening, and fearful prosody were presented at two spatial positions. Participants attended to one position in order to detect infrequent targets. Emotional prosody was task irrelevant. The electro-encephalogram (EEG) was recorded to assess processing differences as a function of spatial attention and emotional valence. Results Event-related potentials (ERPs) differed as a function of emotional prosody both when attended and when unattended. While emotional prosody effects interacted with effects of spatial attention at early processing levels (< 200 ms), these effects were additive at later processing stages (> 200 ms). Conclusions Emotional prosody, therefore, seems to be partially processed outside the focus of spatial attention. Whereas at early sensory processing stages spatial attention modulates the degree of emotional voice processing as a function of emotional valence, emotional prosody is processed outside of the focus of spatial attention at later processing stages. PMID:23360491

2013-01-01

224

Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward. PMID:21892693

Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

2012-08-01

225

The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.  

PubMed

Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

2014-03-01

226

Process-oriented administration of the picture arrangement test does not affect the quantitative outcome.  

PubMed

Extracting the maximum amount of qualitative information of cognitive functioning from tests is one of the major goals, of the process approach to neuropsychological assessment. This study examined whether there is a difference in score in the Picture Arrangement (PA) test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for participants who completed the standardized versus a process-oriented administration (i.e., asking the person to "tell the story" immediately following each item). Eighteen traumatic brain injury patients and 20 control participants (i. e., non-brain-injury volunteers) were randomly assigned to the standardized administration or the process-oriented administration of the PA test. A 2 x 2 (Group x Type of Administration) analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant interaction effect or main effect for type of administration. Therefore, the process of maximizing the elicitation of qualitative information does not appear to affect the quantitative outcome of the PA test. PMID:16318454

Gaudette, M D; Smith, J A

1998-01-01

227

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops. PMID:24655934

2014-01-01

228

Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.  

PubMed

Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%)?+?casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis. PMID:22181072

Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

2012-03-01

229

Linking cytoarchitecture to metabolism: sarcolemma-associated plectin affects glucose uptake by destabilizing microtubule networks in mdx myofibers  

PubMed Central

Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most frequent forms of muscular disorders. It is caused by the absence of dystrophin, a core component of the sarcolemma-associated junctional complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. We showed previously that plectin 1f (P1f), one of the major muscle-expressed isoforms of the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin, accumulates at the sarcolemma of DMD patients as well as of mdx mice, a widely studied animal model for DMD. Based on plectin’s dual role as structural protein and scaffolding platform for signaling molecules, we speculated that the dystrophic phenotype observed after loss of dystrophin was caused, at least to some extent, by excess plectin. Thus, we hypothesized that elimination of plectin expression in mdx skeletal muscle, while probably resulting in an overall more severe phenotype, may lead to a partial phenotype rescue. In particular, we wanted to assess whether excess sarcolemmal plectin contributes to the dysregulation of sugar metabolism in mdx myofibers. Methods We generated plectin/dystrophin double deficient (dKO) mice by breeding mdx with conditional striated muscle-restricted plectin knockout (cKO) mice. The phenotype of these mice was comparatively analyzed with that of mdx, cKO, and wild-type mice, focusing on structural integrity and dysregulation of glucose metabolism. Results We show that the accumulation of plectin at the sarcolemma of mdx muscle fibers hardly compensated for their loss of structural integrity. Instead, it led to an additional metabolic deficit by impairing glucose uptake. While dKO mice suffered from an overall more severe form of muscular dystrophy compared to mdx or plectin-deficient mice, sarcolemmal integrity as well as glucose uptake of their myofibers were restored to normal levels upon ablation of plectin. Furthermore, microtubule (MT) networks in intact dKO myofibers, including subsarcolemmal areas, were found to be more robust than those in mdx mice. Finally, myotubes differentiated from P1f-overexpressing myoblasts showed an impairment of glucose transporter 4 translocation and a destabilization of MT networks. Conclusions Based on these results we propose that sarcolemma-associated plectin acts as an antagonist of MT network formation in myofibers, thereby hindering vesicle-mediated (MT-dependent) transport of glucose transporter 4. This novel role of plectin throws a bridge between extra-sarcomeric cytoarchitecture and metabolism of muscle fibers. Our study thus provides new insights into pathomechanisms of plectinopathies and muscular dystrophies in general. PMID:23758845

2013-01-01

230

Metabolic heterogeneity of follicular amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome is affected by obesity and related to pregnancy outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder frequently accompanied by obesity and by insulin resistance, and patients with this syndrome suffer from infertility and poor pregnancy outcome. Disturbances in plasma amino acid (AA) metabolism have been implicated in women with PCOS. However, direct evidence on follicular AA metabolic profiles in PCOS patients and their relationship with pregnancy outcome is sparse. Methods We conducted a prospective study in 63 PCOS patients and 48 controls in the Division of Reproductive Center, Peking University Third Hospital. Follicular AA levels were measured by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method, and the results were analyzed based on different grouping criteria. Results The levels of aromatic amino acid (AAA) increased in PCOS patients independent of obesity (P?metabolic disturbances, with obesity exerting a more pronounced effect on AA metabolic profiles. The disruptions in specific AAs in the follicular fluid might account for the inferior pregnancy outcome in obese patients and increased risk of abortion in PCOS patients. PMID:24410809

2014-01-01

231

Early neural activation during facial affect processing in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder?  

PubMed Central

Impaired social interaction is one of the hallmarks of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Emotional faces are arguably the most critical visual social stimuli and the ability to perceive, recognize, and interpret emotions is central to social interaction and communication, and subsequently healthy social development. However, our understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD is limited. We recruited 48 adolescents, 24 with high functioning ASD and 24 typically developing controls. Participants completed an implicit emotional face processing task in the MEG. We examined spatiotemporal differences in neural activation between the groups during implicit angry and happy face processing. While there were no differences in response latencies between groups across emotions, adolescents with ASD had lower accuracy on the implicit emotional face processing task when the trials included angry faces. MEG data showed atypical neural activity in adolescents with ASD during angry and happy face processing, which included atypical activity in the insula, anterior and posterior cingulate and temporal and orbitofrontal regions. Our findings demonstrate differences in neural activity during happy and angry face processing between adolescents with and without ASD. These differences in activation in social cognitive regions may index the difficulties in face processing and in comprehension of social reward and punishment in the ASD group. Thus, our results suggest that atypical neural activation contributes to impaired affect processing, and thus social cognition, in adolescents with ASD. PMID:25610782

Leung, Rachel C.; Pang, Elizabeth W.; Cassel, Daniel; Brian, Jessica A.; Smith, Mary Lou; Taylor, Margot J.

2014-01-01

232

Mind at ease puts a smile on the face: psychophysiological evidence that processing facilitation elicits positive affect.  

PubMed

The affect system, in its position to monitor organismic-environmental transactions, may be sensitive to the internal dynamics of information processing. Hence, the authors predicted that facilitation of stimulus processing should elicit a brief, mild, positive affective response. In 2 studies, participants watched a series of neutral pictures while the processing ease was unobtrusively manipulated. Affective reactions were assessed with facial electromyography (EMG). In both studies, easy-to-process pictures elicited higher activity over the region of zygomaticus major, indicating positive affect. The EMG data were paralleled by self-reports of positive responses to the facilitated stimuli. The findings suggest a close link between processing dynamics and affect and may help understand several preference phenomena, including the mere-exposure effect. The findings also highlight a potential source of affective biases in social judgments. PMID:11761320

Winkielman, P; Cacioppo, J T

2001-12-01

233

Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).  

PubMed

Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p < 0.001) preventing LP mink from attaining their growth potential (p < 0.02). LP mink had a lower liver, pancreas and kidney weight (p < 0.05) as well as lower plasma IGF-1 concentrations at 8 and 25 (p < 0.05) weeks, and a higher incidence of hepatic lipidosis at 25 weeks (p < 0.05). Furthermore, LP mink had a higher body fat (p < 0.05) and lower body CP content (p < 0.05) at 50 weeks of age. It is concluded that some effects of low protein provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition. PMID:23909380

Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

2014-04-01

234

Regulators of protein metabolism are affected by cyclical nutritional treatments with diets varying in protein and energy content.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the E3 ubiquitin ligases muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) and atrogin-1, which mediate the ubiquitination of certain proteins and thereby their proteolysis, are regulated by cyclical nutritional treatments varying in lysine content. In order to explore further the regulatory mechanisms involved in metabolic adaptation to dietary changes, we investigated the effects of daily variations in energy [2800 (E-) followed by 3200 kcal/kg (E+)], protein [230 (P+) followed by 150g/kg (P-)] or both [E-P+ followed by E+P-] on muscle protein metabolism in 2-week-old male broiler chickens. Growth performance was similar for all treatments. Expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was changed by alternation of diets varying in protein (higher expression with P- vs. P+) and energy content (higher expression with E- vs. E+). The expression of atrogin-1 was regulated with mixed diets (increase in E+P- vs. E-P+) but not that of MuRF1. Such regulation may involve the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which was more phosphorylated with P+ than with P-. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein, p70S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6, which are mTOR targets known to control protein synthesis, were highly activated by increased protein content (P+ vs. P-). The mechanisms coordinating the protein synthesis/proteolysis balance remain to be characterized. PMID:22305405

Boussaid-Om Ezzine, Sourour; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Collin, Anne; Rideau, Nicole; Leterrier, Christine; Bouvarel, Isabelle; Seiliez, Iban; Tesseraud, Sophie

2012-11-01

235

Hepatic Metabolism Affects the Atropselective Disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in Mice.  

PubMed

To understand the role of hepatic vs extrahepatic metabolism in the disposition of chiral PCBs, we studied the disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) and its hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) in mice with defective hepatic metabolism due to the liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (KO mice). Female KO and congenic wild type (WT) mice were treated with racemic PCB 136, and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and HO-PCBs were determined in tissues and excreta 3 days after PCB administration. PCB 136 tissue levels were higher in KO compared to WT mice. Feces was a major route of PCB metabolite excretion, with 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol being the major metabolite recovered from feces. (+)-PCB 136, the second eluting PCB 136 atropisomers, was enriched in all tissues and excreta. The second eluting atropisomers of the HO-PCBs metabolites were enriched in blood and liver; 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol in blood was an exception and displayed an enrichment of the first eluting atropisomers. Fecal HO-PCB levels and chiral signatures changed with time and differed between KO and WT mice, with larger HO-PCB enantiomeric fractions in WT compared to KO mice. Our results demonstrate that hepatic and, possibly, extrahepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a role in the disposition of PCBs. PMID:25420130

Wu, Xianai; Barnhart, Christopher; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2015-01-01

236

Ablation of the GNB3 gene in mice does not affect body weight, metabolism or blood pressure, but causes bradycardia.  

PubMed

G protein ?3 (G?3) is an isoform of heterotrimeric G protein ? subunits involved in transducing G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Polymorphisms in G?3 (GNB3) are associated with many human disorders (e.g. hypertension, diabetes and obesity) but the role of GNB3 in these pathogeneses remains unclear. Here, G?3-null mice (GNB3(-/-)) were characterized to determine how G?3 functions to regulate blood pressure, body weight and metabolism. We found G?3 expression restricted to limited types of tissues, including the retina, several regions of the brain and heart ventricles. G?3-deficient mice were normal as judged by body weight gain by age or by feeding with high-fat diet (HFD); glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity; baseline blood pressure and angiotensin II infusion-induced hypertension. During tail-cuff blood pressure measurements, however, G?3-null mice had slower heart rates (~450 vs ~500 beats/min). This bradycardia was not observed in isolated and perfused G?3-null mouse hearts. Moreover, mouse hearts isolated from GNB3(-/-) and controls responded equivalently to muscarinic receptor- and ?-adrenergic receptor-stimulated bradycardia and tachycardia, respectively. Since no difference was seen in isolated hearts, G?3 is unlikely to be involved directly in the GPCR signaling activity that controls heart pacemaker activity. These results demonstrate that although G?3 appears dispensable in mice for the regulation of blood pressure, body weight and metabolic features associated with obesity and diabetes, G?3 may regulate heart rate. PMID:25093805

Ye, Yuanchao; Sun, Zhizeng; Guo, Ang; Song, Long-Sheng; Grobe, Justin L; Chen, Songhai

2014-11-01

237

Analysis of urban metabolic processes based on input-output method: model development and a case study for Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering ways in which to increase the sustainability of the metabolic processes involved in urbanization has become an urgent task for urban design and management in China. As cities are analogous to living organisms, the disorders of their metabolic processes can be regarded as the cause of "urban disease". Therefore, identification of these causes through metabolic process analysis and ecological element distribution through the urban ecosystem's compartments will be helpful. By using Beijing as an example, we have compiled monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007 and calculated the intensities of the embodied ecological elements to compile the corresponding implied physical input-output tables. We then divided Beijing's economy into 32 compartments and analyzed the direct and indirect ecological intensities embodied in the flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes. Based on the combination of input-output tables and ecological network analysis, the description of multiple ecological elements transferred among Beijing's industrial compartments and their distribution has been refined. This hybrid approach can provide a more scientific basis for management of urban resource flows. In addition, the data obtained from distribution characteristics of ecological elements may provide a basic data platform for exploring the metabolic mechanism of Beijing.

Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Bin; Zheng, Hongmei; Li, Yating

2014-06-01

238

The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure. PMID:21461985

Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

2011-06-01

239

Oil composition of high-fat diet affects metabolic inflammation differently in connection with endotoxin receptors in mice.  

PubMed

Low-grade inflammation observed in obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies revealed that this would be linked to gut-derived endotoxemia during fat digestion in high-fat diets, but nothing is known about the effect of lipid composition. The study was designed to test the impact of oil composition of high-fat diets on endotoxin metabolism and inflammation in mice. C57/Bl6 mice were fed for 8 wk with chow or isocaloric isolipidic diets enriched with oils differing in fatty acid composition: milk fat, palm oil, rapeseed oil, or sunflower oil. In vitro, adipocytes (3T3-L1) were stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) and incubated with different fatty acids. In mice, the palm group presented the highest level of IL-6 in plasma (P < 0.01) together with the highest expression in adipose tissue of IL-1? and of LPS-sensing TLR4 and CD14 (P < 0.05). The higher inflammation in the palm group was correlated with a greater ratio of LPS-binding protein (LBP)/sCD14 in plasma (P < 0.05). The rapeseed group resulted in higher sCD14 than the palm group, which was associated with lower inflammation in both plasma and adipose tissue despite higher plasma endotoxemia. Taken together, our results reveal that the palm oil-based diet resulted in the most active transport of LPS toward tissues via high LBP and low sCD14 and the greatest inflammatory outcomes. In contrast, a rapeseed oil-based diet seemed to result in an endotoxin metabolism driven toward less inflammatory pathways. This shows that dietary fat composition can contribute to modulate the onset of low-grade inflammation through the quality of endotoxin receptors. PMID:22094473

Laugerette, Fabienne; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Debard, Cyrille; Daira, Patricia; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O; Simonet, Claire; Lefils-Lacourtablaise, Jennifer; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Bodennec, Jacques; Peretti, Noël; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

2012-02-01

240

Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? in metabolically abnormal obesity affects immune stimulation-induced cytokine production.  

PubMed

Background:Obesity is a severe health problem worldwide, which leads to multiple comorbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation has been found to be an important characteristic of adipose tissue in obese subjects. However, obesity is also associated with compromised immune responses to infections and the impact of obesity on immune function has not been fully understood.Subjects/Methods:To clarify the role of obesity in the immune responses, we investigated the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced cytokine secretion by leukocytes from obese and lean subjects. We also investigated the relationship between insulin-induced intracellular signaling and cytokine production using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and a monocytic cell line THP-1.Results:We found decreased TLR-induced interferon-?, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? secretions and elevated IL-10 secretion by leukocytes from obese subjects when compared with lean controls. PBMCs from obese subjects showed enhanced basal Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) phosphorylation, which did not further increase with insulin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. We also found that LPS-induced I?B? degradation was inhibited in PBMCs from obese subjects. By using THP-1 cells with GSK-3? knockdown or cells treated with hyperinsulinemic and high-fatty acid conditions, we found that LPS-induced nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation was inhibited and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) activation was enhanced.Conclusions:These findings indicate that GSK-3? is important in the regulation of NF-?B and CREB activation in leukocytes under the metabolic condition of obesity. Our study revealed a key mechanism through which metabolic abnormalities compromise leukocyte functions in people with obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 1 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.93. PMID:24854430

Yen, C-L; Chao, W-C; Wu, C-H; Huang, Y-F; Chang, C-S; Tsai, Y-S; Lin, C-F; Shieh, C-C

2014-05-22

241

Molecular spectroscopic investigation on fractionation-induced changes on biomacromolecule of co-products from bioethanol processing to explore protein metabolism in ruminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractionation processing is an efficient technology which is capable to redesign/redevelop a new food or feed product with a specified chemical and nutrient profile. This processing technique was able to produce four different fractions (called "A", "B", "C", "D" fractions/treatments) with different nutrient profile form a co-product of bioethanol processing [wheat dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS)]. To date, there is no study on the effect of fractionation processing on inherent molecular structure of different fractions and how the processing-induced structural change affect the metabolic characteristics of protein and nutrient availability. The objectives of this experiment were to: (1) investigate the effect of fractionation processing on changes of protein functional groups (amide I, amide II, and their ratio) and molecular structure (modeled ?-helix, ?-sheet, and their ratio), and (2) study the relationship between the fractionation processing-induced changes of protein molecular structure and nutrients availability as well as the metabolic characteristics of protein. The hypothesis of this study was that the fractionation processing changes the molecular structure and such changes affect the metabolic characteristics of protein. The protein molecular structure spectral profile of the fractions A, B, C and D were identified by Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FT/IR-ATR). The results showed that the fractionation processing significantly affected the protein molecular spectral profiles. The differences in amide I to amide II peak area and height ratios were strongly significant (P < 0.01) among the treatment fractions, ranging from 4.98 to 6.33 and 3.28 to 4.00, respectively. The difference in the modeled protein ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio was also strongly significant (P < 0.01) among the treatment fractions. Multivariate molecular spectral analysis with cluster (CLA) and principal component analyses (PCA) showed that there are no clear distinguished clusters and ellipses among the fractions (A, B, C and D) in the protein amide I and II region ca. 1726-1485 cm-1. The correlation study showed that the modeled ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio tended to have a negative correlation with truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUPDVE: r = -0.944, P = 0.056 < 0.10) and total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine (DVE: r = -0.946, P = 0.054 < 0.10), but there was no correlation between the ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio and the degraded protein balance (DPBOEB: P = 0.267 < 0.10). In conclusion, the fractionation processing changed the molecular structural spectral profiles in terms of amide I to II ratio and ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio. These changes negatively affected the metabolic characteristics of protein and true protein supply. These results indicated that spectral features of different fractions could be used as a potential tool to predict true protein nutritive value.

Zhang, Xuewei; Yan, Xiaogang; Beltranena, Eduardo; Yu, Peiqiang

2014-03-01

242

Spatiotemporal dynamics of affective picture processing revealed by intracranial high-gamma modulations.  

PubMed

Our comprehension of the neural mechanisms underlying emotional information processing has largely benefited from noninvasive electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging techniques in recent years. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the neural events occurring during emotional processing remain imprecise due to the limited combination of spatial and temporal resolution provided by these techniques. This study examines the modulations of high-frequency activity of intracranial electroencephalography recordings associated with affective picture valence, in epileptic patients awaiting neurosurgery. Recordings were obtained from subdural grids and depth electrodes in eight patients while they viewed a series of unpleasant, pleasant and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Broadband high-gamma (70-150 Hz) power was computed for separate 100-ms time windows and compared according to ratings of emotional valence. Compared to emotionally neutral or pleasant pictures, unpleasant stimuli were associated with an early and long-lasting (?200-1,000 ms) bilateral increase in high-gamma activity in visual areas of the occipital and temporal lobes, together with a late and transient (?500-800 ms) decrease found bilaterally in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Pleasant pictures were associated with increased gamma activity in the occipital cortex, compared to the emotionally neutral stimuli. Consistent with previous studies, our results provide direct evidence of emotion-related modulations in the visual ventral pathway during picture processing. Results in the lateral PFC also shed light on the neural mechanisms underlying its role in negative emotions processing. This study demonstrates the utility of intracranial high-gamma modulations to study emotional process with a high spatiotemporal precision. Hum Brain Mapp, 36:16-28, 2015.. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25142122

Boucher, Olivier; D'Hondt, Fabien; Tremblay, Julie; Lepore, Franco; Lassonde, Maryse; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

2015-01-01

243

Techniques for determining probabilities of events and processes affecting the performance of geologic repositories: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a probabilistic standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste. This report treats not only geologic events and processes like fault movement, but also events and processes that arise from the relationship between human actions and geology, like drilling for resources, and some that arise from nongeologic processes that in turn affect a geologic process, like climatic change. It reviews the literature in several fields to determine whether existing probabilistic methods for predicting events and processes are adequate for implementation of the standard. Techniques exist for qualitatively estimating the potential for endowment of portions of earth's crust with mineral resources, but such techniques cannot easily predict whether or not human intrusion will occur. The EPA standard offers explicit guidance for the treatment of human intrusion, however. A complete method for climatic prediction could be assembled from existing techniques, although such a combination has not been tested. Existing techniques to support a probabilistic assessment of tectonic activity and seismic hazard at a repository site should be combined with expert judgment in performance assessments. Depending on the regional setting, either analytic techniques or expert judgment may be appropriate in assigning probabilities to volcanic activity. The individual chapters of this report have been cataloged separately.

Hunter, R.L.; Mann, C.J. (eds.)

1989-06-01

244

Metabolic processes sustaining the reviviscence of lichen Xanthoria elegans (Link) in high mountain environments  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to alternating periods of desiccation and hydration is one of the lichen’s requirements for survival in high mountain environment. In the dehydrated state, respiration and photosynthesis of the foliaceous lichen Xanthoria elegans were below the threshold of CO2-detection by infrared gas analysis. Following hydration, respiration totally recovered within seconds and photosynthesis within minutes. In order to identify metabolic processes that may contribute to restart so quickly and efficiently lichen physiological activity, we analysed the metabolite profile of lichen thalli step by step during hydration/dehydration cycles, using 31P-and 13C-NMR. It appeared that the recovery of respiration was anticipated during dehydration by the accumulation of important stores of gluconate 6-P (glcn-6-P) and by the preservation of the nucleotide pools, whereas glycolysis and photosynthesis intermediates like glucose 6-P and ribulose 1,5-diphosphate disappeared. The important pools of polyols present in both X. elegans photo- and mycobiont likely contributed to protect cells constituents like nucleotides, proteins, and membrane lipids, and to preserve the intactness of intracellular structures during desiccation. Our data indicate that glcn-6-P accumulated due to the activation of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, in response to cell need for reducing power (NADPH) during the dehydration-triggered down regulation of metabolism. On the contrary, glcn-6-P was metabolised immediately after hydration, supplying respiration with substrates during the recovery of the pools of glycolysis and photosynthesis intermediates. Finally, the high net photo synthetic activity of wet X. elegans thalli at low temperature may help this alpine lichen to take advantage of short hydration opportunities such as ice melting, thus favouring its growth in the harsh high mountain climate. PMID:17574473

Aubert, Serge; Juge, Christine; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard

2007-01-01

245

Modulation of Vitamin D Status and Dietary Calcium Affects Bone Mineral Density and Mineral Metabolism in Göttingen Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6?g calcium and 6,500?IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2?g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with ?51.2 ± 14.7?mg/cm3 in contrast to controls (?2.3 ± 11.8?mg/cm3), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4?nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4?nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects. PMID:24062955

Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E.; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Günter; Açil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jürgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

2013-01-01

246

Pollen density on the stigma affects endogenous gibberellin metabolism, seed and fruit set, and fruit quality in Pyrus pyrifolia  

PubMed Central

To clarify the relationship between pollen density and gametophytic competition in Pyrus pyrifolia, gametophytic performance, gibberellin metabolism, fruit set, and fruit quality were investigated by modifying P. pyrifolia pollen grain number and density with Lycopodium spores. Higher levels of pollen density improved seed viability, fruit set, and fruit quality. Treatments with the highest pollen density showed a significantly increased fruit growth rate and larger fruit at harvest. High pollen density increased germination rate and gave a faster pollen tube growth, both in vivo and in vitro. Endogenous gibberellin (GA) concentrations increased in pollen tubes soon after germination and the concentration of two growth-active GAs, GA3, and GA4, was positively correlated to final fruit size, cell numbers in the mesocarp, and pollen tube growth rate. These two GAs appear to be biosynthesized de novo in pollen tube and are the main pollen-derived bioactive GAs found after pollen germination. GA1 levels in the pollen tube appear to be related to a pollen–style interaction that occurred after the pollen grains landed on the stigma. PMID:20713466

Zhang, Caixi; Tateishi, Naoya; Tanabe, Kenji

2010-01-01

247

The plastid outer envelope protein OEP16 affects metabolic fluxes during ABA-controlled seed development and germination.  

PubMed

Previously, the OEP16.1 channel pore in the outer envelope membrane of mature pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts in vitro has been characterized to be selective for amino acids. Isolation of OEP16.2, a second OEP16 isoform from pea, in the current study allowed membrane localization and gene expression of OEP16 to be followed throughout seed development and germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and P. sativum. Thereby it can be shown on the transcript and protein level that the isoforms OEP16.1 and OEP16.2 in both plant species are alternating: whereas OEP16.1 is prominent in early embryo development and first leaves of the growing plantlet, OEP16.2 dominates in late seed development stages, which are associated with dormancy and desiccation, as well as early germination events. Further, OEP16.2 expression in seeds is under control of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), leading to an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype of germinating oep16 knockout mutants. In consequence, the loss of OEP16 causes metabolic imbalance, in particular that of amino acids during seed development and early germination. It is thus concluded that in vivo OEP16 most probably functions in shuttling amino acids across the outer envelope of seed plastids. PMID:22155670

Pudelski, Birgit; Schock, Annette; Hoth, Stefan; Radchuk, Ruslana; Weber, Hans; Hofmann, Jörg; Sonnewald, Uwe; Soll, Jürgen; Philippar, Katrin

2012-03-01

248

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery.  

PubMed

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m(2)), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, (1)H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, (13)C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

Crouzier, David; Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

249

The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. PMID:25466100

Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

2015-04-15

250

Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 is overexpressed in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and affects SCC growth via prostaglandin metabolism.  

PubMed

Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) is an enzyme involved in metabolizing prostaglandins (PGs) and sex hormones. It metabolizes PGD2 to 9?11?-PGF2 , diverting the spontaneous conversion of PGD2 to the PPAR? agonist, 15-Deoxy-Delta-12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 ). AKR1C3 is overexpressed in various malignancies, suggesting a tumor promoting function. This work investigates AKR1C3 expression in human non-melanoma skin cancers, revealing overexpression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Effects of AKR1C3 overexpression were then evaluated using three SCC cell lines. AKR1C3 was detected in all SCC cell lines and its expression was upregulated in response to its substrate, PGD2 . Although attenuating AKR1C3 expression in SCC cells by siRNA did not affect growth, treatment with PGD2 and its dehydration metabolite, 15d-PGJ2 , decreased SCC proliferation in a PPAR?-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone profoundly inhibited SCC proliferation. Finally, we generated an SCC cell line that stably overexpressed AKR1C3 (SCC-AKR1C3). SCC-AKR1C3 metabolized PGD2 to 9?11?-PGF2 12-fold faster than the parent cell line and was protected from the antiproliferative effect mediated by PGD2 . This work suggests that PGD2 and its metabolite 15d-PGJ2 attenuate SCC proliferation in a PPAR?-dependent manner, therefore activation of PPAR? by agonists such as pioglitazone may benefit those at high risk of SCC. PMID:24917395

Mantel, Alon; Carpenter-Mendini, Amanda; VanBuskirk, JoAnne; Pentland, Alice P

2014-08-01

251

Waterlogging during flowering and boll forming stages affects sucrose metabolism in the leaves subtending the cotton boll and its relationship with boll weight.  

PubMed

The work explored sucrose metabolism in the leaves subtending the cotton boll (SBL) and its role in boll weight after waterlogging in cotton. Results showed that net photosynthesis rate (Pn), relative water content, contents of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b, initial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) activity and cytosolic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (cy-FBPase) activity decreased with waterlogging in the SBL on fruiting branches 2-3 (FB2-3) and FB6-7. Activities of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) increased to the maximum up to 6 days of waterlogging then decreased with prolonged waterlogging. Rubisco activation and specific leaf weight increased and gene expressions of SuSy, SPS and rubisco activase (RCA) were all up-regulated with the duration of waterlogging, especially for the SBL on FB6-7. The induction of activity and gene expression of SuSy was most significant indicating its crucial role in sucrose metabolism after waterlogging. For the SBL in the later period of boll development on upper FB10-11 and FB14-15, the pattern seemed opposite to that of FB2-3 and FB6c7 as compensation effect in vegetative growth existed. Correlation analysis revealed that initial Rubisco activity and cy-FBPase activity were the main limitation to Pn reduction after waterlogging. Reduction in Pn, sucrose transformation rate and initial Rubisco activity directly decrease boll weight in waterlogged cotton. Besides the role in sucrose metabolism after waterlogging, SuSy also had a positive significant correlation with the duration of rapid-accumulation period for seed fiber weight (P<0.05). These findings elucidated mechanisms to waterlogging that affected seed fiber weight, which resulted from alteration in carbohydrates, enzymes and genes. PMID:24767118

Kuai, Jie; Liu, Zhaowei; Wang, Youhua; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M

2014-06-01

252

Biomechanical organization of gait initiation depends on the timing of affective processing.  

PubMed

Gait initiation (GI) from a quiet bipedal posture has been shown to be influenced by the emotional state of the actor. The literature suggests that the biomechanical organization of forward GI is facilitated when pleasant pictures are shown, as compared to unpleasant pictures. However, there are inconsistencies in the literature, which could be due to the neural dynamics of affective processing. This study aimed to test this hypothesis, using a paradigm whereby participants initiated a step as soon as they saw an affective picture (i.e., onset), or as soon as the picture disappeared from the screen (i.e., offset). Pictures were a priori categorized as pleasant or unpleasant, and could also vary in their arousing properties. We analyzed center-of-pressure and center-of-gravity dynamics as a function of emotional content. We found that gait was initiated faster with pleasant images at onset, and faster with unpleasant images at offset. Also, with offset GI the peak velocity of the COG was reduced, and subjects took smaller steps, with unpleasant images relative to pleasant images. The results are discussed in terms of current knowledge regarding temporal processing of emotions, and its effects on GI. PMID:25455703

Stins, John F; van Gelder, Linda M A; Oudenhoven, Laura M; Beek, Peter J

2015-01-01

253

Health of domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) following exposure to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of northern Alberta produces large volumes of process-affected water that contains substances toxic to wildlife. Recent monitoring has shown that tens of thousands of birds land on ponds containing this water annually, creating an urgent need to understand its effects on bird health. We emulated the repeated, short-term exposures that migrating water birds are thought to experience by exposing pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) to recycled oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As indicators of health, we measured a series of physiological (electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, hormones, and blood cells) and toxicological (metals and minerals) variables. Relative to controls, juvenile birds exposed to OSPW had higher potassium following the final exposure, and males had a higher thyroid hormone ratio (T3/T4). In adults, exposed birds had higher vanadium, and, following the final exposure, higher bicarbonate. Exposed females had higher bile acid, globulin, and molybdenum levels, and males, higher corticosterone. However, with the exception of the metals, none of these measures varied from available reference ranges for ducks, suggesting OSPW is not toxic to juvenile or adult birds after three and six weekly, 1 h exposures, but more studies are needed to know the generality of this result. PMID:25003652

Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

2014-08-01

254

Physical processes affecting circulation and hydrography in the Sable Gully of Nova Scotia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sable Gully is the largest submarine canyon along the shelf break off the east coast of North America. The circulation and hydrography in the Gully have significant temporal and spatial variability. This paper presents a numerical study of the three-dimensional circulation and hydrography in the Gully using a multi-nested ocean circulation model. The model is forced by tides, wind stress and surface heat/freshwater fluxes. Model results are in fair agreement with the current and hydrographic observations made in the Gully in 2006 and 2007. A process study is conducted to examine the main physical processes affecting the circulation and hydrography, including tide-topography interaction, wind forcing, and the shelf-scale circulation over the eastern Canadian Shelf. The model results demonstrate that the circulation and hydrography above the canyon rim are influenced significantly by wind, particularly during storm events, while the subsurface flow over the shelf slope is affected by the shelf-scale circulation. There is also significant tide-topography interaction inside the Gully.

Shan, Shiliang; Sheng, Jinyu; Greenan, Blair J. W.

2014-06-01

255

The investment in scent: time-resolved metabolic processes in developing volatile-producing Nigella sativa L. seeds.  

PubMed

The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids) and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol-3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18?3n-3 abundant in "green" seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs. PMID:24019893

Xue, Wentao; Batushansky, Albert; Toubiana, David; Botnick, Ilan; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Nikoloski, Zoran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fait, Aaron

2013-01-01

256

The Investment in Scent: Time-Resolved Metabolic Processes in Developing Volatile-Producing Nigella sativa L. Seeds  

PubMed Central

The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids) and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol–3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18?3n-3 abundant in “green” seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs. PMID:24019893

Toubiana, David; Botnick, Ilan; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Nikoloski, Zoran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fait, Aaron

2013-01-01

257

Altered Xylem-Phloem Transfer of Amino Acids Affects Metabolism and Leads to Increased Seed Yield and Oil Content in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Seed development and nitrogen (N) storage depend on delivery of amino acids to seed sinks. For efficient translocation to seeds, amino acids are loaded into the phloem in source leaves and along the long distance transport pathway through xylem-phloem transfer. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana AMINO ACID PERMEASE2 (AAP2) localizes to the phloem throughout the plant. AAP2 T-DNA insertion lines showed changes in source-sink translocation of amino acids and a decrease in the amount of seed total N and storage proteins, supporting AAP2 function in phloem loading and amino acid distribution to the embryo. Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. Moreover, branch and silique numbers per plant and seed yield were strongly increased. This suggests changes in N and C delivery to sinks and subsequent modulations of sink development and seed metabolism. This is supported by tracer experiments, expression studies of genes of N/C transport and metabolism in source and sink, and by phenotypic and metabolite analyses of aap2 plants. Thus, AAP2 is key for xylem to phloem transfer and sink N and C supply; moreover, modifications of N allocation can positively affect C assimilation and source-sink transport and benefit sink development and oil yield. PMID:21075769

Zhang, Lizhi; Tan, Qiumin; Lee, Raymond; Trethewy, Alexander; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Tegeder, Mechthild

2010-01-01

258

Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

2000-01-01

259

17-? Oestradiol prevents cardiovascular dysfunction in post-menopausal metabolic syndrome by affecting SIRT1/AMPK/H3 acetylation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Oestrogen therapy is known to induce cardioprotection in post-menopausal metabolic syndrome (PMS). Hence, we investigated the effect of 17-? oestradiol (E2) on functional responses to angiotensin II and cardiovascular dysfunction in a rat model of PMS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH PMS was induced in ovariectomized rats by feeding a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. Isometric tension responses of aortic rings to angiotensin II were recorded using an isometric force transducer. TUNEL assay and immunoblotting was performed to assess apoptosis and protein expression respectively in PMS. KEY RESULTS Endothelial dysfunction in PMS was characterized by enhanced angiotensin II-induced contractile responses and impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation. This was associated with an increased protein expression of AT1 receptors in the aorta and heart in PMS. PMS induced cardiac apoptosis by activating Bax and PARP protein expression. These changes were associated with a down-regulation in the expression of silent information regulation 2 homologue (SIRT1)/P-AMP-activated PK (AMPK) and increased H3 acetylation in aorta and heart. E2 partially suppressed angiotensin II-induced contractions, restored the protein expression of SIRT1/P-AMPK and suppressed H3 acetylation. The role of SIRT1/AMPK was further highlighted by administration of sirtinol and compound C (ex vivo), which enhanced angiotensin II contractile responses and ablated the protective effect of E2 on PMS. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Our results provide novel mechanisms for PMS-induced cardiovascular dysfunction involving SIRT1/AMPK/ histone H3 acetylation, which was prevented by E2. The study suggests that therapies targeting SIRT1/AMPK/epigenetic modifications may be beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:23826814

Bendale, Dhaval Sharad; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Chhabra, Richa; Shete, Sachin Prabhakarrao; Shah, Heta; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

2013-01-01

260

Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans.  

PubMed

Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

2014-07-15

261

Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below uranyl phosphate saturation there is evidence of uranyl-phosphate ternary complexes. These species may prove to be of substantial importance in reducing aqueous uranium concentrations when uranyl phosphate solubility is greater than water quality standards, as occurs in calcite-saturated fluids because of the formation of aqueous calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes. Uranyl-phosphate ternary surface complexes may also represent precursors required for the nucleation of uranyl phosphate minerals; similar processes may occur in the uranyl silicate system. Major knowledge gaps still exist in our understanding of how these processes occur in complex subsurface materials rather than controlled laboratory systems and the dominant chemical controls on specific adsorption and precipitation processes in contaminated soils and sediments. In addition, contaminated sediments in contact with aqueous uranium concentrations near water quality standards often have solid phase concentrations in ranges that make characterization of sorption mechanisms challenging. Novel combinations of analytical methods are needed to overcome this challenge to understanding the mineral-water interface processes that control uranium fate in the environment.

Catalano, J. G.

2011-12-01

262

Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens in adult male rats affects hypothalamic regulation of food intake, induces obesity and alters glucose metabolism.  

PubMed

The absence of phytoestrogens in the diet during pregnancy has been reported to result in obesity later in adulthood. We investigated whether phytoestrogen withdrawal in adult life could alter the hypothalamic signals that regulate food intake and affect body weight and glucose homeostasis. Male Wistar rats fed from conception to adulthood with a high phytoestrogen diet were submitted to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding a low phytoestrogen diet, or a high phytoestrogen-high fat diet. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake through an orexigenic hypothalamic response characterized by upregulation of AGRP and downregulation of POMC. This was associated with elevated leptin and T4, reduced TSH, testosterone and estradiol, and diminished hypothalamic ER? expression, concomitant with alterations in glucose tolerance. Removing dietary phytoestrogens caused manifestations of obesity and diabetes that were more pronounced than those induced by the high phytoestrogen-high fat diet intake. PMID:25486512

Andreoli, María Florencia; Stoker, Cora; Rossetti, María Florencia; Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge Guillermo

2015-02-01

263

Impaired Cross-Talk between Mesolimbic Food Reward Processing and Metabolic Signaling Predicts Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food, which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food-related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum (VS) in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e., monetary) and food-related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20?kg/m2) over a normal (20–25?kg/m2) and overweight (25–30?kg/m2) BMI, to class I (30–35?kg/m2) and class II (35–40?kg/m2) obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn “snack points” or “money coins,” which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the VS, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime). This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e., increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling. PMID:25368558

Simon, Joe J.; Skunde, Mandy; Hamze Sinno, Maria; Brockmeyer, Timo; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

2014-01-01

264

Gas transport processes in sea ice: How convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent data from a year-round survey of landfast sea ice growth in Barrow (Alaska) have shown how O2/N2 and O2/Ar ratios could be used to pinpoint primary production in sea ice and derive net productivity rates from the temporal evolution of the oxygen concentration at a given depth within the sea ice cover. These rates were however obtained surmising that neither convection, nor diffusion had affected the gas concentration profiles in the ice between discrete ice core collections. This paper discusses examples from three different field surveys (the above-mentioned Barrow experiment, the INTERICE IV tank experiment in Hamburg and a short field survey close to the Kapisilit locality in the South-East Greenland fjords) where convection or diffusion processes have clearly affected the temporal evolution of the gas profiles in the ice, therefore potentially affecting biological signatures. The INTERICE IV and Barrow experiment show that the initial equilibrium dissolved gas entrapment within the skeletal layer basically governs most of the profiles higher up in the sea ice cover during the active sea ice growth. However, as the ice layers age and cool down under the temperature gradient, bubble nucleation occurs while the concentration in the ice goes well above the theoretical one, calculated from brine equilibrium under temperature and salinity changes and observed brine volumes. This phase change locks the gases within the sea ice structure, preventing "degassing" of the ice, as is observed for salts under the mushy layer brine convection process. In some cases, mainly in the early stages of the freezing process (first 10-20 cm) where temperature gradients are strong and the ice still permeable on its whole thickness, repeated convection and bubble nucleation can actually increase the gas concentration in the ice above the one initially acquired within the skeletal layer. Convective processes will also occur on ice decay, when ice permeability is restored and the Rayleigh number reaches a critical value. The Barrow data set shows that these events, can be strong enough to redistribute the gases within the sea ice cover, including in the gaseous form. Diffusive processes will become dominant once internal melting is strong enough to stratify the brine network within the ice. In the Kapisilit case, the regular decrease of an internal gas peak intensity due to external forcing during ice growth (change of water type) has allowed us to deduce gas diffusivities from the temporal evolution of the peak. The values fit to the few previous estimates from experimental work, and lie close to diffusivity values in water. Finally, at the end of the decay phase, when the temperature profile is isothermal, the whole ice cover returns to ice concentrations equivalent to those calculated using gas solubility in water and observed brine volumes, to the exception of the very surface layer, generally for textural reasons.

Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, J.; Thomas, D. N.; Rysgaard, S.; Eicken, H.; Crabeck, O.; Deleu, F.; Delille, B.

2012-04-01

265

General anesthesia as a possible GABAergic modulator affects visual processing in children  

PubMed Central

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) inhibitory interneurons play an important role in visual processing, as is revealed by studies administering drugs in human and monkey adults. Investigating this process in children requires different methodologies, due to ethical considerations. The current study aimed to investigate whether a new method, being general anesthesia using Sevoflurane, can be used to trace the effects of GABAergic modulation on visual brain functioning in children. To this aim, visual processing was investigated in children aged 4–12 years who were scheduled for minor urologic procedures under general anesthesia in day-care treatment. In a visual segmentation task, the difference in Event-Related Potential (ERP) response to homogeneous and textured stimuli was investigated. In addition, psychophysical performance on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured. Results were compared between before and shortly after anesthesia. In two additional studies, effects at 1 day after anesthesia and possible effects of task-repetition were investigated. ERP results showed longer latency and lower amplitude of the Texture Negativity (TN) component shortly after compared to before anesthesia. No effects of anesthesia on psychophysical measurements were found. No effects at 1 day after anesthesia or of repetition were revealed either. These results show that GABAergic modulation through general anesthesia affects ERP reflections of visual segmentation in a similar way in children as benzodiazepine does in adults, but that effects are not permanent. This demonstrates that ERP measurement after anesthesia is a successful method to study effects of GABAergic modulation in children. PMID:23630461

Van den Boomen, C.; de Graaff, J. C.; de Jong, T. P. V. M.; Kalkman, C. J.; Kemner, C.

2013-01-01

266

Factors affecting microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process for sewage sludge treatment.  

PubMed

The microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was applied to sewage sludge for nutrient solubilization and solids' disintegration. Four factors, temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage, mixing, and solids concentration were chosen for a screening experiment, and were ranked according to their significance of influence on the process. In general, temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage are the two significant factors affecting the process, while mixing is the least significant factor. Temperature was the most significant factor for the release of orthophosphate, and hydrogen peroxide dosage was most important in ammonia release. Solids disintegration, in terms of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), was largely dependent on temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. For volatile fatty acids (VFA) release, mixing was the most significant factor. At higher temperatures with mixing, more VFA was released into the headspace, resulting in less VFA retained in the solution. The best results of solids' disintegration and nutrient release were obtained at 120 degrees C, and 0.80 g H(2)O(2)/g dry sludge. PMID:19847696

Kenge, Anju A; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

2009-09-01

267

Similar Local and Landscape Processes Affect Both a Common and a Rare Newt Species  

PubMed Central

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. PMID:23658765

Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

2013-01-01

268

Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.  

PubMed

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. PMID:23658765

Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

2013-01-01

269

Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Printer-Friendly Home » Health Status » Health Indicators Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders Endocrine disorders involve the body’s over- or under-production of certain hormones, while metabolic disorders affect the body’s ability to ...

270

Modeling of Grain Structure and Heat-Affected Zone in Laser Surface Melting Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of phase-field and cellular automata methods is used to study the effect of initial grain size and laser power density on heat-affected zone (HAZ) formation during laser surface melting. Also, an analytical model is developed to estimate the depth of HAZ as a function of initial grain size and process parameters. Both analytical and numerical results indicate that the size of HAZ, as measured with respect to the changes in the grain structure, is inversely proportional to the initial grain size. They also show how increasing the laser power leads to an increase in the extent of HAZ. The proposed models thus provide a basis for the prediction and control of HAZ in laser surface melting.

Jabbareh, Mohammad Amin; Assadi, Hamid

2013-08-01

271

Culture temperature affects gene expression and metabolic pathways in the 2-methylisoborneol-producing cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata.  

PubMed

A volatile metabolite, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), causes an unpleasant taste and odor in tap water. Some filamentous cyanobacteria produce 2-MIB via a two-step biosynthetic pathway: methylation of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) by methyl transferase (GPPMT), followed by the cyclization of methyl-GPP by monoterpene cyclase (MIBS). We isolated the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS from Pseudanabaena galeata, a filamentous cyanobacterium known to be a major causal organism of 2-MIB production in Japanese lakes. The predicted amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that of Pseudanabaena limnetica (96% identity in GPPMT and 97% identity in MIBS). P. galeata was cultured at different temperatures to examine the effect of growth conditions on the production of 2-MIB and major metabolites. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements showed higher accumulation of 2-MIB at 30 °C than at 4 °C or 20 °C after 24 h of culture. Real-time-RT PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS decreased at 4 °C and increased at 30 °C, compared with at 20 °C. Furthermore, metabolite analysis showed dramatic changes in primary metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria grown at different temperatures. The data indicate that changes in carbon flow in the TCA cycle affect 2-MIB biosynthesis at higher temperatures. PMID:24140001

Kakimoto, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Miyagi, Atsuko; Saito, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Asaeda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

2014-02-15

272

Steroidal aromatic 'naphthenic acids' in oil sands process-affected water: structural comparisons with environmental estrogens.  

PubMed

The large volumes, acute toxicity, estrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity of process-affected waters accruing in tailings ponds from the operations of the Alberta oil sands industries pose a significant task for environmental reclamation. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) suggest that oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) may contain aromatic carboxylic acids, which are among the potentially environmentally important toxicants, but no such acids have yet been identified, limiting interpretations of the results of estrogenicity and other assays. Here we show that multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) of methyl esters of acids in an OSPW sample produces mass spectra consistent with their assignment as C(19) and C(20) C-ring monoaromatic hydroxy steroid acids, D-ring opened hydroxy and nonhydroxy polyhydrophenanthroic acids with one aromatic and two alicyclic rings and A-ring opened steroidal keto acids. High resolution MS data support the assignment of several of the so-called 'O3' species. When fractions of distilled, esterified, OSPW acid-extractable organics were examined, the putative aromatics were mainly present in a high boiling fraction; when examined by argentation thin layer chromatography, some were present in a fraction with a retardation factor between that of the methyl esters of synthetic monoalicyclic and monoaromatic acids. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of these fractions indicated the presence of benzenoid moieties. SFS of model octahydro- and tetrahydrophenanthroic acids produced emissions at the characteristic excitation wavelengths observed in some OSPW extracts, consistent with the postulations from ultraviolet spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. We suggest the acids originate from extensive biodegradation of C-ring monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons and offer a means of differentiating residues at different biodegradation stages in tailings ponds. Structural similarities with estrone and estradiol imply that such compounds may account for some of the environmental estrogenic activity reported in OSPW acid-extractable organics and naphthenic acids. PMID:22014158

Rowland, Steven J; West, Charles E; Jones, David; Scarlett, Alan G; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark

2011-11-15

273

43 CFR 3602.12 - How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of the same public lands?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

2011-10-01

274

Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on aerobic metabolic processes in northern elephant seals.  

PubMed

An hypoxia-induced metabolic down-regulation has been implicated as an important protective mechanism against tissue deoxygenation in mammals. Whether the same response to hypoxia occurs in northern elephant seals was studied. The effects of hypercapnia were also examined to determine whether the reduced ventilatory response of seals to CO2 is associated with an analogous protective metabolic down-regulation. Thirty three seals (7-300-days-old) were studied using open-flow respirometry with simultaneous monitoring of apnea frequencies and heart rates. Hypoxia (11% O2) and hypercapnia (7% CO2) caused increases in metabolism of up to 38% with corresponding decreases in the percent time spent apneic (%AP) and increases in heart rate. The metabolic, breathing and heart rate responses to altered inspired gases were independent of age. Metabolism was strongly negatively correlated with %AP suggesting that elevated metabolism during hypoxia and hypercapnia exposure is attributable to decreases in %AP. In young elephant seals metabolic down-regulation is not an automatic protective response to experimentally-imposed hypoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:10505480

Kohin, S; Williams, T M; Ortiz, C L

1999-09-01

275

Changes of pathological and physiological indicators affecting drug metabolism in rats after acute exposure to high altitude  

PubMed Central

High altitude environments cause the human body to undergo a series of pathological, physiological and biochemical changes, which have a certain effect on drug pharmacokinetics. The objective of the present study was to observe changes in factors affecting pharmacokinetics in rats following acute exposure to high altitude and return to low altitude. A total of 21 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. The rats in group A were maintained at low altitude in Shanghai, 55 m above sea level; those in group B were acutely exposed to high altitude in Maqu, Gansu, 4,010 m above sea level; and those in group C were acutely exposed to high altitude and then returned to low altitude. Blood was collected from the orbit for the analysis of significant biochemical indicators and from the abdominal aorta for blood gas analysis. Brain, lung and kidney tissues were removed to observe pathological changes. In group B, the pH, buffer base (BB), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide content (ctCO2), oxygen saturation of arterial blood (sO2), oxygen tension of arterial blood (pO2), serum sodium (Na+) concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and total protein (TP) level were significantly reduced, and the carbon dioxide tension of arterial blood (pCO2), serum chloride (Cl?) concentration, serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly increased compared with those in group A (P<0.05). In group C, the pH, BB, BE, sO2, pO2, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum Na+ concentration, LDH activity and TP level were significantly reduced, and the pCO2, serum Cl? concentration, alanine transaminase activity, TBIL and urea levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with those in group A. The Hb and ALP levels in group C were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05); and the TP, TBIL and urea levels in group C were significantly higher than those in group B (P<0.05). Pathological observation revealed that the alveolar wall was hyperemic, edematous and incrassate, the alveolar epithelium was hyperplastic and infiltrated with neutrophilic granulocytes and the alveolar septum was widened; brain neurons were edematous with enlarged perivascular spaces, and hippocampal neurons were metamorphic and karyopyknotic; and kidney mesangial cells were hyperplastic, both following acute exposure to high altitude and after returning to low altitude. In conclusion, blood gas indices, biochemical indicators and functions of the heart, liver, kidney were significantly changed, and marked pathological changes occurred in the brain, liver and kidney following acute exposure to high altitude and also after returning to low altitude. These changes are likely to seriously affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs. PMID:25452782

LI, WENBIN; WANG, RONG; XIE, HUA; ZHANG, JUANHONG; JIA, ZHENGPING

2015-01-01

276

An examination of auditory processing and affective prosody in relatives of patients with auditory hallucinations  

PubMed Central

Research on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) indicates that AVH schizophrenia patients show greater abnormalities on tasks requiring recognition of affective prosody (AP) than non-AVH patients. Detecting AP requires accurate perception of manipulations in pitch, amplitude and duration. Schizophrenia patients with AVHs also experience difficulty detecting these acoustic manipulations; with a number of theorists speculating that difficulties in pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination underlie AP abnormalities. This study examined whether both AP and these aspects of auditory processing are also impaired in first degree relatives of persons with AVHs. It also examined whether pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination were related to AP, and to hallucination proneness. Unaffected relatives of AVH schizophrenia patients (N = 19) and matched healthy controls (N = 33) were compared using tone discrimination tasks, an AP task, and clinical measures. Relatives were slower at identifying emotions on the AP task (p = 0.002), with secondary analysis showing this was especially so for happy (p = 0.014) and neutral (p = 0.001) sentences. There was a significant interaction effect for pitch between tone deviation level and group (p = 0.019), and relatives performed worse than controls on amplitude discrimination and duration discrimination. AP performance for happy and neutral sentences was significantly correlated with amplitude perception. Lastly, AVH proneness in the entire sample was significantly correlated with pitch discrimination (r = 0.44) and pitch perception was shown to predict AVH proneness in the sample (p = 0.005). These results suggest basic impairments in auditory processing are present in relatives of AVH patients; they potentially underlie processing speed in AP tasks, and predict AVH proneness. This indicates auditory processing deficits may be a core feature of AVHs in schizophrenia, and are worthy of further study as a potential endophenotype for AVHs. PMID:24046737

Tucker, Rachel; Farhall, John; Thomas, Neil; Groot, Christopher; Rossell, Susan L.

2013-01-01

277

Early Affective Processing in Patients with Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Magnetoencephalographic Correlates  

PubMed Central

Background In chronic PTSD, a preattentive neural alarm system responds rapidly to emotional information, leading to increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation at early processing stages (<100 ms). Enhanced PFC responses are followed by a reduction in occipito-temporal activity during later processing stages. However, it remains unknown if this neuronal pattern is a result of a long lasting mental disorder or if it represents changes in brain function as direct consequences of severe trauma. Methodology The present study investigates early fear network activity in acutely traumatized patients with PTSD. It focuses on the question whether dysfunctions previously observed in chronic PTSD patients are already present shortly after trauma exposure. We recorded neuromagnetic activity towards emotional pictures in seven acutely traumatized PTSD patients between one and seven weeks after trauma exposure and compared brain responses to a balanced healthy control sample. Inverse modelling served for mapping sources of differential activation in the brain. Principal Findings Compared to the control group, acutely traumatized PTSD patients showed an enhanced PFC response to high-arousing pictures between 60 to 80 ms. This rapid prefrontal hypervigilance towards arousing pictorial stimuli was sustained during 120–300 ms, where it was accompanied by a reduced affective modulation of occipito-temporal neural processing. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the hypervigilance-avoidance pattern seen in chronic PTSD is not necessarily a product of an endured mental disorder, but arises as an almost immediate result of severe traumatisation. Thus, traumatic experiences can influence emotion processing strongly, leading to long-lasting changes in trauma network activation and expediting a chronic manifestation of maladaptive cognitive and behavioral symptoms. PMID:23977010

Wrenger, Marco; Kandil, Judith; Heuft, Gereon; Steinberg, Christian; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Junghöfer, Markus

2013-01-01

278

Nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions affect in utero developmental capacity, phenotype, and cellular metabolism of bovine nuclear transfer fetuses.  

PubMed

We generated a clone of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos using oocyte pools from defined maternal sources to study nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions. Nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were reconstructed with Bos taurus (Brown Swiss) granulosa cells and oocytes that contained B. taurus A (Simmental), B. taurus B (Simmental), or Bos indicus (Dwarf Zebu) cytoplasm. Another set of embryos was reconstructed with randomly selected Brown Swiss (B. taurus R) oocytes. Embryo transfer resulted in nine (12.5%), nine (13.8%), three (50%), and 11 (16.7%) Day 80 fetuses, of which eight (11.1%), three (4.6%), three (50%), and 10 (15.2%) were viable, respectively. The proportion of viable fetuses was affected by cytoplasm (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.02) and was higher for embryos with B. indicus cytoplasm than for the B. taurus A (P < 0.05) and B (P < 0.01) groups. Furthermore, the proportion of surviving Day 80 fetuses was reduced for B. taurus B as compared with B. taurus A and B. taurus R cytoplasm (P < 0.05 and P < 0.02). Body weight of nucleocytoplasmic hybrid fetuses was not significantly different from Brown Swiss control fetuses produced by artificial insemination (AI), but fetuses reconstructed with random cytoplasts of the same breed as the nuclear donor exhibited overgrowth (P < 0.01) and a higher coefficient of variation in weight. Furthermore, body weight, crown rump length, thorax circumference (P < 0.05), and femur length (P < 0.01) of fetuses with B. taurus A cytoplasm differed from fetuses with B. taurus R cytoplasms. Fetal skin, heart, and liver cells with B. indicus cytoplasm showed a greater increase in number per time period (P < 0.001) and oxygen consumption rate per cell (skin and liver, P < 0.001; heart, P < 0.08) in comparison with their counterparts with B. taurus A cytoplasm. These data point to complex oocyte cytoplasm-dependent epigenetic modifications and/or nuclear DNA-mitochondrial DNA interactions with relevance to nuclear transfer and other reproductive technologies such as ooplasmic transfer in human assisted reproduction. PMID:14681199

Hiendleder, Stefan; Prelle, Katja; Brüggerhoff, Katja; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Wenigerkind, Hendrik; Bebbere, Daniela; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Müller, Sigrid; Brem, Gottfried; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Wolf, Eckhard

2004-04-01

279

Do Problems with Information Processing Affect the Process of Psychotherapy for Adults with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems in processing information can affect psychosocial functioning. Psychotherapy can be used to address psychosocial problems; however, the same information-processing problems that contribute to disabilities, such as learning disabilities (LD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly deficits in auditory processing

Cosden, Merith; Patz, Sarah; Smith, Steven

2009-01-01

280

Cysteine 27 Variant of the ?-Opioid Receptor Affects Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing through Altered Endocytic Trafficking ?  

PubMed Central

Agonist-induced activation of the ?-opioid receptor (?OR) was recently shown to augment ?- and ?-secretase activities, which increased the production of ?-amyloid peptide (A?), known to accumulate in the brain tissues of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Previously, the ?OR variant with a phenylalanine at position 27 (?OR-Phe27) exhibited more efficient receptor maturation and higher stability at the cell surface than did the less common cysteine (?OR-Cys27) variant. For this study, we expressed these variants in human SH-SY5Y and HEK293 cells expressing exogenous or endogenous amyloid precursor protein (APP) and assessed the effects on APP processing. Expression of ?OR-Cys27, but not ?OR-Phe27, resulted in a robust accumulation of the APP C83 C-terminal fragment and the APP intracellular domain, while the total soluble APP and, particularly, the ?-amyloid 40 levels were decreased. These changes upon ?OR-Cys27 expression coincided with decreased localization of APP C-terminal fragments in late endosomes and lysosomes. Importantly, a long-term treatment with a subset of ?OR-specific ligands or a c-Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor suppressed the ?OR-Cys27-induced APP phenotype. These data suggest that an increased constitutive internalization and/or concurrent signaling of the ?OR-Cys27 variant affects APP processing through altered endocytic trafficking of APP. PMID:21464208

Sarajärvi, Timo; Tuusa, Jussi T.; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Lackman, Jarkko J.; Sormunen, Raija; Helisalmi, Seppo; Roehr, Johannes T.; Parrado, Antonio R.; Mäkinen, Petra; Bertram, Lars; Soininen, Hilkka; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Petäjä-Repo, Ulla E.; Hiltunen, Mikko

2011-01-01

281

Affective Engagement and Subsequent Visual Processing: Effects of Contrast and Spatial Frequency  

PubMed Central

The present study examined if viewing affective stimuli alters subsequent visual processing, as indexed by steady-state visual potentials (ssVEPs) and behavioral performance in an orientation discrimination task. Participants viewed task-irrelevant but emotionally arousing pictures (1s) followed by a target stimulus stream consisting of low (2 cpd) or high-spatial frequency (6 cpd) Gabor patches, flickering at a temporal rate of 14 Hz. Luminance contrast of the patches gradually increased for the first half and decreased for the second half of the total duration, resulting in a waxing-waning pattern of stimulus contrast. We found that the waveform envelope of 14 Hz-ssVEPs corresponded to time-varying stimulus contrast. Analyses compared medium- and high-contrast time segments, as a function of emotional content and spatial frequency. Results showed greater ssVEP amplitudes for patches with high compared to medium contrast. Viewing emotionally arousing pictures selectively enhanced the ssVEP amplitudes for low-spatial frequency target patches, and attenuated the ssVEP evoked by high-spatial frequency patches. Response times were slower for patches following unpleasant pictures than pleasant and neutral, and error rates mirrored the interaction of emotional content and spatial frequency observed in the ssVEP data. Together, the present results suggest that distinct neural mechanisms may mediate costs and benefits of emotional engagement for subsequent sensory processing, characterized by an additive effect of the neural contrast and response gain. PMID:23398581

Song, Inkyung; Keil, Andreas

2015-01-01

282

Heating method and final temperature affect processing characteristics of beef semimembranosus muscle.  

PubMed

The effect of thawing and cooking regimes on the processing characteristics and colour of cooked roast beef made from frozen beef cap-on inside round (semimembranosus, adductor and gracilus muscle) was investigated. After thawing in air or water, the cap was removed and the insides were pumped (110%), tumbled (30 min continuously) and then cooked in either constant-temperature water baths or baths where a 10 °C difference was maintained between the roast and the water to an internal temperature of 63 or 80 °C. Purge was higher for insides thawed in air. Insides that were cooked at a constant temperature had higher cook yields the same was seen for lower end-point temperatures. Colour of raw insides thawed in water was slightly redder than insides thawed in air. Thawing and cooking regime did not affect the colour of cooked slices but the higher the end temperature, the higher the Hunter L and the lower the Hunter a and b values. Data from this research suggests that roast beef manufacturers should evaluate thawing and cooking procedures to ensure they optimize their process. PMID:22061198

Boles, J A; Swan, J E

2002-09-01

283

Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

1989-01-01

284

Attentional processes and responding to affective faces in youth with borderline personality features.  

PubMed

This study examined attentional biases for emotional faces in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Twenty-one outpatient youth (aged 15-24 years) meeting three or more DSM-IV BPD criteria and 20 community-derived participants (aged 15-24 years) with no history of psychiatric problems and not meeting any BPD criteria completed a modified dot-probe task that tested automatic (30 ms) and controlled (500 ms) stages of information processing. The findings indicate that, compared with healthy controls, youth with borderline features were faster to respond to congruent rather than incongruent fear stimuli. This effect was independent of state anxiety and was observed during the 30 ms presentation of fearful faces. There was no significant effect for happy or angry faces. Youth with borderline features were also slower to respond to incongruent rather than paired neutral trials, indicating difficulties in disengaging attention from the perceived threat. Such differences were not found for the healthy controls. Thus, youth with borderline features had an attentional bias for fearful faces that reflected difficulty in disengaging attention from threatening information during pre-conscious stages of attention. This finding extends previous research highlighting the diminished capacity for affect regulation and subsequent engagement in behavioural strategies to avoid distress in BPD. Future research should explore the relationship between information processing, emotion regulation in adult BPD samples. PMID:22503381

Jovev, Martina; Green, Melissa; Chanen, Andrew; Cotton, Sue; Coltheart, Max; Jackson, Henry

2012-08-30

285

Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.  

PubMed

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

286

Inhibition of GM3 Synthase Attenuates Neuropathology of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C by Affecting Sphingolipid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In several lysosomal storage disorders, including Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C), sphingolipids, including glycosphingolipids, particularly gangliosides, are the predominant storage materials in the brain, raising the possibility that accumulation of these lipids may be involved in the NP-C neurodegenerative process. However, correlation of these accumulations and NP-C neuropathology has not been fully characterized. Here we derived NP-C mice with complete and partial deletion of the Siat9 (encoding GM3 synthase) gene in order to investigate the role of ganglioside in NP-C pathogenesis. According to our results, NPC mice with homozygotic deletion of GM3 synthase exhibited an enhanced neuropathological phenotype and died significantly earlier than NP-C mice. Notably, in contrast to complete depletion, NP-C mice with partial deletion of the GM3 synthase gene showed ameliorated NP-C neuropathology, including motor disability, demyelination, and abnormal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids. These findings indicate the crucial role of GM3 synthesis in the NP-C phenotype and progression of CNS pathologic abnormality, suggesting that well-controlled inhibition of GM3 synthesis could be used as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:24599001

Lee, Hyun; Lee, Jong Kil; Bae, Yong Chul; Yang, Song Hyun; Okino, Nozomu; Schuchman, Edward H.; Yamashita, Tadashi; Bae, Jae-sung; Jin, Hee Kyung

2014-01-01

287

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.  

PubMed

Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 ?S/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ?40 mg/l and conductivity ?2000 ?S/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 ?S/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction. PMID:20980067

Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2011-01-17

288

Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of organic contaminants especially when the porous geological media have very low organic carbon contents.

Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

2012-04-01

289

Cholinesterase-Targeting microRNAs Identified in silico Affect Specific Biological Processes  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as important gene silencers affecting many target mRNAs. Here, we report the identification of 244 miRs that target the 3?-untranslated regions of different cholinesterase transcripts: 116 for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), 47 for the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) splice variant, and 81 for the normally rare splice variant AChE-R. Of these, 11 and 6 miRs target both AChE-S and AChE-R, and AChE-R and BChE transcripts, respectively. BChE and AChE-S showed no overlapping miRs, attesting to their distinct modes of miR regulation. Generally, miRs can suppress a number of targets; thereby controlling an entire battery of functions. To evaluate the importance of the cholinesterase-targeted miRs in other specific biological processes we searched for their other experimentally validated target transcripts and analyzed the gene ontology enriched biological processes these transcripts are involved in. Interestingly, a number of the resulting categories are also related to cholinesterases. They include, for BChE, response to glucocorticoid stimulus, and for AChE, response to wounding and two child terms of neuron development: regulation of axonogenesis and regulation of dendrite morphogenesis. Importantly, all of the AChE-targeting miRs found to be related to these selected processes were directed against the normally rare AChE-R splice variant, with three of them, including the neurogenesis regulator miR-132, also directed against AChE-S. Our findings point at the AChE-R splice variant as particularly susceptible to miR regulation, highlight those biological functions of cholinesterases that are likely to be subject to miR post-transcriptional control, demonstrate the selectivity of miRs in regulating specific biological processes, and open new venues for targeted interference with these specific processes. PMID:22007158

Hanin, Geula; Soreq, Hermona

2011-01-01

290

Metabolic ecology.  

PubMed

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

291

Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with

Andrew Steptoe; Jane Wardle; Michael Marmot

2005-01-01

292

Celastrol suppresses obesity process via increasing antioxidant capacity and improving lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

High fat diet, as an important risk factor, plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic process. Celastrol is one of the active triterpenoid compounds with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory characters. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of celastrol on weight, blood lipid and oxidative injury induced by high fat emulsion, and investigate its potential pharmacological mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion for 6wk to mimic high fat mediated oxidative injury. The effects of celastrol on weight and blood lipid were evaluated, and its mechanisms were disclosed by applying western blot, ELISA and assay kits. Long-term consumption of high fat emulsion could significantly increase weight by enhancing total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels, attenuating ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression, and decreasing the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and inhibit antioxidant enzymes activities, improve nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. Comparing with model group, celastrol was able to effectively suppress weight and attenuate high fat mediated oxidative injury by improving ABCA1 expression, reducing the levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and Apo B in plasma, and increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity, and decreasing the serum levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species in dose-dependent way. These data demonstrated that celastrol was able to effectively suppress weight and alleviate high-fat mediated cardiovascular injury via mitigating oxidative stress and improving lipid metabolism. PMID:25300680

Wang, Chaoyun; Shi, Chunfeng; Yang, Xiaoping; Yang, Ming; Sun, Hongliu; Wang, Chunhua

2014-12-01

293

Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching in natural environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K.K.

2006-01-01

294

Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism  

SciTech Connect

There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 ?M, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 ?M B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 ?M) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells. • 608 different protein spots of Jurkat T cells were quantified using 2-DE-DIGE. • Pathway analysis identified Nrf2 and AhR pathway as regulated.

Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

2013-06-15

295

Family-Based Processes Associated with Adolescent Distress, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Families Affected by Maternal HIV  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…

Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2010-01-01

296

Soil biota can change after exotic plant invasion: Does this affect ecosystem processes?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasion of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum into stands of the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii significantly reduced the abundance of soil biota, especially microarthropods and nematodes. Effects of invasion on active and total bacterial and fungal biomass were variable, although populations generally increased after 50+ years of invasion. The invasion of Bromus also resulted in a decrease in richness and a species shift in plants, microarthropods, fungi, and nematodes. However, despite the depauperate soil fauna at the invaded sites, no effects were seen on cellulose decomposition rates, nitrogen mineralization rates, or vascular plant growth. When Hilaria was planted into soils from not-invaded, recently invaded, and historically invaded sites (all currently or once dominated by Hilaria), germination and survivorship were not affected. In contrast, aboveground Hilaria biomass was significantly greater in recently invaded soils than in the other two soils. We attributed the Hilaria response to differences in soil nutrients present before the invasion, especially soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as these nutrients were elevated in the soils that produced the greatest Hilaria biomass. Our data suggest that it is not soil biotic richness per se that determines soil process rates or plant productivity, but instead that either (1) the presence of a few critical soil food web taxa can keep ecosystem function high, (2) nutrient loss is very slow in this ecosystem, and/or (3) these processes are microbially driven. However, the presence of Bromus may reduce key soil nutrients over time and thus may eventually suppress native plant success. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.; Sherrod, S.K.; Moldenke, A.

2005-01-01

297

Providing assistive technology in Italy: the perceived delivery process quality as affecting abandonment.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The study brings together three aspects rarely observed at once in assistive technology (AT) surveys: (i) the assessment of user interaction/satisfaction with AT and service delivery, (ii) the motivational analysis of AT abandonment, and (iii) the management/design evaluation of AT delivery services. Methods: 15 health professionals and 4 AT experts were involved in modelling and assessing four AT Local Health Delivery Service (Centres) in Italy through a SWOT analysis and a Cognitive Walkthrough. In addition 558 users of the same Centres were interviewed in a telephone survey to rate their satisfaction and AT use. Results: The overall AT abandonment was equal to 19.09%. Different Centres' management strategies resulted in different percentages of AT disuse, with a range from 12.61% to 24.26%. A significant difference between the declared abandonment and the Centres' management strategies (p?=?0.012) was identified. A strong effect on abandonment was also found due to professionals' procedures (p?=?0.005) and follow-up systems (p?=?0.002). Conclusions: The user experience of an AT is affected not only by the quality of the interaction with the AT, but also by the perceived quality of the Centres in support and follow-up. Implications for Rehabilitation AT abandonment surveys provide useful information for modelling AT assessment and delivery process. SWOT and Cognitive Walkthrough analyses have shown suitable methods for exploring limits and advantages in AT service delivery systems. The study confirms the relevance of person centredness for a successful AT assessment and delivery process. PMID:24936571

Federici, Stefano; Borsci, Simone

2014-06-17

298

Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet  

PubMed Central

Objective To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in ?-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively) can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber) diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal ?-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet. PMID:25636326

Jurgo?ski, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Ju?kiewicz, Jerzy

2015-01-01

299

Evolution of Tumor Metabolism might Reflect Carcinogenesis as a Reverse Evolution process (Dismantling of Multicellularity).  

PubMed

Carcinogenesis occurs through a series of steps from normal into benign and finally malignant phenotype. This cancer evolutionary trajectory has been accompanied by similar metabolic transformation from normal metabolism into Pasteur and/or Crabtree-Effects into Warburg-Effect and finally Cannibalism and/or Lactate-Symbiosis. Due to lactate production as an end-product of glycolysis, tumor colonies acquire new phenotypes that rely on lactate as energetic fuel. Presence of Warburg-Effect indicates that some tumor cells undergo partial (if not complete) de-endosymbiosis and so cancer cells have been become unicellular microorganism (anti-Dollo's Law) specially when they evolve to develop cannibalism as way of metabolism while oxidative types of cells that rely on lactate, as their energetic fuel, might represent extra-endosymbiosis. Thus, at the end, the cancer colony could be considered as integrated metabolic ecosystem. Proper understanding of tumor metabolism will contribute to discover potential anticancer agents besides conventional chemotherapy. PMID:24310356

Alfarouk, Khalid O; Shayoub, Mohammed E A; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Elhassan, Gamal O; Bashir, Adil H H

2011-01-01

300

Compartmentalization and molecular traffic in secondary metabolism: a new understanding of established cellular processes  

PubMed Central

Great progress has been made in understanding the regulation of expression of genes involved in secondary metabolism. Less is known about the mechanisms that govern the spatial distribution of the enzymes, cofactors, and substrates that mediate catalysis of secondary metabolites within the cell. Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus synthesize an array of secondary metabolites and provide useful systems to analyze the mechanisms that mediate the temporal and spatial regulation of secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. For example, aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. parasiticus has been studied intensively because this mycotoxin is highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic in humans and animals. Using aflatoxin synthesis to illustrate key concepts, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which sub-cellular compartmentalization and intra-cellular molecular traffic contribute to the initiation and completion of secondary metabolism within the cell. We discuss the recent discovery of aflatoxisomes, specialized trafficking vesicles that participate in the compartmentalization of aflatoxin synthesis and export of the toxin to the cell exterior; this work provides a new and clearer understanding of how cells integrate secondary metabolism into basic cellular metabolism via the intracellular trafficking machinery. PMID:20519149

Roze, Ludmila V.; Chanda, Anindya; Linz, John E.

2010-01-01

301

Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC. PMID:25103035

Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

2014-10-01

302

Laboratory study of the clogging process and factors affecting clogging in a tailings dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory simulation of clogging in the Lixi tailings dam (Shaanxi Province, China) is urgently required because clogging is an important factor affecting the dam stability. This work firstly presents the results of ferrous iron oxidation experiments using buffer solution. The results indicate that the ferrous iron oxidation follows first order kinetics, and the oxidation process is strongly dependent on pH, a higher pH resulting in a higher oxidation rate. Furthermore, when the pH exceeds 7.0, the oxidation rate constant increases significantly. Secondly, a column experiment was carried out under the conditions of the pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.5 and the natural oxygen supply. Ferrous iron oxidation and precipitation were found to reach equilibrium under these conditions. After 23 days, the column experiment was stopped when the clogging materials blocked the column outlet. The clogging materials were found to be a mixture of ferric hydroxide and its converted products, and these existed in amorphous form with a loose cluster microstructure according to the results of XRD and SEM.

Wu, Jun; Wu, Yanqing; Lu, Jian

2008-05-01

303

Final Project Report - Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloriethylene Co-Metabolism: Co-Metabolic Enzyme Activity Probes and Modeling Co-Metabolism and Attenuation  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethene (TCE) (also known as trichloroethylene) is a common contaminant in groundwater. TCE is regulated in drinking water at a concentration of 5 µg/L, and a small mass of TCE has the potential to contaminant large volumes of water. The physical and chemical characteristics of TCE allow it to migrate quickly in most subsurface environments, and thus large plumes of contaminated groundwater can form from a single release. The migration and persistence of TCE in groundwater can be limited by biodegradation. TCE can be biodegraded via different processes under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. Anaerobic biodegradation is widely recognized, but aerobic degradation is less well recognized. Under aerobic conditions, TCE can be oxidized to non hazardous conditions via cometabolic pathways. This study applied enzyme activity probes to demonstrate that cometabolic degradation of TCE occurs in aerobic groundwater at several locations, used laboratory microcosm studies to determine aerobic degradation rates, and extrapolated lab-measured rates to in situ rates based on concentrations of microorganisms with active enzymes involved in cometabolic TCE degradation. Microcosms were constructed using basalt chips that were inoculated with microorganisms to groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory Test Area North TCE plume by filling a set of Flow-Through In Situ Reactors (FTISRs) with chips and placing the FTISRs into the open interval of a well for several months. A parametric study was performed to evaluate predicted degradation rates and concentration trends using a competitive inhibition kinetic model, which accounts for competition for enzyme active sites by both a growth substrate and a cometabolic substrate. The competitive inhibition kinetic expression was programmed for use in the RT3D reactive transport package. Simulations of TCE plume evolution using both competitive inhibition kinetics and first order decay were performed.

Starr, Robert C; Orr, Brennon R; Lee, M Hope; Delwiche, Mark

2010-02-26

304

Evaluation of Geochemical Processes Affecting Uranium Sequestration and Longevity of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of effective remediation techniques for protecting existing drinking water supplies and for mitigating existing contamination problems requires evaluating both the contaminant sequestration processes and the secondary reactions affecting the long term stability of contaminant attenuation. Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) provide a means for passive remediation of dissolved groundwater contaminants and may be an effective strategy for remediation of uranium (U) groundwater contamination provided that long term stability of the sequestered U can be achieved for the geochemical conditions of the aquifer expected subsequent to remediation. Understanding the chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in U uptake and PRB performance are critical to evaluating the potential for release of sequestered U and for improved design of remediation devices. We are using synchrotron X-ray techniques to investigate U sequestration reaction mechanisms and biogeochemical processes in PRB materials recovered from a 9-year field demonstration of zero-valent iron (ZVI) and bone char apatite PRBs in a U contaminated aquifer near Fry Canyon, Utah. X-ray microprobe mapping of iron phases shows that extensive secondary precipitation of mackinawite, siderite and aragonite in the ZVI PRB has resulted from ZVI corrosion coupled with microbial sulfate reduction. Bulk U-EXAFS measurements and micron-scale U-oxidation state mapping indicates that U removal occurs largely by reduction and precipitation of a UO2-like U(IV) phase on the ZVI surfaces, and that the sequestered U is often buried by the secondary Fe precipitates. These findings are significant to the efficacy of ZVI PRBs for remediation of U and other contaminants in that the ongoing secondary phase precipitation cements grains and fills internal porosity resulting in the observed decreased PRB permeability and limits subsequent U removal, but likely limits oxidative remobilization of U. In the bone char apatite PRB, elevated levels of U uptake were observed at up to 20-times above the maximum for U(VI) sorption by surface complexation expected for this material. XAS measurements show that the sequestered U is predominantly in the +4 oxidation state, instead of +6, indicating a reduction process. Bulk U-EXAFS is consistent with the reduced U(IV) occurring as a sorbed species instead of forming biogenic urananite, and thus may be more likely to undergo re-oxidation and mobilization.

Fuller, C. C.; Webb, S.; Bargar, J.; Naftz, D. L.

2009-12-01

305

Metabolic imbalance in affective disorders  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Depression is the most frequent mental disorder encountered in all medical services. Multiple studies have shown that depression may predict the onset of different conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and many other. The relation between depression and diabetes is still unclear. Materials and methods: In this study we evaluated patients with both major depressive disorder and type 1 or 2 diabetes, and observed the evolution of depressive and diabetes symptoms under adequate treatment. This observational, naturalistic study included 43 patients admitted in a psychiatric ward of "Alexandru Obregia" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 or 2. All patients received antidepressant and antidiabetic treatment. Results: The majority of patients were women (60.5%), and the mean age was 49.7 years. Average hospitalization period was 23 days, with longer period of hospitalization of patients with DM type 1. Patients had severe depression. Mean value of fasting glycemia at admission was of 174 mg / dl, but it decreased at discharge, in paralel with the amelioration of depression. Conclusions: The depression associated with DM type 1 is more severe. These patients require higher doses of antidepressants and longer hospitalization period. Amelioration of depression seems to have a positive impact on the blood sugar level of depressed patients with diabetes. PMID:23599818

Ladea, M; Barbu, CM; Rosu, DP

2013-01-01

306

Leucine affects the fibroblastic Vero cells stimulating the cell proliferation and modulating the proteolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, exert regulatory influences on protein and carbohydrate metabolism, ribosome\\u000a biogenesis and gene expression. This study investigated the effects of leucine in fibroblastic cells analysing viability,\\u000a proliferation, morphology, proteolysis enzymes activities and protein turnover. After exposure to culture medium enriched\\u000a with 25 or 50 ?M leucine for 24, 48 and 72 h, Vero cells have no alterations on

Estela Maria Gonçalves; Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes

2010-01-01

307

Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine emotion self-regulation and coregulation in romantic couples using daily self-reports of positive and negative affect. We fit these data using a damped linear oscillator model specified as a latent differential equation to investigate affect dynamics at the individual level and coupled influences for the 2 partners in each couple.…

Steele, Joel S.; Ferrer, Emilio

2011-01-01

308

Emotional Processing in High-Functioning Autism--Physiological Reactivity and Affective Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined physiological response and affective report in 10 adult individuals with autism and 10 typically developing controls. An emotion induction paradigm using stimuli from the International Affective Picture System was applied. Blood pressure, heart and self-ratings of experienced valence (pleasure), arousal and dominance (control)…

Bolte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Poustka, Fritz

2008-01-01

309

Rapid assessment of the toxicity of oil sands process-affected waters using fish cell lines.  

PubMed

Rapid and reliable toxicity assessment of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) is needed to support oil sands reclamation projects. Conventional toxicity tests using whole animals are relatively slow, costly, and often subjective, while at the same time requiring the sacrifice of test organisms as is the case with lethal dosage/concentration assays. A nonlethal alternative, using fish cell lines, has been developed for its potential use in supporting oil sands reclamation planning and to help predict the viability of aquatic reclamation models such as end-pit lakes. This study employed six fish cell lines (WF-2, GFSk-S1, RTL-W1, RTgill-W1, FHML, FHMT) in 24 h viability assays for rapid fluorometric assessment of cellular integrity and functionality. Forty-nine test water samples collected from the surface of oil sands developments in the Athabasca Oil Sands deposit, north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, were evaluated in blind. Small subsample volumes (8 ml) were mixed with 2 ml of 5× concentrated exposure media and used for direct cell exposures. All cell line responses in terms of viability as measured by Alamar blue assay, correlated well with the naphthenic acids (NA) content in the samples (R (2) between 0.4519 and 0.6171; p<0.0001) when data comparisons were performed after the bioassays. NA or total acid-extractable organics group has been shown to be responsible for most of the acute toxicity of OSPW and our results further corroborate this. The multifish cell line bioassay provides a strong degree of reproducibility among tested cell lines and good relative sensitivity of the cell line bioassay as compared to available in vivo data that could lead to cost effective, high-throughput screening assays. PMID:23263937

Sansom, Bryan; Vo, Nguyen T K; Kavanagh, Richard; Hanner, Robert; Mackinnon, Michael; Dixon, D George; Lee, Lucy E J

2013-01-01

310

Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

1994-01-01

311

Management type affects composition and facilitative processes in altoandine dry grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed our study in the Dry Puna of the southern Peruvian Andes. Through a comparative approach we aimed to assess the effects of the two management systems, low grazing pressure by wild camelids vs. high grazing pressure by domestic livestock and periodic burning. Our general hypothesis was that the traditional high disturbance regime affects the dry Puna species diversity and composition through modifications of the magnitude of plant-plant-interactions and changes of the community structure due to shifts in species dominance. In 40 plots of 10 × 10 m, the cover value of each species was recorded and the species richness, floristic diversity, and community similarity of each treatment were compared. For each disturbance regime, differences of soil features (organic matter, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and potassium content) were tested. To evaluate plant-plant interactions, 4 linear transect divided into 500 plots of 10 × 10 cm were laid out and co-occurrence analysis was performed. We found that different disturbance regimes were associated with differences in the floristic composition, and that the high disturbance condition had lower species diversity and evenness. A decrease of tall species such as Festuca orthophylla and increase of dwarf and spiny Tetraglochin cristatum shrubs was observed as well. In addition, different disturbance intensities caused differences in the functional composition of the plant communities, since species with avoidance strategies are selected by high grazing pressure. High disturbance intensity was also associated to differences of soil features and to different clumped spatial structure of the dry Puna. Our results indicate also that: positive interactions are often species-specific mainly depending on the features of nurse and beneficiary species; the importance of positive interaction is higher at low grazing pressure than at high disturbance intensity; the magnitude and direction of the herbivory-mediated facilitation processes may be traced back to the grazing pressure of wild camelids.

Catorci, Andrea; Cesaretti, Sabrina; Velasquez, Jose Luis; Burrascano, Sabina; Zeballos, Horacio

2013-10-01

312

Genetic variation in CACNA1C affects neural processing in major depression.  

PubMed

Genetic studies found the A allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1006737 in the CACNA1C gene, which encodes for the alpha 1C subunit of the voltage-dependent, L-type calcium ion channel Cav1.2, to be overrepresented in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered prefrontal brain functioning and impaired semantic verbal fluency (SVF) are robust findings in these patients. A recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study found the A allele to be associated with poorer performance and increased left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation during SVF tasks in healthy subjects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of rs1006737 on neural processing during SVF in MDD. In response to semantic category cues, 40 patients with MDD and 40 matched controls overtly generated words while brain activity was measured with fMRI. As revealed by whole brain analyses, genotype significantly affected brain activity in patients. Compared to patients with GG genotype, patients with A allele demonstrated increased task-related activation in the left middle/inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral cerebellum. Patients with A allele also showed enhanced functional coupling between left middle/inferior and right superior/middle frontal gyri. No differential effects of genotype on SVF performance or brain activation were found between diagnostic groups. The current data provide further evidence for an impact of rs1006737 on the left IFG and demonstrate that genetic variation in CACNA1C modulates neural responses in patients with MDD. The observed functional alterations in prefrontal and cerebellar areas might represent a mechanism by which rs1006737 influences susceptibility to MDD. PMID:24612926

Backes, Heidelore; Dietsche, Bruno; Nagels, Arne; Konrad, Carsten; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel

2014-06-01

313

Network reconstruction of platelet metabolism identifies metabolic signature for aspirin resistance  

PubMed Central

Recently there has not been a systematic, objective assessment of the metabolic capabilities of the human platelet. A manually curated, functionally tested, and validated biochemical reaction network of platelet metabolism, iAT-PLT-636, was reconstructed using 33 proteomic datasets and 354 literature references. The network contains enzymes mapping to 403 diseases and 231 FDA approved drugs, alluding to an expansive scope of biochemical transformations that may affect or be affected by disease processes in multiple organ systems. The effect of aspirin (ASA) resistance on platelet metabolism was evaluated using constraint-based modeling, which revealed a redirection of glycolytic, fatty acid, and nucleotide metabolism reaction fluxes in order to accommodate eicosanoid synthesis and reactive oxygen species stress. These results were confirmed with independent proteomic data. The construction and availability of iAT-PLT-636 should stimulate further data-driven, systems analysis of platelet metabolism towards the understanding of pathophysiological conditions including, but not strictly limited to, coagulopathies. PMID:24473230

Thomas, Alex; Rahmanian, Sorena; Bordbar, Aarash; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.; Jamshidi, Neema

2014-01-01

314

Network reconstruction of platelet metabolism identifies metabolic signature for aspirin resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has not been a systematic, objective assessment of the metabolic capabilities of the human platelet. A manually curated, functionally tested, and validated biochemical reaction network of platelet metabolism, iAT-PLT-636, was reconstructed using 33 proteomic datasets and 354 literature references. The network contains enzymes mapping to 403 diseases and 231 FDA approved drugs, alluding to an expansive scope of biochemical transformations that may affect or be affected by disease processes in multiple organ systems. The effect of aspirin (ASA) resistance on platelet metabolism was evaluated using constraint-based modeling, which revealed a redirection of glycolytic, fatty acid, and nucleotide metabolism reaction fluxes in order to accommodate eicosanoid synthesis and reactive oxygen species stress. These results were confirmed with independent proteomic data. The construction and availability of iAT-PLT-636 should stimulate further data-driven, systems analysis of platelet metabolism towards the understanding of pathophysiological conditions including, but not strictly limited to, coagulopathies.

Thomas, Alex; Rahmanian, Sorena; Bordbar, Aarash; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.; Jamshidi, Neema

2014-01-01

315

Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1-165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224-434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (?(34)SSO4 and ?(18)OSO4) verified that the SO4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (?(15)NNO3 and ?(18)ONO3) indicated that NO3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of ?(34)SSO4 and ?(15)NNO3. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different lithologies and land-use patterns. PMID:24727045

Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

2014-07-01

316

Lipid metabolism in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The malignant transformation of cells requires adaptations across multiple metabolic processes to satisfy the energy required for their increased rate of proliferation. Dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been a hallmark of the malignant phenotype; increased lipid accumulation secondary to changes in the levels of a variety of lipid metabolic enzymes has been documented in a variety of tumors, including prostate. Alterations in prostate lipid metabolism include upregulation of several lipogenic enzymes as well as of enzymes that function to oxidize fatty acids as an energy source. Cholesterol metabolism and phospholipid metabolism are also affected. With respect to lipogenesis, most studies have concentrated on increased expression and activity ofthe de novo fatty acid synthesis enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FASN), with suggestions that FASN might function as an oncogene. A central role for fatty acid oxidation in supplying energy to the prostate cancer cell is supported by the observation that the peroxisomal enzyme, ?-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), which facilitates the transformation of branched chain fatty acids to a form suitable for ?-oxidation, is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer compared with normal prostate. Exploitation of the alterations in lipid metabolic pathways in prostate cancer could result in the development of new therapeutic modalities as well as provide candidates for new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AMACR has already proven to be a valuable biomarker in distinguishing normal from malignant prostate tissue, and is used routinely in clinical practice. PMID:25374912

Wu, Xinyu; Daniels, Garrett; Lee, Peng; Monaco, Marie E

2014-01-01

317

Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues.  

PubMed

Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one of seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), blend (FB) (55% T, 35% SFO and 10% LO) and fish oil (FO) blend (40% FO and 60% LO). Pigs were slaughtered at 100 kg BW and autopsies from liver, adipose tissue and muscle semimembranousus were collected for qPCR. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) abundances of genes related to lipogenesis were modified due to dietary treatments in both liver (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACACA) and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD)) and adipose tissue (fatty acid synthase (FASN), ACACA and SCD), but were not affected in semimembranousus muscle. In the liver, the mRNA abundances of genes encoding lipogenic enzymes were highest in pigs fed HOSF and lowest in pigs fed FO. In adipose tissue, the mRNA abundances were highest in pigs fed the NF diet and lowest in pigs fed T. The study demonstrated that dietary FAs stimulate lipogenic enzyme gene expression differently in liver, fat and muscles tissues. PMID:22444377

Duran-Montgé, P; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Esteve-Garcia, E

2009-04-01

318

Facial affect recognition and information processing in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed facial affect recognition and visual attention in a sample of 40 individuals with schizophrenia, at hospitalization and 3months later during an out-patient phase of relative remission. Secondly, at the out-patient phase the performance of the individuals with schizophrenia on tasks of visual attention, facial affect recognition and facial recognition was compared to the performances of a non-psychiatric

Jean Addington; Donald Addington

1998-01-01

319

Cortico-subcortical metabolic correlates of olfactory processing in healthy resting subjects  

PubMed Central

A wide network of interconnected areas was previously found in neuroimaging studies involving normal as well as pathological subjects; however literature seems to suffer from a lack of investigation in glucose metabolism behaviour under olfactory condition. Thus, the present work describe for the first time a pure olfactory related brain response of metabolism by using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography in eleven resting subjects undergoing a neutral and a pure olfactory condition. By contrasting these experimental phases, it was possible to depict a re-organization pattern of default mode network structures in a relatively ecological environment. Moreover, by correlating such pattern with a battery of validated olfactory and neuropsychological tests, our work allowed in showing peculiar correlation data that could cluster the subjects sample in a certain range of normality. We believe the present study could integrate the current knowledge in olfactory research and could be a start-up for future contributions. PMID:24888510

Alessandrini, Marco; Micarelli, Alessandro; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Candidi, Matteo; Bruno, Ernesto; Di Pietro, Barbara; Schillaci, Orazio; Pagani, Marco

2014-01-01

320

Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.  

PubMed

The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed. PMID:21194844

Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

2011-05-01

321

PlantL-ascorbic acid: chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are unable to synthesise L-ascorbic acid (L-AA, ascorbate, vitamin C), and are thus entirely dependent upon dietary sources to meet needs. In both plant and animal metabolism, the biological functions of L-ascorbic acid are centred around the antioxidant properties of this molecule. Considerable evidence has been accruing in the last two decades of the importance of L-AA in protecting

Mark W Davey; Marc Van Montagu; Maite Sanmartin; Angelos Kanellis; Nicholas Smirnoff; John J Strain; Derek Favell; John Fletcher

2000-01-01

322

Assessing Factors Affecting Implementation of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The capability of organizations to operate on the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework is reliant on ITIL process measurements. Appropriate ITIL process measurements help ensure desired outcomes, enable corrective actions to take place prior to process failure, and direct process activities towards continuous improvement.…

Peterson, Kristy

2010-01-01

323

Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow  

SciTech Connect

Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and/or injected fluids is critical to predict important chemical behaviors affecting fluid flow, such as mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. We successfully achieved the project goal and objectives by demonstrating the ability of our modeling technology to correctly predict the complex pH dependent solution chemistry of the Al3+ cation and its hydrolysis species: Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)30, and Al(OH)4- as well as the solubility of common aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate minerals in aqueous brines containing components (Na, K, Cl) commonly dominating hydrothermal fluids. In the sodium chloride system, where experimental data for model parameterization are most plentiful, the model extends to 300°C. Determining the stability fields of aluminum species that control the solubility of aluminum-containing minerals as a function of temperature and composition has been a major objective of research in hydrothermal chemistry.

Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

2008-05-29

324

Affective and Deliberative Processes in Risky Choice: Age Differences in Risk Taking in the Columbia Card Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated risk taking and underlying information use in 13- to 16- and 17- to 19-year-old adolescents and in adults in 4 experiments, using a novel dynamic risk-taking task, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). The authors investigated risk taking under differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes with 2 versions of…

Figner, Bernd; Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Wilkening, Friedrich; Weber, Elke U.

2009-01-01

325

Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…

Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.

2012-01-01

326

Indigenous microbes survive in situ ozonation improving biodegradation of dissolved organic matter in aged oil sands process-affected waters.  

PubMed

The oil sands industry faces significant challenges in developing effective remediation technologies for process-affected water stored in tailings ponds. Naphthenic acids, a complex mixture of cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids, have been of particular concern because they concentrate in tailings ponds and are a component of the acutely toxic fraction of process water. Ozone treatment has been demonstrated as an effective means of rapidly degrading naphthenic acids, reducing process water toxicity, and increasing its biodegradability following seeding with the endogenous process water bacteria. This study is the first to examine subsequent in situ biodegradation following ozone pretreatment. Two aged oil sands process-affected waters from experimental reclamation tailings ponds were ozonated to reduce the dissolved organic carbon, to which naphthenic acids contributed minimally (<1mgL(-1)). Treatment with an ozone dose of 50mgL(-1) improved the 84d biodegradability of remaining dissolved organic carbon during subsequent aerobic incubation (11-13mgL(-1) removed from aged process-affected waters versus 5mgL(-1) when not pretreated with ozone). The ozone-treated indigenous microbial communities were as capable of degrading organic matter as the same community not exposed to ozone. This supports ozonation coupled with biodegradation as an effective and feasible treatment option. PMID:24112657

Brown, Lisa D; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas; Wang, Nan; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Martin, Jonathan W; Fedorak, Phillip M; Ulrich, Ania C

2013-11-01

327

How need for cognition affects the processing of achievement-related information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article analyzed, how need for cognition (NFC) influences the formation of performance expectancies. When processing information, individuals with lower NFC often rely on salient information and shortcuts compared to individuals higher in NFC. We assume that these preferences of processing will also make individuals low in NFC more responsive to salient achievement-related cues because the processing of salient

Oliver Dickhäuser; Marc-André Reinhard; Claudia Diener; Alex Bertrams

2009-01-01

328

The Eagle and the Circle of Gold Stars: Does the Bologna Process Affect US Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…

Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen

2009-01-01

329

Metacognition and Affect: What Can Metacognitive Experiences Tell Us about the Learning Process?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims at highlighting the importance for learning of one of the facets of metacognition, namely metacognitive experiences (ME) that comprise feelings, judgments or estimates, and online task-specific knowledge. The emphasis is on the affective character of ME, which has received little attention in the past. Unlike online task-specific…

Efklides, Anastasia

2006-01-01

330

Affective Priming Effects of Musical Sounds on the Processing of Word Meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word

Nikolaus Steinbeis; Stefan Koelsch

2011-01-01

331

Ascorbic Acid Retention in Shredded Iceberg Lettuce as Affected by Minimal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of slicing method, packaging atmosphere and storage temperature were determined on total ascorbic acid (TAA) content of modified atmosphere packaged shredded lettuce. TAA was extracted from the lettuce samples and levels were monitored using either titration with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol solution or an assay kit. Slicing affected (p<0.05) ascorbic acid retention in the order manual tearing > manual slicing >

Catherine Barry-Ryan; David OBeirne

1998-01-01

332

Arousal modulates valence effects on both early and late stages of affective picture processing in a passive viewing task.  

PubMed

Valence and arousal are primary dimensions of affective stimuli. An interaction of these two factors on affective processing is largely unknown. In this study, the processing of affective pictures was investigated in an orthogonal valence (positive vs. negative) by arousal (high vs. low) task design. Participants were instructed to passively view each presented picture and did not need to make any responses. The valence by arousal interaction was observed on three event-related potential (ERP) components, including the P2 (160-190 ms), N2 (220-320 ms) and late positive potential (LPP) (400-700 ms). This interaction revealed that negative pictures evoked larger neural responses compared with positive pictures (i.e., negative bias) at the high-arousal level, whereas negative pictures evoked smaller neural responses than positive pictures (i.e., positive offset) at the low-arousal level. The current results suggest that the effect of emotional valence on affective picture perception is modulated by levels of arousal at both early and late stages of processing. Finally, the main effect of valence was evident in the P1 component (90-110 ms) and arousal effect in the N1 component (120-150 ms). PMID:24601745

Feng, Chunliang; Li, Wanqing; Tian, Tengxiang; Luo, Yi; Gu, Ruolei; Zhou, Chenglin; Luo, Yue-Jia

2014-01-01

333

On the processing of metabolic information through metabolite-gene communication networks: an approach for modelling causality.  

PubMed

Gene-metabolite correlation networks of three independent biological systems were interrogated using an approach to define, and subsequently model, causality. The major goal of this work was to analyse how information from those metabolites, that displayed a rapid response to perturbation of the biological system, is processed through the response network to provide signal-specific adaptation of metabolism. For this purpose, comparison of network topologies was carried out on three different groups of system elements: transcription factors, other genes and metabolites, with special emphasis placed on those features which are possible sites of metabolic regulation or response propagation. The degree of connectivity in all three analysed gene-metabolite networks followed power-law and exponential functions, whilst a comparison of connectivities of the various cellular entities suggested, that metabolites are less involved in the regulation of the sulfur stress response than in the ripening of tomatoes (in which metabolites seem to have an even greater regulatory role than transcription factors). These findings reflect different degree of metabolic regulation for distinct biological processes. Implementing causality into the network allowed classification of metabolite-gene associations into those with causal directionality from gene to metabolite and from metabolite to gene. Several metabolites were positioned relatively early in the causal hierarchy and possessed many connections to the downstream elements. Such metabolites were considered to have higher regulatory potential. For the biological example of hypo-sulfur stress response in Arabidopsis, the highest regulatory potential scores were established for fructose and sucrose, isoleucine, methionine and sinapic acid. Further developments in profiling techniques will allow greater cross-systems comparisons, necessary for reliability and universality checks of inferred regulatory capacities of the particular metabolites. PMID:17544461

Szymanski, Jedrzej; Bielecka, Monika; Carrari, Fernando; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hoefgen, Rainer; Nikiforova, Victoria J

2007-01-01

334

The Role of the Parent Compound Vitamin D with Respect to Metabolism and Function: Why Clinical Dose Intervals Can Affect Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Context: There is no doubt that vitamin D must be activated to the hormonal form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to achieve full biological activity or that many tissues participate in this activation process—be it endocrine or autocrine. We believe that not only is 25-hydroxyvitamin D important to tissue delivery for this activation process, but also that intact vitamin D has a pivotal role in this process. Objective: In this review, evidence on the vitamin D endocrine/autocrine system is presented and discussed in relation to vitamin D-binding protein affinity, circulating half-lives, and enzymatic transformations of vitamin D metabolites, and how these affect biological action in any given tissue. Conclusions: Circulating vitamin D, the parent compound, likely plays an important physiological role with respect to the vitamin D endocrine/autocrine system, as a substrate in many tissues, not originally thought to be important. Based on emerging data from the laboratory, clinical trials, and data on circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D amassed during many decades, it is likely that for the optimal functioning of these systems, significant vitamin D should be available on a daily basis to ensure stable circulating concentrations, implying that variation in vitamin D dosing schedules could have profound effects on the outcomes of clinical trials because of the short circulating half-life of intact vitamin D. PMID:24106283

Wagner, Carol L.

2013-01-01

335

Lipid metabolism in mitochondrial membranes.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial membranes have a unique lipid composition necessary for proper shape and function of the organelle. Mitochondrial lipid metabolism involves biosynthesis of the phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol, the latter is a precursor of the late endosomal lipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate. It also includes mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis necessary for the formation of the lipid cofactor lipoic acid. Furthermore the synthesis of coenzyme Q takes place in mitochondria as well as essential parts of the steroid and vitamin D metabolism. Lipid transport and remodelling, which are necessary for tailoring and maintaining specific membrane properties, are just partially unravelled. Mitochondrial lipids are involved in organelle maintenance, fission and fusion, mitophagy and cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis. Mutations in TAZ, SERAC1 and AGK affect mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism and cause Barth syndrome, MEGDEL and Sengers syndrome, respectively. In these disorders an abnormal mitochondrial energy metabolism was found, which seems to be due to disturbed protein-lipid interactions, affecting especially enzymes of the oxidative phosphorylation. Since a growing number of enzymes and transport processes are recognised as parts of the mitochondrial lipid metabolism, a further increase of lipid-related disorders can be expected. PMID:25082432

Mayr, Johannes A

2015-01-01

336

Relative saliency in change signals affects perceptual comparison and decision processes in change detection.  

PubMed

Change detection requires perceptual comparison and decision processes on different features of multiattribute objects. How relative salience between two feature-changes influences the processes has not been addressed. This study used the systems factorial technology to investigate the processes when detecting changes in a Gabor patch with visual inputs from orientation and spatial frequency channels. Two feature-changes were equally salient in Experiment 1, but a frequency-change was more salient than an orientation-change in Experiment 2. Results showed that all four observers adopted parallel self-terminating processing with limited- to unlimited-capacity processing in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, one observer used parallel self-terminating processing with unlimited-capacity processing, and the others adopted serial self-terminating processing with limited- to unlimited-capacity processing to detect changes. Postexperimental interview revealed that subjective utility of feature information underlay the adoption of a decision strategy. These results highlight that observers alter decision strategies in change detection depending on the relative saliency in change signals, with relative saliency being determined by both physical salience and subjective weight of feature information. When relative salience exists, individual differences in the process characteristics emerge. PMID:21767050

Yang, Cheng-Ta

2011-12-01

337

Changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns through a wastewater reuse process, including WWTP and SAT concerning depth.  

PubMed

In this study, changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns by BIOLOG assay were discussed through a sequential wastewater reuse process, which includes activated sludge and treated effluent in wastewater treatment plant and soil aquifer treatment (SAT), especially focussing on the surface sand layer in conjunction with the vadose zone, concerning sand depth. A SAT pilot-scale reactor, in which the height of packed sand was 237 cm (vadose zone: 17 cm and saturated zone 220 cm), was operated and fed continuously by discharged anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) treated water. Continuous water quality measurements over a period of 10 months indicated that the treatment performance of the reactor, such as 83.2% dissolved organic carbon removal, appeared to be stable. Core sampling was conducted for the surface sand to a 30 cm depth, and the sample was divided into six 5 cm sections. Microbial activities, as evaluated by fluorescein diacetate, sharply decreased with increasing distance from the surface of the 30 cm core sample, which included significant decreases only 5 cm from the top surface. A similar microbial metabolic pattern containing a high degree of carbohydrates was obtained among the activated sludge, A2O treated water (influent to the SAT reactor) and the 0-5 cm layer of sand. Meanwhile, the 10-30 cm sand core layers showed dramatically different metabolic patterns containing a high degree of carboxylic acid and esters, and it is possible that the metabolic pattern exhibited by the 5-10 cm layer is at a midpoint of the changing pattern. This suggests that the removal of different organic compounds by biodegradation would be expected to occur in the activated sludge and in the SAT sand layers immediately below 5 cm from the top surface. It is possible that changes in the composition of the organic matter and/or transit of the limiting factor for microbial activities from carbon to phosphorus might have contributed to the observed dramatic changes in SAT metabolic patterns. PMID:24835957

Takabe, Yugo; Kameda, Ippei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Fumitake; Itoh, Sadahiko

2014-09-01

338

Pearl millet: parboiling methods and factors affecting the process and cooked product  

E-print Network

(Chairman of Committee) alph D. Waniska (Member) Ronald L. Richter (Member) Ronald L. Richter (Chair, Faculty of Food Science) Edward C A Rung (Head of Department) August 1991 ABSTRACT Pearl Millet: Parboiling Methods and Factors Affecting... cm deep), and dried by various methods described later. TABLE 2. 1 Physical Properties of the Control Pearl Millet Samples. Kernel Size' (WxL ) Endosperm Kernel Sample Texture Appearance 1, 000-Kernel Test Weight Moisture Density Weight (SS...

Clegg, Chally Joel

1991-01-01

339

Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing  

PubMed Central

Patients with cerebellar damage often present with the cerebellar motor syndrome of dysmetria, dysarthria and ataxia, yet cerebellar lesions can also result in the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, including executive, visual-spatial, and linguistic impairments, and affective dysregulation. We have hypothesized that there is topographic organization in the human cerebellum such that the anterior lobe and lobule VIII contain the representation of the sensorimotor cerebellum; lobules VI and VII of the posterior lobe comprise the cognitive cerebellum; and the posterior vermis is the anatomical substrate of the limbic cerebellum. Here we analyze anatomical, functional neuroimaging, and clinical data to test this hypothesis. We find converging lines of evidence supporting regional organization of motor, cognitive, and limbic behaviors in the cerebellum. The cerebellar motor syndrome results when lesions involve the anterior lobe and parts of lobule VI, interrupting cerebellar communication with cerebral and spinal motor systems. Cognitive impairments occur when posterior lobe lesions affect lobules VI and VII (including Crus I, Crus II, and lobule VIIB), disrupting cerebellar modulation of cognitive loops with cerebral association cortices. Neuropsychiatric disorders manifest when vermis lesions deprive cerebrocerebellar limbic loops of cerebellar input. We consider this functional topography to be a consequence of the differential arrangement of connections of the cerebellum with the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebral hemispheres, reflecting cerebellar incorporation into the distributed neural circuits subserving movement, cognition, and emotion. These observations provide testable hypotheses for future investigations. PMID:20152963

Stoodley, Catherine J.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.

2010-01-01

340

External and Internal Motivational Factors Affecting the Joining and Staying Process Within Organizations. An Occasional Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors propose research to test the hypotheses that external or basic factors influence the joining process in organizations, and that internal psychological factors are major determinants of the staying process. They hypothesize that pay, company policy, peer relationships, and working conditions are basic motivators external to the…

Spaulding, Lloyd F.; Scott, W. Wayne

341

Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet: Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the small-group performance situation involved in the task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft and research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. Input variables (e.g., task characteristics, reward structure, position power, stress levels) have been identified and related to the flightcrew process. There have been suggestions that leader and member personality profiles are important predictors

H. Clayton Foushee

1984-01-01

342

Interactions between food texture and oral processing affecting the strawberry flavour of custard desserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between oral processing and food texture on flavour release during consumption of custards were examined using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry {(PTR-MS).} Significant effects of type of flavour compound, custard texture, oral processing protocol, and subjects as well as interactions were observed.

Saskia van Ruth; Eugenio Aprea; Amaya Rey Uriarte; Wender L. P. Bredie; Mikael Agerlin Petersen

2006-01-01

343

Process dissociation of familiarity and recollection in children: Response deadline affects recollection but not familiarity.  

PubMed

According to dual-process theories, recollection (slow and associated with contextual details) and familiarity (fast and automatic) are two independent processes underlying recognition memory. An adapted version of the process dissociation paradigm was used to measure recognition memory in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 1, it was found that 5-year-olds already recollect details of items (i.e., number). Recollection increased particularly between 5 and 7years. Familiarity differed between 5years and adulthood. In Experiment 2, under limited response time during retrieval, recollection was eliminated in 5-year-olds and reduced across all ages, whereas familiarity was left unaffected. Together, these findings are consistent with dual-process theories of recognition memory and provide support for two processes underlying recognition memory from a developmental perspective. PMID:25544395

Koenig, Laura; Wimmer, Marina C; Hollins, Timothy J

2015-03-01

344

Development of capability for microtopography-resolving simulations of hydrologic processes in permafrost affected regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frozen soils of the Arctic and subarctic regions contain vast amounts of stored organic carbon. This carbon is vulnerable to release to the atmosphere as temperatures warm and permafrost degrades. Understanding the response of the subsurface and surface hydrologic system to degrading permafrost is key to understanding the rate, timing, and chemical form of potential carbon releases to the atmosphere. Simulating the hydrologic system in degrading permafrost regions is challenging because of the potential for topographic evolution and associated drainage network reorganization as permafrost thaws and massive ground ice melts. The critical process models required for simulating hydrology include subsurface thermal hydrology of freezing/thawing soils, thermal processes within ice wedges, mechanical deformation processes, overland flow, and surface energy balances including snow dynamics. A new simulation tool, the Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is being developed to simulate these coupled processes. The computational infrastructure must accommodate fully unstructured grids that track evolving topography, allow accurate solutions on distorted grids, provide robust and efficient solutions on highly parallel computer architectures, and enable flexibility in the strategies for coupling among the various processes. The ATS is based on Amanzi (Moulton et al. 2012), an object-oriented multi-process simulator written in C++ that provides much of the necessary computational infrastructure. Status and plans for the ATS including major hydrologic process models and validation strategies will be presented. Highly parallel simulations of overland flow using high-resolution digital elevation maps of polygonal patterned ground landscapes demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Simulations coupling three-phase subsurface thermal hydrology with a simple thaw-induced subsidence model illustrate the strong feedbacks among the processes. D. Moulton, M. Berndt, M. Day, J. Meza, et al., High-Level Design of Amanzi, the Multi-Process High Performance Computing Simulator, Technical Report ASCEM-HPC-2011-03-1, DOE Environmental Management, 2012.

Painter, S.; Moulton, J. D.; Berndt, M.; Coon, E.; Garimella, R.; Lewis, K. C.; Manzini, G.; Mishra, P.; Travis, B. J.; Wilson, C. J.

2012-12-01

345

How finite sample dimensions affect the reversal process of magnetic dot arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the magnetization reversal of a magnetic dot array by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetic force microscopy measurements as well as micromagnetic simulations. We find that the finite dimensions of the dot array introduce a global configurational anisotropy that promotes state transitions first in dots near the sample boundaries. From there, the reversal process expands towards the sample body by means of collective magnetization processes originating in the magnetostatic coupling between the dots. These processes are characterized by transition avalanches and the formation of magnetization chains. These findings are important in the development of applications that rely on a robust control of dot magnetization states in dot arrays.

Van de Wiele, Ben; Fin, Samuele; Sarella, Anandakumar; Vavassori, Paolo; Bisero, Diego

2014-10-01

346

Malate Plays a Crucial Role in Starch Metabolism, Ripening, and Soluble Solid Content of Tomato Fruit and Affects Postharvest Softening[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that the organic acid content of a fruit is regarded as one of its most commercially important quality traits when assessed by the consumer, relatively little is known concerning the physiological importance of organic acid metabolism for the fruit itself. Here, we evaluate the effect of modifying malate metabolism in a fruit-specific manner, by reduction of the activities of either mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase or fumarase, via targeted antisense approaches in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). While these genetic perturbations had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield, they had dramatic consequences for fruit metabolism, as well as unanticipated changes in postharvest shelf life and susceptibility to bacterial infection. Detailed characterization suggested that the rate of ripening was essentially unaltered but that lines containing higher malate were characterized by lower levels of transitory starch and a lower soluble sugars content at harvest, whereas those with lower malate contained higher levels of these carbohydrates. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase revealed that it correlated with the accumulation of transitory starch. Taken together with the altered activation state of the plastidial malate dehydrogenase and the modified pigment biosynthesis of the transgenic lines, these results suggest that the phenotypes are due to an altered cellular redox status. The combined data reveal the importance of malate metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development and confirm the importance of transitory starch in the determination of agronomic yield in this species. PMID:21239646

Centeno, Danilo C.; Osorio, Sonia; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Bertolo, Ana L.F.; Carneiro, Raphael T.; Araújo, Wagner L.; Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Michalska, Justyna; Rohrmann, Johannes; Geigenberger, Peter; Oliver, Sandra N.; Stitt, Mark; Carrari, Fernando; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2011-01-01

347

Anthocyanin absorption, metabolism, and distribution from a wild blueberry-enriched diet (Vaccinium angustifolium) is affected by diet duration in the Sprague-Dawley rat.  

PubMed

The effect of wild blueberry consumption on anthocyanin (ACNs) distribution and metabolism in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated. Thirty-two rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks with a control (C) or a wild blueberry-enriched diet (8%) (WB). Anthocyanin profile in plasma, urine, feces, brain, and liver was evaluated by LC-MS/MS, and significantly increased in urine and not in feces after 8 weeks on the WB diet compared to that in 4 weeks, but no anthocyanins were detected in plasma, liver, and brain samples either in the C or WB groups. Metabolites of ACNs were detected in the plasma, urine, feces, and tissues of both the C and WB groups, but the urinary excretion of hippuric acid increased significantly after 4 and 8 weeks of WB consumption. Thus, it seems that ACNs are metabolized by the intestinal microflora to respective phenyl-alkyl acids, which can be further metabolized to benzoic acid. In conclusion, ACNs are bioavailable in rats, and the extent of their metabolism and excretion is based on diet duration. Additionally, urinary hippuric acid content could represent a potential biomarker of ACNs absorption and metabolism in the SD rat under the present experimental conditions. PMID:20030330

Del Bò, Cristian; Ciappellano, Salvatore; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Martini, Daniela; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa

2010-02-24

348

Quality of mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype, minimal processing and edible coating  

E-print Network

TX30129 had the highest sugar and carotenoid levels. White surface discoloration on mini-peeled carrots was noted 7 days after processing. Total sugars, sucrose, total carotenoids and volatile terpenoid levels decreased during storage. Total soluble...

Dewi, Tjin Tjin

2012-06-07

349

Nitrate removal from drained and reflooded fen soils affected by soil N transformation processes and plant uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about nitrate transformation processes and how they are affected by different plants is essential in order to reduce the loss of valuable N fertiliser as well as to prevent environmental pollution due to nitrate leaching or N2O emission after fertilisation or the reflooding of degraded fens with nitrate-containing municipal sewage. Therefore four microcosm 15N tracer experiments were performed to

Ulrike Rückauf; Jürgen Augustin; Rolf Russow; Wolfgang Merbach

2004-01-01

350

Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes: the role of vestibular information beyond ocular reflexes and control of posture  

PubMed Central

A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: (1) Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths), body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals), in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. (2) Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. (3) Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are—at least in part—associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood. PMID:24904327

Mast, Fred W.; Preuss, Nora; Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia

2014-01-01

351

3D seismic images of tectonic, sedimentary and fluid flow processes affecting the seafloor offshore West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seafloor along the passive margin offshore West Africa is affected by numerous processes, ranging from lithosphere scale subsidence offshore, upper crustal gravity spreading, rafting and diapirism of mobile salt and shale deposits during the Cenozoic, deeperwater sedimentation and erosion governed by factors such as salt/shale tectonics, oceanography, climate, eustasy, sediment supply and fluid expulsion due to overpressures linked with sedimentation and hydrocarbon generation. These factors interact to produce the present-day bathymetry as observed in multibeam and 3D seismic-derived subsea-scapes. This paper will deconstruct bathymetric images derived from exploration 3D seismic volumes and relate the observed features to specific geological processes which are revealed in full 3-dimensional detail by the seismic data that is now widely available along the continental margins of the southern and central Atlantic. It will be demonstrated how the present seafloor, at the resolution afforded by the seismic images (few m in depth and 10-20 m in width) is affected by different length and time scales of geological processes, each spanning 3-4 orders of magnitude. It is further shown that fluid expulsion can be a dominant contributor to seafloor bathymetry in some regions, particularly those affected by salt or shale tectonics, where fluid expulsion can often be linked with deeper source, reservoir and (leaking) trap configurations, stratal aquifers and seal bypass systems. Other regions may in contrast be entirely shaped by sedimentation and erosion with limited impact of slope tectonics and fluid expulsion. Insights and understanding derived from exploration 3D seismic images can thus help interpret and 'ground truth' bathymetric images, even without seabed samples, leading to more confident interpretation of (paleo-) oceanographic, sedimentary and tectonic processes that affect seafloor bathymetry and associated habitats and hazards.

Huuse, M.

2012-04-01

352

Institutional processes affecting the provision of water resources for public recreational use in Texas  

E-print Network

resources. The allocation of navigable rivers and coastal beaches in Texas for public recreation- al use are subject to such institutional processes. In order to determine the effects of such institu- tional processes on the allocation of water resources... of common and civil law systems concerning public use of water resources was examined. The allocation of coastal beaches for public recreational use was a result of the Texas Open Beaches Act of 1959 which allowed free and unrestricted lateral access...

Richardson, William Earl

2012-06-07

353

Self-Referential Processing in Women With PTSD: Affective and Neural Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative self-referential processing and identity disturbance are not uncommon clinical outcomes in adults who were significantly maltreated as children. In this study a novel cognitive paradigm, akin to mirror viewing while experiencing negative versus positive thoughts, was developed to investigate verbal and visual self-referential processing disturbances in women with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Relative to women without PTSD, women

Paul A. Frewen; David J. A. Dozois; Richard W. J. Neufeld; Maria Densmore; Todd K. Stevens; Ruth A. Lanius

2011-01-01

354

Brain processing of emotional scenes in aging: effect of arousal and affective context.  

PubMed

Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age. PMID:24932857

Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie

2014-01-01

355

Brain Processing of Emotional Scenes in Aging: Effect of Arousal and Affective Context  

PubMed Central

Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age. PMID:24932857

Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie

2014-01-01

356

Probing metabolic processes of intact soil microbial communities using position-specific 13C-labeled glucose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils represent one of the largest carbon pools in the terrestrial biosphere and fluxes into or out of this pool may feedback to current climate change. Understanding the mechanisms behind microbial processes regulating C cycling, microbial turnover, and soil organic matter stabilization is hindered by our lack of understanding of the details of microbial physiology in soils. Position-specific 13C labeled metabolic tracers are proposed as a new way to probe microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, C use efficiency (the proportion of substrate incorporated into microbial biomass), and enables the determination of C fluxes through the various C metabolic pathways. We determined the 13CO2 production from microbial communities within a one hour time frame by adding six isotopomers (1-13C, 2-13C, 3-13C, 4-13C, 5-13C, 6-13C) of glucose in parallel incubations using a young volcanic soil (Pinyon-juniper wood, near Sunset Crater, Flagstaff, Arizona). We compared the measured rates of position-specific 13CO2 production with modeled results based on glucose (1-13C and U-13C) and pyruvate (1-13C and 2,3-13C) incubations. These labeling and modeling techniques may improve our ability to analyze the biochemistry and ecophysiology of intact soil microbial communities.

Fairbanks, D. E.; Hungate, B. A.; KOCH, G. W.; Schwartz, E.; Dijkstra, P.

2012-12-01

357

Effects of different garlic-derived allyl sulfides on peroxidative processes and anaerobic sulfur metabolism in mouse liver.  

PubMed

Biological activity of garlic has been attributed to organosulfur compounds, most of all to oil-soluble allyl sulfides, such as diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS). This study evaluated the effectiveness of garlic-derived allyl sulfides in influencing peroxidative processes, levels of thiols and sulfane sulfur and its metabolic enzymes in normal mouse liver cells. Various allyl sulfides (DAS, DADS and DATS) dissolved in corn oil were given intraperitoneally to mice for 10 days. After sacrificing the mice, biochemical assays were performed in liver homogenates and in plasma in order to establish liver function. All allyl sulfides under study had a beneficial effect in the mouse liver since they decreased reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione S-transferase activity and non-protein sulfhydryl group level. Moreover, DADS and DATS elevated total sulfane sulfur pool and activity of sulfane sulfur biosynthetic enzymes. The increase in sulfane sulfur level entailed augmentation of its antioxidant and regulatory capacities. Garlic-derived allyl sulfides exhibited antioxidant action in the liver and elevated anaerobic cysteine metabolism leading to the formation of sulfane sulfur-containing compounds. Thus, DADS and DATS showed beneficial action in the liver, which can be used for protection of normal liver cells during chemotherapy or for alleviation of liver damage. PMID:21815229

Iciek, Ma?gorzata B; Kowalczyk-Pachel, Danuta; Kwiecie?, Inga; Dudek, Magdalena B

2012-03-01

358

Metabolic characteristics of proteins and biomolecular spectroscopic profiles in different batches of feedstock (wheat) and their co-products (wheat distillers dried grains with solubles) from the same bioethanol processing plant.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (1) to reveal the metabolic characteristics of proteins in different batches of feedstock (wheat) for bioethanol production and their co-products (wheat distillers dried grains with solubles, wDDGS) from the same bioethanol processing plant, and (2) to characterize biomolecular spectral profile associated with nutrient digestion in the rumen and intestine of dairy cattle. The metabolic characteristics of proteins were determined using the DVE/OEB system (where DVE=total truly absorbed protein supply, and OEB=degraded balance of protein) based on chemical profiles and rumen and intestinal digestion data from dairy cattle. The biomolecular spectral characteristics were investigated by using the molecular spectroscopy technique attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT/IR). Multivariate molecular spectral analyses-agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA), and principal component analysis (PCA)-were conducted to identify the spectral differences in biomolecular inherent structure among the wheat and wDDGS batches. The results showed that (1) the metabolic characteristics of proteins in the wheat and wDDGS from the same bioethanol processing plant were significantly affected by batch, with total truly absorbed protein supply (DVE value) ranging from 101 to 116 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in wheat and from 153 to 182 g/kg of DM in wDDGS; (2) the degraded balance of protein (OEB value) in the wDDGS (but not the wheat) from the same bioethanol processing plant was significantly affected by batch, with the OEB value ranging from -19 to -26 g/kg of DM in the wheat and from 145 to 181 g/kg of DM in the wDDGS; and (3) the biomolecular spectral analyses with AHCA and PCA revealed biomolecular spectral profiles and differences among the wheat and wDDGS samples. PMID:22939788

Gamage, Inoka H; Jonker, Arjan; Christensen, David A; Yu, Peiqiang

2012-11-01

359

An experimental study of factors affecting the selective inhibition of sintering process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective Inhibition of Sintering (SIS) is a new rapid prototyping method that builds parts in a layer-by-layer fabrication basis. SIS works by joining powder particles through sintering in the part's body, and by sintering inhibition of some selected powder areas. The objective of this research has been to improve the new SIS process, which has been invented at USC. The process improvement is based on statistical design of experiments. To conduct the needed experiments a working machine and related path generator software were needed. The machine and its control software were made available prior to this research. The path generator algorithms and software had to be created. This program should obtain model geometry data from a CAD file and generate an appropriate path file for the printer nozzle. Also, the program should generate a simulation file for path file inspection using virtual prototyping. The activities related to path generator constitute the first part of this research, which has resulted in an efficient path generator. In addition, to reach an acceptable level of accuracy, strength, and surface quality in the fabricated parts, all effective factors in the SIS process should be identified and controlled. Simultaneous analytical and experimental studies were conducted to recognize effective factors and to control the SIS process. Also, it was known that polystyrene was the most appropriate polymer powder and saturated potassium iodide was the most effective inhibitor among the available candidate materials. In addition, statistical tools were applied to improve the desirable properties of the parts fabricated by the SIS process. An investigation of part strength was conducted using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and a region of acceptable operating conditions for the part strength was found. Then, through analysis of the experimental results, the impact of the factors on the final part surface quality and dimensional accuracy was modeled. After developing a desirability function model, process operating conditions for maximum desirability were identified. Finally, the desirability model was validated.

Asiabanpour, Bahram

360

Analysis of Process Parameters Affecting Spray-Dried Oily Core Nanocapsules Using Factorial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to optimize the process parameters required for the production of spray-dried oily core nanocapsules\\u000a (NCs) with targeted size and drug yield using a two-level four-factor fractional factorial experimental design (FFED). The\\u000a coded process parameters chosen were inlet temperature (X\\u000a 1), feed flow rate (X\\u000a 2), atomizing air flow (X\\u000a 3), and aspiration rate (X

Tao Zhang; Bi-Botti C. Youan

2010-01-01

361

PROGRESS REPORT. INVESTIGATION OF PORE-SCALE PROCESSES THAT AFFECT SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This research aims to determine the pore-scale processes that limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. The specific objectives are to: 1) determine the effect of unswept zones on DNAPL removal during SVE, 2) determine the effect of retarded ...

362

Oligodendroglial process formation is differentially affected by modulating the intra- and extracellular cholesterol content.  

PubMed

Cholesterol is an essential component of eukaryotic plasma membranes and plays an important role in membrane organization and signaling processes. It is the major lipid component of detergent resistant caveolin-1 containing rafts which previously had been reported as a platform for nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling in oligodendrocytes (OL). Surprisingly, a knockdown of caveolin-1 attenuated the process formation of OL (Schmitz et al. J Neurosci Res 88:572-588, 2010), for which a loss of cholesterol could be responsible. In the present report, we could show that a caveolin-1 knockdown resulted in an elevation of cellular cholesterol level; it may indicate an important role of caveolin-1 in cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane. Treatment with exogenous PEG cholesterol, which was incorporated to the plasma membrane, supported oligodendroglial process formation, in particular when OL were stimulated by NGF. In this context we have found that OL express NPC1L1 (Niemann-Pick disease type C1-Like 1) which could modulate cholesterol uptake. In contrast, depletion of membrane-bound cholesterol diminished NGF-induced process formation concomitant with a reduced activity of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases. PMID:22740150

Schmitz, Matthias; Signore, Sandra C; Zerr, Inga; Althaus, Hans H

2013-03-01

363

Factors Affecting the Processing of Japanese Relative Clauses by L2 Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a crosslinguistic comparative study of the processing of Japanese relative clauses (RCs) by Chinese-, Sinhalese-, Vietnamese-, Thai-, and Indonesian-speaking second language (L2) learners. A robust finding in studies on the acquisition of RCs in L2 English and other European languages is that subject-gap RCs are easier than…

Kanno, Kazue

2007-01-01

364

Writing and Reading Software Documentation: How the development process may affect understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of documentationwithin a development process is determined by the way in which the intentions of the authors correspond to the expectations of the potential readers. Ideally, the members of a development team share a certain understanding of (the role of) the different types of documentation. However, since one's expectations of a document are personal, and part of a

Remco C. de Boer; Hans van Vliet

2009-01-01

365

Culture as Information and Culture as Affective Process: A Comparative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an application of the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) to measure the effects of two ways to teach about German culture in beginning language courses. Qualitative analysis of results established that the treatment group, taught with constructivist, process-oriented tasks experienced significantly positive results on the CCAI…

Wright, David A.

2000-01-01

366

How Evaluation Processes Affect the Professional Development of Five Teachers in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents research that investigates the nature of the connection between the professional development of five teachers in higher education and the evaluation processes they have to undergo. Since teaching, scholarship, and service are the three components that evaluation measures, this research examines how the teachers' professional…

Shagrir, Leah

2012-01-01

367

Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

Reali, Florencia

2014-01-01

368

The Influence of Affective States on the Process of Lie Detection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lay theories about the tell tale signs of deception include numerous nonverbal cues; empirically, however, a focus on message content results in better lie detection than a focus on nonverbal elements. Feelings-as-information theory (Schwarz, 1990, 2012) predicts that systematic processing of message content is more likely under sad than happy…

Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Schwarz, Norbert

2012-01-01

369

Fueling the caries process: carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation by Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

The nature of the oral cavity and host behaviors has mandated that the oral microbiota evolve mechanisms for coping with environmental fluctuations, especially changes in the type and availability of carbohydrates. In the case of human dental caries, the presence of excess carbohydrates is often responsible for altering the local environment to be more favorable for species associated with the initiation and progression of disease, including Streptococcus mutans. Some of the earliest endeavors to understand how cariogenic species respond to environmental perturbations were carried out using chemostat cultivation, which provides fine control over culture conditions and bacterial behaviors. The development of genome-scale methodologies has allowed for the combination of sophisticated cultivation technologies with genome-level analysis to more thoroughly probe how bacterial pathogens respond to environmental stimuli. Recent investigations in S. mutans and other closely related streptococci have begun to reveal that carbohydrate metabolism can drastically impact pathogenic potential and highlight the important influence that nutrient acquisition has on the success of pathogens; inside and outside of the oral cavity. Collectively, research into pathogenic streptococci, which have evolved in close association with the human host, has begun to unveil the essential nature of careful orchestration of carbohydrate acquisition and catabolism to allow the organisms to persist and, when conditions allow, initiate or worsen disease. PMID:25317251

Moye, Zachary D.; Zeng, Lin; Burne, Robert A.

2014-01-01

370

Vision affects tactile target and distractor processing even when space is task-irrelevant  

PubMed Central

The human brain is adapted to integrate the information from multiple sensory modalities into coherent, robust representations of the objects and events in the external world. A large body of empirical research has demonstrated the ubiquitous nature of the interactions that take place between vision and touch, with the former typically dominating over the latter. Many studies have investigated the influence of visual stimuli on the processing of tactile stimuli (and vice versa). Other studies, meanwhile, have investigated the effect of directing a participant’s gaze either toward or else away from the body-part receiving the target tactile stimulation. Other studies, by contrast, have compared performance in those conditions in which the participant’s eyes have been open versus closed. We start by reviewing the research that has been published to date demonstrating the influence of vision on the processing of tactile targets, that is, on those stimuli that have to be attended or responded to. We outline that many – but not all – of the visuotactile interactions that have been observed to date may be attributable to the direction of spatial attention. We then move on to focus on the crossmodal influence of vision, as well as of the direction of gaze, on the processing of tactile distractors. We highlight the results of those studies demonstrating the influence of vision, rather than gaze direction (i.e., the direction of overt spatial attention), on tactile distractor processing (e.g., tactile variants of the negative-priming or flanker task). The conclusion is that no matter how vision of a tactile distractor is engaged, the result would appear to be the same, namely that tactile distractors are processed more thoroughly. PMID:24567727

Wesslein, Ann-Katrin; Spence, Charles; Frings, Christian

2014-01-01

371

The P-glycoprotein Inhibitor GF120918 Modulates Ca2+-Dependent Processes and Lipid Metabolism in Toxoplasma Gondii  

PubMed Central

Up-regulation of the membrane-bound efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenomenon of multidrug-resistance in pathogenic organisms, including protozoan parasites. In addition, P-gp plays a role in normal physiological processes, however our understanding of these P-gp functions remains limited. In this study we investigated the effects of the P-gp inhibitor GF120918 in Toxoplasma gondii, a model apicomplexan parasite and an important human pathogen. We found that GF120918 treatment severely inhibited parasite invasion and replication. Further analyses of the molecular mechanisms involved revealed that the P-gp inhibitor modulated parasite motility, microneme secretion and egress from the host cell, all cellular processes known to depend on Ca2+ signaling in the parasite. In support of a potential role of P-gp in Ca2+-mediated processes, immunoelectron and fluorescence microscopy showed that T. gondii P-gp was localized in acidocalcisomes, the major Ca2+ storage in the parasite, at the plasma membrane, and in the intravacuolar tubular network. In addition, metabolic labeling of extracellular parasites revealed that inhibition or down-regulation of T. gondii P-gp resulted in aberrant lipid synthesis. These results suggest a crucial role of T. gondii P-gp in essential processes of the parasite biology and further validate the potential of P-gp activity as a target for drug development. PMID:20386707

Bottova, Iveta; Sauder, Ursula; Olivieri, Vesna; Hehl, Adrian B.; Sonda, Sabrina

2010-01-01

372

Practical markers of the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism during exercise: rationale and a case for affect-based exercise prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The high rates of dropout from exercise programs may be attributed in part to the poor ability of most individuals to accurately self-monitor and self-regulate their exercise intensity. The point of transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism may be an appropriate level of exercise training intensity as it appears to be effective and safe for a variety of populations.

Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Eric E. Hall; Steven J. Petruzzello

2004-01-01

373

How process design affects quality of semi-solid metalworking parts  

SciTech Connect

Semi-Solid Metalworking (SSM) incorporates elements of both casting and forging for the manufacture of near-net-shape discrete parts. Parts produced by SSM have higher structural integrity, quality and soundness than castings, yet can be produced at lower cost than parts produced by fully-solid processes. In addition, SSM is capable of producing parts which are essentially free of the porosity associated with high pressure die casting. A carefully designed, systematic experimental approach was used to analyze the SSM process. This paper examines billet structure, induction heating variables, die design, die temperature, die lubricant, venting, ram speed and pressure and correlates these with their effect on improvement in part quality.

Khan, P.A.A.; Dax, F.R. [Concurrent Technologies Corp., Johnstown, PA (United States)

1996-10-01

374

Soil pH affects the processes reducing nitrate to nitrous oxide and di-nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide can be produced by nitrification, denitrification or dissimilatory NO3? reduction to NH4+ (DNRA), whereas N2 can only be produced by denitrification. Nitrite is a common intermediate in all three processes, high pH favouring NO2? accumulation and DNRA. During denitrification the mole fraction of N2O decreases as pH increases, but little is known about the effect of soil pH

R. J. Stevens; R. J. Laughlin; J. P. Malone

1998-01-01

375

Quality of carrots as affected by pre- and postharvest factors and processing.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to provide an update on factors contributing to quality of carrots, with special focus on the role of pre- and postharvest factors and processing. The genetic factor shows the highest impact on quality variables in carrots, causing a 7-11-fold difference between varieties in content of terpenes, ?-carotene, magnesium, iron and phenolics as well as a 1-4-fold difference in falcarindiol, bitter taste and sweet taste. Climate-related factors may cause a difference of up to 20-fold for terpenes, 82% for total sugars and 30-40% for ?-carotene, sweet taste and bitter taste. Organic farming in comparison with conventional farming has shown 70% higher levels for magnesium and 10% for iron. Low nitrogen fertilisation level may cause up to 100% increase in terpene content, minor increase in dry matter (+4 to +6%) and magnesium (+8%) and reduction in ?-carotene content (-8 to -11%). Retail storage at room temperature causes the highest reduction in ?-carotene (-70%) and ascorbic acid (-70%). Heat processing by boiling reduces shear force (-300 to -1000%) and crispiness (-67%) as well as content of phenolics (-150%), terpenes (-85%) and total carotenes (-20%) and increases the risk of furan accumulation. Sensory and chemical quality parameters of carrots are determined mainly by genetic and climate-related factors and to a minor extent by cultivation method. Retail temperature and storage atmosphere as well as heating procedure in processing have the highest impact in quality reduction. PMID:23744724

Seljåsen, Randi; Kristensen, Hanne L; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Wyss, Gabriela S; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Birlouez-Aragone, Inès; Kahl, Johannes

2013-08-30

376

Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

2011-12-01

377

Short-term exposure to one dialect affects processing of another.  

PubMed

It is well established that speakers accommodate in speech production. Recent work has shown a similar effect in perception-speech perception is affected by a listener's beliefs about the speaker. In this paper, we explore the consequences of such perceptual accommodation for experiments in speech perception and lexical access. Our interest is whether perceptual accommodation to one speaker-the experimenter who meets participants, for example--might have carry-over effects on participants' behavior in subsequent tasks that do not directly involve the experimenter's voice. We explore this possibility by exposing groups of participants to different varieties of English before they participate in experiments involving speech perception and/or lexical access. Our results reveal that the nature of this prior exposure considerably influences participants' behavior in the tasks. This suggests that the phonetic detail of encountered speech is stored in the lexicon, together with information about the speaker's regional origin. Subparts of phonetically detailed lexical distributions can then be effectively'primed' by exposure to speakers or lexical items associated with particular dialects.We argue for an exemplar model of lexical representation with both word-level and phoneme-level representations.The consequences of cross-dialectal priming vary, depending on whether tasks involve primarily word-level or phoneme-level access. PMID:21313989

Hay, Jen; Drager, Katie; Warren, Paul

2010-01-01

378

Factors affecting phenolic acid liberation from rice grains in the sake brewing process.  

PubMed

Phenolic acid (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) liberation from rice grains was examined using rice samples containing phenolic acid at different levels, using two sake mash simulated digestion tests to elucidate influencing factors. Phenolic acid levels in a digest made from steamed rice using dialyzed rice koji enzymes were smaller than levels in a rice koji self-digest. Differences in phenolic acid levels among rice samples in the rice koji self-digest were larger than levels in a digest of steamed rice. In the rice koji self-digest, phenolic acid levels in the ingredient rice grains or in the formed digest related to feruloylesterase (FE) activity in the rice koji. Addition of exogenous FE to rice koji self-digestion increased phenolic acid levels, while addition of xylanase (Xyl) showed weak effects. A concerted effect of FE and Xyl was not clearly observed. Addition of ferulic acid to koji made from ?-rice grains raised FE activity, but it did not increase the activity of other enzymes. A similar phenomenon was observed in an agar plate culture of koji mold. These results indicated that ferulic acid levels in ingredient rice grains correlate with FE activities of koji, as a resulut, they affect the phenolic acid levels in sake mash. PMID:24962084

Ito, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Nakayama, Airi; Ito, Masaya; Hashizume, Katsumi

2014-12-01

379

Inhibition of cellular processing of surfactant protein C by drugs affecting intracellular pH gradients.  

PubMed

Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a hydrophobic protein synthesized and secreted exclusively by alveolar type II cells through proteolysis of a 21-kDa propeptide (SP-C21) to produce the 3.7-kDa surface active form. Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that early processing of proSP-C involves extensive intracellular proteolysis of the COOH terminus of proSP-C21 in subcellular compartments, which include the acidic type II cell-specific subcellular organelle, the lamellar body. (Beers, M. F., Kim, C. Y., Dodia, C., and Fisher, A. B.(1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 20318-20328). The role of intracellular pH gradients in SP-C processing was studied in freshly isolated rat type II cells. Using vital fluorescence microscopy, the pH indicator acridine orange (AO) identified intense fluorescence staining of acidic cytoplasmic vesicles within fresh type II cells. The AO vesicular staining pattern was similar in cells labeled with the lamellar body marker phosphine 3R and the phospholipid dye nile red. AO fluorescence was quenched by the addition of a membrane-permeable weak base, methylamine. Immunoprecipitation of cell lysates with anti-proSP-C antisera following pulse-chase labeling (0-2 h) with 35S-Translabel demonstrated rapid synthesis of 35S-proSP-C21 with a time-dependent appearance of 16- and 6-kDa intermediates (SP-C16 and SP-C6). Tricine polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of organic extracts of cell lysates showed time-dependent appearance of mature SP-C3.7. The addition of 5 mM methylamine significantly blocked the post-translational processing of proSP-C resulting in disruption of normal precursor-product relationships and inhibition of SP-C3.7 formation. Methylamine-treated cells exhibited slow accumulation of SP-C16 and SP-C6, a persistence of SP-C21, and an absence of SP-C3.7 for the duration of the chase period. The lysosomotropic agent chloroquine, the proton ionophore monensin, and bafilomycin A1, a specific vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor, each caused inhibition of proSP-C processing in a similar manner. These results demonstrate that normal post-translational proteolysis of proSP-C occurs in acidic intracellular compartments, which include the lamellar body, and that complete processing to SP-C3.7 is dependent upon maintenance of transmembrane pH gradients by a vacuolar H+-ATPase. PMID:8662952

Beers, M F

1996-06-14

380

Factors Affecting the Evolution of Hurricane Erin and the Distributions of Hydrometeors: Role of Microphysical Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fine-resolution simulations of Hurricane Erin 2001 are conducted using the Penn State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model version 3.5 to investigate the role of thermodynamic, boundary layer and microphysical processes in Erin's growth and maintenance, and their effects on the horizontal and vertical distributions of hydrometeors. Through comparison against radar, radiometer, and dropsonde data collected during the Convection and Moisture Experiment 4, it is seen that realistic simulations of Erin are obtained provided that fine resolution simulations with detailed representations of physical processes are conducted. The principle findings of the study are as follows: 1) a new iterative condensation scheme, which limits the unphysical increase of equivalent potential temperature associated with most condensation schemes, increases the horizontal size of the hurricane, decreases its maximum rainfall rate, reduces its intensity, and makes its eye more moist; 2) in general, microphysical parameterization schemes with more categories of hydrometeors produce more intense hurricanes, larger hydrometeor mixing ratios, and more intense updrafts and downdrafts; 3) the choice of coefficients describing hydrometeor fall velocities has as big of an impact on the hurricane simulations as does choice of microphysical parameterization scheme with no clear relationship between fall velocity and hurricane intensity; and 4) in order for a tropical cyclone to adequately intensify, an advanced boundary layer scheme (e.g., Burk-Thompson scheme) must be used to represent boundary layer processes. The impacts of varying simulations on the horizontal and vertical distributions of different categories of hydrometeor species, on equivalent potential temperature, and on storm updrafts and downdrafts are examined to determine how the release of latent heat feedbacks upon the structure of Erin. In general, all simulations tend to overpredict precipitation rate and hydrometeor mixing ratios. The ramifications of these findings for quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) of tropical cyclones are discussed.

McFarquhar, Greg M.; Zhang, Henian; Dudhia, Jimy; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Hood, Robbie; Marks, Frank, Jr.

2003-01-01

381

Final Technical Report EMSP 70045 Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. This research project used a combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling to determine how these various processes interact to limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. Our results were applied to scenarios typical of the carbon tetrachloride spill zone at the Hanford Site. Our results indicate that: (a) the initial distribution of the spilled DNAPL (i.e., the spill-zone architecture) has a major influence upon the performance of any subsequent SVE operations; (b) while the pattern of higher and lower conductivity soil zones has an important impact upon spill zone architecture, soil moisture distribution plays an even larger role when there are large quantities of co-disposed waste-water (as in the Hanford scenario); (c) depending upon soil moisture dynamics, liquid DNAPL that is trapped by surrounding water is extremely difficult to remove by SVE; (d) natural barometric pumping can remove a large amount of the initial DNAPL mass for spills occurring close to the land surface, and hence the initial spilled inventory will be over-estimated if this process is neglected.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles W.; Webb, Andrew W.

2004-12-10