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1

Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?  

PubMed

There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might induce adverse effects, leading to osteoporosis. PMID:24582730

Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

2014-05-01

2

Ibogaine affects brain energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid present in the root of the plant Tabernanthe iboga. It is known to attenuate abstinence syndrome in animal models of drug addiction. Since the anti-addiction effect lasts longer than the presence of ibogaine in the body, some profound metabolic changes are expected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ibogaine on protein expression in rat brains. Rats were treated with ibogaine at 20 mg/kg body weight i.p. and subsequently examined at 24 and 72 h. Proteins were extracted from whole brain and separated by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Individual proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Enzymes of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle namely glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase A, pyruvate kinase and malate dehydrogenase were induced. The results suggest that the remedial effect of ibogaine could be mediated by the change in energy availability. Since energy dissipating detoxification and reversion of tolerance to different drugs of abuse requires underlying functional and structural changes in the cell, higher metabolic turnover would be favourable. Understanding the pharmacodynamics of anti-addiction drugs highlights the subcellular aspects of addiction diseases, in addition to neurological and psychological perspectives. PMID:17054944

Paskulin, Roman; Jamnik, Polona; Zivin, Marko; Raspor, Peter; Strukelj, Borut

2006-12-15

3

Motivational Processes Affecting Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills, yet educationally relevant conceptions of motivation have been elusive. Using recent research within the social-cognitive framework, Dweck describes adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns and presents a research-based model of motivational processes. This model shows how the particular goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to

Carol S. Dweck

1986-01-01

4

Inherited metabolic diseases affecting the carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this review is to draw attention to those inherited metabolic traits which are potentially harmful also for the carrier, and to outline preventive measures, at least for obligate heterozygotes, i.e. parents of homozygous children. Concerning carriers of food-dependent abnormalities, early vascular disease in homocystinuria, hyperammonaemic episodes in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, presenile cataracts in galactosaemia as well as

W. Endres

1997-01-01

5

Visual processing of facial affect.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of the fusiform gyrus in identifying and processing facial emotional expression in humans, MEG data were collected while six healthy subjects judged whether photographs of faces displayed emotion (happiness or disgust) compared to neutral faces and equiluminant scrambled faces. For all six subjects, a magnetic source localizing to right fusiform gyrus was evident approximately 150 ms following presentation of face stimuli, but not following non-face stimuli. MEG source strength for this component was greatest for happy, intermediate for disgust, and lowest for neutral facial expressions, suggesting that activity in fusiform gyrus is sensitive to both face-specific stimuli and to the affective content of the face. These findings are considered in the context of a specialized neural face-dependent information system. PMID:14534432

Lewis, Stephen; Thoma, Robert J; Lanoue, Marianna D; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Edgar, Christopher; Huang, Minxiong; Weisend, Michael P; Irwin, Jessica; Paulson, Kim; Cañive, José M

2003-10-01

6

Focal Reversible Deactivation of Cerebral Metabolism Affects Water Diffusion  

PubMed Central

The underlying biophysical mechanisms which affect cerebral diffusion contrast remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that cerebral metabolism may affect cerebral diffusion contrast. The purpose of this study was to develop the methodology to reversibly deactivate cerebral metabolism and measure the effect on the diffusion MRI signal. We developed an MRI-compatible cortical cooling system to reversibly deactivate cortical metabolism in rhesus monkey area V1 and used MR thermometry to calculate three-dimensional temperature maps of the brain to define the extent of deactivated brain in vivo. Significant changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were only observed during those experiments in which the cortex was cooled below the metabolic cutoff temperature of 20°C. ADC decreases (12–20%) were observed during cortical cooling in regions where the temperature did not change. The normalized in vivo ADC as function of temperature was measured and found to be equivalent to the normalized ADC of free water at temperatures above 20°C, but was significantly decreased below 20°C (20–25% decrease). No changes in fractional anisotropy were observed. In future experiments, we will apply this methodology to quantify the effect of reversible deactivation on neural activity as measured by the hemodynamic response and compare water diffusion changes with hemodynamic changes. PMID:18958855

Khachaturian, Mark H.; Arsenault, John; Ekstrom, Leeland B.; Tuch, David S.; Vanduffel, Wim

2009-01-01

7

Interactions between dietary boron and thiamine affect lipid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary boron impacts upon the function of various coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. In a 2 {times} 7 factorially-arranged experiment, weanling, vitamin D{sub 3}-deprived rats were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet supplemented with 0 or 2 mg boron/kg and 50% of the requirement for thiamine (TM), riboflavin (RF), pantothenic acid (PA) or pyridoxine (PX); 0% for folic acid (FA) or nicotinic acid (NA). All vitamins were supplemented in adequate amounts in the control diet. At 8 weeks of age, the TM dietary treatment was the one most affected by supplemental dietary boron (SDB). In rats that were fed 50% TM, SDB increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), and the liver to body weight (L/B) ratio. However, in the SDB animals, adequate amounts of TM decreased the means of those variables to near that observed in non-SDB rats fed 50% TM. The findings suggest that an interaction between dietary boron and TM affects lipid metabolism.

Herbel, J.L.; Hunt, C.D. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1991-03-15

8

Fusion and metabolism of plant cells as affected by microgravity.  

PubMed

Plant cell protoplasts derived from leaf tissue of two different tobacco species (Nicotiana tabacum., N. rustica L.) were exposed to short-term (sounding rocket experiments) and long-term (spacelab) microgravity environments in order to study both (electro) cell fusion and cell metabolism during early and later stages of tissue regeneration. The period of exposure to microgravity varied from 10 min (sounding rocket) to 10 d (space shuttle). The process of electro fusion of protoplasts was improved under conditions of microgravity: the time needed to establish close membrane contact between protoplasts (alignment time) was reduced (5 as compared to 15 s under 1 g) and numbers of fusion products between protoplasts of different specific density were increased by a factor of about 10. In addition, viability of fusion products, as shown by the ability to form callus, increased from about 60% to more than 90%. Regenerated fusion products obtained from both sounding-rocket and spacelab experiments showed a wide range of intermediate properties between the two parental plants. This was verified by isozyme analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). In order to address potential metabolic responses, more general markers such as the overall energy state (ATP/ADP ratio), the redox charge of the diphosphopyridine nucleotide system (NADH/NAD ratio), and the pool size of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru 2,6 bisp), a regulator of the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, were determined. Responses of these parameters were different with regard to short-term and long-term exposure. Shortly after transition to reduced gravitation (sounding rocket) ratios of ATP/ADP exhibited strong fluctuation while the pool size of NAD decreased (indicating an increased NADH/NAD ratio) and that of Fru 2,6 bisp increased. As similar changes can be observed under stress conditions, this response is probably indicative of a metabolic stress compensation. Samples taken for up to 7 d of exposure to microgravity showed the opposite effect. Here, the ratios of ATP/ADP and of NADH/NAD, and the pool size of Fru 2,6 bisp were decreased. We take this an an indication of metabolic relaxation, i.e. decreased metabolic turnover. As rates of protoplast regeneration and cell division were obviously similar to 1-g controls, we conclude that under conditions of microgravity regenerating tobacco mesophyll protoplasts need less metabolic energy for the same effort. PMID:9299795

Hampp, R; Hoffmann, E; Schönherr, K; Johann, P; De Filippis, L

1997-01-01

9

Critical Factors Affecting Personal Software Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal software process quality helps determine the success of software projects and organizations. Although encouraging, previous studies treated the Personal Software Process approach as a black-box tool for personal process improvement. We dig deeper into the factors affecting personal processes. It is concluded that A\\/FR (appraisal to failure ratio) and Yield (percentage of defects removed before first compile) are two

Xiaoming Zhong; Nazim H. Madhavji; Khaled El Emam

2000-01-01

10

Landfill leachate affects metabolic responses of Zea mays L. seedlings.  

PubMed

With an increasing focus on phyto-remediation options for landfill leachate, it is important to understand the responses of plant systems to landfill leachate stress. It is especially important to study the tolerant mechanisms of plant systems. We investigated several physiological changes of Zea mays L. (maize) in response to landfill leachate. Specifically, we investigated growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results indicate that landfill leachate affected the growth and chlorophyll level of maize seedlings. Furthermore, landfill leachate elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by the changes in antioxidant status. The physiological responses varied as a function of leachate concentration, and the growth inhibition, chlorophyll content inhibition and oxidative stress occurred after the exposure of higher concentrations of leachate. Higher concentrations of landfill leachate contained higher levels of pollutants. Our results indicate that landfill leachate affected the metabolic responses of plant systems. The risk of pollution occurred mainly in samples of higher concentration. Therefore, the critical aspect of phyto-remediation for landfill leachate is controlling its concentration. In doing so, plant systems may be able to tolerate the environmental stress of landfill leachate. PMID:20149964

Sang, Nan; Han, Ming; Li, Guangke; Huang, Mingzhu

2010-05-01

11

Age, Marital Processes, and Depressed Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined age-cohort differences in the interrelationships among marital processes and depressed affect. Design and Methods: We used data from individuals in first marriages that participated in the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH). The NSFH interviewed one adult per household of a nationally representative sample.…

Bookwala, Jamila; Jacobs, Jamie

2004-01-01

12

Parallel Processing of Affective Visual Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP) studies of affective picture processing have demonstrated an early posterior negativity (EPN) for emotionally arousing pictures that are embedded in a rapid visual stream. The present study examined the selective processing of emotional pictures while systematically varying picture presentation rates between 1 and 16 Hz. Previous results with presentation rates up to 5 Hz were replicated in that emotional compared to neutral pictures were associated with a greater EPN. Discrimination among emotional and neutral contents was maintained up to 12 Hz. To explore the notion of parallel processing, convolution analysis was used: EPNs generated by linear superposition of slow rate ERPs explained 70-93% of the variance of measured EPNs, giving evidence for an impressive capacity of parallel affective discrimination in rapid serial picture presentation. PMID:19055507

Peyk, Peter; Schupp, Harald T.; Keil, Andreas; Elbert, Thomas; Junghofer, Markus

2009-01-01

13

Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

2012-01-01

14

miR-122 Targets Pyruvate Kinase M2 and Affects Metabolism of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In contrast to normal differentiated cells that depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, cancer cells have evolved to utilize aerobic glycolysis (Warburg’s effect), with benefit of providing intermediates for biomass production. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is highly expressed in normal liver tissue regulating a wide variety of biological processes including cellular metabolism, but is reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Overexpression of miR-122 was shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and increase chemosensitivity, but its functions in cancer metabolism remains unknown. The present study aims to identify the miR-122 targeted genes and to investigate the associated regulatory mechanisms in HCC metabolism. We found the ectopic overexpression of miR-122 affected metabolic activities of HCC cells, evidenced by the reduced lactate production and increased oxygen consumption. Integrated gene expression analysis in a cohort of 94 HCC tissues revealed miR-122 level tightly associated with a battery of glycolytic genes, in which pyruvate kinase (PK) gene showed the strongest anti-correlation coefficient (Pearson r?=??0.6938, p?=?<0.0001). In addition, reduced PK level was significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes of HCC patients. We found isoform M2 (PKM2) is the dominant form highly expressed in HCC and is a direct target of miR-122, as overexpression of miR-122 reduced both the mRNA and protein levels of PKM2, whereas PKM2 re-expression abrogated the miR-122-mediated glycolytic activities. The present study demonstrated the regulatory role of miR-122 on PKM2 in HCC, having an implication of therapeutic intervention targeting cancer metabolic pathways. PMID:24466275

Shek, Felix H.; Wong, Kwong-Fai; Lee, Nikki P.; Poon, Ronnie T.; Chen, Jinfei; Luk, John M.

2014-01-01

15

Impact of Chronic Hypercortisolemia on Affective Processing  

PubMed Central

Cushing syndrome (CS) is the classic condition of cortisol dysregulation, and cortisol dysregulation is the prototypic finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that subjects with active CS would show dysfunction in frontal and limbic structures relevant to affective networks, and also manifest poorer facial affect identification accuracy, a finding reported in MDD.Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent and 1 ACTH-independent) were compared to 21 healthy controlsubjects. Identification of affective facial expressions (Facial Emotion Perception Test) was conducted in a 3 Tesla GE fMRI scanner using BOLD fMRI signal. The impact of disease (illness duration, current hormone elevation and degree of disruption of circadian rhythm), performance, and comorbid conditions secondary to hypercortisolemia were evaluated.CS patients made more errors in categorizing facial expressions and had less activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region important in emotion processing. CS patients showed higher activation in frontal, medial, and subcortical regions relative to controls. Two regions of elevated activation in CS, left middle frontal and lateral posterior/pulvinar areas, were positively correlated with accuracy in emotion identification in the CS group, reflecting compensatory recruitment. In addition, within the CSgroup, greater activation in left dorsal anterior cingulatewas related to greater severity of hormone dysregulation. In conclusion, cortisol dysregulation in CS patients is associated with problems in accuracy of affective discrimination and altered activation of brain structures relevant to emotion perception, processing and regulation, similar to the performance decrements and brain regions shown to be dysfunctional in MDD. PMID:21787793

Langenecker, Scott A.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Giordani, Bruno; Briceno, Emily M.; GuidottiBreting, Leslie M.; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Leon, Hadia M.; Noll, Douglas C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Schteingart, David E.; Starkman, Monica N.

2011-01-01

16

Fusion and metabolism of plant cells as affected by microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Plant cell protoplasts derived from leaf tissue of two different tobacco species (Nicotiana tabacum L., N. rustica L.) were exposed to short-term (sounding rocket experiments) and long-term (spacelab) microgravity environments in order\\u000a to study both (electro) cell fusion and cell metabolism during early and later stages of tissue regeneration. The period of\\u000a exposure to microgravity varied from 10?min (sounding

Rüdiger Hampp; Ellen Hoffmann; Kristina Schönherr; Patrick Johann; Luigi De Filippis

1997-01-01

17

Copper Stress Affects Metabolism and Reproductive Yield of Chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To observe the effects of copper (Cu) deficiency on growth, metabolism, and reproductive yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cv. ‘13.G-256’, plants were grown in refined sand at deficient (0.1 ?M) and adequate Cu (1 ?M), supplied as copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O). At d 35–40, at deficient Cu, the growth of plants were depressed and the young leaflets appeared reduced in

Gitanjali Bhakuni; B. K. Dube; Pratima Sinha; C. Chatterjee

2009-01-01

18

Metabolic intervention to affect myocardial recovery following ischemia.  

PubMed Central

Myocardial recovery during reperfusion following ischemia is critical to patient survival in a broad spectrum of clinical settings. Myocardial functional recovery following ischemia correlates well with recovery of myocardial adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Adenosine triphosphate recovery is uniformly incomplete during reperfusion following moderate ischemic injury and is therefore subject to manipulation by metabolic intervention. By definition ATP recovery is limited either by (1) energy availability and application in the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to ATP or (2) availability of AMP for this conversion. Experimental data suggest that substrate energy and the mechanisms required for its application in the creation of high energy phosphate bonds (AMP conversion to ATP) are more than adequate during reperfusion following moderate ischemic injury. Adenosine monophosphate availability, however, is inadequate following ischemia due to loss of diffusable adenine nucleotide purine metabolites. These purine precursors are necessary to fuel adenine nucleotide salvage pathways. Metabolic interventions that enhance AMP recovery rather than those that improve substrate energy availability during reperfusion are therefore recommended. The mechanisms of various metabolic interventions are discussed in this framework along with the rationale for or against their clinical application. PMID:6428332

Pasque, M K; Wechsler, A S

1984-01-01

19

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

Preadult Parental Diet Affects Offspring Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico Abstract When Drosophila melanogaster larvae are reared on isocaloric diets Development and Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE 8(3): e59530. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059530

Markow, Therese

20

Boron affects energy metabolism in the streptozotocin-injected, vitamin D3-deprived rat.  

PubMed

Dietary boron, in amounts usually found in human diets comprised mainly of fruits and vegetables, apparently affects both mineral and energy metabolism. Therefore, the effects of boron on a model system with a perturbed metabolic insulin-vitamin D3 axis was examined. Weanling male rats were fed a ground corn-high protein casein-corn oil-based diet (0.06 micrograms B/g and no supplemental vitamin D3) supplemented with B (as orthoboric acid) at 0 or 2.4 mg/kg. After 55 days, all rats were equilibrated in individual metabolic cages. After another 6 days, one half of the rats in both dietary groups were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (STZ). All rats were killed 3 days after STZ treatment. STZ affected many aspects of energy metabolism. In the non-STZ rats, supplemental dietary boron substantially depressed plasma insulin, plasma pyruvate concentrations, and creatine kinase activity and increased plasma thyroxine (T4) concentrations. The finding that boron did not affect growth, but did affect several indices of energy metabolism in the non-STZ animals suggests that boron functions as a regulator of energy metabolism in the rat. A decrease in plasma aspartate transaminase activity (an indicator of enhanced cell membrane integrity) in the non-STZ rats suggests that boron exerts a protective influence over normal liver metabolism. PMID:1669021

Hunt, C D; Herbel, J L

21

Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD. PMID:21514691

Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

2011-01-01

22

Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical processes which affect stratospheric aerosol particles include nucleation, condensation, evaporation, coagulation and sedimentation. Quantitative studies of these mechanisms to determine if they can account for some of the observed properties of the aerosol are carried out. It is shown that the altitude range in which nucleation of sulfuric acid-water solution droplets can take place corresponds to that region of the stratosphere where the aerosol is generally found. Since heterogeneous nucleation is the dominant nucleation mechanism, the stratospheric solution droplets are mainly formed on particles which have been mixed up from the troposphere or injected into the stratosphere by volcanoes or meteorites. Particle growth by heteromolecular condensation can account for the observed increase in mixing ratio of large particles in the stratosphere. Coagulation is important in reducing the number of particles smaller than 0.05 micron radius. Growth by condensation, applied to the mixed nature of the particles, shows that available information is consistent with ammonium sulfate being formed by liquid phase chemical reactions in the aerosol particles. The upper altitude limit of the aerosol layer is probably due to the evaporation of sulfuric acid aerosol particles, while the lower limit is due to mixing across the tropopause.

Hamill, P.; Toon, O. B.; Kiang, C. S.

1977-01-01

23

The Influence of Affect on Social-Information Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of four affect-induction conditions (self-induced positive affect, music-induced positive affect, music-induced negative affect, and neutral affect) on the social-information-processing skills of 96 seventh-grade students with and without learning disabilities. Students in the self-induced positive condition generated…

Bryan, Tanis; Sullivan-Burstein, Karen; Mathur, Sarup

1998-01-01

24

Herbicide-affected plant metabolism reduces virus propagation.  

PubMed

It has been previously shown that certain herbicides or plant extracts inhibited the viral infection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) infection and herbicide or plant extract treatments on the photosynthetic processes of the host plants to get informations about the interactions of these factors. In Capsicum annuum-ObPV host-virus relations the virus infection slightly increased the activity of photosystem II (PSII), as it was supposed from fluorescence induction parameters. Chlorophyll content of leaves was also elevated probably due to virus-induced growth inhibition. The herbicide Stomp (active ingredient: pendimethalin) incorporated into the soil one week before planting (preplant treatment) together with virus infection even strengthened these effects in agreement with previous observations that this herbicide always did not prevent virus infection or reduce virus concentration in hosts. In ObPV-infected Nicotiana tabacum the structural changes showed similar tendency like in ObPV-infected C. annuum, but PSII efficiency did not significantly differ from that of the control. However, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased because of the strongly decreasing CO2 fixation activity. Though simultaneous application of a water extract of Cirsium arvense shoot caused a little stronger inhibition of CO2 fixation, little loss in production was obtained due to significant reduction in virus concentration. In Solanum nigrum-ObPV relation the slightly increasing tendency of the values of actual PSII quantum efficiency could be related to the probably elevated ratio of reaction centre components (increased chlorophyll a/b ratio) in the thylakoids. Application of the herbicide Fusilade S (active ingredient: fluazifop-P-butyl) at 4-6 leaf stage as a post-emergence treatment practically prevented systemic virus infection and the virus-induced changes of photosynthesis are probably due to inhibiting the virus infection/replication process. PMID:17139793

Kazinczi, Gabriella; Gáspár, László; Nyitrai, Péter; Gáborjányi, Richard; Sárvári, Eva; Takács, András; Horváth, József

2006-01-01

25

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jerome; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

26

Hyperketonemia during lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis affects systemic and local intramammary metabolism in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Hyperketonemia interferes with the metabolic regulation in dairy cows. It is assumed that metabolic and endocrine changes during hyperketonemia also affect metabolic adaptations during inflammatory processes. We therefore studied systemic and local intramammary effects of elevated plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) before and during the response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirteen dairy cows received intravenously either a Na-DL-?-OH-butyrate infusion (n = 5) to achieve a constant plasma BHBA concentration (1.7 ± 0.1 mmol/L), with adjustments of the infusion rates made based on immediate measurements of plasma BHBA every 15 min, or an infusion with a 0.9% NaCl solution (control; n = 8) for 56 h. Infusions started at 0900 h on d 1 and continued until 1700 h 2 d later. Two udder quarters were challenged with 200 ?g of Escherichia coli LPS and 2 udder quarters were treated with 0.9% saline solution as control quarters at 48 h after the start of infusion. Blood samples were taken at 1 wk and 2h before the start of infusions as reference samples and hourly during the infusion. Mammary gland biopsies were taken 1 wk before, and 48 and 56 h (8h after LPS challenge) after the start of infusions. The mRNA abundance of key factors related to BHBA and fatty acid metabolism, and glucose transporters was determined in mammary tissue biopsies. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma glucose, BHBA, nonesterified fatty acid, urea, insulin, glucagon, and cortisol concentrations. Differences were not different for effects of BHBA infusion on the mRNA abundance of any of the measured target genes in the mammary gland before LPS challenge. Intramammary LPS challenge increased plasma glucose, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in both groups but increases in plasma glucose and glucagon concentration were less pronounced in the Na-DL-?-OH-butyrate infusion group than in controls. In response to LPS challenge, plasma BHBA concentration decreased in controls and decreased also slightly in the BHBA-infused animals because the BHBA concentration could not be fully maintained despite a rapid increase in BHBA infusion rate. The change in mRNA abundance of citrate synthase in LPS quarters was significant between the 2 treatment groups. The results indicate that elevated circulating BHBA concentration inhibits gluconeogenesis before and during immune response to LPS challenge, likely because BHBA can replace glucose as an energy source. PMID:24679930

Zarrin, M; Wellnitz, O; van Dorland, H A; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

2014-06-01

27

Yeast RNase III as a Key Processing Enzyme in Small Nucleolar RNAs Metabolism  

E-print Network

Yeast RNase III as a Key Processing Enzyme in Small Nucleolar RNAs Metabolism Guillaume Chanfreau searched for yeast snoRNAs which are affected by the depletion of the yeast ortholog of bacterial RNase III, Rnt1. In a yeast strain inactivated for RNT1, almost half of the snoRNAs tested are depleted

Chanfreau, Guillaume

28

Pharmacogenetics affects dosing, efficacy, and toxicity of cytochrome P450–metabolized drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-metabolizing enzyme activity is one of many factors affecting patient response to medications. The objective of this review is to highlight the potential for genetic variability in cytochrome P450 enzyme activity that can lead to interperson differences in response to drugs. Awareness and application of this knowledge will improve drug use in clinical practice and provide the physician with further

Janyce F Rogers; Anne N Nafziger; Joseph S Bertino

2002-01-01

29

Enzyme clustering accelerates processing of intermediates through metabolic channeling.  

PubMed

We present a quantitative model to demonstrate that coclustering multiple enzymes into compact agglomerates accelerates the processing of intermediates, yielding the same efficiency benefits as direct channeling, a well-known mechanism in which enzymes are funneled between enzyme active sites through a physical tunnel. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with previously reported spacings between coclusters in mammalian cells. For direct validation, we study a metabolic branch point in Escherichia coli and experimentally confirm the model prediction that enzyme agglomerates can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch, and thus regulate steady-state flux division. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation. PMID:25262299

Castellana, Michele; Wilson, Maxwell Z; Xu, Yifan; Joshi, Preeti; Cristea, Ileana M; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Gitai, Zemer; Wingreen, Ned S

2014-10-01

30

ECHS1 mutations in Leigh disease: a new inborn error of metabolism affecting valine metabolism.  

PubMed

Two siblings with fatal Leigh disease had increased excretion of S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine and several other metabolites that are features of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency, a rare defect in the valine catabolic pathway associated with Leigh-like disease. However, this diagnosis was excluded by HIBCH sequencing and normal enzyme activity. In contrast to HIBCH deficiency, the excretion of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-carnitine was normal in the children, suggesting deficiency of short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1 gene). This mitochondrial enzyme is active in several metabolic pathways involving fatty acids and amino acids, including valine, and is immediately upstream of HIBCH in the valine pathway. Both children were compound heterozygous for a c.473C > A (p.A158D) missense mutation and a c.414+3G>C splicing mutation in ECHS1. ECHS1 activity was markedly decreased in cultured fibroblasts from both siblings, ECHS1 protein was undetectable by immunoblot analysis and transfection of patient cells with wild-type ECHS1 rescued ECHS1 activity. The highly reactive metabolites methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA accumulate in deficiencies of both ECHS1 and HIBCH and are probably responsible for the brain pathology in both disorders. Deficiency of ECHS1 or HIBCH should be considered in children with Leigh disease. Urine metabolite testing can detect and distinguish between these two disorders. PMID:25125611

Peters, Heidi; Buck, Nicole; Wanders, Ronald; Ruiter, Jos; Waterham, Hans; Koster, Janet; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pitt, James

2014-11-01

31

Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight) were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01). The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health. PMID:24336061

Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

2013-01-01

32

Processing parameters affecting sorghum noodle qualities  

E-print Network

Processing variables of 100% sorghum noodles were investigated to determine effects on noodle quality. A dough was created by microwave heating a flour with 1 % salt (1 00 g): water (90 ml) mixture to 950C with a microwave. The dough was put through...

Kunetz, Christine Frances

2012-06-07

33

Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.

1978-01-01

34

Factors affecting the MTW zeolite cristallization process  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis mechanism of the high silica zeolite types other than MFI is rarely studied in the open literature. This work is devoted to the role of different parameters governing the zeolite MTW crystallization process. The influence of the most important factors: the nature of the silica and alumina source, the type of the organic cation, the alkalinity of the reaction mixture and the crystallization temperature, was studied. The molar composition of the initial hydrogel was varied in other to determine the crystallization field of the zeolite MTW. The observed morphology and particle size of the crystallites are related to the corresponding reaction conditions. The competitive formation of the other zeolite types (prevalently MFI and BEA) is discussed.

Katovic, A.; Giordano, G. [Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)

1995-12-01

35

Guidelines for affective signal processing (ASP): From lab to life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the rationale behind ACII2009's special session: Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life. Although affect is embraced by both science and engineering, its recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of ASP and the automatic classification of affect, we provide understanding for the problems encountered. Next, we identify guidelines for

Egon L. van den Broek; Joris H. Janssen; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; J. Cohn; A. Nijholt; M. Pantic

2009-01-01

36

Rice folate enhancement through metabolic engineering has an impact on rice seed metabolism, but does not affect the expression of the endogenous folate biosynthesis genes.  

PubMed

Folates are key-players in one-carbon metabolism in all organisms. However, only micro-organisms and plants are able to synthesize folates de novo and humans rely entirely on their diet as a sole folate source. As a consequence, folate deficiency is a global problem. Although different strategies are currently implemented to fight folate deficiency, up until now, all of them have their own drawbacks. As an alternative and complementary means to those classical strategies, folate biofortification of rice by metabolic engineering was successfully achieved a couple of years ago. To gain more insight into folate biosynthesis regulation and the effect of folate enhancement on general rice seed metabolism, a transcriptomic study was conducted in developing transgenic rice seeds, overexpressing 2 genes of the folate biosynthetic pathway. Upon folate enhancement, the expression of 235 genes was significantly altered. Here, we show that rice folate biofortification has an important effect on folate dependent, seed developmental and plant stress response/defense processes, but does not affect the expression of the endogenous folate biosynthesis genes. PMID:23771598

Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Daele, Jeroen; Storozhenko, Sergei; Stove, Christophe; Lambert, Willy; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

2013-11-01

37

Transcobalamin 776C3G polymorphism negatively affects vitamin B12 metabolism1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A common genetic polymorphism (transcobalamin (TC) 776C3G) may affect the function of transcobalamin, the pro- tein required for vitamin B-12 cellular uptake and metabolism. Re- methylation of homocysteine is dependent on the production of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and adequate vitamin B-12 for the methi- onine synthase reaction. Objectives: The objectives were to assess the influence of the TC 776C3 G polymorphism

Kristina M von Castel-Dunwoody; Karla P Shelnutt; Jaimie D Vaughn; Elizabeth R Griffin; David R Maneval; Douglas W Theriaque; Lynn B Bailey

38

Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

1998-12-31

39

Circulatory and Metabolic Processes in Adipose Tissue in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

To permit the study in vivo of circulatory and metabolic processes in adipose tissue, a part of the dog's subcutaneous tissue was prepared with intact circulation and innervation. The preparation was found to be suitable for quantitative investigations on the nervous control of the blood flow and of the release of free fatty acids. We considered it to be of

Lars Oro; Lars Wallenberg; Sune Rosell

1965-01-01

40

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in

Renee Dufault; Roseanne Schnoll; Walter J Lukiw; Blaise LeBlanc; Charles Cornett; Lyn Patrick; David Wallinga; Steven G Gilbert; Raquel Crider

2009-01-01

41

Perinatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate affects glucose metabolism in adult offspring.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally present in the environment and are widely distributed in human populations and wildlife. The chemicals are ubiquitous in human body fluids and have a long serum elimination half-life. The notorious member of PFAAs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is prioritized as a global concerning chemical at the Stockholm Convention in 2009, due to its harmful effects in mammals and aquatic organisms. PFOS is known to affect lipid metabolism in adults and was found to be able to cross human placenta. However the effects of in utero exposure to the susceptibility of metabolic disorders in offspring have not yet been elucidated. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were fed with 0, 0.3 or 3 mg PFOS/kg body weight/day in corn oil by oral gavage daily throughout gestational and lactation periods. We investigated the immediate effects of perinatal exposure to PFOS on glucose metabolism in both maternal and offspring after weaning (PND 21). To determine if the perinatal exposure predisposes the risk for metabolic disorder to the offspring, weaned animals without further PFOS exposure, were fed with either standard or high-fat diet until PND 63. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured while HOMA-IR index and glucose AUCs were reported. Our data illustrated the first time the effects of the environmental equivalent dose of PFOS exposure on the disturbance of glucose metabolism in F1 pups and F1 adults at PND 21 and 63, respectively. Although the biological effects of PFOS on the elevated levels of fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were observed in both pups and adults of F1, the phenotypes of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were only evident in the F1 adults. The effects were exacerbated under HFD, highlighting the synergistic action at postnatal growth on the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:24498028

Wan, Hin T; Zhao, Yin G; Leung, Pik Y; Wong, Chris K C

2014-01-01

42

C282Y-HFE Gene Variant Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Human Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Although disruptions in the maintenance of iron and cholesterol metabolism have been implicated in several cancers, the association between variants in the HFE gene that is associated with cellular iron uptake and cholesterol metabolism has not been studied. The C282Y-HFE variant is a risk factor for different cancers, is known to affect sphingolipid metabolism, and to result in increased cellular iron uptake. The effect of this variant on cholesterol metabolism and its possible relevance to cancer phenotype was investigated using wild type (WT) and C282Y-HFE transfected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of C282Y-HFE in SH-SY5Y cells resulted in a significant increase in total cholesterol as well as increased transcription of a number of genes involved in its metabolism compared to cells expressing WT-HFE. The marked increase in expression of NPC1L1 relative to that of most other genes, was accompanied by a significant increase in expression of NPC1, a protein that functions in cholesterol uptake by cells. Because inhibitors of cholesterol metabolism have been proposed to be beneficial for treating certain cancers, their effect on the viability of C282Y-HFE neuroblastoma cells was ascertained. C282Y-HFE cells were significantly more sensitive than WT-HFE cells to U18666A, an inhibitor of desmosterol ?24-reductase the enzyme catalyzing the last step in cholesterol biosynthesis. This was not seen for simvastatin, ezetimibe, or a sphingosine kinase inhibitor. These studies indicate that cancers presenting in carriers of the C282Y-HFE allele might be responsive to treatment designed to selectively reduce cholesterol content in their tumor cells. PMID:24533143

Ali-Rahmani, Fatima; Huang, Michael A.; Schengrund, C.-L.; Connor, James R.; Lee, Sang Y.

2014-01-01

43

Perinatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Affects Glucose Metabolism in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally present in the environment and are widely distributed in human populations and wildlife. The chemicals are ubiquitous in human body fluids and have a long serum elimination half-life. The notorious member of PFAAs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is prioritized as a global concerning chemical at the Stockholm Convention in 2009, due to its harmful effects in mammals and aquatic organisms. PFOS is known to affect lipid metabolism in adults and was found to be able to cross human placenta. However the effects of in utero exposure to the susceptibility of metabolic disorders in offspring have not yet been elucidated. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were fed with 0, 0.3 or 3 mg PFOS/kg body weight/day in corn oil by oral gavage daily throughout gestational and lactation periods. We investigated the immediate effects of perinatal exposure to PFOS on glucose metabolism in both maternal and offspring after weaning (PND 21). To determine if the perinatal exposure predisposes the risk for metabolic disorder to the offspring, weaned animals without further PFOS exposure, were fed with either standard or high-fat diet until PND 63. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured while HOMA-IR index and glucose AUCs were reported. Our data illustrated the first time the effects of the environmental equivalent dose of PFOS exposure on the disturbance of glucose metabolism in F1 pups and F1 adults at PND 21 and 63, respectively. Although the biological effects of PFOS on the elevated levels of fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were observed in both pups and adults of F1, the phenotypes of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were only evident in the F1 adults. The effects were exacerbated under HFD, highlighting the synergistic action at postnatal growth on the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:24498028

Wan, Hin T.; Zhao, Yin G.; Leung, Pik Y.; Wong, Chris K. C.

2014-01-01

44

Uncinate Process Length in Birds Scales with Resting Metabolic Rate  

PubMed Central

A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum. Uncinate process length (UPL) is important for determining the mechanical advantage for these respiratory movements. Here we report on the relationship between UPL, body size, metabolic demand and locomotor specialisation in birds. UPL was found to scale isometrically with body mass. Process length is greatest in specialist diving birds, shortest in walking birds and intermediate length in all others relative to body size. Examination of the interaction between the length of the UP and metabolic demand indicated that, relative to body size, species with high metabolic rates have corresponding elongated UP. We propose that elongated UP confer an advantage on the supply of oxygen, perhaps by improving the mechanical advantage and reducing the energetic cost of movements of the ribs and sternum. PMID:19479074

Tickle, Peter; Nudds, Robert; Codd, Jonathan

2009-01-01

45

Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

2011-02-01

46

Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

2014-01-01

47

Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Co-Metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated solvent wastes (e.g., trichloroethene or TCE) often occur as diffuse subsurface plumes in complex geological environments where coupled processes must be understood in order to implement remediation strategies. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) warrants study as a remediation technology because it minimizes worker and environment exposure to the wastes and because it costs less than other technologies. However, to be accepted MNA requires 'lines of evidence' indicating that the wastes are effectively destroyed. Our research will study the coupled biogeochemical processes that dictate the rate of TCE co-metabolism in contaminated aquifers first at the Idaho National Laboratory and then at Paducah or the Savannah River Site, where natural attenuation of TCE is occurring. We will use flow-through in situ reactors to investigate the rate of methanotrophic co-metabolism of TCE and the coupling of the responsible biological processes with the dissolved methane flux and groundwater flow velocity. We will use new approaches (e.g., stable isotope probing, enzyme activity probes, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, proteomics) to assay the TCE co-metabolic rates, and interpret these rates in the context of enzyme activity, gene expression, and cellular inactivation related to intermediates of TCE co-metabolism. By determining the rate of TCE co-metabolism at different methane concentrations and groundwater flow velocities, we will derive key modeling parameters for the computational simulations that describe the attenuation, and thereby refine such models while assessing the contribution of microbial relative to other natural attenuation processes. This research will strengthen our ability to forecast the viability of MNA at DOE and other sites that are contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Colwell, Frederick; Radtke, Corey; Newby, Deborah; Delwiche, Mark; Crawf, Ronald L.; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Strap, Janice; Conrad, Mark; Brodic, Eoin; Starr, Robert; Lee, Hope

2006-04-05

48

Genetic modification of iron metabolism in mice affects the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by environmental factors as well as host genetics. Iron is one of the important elements essential for bacterial growth, thus we hypothesized that changes in host iron homeostasis, may affect the luminal iron content of the gut and thereby the composition of intestinal bacteria. The iron regulatory protein 2 (Irp2) and one of the genes mutated in hereditary hemochromatosis Hfe , are both proteins involved in the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. To test our hypothesis, fecal metal content and a selected spectrum of the fecal microbiota were analyzed from Hfe-/-, Irp2-/- and their wild type control mice. Elevated levels of iron as well as other minerals in feces of Irp2-/- mice compared to wild type and Hfe-/- mice were observed. Interestingly significant variation in the general fecal-bacterial population-patterns was observed between Irp2-/- and Hfe-/- mice. Furthermore the relative abundance of five species, mainly lactic acid bacteria, was significantly different among the mouse lines. Lactobacillus (L.) murinus and L. intestinalis were highly abundant in Irp2-/- mice, Enterococcus faecium species cluster and a species most similar to Olsenella were highly abundant in Hfe-/- mice and L. johnsonii was highly abundant in the wild type mice. These results suggest that deletion of iron metabolism genes in the mouse host affects the composition of its intestinal bacteria. Further studying the relationship between gut microbiota and genetic mutations affecting systemic iron metabolism in human should lead to clinical implications. PMID:22580926

Buhnik-Rosenblau, Keren; Moshe-Belizowski, Shirly; Danin-Poleg, Yael; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G

2012-10-01

49

Host-related metabolic cues affect colonization strategies of a root endophyte  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underpinning broad compatibility in root symbiosis are largely unexplored. The generalist root endophyte Piriformospora indica establishes long-lasting interactions with morphologically and biochemically different hosts, stimulating their growth, alleviating salt stress, and inducing local and systemic resistance to pathogens. Cytological studies and global investigations of fungal transcriptional responses to colonization of barley and Arabidopsis at different symbiotic stages identified host-dependent colonization strategies and host-specifically induced effector candidates. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, P. indica establishes and maintains biotrophic nutrition within living epidermal cells, whereas in barley the symbiont undergoes a nutritional switch to saprotrophy that is associated with the production of secondary thinner hyphae in dead cortex cells. Consistent with a diversified trophic behavior and with the occurrence of nitrogen deficiency at the onset of saprotrophy in barley, fungal genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes and nutrient transporters were highly induced in this host but not in Arabidopsis. Silencing of the high-affinity ammonium transporter PiAMT1 gene, whose transcripts are accumulating during nitrogen starvation and in barley, resulted in enhanced colonization of this host, whereas it had no effect on the colonization of Arabidopsis. Increased levels of free amino acids and reduced enzymatic activity for the cell-death marker VPE (vacuolar-processing enzyme) in colonized barley roots coincided with an extended biotrophic lifestyle of P. indica upon silencing of PiAMT1. This suggests that PiAmt1 functions as a nitrogen sensor mediating the signal that triggers the in planta activation of the saprotrophic program. Thus, host-related metabolic cues affect the expression of P. indica’s alternative lifestyles. PMID:23918389

Lahrmann, Urs; Ding, Yi; Banhara, Aline; Rath, Magnus; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.; Dohlemann, Stefanie; von Wiren, Nicolaus; Parniske, Martin; Zuccaro, Alga

2013-01-01

50

Green Tea minimally affects Biomarkers of Inflammation in Obese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has shown to exert cardio-protective benefits in observational studies. The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of green tea on features of metabolic syndrome and inflammation in obese subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five subjects [age (mean±SE) 42.5±1.7 years, BMI 36.1±1.3 kg/m2] completed the 8-week study and were randomly assigned to receive green tea (4 cups/day), green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water/day), or no treatment (4 cups water/day). Both the beverage and extract groups had similar dosing of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the active green tea polyphenol. Fasting blood samples were collected at screening, four, and eight weeks of the study. Results Green tea beverage or extract supplementation did not significantly alter features of metabolic syndrome or biomarkers of inflammation including adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), leptin, or leptin:adiponectin ratio. However, both green tea beverage and extracts significantly reduced plasma serum amyloid alpha (SAA) versus no treatment (p<0.005). Conclusion This study suggests that the daily consumption of green tea beverage or extracts for 8 weeks was well tolerated but did not affect the features of metabolic syndrome. However, green tea significantly reduced plasma SAA, an independent CVD risk factor, in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. PMID:20605696

Basu, Arpita; Du, Mei; Sanchez, Karah; Leyva, Misti J.; Betts, Nancy M.; Blevins, Steve; Wu, Mingyuan; Aston, Christopher E.; Lyons, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

51

Gestational diabetes mellitus epigenetically affects genes predominantly involved in metabolic diseases  

PubMed Central

Offspring exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk for chronic diseases, and one promising mechanism for fetal metabolic programming is epigenetics. Therefore, we postulated that GDM exposure impacts the offspring’s methylome and used an epigenomic approach to explore this hypothesis. Placenta and cord blood samples were obtained from 44 newborns, including 30 exposed to GDM. Women were recruited at first trimester of pregnancy and followed until delivery. GDM was assessed after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of pregnancy. DNA methylation was measured at > 485,000 CpG sites (Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was conducted to identify metabolic pathways epigenetically affected by GDM. Our results showed that 3,271 and 3,758 genes in placenta and cord blood, respectively, were potentially differentially methylated between samples exposed or not to GDM (p-values down to 1 × 10?06; none reached the genome-wide significance levels), with more than 25% (n = 1,029) being common to both tissues. Mean DNA methylation differences between groups were 5.7 ± 3.2% and 3.4 ± 1.9% for placenta and cord blood, respectively. These genes were likely involved in the metabolic diseases pathway (up to 115 genes (11%), p-values for pathways = 1.9 × 10?13 < p < 4.0 × 10?03; including diabetes mellitus p = 4.3 × 10?11). Among the differentially methylated genes, 326 in placenta and 117 in cord blood were also associated with newborn weight. Our results therefore suggest that GDM has epigenetic effects on genes preferentially involved in the metabolic diseases pathway, with consequences on fetal growth and development, and provide supportive evidence that DNA methylation is involved in fetal metabolic programming. PMID:23975224

Ruchat, Stephanie-May; Houde, Andree-Anne; Voisin, Gregory; St-Pierre, Julie; Perron, Patrice; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Gaudet, Daniel; Hivert, Marie-France; Brisson, Diane; Bouchard, Luigi

2013-01-01

52

Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages  

PubMed Central

Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting affective images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using early posterior negativity (EPN, 175–300 ms) as well as P3-like (P3, 300–500 ms) and slow wave (SW, 500–1500 ms) portions of the late positive potential. All analyzed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli. PMID:24421772

Uusberg, Andero; Uibo, Helen; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Tamm, Maria; Raidvee, Aire; Allik, Juri

2013-01-01

53

Brief report Affect processing and positive syndrome schizotypy  

E-print Network

Brief report Affect processing and positive syndrome schizotypy in cannabis users Patrick D 2006; received in revised form 6 October 2006; accepted 6 February 2007 Abstract While cannabis to negative symptoms such as affective blunting. We examined whether cannabis use is associated

Park, Sohee

54

Select nutrients, progesterone, and interferon tau affect conceptus metabolism and development.  

PubMed

Interferon tau (IFNT), a novel multifunctional type I interferon secreted by trophectoderm, is the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants that also has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory bioactivities. IFNT, with progesterone, affects availability of the metabolic substrate in the uterine lumen by inducing expression of genes for transport of select nutrients into the uterine lumen that activate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling responsible for proliferation, migration, and protein synthesis by conceptus trophectoderm. As an immunomodulatory protein, IFNT induces an anti-inflammatory state affecting metabolic events that decrease adiposity and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 activity, while increasing insulin sensitivity, nitric oxide production by endothelial cells, and brown adipose tissue in rats. This short review focuses on effects of IFNT and progesterone affecting transport of select nutrients into the uterine lumen to stimulate mTOR cell signaling required for conceptus development, as well as effects of IFNT on the immune system and adiposity in rats with respect to its potential therapeutic value in reducing obesity. PMID:23050969

Bazer, Fuller W; Kim, Jingyoung; Song, Gwonhwa; Ka, Hakhyun; Tekwe, Carmen D; Wu, Guoyao

2012-10-01

55

REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity  

E-print Network

productivity, disturbances induced by farming practices, and landscape heteroge- neity on plant diversity. Last biodiversity. Farming practices . Landscape pattern . Plant community. Plant functional traits . Seed bankREVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity in permanent grasslands. A review

Boyer, Edmond

56

Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-Franois DUMAS, Damien ROUSSEL, Gilles SIMARD, Olivier DOUAY, Franoise  

E-print Network

1 Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Jean-François DUMAS, Damien metabolism, liver mitochondria were isolated from ad libitum and food restricted rats. Mitochondrial enzyme, in food restricted rats, liver mitochondria displayed diminished state 3 (-30%), state 4-oligomycin (-26

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Parasitoid wasp affects metabolism of cockroach host to favor food preservation for its offspring.  

PubMed

Unlike predators, which immediately consume their prey, parasitoid wasps incapacitate their prey to provide a food supply for their offspring. We have examined the effects of the venom of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa on the metabolism of its cockroach prey. This wasp stings into the brain of the cockroach causing hypokinesia. We first established that larval development, from egg laying to pupation, lasts about 8 days. During this period, the metabolism of the stung cockroach slows down, as measured by a decrease in oxygen consumption. Similar decreases in oxygen consumption occurred after pharmacologically induced paralysis or after removing descending input from the head ganglia by severing the neck connectives. However, neither of these two groups of cockroaches survived more than six days, while 90% of stung cockroaches survived at least this long. In addition, cockroaches with severed neck connectives lost significantly more body mass, mainly due to dehydration. Hence, the sting of A. compressa not only renders the cockroach prey helplessly submissive, but also changes its metabolism to sustain more nutrients for the developing larva. This metabolic manipulation is subtler than the complete removal of descending input from the head ganglia, since it leaves some physiological processes, such as water retention, intact. PMID:15864597

Haspel, Gal; Gefen, Eran; Ar, Amos; Glusman, J Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic

2005-06-01

58

Factors affecting human heterocyclic amine intake and the metabolism of PhIP.  

PubMed

We are working to understand possible human health effects from exposure to heterocyclic amines that are formed in meat during cooking. Laboratory-cooked beef, pork, and chicken are capable of producing tens of nanograms of MeIQx, IFP, and PhIP per gram of meat and smaller amounts of other heteroyclic amines. Well-done restaurant-cooked beef, pork, and chicken may contain PhIP and IFP at concentrations as high as tens of nanograms per gram and MeIQx at levels up to 3 ng/g. Although well-done chicken breast prepared in the laboratory may contain large amounts of PhIP, a survey of flame-grilled meat samples cooked in private homes showed PhIP levels in beef steak and chicken breast are not significantly different (P=0.36). The extremely high PhIP levels reported in some studies of grilled chicken are not seen in home-cooked samples.Many studies suggest individuals may have varying susceptibility to carcinogens and that diet may influence metabolism, thus affecting cancer susceptibility. To understand the human metabolism of PhIP, we examined urinary metabolites of PhIP in volunteers following a single well-done meat exposure. Using solid-phase extraction and LC/MS/MS, we quantified four major PhIP metabolites in human urine. In addition to investigating individual variation, we examined the interaction of PhIP with a potentially chemopreventive food. In a preliminary study of the effect of broccoli on PhIP metabolism, we fed chicken to six volunteers before and after eating steamed broccoli daily for 3 days. Preliminary results suggest that broccoli, which contains isothiocyanates shown to induce Phases I and II metabolism in vitro, may affect both the rate of metabolite excretion and the metabolic products of a dietary carcinogen. This newly developed methodology will allow us to assess prevention strategies that reduce the possible risks associated with PhIP exposure. PMID:12351155

Knize, Mark G; Kulp, Kristen S; Salmon, Cynthia P; Keating, Garrett A; Felton, James S

2002-09-30

59

Metallurgical and Process Variables Affecting the Resistance Spot Weldability  

E-print Network

) ) 840113 Metallurgical and Process Variables Affecting the Resistance Spot Weldability of Fe-Zn intcrmetallics arc hcing investi gated with regard to the mccltan isms of weld nup,gct forma- tion. This informal ion is being used in con- junction with the optimization of the weld process

Eagar, Thomas W.

60

Relationship between Auditory Processing and Affective Prosody in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Patients with schizophrenia have well-established deficits in their ability to identify emotion from facial expression and tone of voice. In the visual modality, there is strong evidence that basic processing deficits contribute to impaired facial affect recognition in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined the auditory modality for mechanisms underlying affective prosody identification. In this study, we explored links between different stages of auditory processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs), and affective prosody detection in schizophrenia. Thirty-six schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy control subjects received tasks of affective prosody, facial emotion identification, and tone matching, as well as two auditory oddball paradigms, one passive for mismatch negativity (MMN) and one active for P300. Patients had significantly reduced MMN and P300 amplitudes, impaired auditory and visual emotion recognition, and poorer tone matching performance, relative to healthy controls. Correlations between ERP and behavioral measures within the patient group revealed significant associations between affective prosody recognition and both MMN and P300 amplitudes. These relationships were modality specific, as MMN and P300 did not correlate with facial emotion recognition. The two ERP waves accounted for 49% of the variance in affective prosody in a regression analysis. Our results support previous suggestions of a relationship between basic auditory processing abnormalities and affective prosody dysfunction in schizophrenia, and indicate that both relatively automatic pre-attentive processes (MMN) and later attention-dependent processes (P300) are involved with accurate auditory emotion identification. These findings provide support for bottom-up (e.g., perceptually based) cognitive remediation approaches. PMID:23276478

Jahshan, Carol; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F.

2012-01-01

61

Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children  

PubMed Central

Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body. PMID:19860886

Dufault, Renee; Schnoll, Roseanne; Lukiw, Walter J; LeBlanc, Blaise; Cornett, Charles; Patrick, Lyn; Wallinga, David; Gilbert, Steven G; Crider, Raquel

2009-01-01

62

Affective value and associative processing share a cortical substrate  

PubMed Central

The brain stores information in an associative manner so that contextually related entities are connected in memory. Such associative representations mediate the brain’s ability to generate predictions about other objects and events to expect in a given context. Likewise, the brain encodes and is able to rapidly retrieve the affective value of stimuli in our environment. That both contextual associations and affect serve as building blocks of numerous mental functions often makes interpretation of brain activation ambiguous. A critical brain region where such activation has often resulted in equivocal interpretation is the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), which has been implicated separately in both affective and associative processing. To characterize its role more unequivocally, we tested whether activity in mOFC was most directly attributable to affective processing, associative processing, or to a combination of both. Participants performed an object recognition task while undergoing fMRI scans. Objects varied independently in their affective valence and in their degree of association with other objects (associativity). Analyses revealed an overlapping sensitivity whereby left mOFC responded both to increasingly positive affective value and to stronger associativity. These two properties individually accounted for mOFC response, even after controlling for their interrelationship. The role of mOFC is either general enough to encompass both associations that link stimuli with reinforcing outcomes and with other stimuli, or abstract enough to use both valence and associativity in conjunction to inform downstream processes related to perception and action. These results may further point to a fundamental relationship between associativity and positive affect. PMID:23090717

Shenhav, Amitai; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bar, Moshe

2012-01-01

63

Potato Snakin-1 Gene Silencing Affects Cell Division, Primary Metabolism, and Cell Wall Composition1[W  

PubMed Central

Snakin-1 (SN1) is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that was classified as a member of the Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis protein family. In this work, a transgenic approach was used to study the role of SN1 in planta. Even when overexpressing SN1, potato lines did not show remarkable morphological differences from the wild type; SN1 silencing resulted in reduced height, which was accompanied by an overall reduction in leaf size and severe alterations of leaf shape. Analysis of the adaxial epidermis of mature leaves revealed that silenced lines had 70% to 90% increases in mean cell size with respect to wild-type leaves. Consequently, the number of epidermal cells was significantly reduced in these lines. Confocal microscopy analysis after agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that SN1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in plasma membrane, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that SN1 self-interacted in vivo. We further focused our study on leaf metabolism by applying a combination of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric techniques. These targeted analyses allowed a detailed examination of the changes occurring in 46 intermediate compounds from primary metabolic pathways and in seven cell wall constituents. We demonstrated that SN1 silencing affects cell division, leaf primary metabolism, and cell wall composition in potato plants, suggesting that SN1 has additional roles in growth and development beyond its previously assigned role in plant defense. PMID:22080603

Nahirnak, Vanesa; Almasia, Natalia Ines; Fernandez, Paula Virginia; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Estevez, Jose Manuel; Carrari, Fernando; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

2012-01-01

64

How folate metabolism affects colorectal cancer development and treatment; a story of heterogeneity and pleiotropy.  

PubMed

Folate was identified as an essential micronutrient early in the twentieth century and anti-folate chemotherapy such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been central to the medical management of solid tumours including colorectal cancer for more than five decades. In the intervening years, evidence has been gathered which shows that folate deficiency leads to many human diseases throughout the life-course. However, we still do not know all of the mechanisms behind functional folate deficiency, or indeed its rescue through supplementation with natural and particularly synthetic folates. There is growing evidence that one adverse effect of folic acid fortification programmes is an increased risk of colorectal cancer within populations. The complexity of folate-dependent, one-carbon metabolism and the heterogeneity that exists between individuals with respect to the enzymes involved in the anabolic pathways, and the catabolism of 5-FU, are explored in this review. The enzyme products of some genes such as MTHFR exert multiple and perhaps unrelated effects on many phenotypes, including cancer development. We describe this pleiotropy and the common genetic variants that affect folate metabolism; and discuss some of the studies that have investigated their potential as predictive biomarkers. PMID:24614284

Jennings, Barbara Anne; Willis, Gavin

2015-01-28

65

Staphylococcus aureus virulence and metabolism are dramatically affected by Lactococcus lactis in cheese matrix.  

PubMed

In complex environments such as cheeses, the lack of relevant information on the physiology and virulence expression of pathogenic bacteria and the impact of endogenous microbiota has hindered progress in risk assessment and control. Here, we investigated the behaviour of Staphylococcus aureus, a major foodborne pathogen, in a cheese matrix, either alone or in the presence of Lactococcus lactis, as a dominant species of cheese ecosystems. The dynamics of S. aureus was explored in situ by coupling a microbiological and, for the first time, a transcriptomic approach. Lactococcus lactis affected the carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolisms and the stress response of S. aureus by acidifying, proteolysing and decreasing the redox potential of the cheese matrix. Enterotoxin expression was positively or negatively modulated by both L. lactis and the cheese matrix itself, depending on the enterotoxin type. Among the main enterotoxins involved in staphylococcal food poisoning, sea expression was slightly favoured in the presence of L. lactis, whereas a strong repression of sec4 was observed in cheese matrix, even in the absence of L. lactis, and correlated with a reduced saeRS expression. Remarkably, the agr system was downregulated by the presence of L. lactis, in part because of the decrease in pH. This study highlights the intimate link between environment, metabolism and virulence, as illustrated by the influence of the cheese matrix context, including the presence of L. lactis, on two major virulence regulators, the agr system and saeRS. PMID:23761280

Cretenet, Marina; Nouaille, Sébastien; Thouin, Jennifer; Rault, Lucie; Stenz, Ludwig; François, Patrice; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Piot, Michel; Maillard, Marie Bernadette; Fauquant, Jacques; Loubière, Pascal; Loir, Yves Le; Even, Sergine

2011-06-01

66

fMRI Scanner Noise Interaction with Affective Neural Processes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=34, 19 female) were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier) and emotion (fear, neutral, joy) were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus). Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes. PMID:24260420

Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

2013-01-01

67

The role of affective processes in learning and motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective processes can be objectively defined in terms of sign, hedonistic intensity, and duration. That they are real is evidenced by a study of food acceptance. They are basic to concepts of motivation and reinforcement. Some objective principles of experimental hedonism are suggested as a basis for future studies. (25 ref.) From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:1CK04Y.

Paul Thomas Young

1959-01-01

68

Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive

Jack C Schryver; Edmon Begoli; Ajith Jose; Christopher Griffin

2011-01-01

69

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

70

Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

2003-12-01

71

Assessment of Chitosan-Affected Metabolic Response by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Bioluminescent Imaging-Guided Transcriptomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB) and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. PMID:22496881

Kao, Chia-Hung; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

2012-01-01

72

Humans Process Dog and Human Facial Affect in Similar Ways  

PubMed Central

Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., social isolation) provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs. PMID:24023954

Schirmer, Annett; Seow, Cui Shan; Penney, Trevor B.

2013-01-01

73

Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. PMID:21889598

Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Micha? S; Jefimow, Ma?gorzata

2011-12-01

74

Decreased zinc availability affects glutathione metabolism in neuronal cells and in the developing brain.  

PubMed

A deficit in zinc (Zn) availability can increase cell oxidant production, affect the antioxidant defense system, and trigger oxidant-sensitive signals in neuronal cells. This work tested the hypothesis that a decreased Zn availability can affect glutathione (GSH) metabolism in the developing rat brain and in neuronal cells in culture, as well as the capacity of human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells to upregulate GSH when challenged with dopamine (DA). GSH levels were low in the brain of gestation day 19 (GD19) fetuses from dams fed marginal Zn diets throughout gestation and in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. ?-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCL), the first enzyme in the GSH synthetic pathway, was altered by Zn deficiency (ZD). The protein and mRNA levels of the GCL modifier (GCLM) and catalytic (GCLC) subunits were lower in the Zn-deficient GD19 fetal brain and in IMR-32 cells compared with controls. The nuclear translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, which controls GCL transcription, was impaired by ZD. Posttranslationally, the caspase-3-dependent GCLC cleavage was high in Zn-deficient IMR-32 cells. Cells challenged with DA showed an increase in GCLM and GCLC protein and mRNA levels and a consequent increase in GSH concentration. Although Zn-deficient cells partially upregulated GCL subunits after exposure to DA, GSH content remained low. In summary, results show that a low Zn availability affects the GSH synthetic pathway in neuronal cells and fetal brain both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. This can in part underlie the GSH depletion associated with ZD and the high sensitivity of Zn-deficient neurons to pro-oxidative stressors. PMID:23377617

Omata, Yo; Salvador, Gabriela A; Supasai, Suangsuda; Keenan, Alison H; Oteiza, Patricia I

2013-05-01

75

Sydnone SYD-1 affects the metabolic functions of isolated rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated that sydnone SYD-1 (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) impairs the mitochondrial functions linked to energy provision and suggested that this effect could be associated with its antitumor activity. Herein, we evaluated the effects of SYD-1 (25 and 50 ?M) on rat hepatocytes to determine its cytotoxicity on non-tumor cells. SYD-1 (25 and 50 ?M) did not affect the viability of hepatocytes in suspension after 1-40 min of incubation. However, the viability of the cultured hepatocytes was decreased by ?66% as a consequence of treatment with SYD-1 (50 ?M) for 18 h. Under the same conditions, SYD-1 promoted an increase in the release of LDH by ?19%. The morphological changes in the cultured cells treated with SYD-1 (50 ?M) were suggestive of cell distress, which was demonstrated by the presence of rounded hepatocytes, cell fragments and monolayer impairment. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopy showed an increase in the annexin label after treatment with SYD-1 (50 ?M), suggesting that apoptosis had been induced in these cells. SYD-1 did not affect the states of respiration in the suspended hepatocytes, but the pyruvate levels were decreased by ?36%, whereas the lactate levels were increased by ?22% (for the 50 ?M treatment). The basal and uncoupled states of respiration of the cultured hepatocytes were inhibited by ?79% and ?51%, respectively, by SYD-1 (50 ?M). In these cells, SYD-1 (50 ?M) increased the pyruvate and lactate levels by ?84% and ?16%, respectively. These results show that SYD-1 affects important metabolic functions related to energy provision in hepatocytes and that this effect was more pronounced on cells in culture than those in suspension. PMID:24836382

Brandt, Anna Paula; Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Acco, Alexandra; de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Echevarria, Aurea; Canuto, André Vinícius dos Santos; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

2014-07-25

76

Cadmium affects metabolic responses to prolonged anoxia and reoxygenation in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica).  

PubMed

Benthic marine organisms such as mollusks are often exposed to periodic oxygen deficiency (due to the tidal exposure and/or seasonal expansion of the oxygen-deficient dead zones) and pollution by metals [e.g., cadmium, (Cd)]. These stressors can strongly affect mollusks' survival; however, physiological mechanisms of their combined effects are not fully understood. We studied the effects of Cd exposure on metabolic responses to prolonged anoxia and subsequent recovery in anoxia-tolerant intertidal mollusks Crassostrea virginica (eastern oysters). Anoxia led to an onset of anaerobiosis indicated by accumulation of l-alanine, acetate, and succinate. Prolonged anoxia (for 6 days) caused a decline in the maximum activity of electron transport chain and ADP-stimulated (state 3) oxygen uptake by mitochondria (MO(2)), but no change in the resting (state 4) MO(2) of oyster mitochondria, along with a slight but significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory control ratio. During reoxygenation, there was a significant overshoot of mitochondrial MO(2) (by up to 70% above the normoxic steady-state values) in control oysters. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling during prolonged shutdown in anoxic tissues and a subsequent strong stimulation of mitochondrial flux during recovery may help to rapidly restore redox status and protect against elevated reactive oxygen species formation in oysters. Exposure to Cd inhibits anaerobic metabolism, abolishes reoxygenation-induced stimulation of mitochondrial MO(2), and leads to oxidative stress (indicated by accumulation of DNA lesions) and a loss of mitochondrial capacity during postanoxic recovery. This may result in increased sensitivity to intermittent hypoxia and anoxia in Cd-exposed mollusks and will have implications for their survival in polluted estuaries and coastal zones. PMID:19726715

Kurochkin, I O; Ivanina, A V; Eilers, S; Downs, C A; May, L A; Sokolova, I M

2009-11-01

77

Processes affecting the oceanic distributions of dissolved calcium and alkalinity  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of the CO/sub 2/ system have suggested that chemical processes in addition to the dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate affect the oceanic calcium and alkalinity distributions. Calcium and alkalinity data from the North Pacific have been examined both by using the simple physical-chemical model of previous workers and by a study involving the broader oceanographic context of these data. The simple model is shown to be an inadequate basis for these studies. Although a proton flux associated with organic decomposition may affect the alkalinity, previously reported deviations of calcium-alkalinity correlations from expected trends appear to be related to boundary processes that have been neglected rather than to this proton flux. The distribution of calcium in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean is examined.

Shiller, A.M.; Gieskes, J.M.

1980-05-20

78

Diet-Induced Alterations of Host Cholesterol Metabolism Are Likely To Affect the Gut Microbiota Composition in Hamsters  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal microbiota affects the metabolism of the mammalian host and has consequences for health. However, the complexity of gut microbial communities and host metabolic pathways make functional connections difficult to unravel, especially in terms of causation. In this study, we have characterized the fecal microbiota of hamsters whose cholesterol metabolism was extensively modulated by the dietary addition of plant sterol esters (PSE). PSE intake induced dramatic shifts in the fecal microbiota, reducing several bacterial taxa within the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae. The abundance of these taxa displayed remarkably high correlations with host cholesterol metabolites. Most importantly, the associations between several bacterial taxa with fecal and biliary cholesterol excretion showed an almost perfect fit to a sigmoidal nonlinear model of bacterial inhibition, suggesting that host cholesterol excretion can shape microbiota structure through the antibacterial action of cholesterol. In vitro experiments suggested a modest antibacterial effect of cholesterol, and especially of cholesteryl-linoleate, but not plant sterols when included in model bile micelles. The findings obtained in this study are relevant to our understanding of gut microbiota-host lipid metabolism interactions, as they provide the first evidence for a role of cholesterol excreted with the bile as a relevant host factor that modulates the gut microbiota. The findings further suggest that the connections between Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae and host lipid metabolism, which have been observed in several studies, could be caused by a metabolic phenotype of the host (cholesterol excretion) affecting the gut microbiota. PMID:23124234

Martinez, Ines; Perdicaro, Diahann J.; Brown, Andrew W.; Hammons, Susan; Carden, Trevor J.; Carr, Timothy P.; Eskridge, Kent M.

2013-01-01

79

Metabolic Parameters and Emotionality Are Little Affected in G-Protein Coupled Receptor 12 (Gpr12) Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Background G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) bear the potential to serve as yet unidentified drug targets for psychiatric and metabolic disorders. GPR12 is of major interest given its putative role in metabolic function and its unique brain distribution, which suggests a role in emotionality and affect. We tested Gpr12 deficient mice in a series of metabolic and behavioural tests and subjected them to a well-established high-fat diet feeding protocol. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparing the mutant mice with wild type littermates, no significant differences were seen in body weight, fatness or weight gain induced by a high-fat diet. The Gpr12 mutant mice displayed a modest but significant lowering of energy expenditure and a trend to lower food intake on a chow diet, but no other metabolic parameters, including respiratory rate, were altered. No emotionality-related behaviours (assessed by light-dark box, tail suspension, and open field tests) were affected by the Gpr12 gene mutation. Conclusions/Significance Studying metabolic and emotionality parameters in Gpr12 mutant mice did not reveal a major phenotypic impact of the gene mutation. Compared to previous results showing a metabolic phenotype in Gpr12 mice with a mixed 129 and C57Bl6 background, we suggest that a more pure C57Bl/6 background due to further backcrossing might have reduced the phenotypic penetrance. PMID:22879962

Frank, Elisabeth; Wu, Yizhen; Piyaratna, Naomi; Body, William James; Snikeris, Peta; South, Timothy; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Huang, Xu-Feng

2012-01-01

80

Neural Correlates of Affect Processing and Aggression in Methamphetamine Dependence  

PubMed Central

Context Methamphetamine abuse is associated with high rates of aggression, but few studies have addressed the contributing neurobiological factors. Objective To quantify aggression, investigate function of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and assess relationships between brain function and behavior in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Design In a case-control study, aggression and brain activation were compared between methamphetamine-dependent and control participants. Setting Participants were recruited from the general community to an academic research center. Participants Thirty-nine methamphetamine-dependent volunteers (16 women) who were abstinent for 7 to 10 days and 37 drug-free control volunteers (18 women) participated in the study; subsets completed self-report and behavioral measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 25 methamphetamine-dependent and 23 control participants. Main outcome measures We measured self-reported and perpetrated aggression, and self-reported alexithymia. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI during visual processing of facial affect (affect matching), and symbolic processing (affect labeling), the latter representing an incidental form of emotion regulation. Results Methamphetamine-dependent participants self-reported more aggression and alexithymia than control participants and escalated perpetrated aggression more following provocation. Alexithymia scores correlated with measures of aggression. During affect matching, fMRI showed no differences between groups in amygdala activation, but found lower activation in methamphetamine-dependent than control participants in bilateral ventral inferior frontal gyrus. During affect labeling, participants recruited dorsal inferior frontal gyrus and exhibited decreased amygdala activity, consistent with successful emotion regulation; there was no group difference in this effect. The magnitude of decrease in amygdala activity during affect labeling correlated inversely with self-reported aggression in control participants, and perpetrated aggression in all participants. Ventral inferior frontal gyrus activation correlated inversely with alexithymia in control participants. Conclusions Contrary to the hypotheses, methamphetamine-dependent individuals may successfully regulate emotions through incidental means (affect labeling). Instead, low ventral inferior frontal gyrus activity may contribute to heightened aggression by limiting emotional insight. PMID:21041607

Payer, Doris E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; London, Edythe D.

2012-01-01

81

Capacity of bioregulators of stem and progenitor cells to strongly affect liver redox-dependent processes.  

PubMed

Abstract Effects of stem and progenitor cells or their compounds on recipient cells are investigated intensively today. In spite of this, their ability to interact with native cells and the final targets affected by them, particularly biochemical parameters that characterize cell redox-dependent processes, remain little studied. We have studied how bioregulators of stem and progenitor cells affect these processes in freshly isolated liver after animal pretreatment in vivo. Cytosol of human fetal mesenchymal-mesodermal tissues (8-10 weeks gestation) was administered intravenously; the control group was treated with Hanks' solution. After 4?hr, rats were sacrificed and their livers were isolated. To evaluate liver redox-dependent state, mitochondrial respiratory activity and nitroxyl radical and Alamar Blue™ reduction rates, mitochondrial and cytosolic glycerol kinase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent malate dehydrogenase activities were studied. The results obtained demonstrate that bioregulators strongly affect liver redox-dependent processes, increasing mitochondrial respiration in state III and spin probe reduction rate and enhancing Alamar Blue™ reduction by glycolytic and nonglycolytic postmitochondrial enzymes. In addition, mitochondrial glycerol kinase and both isoforms of NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase were inhibited. These data bring us closer to understanding stem and progenitor cell effects via directed regulation of metabolic redox-dependent processes. PMID:22007912

Cherkashina, Daria V; Tkacheva, Elena N; Somov, Alexander Y; Semenchenko, Olga A; Nardid, Oleg A; Petrenko, Alexander Y

2011-12-01

82

Hemicholinium-3 derivatives A-4 and A-5 affect choline and acetylcholine metabolism.  

PubMed

The neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cell (NG108-15) has a sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline transport system with a Km of 16.0 +/- 3.4 microM and a Vmax of 214.5 +/- 27.7 pmol/min/mg protein. A-4, A-5 and HC-3 produce dose-dependent inhibition of high-affinity choline transport in NG108-15 cells. Following 24 h exposure to approximately the EC50 of each inhibitor, no significant decrease was found in total choline accumulation or in choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine. However, when additional inhibitor was added during the 24 h incubation, significant decreases in choline accumulation were produced by A-4 and A-5. Following 24 h exposure to each compound, only A-4 was able to significantly affect free choline content. In contrast, each inhibitor was able to significantly decrease acetylcholine content following 24 h exposure. Possible reasons for consistent decreases in acetylcholine versus minimal changes in choline metabolism will be discussed. PMID:2065716

Sheff, K Y; Yorek, M A; Long, J P

1991-02-25

83

Water Deficit Affected Flavonoid Accumulation by Regulating Hormone Metabolism in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Roots  

PubMed Central

The content of flavonoids especially baicalin and baicalein determined the medical quality of Scutellaria baicalensis which is a Chinese traditional medicinal plant. Here, we investigated the mechanism responsible for the content and composition of flavonoids in S. baicalensis under water deficit condition. The transcription levels of several genes which are involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were stimulated by water deficit. Under water deficit condition, fifteen up-regulated proteins, three down-regulated proteins and other six proteins were detected by proteomic analysis. The identified proteins include three gibberellin (GA)- or indoleacetic acid (IAA)-related proteins. Decreased endogenous GAs level and increased IAA level were observed in leaves of S. baicalensis which was treated with water deficit. Exogenous application of GA or ?-naphthalene acelic acid (NAA) to plants grown under water deficit conditions led to the increase of endogenous GAs and the decrease of IAA and flavonoids, respectively. When the synthesis pathway of GA or IAA in plants was inhibited by application with the inhibitors, flavonoid levels were recovered. These results indicate that water deficit affected flavonoid accumulation might through regulating hormone metabolism in S. baicalensis Georgi. PMID:23077481

Wu, Chong; Chen, Shunqin; Wang, Zhouyong; Yang, Zhaochun; Qin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Luqi

2012-01-01

84

Zinc deficiency (ZD) without starvation affects thyroid hormone metabolism of rats  

SciTech Connect

Young rats fed diets severely deficient in Zn exhibit impaired growth and endocrine function. These hormone effects may be confounded by cyclical feeding and starvation. To examine the effects of zinc deficiency (ZD) with and without starvation, 40 male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semipurified diet containing all essential nutrients and 30 ppm Zn until they weighed 150 g, then were matched by weight into four groups and were fed one of the following diets for 28d: ad lib control Zn diet, marginal ZD diet, severe ZD diet, and C diet pair-fed (PF) in amounts consumed by matched ZD1 rat. Food intake was depressed in ZD1; body weights were reduced in ZD1 and PF. There was no difference in either food intake or weight gain between C and ZD6. ZD reduced liver and femur Zn concentrations. Plasma thyroxine (T{sub 4}) concentration was greater in ZD6 then ZD1 or PF, but less than C; triodothyronine concentration was less in PF than C, but similar to ZD1 and ZD6. Hepatic T{sub 4}-5{prime}-deiodinase activity was greater in ZD6 than ZD1 or PF, but less than C. These findings indicate that altered thyroid hormone metabolism of severe ZD is related to Zn intake and starvation, whereas ZD uncomplicated by starvation affects peripheral deiodination of T{sub 4}, and suggests altered rates of thyroid hormone synthesis or degradation.

Lukaski, H.C.; Smith, S.M.; Hall, C.B.; Bucher, D.R. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1991-03-15

85

[Hypocarnitinemia in patients affected by a primary defect of ammonia metabolism treated with sodium benzoate].  

PubMed

We have studied the plasma and urinary levels of free and esterified carnitine in 18 patients affected by a primary defect of ammonia metabolism, which had been managed with or without a therapy of sodium benzoate. None of these patients presented with any acute neurologic or digestive symptoms during the study. Our group of non-treated patients showed an increase in the levels of plasma esterified carnitine and an elevation of urinary concentration of free carnitine, while the levels of urinary esterified carnitine clearly approached the superior limits of normal values. The group treated with sodium benzoate showed a more profoundly disturbed plasma and urinary carnitine profile: a significantly lower plasma and urinary free carnitine, accompanied by a clearly increased esterified/free carnitine ratio. We did not find any evidence of a relationship between the plasma levels of free or esterified carnitine and the protein intake or the plasma ammonia concentration. We are proposing a hypothesis to explain the hypocarnitinemia seen in our patients being treated with benzoate, along with other modifications observed in the carnitine profile. We believe that a supplement of carnitine could be beneficial in the management of some of these patients. PMID:2210018

Michalak, A; Lambert, M A; Dallaire, L; Melançon, S B; Laframboise, R; Lemieux, B; Qureshi, I A

1990-01-01

86

Rearing temperature affects Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae protein metabolic capacity.  

PubMed

The present work examined the short- and long-term effects of three rearing temperatures on protein metabolism and growth trajectories of Senegalese sole larvae using ¹?C-labelled Artemia protein as feed. A first feeding trial was performed on larvae reared at 15, 18 and 21 °C (at 26, 17 and 14 days post-hatching (dph), respectively) and a second trial conducted on post-larvae after transfer to the same rearing temperature (~20 °C) (49, 35 and 27 dph, in larvae initially reared at 15, 18 and 21 °C, respectively). Temperature greatly influenced larvae relative growth rate (RGR) and survival, since growth at 15 °C was severely depressed. Protein digestibility and retention was highest at 18 °C during the first trial (85.35 ± 1.16 and 86.34 ± 2.33 %, respectively). However, during the second trial, post-larvae from 15 °C had the highest feed intake and protein digestibility (3.58 ± 1.54 and 75.50 ± 1.35 %, respectively), although retention was similar between treatments. Furthermore, after transfer to 20 °C larvae from 15 °C experienced compensatory growth, which was observed until 121 dph, and confirmed by RGR values, which were significantly higher at 15 ºC than at 21 ºC or 18 ºC. Results from the present study show that Solea senegalensis larval development, survival and protein digestion and retention are highly affected by thermal history. PMID:23644726

Campos, Catarina; Castanheira, M Filipa; Engrola, Sofia; Valente, Luísa M P; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Conceição, Luís E C

2013-12-01

87

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. RESULTS: The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of

Laurent G Deluc; David R Quilici; Alain Decendit; Jérôme Grimplet; Matthew D Wheatley; Karen A Schlauch; Jean-Michel Mérillon; John C Cushman; Grant R Cramer

2009-01-01

88

Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites.  

PubMed Central

The remediation of chromium-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the processes that control the migration and transformation of chromium. Advection, dispersion, and diffusion are physical processes affecting the rate at which contaminants can migrate in the subsurface. Heterogeneity is an important factor that affects the contribution of each of these mechanisms to the migration of chromium-laden waters. Redox reactions, chemical speciation, adsorption/desorption phenomena, and precipitation/dissolution reactions control the transformation and mobility of chromium. The reduction of CrVI to CrIII can occur in the presence of ferrous iron in solution or in mineral phases, reduced sulfur compounds, or soil organic matter. At neutral to alkaline pH, the CrIII precipitates as amorphous hydroxides or forms complexes with organic matter. CrIII is oxidized by manganese dioxide, a common mineral found in many soils. Solid-phase precipitates of hexavalent chromium such as barium chromate can serve either as sources or sinks for CrVI. Adsorption of CrVI in soils increases with decreasing chromium concentration, making it more difficult to remove the chromium as the concentration decreases during pump-and-treat remediation. Knowledge of these chemical and physical processes is important in developing and selecting effective, cost-efficient remediation designs for chromium-contaminated sites. PMID:1935849

Palmer, C D; Wittbrodt, P R

1991-01-01

89

Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.  

PubMed

Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects? attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects? task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. PMID:24593900

Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

2014-04-01

90

Are Accuracy and Reaction Time Affected via Different Processes?  

PubMed Central

A recent study by van Ede et al. (2012) shows that the accuracy and reaction time in humans of tactile perceptual decisions are affected by an attentional cue via distinct cognitive and neural processes. These results are controversial as they undermine the notion that accuracy and reaction time are influenced by the same latent process that underlie the decision process. Typically, accumulation-to-bound models (like the drift diffusion model) can explain variability in both accuracy and reaction time by a change of a single parameter. To elaborate the findings of van Ede et al., we fitted the drift diffusion model to their behavioral data. Results show that both changes in accuracy and reaction time can be partly explained by an increase in the accumulation of sensory evidence (drift rate). In addition, a change in non-decision time is necessary to account for reaction time changes as well. These results provide a subtle explanation of how the underlying dynamics of the decision process might give rise to differences in both the speed and accuracy of perceptual tactile decisions. Furthermore, our analyses highlight the importance of applying a model-based approach, as the observed changes in the model parameters might be ecologically more valid, since they have an intuitive relationship with the neuronal processes underlying perceptual decision making. PMID:24260358

Mulder, Martijn J.; van Maanen, Leendert

2013-01-01

91

Free Fatty Acids and Their Metabolism Affect Function and Survival of Podocytes  

PubMed Central

Podocyte injury and loss critically contribute to the pathogenesis of proteinuric kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Deregulated lipid metabolism with disturbed free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism is a characteristic of metabolically unhealthy obesity and type 2 diabetes and likely contributes to end-stage kidney disease irrespective of the underlying kidney disease. In the current review, we summarize recent findings related to FFAs and altered renal FFA metabolism with a special focus on podocytes. We will outline the opposing effects of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs and a particular emphasis will be given to the underlying molecular mechanisms involving insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. Finally, recent data suggesting a critical role of renal FFA metabolism to adapt to an altered lipid environment will be discussed. PMID:25386168

Sieber, Jonas; Jehle, Andreas Werner

2014-01-01

92

Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch  

PubMed Central

Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

Bjornsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Hakan; Kaiser, Martha D.

2014-01-01

93

Silicification of Thermophilic Biofilms: Do Aquificales Affect the Mineralisation Process?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geothermal environments, biomineralisation is an inevitable consequence of microbes growing in solute-rich waters. The process of silicification is of particular interest due to (1) apparent discrepancies between natural and laboratory silicification rates and (2) siliceous microfossils currently serve as the earliest physical evidence for life on Earth. Although mesophilic microbe-silica interactions have been studied in great detail, there is a paucity of information on the role that thermophiles play in the silicification process, i.e., does their metabolism in any way facilitate silicification and do their cellular remains fossilise? To help resolve some of these uncertainties, a thermophilic, biofilm-forming member of the Aquificales order, Sulfurihydrogenobium azorense, was grown in the presence of various concentrations of silica, ranging from undersaturated to those extremely supersaturated with respect to amorphous silica. Since the chemolithoautotrophic Aquificales use of a wide range and combination of electron donors and acceptors, the bacteria cultured were grown in the presence of H2 with O2, S and Fe(III) as terminal electron acceptors. This study focused on the rates of pH-induced silica polymerisation during a 48 hour interval, when the soluble silica phase was at its most reactive stage, and when the greatest amount of silica immobilisation was likely to occur. S. azorense was found to have no detectable effect on the polymerisation rate of silica under any condition tested, nor did it cause silica to precipitate in undersaturated conditions. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed that although silica did indeed precipitate from solution, there was no obvious association between solid-phase silica and the cells walls. This suggests that under high silica levels there is such a strong chemical driving force for silica polymerisation, homogeneous nucleation, and ultimately silica precipitation that there is no obvious need for microbial catalysis.

Konhauser, K.; Lalonde, S.; Aguiar, P.; Reysenbach, A.

2003-12-01

94

The "Musical Emotional Bursts": a validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.  

PubMed

The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB) consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear) and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analog of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV)-a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 s) improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]), or a clarinet (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]). The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, non-linguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli [30 stimuli × 4 (3 emotions + neutral) × 2 instruments] by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task); 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80) was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0%) and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each) MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems. PMID:23964255

Paquette, Sébastien; Peretz, Isabelle; Belin, Pascal

2013-01-01

95

Individual differences in video game experience: Cognitive control, affective processing, and visuospatial processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent groups of researchers have investigated video game effects on cognitive control (Mathews et al., 2005), affective processing (Kirsh & Mounts, 2007), and visuospatial processing (Green & Bavelier, 2003). However, no published research has studied all three domains in the same sample of gamers and non-gamers. In the current study nonviolent and violent gamers, and non-gamers performed two tasks tapping

Kira Bailey

2009-01-01

96

Carbon Availability Affects Diurnally Controlled Processes and Cell Morphology of Cyanothece 51142  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142. PMID:23457634

Stockel, Jana; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2013-01-01

97

Severe dietary lysine restriction affects growth and body composition and hepatic gene expression for nitrogen metabolism in growing rats.  

PubMed

Dietary lysine restriction may differentially affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism, depending on the degree of lysine restriction. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism with two different degree of lysine restriction. Isocaloric amino acid-defined diets containing 1.4% lysine (adequate), 0.70% lysine (50% moderate lysine restriction) and 0.35% lysine (75% severe lysine restriction) were fed from the age of 52 to 77 days for 25 days in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The 75% severe lysine restriction increased (p < 0.05) food intake, but retarded (p < 0.05) growth, increased (p < 0.05) liver and muscle lipid contents and abdominal fat accumulation, increased (p < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen levels and mRNA levels of the serine-synthesizing 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene, but decreased (p < 0.05) urea cycle arginase gene mRNA levels. In contrast, the 50% lysine restriction did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism. Our results demonstrate that severe 75% lysine restriction has detrimental effects on body growth and deregulate lipid and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:23441935

Kim, J; Lee, K S; Kwon, D-H; Bong, J J; Jeong, J Y; Nam, Y S; Lee, M S; Liu, X; Baik, M

2014-02-01

98

Role of soil and plant metabolic processes in controlling trace element behavior and bioavailability to animals  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic and physiological processes regulating the behavior of Ni, Cd, Cr, Np, Pu and Tc in the soil/plant/animal system are discussed. Soil microorganisms have both direct and indirect effects on the trace element solubility in soils. An indirect route, the production of exocellular ligands is briefly discussed in terms of possible effects on plant availability of Ni. The subsequent ability of plant roots to actively accumulate a non-nutrient trace element from soils is dependent on its chemical activity in soil solution, the presence of interfering ions, the requirements for valence change relative to the redox potential of root, and the capacity of the root absorption process. Following absorption by roots, an element is partitioned within the root, and is stored/detoxified and/or metabolized, with only a fraction transported to distal shoot tissues. Inorganic cations and ions are rapidly bound to organic metabolites in root and shoot tissues with only a small fraction persisting in inorganic forms. This change in chemical forms can dramatically affect the availability to individual elements to animals. 43 references.

Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.

1983-01-01

99

Glutamate Catabolism of Rickettsia rickettsi and Factors Affecting Retention of Metabolic Activity1  

PubMed Central

Glutamate catabolism and the factors contributing to metabolic stability of purified suspensions of Rickettsia rickettsi were investigated. By use of 14C-glutamate, it was shown that CO2 was produced from all carbons of glutamate and that 14CO2 production was reduced by the addition of most of the unlabeled intermediates of the citric acid cycle and pyruvate. Oxalacetate, added in various concentrations, did not stimulate glutamate utilization. When the cells were suspended in bovine plasma albumin (BPA), CO2 production from glutamate proceeded at a nearly uniform rate for 8 hr at 32 C and for 24 hr at 15 C. When BPA was used, the cells retained their metabolic activity at 0 or 30 C regardless of cell concentration, and were not influenced by the addition of varoius metabolites. Without BPA, metabolic stability was directly related to concentration. Of the stabilizers tested on low concentrations of rickettsiae, reduced glutathione was the most effective, provided that the gas phase contained predominantly N2. Under these conditions of low partial pressure of O2, glutamate further stabilized metabolic activity and was actively metabolized. The cells were also stabilized by oxidized glutathione in a gas phase of air, but under these conditions glutamate was utilized at a more moderate rate and it impaired metabolic stability. PMID:5640379

Rees, Horace B.; Weiss, Emilio

1968-01-01

100

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

... Some metabolic diseases and conditions include: Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per- thigh -roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism is caused ... or through surgery or radiation treatments. Hypothyroidism (pronounced: hi-po- thigh -roy-dih-zum) . Hypothyroidism is caused ...

101

Carbohydrate quality and quantity affect glucose and lipid metabolism during weight regain in healthy men.  

PubMed

In this controlled, parallel-group feeding trial, we examined the impact of carbohydrate (CHO) intake and glycemic index (GI) on glucose and lipid metabolism during refeeding after weight loss. Healthy men (n = 32 total, age: 25.5 ± 3.9 y, BMI: 23.5 ± 2.0 kg/m2) overconsumed diets containing either 50% or 65% CHO for 1 wk (+50% of energy requirements) and then underwent 3 wk of calorie restriction (CR; -50%) followed by 2 wk of overconsuming (refeeding, +50%) the same diet but with either a low or high GI (40 vs.70 during CR, 41 vs.74 during refeeding) so that glycemic load (GL; dietary CHO content x GI) differed between groups during all phases. Glucose profiles were assessed by continuous interstitial glucose monitoring, insulin sensitivity (IS) by fasting blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and liver fat by MRI. Daytime area under the curve-glucose during refeeding was higher with high compared with low GI (P = 0.01) and 65% compared with 50% CHO intake (P = 0.05) and correlated with dietary GL (r = 0.71; P < 0.001). IS increased with CR and decreased again with refeeding in all groups. The decrease in OGTT-derived IS was greater with high- than with low-GI diets (-41 vs. -15%; P-interaction = 0.01) and correlated with dietary GL during refeeding (r = -0.51; P < 0.01). Serum triglycerides (TGs) and liver fat also improved with CR (-17 ± 38 mg/dL and -1.1 ± 1.3%; P < 0.05 and <0.001) and increased again with refeeding (+48 ± 48 mg/dL and +2.2 ± 1.6%; P < 0.001). After refeeding, serum TGs and liver fat were elevated above baseline values with 65% CHO intake only (+59.9 ± 37.5 mg/dL and +1.1 ± 1.7%, P-interaction <0.001 and <0.05). In conclusion, a diet low in GI and moderate in CHO content (i.e., low GL) may have health benefits by positively affecting daylong glycemia, IS, and liver fat. PMID:23946346

Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Braun, Wiebke; Johannsen, Maike; Pape, Detlef; Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

2013-10-01

102

Caenorhabditis elegans diet significantly affects metabolic profile, mitochondrial DNA levels, lifespan and brood size.  

PubMed

Diet can have profound effects on an organism's health. Metabolic studies offer an effective way to measure and understand the physiological effects of diet or disease. The metabolome is very sensitive to dietary, lifestyle and genetic changes. Caenorhabditis elegans, a soil nematode, is an attractive model organism for metabolic studies because of the ease with which genetic and environmental factors can be controlled. In this work, we report significant effects of diet, mutation and RNA interference on the C.elegans metabolome. Two strains of Escherichia coli, OP50 and HT115 are commonly employed as food sources for maintaining and culturing the nematode. We studied the metabolic and phenotypic effects of culturing wild-type and mutant worms on these two strains of E. coli. We report significant effects of diet on metabolic profile, on mitochondrial DNA copy number and on phenotype. The dietary effects we report are similar in magnitude to the effects of mutations or RNA interference-mediated gene suppression. This is the first critical evaluation of the physiological and metabolic effects on C.elegans of two commonly used culture conditions. PMID:20400348

Reinke, S N; Hu, X; Sykes, B D; Lemire, B D

2010-07-01

103

Short-term limb immobilization affects cognitive motor processes.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental rotation task to investigate whether immobilization-induced effects are also found when visual imagery is involved (Experiment 2). We also examined whether the effects of immobilization vary as a function of individuals' vividness of motor imagery (Experiment 2). The immobilized participants performed the mental rotation tasks before and immediately after the splint removal. The control group did not undergo the immobilization procedure. For hand stimuli, response time analysis showed a lack of task-repetition benefit following immobilization (Experiments 1 and 2) except when the visual imagery task was performed first (Experiment 2). Following immobilization, a flattening in the response time profile for left hand stimuli was observed as a function of stimuli rotation (Experiments 1 and 2), especially for participants with less vivid motor imagery (Experiment 2). We did not find an immobilization-induced effect on number stimuli. These findings revealed that the cognitive representation of hand movements is modified by immobilization and that sensorimotor deprivation specifically affects motor simulation of the immobilized hand. We discuss the possibility that immobilization affects the sensorimotor system due to the reduced processing of proprioceptive feedback, which lead some participants to switch from a motor to a visual imagery strategy. PMID:22686843

Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore

2013-03-01

104

Parasitoid wasp affects metabolism of cockroach host to favor food preservation for its offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike predators, which immediately consume their prey, parasitoid wasps incapacitate their prey to provide a food supply for their offspring. We have examined the effects of the venom of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa on the metabolism of its cockroach prey. This wasp stings into the brain of the cockroach causing hypokinesia. We first established that larval development, from egg

Gal Haspel; Eran Gefen; Amos Ar; J. Gustavo Glusman; Frederic Libersat

2005-01-01

105

Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Gene Expression Is Not Affected by Dichloroacetate-Mediated Modulation of Substrate Utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study investigated whether changing fuel use, by increasing pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) flux, independently of plasma substrate availability and insulin signalling, would alter metabolic gene expression. Methods: The PDC activator, dichloroacetate (DCA), was administered as an intravenous infusion in healthy male subjects at a rate of 50 mg kg–1 min–1, for 90 min. Saline was infused as a

Paul B. Tisdale; Andrew J. Bennett; Nandini Seevaratnam; Ian A. Macdonald; Kostas Tsintzas

2011-01-01

106

Cytosolic phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases affect Arabidopsis cellular metabolism and promote seed oil accumulation.  

PubMed

The cytosolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis, but its contribution to plant metabolism and growth are not well defined. Here, we show that two cytosolic GAPCs play important roles in cellular metabolism and seed oil accumulation. Knockout or overexpression of GAPCs caused significant changes in the level of intermediates in the glycolytic pathway and the ratios of ATP/ADP and NAD(P)H/NAD(P). Two double knockout seeds had ?3% of dry weight decrease in oil content compared with that of the wild type. In transgenic seeds under the constitutive 35S promoter, oil content was increased up to 42% of dry weight compared with 36% in the wild type and the fatty acid composition was altered; however, these transgenic lines exhibited decreased fertility. Seed-specific overexpression lines had >3% increase in seed oil without compromised seed yield or fecundity. The results demonstrate that GAPC levels play important roles in the overall cellular production of reductants, energy, and carbohydrate metabolites and that GAPC levels are directly correlated with seed oil accumulation. Changes in cellular metabolites and cofactor levels highlight the complexity and tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to the metabolic perturbation. Further implications for metabolic engineering of seed oil production are discussed. PMID:24989043

Guo, Liang; Ma, Fangfang; Wei, Fang; Fanella, Brian; Allen, Doug K; Wang, Xuemin

2014-07-01

107

Modulation of GR activity does not affect the in vitro metabolism of cortisol by rainbow trout ovarian follicles.  

PubMed

The goal of the study was to determine whether the metabolic clearance of cortisol from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles is affected by the level of ovarian steroidogenesis, and whether it involves the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Ovarian follicles were incubated in vitro; the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, was used to stimulate ovarian steroidogenesis, and the modulation of GR activity was brought about using GR agonists (cortisol and dexamethasone) or the GR antagonist, mifepristone (RU486). The follicles were co-incubated with [2, 4, 6, 7 (3)H] cortisol, and the tritium-labelled steroid products were separated by HPLC. In addition, the rates of expression of genes encoding for the two forms of GR (gr1 and gr2) were measured. Cortisone, cortisol sulphate, and cortisone sulphate were the major glucocorticoid products of cortisol metabolism, indicative of the action of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and glucocorticoid sulphotransferase in the follicular cells. There were no effects of RU486 or forskolin on the rates of [(3)H]cortisol metabolism suggesting that cortisol metabolism by ovarian follicles was independent of GR activation, and not influenced by increased activation of gonadal reproductive steroidogenesis. PMID:25148794

Li, Mao; Christie, Heather; Leatherland, John

2014-12-01

108

Improvement of Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Cellfood Administration in Patients Affected by Neurodegenerative Diseases on Chelation Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective. This prospective pilot study aimed at evaluating the effects of therapy with antioxidant compounds (Cellfood, and other antioxidants) on patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases (ND), who displayed toxic metal burden and were subjected to chelation treatment with the chelating agent calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA or EDTA). Methods. Two groups of subjects were studied: (a) 39 patients affected by ND and (b) 11 subjects unaffected by ND (controls). The following blood parameters were analyzed before and after three months' treatment with chelation + Cellfood or chelation + other antioxidants: oxidative status (reactive oxygen species, ROS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC; oxidized LDL, oxLDL; glutathione), homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate. Results. After 3-months' chelation + Cellfood administration oxLDL decreased, ROS levels were significantly lower, and TAC and glutathione levels were significantly higher than after chelation + other antioxidants treatment, both in ND patients and in controls. Moreover, homocysteine metabolism had also improved in both groups. Conclusions. Chelation + Cellfood treatment was more efficient than chelation + other antioxidants improving oxidative status and homocysteine metabolism significantly in ND patients and controls. Although limited to a small number of cases, this study showed how helpful antioxidant treatment with Cellfood was in improving the subjects' metabolic conditions. PMID:25114898

Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Giuseppe, Rachele De; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Ferrero, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

109

Social status does not affect resting metabolic rate in wintering dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).  

PubMed

Studies of wintering birds have demonstrated a correlation between social rank and energy expenditures. It is assumed that dominance is energetically costly because of increased activity, possibly caused by elevated androgen levels. As winter acclimatization leads to an increase in metabolic rate, maintaining dominance status in a cold climate can be a substantial challenge. We measured resting metabolic rates in dominant and subordinate dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) living in small groups in a controlled winter environment. We found no significant effect of social rank when controlling for body size. It has been shown previously that high testosterone levels during the nonbreeding season can lead to higher body conductance, fat loss, and higher nocturnal body temperature. A hypothesis explaining our result is that for juncos it is preferable to maintain low androgen levels during winter and to maintain social rank using a mechanism other than higher agonistic activity. PMID:10801401

Vézina, F; Thomas, D W

2000-01-01

110

Fish oil and the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid affect the amino acid and carnitine metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPAR?-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPAR? activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor ?-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPAR? activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms. PMID:23826175

Bjørndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

2013-01-01

111

Fish Oil and the Pan-PPAR Agonist Tetradecylthioacetic Acid Affect the Amino Acid and Carnitine Metabolism in Rats  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPAR?-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPAR? activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor ?-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPAR? activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms. PMID:23826175

Bj?rndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevag; Svardal, Asbj?rn; Nygard, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

2013-01-01

112

Deletion of TRAAK Potassium Channel Affects Brain Metabolism and Protects against Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Cerebral stroke is a worldwide leading cause of disability. The two-pore domain K+ channels identified as background channels are involved in many functions in brain under physiological and pathological conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that TRAAK, a mechano-gated and lipid-sensitive two-pore domain K+ channel, is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. We studied the effects of TRAAK deletion on brain morphology and metabolism under physiological conditions, and during temporary focal cerebral ischemia in Traak?/? mice using a combination of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We provide the first in vivo evidence establishing a link between TRAAK and neurometabolism. Under physiological conditions, Traak?/? mice showed a particular metabolic phenotype characterized by higher levels of taurine and myo-inositol than Traak+/+ mice. Upon ischemia, Traak?/? mice had a smaller infarcted volume, with lower contribution of cellular edema than Traak+/+ mice. Moreover, brain microcirculation was less damaged, and brain metabolism and pH were preserved. Our results show that expression of TRAAK strongly influences tissue levels of organic osmolytes. Traak?/? mice resilience to cellular edema under ischemia appears related to their physiologically high levels of myo-inositol and of taurine, an aminoacid involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity and cell death. The beneficial effects of TRAAK deletion designate this channel as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment against stroke. PMID:23285272

Laigle, Christophe; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Viola, Angele

2012-01-01

113

Different environmental temperatures affect amino acid metabolism in the eurytherm teleost Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) as indicated by changes in plasma metabolites.  

PubMed

Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a eurytherm teleost that under natural conditions can be exposed to annual water temperature fluctuations between 12 and 26°C. This study assessed the effects of temperature on sole metabolic status, in particular in what concerns plasma free amino acid changes during thermal acclimation. Senegalese sole maintained at 18°C were acclimated to either cold (12°C) or warm (26°C) environmental temperatures for 21 days. Fish maintained at 18°C served as control. Plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucose, lactate, triglycerides, proteins, and free amino acids were assessed. Cold acclimation influenced interrenal responses of sole by increasing cortisol release. Moreover, plasma glucose and lactate concentrations increased linearly with temperature, presumably reflecting a higher metabolic activity of sole acclimated to 26°C. Acclimation temperature affected more drastically plasma concentrations of dispensable than that of indispensable amino acids, and different acclimation temperatures induced different responses. Asparagine, glutamine and ornithine seem to be of particular importance for ammonia detoxification mechanisms, synthesis of triglycerides that may be used during homeoviscous adaptation and, to a lesser extent, as energetic substrates in specimens acclimated to 12°C. When sole is acclimated to 26°C taurine, glutamate, GABA and glycine increased, which may suggest important roles as antioxidant defences, in osmoregulatory processes and/or for energetic purposes at this thermal regimen. In conclusion, acclimation to different environmental temperatures induces several metabolic changes in Senegalese sole, suggesting that amino acids may be important for thermal acclimation. PMID:21947601

Costas, Benjamín; Aragão, Cláudia; Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Arjona, Francisco J; Mancera, Juan M; Dinis, Maria T; Conceição, Luís E C

2012-07-01

114

Paternal low protein diet affects adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic function in mice.  

PubMed

Although the association between maternal periconceptional diet and adult offspring health is well characterised, our understanding of the impact of paternal nutrition at the time of conception on offspring phenotype remains poorly defined. Therefore, we determined the effect of a paternal preconception low protein diet (LPD) on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic health in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal protein diet (NPD; 18% casein) or LPD (9% casein) for 7 wk before mating. At birth, a reduced male-to-female ratio (P = 0.03) and increased male offspring weight (P = 0.009) were observed in litters from LPD compared with NPD stud males with no differences in mean litter size. LPD offspring were heavier than NPD offspring at 2 and 3 wk of age (P < 0.02). However, no subsequent differences in body weight were observed. Adult male offspring derived from LPD studs developed relative hypotension (decreased by 9.2 mmHg) and elevated heart rate (P < 0.05), whereas both male and female offspring displayed vascular dysfunction and impaired glucose tolerance relative to NPD offspring. At cull (24 wk), LPD males had elevated adiposity (P = 0.04), reduced heart-to-body weight ratio (P = 0.04), and elevated circulating TNF-? levels (P = 0.015) compared with NPD males. Transcript expression in offspring heart and liver tissue was reduced for genes involved in calcium signaling (Adcy, Plcb, Prkcb) and metabolism (Fto) in LPD offspring (P < 0.03). These novel data reveal the impact of suboptimal paternal nutrition on adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, and provide some insight into the underlying regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24658019

Watkins, Adam J; Sinclair, Kevin D

2014-05-15

115

Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.  

PubMed

The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is ? (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. PMID:22411724

Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

2012-05-01

116

Incubation temperature affects the metabolic cost of thermoregulation in a young precocial bird  

E-print Network

that incubation temperature would affect thermoregulation in wood duck (Aix sponsa) hatchlings. 3. We show to the evolution of clutch size in birds. Key-words: Aix sponsa, bioenergetics, endothermy, incubation temperature

Hopkins, William A.

117

Alteration of Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Enzymes Affects Mitochondrial Form and Function in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia  

PubMed Central

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S.; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Durand, Christelle M.; Oteyza, Andres Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H.; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-01-01

118

Variations in composition of dietary fats affect hepatic uptake and metabolism of chylomicron remnants.  

PubMed Central

The hepatic metabolism of [1-14C]oleate- and [1,2-3H]cholesterol-dual-labelled chylomicron remnants derived from olive, corn, palm and fish oil and butter fat was compared by adding each lipoprotein separately to the perfusate of isolated livers from rats fed on a normal diet. Labelled remnants from butter fat and fish oil were removed more rapidly from the perfusate than remnants derived from olive, corn and palm oil. The oxidation of labelled remnant fatty acid from olive oil, fish oil or butter fat was four to seven times greater than that from corn and palm oil. Labelled fatty acid in fish oil remnants was incorporated into phospholipid significantly more efficiently than the labelled fatty acid in olive, corn or palm oil remnants, with butter fat giving an intermediate value. For all the remnants, there was a significant amount of hydrolysis of labelled esterified cholesterol by the liver which was dependent on the magnitude of hepatic uptake of each type of remnant. The recovery of remnant [3H]cholesterol label in the bile was 50% less with palm oil remnants than with all the other remnants studied. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of chylomicron remnants has a major impact on their uptake and metabolism by the liver. PMID:7575417

Lambert, M S; Botham, K M; Mayes, P A

1995-01-01

119

Cell metabolism affects selective vulnerability in PINK1-associated Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in autosomal recessive forms of the disease caused by mutations encoding PINK1. Although mitochondrial pathology can be demonstrated in many cell types, it is neurons that bear the brunt of cell death in PD. We studied the mitochondrial physiology of neurons and muscle cells with loss of function of the nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein PINK1. PINK1 is widely expressed in many types of tissues, but deficiency selectively induces death in neurons. We report here that the same genetic defect results in opposing phenotypes in different cell types, depending on the metabolic properties of the cell. Thus, PINK1-deficient myocytes exhibit high basal mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), whereas PINK1-deficient neurons have been shown to exhibit a low ??m. PINK1 deficiency induces impaired respiration in both cell types, with a concomitant increase in glycolytic activity. We demonstrate that the high glycolytic capacity in myocytes compared with neurons enables them to produce more ATP and, therefore, compensates for the metabolic defects induced by PINK1 deficiency. Furthermore, the high ??m generated in PINK1 knockout (KO) muscle mitochondria enables them to buffer cytosolic Ca2+ fluxes, rendering them resistant to Ca2+ stress effectively. Conversely, PINK1 KO neurons were previously shown to develop mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and Ca2+-induced mitochondrial depolarisation. Prevention of Ca2+ dysregulation in myocytes might therefore account for the sparing of these cells in PD. PMID:22223879

Yao, Zhi; Gandhi, Sonia; Burchell, Victoria S.; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Wood, Nicholas W.; Abramov, Andrey Y.

2011-01-01

120

Thr54 allele of the FABP2 gene affects resting metabolic rate and visceral obesity.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between Ala54Thr variant allele of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene (Ala54Thr) and development of obesity in Japanese obese women. FABP2 genotypes were determined with a fluorescent allele-specific DNA primer assay system. Body weight, waist and hip circumference, amounts of visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue measured by computed tomography (CT) were compared between subjects with Thr allele and without Thr allele before and after the diet and exercise therapy in 80 Japanese obese women. The frequency of the Thr54 allele did not differ between obese and control subjects (0.388 versus 0.329, respectively). In subjects with Ala/Thr and Thr/Thr genotype, adjusted resting metabolic rate (RMR) was significantly lower than the subjects with Ala/Ala genotype. Subjects with the Thr54 allele showed significantly greater waist circumference after diet and exercise therapy than subjects with Ala/Ala genotype. They also demonstrated greater body weight at 20 years of age compared to subjects with Ala/Ala genotype. In conclusion, Thr54 allele of FABP2 has associations with lower adjusted resting metabolic rate, resistance in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) and early onset of obesity in Japanese obese women. PMID:15620432

Takakura, Yasuto; Yoshioka, Keiji; Umekawa, Tsunekazu; Kogure, Akinori; Toda, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Toshihide

2005-01-01

121

Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein Regulates Glucose Metabolism and Affects Cytoplasmic Streaming in Mouse Oocytes  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) regulates intracellular redox state and prompts oxidative stress by binding to and inhibiting Thioredoxin (Trx). In addition, via a Trx-independent mechanism, Txnip regulates glucose metabolism and thus maintains intracellular glucose levels. Previously, we found Txnip mRNA highly expressed in immature germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, but currently there is no report describing the role of Txnip in oocytes. Therefore, we conducted the present study to determine the function of Txnip in mouse oocytes' maturation and meiosis by using RNA interference (RNAi) method. Upon specific depletion of Txnip, 79.5% of oocytes were arrested at metaphase I (MI) stage. Time-lapse video microscopy analysis revealed that the formation of granules in the oocyte cytoplasm increased concurrent with retarded cytoplasmic streaming after Txnip RNAi treatment. Txnip RNAi-treated oocytes had upregulated glucose uptake and lactate production. To confirm the supposition that mechanism responsible for these observed phenomena involves increased lactate in oocytes, we cultured oocytes in high lactate medium and observed the same increased granule formation and retarded cytoplasmic streaming as found by Txnip RNAi. The MI-arrested oocytes exhibited scattered microtubules and aggregated chromosomes indicating that actin networking was disturbed by Txnip RNAi. Therefore, we conclude that Txnip is a critical regulator of glucose metabolism in oocytes and is involved in maintaining cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes. PMID:23976953

Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Eun-Young; Ko, Jung-Jae; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo-Sik; Lee, Kyung-Ah

2013-01-01

122

Alteration of fatty-acid-metabolizing enzymes affects mitochondrial form and function in hereditary spastic paraplegia.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A M; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M; Durand, Christelle M; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A; Kabiraj, Mohammad M; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-12-01

123

[How do transport and metabolism affect the biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?].  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic/mutagenic, are generated by combustion of fossil fuels and also released through tanker or oilfield accident to cause a large scale environmental pollution. PAHs concentration in China is especially high in East Asia because of many kinds of generation sources such as coal heating systems, vehicles and factories without exhaust gas/particulate treatment systems. So, the atmospheric pollution caused by PAHs in China has been seriously concerned from the view point of health effects. Like yellow sand and sulfur oxide, PAHs exhausted in China are also transported to Japan. Additionally, strongly mutagenic nitrated PAHs (NPAHs), estrogenic/antiestrogenic PAH hydroxides (PAHOHs) and reactive oxygen species-producing PAH quinones (PAHQs) are formed from PAHs by the chemical reaction during the transport. Furthermore these PAHOHs and PAHQs are produced by the metabolism in animal body. In the biological activities caused by the above PAH derivatives, the structure-activity relationship was observed. In this review, our recent results on the generation of PAH derivatives by atmospheric transport and metabolism are reported. Also, the existing condition of PAHs as atmospheric pollutants is considered. PMID:22382837

Bekki, Kanae; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Kameda, Takayuki; Takigami, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Go; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2012-01-01

124

Genome-wide linkage analysis to identify chromosomal regions affecting phenotypic traits in the chicken. IV. Metabolic traits.  

PubMed

The current study is a comprehensive genome analysis to detect QTL affecting metabolic traits in chickens. Two unique F(2) crosses generated from a commercial broiler male line and 2 genetically distinct inbred lines (Leghorn and Fayoumi) were used in the present study. The plasma glucagon, insulin, lactate, glucose, tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin-like growth factor I, and insulin-like growth factor II concentrations at 8 wk were measured in the 2 F(2) crosses. Birds were genotyped for 269 microsatellite markers across the entire genome. The program QTL Express was used for QTL detection. Significance levels were obtained using the permutation test. For the 10 traits, a total of 6 and 9 significant QTL were detected at a 1% chromosome-wise significance level, of which 1 and 6 were significant at the 5% genome-wise level for the broiler-Leghorn cross and broiler-Fayoumi cross, respectively. Most QTL for metabolic traits in the present study were detected in Gga 2, 6, 8, 9, 13, and Z for the broiler-Leghorn cross and Gga 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 13, 17, and E47 for the broiler-Fayoumi cross. Phenotypic variation for each trait explained by all QTL across genome ranged from 2.73 to 14.08% in the broiler-Leghorn cross and from 6.93 to 21.15% in the broiler-Fayoumi cross. Several positional candidate genes within the QTL region for metabolic traits at the 1% chromosome-wise significance level are biologically associated with the regulation of metabolic pathways of insulin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. PMID:17234839

Zhou, H; Evock-Clover, C M; McMurtry, J P; Ashwell, C M; Lamont, S J

2007-02-01

125

Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat  

PubMed Central

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5–7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10–12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnas, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

126

Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.  

PubMed

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

127

Brain potentials in affective picture processing: covariation with autonomic arousal and affective report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotionally arousing picture stimuli evoked scalp-recorded event-related potentials. A late, slow positive voltage change was observed, which was significantly larger for affective than neutral stimuli. This positive shift began 200–300 ms after picture onset, reached its maximum amplitude ?1 s after picture onset, and was sustained for most of a 6-s picture presentation period. The positive increase was not related

Bruce N. Cuthbert; Harald T. Schupp; Margaret M. Bradley; Niels Birbaumer; Peter J. Lang

2000-01-01

128

Atmospheric oxygen level affects growth trajectory, cardiopulmonary allometry and metabolic rate in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent palaeoatmospheric models suggest large-scale fluctuations in ambient oxygen level over the past 550 million years. To better understand how global hypoxia and hyperoxia might have affected the growth and physiology of contemporary vertebrates, we incubated eggs and raised hatchlings of the American alligator. Crocodilians are one of few vertebrate taxa that survived these global changes with distinctly conservative morphology. We maintained animals at 30°C under chronic hypoxia (12% O2), normoxia (21% O2) or hyperoxia (30% O2). At hatching, hypoxic animals were significantly smaller than their normoxic and hyperoxic siblings. Over the course of 3 months, post-hatching growth was fastest under hyperoxia and slowest under hypoxia. Hypoxia, but not hyperoxia, caused distinct scaling of major visceral organs–reduction of liver mass, enlargement of the heart and accelerated growth of lungs. When absorptive and post-absorptive metabolic rates were measured in juvenile alligators, the increase in oxygen consumption rate due to digestion/absorption of food was greatest in hyperoxic alligators and smallest in hypoxic ones. Hyperoxic alligators exhibited the lowest breathing rate and highest oxygen consumption per breath. We suggest that, despite compensatory cardiopulmonary remodelling, growth of hypoxic alligators is constrained by low atmospheric oxygen supply, which may limit their food utilisation capacity. Conversely, the combination of elevated metabolism and low cost of breathing in hyperoxic alligators allows for a greater proportion of metabolised energy to be available for growth. This suggests that growth and metabolic patterns of extinct vertebrates would have been significantly affected by changes in the atmospheric oxygen level. PMID:19376944

Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Elsey, Ruth M.; Hicks, James W.

2009-01-01

129

The effects of schematic and affective processes on metaphorical invention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research predicted that greater knowledge, stronger affect, and positive attitudes concerning a topic would lead to the construction of laboratory-induced metaphorical statements. Subjects (n=45) were given a list of 13 politicians and instructed to create metaphors about several of their choosing. Politicians selected as the topics of metaphors were compared to those not selected. Respondents possessed more knowledge, had

Renee Edwards; Theodore Clevenger

1990-01-01

130

Processing of Affective Speech Prosody Is Impaired in Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people with the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) show poorly developed skills in understanding emotional messages. The present study addressed discrimination of speech prosody in children with AS at neurophysiological level. Detection of affective prosody was investigated in one-word utterances as indexed by the N1 and the mismatch…

Korpilahti, Pirjo; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kuusikko, Sanna; Suominen, Kalervo; Rytky, Seppo; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma

2007-01-01

131

Abiotic Processes Affecting the Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abiotic processes, such as sorption, volatilization and chemical transformation, play an important role in the natural attenuation\\u000a and treatment of chlorinated solvents. In this chapter, an overview of the principles governing these processes in the context\\u000a of chlorinated solvent remediation and treatment is presented. This discussion includes a brief introduction to sorption processes\\u000a and volatilization, with most attention focused on

David M. Cwiertny; Michelle M. Scherer

132

Alterations in Cytosolic Glucose-Phosphate Metabolism Affect Structural Features and Biochemical Properties of Starch-Related Heteroglycans1[W  

PubMed Central

The cytosolic pools of glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P) and glucose-6-phosphate are essential intermediates in several biosynthetic paths, including the formation of sucrose and cell wall constituents, and they are also linked to the cytosolic starch-related heteroglycans. In this work, structural features and biochemical properties of starch-related heteroglycans were analyzed as affected by the cytosolic glucose monophosphate metabolism using both source and sink organs from wild-type and various transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants. In leaves, increased levels of the cytosolic phosphoglucomutase (cPGM) did affect the cytosolic heteroglycans, as both the glucosyl content and the size distribution were diminished. By contrast, underexpression of cPGM resulted in an unchanged size distribution and an unaltered or even increased glucosyl content of the heteroglycans. Heteroglycans prepared from potato tubers were found to be similar to those from leaves but were not significantly affected by the level of cPGM activity. However, external glucose or Glc-1-P exerted entirely different effects on the cytosolic heteroglycans when added to tuber discs. Glucose was directed mainly toward starch and cell wall material, but incorporation into the constituents of the cytosolic heteroglycans was very low and roughly reflected the relative monomeric abundance. By contrast, Glc-1-P was selectively taken up by the tuber discs and resulted in a fast increase in the glucosyl content of the heteroglycans that quantitatively reflected the level of the cytosolic phosphorylase activity. Based on 14C labeling experiments, we propose that in the cytosol, glucose and Glc-1-P are metabolized by largely separated paths. PMID:18805950

Fettke, Joerg; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alpers, Jessica; Szkop, Michal; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Steup, Martin

2008-01-01

133

Perturbing the metabolic dynamics of myo-inositol in developing Brassica napus seeds through in vivo methylation impacts its utilization as phytate precursor and affects downstream metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

Background myo-Inositol (Ins) metabolism during early stages of seed development plays an important role in determining the distributional relationships of some seed storage components such as the antinutritional factors, sucrose galactosides (also known as raffinose oligosaccharides) and phytic acid (PhA) (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate). The former is a group of oligosaccharides, which plays a role in desiccation at seed maturation. They are not easily digested by monogastric animals, hence their flatulence-causing properties. Phytic acid is highly negatively charged, which chelates positive ions of essential minerals and decreases their bioavailability. It is also a major cause of phosphate-related water pollution. Our aim was to investigate the influence of competitive diversion of Ins as common substrate on the biosynthesis of phytate and sucrose galactosides. Results We have studied the initial metabolic patterns of Ins in developing seeds of Brassica napus and determined that early stages of seed development are marked by rapid deployment of Ins into a variety of pathways, dominated by interconversion of polar (Ins phosphates) and non-polar (phospholipids) species. In a time course experiment at early stages of seed development, we show Ins to be a highly significant constituent of the endosperm and seed coat, but with no phytate biosynthesis occurring in either tissue. Phytate accumulation appears to be confined mainly within the embryo throughout seed development and maturation. In our approach, the gene for myo-inositol methyltransferase (IMT), isolated from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant), was transferred to B. napus under the control of the seed-specific promoters, napin and phaseolin. Introduction of this new metabolic step during seed development prompted Ins conversion to the corresponding monomethyl ether, ononitol, and affected phytate accumulation. We were able to produce homozygous transgenic lines with 19% - 35% average phytate reduction. Additionally, changes in the raffinose content and related sugars occurred along with enhanced sucrose levels. Germination rates, viability and other seed parameters were unaffected by the IMT transgene over-expression. Conclusions Competitive methylation of Ins during seed development reduces seed antinutritional components and enhances its nutritional characteristics while maintaining adequate phosphate reserves. Such approach should potentially raise the canola market value and likely, that of other crops. PMID:23692661

2013-01-01

134

Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at risk of breast cancer, the INOSIDEX trial. All women were asked to follow a low-calorie diet and were assigned randomly to daily consumption of a combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid (77 pts) or placebo (78 pts) for six months. Primary outcomes we wanted to achieve were both reduction of more than 20% of the HOMA-IR index and of triglycerides serum levels. Secondary outcomes expected were both the improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the reduction of anthropometric features such as body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Results A significant HOMA-IR reduction of more than 20% was evidenced in 66.7% (P <0.0001) of patients, associated with a serum insulin level decrease in 89.3% (P <0.0000). A decrease in triglycerides was evidenced in 43.2% of patients consuming the supplement (P <0.0001). An increase in HDL cholesterol (48.6%) was found in the group consuming inositol with respect to the placebo group. A reduction in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was found in the treated group with respect to the placebo group. Conclusions Inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be used as a dietary supplement in insulin-resistant patients in order to increase their insulin sensitiveness. Daily consumption of inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid has a significant bearing on metabolic syndrome. As metabolic syndrome is considered a modifiable risk factor of breast tumorigenesis, further studies are required to assess whether inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be administered as a dietary supplement in breast cancer primary prevention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN74096908. PMID:23981814

2013-01-01

135

Environmental stress affects the activity of metabolic and growth factor signaling networks and induces autophagy markers in MCF7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Phosphoproteomic techniques are contributing to our understanding of how signaling pathways interact and regulate biological processes. This technology is also being used to characterize how signaling networks are remodeled during disease progression and to identify biomarkers of signaling pathway activity and of responses to cancer therapy. A potential caveat in these studies is that phosphorylation is a very dynamic modification that can substantially change during the course of an experiment or the retrieval and processing of cellular samples. Here, we investigated how exposure of cells to ambient conditions modulates phosphorylation and signaling pathway activity in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. About 1.5% of 3,500 sites measured showed a significant change in phosphorylation extent upon exposure of cells to ambient conditions for 15 min. The effects of this perturbation in modifying phosphorylation patterns did not involve random changes due to stochastic activation of kinases and phosphatases. Instead, exposure of cells to ambient conditions elicited an environmental stress reaction that involved a coordinated response to a metabolic stress situation, which included: (1) the activation of AMPK; (2) the inhibition of PI3K, AKT, and ERK; (3) an increase in markers of protein synthesis inhibition at the level of translation elongation; and (4) an increase in autophagy markers. We also observed that maintaining cells in ice modified but did not completely abolish this metabolic stress response. In summary, exposure of cells to ambient conditions affects the activity of signaling networks previously implicated in metabolic and growth factor signaling. Mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000472. PMID:24425749

Casado, Pedro; Bilanges, Benoit; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Cutillas, Pedro R

2014-03-01

136

Stimulus characteristics affect humor processing in individuals with Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS individuals did not differ to the control group in humor appreciation of visual puns. However, they had difficulty understanding and appreciating Theory of Mind cartoons and provided mentalistic explanations less frequently than controls suggesting that humor processing is strongly related to the cognitive requirements that the stimuli pose on the perceiver. Furthermore, AS individuals referred in all conditions more frequently to non-joke relevant details. Therefore, humor processing is also influenced by their detail-oriented processing style. PMID:19859795

Samson, Andrea C; Hegenloh, Michael

2010-04-01

137

A common telomeric gene silencing assay is affected by nucleotide metabolism.  

PubMed

Telomere-associated position-effect variegation (TPEV) in budding yeast has been used as a model for understanding epigenetic inheritance and gene silencing. A widely used assay to identify mutants with improper TPEV employs the URA3 gene at the telomere of chromosome VII-L that can be counterselected with 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). 5-FOA resistance has been inferred to represent lack of transcription of URA3 and therefore to represent heterochromatin-induced gene silencing. For two genes implicated in telomere silencing, POL30 and DOT1, we show that the URA3 telomere reporter assay does not reflect their role in heterochromatin formation. Rather, an imbalance in ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which is induced by 5-FOA, and the specific promoter of URA3 fused to ADH4 at telomere VII-L are jointly responsible for the variegated phenotype. We conclude that metabolic changes caused by the drug employed and certain mutants being studied are incompatible with the use of certain prototrophic markers for TPEV. PMID:21474074

Rossmann, Marlies P; Luo, Weijun; Tsaponina, Olga; Chabes, Andrei; Stillman, Bruce

2011-04-01

138

Progesterone through progesterone receptors affects survival and metabolism of pig sperm.  

PubMed

Progesterone receptors (PR) through interaction with the specific ligand progesterone (PRG), play a central coordinate role in different reproductive events. In this study conventional PR were identified in boar spermatozoa by Western blotting. Immunofluorescence techniques indicate that PR are located at sperm acrosomal region, suggesting a possible role in the oocyte fertilization events. Treatment with 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) enhanced viability and induced cholesterol efflux, serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, p-Bcl2, p-Akt that are known hallmarks of capacitation in sperm. The analysis of the triglyceride contents, lipase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, as well as the G6PDH activity, was conducted so as to address whether there was an increase in energy expenditure via 17-OHP through the PR. Taken together these results, particularly the 17-OHP action on boar sperm lipid and glucose metabolism, give emphasis to the role of PR in sperm physiology within the oviductal environment. Moreover the present study highlights, the effect of PRG via PR on boar sperm survival, renewing the role of this hormone in male reproduction as candidate for boar fertility. Thus the present research contributes to further elucidating the role of progesterone on the physiological regulation of the most relevant spermatozoa functions for a successful fertilization. PMID:23047016

De Amicis, F; Santoro, M; Guido, C; Sisci, D; Bruno, R; Carpino, A; Aquila, S

2012-11-01

139

Temporal factors affecting somatosensory–auditory interactions in speech processing  

PubMed Central

Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound-specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009). In the present study, we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory–auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous) and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead) somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the ERP was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the ERP difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory–auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160 and 220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory–auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

Ito, Takayuki; Gracco, Vincent L.; Ostry, David J.

2014-01-01

140

Flawed processing of airborne EM data affecting hydrogeological interpretation.  

PubMed

Airborne electromagnetics (AEMs) is increasingly being used across the globe as a tool for groundwater and environmental management. Focus is on ensuring the quality of the source data, their processing and modeling, and the integration of results with ancillary information to generate accurate and relevant products. Accurate processing and editing of raw AEM data, the topic of this article, is one of the crucial steps in obtaining quantitative information for groundwater modeling and management. In this article, we examine the consequences that different levels of processing of helicopter transient electromagnetic method data have on the resulting electrical models and subsequently on hydrogeological models. We focus on different approaches used in the industry for processing of the raw data and show how the electrical resistivity-depth models, which is the end "geophysical" product (after data inversion) of an AEM survey, change with different levels of processing of the raw data. We then extend the study to show the impact on some of the hydrogeological parameters or models, which can be derived from the geophysical results. The consequences of improper handling of raw data to groundwater and environmental management can be significant and expensive. PMID:22775586

Viezzoli, Andrea; Jørgensen, Flemming; Sørensen, Camilla

2013-03-01

141

Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

1983-01-01

142

Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

143

The GEF1 Proton-Chloride Exchanger Affects Tombusvirus Replication via Regulation of Copper Metabolism in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses [(+)RNA viruses] is performed by viral replicases, whose function is affected by many cellular factors in infected cells. In this paper, we demonstrate a surprising role for Gef1p proton-chloride exchanger in replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) model (+)RNA virus. A genetic approach revealed that Gef1p, which is the only proton-chloride exchanger in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for TBSV replication in the yeast model host. We also show that the in vitro activity of the purified tombusvirus replicase from gef1? yeast was low and that the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase in a cell extract was inhibited by the cytosolic fraction obtained from gef1? yeast. Altogether, our data reveal that Gef1p modulates TBSV replication via regulating Cu2+ metabolism in the cell. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence, including the direct inhibitory effect of Cu2+ ions on the in vitro assembly of the viral replicase, on the activity of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and an inhibitory effect of deletion of CCC2 copper pump on TBSV replication in yeast, while altered iron metabolism did not reduce TBSV replication. In addition, applying a chloride channel blocker impeded TBSV replication in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts or in whole plants. Overall, blocking Gef1p function seems to inhibit TBSV replication through altering Cu2+ ion metabolism in the cytosol, which then inhibits the normal functions of the viral replicase. PMID:23192874

Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Kovalev, Nikolay

2013-01-01

144

Transient exposure to low levels of insecticide affects metabolic networks of honeybee larvae.  

PubMed

The survival of a species depends on its capacity to adjust to changing environmental conditions, and new stressors. Such new, anthropogenic stressors include the neonicotinoid class of crop-protecting agents, which have been implicated in the population declines of pollinating insects, including honeybees (Apis mellifera). The low-dose effects of these compounds on larval development and physiological responses have remained largely unknown. Over a period of 15 days, we provided syrup tainted with low levels (2 µg/L(-1)) of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to beehives located in the field. We measured transcript levels by RNA sequencing and established lipid profiles using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry from worker-bee larvae of imidacloprid-exposed (IE) and unexposed, control (C) hives. Within a catalogue of 300 differentially expressed transcripts in larvae from IE hives, we detect significant enrichment of genes functioning in lipid-carbohydrate-mitochondrial metabolic networks. Myc-involved transcriptional response to exposure of this neonicotinoid is indicated by overrepresentation of E-box elements in the promoter regions of genes with altered expression. RNA levels for a cluster of genes encoding detoxifying P450 enzymes are elevated, with coordinated downregulation of genes in glycolytic and sugar-metabolising pathways. Expression of the environmentally responsive Hsp90 gene is also reduced, suggesting diminished buffering and stability of the developmental program. The multifaceted, physiological response described here may be of importance to our general understanding of pollinator health. Muscles, for instance, work at high glycolytic rates and flight performance could be impacted should low levels of this evolutionarily novel stressor likewise induce downregulation of energy metabolising genes in adult pollinators. PMID:23844170

Derecka, Kamila; Blythe, Martin J; Malla, Sunir; Genereux, Diane P; Guffanti, Alessandro; Pavan, Paolo; Moles, Anna; Snart, Charles; Ryder, Thomas; Ortori, Catharine A; Barrett, David A; Schuster, Eugene; Stöger, Reinhard

2013-01-01

145

Proteinuria, not altered albumin metabolism, affects hyperlipidemia in the nephrotic rat.  

PubMed Central

It has been established previously that nephrotic hyperlipidemia is characterized by both an increase in lipid synthesis and a defect in removal of lipoproteins. The relationship between these defects and altered albumin metabolism is uncertain. One hypothesis is that hepatic lipogenesis increases in parallel with albumin synthesis. To test this hypothesis, albumin synthesis was increased in nephrotic rats fed an 8.5% protein diet (LPN) by increasing dietary protein to 40% (HPN). Proteinuria was modulated in half of the rats fed 40% protein by enalapril (HPE). Albumin synthesis was the same in both HPN and HPE, but proteinuria was reduced in HPE compared to HPN, and so were serum cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). To examine the effect of serum albumin on lipid clearance in the absence of proteinuria, plasma clearance of chylomicrons (CM) and VLDL was measured in Nagase analbuminemic rats (NAR) and found to be no different than in normal SD rats. When proteinuria was induced in NAR and in SD rats, a severe and identical defect in both CM and VLDL clearance was acquired in both groups and blood lipid levels were increased to a similar degree in both groups. Neither hyperlipidemia nor defective removal of lipoproteins from the circulation are linked to albumin synthesis or serum albumin concentration but result, at least in part, from proteinuria. Postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was reduced slightly in nephrotic animals compared to nonnephrotic controls, but the most striking finding was a highly significant decrease in postheraprin LPL activity in normal NAR compared to SD rats (P less than 0.001), suggesting that reduced LPL activity is not responsible for reduced clearance of CM and VLDL in nephrotic rats. PMID:2384606

Davies, R W; Staprans, I; Hutchison, F N; Kaysen, G A

1990-01-01

146

Molybdate:sulfate ratio affects redox metabolism and viability of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum.  

PubMed

Molybdenum is a transition metal used primarily (90% or more) as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys in metallurgical industries and its release into the environment is a growing problem. As a catalytic center of some redox enzymes, molybdenum is an essential element for inorganic nitrogen assimilation/fixation, phytohormone synthesis, and free radical metabolism in photosynthesizing species. In oceanic and estuarine waters, microalgae absorb molybdenum as the water-soluble molybdate anion (MoO4(2-)), although MoO4(2-) uptake is thought to compete with uptake of the much more abundant sulfate anion (SO4(2-), approximately 25 mM in seawater). Thus, those aspects of microalgal biology impacted by molybdenum would be better explained by considering both MoO4(2-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in the aquatic milieu. This work examines toxicological, physiological and redox imbalances in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum that have been induced by changes in the molybdate:sulfate ratios. We prepared cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum grown in artificial seawater containing eight different MoO4(2-) concentrations (from 0 to 200 ?M) and three different SO4(2-) concentrations (3.5 mM, 9.6 mM and 25 mM). We measured sulfur content in cells, the activities of the three major antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase), indexes of oxidative modifications in proteins (carbonyl content) and lipids (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), the activities of the molybdenum-dependent enzymes xanthine oxidase and nitrate reductase, expression of key protein components of dinoflagellate photosynthesis (peridinin-chlorophyll a protein and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxidase) and growth curves. We find evidence for Mo toxicity at relatively high [MoO4(2-)]:[SO4(2-)] ratios. We also find evidence for extensive redox adaptations at Mo levels well below lethal levels. PMID:24036534

Barros, M P; Hollnagel, H C; Glavina, A B; Soares, C O; Ganini, D; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, S; Morse, D; Colepicolo, P

2013-10-15

147

Ecdysteroids affect in vivo protein metabolism of the flight muscle of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ecdysteroid growth promotion of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle of Manduca sexta was studied by measuring in vivo protein metabolism using both "flooding-dose" and "non-carrier" techniques. These procedures differ in that the former method includes injection of non-labelled phenylalanine (30 micromoles/insect) together with the [3H]amino acid. Injected radioactivity plateaued in the haemolymph within 7 min. With the flooding-dose method, haemolymph and intramuscular specific radioactivities were similar between 15 min and 2 h. Incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into muscle protein was linear with either method between 30 and 120 min. Fractional rates (%/12 h) of synthesis with the flooding-dose technique were best measured after 1 h because of the initial delay in radioactivity equilibration. Estimation of body phenylalanine turnover with the non-carrier method showed 24-53%/h which was negligible with the flooding-dose method. Since the two methods yielded similar rates of protein synthesis, the large injection of non-labelled amino acid did not alter the rate of synthesis. Because the flooding-dose technique requires only a single time point measurement, it is the preferred method. The decline and eventual cessation of flight-muscle growth was mostly a consequence of declining protein synthesis though degradation increased between 76-86 h before eclosion and was relatively rapid. This decline in muscle growth could be prevented by treating pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (10 micrograms/insect). Protein accretion was promoted by a decline of up to 80% in protein breakdown, which was offset in part by a concurrent though much smaller decrease in protein synthesis. Therefore, ecdysteroids may increase flight-muscle growth by inhibiting proteolysis.

Tischler, M. E.; Wu, M.; Cook, P.; Hodsden, S.

1990-01-01

148

Benzoate metabolism intermediate benzoyl coenzyme A affects gentisate pathway regulation in Comamonas testosteroni.  

PubMed

A previous study showed that benzoate was catabolized via a coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent epoxide pathway in Azoarcus evansii (R. Niemetz, U. Altenschmidt, S. Brucker, and G. Fuchs, Eur. J. Biochem. 227:161-168, 1995), but gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was induced. Similarly, we found that the Comamonas testosteroni strain CNB-1 degraded benzoate via a CoA-dependent epoxide pathway and that gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GenA) was also induced when benzoate or 3-hydroxybenzoate served as a carbon source for growth. Genes encoding the CoA-dependent epoxide (box genes) and gentisate (gen genes) pathways were identified. Genetic disruption revealed that the gen genes were not involved in benzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate degradation. Hence, we investigated gen gene regulation in the CNB-1 strain. The PgenA promoter, a MarR-type regulator (GenR), and the GenR binding site were identified. We found that GenR took gentisate, 3-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoyl-CoA as effectors and that binding of GenR to its target DNA sequence was prohibited when these effectors were present. In vivo studies showed that the CNB-1 mutant that lost benzoyl-CoA synthesis was not able to activate PgenA promoter, while transcription of genA was upregulated in another CNB-1 mutant that lost the ability to degrade benzoyl-CoA. The finding that benzoyl-CoA (a metabolic intermediate of benzoate degradation) and 3-hydroxybenzoate function as GenR effectors explains why GenA was induced when CNB-1 grew on benzoate or 3-hydroxybenzoate. Regulation of gentisate pathways by MarR-, LysR-, and IclR-type regulators in diverse bacterial groups is discussed in detail. PMID:24771026

Chen, Dong-Wei; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

2014-07-01

149

Preference and processing: The role of speech affect in early spoken word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants prefer to listen to happy speech. To assess influences of speech affect on early lexical processing, 7.5- and 10.5-month-old infants were familiarized with one word spoken with happy affect and another with neutral affect and then tested on recognition of these words in fluent passages. Infants heard all passages either with happy affect or with neutral affect. Contrary to

Leher Singh; James L. Morgan; Katherine S. Whiteb

2004-01-01

150

Social Process Variables Affecting Reading Performance in Delayed Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the relationship between fourteen social process variables (relating to perinatal events, early language patterns, parental/home environment, and child behavior patterns) and the reading performance of retarded readers. The subjects were 180 children, aged seven through fifteen, randomly selected from among…

Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Cristopher

151

How community context affects entrepreneurial process: A diagnostic framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports a multi-faceted search to discover and articulate, in the form of a manageable framework, a diagnostic system for assessing the influence that community factors will have upon the conduct and outcome of any proposed entrepreneurial process. A methodological approach based on investigation of a rich empirical database supported by a wide examination of extant theory in several

Kevin Hindle

2010-01-01

152

Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local inhibition of gonadal activity by glucocorticoids. As the latter has not been tested in birds yet, we tested if corticosterone directly inhibits ovarian steroid synthesis under in vitro conditions. We hypothesized that degradation of corticosterone by follicular cells impairs their ability to synthesize reproductive hormones due to either inhibition of enzymes or competition for common co-factors. Therefore, we first established whether follicles degrade corticosterone. Follicular tissue was harvested from freshly euthanized laying hens and incubated with radiolabelled corticosterone. Radioactive metabolites were visualized and quantified by autoradiography. Follicles converted corticosterone in a time-dependent manner into metabolites with a higher polarity than corticosterone. The predominant metabolite co-eluted with 20?-dihydrocorticosterone. Other chicken tissues mostly formed the same metabolite when incubated with corticosterone. In a second experiment, follicles were incubated with either progesterone or dehydroepiandrosterone. Corticosterone was added in increasing dosages up to 1000 ng per ml medium. Corticosterone did not inhibit the conversion of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone into a number of different metabolites, including 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone. In conclusion, avian tissues degrade corticosterone mostly to 20?-dihydrocorticosterone and even high corticosterone dosages do not affect follicular hormone production under in vitro conditions. PMID:23333751

Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuids, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael

2013-01-01

153

GlmS and NagB regulate amino sugar metabolism in opposing directions and affect Streptococcus mutans virulence.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic pathogen that produces an extracellular polysaccharide (glucan) from dietary sugars, which allows it to establish a reproductive niche and secrete acids that degrade tooth enamel. While two enzymes (GlmS and NagB) are known to be key factors affecting the entrance of amino sugars into glycolysis and cell wall synthesis in several other bacteria, their roles in S. mutans remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of GlmS and NagB in S. mutans sugar metabolism and determined whether they have an effect on virulence. NagB expression increased in the presence of GlcNAc while GlmS expression decreased, suggesting that the regulation of these enzymes, which functionally oppose one another, is dependent on the concentration of environmental GlcNAc. A glmS-inactivated mutant could not grow in the absence of GlcNAc, while nagB-inactivated mutant growth was decreased in the presence of GlcNAc. Also, nagB inactivation was found to decrease the expression of virulence factors, including cell-surface protein antigen and glucosyltransferase, and to decrease biofilm formation and saliva-induced S. mutans aggregation, while glmS inactivation had the opposite effects on virulence factor expression and bacterial aggregation. Our results suggest that GlmS and NagB function in sugar metabolism in opposing directions, increasing and decreasing S. mutans virulence, respectively. PMID:22438919

Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Mazda, Yusuke; Oogai, Yuichi; Kajiya, Mikihito; Kawai, Toshihisa; Yamada, Sakuo; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Oho, Takahiko; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

154

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

... processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as: Breathing Circulating blood Controlling body temperature Contracting muscles Digesting food and nutrients Eliminating waste through urine and feces Functioning of the brain ...

155

Information Processing and Negative Affect: Evidence From the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Health communication can help reduce the cancer burden by increasing processing of information about health interventions. Negative affect is associated with information processing and may be a barrier to successful health communication. Design and Main Outcome Measures: We examined associations between negative affect and information processing at the population level. Symptoms of depression (6 items) and cancer worry (1

Ellen Burke Beckjord; Lila J. Finney Rutten; Neeraj K. Arora; Richard P. Moser; Bradford W. Hesse

2008-01-01

156

Thermal and metabolic factors affecting PCB uptake by adult brown trout  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of PCBs from natural food and water by adult brown trout, Salmo trutta, were compared under three temperature treatments: (1) a diel temperature cycle simulating that selected by brown trout in thermal effluents; (2) a constant 13/sup 0/C, the optimum constant temperature for brown trout growth; (3) natural fluctuations in ambient inshore temperatures. Direct uptake from water accounted for approximately 10% of the uptake from food and water. Fish exposed to the diel cycle or the arhythmic ambient regime fed and grew as though they were acclimated to the maximum temperatures experienced and accumulated more PCBs than fish exposed to the constant 13/sup 0/C regime. Total food consumption or growth was the best correlate of PCB concentration in whole fish while lipid content of muscle was the best correlate of PCB concentration in muscle. PCB accumulation was affected by temperature magnitude and variation, because these factors controlled food consumption, growth, and lipid content of brown trout.

Spigarelli, S.A.; Thommes, M.M.; Prepejchal, W.

1983-02-01

157

Cre-Mediated Stress Affects Sirtuin Expression Levels, Peroxisome Biogenesis and Metabolism, Antioxidant and Proinflammatory Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Cre-mediated excision of loxP sites is widely used in mice to manipulate gene function in a tissue-specific manner. To analyze phenotypic alterations related to Cre-expression, we have used AMH-Cre-transgenic mice as a model system. Different Cre expression levels were obtained by investigation of C57BL/6J wild type as well as heterozygous and homozygous AMH-Cre-mice. Our results indicate that Cre-expression itself in Sertoli cells already has led to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE lysine adducts), inducing PPAR?/?, peroxisome proliferation and alterations of peroxisome biogenesis (PEX5, PEX13 and PEX14) as well as metabolic proteins (ABCD1, ABCD3, MFP1, thiolase B, catalase). In addition to the strong catalase increase, a NRF2- and FOXO3-mediated antioxidative response (HMOX1 of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial SOD2) and a NF-?B activation were noted. TGF?1 and proinflammatory cytokines like IL1, IL6 and TNF? were upregulated and stress-related signaling pathways were induced. Sertoli cell mRNA-microarray analysis revealed an increase of TNFR2-signaling components. 53BP1 recruitment and expression levels for DNA repair genes as well as for p53 were elevated and the ones for related sirtuin deacetylases affected (SIRT 1, 3-7) in Sertoli cells. Under chronic Cre-mediated DNA damage conditions a strong downregulation of Sirt1 was observed, suggesting that the decrease of this important coordinator between DNA repair and metabolic signaling might induce the repression release of major transcription factors regulating metabolic and cytokine-mediated stress pathways. Indeed, caspase-3 was activated and increased germ cell apoptosis was observed, suggesting paracrine effects. In conclusion, the observed wide stress-induced effects and metabolic alterations suggest that it is essential to use the correct control animals (Cre/Wt) with matched Cre expression levels to differentiate between Cre-mediated and specific gene-knock out-mediated effects. PMID:22829911

Xiao, Yu; Karnati, Srikanth; Qian, Guofeng; Nenicu, Anca; Fan, Wei; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Holand, Anita; Hossain, Hamid; Guillou, Florian; Luers, Georg H.; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

2012-01-01

158

RESPONSES OF BENTHIC MICROORGANISMS (THECAMOEBIANS) TO OIL SANDS PROCESS-AFFECTED MATERIALS; PROVIDING  

E-print Network

RESPONSES OF BENTHIC MICROORGANISMS (THECAMOEBIANS) TO OIL SANDS PROCESS-AFFECTED MATERIALS) are protists (unicellular microorganisms) that comprise an important component within the microbial trophic

Patterson, Timothy

159

Pirenzepine affects scleral metabolic changes in myopia through a non-toxic mechanism.  

PubMed

Whilst the precise mechanism regulating ocular growth is unknown, it has been shown that various pharmacological agents, including the muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine, are effective at preventing the development of myopia. A recent study, which demonstrated that muscarinic antagonists reduce the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and DNA in chick sclera in vitro, led to the suggestion that such drugs may act directly on the sclera, possibly through a toxic mechanism. Accepted markers of scleral metabolism and cell viability were used in conjunction with a non-invasive, physiological method of ocular growth regulation to determine whether the selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine inhibits the development of myopia via toxicity to the sclera. Chicks were monocularly deprived (MD) of pattern vision and given daily intravitreal injections of either pirenzepine (700 microg) or saline vehicle into the deprived eye over 5 days. Unoccluded animals also received intravitreal injections of either pirenzepine or saline into one eye (n=6, all groups). The contralateral eye of all animals was left untreated for comparison. Optical and ocular biometric measures were collected on the final experimental day. Following in vivo delivery of [(35)S] labelled sulphate, levels of sulphate incorporation into scleral glycosaminoglycans were measured in proteinase K digests following selective precipitation with alcian blue dye. The DNA content was also assessed through luminescence spectrometry after binding to Hoechst 33258 dye. To allow comparison with an accepted non-invasive, physiological method of ocular growth regulation, myopia was prevented in additional groups of MD animals by allowing 3hr of unoccluded vision each day, over 5 days, before levels of sulphate incorporation were measured. Scleral DNA content, a marker of cell viability, was not significantly altered between treated and control eyes in any injected group. Relative levels of sulphate incorporation (% difference between treated and contralateral control eyes) were significantly lower in the cartilaginous sclera of pirenzepine-MD animals, compared to saline-MD controls (+35.9 +/- 10.1% vs +121.2 +/- 28.6%, P<0.05), after 2hr of incorporation. However, after 6hr incorporation, there was no significant difference in sulphate incorporation in the cartilaginous sclera between the two groups (+87.2 +/- 33.1% vs +111.0 +/- 14.4%, P=0.53). No significant change was found in the levels of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the fibrous sclera of any pirenzepine treated group, when compared to the appropriate saline control. Relative patterns of sulphate incorporation, between treatment and control groups, were essentially identical at both time points examined, regardless of whether myopia was prevented through pirenzepine injection or periods of unoccluded vision. The present study shows that, at a dose of pirenzepine sufficient to prevent experimentally-induced axial myopia, glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the cartilaginous sclera was significantly reduced for a transient period following the injection. These pirenzepine-induced reductions in glycosaminoglycan synthesis were not caused by direct drug toxicity to scleral cells as these changes were reversible and no significant reduction in DNA content was observed in pirenzepine treated eyes. Similar patterns of scleral glycosaminoglycan synthesis changes were found following the provision of brief periods of unoccluded vision further demonstrating that pirenzepine is effective in myopia prevention via a non-toxic mechanism. Consequently, the prevention of myopia development in chicks, with either pirenzepine or brief periods of unoccluded vision, is associated with the transient modulation of scleral glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the cartilaginous sclera. PMID:11878823

Truong, Hue-Trung; Cottriall, Charles L; Gentle, Alex; McBrien, Neville A

2002-01-01

160

Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.  

PubMed

Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus. PMID:24501145

Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

2014-02-01

161

beta-Thalassaemia and factors affecting the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins.  

PubMed

Total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, alpha-lipoprotein (LP) (HDL-LP), pre-beta-LP (VLDL-LP) and beta-lipoprotein (LDL-LP) were measured in the blood of 104 patients with major and intermedia form of beta-thalassaemia and 112 control subjects, mean age +/- SD 10.2 +/- 3.5 and 9.1 +/- 3.8 years, respectively. Cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased and TG was significantly increased in the patients compared to the control subjects. TG values in male patients were significantly higher than in male control subjects, but no differences were found in females. Patients with major and intermedia forms of beta-thalassaemia and chronic hepatitis C have significantly lower values of cholesterol and beta-LP and higher values of HDL-cholesterol than patients without hepatitis C. An increase of HDL-cholesterol and alpha-LP was found in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared to patients without IGT. In the thalassaemic patients there was an increase of TG and pre-beta-LP and a decrease of HDL-cholesterol and alpha-LP with increasing ferritin values. There was a positive correlation of the patients' age with TG and pre-beta-LP whereas no such correlation was found in the control subjects. It appears, therefore, that many factors as iron overload, liver injury, hormonal disturbances and aging affects lipids and LP pattern in patients with major and intermedia form of beta-thalassaemia. PMID:14653451

Papanastasiou, D A; Siorokou, T; Haliotis, F A

1996-01-01

162

Extracted oat and barley ?-glucans do not affect cholesterol metabolism in young healthy adults.  

PubMed

?-Glucans are known to exhibit hypocholesterolemic effects. Increased intestinal viscosity is thought to be crucial for cholesterol lowering. It is suggested that concentration, molecular mass, and structure, including the ratio of (1?3) to (1?4) glucan bonds in the molecule, are of importance for ?-glucan functionality. This study investigated the effects of 3 different ?-glucan sources, incorporated into a beverage and yogurt, on blood lipids and fecal endpoints. Fourteen participants completed this randomized, crossover, single-blinded study with four 3-wk periods: control and 3.3 g/d oat, barley, and barley mutant ?-glucans of similar molecular mass. Before and after each period, fasting and postprandial blood samples were drawn and 3-d fecal samples were collected. Treatment did not affect changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol compared with control; however, consumption of 3.3 g/d of oat ?-glucans for 3 wk resulted in greater decreases in total (-0.29 ± 0.09 mmol/L, P < 0.01), LDL (-0.23 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P < 0.01), and HDL (-0.05 ± 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.05) cholesterol compared with baseline. Changes in LDL in the ?-glucan treatments were not related to ?-glucan structure (cellotriosyl:cellotetraosyl). Decreases in fasting triacylglycerol were substantially greater after oat ?-glucan treatment compared with control (P = 0.03). Fecal dry and wet weight, stool frequency, fecal pH, and energy excretion were unaffected. The results do not fully support the hypocholesterolemic effects by differently structured oat and barley ?-glucans. However, substantial differences compared with baseline suggest a potential for oat ?-glucan, presumably due to its higher solubility and viscosity. This underlines the importance of elusive structural ?-glucan features for beneficial physiologic effects. PMID:23946347

Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau; Ejsing, Johnny; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Bügel, Susanne

2013-10-01

163

An Intraindividual Process Approach to the Relationship Between Extraversion and Positive Affect: Is Acting Extraverted  

E-print Network

An Intraindividual Process Approach to the Relationship Between Extraversion and Positive Affect in extraversion is associated with positive affect variation in that person. In Study 1, participants reported their extraversion and positive affect every 3 hr for 2 weeks. Each participant was happier when acting extraverted

Napp, Nils

164

Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization  

SciTech Connect

Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir M. [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Riccio, Massimo [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Squarzoni, Stefano [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: lattanzi@jolly.bo.cnr.it

2008-02-01

165

Defects in GABA metabolism affect selective autophagy pathways and are alleviated by mTOR inhibition.  

PubMed

In addition to key roles in embryonic neurogenesis and myelinogenesis, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) serves as the primary inhibitory mammalian neurotransmitter. In yeast, we have identified a new role for GABA that augments activity of the pivotal kinase, Tor1. GABA inhibits the selective autophagy pathways, mitophagy and pexophagy, through Sch9, the homolog of the mammalian kinase, S6K1, leading to oxidative stress, all of which can be mitigated by the Tor1 inhibitor, rapamycin. To confirm these processes in mammals, we examined the succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH)-deficient mouse model that accumulates supraphysiological GABA in the central nervous system and other tissues. Mutant mice displayed increased mitochondrial numbers in the brain and liver, expected with a defect in mitophagy, and morphologically abnormal mitochondria. Administration of rapamycin to these mice reduced mTOR activity, reduced the elevated mitochondrial numbers, and normalized aberrant antioxidant levels. These results confirm a novel role for GABA in cell signaling and highlight potential pathomechanisms and treatments in various human pathologies, including SSADH deficiency, as well as other diseases characterized by elevated levels of GABA. PMID:24578415

Lakhani, Ronak; Vogel, Kara R; Till, Andreas; Liu, Jingjing; Burnett, Sarah F; Gibson, K Michael; Subramani, Suresh

2014-04-01

166

Impairment of vesicular ATP release affects glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine cells store ATP in secretory granules and release it along with hormones that may trigger a variety of cellular responses in a process called purinergic chemical transmission. Although the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) has been shown to be involved in vesicular storage and release of ATP, its physiological relevance in vivo is far less well understood. In Vnut knockout (Vnut?/?) mice, we found that the loss of functional VNUT in adrenal chromaffin granules and insulin granules in the islets of Langerhans led to several significant effects. Vesicular ATP accumulation and depolarization-dependent ATP release were absent in the chromaffin granules of Vnut?/? mice. Glucose-responsive ATP release was also absent in pancreatic ?-cells in Vnut?/? mice, while glucose-responsive insulin secretion was enhanced to a greater extent than that in wild-type tissue. Vnut?/? mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance and low blood glucose upon fasting due to increased insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrated an essential role of VNUT in vesicular storage and release of ATP in neuroendocrine cells in vivo and suggest that vesicular ATP and/or its degradation products act as feedback regulators in catecholamine and insulin secretion, thereby regulating blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:25331291

Sakamoto, Shohei; Miyaji, Takaaki; Hiasa, Miki; Ichikawa, Reiko; Uematsu, Akira; Iwatsuki, Ken; Shibata, Atsushi; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Omote, Hiroshi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

2014-01-01

167

Water Removal in Bioretention Devices by Evapotranspiration Processes and Related Issues Affecting Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many soil processes that affect stormwater bioretention facility performance. This paper stresses evapotranspiration (ET) and how it affects the water balance in these stormwater control practices. Other processes discussed in this paper include clogging from the capture of sediment on the bioretention facility, cation exchange capacity (CEC) which is one measure of dissolved pollutant retention to protect groundwater,

Robert Pitt; Shirley Clark; John Voorhees

168

Cognitive and Affective Processes Related to School Achievement: Implications for Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last two decades of work in predicting and explaining school achievement, much research has emphasized the identification and measurement of student cognitive and affective processes which predict and also promise to help explain and facilitate school achievement. This review focuses on modifiable cognitive and affective processes, as…

Shaha, Steven H.; Wittrock, Merlin C.

169

Toxicokinetics of the food-toxin IQ in human placental perfusion is not affected by ABCG2 or xenobiotic metabolism.  

PubMed

Metabolizing enzymes and transporters affect toxicokinetics of foreign compounds (e.g. drugs and carcinogens) in human placenta. The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a food-borne carcinogen being metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, especially by CYP1A1/2. IQ is also a substrate for ABCG2 transporter. Placental transfer of (14)C-IQ was evaluated in 4-6 h ex vivo human placental perfusions in Finland and Denmark. In Finland placentas were perfused with (14)C-IQ alone (0.5 microM, n = 6) or in combination with GF120918 (inhibitor of ABCG2, 1 microM, n = 6) or Ko143 (specific inhibitor of ABCG2, 2 microM, n = 4) to study the role of ABCG2 inhibition in transfer while in Denmark perfusions were performed with (14)C-IQ alone. Critical parameters (leak from fetal to maternal circulation, pH values, blood gases, glucose consumption, the production of hCG hormone and transport of antipyrine) were analyzed during the perfusions. (14)C-IQ on maternal and fetal sides was determined by liquid scintillation counting. In Finland IQ and its metabolites in final perfusates were determined also by LC/TOF-MS. ABCG2 expression and EROD activity (CYP1A1/2) were analyzed from perfused tissues. (14)C-IQ was easily transferred through the placenta from maternal to fetal side in both laboratories. Neither significant EROD activity nor IQ metabolites were found in placentas from non-smoking mothers. Inhibition of ABCG2 by GF120918 (FM-ratio of IQ 0.95) or Ko143 (FM-ratio of IQ 0.94) did not affect (14)C-IQ transfer (FM-ratio of IQ in IQ only perfusions 0.97), which indicates that placental ABCG2 does not have a significant role in protecting fetus from IQ. PMID:20570348

Immonen, E; Kummu, M; Petsalo, A; Pihlaja, T; Mathiesen, L; Nielsen, J K S; Knudsen, L E; Vähäkangas, K; Myllynen, P

2010-07-01

170

Modeling Central Carbon Metabolic Processes in Soil Microbial Communities: Comparing Measured With Modeled  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms regulating C cycling is hindered by our inability to directly observe and measure the biochemical processes of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle in intact and complex microbial communities. Position-specific 13C labeled metabolic tracer probing is proposed as a new way to study microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, C use efficiency (the proportion of substrate incorporated into microbial biomass), and enables the quantification of C fluxes through the central C metabolic network processes (Dijkstra et al 2011a,b). We determined the 13CO2 production from U-13C, 1-13C, 2-13C, 3-13C, 4-13C, 5-13C, and 6-13C labeled glucose and 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate in parallel incubations in three soils along an elevation gradient. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the results indicate a high pentose phosphate pathway activity in soils. Agreement between modeled and measured CO2 production rates for the six C-atoms of 13C-labeled glucose indicate that the metabolic model used is appropriate for soil community processes, but that improvements can be made. These labeling and modeling techniques may improve our ability to analyze the biochemistry and (eco)physiology of intact microbial communities. Dijkstra, P., Blankinship, J.C., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011a. Probing C flux patterns of soil microbial metabolic networks using parallel position-specific tracer labeling. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 126-132. Dijkstra, P., Dalder, J.J., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011b. Modeling soil metabolic processes using isotopologue pairs of position-specific 13C-labeled glucose and pyruvate. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 1848-1857.

Dijkstra, P.; Fairbanks, D.; Miller, E.; Salpas, E.; Hagerty, S.

2013-12-01

171

Epilithic community metabolism as an indicator of impact and recovery in streams affected by acid mine drainage.  

PubMed

We measured biomass and metabolism of epilithic communities on five dates in different seasons at four sites in a watershed that has received extensive restoration for acid mine drainage (AMD) through the construction of passive treatment systems. Chlorophyll a biomass and productivity directly corresponded to AMD stress from coal mining. The site downstream of extensive passive treatment had significantly greater biomass and gross primary productivity rates than the site receiving only untreated AMD, but values were below those for two reference sites, indicating incomplete recovery. The degree of difference in these metrics among sites varied seasonally, primarily related to differences in canopy cover changes, but the ranking of sites in terms of stress generally was consistent. Reference sites had a significantly greater chlorophyll a/pheophytin ratio than untreated and treated sites, also indicating AMD stressed the communities. Community respiration was less affected by AMD stress than productivity or chlorophyll a. Productivity measures are not widely used to assess AMD impacts, and have been shown to both increase and decrease with AMD stress. The elimination of herbivores in AMD-impacted streams can increase productivity in the benthic algal community. Our study found productivity decreased with increasing AMD stress. Although sites with AMD stress had reduced herbivore populations, light, nutrients and metal precipitates appear to have limited growth of AMD-tolerant algal taxa. Therefore, it appears changes in food web structure due to AMD stress had less of an effect on epilithic productivity than environmental conditions within the stream. PMID:22961617

DeNicola, Dean M; Layton, Lee; Czapski, Tiffaney R

2012-12-01

172

Active immunization against leptin fails to affect reproduction and exerts only marginal effects on glucose metabolism in young female goats.  

PubMed

Approximately 150 days before expected breeding time, 12 female goats (3 months of age) were actively immunized against ovine leptin. Booster injections were given throughout the following year. Control animals (n = 6) were sham-immunized. After the first observed oestrus, a buck was introduced and goats were mated. Blood samples were collected twice weekly and frequent blood sampling series were performed on days -15, 76, 153 and 286 relative to the first immunization. Nine of the immunized goats developed titres within 3 months and had elevated serum concentrations of leptin compared with controls (p < 0.0001). Hematological parameters and blood chemistry were not affected by the immunization. No differences were detectable in all reproductive parameters recorded. Serum insulin was higher in immunized goats during the frequent blood sampling series of day 287 after the first immunization. Glucose metabolism was investigated during pregnancy using hyperglycaemic and euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamps. None of the parameters derived from the clamp studies was different (p > 0.05) between the two groups. During the hyperglycaemic clamp there was a trend (p < 0.15) towards increased insulin concentrations in immunized animals whereas glucose infusion rates were not different between the groups. This indicates decreased insulin sensitivity in immunized goats. Our study describes the ontogenesis of serum concentrations of leptin during growth, puberty and first pregnancy and parturition for the caprine species. The effects of the immunization were not detectable or only marginal and the approach aimed at therefore not effective to investigate leptin action in detail. PMID:16867073

Sauerwein, H; Heintges, U; Bruhns, S C; Hennies, M; Gertler, A

2006-08-01

173

Epilithic Community Metabolism as an Indicator of Impact and Recovery in Streams Affected by Acid Mine Drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured biomass and metabolism of epilithic communities on five dates in different seasons at four sites in a watershed that has received extensive restoration for acid mine drainage (AMD) through the construction of passive treatment systems. Chlorophyll a biomass and productivity directly corresponded to AMD stress from coal mining. The site downstream of extensive passive treatment had significantly greater biomass and gross primary productivity rates than the site receiving only untreated AMD, but values were below those for two reference sites, indicating incomplete recovery. The degree of difference in these metrics among sites varied seasonally, primarily related to differences in canopy cover changes, but the ranking of sites in terms of stress generally was consistent. Reference sites had a significantly greater chlorophyll a/pheophytin ratio than untreated and treated sites, also indicating AMD stressed the communities. Community respiration was less affected by AMD stress than productivity or chlorophyll a. Productivity measures are not widely used to assess AMD impacts, and have been shown to both increase and decrease with AMD stress. The elimination of herbivores in AMD-impacted streams can increase productivity in the benthic algal community. Our study found productivity decreased with increasing AMD stress. Although sites with AMD stress had reduced herbivore populations, light, nutrients and metal precipitates appear to have limited growth of AMD-tolerant algal taxa. Therefore, it appears changes in food web structure due to AMD stress had less of an effect on epilithic productivity than environmental conditions within the stream.

DeNicola, Dean M.; Layton, Lee; Czapski, Tiffaney R.

2012-12-01

174

Estrogen receptor ? activation impairs mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and affects malignant mesothelioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER)-? has been shown to possess a tumor suppressive effect, and is a potential target for cancer therapy. Using gene-expression meta-analysis of human malignant pleural mesothelioma, we identified an ESR2 (ER? coding gene) signature. High ESR2 expression was strongly associated with low succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) (which encodes a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II subunit) expression. We demonstrate that SDHB loss induced ESR2 expression, and that activated ER?, by over-expression or by selective agonist stimulation, negatively affected oxidative phosphorylation compromising mitochondrial complex II and IV activity. This resulted in reduced mitochondrial ATP production, increased glycolysis dependence and impaired cell proliferation. The observed in vitro effects were phenocopied in vivo using a selective ER? agonist in a mesothelioma mouse model. On the whole, our data highlight an unforeseen interaction between ER?-mediated tumor suppression and energy metabolism that may be exploited to improve on the therapy for clinical management of malignant mesothelioma. PMID:24061575

Manente, A G; Valenti, D; Pinton, G; Jithesh, P V; Daga, A; Rossi, L; Gray, S G; O'Byrne, K J; Fennell, D A; Vacca, R A; Nilsson, S; Mutti, L; Moro, L

2013-01-01

175

Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

Polá?ková Šolcová, Iva; La?ev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

2014-07-01

176

Arabidopsis BPM Proteins Function as Substrate Adaptors to a CULLIN3-Based E3 Ligase to Affect Fatty Acid Metabolism in Plants[W  

PubMed Central

Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that CULLIN3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by MATH-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the WRINKLED1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of MATH-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members. PMID:23792371

Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Hellmann, Hanjo

2013-01-01

177

Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.  

PubMed

Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that cullin3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ethylene response factor (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by Math-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the wrinkled1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of Math-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members. PMID:23792371

Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hellmann, Hanjo

2013-06-01

178

Food deprivation induces chronic stress and affects thyroid hormone metabolism in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) post-larvae.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, stress and thyroid systems interact closely, most likely because of the involvement of both systems in energy metabolism. However, studies on these interactions, especially during larval development, are scarce. Recently, cDNAs coding for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP), two key players in the regulation of the neuroendocrine stress response, were characterized for the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). To investigate the involvement of stress and thyroid systems in this species, the effects of food deprivation during early development of S. senegalensis were assessed. Growth was arrested in food-deprived post-larvae, which was also reflected by decreased carbon and nitrogen contents, indicating increased catabolism. Food deprivation induces chronic stress, as illustrated by enhanced whole-body cortisol levels, as well as an up regulation of crh and a decrease of crh-bp expression levels. Furthermore, whole-body total T3 concentrations of food-deprived post-larvae were reduced, although tsh? subunit expression levels remained unaffected. Our results show that food deprivation is a chronic stressor that induces energy-releasing catabolic processes that compensate for the reduced energy intake, and inhibits anabolic processes via the peripheral thyroid system. PMID:22516685

Wunderink, Yvette S; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Yúfera, Manuel; Montero, Ignacio Martín; Flik, Gert; Mancera, Juan M; Klaren, Peter H M

2012-08-01

179

Studies on the energy metabolism during the respiratory process by baker's yeast.  

PubMed

Microcalorimetry, in combination with conventional methods for determining metabolic activity, opens the possibility to study the efficiency with which ATP, produced as a result of metabolic activity, is utilized by the cell for energy-requiring synthetic reactions. Using commercial baker's yeast as a test organism and glucose, ethanol, acetic and lactic acids as substrates, the fate of the ATP produced by the respiratory process was studied by measuring oxygen consumption (using the Warburg technique) and the corresponding heat development (using the LKB Flow-Microcalorimeter). From these data heat development per mm3 oxygen consumed was calculated. Values obtained should fall within a heat production range that can be calculated from the combustion heat of the process (maximum heat development) and maximum energy conservation, assuming full participation of ATP in energy-requiring synthetic reactions (minimum heat development). It was found that during the respiratory process of "resting" cells of baker's yeast, regardless of the substrate used, heat development was close to the maximum value inherent with substrate oxidation. Consequently, practically all ATP, produced as a result of the respiratory process, is de-phosphorylated under heat development and thus is not (or very inefficiently) utilized for energy-requiring synthetic reactions. In accordance with this conclusion it was found that addition of 2-4-DNP, a powerful uncoupler of phosphorylation from the respiratory process, did not result in an appriciable increase in heat development. Even in the presence of an assimilable N source, allowing unrestricted growth, initially only a very small percentage of the ATP produced is utilized for synthetic processes. A gradual improvement of this poor economic ATP utilization was observed during the prelogarithmic growth phase. As a possible explanation of this wasteful aerobic metabolism of baker's yeast and its restricted ability to utilize ATP for synthetic processes was mentioned the exceptional low content of messenger RNA, typical for a baker's yeast subjected to a ripening process before harvesting. PMID:1105650

Hoogerheide, J C

1975-12-01

180

The Influence of Negative Affect on Self-Referent Sentence Processing and Memory Performance  

E-print Network

The current study investigated how a negative mood state affects lexical and sentence processing in individuals that have never experienced depression. Specifically, the goal of this research was to investigate how an induced negative mood state...

Fitts, Austin Greg

2009-06-24

181

Metabolic depression during warm torpor in the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) does not affect mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide release.  

PubMed

Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during daily torpor and hibernation to save energy. Recently, depression of mitochondrial substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria was observed and associated to hypothermic/hypometabolic states in Djungarian hamsters, mice and hibernators. We aimed to clarify whether hypothermia or hypometabolism causes mitochondrial depression during torpor by studying the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus), a desert rodent which performs daily torpor at high ambient temperatures of 32°C. Notably, metabolic rate but not body temperature is significantly decreased under these conditions. In isolated liver, heart, skeletal muscle or kidney mitochondria we found no depression of respiration. Moderate cold exposure lowered torpor body temperature but had minor effects on minimal metabolic rate in torpor. Neither decreased body temperature nor metabolic rate impacted mitochondrial respiration. Measurements of mitochondrial proton leak kinetics and determination of P/O ratio revealed no differences in mitochondrial efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide release from mitochondria was not affected. We conclude that interspecies differences of mitochondrial depression during torpor do not support a general relationship between mitochondrial respiration, body temperature and metabolic rate. In Golden spiny mice, reduction of metabolic rate at mild temperatures is not triggered by depression of substrate oxidation as found in liver mitochondria from other cold-exposed rodents. PMID:24021912

Grimpo, Kirsten; Kutschke, Maria; Kastl, Anja; Meyer, Carola W; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin

2014-01-01

182

Alterations in the processing of non-drug-related affective stimuli in abstinent heroin addicts.  

PubMed

Long-term exposure to drug may alter the neural system associated with affective processing, as evidenced by both clinical observations and behavioral data documenting dysfunctions in emotional experiences and processing in drug addicts. Although many imaging studies examined neural responses to drug or drug-related cues in addicts, there have been few studies explicitly designed to reveal their neural abnormalities in processing non-drug-related natural affective materials. The present study asked abstinent heroin addicts and normal controls to passively view standardized affective pictures of positive, negative, or neutral valence and compared their brain activities with functional MRI. Compared to normal controls, addicts showed reduced activation in right amygdala in response to the affective pictures, consistent with previous reports of blunted subjective experience for affective stimuli in addicts. Furthermore, in two visual cortical areas BA 19 and 37, while the controls showed greater responses to positive pictures than to negative ones replicating literature findings, the addicts showed the opposite pattern. The results reveal a complex pattern of altered processing of non-drug-related affective materials in addicts showing both heightened and blunted neural responses in different brain regions and for different stimulus valence. The present study highlights the importance of brain imaging research on drug addicts' processing of affective stimuli in understanding disruptions in their emotion circuitry. PMID:19683582

Wang, Zhao-Xin; Zhang, John X; Wu, Qiu-Lin; Liu, Ning; Hu, Xiao-Ping; Chan, Raymond C K; Xiao, Zhuang-Wei

2010-01-01

183

Metabolic processes sustaining the reviviscence of lichen Xanthoria elegans (Link) in high mountain environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To survive in high mountain environments lichens must adapt themselves to alternating periods of desiccation and hydration.\\u000a Respiration and photosynthesis of the foliaceous lichen, Xanthoria elegans, in the dehydrated state were below the threshold of CO2-detection by infrared gas analysis. Following hydration, respiration totally recovered within seconds and photosynthesis\\u000a within minutes. In order to identify metabolic processes that may contribute

Serge Aubert; Christine Juge; Anne-Marie Boisson; Elisabeth Gout; Richard Bligny

2007-01-01

184

Pearl millet: parboiling methods and factors affecting the process and cooked product  

E-print Network

PEARL MILLET: PARBOILING METHODS AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCESS AND COOKED PRODUCT A Thesis by CHALLY JOEL CLEGG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PEARL MILLET: PARBOILING METHODS AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCESS AND COOKED PRODUCT A Thesis by CHALLY JOEL CLEGG Approved as to style and content by: LI d W. Roon...

Clegg, Chally Joel

2012-06-07

185

Halothane effects on metabolic processes in cholinergic synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebra  

SciTech Connect

Synaptosomes are an excellent model system for examining metabolic processes that occur in nerve endings. In this study they were used to examine the effects of halothane, an inhalational anesthetic, on metabolic processes associated with the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. They were also used to study possible mechanisms involved with supplying the cytosol with activated acetyl groups produced in the mitochondria. In synaptosomes, halothane reversibly inhibits acetylcholine synthesis, and inhibits choline uptake in a competitive-like manner. It also depresses /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution from labeled pyruvate, glucose and succinate, decreases the activity of ATP-citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, and completely inhibits pentose phosphate pathway activity. Halothane also significantly enhances glucose utilization and lactate production. However, halothane has no effect on choline acetyltransferases activity or total synaptosomal acetyl CoA levels. These alterations of metabolic processes leads to the suggestion that the primary effect of halothane is to decrease the NAD/sup +//NADH potential, possibly resulting from mitochondrial NADH-CoQ reductase inhibition. This in combination with halothane's inhibition of choline transport would reduce the availability of both choline and acetyl CoA, precursors required for acetylcholine synthesis.

Johnson, G.V.W.

1984-01-01

186

Effects of naphthenic acid exposure on development and liver metabolic processes in anuran tadpoles.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NA) are used in a variety of commercial and industrial applications, and are primary toxic components of oil sands wastewater. We investigated developmental and metabolic responses of tadpoles exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of a commercial NA blend throughout development. We exposed Lithobates pipiens tadpoles to 1 and 2 mg/L NA for 75 days and monitored growth and development, condition factor, gonad and liver sizes, and levels of liver glucose, glycogen, lipids and cholesterol following exposure. NA decreased growth and development, significantly reduced glycogen stores and increased triglycerides, indicating disruption to processes associated with energy metabolism and hepatic glycolysis. Effects on liver function may explain reduced growth and delayed development observed in this and previous studies. Our data highlight the need for greater understanding of the mechanisms leading to hepatotoxicity in NA-exposed organisms, and indicate that strict guidelines may be needed for the release of NA into aquatic environments. PMID:23466728

Melvin, Steven D; Lanctôt, Chantal M; Craig, Paul M; Moon, Thomas W; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Trudeau, Vance L

2013-06-01

187

76 FR 78093 - Correction of Administrative Errors; Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...language of the court order, or process them by calculating earnings...election but for the erroneous separation or erroneous failure to appoint...purchasing an annuity, and the separation from Government service upon...COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS...

2011-12-16

188

How Does Tele-Mental Health Affect Group Therapy Process? Secondary Analysis of a Noninferiority Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Video teleconferencing (VTC) is used for mental health treatment delivery to geographically remote, underserved populations. However, few studies have examined how VTC affects individual or group psychotherapy processes. This study compares process variables such as therapeutic alliance and attrition among participants receiving anger…

Greene, Carolyn J.; Morland, Leslie A.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubbs, Kathleen M.; Rosen, Craig S.

2010-01-01

189

Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults  

PubMed Central

Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11–16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24–40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing. PMID:21467048

Fontaine, Nathalie M. G.; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; De Brito, Stephane A.; McCrory, Eamon J. P.; Viding, Essi

2012-01-01

190

Dysfunction of attentional networks for non-emotional processing in negative affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unclear whether negative affect is associated with the impairment of attentional networks for non-emotional processing. Using the attention network test (ANT), which assesses the efficiency of alerting, orienting, and executive attention, we attempted to clarify which attentional networks were related to negative affect, i.e., anxiety, depression, and social anxiety. Forty-three participants completed the self-report questionnaires and the ANT.

Jun Moriya; Yoshihiko Tanno

2009-01-01

191

Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations. PMID:19925192

Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

2011-03-01

192

Gene regulatory and metabolic adaptation processes of Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL12T during oxygen depletion.  

PubMed

Metabolic flexibility is the key to the ecological success of the marine Roseobacter clade bacteria. We investigated the metabolic adaptation and the underlying changes in gene expression of Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL12(T) to anoxic life by a combination of metabolome, proteome, and transcriptome analyses. Time-resolved studies during continuous oxygen depletion were performed in a chemostat using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. Formation of the denitrification machinery was found enhanced on the transcriptional and proteome level, indicating that D. shibae DFL12(T) established nitrate respiration to compensate for the depletion of the electron acceptor oxygen. In parallel, arginine fermentation was induced. During the transition state, growth and ATP concentration were found to be reduced, as reflected by a decrease of A578 values and viable cell counts. In parallel, the central metabolism, including gluconeogenesis, protein biosynthesis, and purine/pyrimidine synthesis was found transiently reduced in agreement with the decreased demand for cellular building blocks. Surprisingly, an accumulation of poly-3-hydroxybutanoate was observed during prolonged incubation under anoxic conditions. One possible explanation is the storage of accumulated metabolites and the regeneration of NADP(+) from NADPH during poly-3-hydroxybutanoate synthesis (NADPH sink). Although D. shibae DFL12(T) was cultivated in the dark, biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll was increased, possibly to prepare for additional energy generation via aerobic anoxygenic photophosphorylation. Overall, oxygen depletion led to a metabolic crisis with partly blocked pathways and the accumulation of metabolites. In response, major energy-consuming processes were reduced until the alternative respiratory denitrification machinery was operative. PMID:24648520

Laass, Sebastian; Kleist, Sarah; Bill, Nelli; Drüppel, Katharina; Kossmehl, Sebastian; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Klein, Johannes; Rohde, Manfred; Bartsch, Annekathrin; Wittmann, Christoph; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Tielen, Petra; Jahn, Dieter; Schomburg, Dietmar

2014-05-01

193

Muscle or liver-specific Sirt3 deficiency induces hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins without affecting global metabolic homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Sirt3 is a mitochondrial sirtuin, predominantly expressed in highly metabolic tissues. Germline ablation of Sirt3 has major metabolic consequences, including increased susceptibility to metabolic damage and oxidative stress after high fat feeding. In order to determine the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to these phenotypes, we generated muscle-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3skm?/?) and liver-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3hep?/?) knock-out mice. Despite a marked global hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins, Sirt3skm?/? and Sirt3hep?/? mice did not manifest any overt metabolic phenotype under either chow or high fat diet conditions. Similarly, there was no evidence for increased oxidative stress in muscle or liver when Sirt3 was ablated in a tissue-specific manner. These observations suggest that the mitochondrial hyperacetylation induced by Sirt3-deletion in a tissue specific manner is not necessarily linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and does not recapitulate the metabolic abnormalities observed in the germline Sirt3 knock-out mice. PMID:22645641

Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Jeninga, Ellen H.; Canto, Carles; Harach, Taoufiq; de Boer, Vincent C. J.; Andreux, Penelope; Moullan, Norman; Pirinen, Eija; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Houten, Sander M.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

2012-01-01

194

Effect of excessive saccharose administration on metabolic processes in the liver of rabbits with restricted mobility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The administration of saccharose (3 g per 1 kg for 2 months) intensified changes encountered in hypokinesia. There was a more marked increase in the content of cholesterol, pre-beta and beta-lipoproteins, phospholipids, and glycosaminoglycans in the blood. At the same time, the administration of saccharose improved the course of metabolic processes in the liver of immobilized rabbits, restored to normal levels the reduced glycogen level, the rate of glycolysis and the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and their discharge in the cystic bile.

Rylnikov, Y. P.

1980-01-01

195

Deletion of Sirt3 does not affect atherosclerosis but accelerates weight gain and impairs rapid metabolic adaptation in LDL receptor knockout mice: implications for cardiovascular risk factor development.  

PubMed

Sirt3 is a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that governs mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. Sirt3 deficiency has been reported to accelerate the development of the metabolic syndrome. However, the role of Sirt3 in atherosclerosis remains enigmatic. We aimed to investigate whether Sirt3 deficiency affects atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability, and metabolic homeostasis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) and LDLR/Sirt3 double-knockout (Sirt3(-/-)LDLR(-/-)) mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet (1.25 % w/w) for 12 weeks. Atherosclerosis was assessed en face in thoraco-abdominal aortae and in cross sections of aortic roots. Sirt3 deletion led to hepatic mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation. Unexpectedly, though plasma malondialdehyde levels were elevated in Sirt3-deficient mice, Sirt3 deletion affected neither plaque burden nor features of plaque vulnerability (i.e., fibrous cap thickness and necrotic core diameter). Likewise, plaque macrophage and T cell infiltration as well as endothelial activation remained unaltered. Electron microscopy of aortic walls revealed no difference in mitochondrial microarchitecture between both groups. Interestingly, loss of Sirt3 was associated with accelerated weight gain and an impaired capacity to cope with rapid changes in nutrient supply as assessed by indirect calorimetry. Serum lipid levels and glucose tolerance were unaffected by Sirt3 deletion in LDLR(-/-) mice. Sirt3 deficiency does not affect atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice. However, Sirt3 controls systemic levels of oxidative stress, limits expedited weight gain, and allows rapid metabolic adaptation. Thus, Sirt3 may contribute to postponing cardiovascular risk factor development. PMID:24370889

Winnik, Stephan; Gaul, Daniel S; Preitner, Frédéric; Lohmann, Christine; Weber, Julien; Miranda, Melroy X; Liu, Yilei; van Tits, Lambertus J; Mateos, José María; Brokopp, Chad E; Auwerx, Johan; Thorens, Bernard; Lüscher, Thomas F; Matter, Christian M

2014-01-01

196

Soil-inhabiting fungal community composition as qualitative indicator of C metabolism processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although fungi represent the greater part of soil microbial biomass, they play an important role in macro-aggregate formation and their carbon (C) assimilation efficiency is markedly higher than that of bacteria (Bailey et al., 2002), they have not yet been widely used as soil biological indicators. The reason is mainly due to the difficulties in application of molecular analysis tools due to limited availability of reference sequence of fungal strains in DNA database and to the low concentration of fungal DNA in soil and in isolating, enumerating and identifying groups of fungi differing for their functioning in soil and for biological characteristics. The presence of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes as the two main groups of soil-inhabiting fungi were investigated in four different cropping systems. The soil DNA of soil samples coming from twenty sites (five sites for each system), collected in two cropping systems in northern (soil organic matter - SOM content varying from 0.8 to 1.4 %) and two in southern Italy (SOM from 1.4 to 2.3%), was amplified using Ascomycete-specific primer ITS1F - ITS4A (Larena et al., 1999) and Basidiomycete-specific primer ITS1F -ITS4B (Gardes and Bruns, 1993). On the basis of soil DNA amplified with specific primers, Ascomycetes were much more represented than Basidiomycetes in the cultivated top soil. Basidiomycetes are usually reported to account for more than half of the fungal biomass in undisturbed soils. However the low ratio of Basidiomycete DNA to soil fungal DNA observed in this study could be a feature of soil fungal communities in arable soil affected by desertification problems as those of some Italian cropping systems mainly in Mediterranean area. This phenomenon could be due to soil tillage, which is well known to deeply reduce fungal biomass and to continuous incorporation into the soil of herbaceous crop residues. In fact, Ascomycetes decompose holocellulose in preference to lignin (Oslko & Takeda, 2002) and their growth may depend on readily available energy sources, such as soluble carbohydrates (Hudson, 1968). The high ratio of Ascomycetes in the top layer where crop residues of the recurrent had represented the main substrate for saprophytic fungi could explain these results. On the contrary, Basidiomycetes are the most important synthesizing biomass organisms in forest soils as well as the most effective organisms in lignin decomposition with an important role in humic substances processes (Hurst et al., 1963; Cook and Rayner, 1986). Preliminary results of this study suggest that the composition of soil-inhabiting fungal communities, which are the organisms most involved in C metabolism processes, could represents an useful indicator in programs aimed to increase the quality of organic matter in arable soils. Bailey V., Smith L., Bolton Jr K. 2002. Fungal-to-bacteria ratio investigated for enhanced C sequestration. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34, 997-1007. Cook R., Rayner A.D.M. 1984. Ecology of Saprotrophic Fungi. Longman, London, New York, 415 pp. Gardes M., Bruns T.D. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes: application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molec. Ecol. 2, 113-118. Hudson H.J. 1968. The ecology of fungi on plant remains above the soil. New Phytol. 67, 837-874. Hurst H.M., A. Burges, P. Latter. 1963. Some aspects of the biochemistry of humic acid decomposition by fungi. Phytochem. 1, 227-231. Larena I., Salazar O., González V, Julián M.C., Rubio V. 1999. Design of a primer for ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer with enhanced specificity for Ascomycetes. J. Biotech. 75, 187-194. Osolko T., Fukasawa Y., Takeda H. 2003. Roles of diverse fungi in Larch neerle-litter decomposition. Mycologia 95, 820-826.

Manici, L.; Ciavatta, C.; Caputo, F.

2009-04-01

197

Are affective events richly recollected or simply familiar? The experience and process of recognizing feelings past  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author used the remember\\/know paradigm and the dual process recognition model ofA. P. Yonelinas, N. E. A. KroU, I. Dobbins, M. Lazzara, and R. T. Knight (1998) to study the states of awareness accompanying recognition of affective images and the processes of recollection and familiarity that may underlie them. Results from all experiments showed that (a) negative stimuli tended

Kevin N. Ochsner

2000-01-01

198

Subliminal Processing of Smoking-Related and Affective Stimuli in Tobacco Addiction  

PubMed Central

Cognitive processing biases toward smoking-related and affective cues may play a role in tobacco dependence. Because processing biases may occur outside conscious awareness, the current study examined processing of smoking-related and affective stimuli presented at subliminal conditions. A pictorial subliminal repetition priming task was administered to three groups: (1) Nonsmokers (n = 56); (2) Smokers (?10 cigarettes/day) who had been deprived from smoking for 12 h (n = 47); and (3) Nondeprived smokers (n = 66). Prime stimuli were presented briefly (17 ms) and were followed by a mask (to render them unavailable to conscious awareness) and then a target. Participants were required to make a speeded classification to the target. A posttask awareness check was administered to ensure that participants could not consciously perceive the briefly presented primes (i.e., smoking paraphernalia, neutral office supplies, and happy, angry, and neutral facial expressions). The groups differed in the degree to which they exhibited a processing bias for smoking-related stimuli, F(2, 166) = 4.99, p = .008. Deprived smokers exhibited a bias toward processing smoking (vs. neutral office supply) stimuli, F(1, 46) = 5.67, p = .02, whereas nondeprived smokers and nonsmokers did not (ps > .22). The three groups did not differ in the degree to which they exhibited a subliminal processing bias for affective stimuli. Tobacco deprivation appears to increase smokers’ subliminal processing of smoking-related (vs. neutral) stimuli but does not influence subliminal processing of affective stimuli. Future research should investigate whether subliminal biases toward smoking-related stimuli influence relapse. PMID:18729684

Leventhal, Adam M.; Waters, Andrew J.; Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Tapia, Evelina; Miller, Elizabeth; Li, Yisheng

2009-01-01

199

A study of affective and cognitive variables in the college choice process of students and parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify cognitive and affective variables used by students and parents in the process of selecting a college or university. The study also looked at differences between these two populations as well as differences among students, based on gender and their professed reasons for attending college. Through the analysis of student preferences immediately prior

Stephanie Lynn Quade

1994-01-01

200

Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

2010-01-01

201

Facial Affect Processing and Depression Susceptibility: Cognitive Biases and Cognitive Neuroscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal…

Bistricky, Steven L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2011-01-01

202

Transactional Distance among Open University Students: How Does it Affect the Learning Process?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the presence of transactional distance among students, the factors affecting it, as well as the way it influences the learning process of students in a blended distance learning setting in Greece. The present study involved 12 postgraduate students of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). A qualitative research was conducted,…

Kassandrinou, Amanda; Angelaki, Christina; Mavroidis, Ilias

2014-01-01

203

Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

2006-01-01

204

Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

205

Macroscopic brain dynamics during verbal and pictorial processing of affective stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions can be viewed as action dispositions, preparing an individual to act efficiently and successfully in situations of behavioral relevance. To initiate optimized behavior, it is essential to accurately process the perceptual elements indicative of emotional relevance. The present chapter discusses effects of affective content on neural and behavioral parameters of perception, across different information channels. Electrocortical data are presented

Andreas Keil

2006-01-01

206

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Executive Self, Self-Esteem, and Negative Affectivity: Relations at the  

E-print Network

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Executive Self, Self-Esteem, and Negative among executive self, self-esteem, and negative affectivity. A cross-sectional (N 4,242) and a longitudinal (N 158) study established that self-esteem mediated the relation between executive self

Reber, Paul J.

207

Depressive Affect and Restraint in Early Adolescents: Relationships with Family Structure, Family Process and Friendship Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between depressive affect and restraint and family and friendship variables in 103 unselected sixth graders (56 girls). Family measures included family structure (intact vs. two-parent families) and four family processes; communication with father, communication with mother, family cohesion and family adaptability. In addition, friendship support was assessed. Family structure was related to depression, but not

S. Shirley Feldman; Judith L. Rubenstein; Carol Rubin

1988-01-01

208

An opponent-process theory of motivation: I. Temporal dynamics of affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a new theory of motivation and its applications to addiction and aversion. It assumes that many hedonic, affective, or emotional states are automatically opposed by CNS mechanisms which reduce the intensity of hedonic feelings, both pleasant and aversive. Opponent processes for most hedonic states are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse. These assumptions lead to deductions of many

Richard L. Solomon; John D. Corbit

1974-01-01

209

Water Removal in Bioretention Devices by Evapotranspiration Process and Related Issues Affecting Performance  

E-print Network

will be the There are many soil processes that affect stormwater bioretention facility performance. This poster examines (WinSLAMM). Data Needs and Example Soil and Plant Characteristics The following is a brief listing i) soil layer depths and root depths for the plants being used · Current soil moisture level

Clark, Shirley E.

210

Laboratory study of the clogging process and factors affecting clogging in a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory simulation of clogging in the Lixi tailings dam (Shaanxi Province, China) is urgently required because clogging is an important factor affecting the dam stability. This work firstly presents the results of ferrous iron oxidation experiments using buffer solution. The results indicate that the ferrous iron oxidation follows first order kinetics, and the oxidation process is strongly dependent on pH,

Jun Wu; Yanqing Wu; Jian Lu

2008-01-01

211

Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8–13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a vignette-based interview measure of SIP. Anxiety and depression were

Aaron M. Luebbe; Debora J. Bell; Maureen A. Allwood; Lance P. Swenson; Martha C. Early

2010-01-01

212

Automatic affective stimulus processing is intact after unilateral resection of the anterior temporal lobe in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only hundreds of milliseconds after an incoming stimulus is perceived, we make an evaluation of whether it is good or bad. This evaluation seems to occur automatically and can significantly influence behavior. According to several functional imaging studies, the amygdala, which is localized in the temporal lobes of the brain, is an important structure for the automatic processing of affective

Evelien Coppens; Debora Vansteenwegen; Adriaan Spruyt; Mathieu Vandenbulcke; Wim Van Paesschen; Paul Eelen

2007-01-01

213

Loss of cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase affects carbohydrate metabolism in leaves and is essential for fertility of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate metabolism in plants is tightly linked to photosynthesis and is essential for energy and carbon skeleton supply of the entire organism. Thus, the hexose phosphate pools of the cytosol and the chloroplast represent important metabolic resources that are maintained through action of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) and phosphoglucose mutase interconverting glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, and glucose 1-phosphate. Here, we investigated the impact of disrupted cytosolic PGI (cPGI) function on plant viability and metabolism. Overexpressing an artificial microRNA targeted against cPGI (amiR-cpgi) resulted in adult plants with vegetative tissue essentially free of cPGI activity. These plants displayed diminished growth compared with the wild type and accumulated excess starch in chloroplasts but maintained low sucrose content in leaves at the end of the night. Moreover, amiR-cpgi plants exhibited increased nonphotochemical chlorophyll a quenching during photosynthesis. In contrast to amiR-cpgi plants, viable transfer DNA insertion mutants disrupted in cPGI function could only be identified as heterozygous individuals. However, homozygous transfer DNA insertion mutants could be isolated among plants ectopically expressing cPGI. Intriguingly, these plants were only fertile when expression was driven by the ubiquitin10 promoter but sterile when the seed-specific unknown seed protein promoter or the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were employed. These data show that metabolism is apparently able to compensate for missing cPGI activity in adult amiR-cpgi plants and indicate an essential function for cPGI in plant reproduction. Moreover, our data suggest a feedback regulation in amiR-cpgi plants that fine-tunes cytosolic sucrose metabolism with plastidic starch turnover. PMID:25104722

Kunz, Hans-Henning; Zamani-Nour, Shirin; Häusler, Rainer E; Ludewig, Katja; Schroeder, Julian I; Malinova, Irina; Fettke, Joerg; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Gierth, Markus

2014-10-01

214

Primary care-based educational interventions to decrease risk factors for metabolic syndrome for adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with major psychotic and/or affective disorders are at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome due to lifestyle- and treatment-related factors. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been tested in inpatient and outpatient mental health settings to decrease these risk factors. This review focuses on primary care-based non-pharmacological (educational or behavioral) interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk factors in adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders. Methods The authors conducted database searches of PsychINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as manual searches and gray literature searches to identify included studies. Results The authors were unable to identify any studies meeting a priori inclusion criteria because there were no primary care-based studies. Conclusions This review was unable to demonstrate effectiveness of educational interventions in primary care. Interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk have been demonstrated to be effective in mental health and other outpatient settings. The prevalence of mental illness in primary care settings warrants similar interventions to improve health outcomes for this population. PMID:24369749

2013-01-01

215

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AFFECTIVE COMPUTING, VOL. X, NO. X, MONTH 201X 1 Affect and Social Processes  

E-print Network

in order to verify effects of affective profiles, as well as of fine-grained communication scenarios in Online Communication - Experiments with an Affective Dialog System Marcin Skowron, Mathias Theunis in online communication. The different realizations of the system are evaluated in three experimental setups

216

Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants  

PubMed Central

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant’s circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source–sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant–nematode interactions. PMID:24187419

Hofmann, Julia

2014-01-01

217

Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants.  

PubMed

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant's circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source-sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant-nematode interactions. PMID:24187419

Cabello, Susana; Lorenz, Cindy; Crespo, Sara; Cabrera, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Escobar, Carolina; Hofmann, Julia

2014-01-01

218

Affective Assessment of a Computer User through the Processing of the Pupil Diameter Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposes to achieve the affective assessment of a computer user through the processing of the pupil diameter (PD) signal. An adaptive interference canceller (AIC) system using the H? time-varying (HITV) adaptive algorithm was developed to minimize the impact of the PLR (pupil size changes caused by light intensity variations) on the measured pupil diameter signal. The modified pupil diameter (MPD) signal, obtained from the AIC, was expected to reflect primarily the pupillary affective responses (PAR) of the subject. Additional manipulations of the AIC output resulted in a Processed MPD (PMPD) signal, from which a classification feature, “PMPDmean”, was extracted. This feature was used to train and test a support vector machine (SVM), for the identification of “stress” states in the subject, achieving an accuracy rate of 77.78%. The advantages of affective recognition through the PD signal were verified by comparatively investigating the classification of “stress” and “relaxation” states through features derived from the simultaneously recorded galvanic skin response (GSR) and blood volume pulse (BVP) signals, with and without the PD feature. Encouraging results in affective assessment based on pupil diameter monitoring were obtained in spite of intermittent illumination increases purposely introduced during the experiments. Therefore, these results confirmed the possibility of using PD monitoring to evaluate the evolving affective states of a computer user.

Gao, Ying; Barreto, Armando; Adjouadi, Malek

219

White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.  

PubMed

The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity. PMID:25248855

Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

2014-10-15

220

Automatic affective stimulus processing is intact after unilateral resection of the anterior temporal lobe in humans.  

PubMed

Only hundreds of milliseconds after an incoming stimulus is perceived, we make an evaluation of whether it is good or bad. This evaluation seems to occur automatically and can significantly influence behavior. According to several functional imaging studies, the amygdala, which is localized in the temporal lobes of the brain, is an important structure for the automatic processing of affective stimuli. To investigate how critical a role the amygdala plays in this process, we had 20 participants with unilateral resection of the temporal lobe and 20 controls perform an affective priming task. Both controls and patients demonstrated shorter response latencies on trials where prime and target had the same valence than on trials where prime and target had the opposite valence. This finding is generally known as the affective priming effect and is considered to reflect automatic stimulus evaluation. More specifically, it is assumed that the valence of the prime stimulus is activated automatically and exerts an influence on the speed by which the target stimulus is evaluated. Given that the affective priming effect is equally large in both groups, our results suggest that the automatic processing of stimulus valence is intact in participants who sustained unilateral resection of the temporal lobe. PMID:16996545

Coppens, Evelien; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Spruyt, Adriaan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Van Paesschen, Wim; Eelen, Paul

2007-01-28

221

Reduction of inositol (1,4,5)–trisphosphate affects the overall phosphoinositol pathway and leads to modifications in light signalling and secondary metabolism in tomato plants  

PubMed Central

The phosphoinositol pathway is one of the major eukaryotic signalling pathways. The metabolite of the phosphoinositol pathway, inositol- (1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3), is a regulator of plant responses to a wide variety of stresses, including light, drought, cold, and salinity. It was found that the expression of InsP 5-ptase, the enzyme that hydrolyses InsP3, also dramatically affects the levels of inositol phosphate metabolites and the secondary metabolites in transgenic tomato plants. Tomato plants expressing InsP 5-ptase exhibited a reduction in the levels of several important inositol phosphates, including InsP1, InsP2, InsP3, and InsP4. Reduced levels of inositol phosphates accompanied an increase in the accumulation of phenylpropanoids (rutin, chlorogenic acid) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the transgenic fruits of tomato plants. The enhanced accumulation of these metabolites in transgenic tomato plants was in direct correspondence with the observed up-regulation of the genes that express the key enzymes of ascorbic acid metabolism (myo-inositol oxygenase, MIOX; L-galactono-?-lactone dehydrogenase, GLDH) and phenylpropanoid metabolism (chalcone synthase, CHS1; cinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate transferase, HCT). To understand the molecular links between the activation of different branches of plant metabolism and InsP3 reduction in tomato fruits, the expression of transcription factors known to be involved in light signalling was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of LeHY5, SIMYB12, and LeELIP was found to be higher in fruits expressing InsP 5-ptase. These results suggest possible interconnections between phosphoinositol metabolism, light signalling, and secondary metabolism in plants. Our study also revealed the biotechnological potential for the genetic improvement of crop plants by the manipulation of the phosphoinositol pathway. PMID:21994174

Alimohammadi, Mohammad; de Silva, Kanishka; Ballu, Clarisse; Ali, Nawab; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

2012-01-01

222

Reduction of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate affects the overall phosphoinositol pathway and leads to modifications in light signalling and secondary metabolism in tomato plants.  

PubMed

The phosphoinositol pathway is one of the major eukaryotic signalling pathways. The metabolite of the phosphoinositol pathway, inositol- (1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP(3)), is a regulator of plant responses to a wide variety of stresses, including light, drought, cold, and salinity. It was found that the expression of InsP 5-ptase, the enzyme that hydrolyses InsP(3), also dramatically affects the levels of inositol phosphate metabolites and the secondary metabolites in transgenic tomato plants. Tomato plants expressing InsP 5-ptase exhibited a reduction in the levels of several important inositol phosphates, including InsP(1), InsP(2), InsP(3), and InsP(4). Reduced levels of inositol phosphates accompanied an increase in the accumulation of phenylpropanoids (rutin, chlorogenic acid) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the transgenic fruits of tomato plants. The enhanced accumulation of these metabolites in transgenic tomato plants was in direct correspondence with the observed up-regulation of the genes that express the key enzymes of ascorbic acid metabolism (myo-inositol oxygenase, MIOX; L-galactono-?-lactone dehydrogenase, GLDH) and phenylpropanoid metabolism (chalcone synthase, CHS1; cinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate transferase, HCT). To understand the molecular links between the activation of different branches of plant metabolism and InsP(3) reduction in tomato fruits, the expression of transcription factors known to be involved in light signalling was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of LeHY5, SIMYB12, and LeELIP was found to be higher in fruits expressing InsP 5-ptase. These results suggest possible interconnections between phosphoinositol metabolism, light signalling, and secondary metabolism in plants. Our study also revealed the biotechnological potential for the genetic improvement of crop plants by the manipulation of the phosphoinositol pathway. PMID:21994174

Alimohammadi, Mohammad; de Silva, Kanishka; Ballu, Clarisse; Ali, Nawab; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V

2012-01-01

223

Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The G-protein–coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed in GPR40 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates by hyperglycemic clamps and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis, metabolic studies, and lipid profiling were used to ascertain whether GPR40 modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. RESULTS Both glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo were decreased by ?60% in GPR40 knockout fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity. Neither gene expression profiles nor intracellular metabolism of glucose and palmitate in isolated islets were affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling of isolated islets revealed that the increase in triglyceride and decrease in lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine species in response to palmitate in vitro was similar in wild-type and knockout islets. In contrast, the increase in intracellular inositol phosphate levels observed in wild-type islets in response to fatty acids in vitro was absent in knockout islets. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that deletion of GPR40 impairs insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism in islets, via a mechanism that may involve the generation of inositol phosphates downstream of GPR40 activation. PMID:19720802

Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, Martin G.; Kebede, Melkam; Sorensen, Christina M.; Gesta, Stephane; Ronald Kahn, C.; Smith, Richard D.; Jetton, Thomas L.; Metz, Thomas O.; Prentki, Marc; Poitout, Vincent

2009-01-01

224

NITROGEN AND PROTEIN METABOLISM IN YOUNG PEA PLANTS AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF NICKEL, CADMIUM, LEAD, AND MOLYBDENUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was carried out on the effect of molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) using concentrations of 1×10, 1×10, and 1×10 mol dm, on the metabolism of nitrogen and proteins in young pea plants (Pisum sativum L. ‘NS Lim’). The highest concentrations of the investigated metals were noted to suppress the development of the aboveground

Slavko Kevresan; Novica Petrovic; Milan Popovic; Julijan Kandrac

2001-01-01

225

Self-selected unrefined and refined carbohydrate diets do not affect metabolic control in pump-treated diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study investigated whether unrefined or refined carbohydrate diets have any effect on metabolic control and on insulin requirement in near-normoglycaemic Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic out-patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Two females and 8 males (aged 27±9 years; diabetes duration 13±8 years; duration of insulin pump therapy 22±5 months; means±SD) participated in a randomised cross-over study with two

A. Venhaus; E. Chantelau

1988-01-01

226

Genome-wide analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies cellular processes affecting intracellular aggregation of Alzheimer's amyloid-?42: importance of lipid homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Amyloid-? (A?)–containing plaques are a major neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two major isoforms of A? peptide associated with AD are A?40 and A?42, of which the latter is highly prone to aggregation. Increased presence and aggregation of intracellular A?42 peptides is an early event in AD progression. Improved understanding of cellular processes affecting A?42 aggregation may have implications for development of therapeutic strategies. A?42 fused to green fluorescent protein (A?42-GFP) was expressed in ?4600 mutants of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide deletion library to identify proteins and cellular processes affecting intracellular A?42 aggregation by assessing the fluorescence of A?42-GFP. This screening identified 110 mutants exhibiting intense A?42-GFP–associated fluorescence. Four major cellular processes were overrepresented in the data set, including phospholipid homeostasis. Disruption of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylethanolamine metabolism had a major effect on intracellular A?42 aggregation and localization. Confocal microscopy indicated that A?42-GFP localization in the phospholipid mutants was juxtaposed to the nucleus, most likely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/ER membrane. These data provide a genome-wide indication of cellular processes that affect intracellular A?42-GFP aggregation and may have important implications for understanding cellular mechanisms affecting intracellular A?42 aggregation and AD disease progression. PMID:24870034

Nair, S.; Traini, M.; Dawes, I. W.; Perrone, G. G.

2014-01-01

227

Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces  

PubMed Central

According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Kohler, Stefan

2014-01-01

228

Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing.  

PubMed

Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25352672

Hang, Runlai; Liu, Chunyan; Ahmad, Ayaz; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Falong; Cao, Xiaofeng

2014-11-11

229

Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing  

PubMed Central

Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25352672

Hang, Runlai; Liu, Chunyan; Ahmad, Ayaz; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Falong; Cao, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

230

Yeast genes involved in sulfur and nitrogen metabolism affect the production of volatile thiols from Sauvignon Blanc musts.  

PubMed

Two volatile thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), and 3-mercaptohexyl-acetate (3MHA), reminiscent of grapefruit and passion fruit respectively, are critical varietal aroma compounds in Sauvignon Blanc (SB) wines. These aromatic thiols are not present in the grape juice but are synthesized and released by the yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Single deletion mutants of 67 candidate genes in a laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for their thiol production after fermentation of SB grape juice. None of the deletions abolished production of the two volatile thiols. However, deletion of 17 genes caused increases or decreases in production by as much as twofold. These 17 genes, mostly related to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism in yeast, may act by altering the regulation of the pathway(s) of thiol production or altering substrate supply. Deleting subsets of these genes in a wine yeast strain gave similar results to the laboratory strain for sulfur pathway genes but showed strain differences for genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of two nitrogen sources, urea and di-ammonium phosphate, as well as two sulfur compounds, cysteine and S-ethyl-L-cysteine, increased 3MH and 3MHA concentrations in the final wines. Collectively these results suggest that sulfur and nitrogen metabolism are important in regulating the synthesis of 3MH and 3MHA during yeast fermentation of grape juice. PMID:22684328

Harsch, Michael J; Gardner, Richard C

2013-01-01

231

Threat processing in generalized social phobia: an investigation of interpretation biases in ambiguous facial affect.  

PubMed

Facial affect is one of the most important information sources during the course of social interactions, but it is susceptible to distortion due to the complex and dynamic nature. Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit alterations in the processing of social information, such as an attentional and interpretative bias toward threatening information. This may be one of the key factors contributing to the development and maintenance of anxious psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a threat-related interpretation bias is evident for ambiguous facial stimuli in a population of individuals with a generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (gSAD) as compared to healthy controls. Participants judged ambiguous happy/fearful, angry/fearful and angry/happy blends varying in intensity and rated the predominant affective expression. The results obtained in this study do not indicate that gSAD is associated with a biased interpretation of ambiguous facial affect. PMID:24656896

Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael

2014-06-30

232

Microbial functional diversity, metabolic quotient, and invertase activity of a sandy loam soil as affected by long-term application of organic amendment and mineral fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Organic and inorganic fertilizers are used primarily to increase nutrient availability to plants. Monitoring balanced versus\\u000a unbalanced fertilization effects on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help\\u000a us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization\\u000a regimes on soil microbial community functional diversity, metabolic

Junli Hu; Xiangui Lin; Junhua Wang; Jue Dai; Ruirui Chen; Jiabao Zhang; Ming Hung Wong

2011-01-01

233

The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

Kubrak, Olga I.; Ku?erová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R.

2014-01-01

234

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. Conclusions This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic “signatures”: genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops. PMID:24655934

2014-01-01

235

The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing\\u000a of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the\\u000a association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective\\u000a picture

Kira Bailey; Robert West; Craig A. Anderson

2011-01-01

236

The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Cognitive Processes and Affect in Patients with Past Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effects of an 8-week course in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; J. Kabat-Zinn, 1982, 1990) on affective symptoms (depression and anxiety), dysfunctional attitudes, and rumination. Given the focus of mindfulness meditation (MM) in modifying cognitive processes, it was hypothesized that the primary change in MM practice involves reductions in ruminative tendencies. We studied a sample of individuals

Wiveka Ramel; Philippe R. Goldin; Paula E. Carmona; John R. McQuaid

2004-01-01

237

Horse metabolism and the photocatalytic process as a tool to identify metabolic products formed from dopant substances: the case of sildenafil.  

PubMed

Two horses were treated with sildenafil, and its metabolic products were sought in both urine and plasma samples. Prior to this, a simulative laboratory study had been done using a photocatalytic process, to identify all possible main and secondary transformation products, in a clean matrix; these were then sought in the biological samples. The transformation of sildenafil and the formation of intermediate products were evaluated adopting titanium dioxide as photocatalyst. Several products were formed and characterized using the HPLC/HRMS(n) technique. The main intermediates identified in these experimental conditions were the same as the major sildenafil metabolites found in in vivo studies on rats and horses. Concerning horse metabolism, sildenafil and the demethylated product (UK 103,320) were quantified in blood samples. Sildenafil propyloxide, de-ethyl, and demethyl sildenafil, were the main metabolites quantified in urine. Some more oxidized species, already formed in the photocatalytic process, were also found in urine and plasma samples of treated animals. Their formation involved hydroxylation on the aromatic ring, combined oxidation and dihydroxylation, N-demethylation on the pyrazole ring, and hydroxylation. These new findings could be of interest in further metabolism studies. PMID:21964727

Medana, Claudio; Calza, Paola; Giancotti, Valeria; Dal Bello, Federica; Pasello, Emanuela; Montana, Marco; Baiocchi, Claudio

2011-10-01

238

Holoprosencephaly in RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: Does abnormal cholesterol metabolism affect the function of sonic hedgehog?  

SciTech Connect

The RAH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (RAH/SLOS) is an autosomal recessive malformation syndrome associated with increased levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and a defect of cholesterol biosynthesis at the level of 3{beta}-hydroxy-steroid-{Delta}{sup 7}-reductase (7-DHC reductase). Because rats exposed to inhibitors of 7-DHC reductase during development have a high frequency of holoprosencephaly (HPE), we have undertaken a search for biochemical evidence of RSH/SLOS and other possible defects of sterol metabolism among patients with various forms of HPE. We describe 4 patients, one with semilobar HPE and three others with less complete forms of the HPE sequence, in whom we have made a biochemical diagnosis of RAH/SLOS. The clinical and biochemical spectrum of these and other patients with RAH/SLOS suggests a role of abnormal sterol metabolism in the pathogenesis of their malformations. The association of HPE and RAH/SLOS is discussed in light of the recent discoveries that mutations in the embryonic patterning gene, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), can cause HPE in humans and that the sonic hedgehog protein product undergoes autoproteolysis to form a cholesterol-modified active product. These clinical, biochemical, and molecular studies suggest that HPE and other malformations in SLOS may be caused by incomplete or abnormal modification of the sonic hedgehog protein and, possibly, other patterning proteins of the hedgehog class, a hypothesis testable in somatic cell systems. 37 refs., 1 fig.

Kelley, R.I. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Roessler, E.; Muenke, M. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

1996-12-30

239

Virus-induced gene silencing of pea CHLI and CHLD affects tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chloroplast development and the primary metabolic network.  

PubMed

The first committed and highly regulated step of chlorophyll biosynthesis is the insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX, which is catalyzed by Mg chelatase that consists of CHLH, CHLD and CHLI subunits. In this study, CHLI and CHLD genes were suppressed by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD) in pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD plants both showed yellow leaf phenotypes with the reduced Mg chelatase activity and the inactivated synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The lower chlorophyll accumulation correlated with undeveloped thylakoid membranes, altered chloroplast nucleoid structure, malformed antenna complexes and compromised photosynthesis capacity in the yellow leaf tissues of the VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD plants. Non-enzymatic antioxidant contents and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were altered in response to enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the chlorophyll deficient leaves of VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD plants. Furthermore, the results of metabolite profiling indicate a tight correlation between primary metabolic pathways and Mg chelatase activity. We also found that CHLD induces a feedback-regulated change of the transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes. CHLD and CHLI silencing resulted in a rapid reduction of photosynthetic proteins. Taken together, Mg chelatase is not only a key regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis but its activity also correlates with ROS homeostasis, primary interorganellar metabolism and retrograde signaling in plant cells. PMID:23416492

Luo, Tao; Luo, Sha; Araújo, Wagner L; Schlicke, Hagen; Rothbart, Maxi; Yu, Jing; Fan, Tingting; Fernie, Alisdair R; Grimm, Bernhard; Luo, Meizhong

2013-04-01

240

How work context affects operating room processes: using data mining and computer simulation to analyze facility and process design.  

PubMed

The complexity of the operating room (OR) requires that both structural (eg, department layout) and behavioral (eg, staff interactions) patterns of work be considered when developing quality improvement strategies. In our study, we investigated how these contextual factors influence outpatient OR processes and the quality of care delivered. The study setting was a German university-affiliated hospital performing approximately 6000 outpatient surgeries annually. During the 3-year-study period, the hospital significantly changed its outpatient OR facility layout from a decentralized (ie, ORs in adjacent areas of the building) to a centralized (ie, ORs in immediate vicinity of each other) design. To study the impact of the facility change on OR processes, we used a mixed methods approach, including process analysis, process modeling, and social network analysis of staff interactions. The change in facility layout was seen to influence OR processes in ways that could substantially affect patient outcomes. For example, we found a potential for more errors during handovers in the new centralized design due to greater interdependency between tasks and staff. Utilization of the mixed methods approach in our analysis, as compared with that of a single assessment method, enabled a deeper understanding of the OR work context and its influence on outpatient OR processes. PMID:19851238

Baumgart, André; Denz, Christof; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Schleppers, Alexander

2009-01-01

241

Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).  

PubMed

Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p < 0.001) preventing LP mink from attaining their growth potential (p < 0.02). LP mink had a lower liver, pancreas and kidney weight (p < 0.05) as well as lower plasma IGF-1 concentrations at 8 and 25 (p < 0.05) weeks, and a higher incidence of hepatic lipidosis at 25 weeks (p < 0.05). Furthermore, LP mink had a higher body fat (p < 0.05) and lower body CP content (p < 0.05) at 50 weeks of age. It is concluded that some effects of low protein provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition. PMID:23909380

Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

2014-04-01

242

Study of major factors to affect photoresist profile on developable bottom anti-reflective coating process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As critical dimensions continue to shrink in lithography, new materials will be needed to meet the new demands imposed by this shrinkage. Recently, there are needs for novel materials with various substrates and immersing process, including double patterning process, a high resolution implant process, and so on. Among such materials, Developable Bottom Anti-reflective Coating material (DBARC) is a good candidate for high resolution implant application as well as double patterning. DBARC should have reflectivity control function as an ordinary BARC, as well as an appropriate solubility in TMAH-based conventional developer after exposure and bake process. The most distinguished advantage of DBARC is to skip BARC etch process that is required in normal BARC process. In spite of this advantage, the photoresist profile on DBARC could be influenced by components and process conditions of DBARC. Several groups have tried to solve this issue to implement DBARC to new process. We have studied material-related factors affecting photoresist profiles, such as a polymer, photo-acid generators (PAGs), and additives. And we explored the effect of process condition for photoresist and DBARC. In case of polymer, we studied the effect of dissolution rate in developer and crosslinking functionality. For PAGs and additives, the effect of acid diffusivity and cross-linking degree according to their bulkiness were examined. We also evaluated coated film stability in a photoresist solvent after BARC bake process and compared lithographic performance of various DBARC formulations. In addition, the effect of photoresist profile with bake condition of photoresist and DBARC were investigated. In this paper, we will demonstrate the most influential factors of DBARC to photoresist profile and suggest the optimum formulation and process condition for DBARC application.

Roh, Hyo Jung; Ju, Dong Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jaehyun

2011-04-01

243

Arginine methyltransferase affects interactions and recruitment of mRNA processing and export factors.  

PubMed

Hmt1 is the major type I arginine methyltransferase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and facilitates the nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA-binding proteins through their methylation. Here we demonstrate that Hmt1 is recruited during the beginning of the transcriptional elongation process. Hmt1 methylates Yra1 and Hrp1, two mRNA-binding proteins important for mRNA processing and export. Moreover, loss of Hmt1 affects interactions between mRNA-binding proteins and Tho2, a component of the TREX (transcription/export) complex that is important for transcriptional elongation and recruitment of mRNA export factors. Furthermore, RNA in situ hybridization analysis demonstrates that loss of Hmt1 results in slowed release of HSP104 mRNA from the sites of transcription. Genome-wide location analysis shows that Hmt1 is bound to specific functional gene classes, many of which are also bound by Tho2 and other mRNA-processing factors. These data suggest a model whereby Hmt1 affects transcriptional elongation and, as a result, influences recruitment of RNA-processing factors. PMID:15314027

Yu, Michael C; Bachand, François; McBride, Anne E; Komili, Suzanne; Casolari, Jason M; Silver, Pamela A

2004-08-15

244

Exposure of embryos to cyclically cold incubation temperatures durably affects energy metabolism and antioxidant pathways in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Cyclically cold incubation temperatures have been suggested as a means to improve resistance of broiler chickens to ascites; however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Nine hundred eggs obtained from 48 wk Ross broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 incubation treatments: control I eggs were incubated at 37.6°C throughout, whereas for cold I eggs the incubation temperature was reduced by 1°C for 6 h daily from 10 to 18 d of incubation. Thereafter, chickens were reared at standard temperatures or under cold exposure that was associated or not with a postnatal cold acclimation at d 5 posthatch. At hatch, hepatic catalase activity and malondialdehyde content were measured. Serum thyroid hormone and triglyceride concentrations, and muscle expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress were also measured at hatch and 5 and 25 d posthatch. Cold incubation induced modifications in antioxidant pathways with higher catalase activity, but lower expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 at hatch. However, long-term enhancement in the expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 was observed, probably caused by an increase in the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? coactivator-1?. These effects were not systematically associated with an increase in serum triiodothyronine concentrations that were observed only in chickens exposed to both cold incubation and later acclimation at 5 d with cold rearing. Our results suggest that these conditions of cyclically cold incubation resulted in the long-term in changes in antioxidant pathways and energy metabolism, which could enhance the health of chickens reared under cold conditions. PMID:24894528

Loyau, T; Collin, A; Yenisey, C; Crochet, S; Siegel, P B; Ak?it, M; Yalçin, S

2014-08-01

245

The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain ‘invulnerable’ children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental health consequences of war-related violence and loss, the focus on trauma alone has resulted in inadequate attention to factors associated with resilient mental health outcomes. This paper presents key studies in the literature that address the interplay between risk and protective processes in the mental health of war-affected children from an ecological, developmental perspective. It suggests that further research on war-affected children should pay particular attention to coping and meaning making at the individual level; the role of attachment relationships, caregiver health, resources and connection in the family, and social support available in peer and extended social networks. Cultural and community influences such as attitudes towards mental health and healing as well as the meaning given to the experience of war itself are also important aspects of the larger social ecology. PMID:18569183

Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

2008-01-01

246

Metabolic processes sustaining the reviviscence of lichen Xanthoria elegans (Link) in high mountain environments  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to alternating periods of desiccation and hydration is one of the lichen’s requirements for survival in high mountain environment. In the dehydrated state, respiration and photosynthesis of the foliaceous lichen Xanthoria elegans were below the threshold of CO2-detection by infrared gas analysis. Following hydration, respiration totally recovered within seconds and photosynthesis within minutes. In order to identify metabolic processes that may contribute to restart so quickly and efficiently lichen physiological activity, we analysed the metabolite profile of lichen thalli step by step during hydration/dehydration cycles, using 31P-and 13C-NMR. It appeared that the recovery of respiration was anticipated during dehydration by the accumulation of important stores of gluconate 6-P (glcn-6-P) and by the preservation of the nucleotide pools, whereas glycolysis and photosynthesis intermediates like glucose 6-P and ribulose 1,5-diphosphate disappeared. The important pools of polyols present in both X. elegans photo- and mycobiont likely contributed to protect cells constituents like nucleotides, proteins, and membrane lipids, and to preserve the intactness of intracellular structures during desiccation. Our data indicate that glcn-6-P accumulated due to the activation of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, in response to cell need for reducing power (NADPH) during the dehydration-triggered down regulation of metabolism. On the contrary, glcn-6-P was metabolised immediately after hydration, supplying respiration with substrates during the recovery of the pools of glycolysis and photosynthesis intermediates. Finally, the high net photo synthetic activity of wet X. elegans thalli at low temperature may help this alpine lichen to take advantage of short hydration opportunities such as ice melting, thus favouring its growth in the harsh high mountain climate. PMID:17574473

Aubert, Serge; Juge, Christine; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard

2007-01-01

247

The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure. PMID:21461985

Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

2011-06-01

248

Schema-Triggered Cognitive and Affective Response to Music: Applying an Information-Processing Model to Rock 'N' Roll.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To account for cognitive and affective responses to popular music, a pilot study used an information processing model to show that affect results largely from the activation of affect-laden schemas by the music stimulus. Subjects, 196 students from an introductory course in interpersonal communication at a medium-sized university, listened to a…

Voelker, David H.; Pettey, Gary R.

249

Reactive Metabolites and AGE\\/RAGE-Mediated Cellular Dysfunction Affect the Aging Process – A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is a dynamic process in which its rate and subsequent longevity of an organism are dependent upon the balance between the reactive intermediates of normal cellular metabolism and the ability of the body to reduce these by-products through a multifaceted antioxidant defence system. Every disturbance of this balance constitutes a clear and present danger to the macromolecular integrity of

Thomas H. Fleming; Per M. Humpert; Peter P. Nawroth; Angelika Bierhaus

2011-01-01

250

Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading to coniferyl alcohol, was not up-regulated under any of the conditions employed, suggesting that it is not, in fact, involved in monolignol biosynthesis.

Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

2002-01-01

251

The Investment in Scent: Time-Resolved Metabolic Processes in Developing Volatile-Producing Nigella sativa L. Seeds  

PubMed Central

The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids) and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol–3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18?3n-3 abundant in “green” seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs. PMID:24019893

Toubiana, David; Botnick, Ilan; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Nikoloski, Zoran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fait, Aaron

2013-01-01

252

An examination of the relationships among clients' affect regulation, in-session emotional processing, the working alliance, and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives were to examine the relationships among clients' affect regulation capacities, in-session emotional processing, outcome, and the working alliance in 66 clients who received either cognitive–behavioral therapy or process-experiential emotion-focused therapy for depression. Clients’ initial level of affect regulation predicted their level of emotional processing during early and working phases of therapy. Clients’ peak emotional processing in the working

Jeanne C. Watson; Evelyn J. McMullen; Meghan C. Prosser; Danielle L Bedard

2011-01-01

253

Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.  

PubMed

Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in ?-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of ?-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol. PMID:21548801

Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

2011-09-01

254

Modulation of Vitamin D Status and Dietary Calcium Affects Bone Mineral Density and Mineral Metabolism in G?ttingen Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6?g calcium and 6,500?IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2?g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with ?51.2 ± 14.7?mg/cm3 in contrast to controls (?2.3 ± 11.8?mg/cm3), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4?nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4?nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects. PMID:24062955

Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E.; Gluer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Gunter; Acil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jurgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jurgen

2013-01-01

255

Abscisic acid metabolism and anthocyanin synthesis in grape skin are affected by light emitting diode (LED) irradiation at night.  

PubMed

The effects of blue and red light irradiation at night on abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and anthocyanin synthesis were examined in grape berries. The expressions of VlMYBA1-2, VlMYBA2, UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (VvUFGT), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1) were also investigated. Endogenous ABA, its metabolite phaseic acid (PA), and the expressions of VvNCED1 and VvCYP707A1 were highest in red light-emitting diode (LED)-treated skin. In contrast, anthocyanin concentrations were highest in blue LED-treated skin, followed by red LED treatment. However, the expressions of VlMYBA1-2, VlMYBA2, and VvUFGT did not necessarily coincide with anthocyanin concentrations. The quality of coloring may depend on the amount of malvidin-based anthocyanin, which increased toward harvest in blue and red LED-treated skin, unlike in untreated controls. An increase in sugars was also observed in blue and red LED-treated skin. These results suggest that blue LED irradiation at night may be effective in increasing anthocyanin and sugar concentrations in grape berries. However, there is evidence that another factor may influence anthocyanin concentrations in grape berry skin significantly more than endogenous ABA: ABA concentrations were highest in red LED-treated skin, which had lower anthocyanin concentrations than blue LED-treated skin. PMID:24877674

Kondo, Satoru; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Rodyoung, Abhichartbut; Okawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Sugaya, Sumiko; Terahara, Norihiko; Hirai, Nobuhiro

2014-06-15

256

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery.  

PubMed

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m(2)), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, (1)H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, (13)C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

Crouzier, David; Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

257

Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transferred to lysine residues of proteins, in a reaction regulated by acetyltransferases. The tight balance between acetyltransferases and their antagonistic counterparts histone deacetylases is a well-known determining factor for the acetylation status of proteins. However, the influence of Coenzyme A levels on protein acetylation is unknown. Here we investigate whether decreased levels of the central metabolite Coenzyme A induce alterations in protein acetylation and whether this correlates with specific phenotypes of PKAN models. We show that in various organisms proper Coenzyme A metabolism is required for maintenance of histone- and tubulin acetylation, and decreased acetylation of these proteins is associated with an impaired DNA damage response, decreased locomotor function and decreased survival. Decreased protein acetylation and the concurrent phenotypes are partly rescued by pantethine and HDAC inhibitors, suggesting possible directions for future PKAN therapy development. PMID:21998097

Siudeja, Katarzyna; Srinivasan, Balaji; Xu, Lanjun; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Nollen, Ellen A A; Jackowski, Suzanne; Sanford, Lynn; Hayflick, Susan; Sibon, Ody C M

2011-01-01

258

Selective effects of social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity on the neural bases of emotional face processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with high anxiety show heightened neural activation in affective processing regions, including the amygdala and insula. Activations have been shown to be correlated with anxiety severity, but although anxiety is a heterogeneous state, prior studies have not systematically disentangled whether neural activity in affective processing circuitry is uniquely related to specific domains of anxiety. Forty-five young adults were tested

Tali Manber Ball; Sarah Sullivan; Taru Flagan; Carla A. Hitchcock; Alan Simmons; Martin P. Paulus; Murray B. Stein

259

Proposal for field sampling of plants and processing in the lab for environmental metabolic fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Samples for plant metabolic fingerprinting are prepared generally by metabolism quenching, grinding of plant material and extraction of metabolites in solvents. Further concentration and derivatisation steps follow in dependence of the sample nature and the available analytical platform. For plant material sampled in the field, several methods are not applicable, such as, e.g., collection in liquid nitrogen. Therefore, a

Tanja S Maier; Jürgen Kuhn; Caroline Müller

2010-01-01

260

Techniques for determining probabilities of events and processes affecting the performance of geologic repositories: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a probabilistic standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste. This report treats not only geologic events and processes like fault movement, but also events and processes that arise from the relationship between human actions and geology, like drilling for resources, and some that arise from nongeologic processes that in turn affect a geologic process, like climatic change. It reviews the literature in several fields to determine whether existing probabilistic methods for predicting events and processes are adequate for implementation of the standard. Techniques exist for qualitatively estimating the potential for endowment of portions of earth's crust with mineral resources, but such techniques cannot easily predict whether or not human intrusion will occur. The EPA standard offers explicit guidance for the treatment of human intrusion, however. A complete method for climatic prediction could be assembled from existing techniques, although such a combination has not been tested. Existing techniques to support a probabilistic assessment of tectonic activity and seismic hazard at a repository site should be combined with expert judgment in performance assessments. Depending on the regional setting, either analytic techniques or expert judgment may be appropriate in assigning probabilities to volcanic activity. The individual chapters of this report have been cataloged separately.

Hunter, R.L.; Mann, C.J. (eds.)

1989-06-01

261

Impaired Cross-Talk between Mesolimbic Food Reward Processing and Metabolic Signaling Predicts Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food, which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food-related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum (VS) in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e., monetary) and food-related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20?kg/m2) over a normal (20–25?kg/m2) and overweight (25–30?kg/m2) BMI, to class I (30–35?kg/m2) and class II (35–40?kg/m2) obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn “snack points” or “money coins,” which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the VS, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime). This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e., increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling. PMID:25368558

Simon, Joe J.; Skunde, Mandy; Hamze Sinno, Maria; Brockmeyer, Timo; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

2014-01-01

262

Endogenous enzymes, heat, and pH affect flavone profiles in parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and celery (Apium graveolens) during juice processing.  

PubMed

Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds. PMID:22224550

Hostetler, Gregory L; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

2012-01-11

263

Endogenous Enzymes, Heat, and pH Affect Flavone Profiles in Parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and Celery (Apium graveolens) during Juice Processing  

PubMed Central

Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds. PMID:22224550

Hostetler, Gregory L.; Riedl, Ken M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

2013-01-01

264

Physico-chemical properties of Azizi' green pickled olives as affected by alkali process.  

PubMed

This work was carried out to study the effect of lye treatment at different concentrations (1.0, 2.0 and 2.5%) on some physical-chemical changes of green table olive 'Azizi' cultivar during fermentation process. Results indicated that lye treatment at 1% and 2% using sodium hydroxide were the more suitable concentration for processing green table olive 'Azizi' cultivar under Egyptian condition, where the quality in texture, colour, flavour and appearance was recorded. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences in pH, NaCl content and acidity of green olive during the fermentation period as affected by lye treatment. A positive correlation was found between the sensorial properties of pickled olives. PMID:10555299

el-Makhzangy, A; Abdel-Rhman, A

1999-10-01

265

Continental Shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight  

SciTech Connect

Progress in studies of the physical processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight is reported. NCSU personnel efforts have been focused on processing and analyzing existing data sets as well as planning and preparing for the Georgia Atlantic Bight Experiment (GABEX-1). Three cruises were conducted between June 1979 and February 1980 for the temperature/pressure recording instruments (June to Oct) and for the deployment of the GABEX I and other arrays. The Onslow Bay data sets extend over four years of observations from the mid- and outer-shelf region. Each mooring cruise has been coordinated with similar mooring deployments off Savannah and off Cape Romain with hydrographic cruises and with interdisciplinary cruises following Gulf Stream filaments and involving biological, chemical and physical oceanographers. The current meter data collected in the Carolina Capes is listed. Preprints and reprints are included.

Pietrafesa, L.J.

1980-04-14

266

Waterlogging during flowering and boll forming stages affects sucrose metabolism in the leaves subtending the cotton boll and its relationship with boll weight.  

PubMed

The work explored sucrose metabolism in the leaves subtending the cotton boll (SBL) and its role in boll weight after waterlogging in cotton. Results showed that net photosynthesis rate (Pn), relative water content, contents of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b, initial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) activity and cytosolic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (cy-FBPase) activity decreased with waterlogging in the SBL on fruiting branches 2-3 (FB2-3) and FB6-7. Activities of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) increased to the maximum up to 6 days of waterlogging then decreased with prolonged waterlogging. Rubisco activation and specific leaf weight increased and gene expressions of SuSy, SPS and rubisco activase (RCA) were all up-regulated with the duration of waterlogging, especially for the SBL on FB6-7. The induction of activity and gene expression of SuSy was most significant indicating its crucial role in sucrose metabolism after waterlogging. For the SBL in the later period of boll development on upper FB10-11 and FB14-15, the pattern seemed opposite to that of FB2-3 and FB6c7 as compensation effect in vegetative growth existed. Correlation analysis revealed that initial Rubisco activity and cy-FBPase activity were the main limitation to Pn reduction after waterlogging. Reduction in Pn, sucrose transformation rate and initial Rubisco activity directly decrease boll weight in waterlogged cotton. Besides the role in sucrose metabolism after waterlogging, SuSy also had a positive significant correlation with the duration of rapid-accumulation period for seed fiber weight (P<0.05). These findings elucidated mechanisms to waterlogging that affected seed fiber weight, which resulted from alteration in carbohydrates, enzymes and genes. PMID:24767118

Kuai, Jie; Liu, Zhaowei; Wang, Youhua; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhou, Zhiguo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M

2014-06-01

267

Simultaneous intake of beta-glucan and plant stanol esters affects lipid metabolism in slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects.  

PubMed

Intake of food products rich in water-soluble fiber beta-glucan and products enriched with plant stanol esters lower serum cholesterol. Combining 2 functional food ingredients into one food product may achieve additional reductions of serum cholesterol. Our objective was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous intake of beta-glucan plus plant stanol esters on lipid metabolism in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers. In a randomized, controlled, 3-period crossover study, 40 mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women received muesli in random order twice a day for 4 wk, which provided, in total, 5 g control fiber from wheat (control muesli), 5 g oat beta-glucan (beta-glucan muesli), or 5 g oat beta-glucan plus 1.5 g plant stanols (combination muesli). beta-Glucan muesli decreased serum LDL cholesterol by 5.0% compared with control muesli (P = 0.013). Combination muesli reduced LDL cholesterol by 9.6% compared with control muesli (P < 0.001), and by 4.4% compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.036). Serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ after the 3 treatments. Compared with control muesli, beta-glucan muesli increased bile acid synthesis (P = 0.043) and decreased cholesterol absorption (P = 0.011). Addition of plant stanols did not influence bile acid synthesis but decreased cholesterol absorption (P < 0.001) and raised cholesterol synthesis (P = 0.016) compared with control muesli, and the plant stanols decreased cholesterol absorption compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.004). The combination muesli decreased serum concentrations of sitostanol compared with control muesli (P = 0.010). Plasma concentrations of lipid-soluble antioxidants did not differ after the 3 treatments. beta-Glucan muesli effectively lowered serum LDL cholesterol concentrations. The addition of plant stanol esters to beta-glucan-enriched muesli further lowered serum LDL cholesterol, although effects were slightly less than predicted. PMID:17311944

Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

2007-03-01

268

In a hypergravity environment neonatal survival is adversely affected by alterations in dam tissue metabolism rather than reduced food intake.  

PubMed

Exposure of rat dams to hypergravity during pregnancy is associated with increased pup mortality, reduced food intake, and decreased rates of glucose oxidation and lipogenesis in mammary tissue. We hypothesized that increased pup mortality is due to changes in maternal metabolism and not to reduced food intake of dams. Effects of hypergravity on rate of glucose oxidation and lipogenesis in mammary, liver, and adipose tissue were measured in rat dams centrifuged at 2.0 G [hypergravity (HG)], kept at 1.0 G (control), or fed to match the intake of HG rats (pair fed) from gestation day 11 (G11) until G21 or postpartum day 3 (P3). Body weight, percent body fat, metabolizable energy, and nitrogen balance were significantly less in HG dams compared with controls (P<0.05); however, these factors were not different between HG and pair-fed dams. By P3, 100% of control and pair-fed pups survived, while only 49% of HG pups survived. At G21, rates of glucose oxidation and lipogenesis in mammary and adipose tissue were less in HG than in control and pair-fed dams (P<0.1 and P<0.05). In liver, at G21, the rate of lipogenesis was greater in HG than control and pair-fed dams (P<0.01); at P3, lipogenesis was greater in control than HG and pair-fed dams (P<0.05). Gene expression of ATP citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase increased in liver from pregnancy to lactation in control and pair-fed dams but not HG dams. Thus reduced food intake and body mass due to hypergravity exposure cannot explain the dramatic decrease in HG pup survival. PMID:17317876

Lintault, Laura M; Zakrzewska, Elzbieta I; Maple, Rhonda L; Baer, Lisa A; Casey, Theresa M; Ronca, April E; Wade, Charles E; Plaut, Karen

2007-06-01

269

Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans  

PubMed Central

Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial–venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12–23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension () (R2 ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

2014-01-01

270

Health of domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) following exposure to oil sands process-affected water.  

PubMed

Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of northern Alberta produces large volumes of process-affected water that contains substances toxic to wildlife. Recent monitoring has shown that tens of thousands of birds land on ponds containing this water annually, creating an urgent need to understand its effects on bird health. We emulated the repeated, short-term exposures that migrating water birds are thought to experience by exposing pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) to recycled oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As indicators of health, we measured a series of physiological (electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, hormones, and blood cells) and toxicological (metals and minerals) variables. Relative to controls, juvenile birds exposed to OSPW had higher potassium following the final exposure, and males had a higher thyroid hormone ratio (T3/T4). In adults, exposed birds had higher vanadium, and, following the final exposure, higher bicarbonate. Exposed females had higher bile acid, globulin, and molybdenum levels, and males, higher corticosterone. However, with the exception of the metals, none of these measures varied from available reference ranges for ducks, suggesting OSPW is not toxic to juvenile or adult birds after three and six weekly, 1 h exposures, but more studies are needed to know the generality of this result. PMID:25003652

Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

2014-08-01

271

[Experimental study of the effect of glucosamine hydrochloride on metabolic and repair processes in connective tissue structures].  

PubMed

The effects of glucosamine hydrochloride on the metabolic and repair processes were studied on a model of post-traumatic osteoarthrosis in the articular cartilage and on a model of post-traumatic keratitis in the cornea. The administration of glucosamine hydrochloride stimulated repair and favored inhibition of dystrophic post-traumatic processes in the connective-tissue structures. It is suggested that a probable mechanism of the drug action consists in stimulation of the synthesis of glucosaminoglycanes and collagen. PMID:12596539

Zupanets, I A; Bezdetko, N V; Dedukh, N V; Otrishko, I A

2002-01-01

272

Transient effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure on some metabolic and free radical processes in goldfish white muscle.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess effects of 96 h goldfish exposure to 1, 10 and 100 mg/L of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on metabolic indices and free radical process markers in white muscle of a commercial fish, the goldfish Carassius auratus L. Most oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes were not affected at 2,4-D fish treatment. 2,4-D fish exposure induced the elevated levels of total (by 46% and 40%) and reduced (by 77% and 73%) glutathione in muscles of goldfish of 10 mg/L 2,4-D and recovery (after 100 mg/L of 2,4-D exposure) groups, respectively. However, in muscles of 100 mg/L 2,4-D exposed goldfish these parameters were depleted (by 47% and 64%). None of investigated parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolisms changed in white muscles of 2,4-D exposed fish, with exception of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which was slightly (by 11-15%) elevated in muscles of goldfish exposed to 10-100 mg/L of 2,4-D, but also recovered. Thus, the short term exposure of goldfish to the selected concentrations of 2,4-D does not substantially affect their white muscle, suggesting the absence of any effect under the environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:23806294

Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

2013-09-01

273

Altered xylem-phloem transfer of amino acids affects metabolism and leads to increased seed yield and oil content in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Seed development and nitrogen (N) storage depend on delivery of amino acids to seed sinks. For efficient translocation to seeds, amino acids are loaded into the phloem in source leaves and along the long distance transport pathway through xylem-phloem transfer. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana AMINO ACID PERMEASE2 (AAP2) localizes to the phloem throughout the plant. AAP2 T-DNA insertion lines showed changes in source-sink translocation of amino acids and a decrease in the amount of seed total N and storage proteins, supporting AAP2 function in phloem loading and amino acid distribution to the embryo. Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. Moreover, branch and silique numbers per plant and seed yield were strongly increased. This suggests changes in N and C delivery to sinks and subsequent modulations of sink development and seed metabolism. This is supported by tracer experiments, expression studies of genes of N/C transport and metabolism in source and sink, and by phenotypic and metabolite analyses of aap2 plants. Thus, AAP2 is key for xylem to phloem transfer and sink N and C supply; moreover, modifications of N allocation can positively affect C assimilation and source-sink transport and benefit sink development and oil yield. PMID:21075769

Zhang, Lizhi; Tan, Qiumin; Lee, Raymond; Trethewy, Alexander; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Tegeder, Mechthild

2010-11-01

274

Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.  

PubMed

Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields. PMID:24665681

Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

2014-02-01

275

Processing Conditions Affecting Grain Size and Mechanical Properties in Nanocomposites Produced via Cold Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold spray is a coating technology based on aerodynamics and high-speed impact dynamics. In this process, spray particles (usually 1-50 ?m in diameter) are accelerated to a high velocity (typically 300-1200 m/s) by a high-speed gas (pre-heated air, nitrogen, or helium) flow that is generated through a convergent-divergent de Laval-type nozzle. A coating is formed through the intensive plastic deformation of particles impacting on a substrate at a temperature below the melting point of the spray material. In the present paper the main processing parameters affecting the microstructural and mechanical behavior of metal-metal cold spray deposits are described. The effect of process parameters on grain refinement and mechanical properties were analyzed for composite particles of Al-Al2O3, Ni-BN, Cu-Al2O3, and Co-SiC. The properties of the formed nanocomposites were compared with those of the parent materials sprayed under the same conditions. The process conditions, leading to a strong grain refinement with an acceptable level of the deposit mechanical properties such as porosity and adhesion strength, are discussed.

Cavaliere, P.; Perrone, A.; Silvello, A.

2014-10-01

276

Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies. PMID:24812437

Miyares, Rosa L; de Rezende, Vitor B; Farber, Steven A

2014-07-01

277

Prepartal plane of nutrition, regardless of dietary energy source, affects periparturient metabolism and dry matter intake in Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Previous research in our laboratory showed that dietary fat supplementation during the dry period was associated with decreased peripartum hepatic lipid accumulation. However, fat supplementation decreased dry matter (DM) intake and thereby confounded results. Consequently, 47 Holstein cows with body condition scores (BCS) < or = 3.5 at dry-off were used to determine whether source or amount of energy fed to dry cows was responsible for the decreased hepatic lipid content. Moderate grain- or fat-supplemented diets [1.50 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/kg] were fed from dry-off (60 d before expected parturition) to calving at either ad libitum (160% of NE(L) requirement) or restricted (80% of NE(L) requirement) intakes. Postpartum, cows were fed a single lactation diet for ad libitum intake and performance was measured for 105 d. Prepartum intakes of DM and NE(L) were significantly lower for feed-restricted cows as designed. During the first 21 d postpartum, previously restricted cows had higher intakes of DM and NE(L). Body weights and BCS were lower prepartum for restricted cows but groups converged to similar nadirs postpartum. Restricted-fed cows had lower concentrations of glucose and insulin and increased concentrations of NEFA in plasma during the dry period. Peripartum NEFA rose markedly for all treatments but were higher postpartum for cows previously fed ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA remained lower in cows restricted-during the dry period. Postpartum concentrations of total lipid and triglyceride in liver were lower in cows previously feed-restricted. Across dietary treatments, activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in hepatic mitochondria was lowest at - 21 d, highest at 1 d, and decreased at 21 and 65 d relative to parturition. The activity of CPT at d 1 tended to be higher for previously feed-restricted cows; thereafter, CPT activity declined more rapidly than in cows fed ad libitum. Nutrient intake during the dry period had more pronounced effects on peripartal lipid metabolism and DMI than did composition of the prepartum diet. PMID:16702281

Douglas, G N; Overton, T R; Bateman, H G; Dann, H M; Drackley, J K

2006-06-01

278

Weight loss on stimulant medication: how does it affect body composition and bone metabolism? - A prospective longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Objective Children treated with stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often lose weight. It is important to understand the implications of this during growth. This prospective study was designed to quantify the changes in body composition and markers of bone metabolism on starting treatment. Methods 34 children (29 boys) aged 4.7 to 9.1 years newly diagnosed with ADHD were treated with dexamphetamine or methylphenidate, titrating the dose to optimise the therapeutic response. Medication was continued for as long as clinically indicated. Body composition and bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, 6 months and 3 years; changes were analysed in Z-scores based on data from 241 healthy, local children. Markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline, 3 months and 3 years. Results Fat loss of 1.4±0.96kg (total fat 5.7±3.6 to 4.3±3.1kg, p<0.001) occurred in the first 6 months. There were significant reductions over 3 years in the sex and height corrected Z-scores for lean tissue, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and ratio of central to total fat (?0.84±0.86, p=0.003; -0.55±0.31, p<0.0001; -0.41±0.28, p<0.0001 and ?0.55±0.62, p=0.006 respectively). Propeptide of type I collagen indicated a significant reduction in bone turnover after 3 months (564±202 to 458±96ng/ml, p=0.019), which was fully recovered after 3 years (619±276ng/ml). Conclusions Stimulant medication was associated with early fat loss and reduced bone turnover. Lean tissue including bone increased more slowly over 3 years of continuous treatment than would be expected for growth in height. There was long-term improvement in the proportion of central fat for height. This study shows that relatively minor reductions in weight on stimulant medication can be associated with long-term changes in body composition. Further study is required to determine the effects of these changes on adult health. PMID:23216890

2012-01-01

279

Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below uranyl phosphate saturation there is evidence of uranyl-phosphate ternary complexes. These species may prove to be of substantial importance in reducing aqueous uranium concentrations when uranyl phosphate solubility is greater than water quality standards, as occurs in calcite-saturated fluids because of the formation of aqueous calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes. Uranyl-phosphate ternary surface complexes may also represent precursors required for the nucleation of uranyl phosphate minerals; similar processes may occur in the uranyl silicate system. Major knowledge gaps still exist in our understanding of how these processes occur in complex subsurface materials rather than controlled laboratory systems and the dominant chemical controls on specific adsorption and precipitation processes in contaminated soils and sediments. In addition, contaminated sediments in contact with aqueous uranium concentrations near water quality standards often have solid phase concentrations in ranges that make characterization of sorption mechanisms challenging. Novel combinations of analytical methods are needed to overcome this challenge to understanding the mineral-water interface processes that control uranium fate in the environment.

Catalano, J. G.

2011-12-01

280

Assessment of quality of life of the children and parents affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet: preliminary results of a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The development in therapeutic strategies has increased survival of children affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet (IEMRD). These diseases have mild- and long-term consequences on the health. Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their families. The aims of this study were: to compare the QoL of the children and parents affected by IEMRD with the QoL of the general population and one pathology associated with long-term consequences. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study was performed at the French Reference Center for inborn metabolic disorders (Marseille, France). Inclusion criteria were: a child with a diagnosis of organic aciduria, urea cycle defect, or maple syrups urine disease (MSUD). Socio-demographics, clinical data, and QoL were recorded. Results Twenty-one of 32 eligible families were included during a planned routine visit. Ten (47%, 95% CI 27-69%) children were affected by organic aciduria, six (29%, 95% CI 10-48%) by urea cycle defects, and five (24%, 95% CI 6-42%) by MSUD. Among the younger children, the general well-being was significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (58?±?16 versus 76?±?15, p = 0.012), and among the older children, the leisure activities were significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (29?±?18 versus 62?±?22, p < 10-3), while the relationships with teachers were better (76?±?23 versus 60?±?23, p = 0.01). The physical QoL score was lower in the parents than in the French norms (66?±?21 versus 75?±?1, p = 0.05). Factors modulating QoL were: eating and neurologic disorders, enteral nutrition, and feeding modalities. Conclusion The children and the parents of children affected presented altered ‘physical’ and ‘social’ QoL scores compared with the norms and patients with leukemia and their families. Future studies based on larger cohort studies should determine the different weights of potential predictive factors of QoL. PMID:24050652

2013-01-01

281

Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

2000-01-01

282

Plasma metabolites reflect seasonally changing metabolic processes in a long-distance migrant shorebird (Calidris canutus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Migrant birds have tightly scheduled annual cycles consisting of several distinct life cycle (sub-)stages such as reproduction, migration, moult and overwintering, each of which have specific metabolic requirements (e.g., fattening during migration, protein build-up during moult). This study examines changes in fat and protein metabolism during the annual cycle of body mass and moult over 1.5 years in a

Susanne Jenni-Eiermann; Lukas Jenni; Theunis Piersma

2006-01-01

283

Similar Local and Landscape Processes Affect Both a Common and a Rare Newt Species  

PubMed Central

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. PMID:23658765

Denoel, Mathieu; Perez, Amelie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

2013-01-01

284

Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.  

PubMed

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. PMID:23658765

Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

2013-01-01

285

Does age affect the stress and coping process? Implications of age differences in perceived control.  

PubMed

The perceived controllability of situations is thought to influence the types of coping strategies used, and thus is important in adaptive processes. Elderly individuals are widely perceived to have less control over their environment than other adults. This lack of perceived control should have adverse affects on how they cope with stressful situations. However, most studies have shown that older adults differ little from younger adults in their approaches to coping with stress. This contradiction was investigated in a sample of 228 community-residing adults with a mean age of 42.16 (SD = 14.88). Path analysis revealed that appraisals and attributions do affect the use of coping strategies such as instrumental action and escapism in the expected directions, and age is negatively associated with perceived control. However, there was an independent and negative relationship between age and the reported use of escapist coping strategies, which mitigated the adverse effects of perceived lack of control. Neither age nor perceived controllability had direct effects on depression, but they had indirect effects through their influence on the use of coping strategies and perceived efficacy. PMID:2071843

Aldwin, C M

1991-07-01

286

Auditory processing deficits in growth restricted fetuses affect later language development.  

PubMed

An increased risk for language deficits in infants born growth restricted has been reported in follow-up studies for more than 20 years, suggesting a relation between fetal auditory system development and later language learning. Work with animal models indicate that there are at least two ways in which growth restriction could affect the development of auditory perception in human fetuses: a delay in myelination or conduction and an increase in sensorineural threshold. Systematic study of auditory function in growth restricted human fetuses has not been reported. However, results of studies employing low-risk fetuses delivering as healthy full-term infants demonstrate that, by late gestation, the fetus can hear, sound properties modulate behavior, and sensory information is available from both inside (e.g., maternal vascular) and outside (e.g., noise, voices, music) of the maternal body. These data provide substantive evidence that the auditory system is functioning and that environmental sounds are available for shaping neural networks and laying the foundation for language acquisition before birth. We hypothesize that fetal growth restriction affects auditory system development, resulting in atypical auditory information processing in growth restricted fetuses compared to healthy, appropriately-grown-for-gestational-age fetuses. Speech perception that lays the foundation for later language competence will differ in growth restricted compared to normally grown fetuses and be associated with later language abilities. PMID:17010528

Kisilevsky, Barbara S; Davies, Gregory A L

2007-01-01

287

Neuronal correlates of three attentional strategies during affective picture processing: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study directly compared the neurocircuitry involved in three different attentional strategies during affective picture processing. We exposed 40 participants (20 men, 20 women) to images depicting dental treatment, as well as neutral scenes. They were asked to do one of three tasks while watching the same pictures: directing their attention toward a foreground object within the picture (distraction), classifying whether the image showed dental treatment, or deciding whether the scene elicited fear of pain (introspection). The participants performed the distraction and classification task with high accuracy and rated only 11 % of the dental treatment pictures as pain relevant. Introspection was associated with increased activation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), relative to the two other conditions. Since the dental, relative to the neutral, pictures elicited enhanced DMPFC activation across all conditions, this underlines the role of this brain region for the assignment, as well as self-reference, of affective meaning. Moreover, self-reported dental anxiety was positively correlated with activation of a pain modulatory network (DMPFC, basal ganglia) when the participants focused on the pain relevance of the dental treatment cues. For future studies, it seems promising to study a high-anxious group or even patients afflicted with dental phobia. PMID:24710652

Schienle, Anne; Wabnegger, Albert; Schoengassner, Florian; Scharmüller, Wilfried

2014-12-01

288

Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data.  

PubMed

This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water uptake pathways and processes such as assimilation and excretion, (ii) the possibility to extrapolate within element groups (a common requirement in many risk assessments when initial model parameters are scarce) and (iii) predictions of radionuclide uptake in the ecosystem after changes in ecosystem structure or environmental conditions. These features are important for the longterm (>1000 year) risk assessments that need to be considered for a deep nuclear waste repository. PMID:23768872

Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Kumblad, L; Kautsky, U

2014-07-01

289

Affect and therapeutic process in groups for chronically mentally ill persons.  

PubMed

A dynamic group treatment model for chronically ill persons allowing them to determine the frequency of attendance empowers the members and potentiates group development. This format respects patients' needs for space as represented by missed meetings. In this context, absences are formulated as self-protective and self-stabilizing acts rather than as resistance. In an accepting, supportive environment, members can be helped to explore affects and gain insight into their behaviors. A clinical example illustrates patients' examination of the meaning of missing and attending sessions, with particular focus on intensity of involvement, autonomy, and control. In the process of testing the therapist and group, members show capacity to gain insight into recent in-group and extra-group behaviors. PMID:9631342

Stone, W N

1998-01-01

290

Processing affective stimuli in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological investigations have suggested a contribution of right hemisphere dysfunction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Right hemisphere dysfunction has been implicated in deficits of attention, motor impersistence, and processing emotion-laden stimuli. The current study investigated the ability of ADHD children to perceive emotional stimuli in the form of facial expressions and speech intonation. The subjects consisted of 37 ADHD and 37 control children aged 7 to 12 years. ANCOVA analysis indicated that ADHD children demonstrate mild-to-moderate deficits in the perception of affect. Furthermore, deficits in attention may contribute to inaccurate or incomplete encoding of stimulus properties. The results lend tentative support for the notion that the right cerebral hemisphere may play a critical role in ADHD. PMID:16210210

Corbett, B; Glidden, H

2000-06-01

291

Improved curdlan fermentation process based on optimization of dissolved oxygen combined with pH control and metabolic characterization of Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749.  

PubMed

A significant problem in scale-down cultures, rarely studied for metabolic characterization and curdlan-producing Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749, is the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) gradients combined with pH control. Constant DO, between 5% and 75%, was maintained during batch fermentations by manipulating the agitation with PID system. Fermentation, metabolic and kinetic characterization studies were conducted in a scale-down system. The curdlan yield, intracellular nucleotide levels and glucose conversion efficiency into curdlan were significantly affected by DO concentrations. The optimum DO concentrations for curdlan production were 45-60%. The average curdlan yield, curdlan productivity and glucose conversion efficiency into curdlan were enhanced by 80%, 66% and 32%, respectively, compared to that at 15% DO. No apparent difference in the gel strength of the resulting curdlan was detected. The comparison of curdlan biosynthesis and cellular nucleotide levels showed that curdlan production had positive relationship with intracellular levels of UTP, ADP, AMP, NAD(+), NADH and UDP-glucose. The curdlan productivity under 45% DO and 60% DO was different during 20-50 h. However, after 60 h curdlan productivity of both conditions was similar. On that basis, a simple and reproducible two-stage DO control process for curdlan production was developed. Curdlan production yield reached 42.8 g/l, an increase of 30% compared to that of the single agitation speed control process. PMID:21739265

Zhang, Hong-Tao; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jian-Rong; English, Nike; Yu, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Chi-Chung

2012-01-01

292

Changes of pathological and physiological indicators affecting drug metabolism in rats after acute exposure to high altitude  

PubMed Central

High altitude environments cause the human body to undergo a series of pathological, physiological and biochemical changes, which have a certain effect on drug pharmacokinetics. The objective of the present study was to observe changes in factors affecting pharmacokinetics in rats following acute exposure to high altitude and return to low altitude. A total of 21 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. The rats in group A were maintained at low altitude in Shanghai, 55 m above sea level; those in group B were acutely exposed to high altitude in Maqu, Gansu, 4,010 m above sea level; and those in group C were acutely exposed to high altitude and then returned to low altitude. Blood was collected from the orbit for the analysis of significant biochemical indicators and from the abdominal aorta for blood gas analysis. Brain, lung and kidney tissues were removed to observe pathological changes. In group B, the pH, buffer base (BB), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide content (ctCO2), oxygen saturation of arterial blood (sO2), oxygen tension of arterial blood (pO2), serum sodium (Na+) concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and total protein (TP) level were significantly reduced, and the carbon dioxide tension of arterial blood (pCO2), serum chloride (Cl?) concentration, serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly increased compared with those in group A (P<0.05). In group C, the pH, BB, BE, sO2, pO2, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum Na+ concentration, LDH activity and TP level were significantly reduced, and the pCO2, serum Cl? concentration, alanine transaminase activity, TBIL and urea levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with those in group A. The Hb and ALP levels in group C were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05); and the TP, TBIL and urea levels in group C were significantly higher than those in group B (P<0.05). Pathological observation revealed that the alveolar wall was hyperemic, edematous and incrassate, the alveolar epithelium was hyperplastic and infiltrated with neutrophilic granulocytes and the alveolar septum was widened; brain neurons were edematous with enlarged perivascular spaces, and hippocampal neurons were metamorphic and karyopyknotic; and kidney mesangial cells were hyperplastic, both following acute exposure to high altitude and after returning to low altitude. In conclusion, blood gas indices, biochemical indicators and functions of the heart, liver, kidney were significantly changed, and marked pathological changes occurred in the brain, liver and kidney following acute exposure to high altitude and also after returning to low altitude. These changes are likely to seriously affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs.

LI, WENBIN; WANG, RONG; XIE, HUA; ZHANG, JUANHONG; JIA, ZHENGPING

2015-01-01

293

Shifts in macrophage phenotypes and macrophage competition for arginine metabolism affect the severity of muscle pathology in muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common, lethal, muscle-wasting disease of childhood. Previous investigations have shown that muscle macrophages may play an important role in promoting the pathology in the mdx mouse model of DMD. In the present study, we investigate the mechanism through which macrophages promote mdx dystrophy and assess whether the phenotype of the macrophages changes between the stage of peak muscle necrosis (4 weeks of age) and muscle regeneration (12 weeks). We find that 4-week-old mdx muscles contain a population of pro-inflammatory, classically activated M1 macrophages that lyse muscle in vitro by NO-mediated mechanisms. Genetic ablation of the iNOS gene in mdx mice also significantly reduces muscle membrane lysis in 4-week-old mdx mice in vivo. However, 4-week mdx muscles also contain a population of alternatively activated, M2a macrophages that express arginase. In vitro assays show that M2a macrophages reduce lysis of muscle cells by M1 macrophages through the competition of arginase in M2a cells with iNOS in M1 cells for their common, enzymatic substrate, arginine. During the transition from the acute peak of mdx pathology to the regenerative stage, expression of IL-4 and IL-10 increases, either of which can deactivate the M1 phenotype and promote activation of a CD163+, M2c phenotype that can increase tissue repair. Our findings further show that IL-10 stimulation of macrophages activates their ability to promote satellite cell proliferation. Deactivation of the M1 phenotype is also associated with a reduced expression of iNOS, IL-6, MCP-1 and IP-10. Thus, these results show that distinct subpopulations of macrophages can promote muscle injury or repair in muscular dystrophy, and that therapeutic interventions that affect the balance between M1 and M2 macrophage populations may influence the course of muscular dystrophy. PMID:18996917

Villalta, S. Armando; Nguyen, Hal X.; Deng, Bo; Gotoh, Tomomi; Tidball, James G.

2009-01-01

294

Non-linear processes affecting the deposition and accumulation of mud on continental margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition and accumulation of mud is affected by nonlinear processes associated with particle adhesion. Specifically, particle adhesion in suspension produces aggregate particles that increase the deposition rate of muds. Particle adhesion in the seabed reduces erosion rates and limits the sorting of fine particles, which enhances accumulation rate of muds. This talk brings together results from a decade of work on these processes, synthesizing how they affect the position of mud depo-centers on river-influenced continental margins. While in suspension, silts and clays collide and adhere in a process called "flocculation". The resulting aggregate particles, called "flocs", sink faster than their component grains and are the primary vector for delivery of clays, very fine silts and fine silts to the seabed. The rate of aggregation scales generally with the square of particle concentration, so deposition rates of the finest sediment particles are greater where concentrations are larger. This general trend is modulated by turbulence, which can break flocs when it is energetic. The ideal conditions for flocculation, therefore, are large sediment concentrations and weak turbulence, conditions which typically do not co-occur. Riverine sediment plumes entering quiet receiving basins and bottom boundary layers where turbulence has been damped by suspended sediment density stratification are two important environments where large concentrations and weak turbulence co-occur. Deposition of sediments rich in fines occurs when there is rapid delivery of riverine sediment to sections of the seabed where the stress is imparted primarily by waves rather than currents. The deposition of clays, very fine silts and fine silts to the seabed is important to accumulation of mud because the presence of these finest fractions decreases the erodibility and sorting of a sediment deposit. Once the clay content of a deposit exceeds 5-10%, the erosion rate at a given applied stress decreases, but more importantly, particles finer than 16 micrometers adhere to one another, making it challenging to winnow these fine sediments from the bed. In summary, clays, very fine silts and silts deposit due to flocculation. The presence of these sizes in sediment decreases the erodibility and sortability of that sediment, leading to the accumulation of mud. These non-linear processes must be considered when predicting eventual depo-centers of mud on continental margins.

Hill, P. S.

2012-12-01

295

Processes contributing to metabolic depression in hepatopancreas cells from the snail Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Cells isolated from the hepatopancreas of the land snail Helix aspersa strongly depress respiration both immediately in response to lowered P(O2) (oxygen conformation) and, in the longer term, during aestivation. These phenomena were analysed by dividing cellular respiration into non-mitochondrial and mitochondrial respiration using the mitochondrial poisons myxothiazol, antimycin and azide. Non-mitochondrial respiration accounted for a surprisingly large proportion, 65+/-5 %, of cellular respiration in control cells at 70 % air saturation. Non-mitochondrial respiration decreased substantially as oxygen tension was lowered, but mitochondrial respiration did not, and the oxygen-conforming behaviour of the cells was due entirely to the oxygen-dependence of non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Non-mitochondrial respiration was still responsible for 45+/-2 % of cellular respiration at physiological oxygen tension. Mitochondrial respiration was further subdivided into respiration used to drive ATP turnover and respiration used to drive futile proton cycling across the mitochondrial inner membrane using the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin. At physiological oxygen tensions, 34+/-5 % of cellular respiration was used to drive ATP turnover and 22+/-4 % was used to drive proton cycling, echoing the metabolic inefficiency previously observed in liver cells from mammals, reptiles and amphibians. The respiration rate of hepatopancreas cells from aestivating snails was only 37 % of the control value. This was caused by proportional decreases in non-mitochondrial and mitochondrial respiration and in respiration to drive ATP turnover and to drive proton cycling. Thus, the fraction of cellular respiration devoted to different processes remained constant and the cellular energy balance was preserved in the hypometabolic state. PMID:11060221

Bishop, T; Brand, M D

2000-12-01

296

Faces in Context: A Review and Systematization of Contextual Influences on Affective Face Processing  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant “basic emotion” approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research. PMID:23130011

Wieser, Matthias J.; Brosch, Tobias

2012-01-01

297

Early Affective Processing in Patients with Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Magnetoencephalographic Correlates  

PubMed Central

Background In chronic PTSD, a preattentive neural alarm system responds rapidly to emotional information, leading to increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation at early processing stages (<100 ms). Enhanced PFC responses are followed by a reduction in occipito-temporal activity during later processing stages. However, it remains unknown if this neuronal pattern is a result of a long lasting mental disorder or if it represents changes in brain function as direct consequences of severe trauma. Methodology The present study investigates early fear network activity in acutely traumatized patients with PTSD. It focuses on the question whether dysfunctions previously observed in chronic PTSD patients are already present shortly after trauma exposure. We recorded neuromagnetic activity towards emotional pictures in seven acutely traumatized PTSD patients between one and seven weeks after trauma exposure and compared brain responses to a balanced healthy control sample. Inverse modelling served for mapping sources of differential activation in the brain. Principal Findings Compared to the control group, acutely traumatized PTSD patients showed an enhanced PFC response to high-arousing pictures between 60 to 80 ms. This rapid prefrontal hypervigilance towards arousing pictorial stimuli was sustained during 120–300 ms, where it was accompanied by a reduced affective modulation of occipito-temporal neural processing. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the hypervigilance-avoidance pattern seen in chronic PTSD is not necessarily a product of an endured mental disorder, but arises as an almost immediate result of severe traumatisation. Thus, traumatic experiences can influence emotion processing strongly, leading to long-lasting changes in trauma network activation and expediting a chronic manifestation of maladaptive cognitive and behavioral symptoms. PMID:23977010

Wrenger, Marco; Kandil, Judith; Heuft, Gereon; Steinberg, Christian; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Junghofer, Markus

2013-01-01

298

An Integrative Process Approach on Judgment and Decision Making: The Impact of Arousal, Affect, Motivation, and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to integrate the findings from various research traditions on human judgment and decision making, focusing on four process variables: arousal, affect, motivation, and cognitive capacity/ability. We advocate a broad perspective referred to as the integrative process approach (IPA) of decision making, in which these process

Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

2011-01-01

299

Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W. O.; McFarlane, R. D.

1989-01-01

300

Callosal Compromise Differentially Affects Conflict Processing and Attentional Allocation in Alcoholism, HIV, and Their Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging was used to study the combined effects of HIV-infection and alcoholism (ALC) on corpus callosum (CC) integrity in relation to processes of attentional allocation and conflict resolution assessed by a novel Stroop Match-to-Sample task. We tested 16 ALC, 19 HIV, 20 subjects with combined disorder and 17 controls. In ALC, low fractional anisotropy and high mean diffusivity throughout the CC correlated with poor Stroop-match performance, i.e., when the cue-color matched the color of the Stroop stimulus. By contrast, in the two HIV groups DTI relations were restricted to the genu and poor Stroop-nonmatch performance, i.e., when the cue-color was in conflict with the Stroop stimulus color. These results suggest that disruption of callosal integrity in HIV-infection and alcoholism differentially affects regionally-selective interhemispheric-dependent attentional processing. We speculate that callosal degradation in these diseases curtails the opportunity for collaboration between the two hemispheres that contributes to normal performance in HIV or alcoholic patients with higher callosal integrity. PMID:19360136

Schulte, Tilman; Muller-Oehring, Eva M.; Javitz, Harold; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

2009-01-01

301

Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

302

Evolution of Tumor Metabolism might Reflect Carcinogenesis as a Reverse Evolution process (Dismantling of Multicellularity)  

PubMed Central

Carcinogenesis occurs through a series of steps from normal into benign and finally malignant phenotype. This cancer evolutionary trajectory has been accompanied by similar metabolic transformation from normal metabolism into Pasteur and/or Crabtree-Effects into Warburg-Effect and finally Cannibalism and/or Lactate-Symbiosis. Due to lactate production as an end-product of glycolysis, tumor colonies acquire new phenotypes that rely on lactate as energetic fuel. Presence of Warburg-Effect indicates that some tumor cells undergo partial (if not complete) de-endosymbiosis and so cancer cells have been become unicellular microorganism (anti-Dollo's Law) specially when they evolve to develop cannibalism as way of metabolism while oxidative types of cells that rely on lactate, as their energetic fuel, might represent extra-endosymbiosis. Thus, at the end, the cancer colony could be considered as integrated metabolic ecosystem. Proper understanding of tumor metabolism will contribute to discover potential anticancer agents besides conventional chemotherapy. PMID:24310356

Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Shayoub, Mohammed E.A.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Elhassan, Gamal O.; Bashir, Adil H.H.

2011-01-01

303

Evolution of Tumor Metabolism might Reflect Carcinogenesis as a Reverse Evolution process (Dismantling of Multicellularity).  

PubMed

Carcinogenesis occurs through a series of steps from normal into benign and finally malignant phenotype. This cancer evolutionary trajectory has been accompanied by similar metabolic transformation from normal metabolism into Pasteur and/or Crabtree-Effects into Warburg-Effect and finally Cannibalism and/or Lactate-Symbiosis. Due to lactate production as an end-product of glycolysis, tumor colonies acquire new phenotypes that rely on lactate as energetic fuel. Presence of Warburg-Effect indicates that some tumor cells undergo partial (if not complete) de-endosymbiosis and so cancer cells have been become unicellular microorganism (anti-Dollo's Law) specially when they evolve to develop cannibalism as way of metabolism while oxidative types of cells that rely on lactate, as their energetic fuel, might represent extra-endosymbiosis. Thus, at the end, the cancer colony could be considered as integrated metabolic ecosystem. Proper understanding of tumor metabolism will contribute to discover potential anticancer agents besides conventional chemotherapy. PMID:24310356

Alfarouk, Khalid O; Shayoub, Mohammed E A; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Elhassan, Gamal O; Bashir, Adil H H

2011-01-01

304

Compartmentalization and molecular traffic in secondary metabolism: a new understanding of established cellular processes  

PubMed Central

Great progress has been made in understanding the regulation of expression of genes involved in secondary metabolism. Less is known about the mechanisms that govern the spatial distribution of the enzymes, cofactors, and substrates that mediate catalysis of secondary metabolites within the cell. Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus synthesize an array of secondary metabolites and provide useful systems to analyze the mechanisms that mediate the temporal and spatial regulation of secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. For example, aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. parasiticus has been studied intensively because this mycotoxin is highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic in humans and animals. Using aflatoxin synthesis to illustrate key concepts, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which sub-cellular compartmentalization and intra-cellular molecular traffic contribute to the initiation and completion of secondary metabolism within the cell. We discuss the recent discovery of aflatoxisomes, specialized trafficking vesicles that participate in the compartmentalization of aflatoxin synthesis and export of the toxin to the cell exterior; this work provides a new and clearer understanding of how cells integrate secondary metabolism into basic cellular metabolism via the intracellular trafficking machinery. PMID:20519149

Roze, Ludmila V.; Chanda, Anindya; Linz, John E.

2010-01-01

305

Regulation of negative affect during mother-child problem-solving interactions: adolescent depressive status and family processes.  

PubMed

Despite recent suggestions that depression can be conceptualized as a disorder of affect regulation, relatively little research has focused on affect regulation skills in depressed individuals. This paper investigated whether depressed adolescents (N = 25) differ from nondepressed adolescents (N = 25) on two indices of affect regulation (i.e., duration of negative affective states and reciprocity of maternal negative affect) as well as whether these indices are related to microsocial family interactional processes. Analyses revealed that depressed teens differed from their nondepressed peers with regard to duration of negative affective states but not in their likelihood of reciprocating negative affect. Additionally, indices of adolescent affect regulation were related to family interactional processes. Duration of depressive affect was positively associated with maternal display of facilitative behavior contingent on adolescent depressive behavior. Duration of aggressive behavior was inversely related to maternal problem-solving responses to aggressive behavior. Finally, adolescent reciprocity of maternal depressive and aggressive behaviors was strongly associated with mothers' reciprocity of adolescents' negative affective behavior. PMID:11100920

Sheeber, L; Allen, N; Davis, B; Sorensen, E

2000-10-01

306

43 CFR 3602.12 - How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of the same public lands?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does the mineral materials sales process affect other users of...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

2011-10-01

307

Suppression of circulating free fatty acids with acipimox in chronic heart failure patients changes whole body metabolism but does not affect cardiac function.  

PubMed

Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) may worsen heart failure (HF) due to myocardial lipotoxicity and impaired energy generation. We studied cardiac and whole body effects of 28 days of suppression of circulating FFAs with acipimox in patients with chronic HF. In a randomized double-blind crossover design, 24 HF patients with ischemic heart disease [left ventricular ejection fraction: 26 ± 2%; New York Heart Association classes II (n = 13) and III (n = 5)] received 28 days of acipimox treatment (250 mg, 4 times/day) and placebo. Left ventricular ejection fraction, diastolic function, tissue-Doppler regional myocardial function, exercise capacity, noninvasive cardiac index, NH(2)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), and whole body metabolic parameters were measured. Eighteen patients were included for analysis. FFAs were reduced by 27% in the acipimox-treated group [acipimox vs. placebo (day 28-day 0): -0.10 ± 0.03 vs. +0.01 ± 0.03 mmol/l, P < 0.01]. Glucose and insulin levels did not change. Acipimox tended to increase glucose and decrease lipid utilization rates at the whole body level and significantly changed the effect of insulin on substrate utilization. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp M value did not differ. Global and regional myocardial function did not differ. Exercise capacity, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, and NT-pro-BNP were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, acipimox caused minor changes in whole body metabolism and decreased the FFA supply, but a long-term reduction in circulating FFAs with acipimox did not change systolic or diastolic cardiac function or exercise capacity in patients with HF. PMID:20709866

Halbirk, Mads; Nørrelund, Helene; Møller, Niels; Schmitz, Ole; Gøtzsche, Liv; Nielsen, Roni; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Nielsen, Torsten Toftegaard; Eiskjær, Hans; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Wiggers, Henrik

2010-10-01

308

Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Background In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. Methods In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response conflicts. Three groups of 8–11-year-old children – bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1) – were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Results Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. Conclusion The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life. PMID:25328840

Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

2014-01-01

309

Process-induced extracellular matrix alterations affect the mechanisms of soft tissue repair and regeneration  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrices derived from animal tissues for human tissue repairs are processed by various methods of physical, chemical, or enzymatic decellularization, viral inactivation, and terminal sterilization. The mechanisms of action in tissue repair vary among bioscaffolds and are suggested to be associated with process-induced extracellular matrix modifications. We compared three non-cross-linked, commercially available extracellular matrix scaffolds (Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix), and correlated extracellular matrix alterations to in vivo biological responses upon implantation in non-human primates. Structural evaluation showed significant differences in retaining native tissue extracellular matrix histology and ultrastructural features among bioscaffolds. Tissue processing may cause both the condensation of collagen fibers and fragmentation or separation of collagen bundles. Calorimetric analysis showed significant differences in the stability of bioscaffolds. The intrinsic denaturation temperature was measured to be 51°C, 38°C, and 44°C for Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, respectively, demonstrating more extracellular matrix modifications in the Veritas and XenMatrix scaffolds. Consequently, the susceptibility to collagenase degradation was increased in Veritas and XenMatrix when compared to their respective source tissues. Using a non-human primate model, three bioscaffolds were found to elicit different biological responses, have distinct mechanisms of action, and yield various outcomes of tissue repair. Strattice permitted cell repopulation and was remodeled over 6 months. Veritas was unstable at body temperature, resulting in rapid absorption with moderate inflammation. XenMatrix caused severe inflammation and sustained immune reactions. This study demonstrates that extracellular matrix alterations significantly affect biological responses in soft tissue repair and regeneration. The data offer useful insights into the rational design of extracellular matrix products and bioscaffolds of tissue engineering. PMID:24555005

Xu, Hui; Sandor, Maryellen; Lombardi, Jared

2013-01-01

310

Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of organic contaminants especially when the porous geological media have very low organic carbon contents.

Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

2012-04-01

311

Cholinesterase-Targeting microRNAs Identified in silico Affect Specific Biological Processes  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as important gene silencers affecting many target mRNAs. Here, we report the identification of 244 miRs that target the 3?-untranslated regions of different cholinesterase transcripts: 116 for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), 47 for the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) splice variant, and 81 for the normally rare splice variant AChE-R. Of these, 11 and 6 miRs target both AChE-S and AChE-R, and AChE-R and BChE transcripts, respectively. BChE and AChE-S showed no overlapping miRs, attesting to their distinct modes of miR regulation. Generally, miRs can suppress a number of targets; thereby controlling an entire battery of functions. To evaluate the importance of the cholinesterase-targeted miRs in other specific biological processes we searched for their other experimentally validated target transcripts and analyzed the gene ontology enriched biological processes these transcripts are involved in. Interestingly, a number of the resulting categories are also related to cholinesterases. They include, for BChE, response to glucocorticoid stimulus, and for AChE, response to wounding and two child terms of neuron development: regulation of axonogenesis and regulation of dendrite morphogenesis. Importantly, all of the AChE-targeting miRs found to be related to these selected processes were directed against the normally rare AChE-R splice variant, with three of them, including the neurogenesis regulator miR-132, also directed against AChE-S. Our findings point at the AChE-R splice variant as particularly susceptible to miR regulation, highlight those biological functions of cholinesterases that are likely to be subject to miR post-transcriptional control, demonstrate the selectivity of miRs in regulating specific biological processes, and open new venues for targeted interference with these specific processes. PMID:22007158

Hanin, Geula; Soreq, Hermona

2011-01-01

312

An intraindividual process approach to the relationship between extraversion and positive affect: Is acting extraverted as \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates whether rapid variation within a person in extraversion is associated with positive affect variation in that person. In Study 1, participants reported their extraversion and positive affect every 3 hr for 2 weeks. Each participant was happier when acting extraverted than when acting introverted. Study 2s diary methodology replicated the relationship for weekly variations in positive affect.

William Fleeson; Adriane B. Malanos; Noelle M. Achille

2002-01-01

313

Suspense, curiosity, and surprise: How discourse structure influences the affective and cognitive processing of a story  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural affect theory (Brewer and Lichtenstein, 1982) states that different affective responses can be evoked by manipulating the order in which a story's events are narrated. Suspense is evoked by postponing the story's outcome, curiosity is evoked by presenting the outcome before the preceding events, and surprise is evoked by an unexpected event. Apart from evoking different affective responses,

Hans Hoeken; Mario van Vliet

2000-01-01

314

Whey protein supplementation does not affect exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of different quantities of whey protein on exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults. Therefore, we examined the effects of consuming 0.8-MJ supplements with 0 (n = 126), 10 (n = 112), 20 (n = 44), or 30 (n = 45) g whey protein twice daily in conjunction with resistance (2 d/wk) and aerobic (1 d/wk) exercise training in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based 9-mo study in men (n = 117) and women (n = 210); (age: 48 ± 7.9 y; BMI: 30.0 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). Whey protein supplementation did not influence any of the following outcomes, some of which were affected by training. Among all participants, strength increased by 15 ± 12% (P < 0.001) and maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO(2)max) increased by 9 ± 15% (P < 0.001). Body weight was unchanged (0.1 ± 3.7 kg, P = 0.80), lean body mass increased by 1.9 ± 2.8% (0.95 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.001), and fat mass decreased by 2.6 ± 9.4% (-0.86 ± 3.1 kg, P = 0.001). Oral-glucose-tolerance testing showed that plasma glucose AUC was unchanged (-18.0 ± 170 mmol/L·??3 h, P = 0.16), insulin AUC decreased by 2.6 ± 32% (-7.5 ± 29 nmol/L·??3 h, P = 0.01), and HOMA-IR (0.2 ± 2.0, P = 0.81) and the insulin sensitivity index (0.3 ± 3.0, P = 0.63) were unchanged. Plasma concentrations of TG; total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; C-reactive protein; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; blood pressure; and waist circumference were unchanged. Whey protein supplementation did not affect exercise training-induced responses in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults who maintained body weight. PMID:22718030

Weinheimer, Eileen M; Conley, Travis B; Kobza, Vanessa M; Sands, Laura P; Lim, Eunjung; Janle, Elsa M; Campbell, Wayne W

2012-08-01

315

Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching in natural environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K.K.

2006-01-01

316

Laboratory study of the clogging process and factors affecting clogging in a tailings dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory simulation of clogging in the Lixi tailings dam (Shaanxi Province, China) is urgently required because clogging is an important factor affecting the dam stability. This work firstly presents the results of ferrous iron oxidation experiments using buffer solution. The results indicate that the ferrous iron oxidation follows first order kinetics, and the oxidation process is strongly dependent on pH, a higher pH resulting in a higher oxidation rate. Furthermore, when the pH exceeds 7.0, the oxidation rate constant increases significantly. Secondly, a column experiment was carried out under the conditions of the pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.5 and the natural oxygen supply. Ferrous iron oxidation and precipitation were found to reach equilibrium under these conditions. After 23 days, the column experiment was stopped when the clogging materials blocked the column outlet. The clogging materials were found to be a mixture of ferric hydroxide and its converted products, and these existed in amorphous form with a loose cluster microstructure according to the results of XRD and SEM.

Wu, Jun; Wu, Yanqing; Lu, Jian

2008-05-01

317

Prospective associations between forms and functions of aggression and social and affective processes during early childhood.  

PubMed

The central goal of this study was to examine the prospective associations between forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior with social (i.e., peer rejection) and affective (i.e., anger, emotion regulation skills) processes during early childhood (N = 96, mean age = 42.80 months, SD = 7.57). A cross-lagged path analysis revealed that proactive relational aggression was uniquely associated with decreases in peer rejection, whereas reactive relational aggression was associated with increases in peer rejection over time. Proactive relational aggression predicted decreases in anger, whereas reactive relational aggression tended to be associated with increases in anger. Proactive relational aggression uniquely predicted increases in emotion regulation skills, whereas reactive relational aggression tended to be associated with decreases in emotion regulation skills over time. Finally, anger was significantly associated with increases in several subtypes of aggressive behavior. In sum, the findings provide further support for the distinction between subtypes of aggressive behavior in young children. PMID:23422928

Ostrov, Jamie M; Murray-Close, Dianna; Godleski, Stephanie A; Hart, Emily J

2013-09-01

318

Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55±0.025V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41±0.01V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC. PMID:25103035

Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

2014-10-01

319

Evaluation of Geochemical Processes Affecting Uranium Sequestration and Longevity of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of effective remediation techniques for protecting existing drinking water supplies and for mitigating existing contamination problems requires evaluating both the contaminant sequestration processes and the secondary reactions affecting the long term stability of contaminant attenuation. Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) provide a means for passive remediation of dissolved groundwater contaminants and may be an effective strategy for remediation of uranium (U) groundwater contamination provided that long term stability of the sequestered U can be achieved for the geochemical conditions of the aquifer expected subsequent to remediation. Understanding the chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in U uptake and PRB performance are critical to evaluating the potential for release of sequestered U and for improved design of remediation devices. We are using synchrotron X-ray techniques to investigate U sequestration reaction mechanisms and biogeochemical processes in PRB materials recovered from a 9-year field demonstration of zero-valent iron (ZVI) and bone char apatite PRBs in a U contaminated aquifer near Fry Canyon, Utah. X-ray microprobe mapping of iron phases shows that extensive secondary precipitation of mackinawite, siderite and aragonite in the ZVI PRB has resulted from ZVI corrosion coupled with microbial sulfate reduction. Bulk U-EXAFS measurements and micron-scale U-oxidation state mapping indicates that U removal occurs largely by reduction and precipitation of a UO2-like U(IV) phase on the ZVI surfaces, and that the sequestered U is often buried by the secondary Fe precipitates. These findings are significant to the efficacy of ZVI PRBs for remediation of U and other contaminants in that the ongoing secondary phase precipitation cements grains and fills internal porosity resulting in the observed decreased PRB permeability and limits subsequent U removal, but likely limits oxidative remobilization of U. In the bone char apatite PRB, elevated levels of U uptake were observed at up to 20-times above the maximum for U(VI) sorption by surface complexation expected for this material. XAS measurements show that the sequestered U is predominantly in the +4 oxidation state, instead of +6, indicating a reduction process. Bulk U-EXAFS is consistent with the reduced U(IV) occurring as a sorbed species instead of forming biogenic urananite, and thus may be more likely to undergo re-oxidation and mobilization.

Fuller, C. C.; Webb, S.; Bargar, J.; Naftz, D. L.

2009-12-01

320

A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

Jurgonski, Adam; Juskiewicz, Jerzy; Zdunczyk, Zenon

2014-01-01

321

Family-Based Processes Associated with Adolescent Distress, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Families Affected by Maternal HIV  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…

Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2010-01-01

322

TMS to pars triangularis affects the semantic processing of sentences Sylvia Vitello, Joseph T. Devlin & Jennifer M. Rodd  

E-print Network

TMS to pars triangularis affects the semantic processing of sentences Sylvia Vitello, Joseph T presented 300ms post-sentence offset to allow TMS to target disambiguation processes occurring prior in sentence disambiguation, then TMS should selectively disrupt ambiguous probes, especially related

323

Altered emotional interference processing in affective and cognitive-control brain circuitry in major depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Major depression is characterized by a negativity bias: an enhanced responsiveness to, and memory for, affectively negative stimuli. However it is not yet clear whether this bias represents (1) impaired top-down cognitive control over affective responses, potentially linked to deficits in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex function; or (2) enhanced bottom-up responses to affectively- laden stimuli that dysregulate cognitive control mechanisms, potentially

Christina L. Fales; Deanna M. Barch; Melissa M. Rundle; Mark A. Mintun; Abraham Z. Snyder; Jose Mathews; Yvette I. Sheline

2008-01-01

324

Cortico-subcortical metabolic correlates of olfactory processing in healthy resting subjects.  

PubMed

A wide network of interconnected areas was previously found in neuroimaging studies involving normal as well as pathological subjects; however literature seems to suffer from a lack of investigation in glucose metabolism behaviour under olfactory condition. Thus, the present work describe for the first time a pure olfactory related brain response of metabolism by using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography in eleven resting subjects undergoing a neutral and a pure olfactory condition. By contrasting these experimental phases, it was possible to depict a re-organization pattern of default mode network structures in a relatively ecological environment. Moreover, by correlating such pattern with a battery of validated olfactory and neuropsychological tests, our work allowed in showing peculiar correlation data that could cluster the subjects sample in a certain range of normality. We believe the present study could integrate the current knowledge in olfactory research and could be a start-up for future contributions. PMID:24888510

Alessandrini, Marco; Micarelli, Alessandro; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Candidi, Matteo; Bruno, Ernesto; Di Pietro, Barbara; Schillaci, Orazio; Pagani, Marco

2014-01-01

325

Cortico-subcortical metabolic correlates of olfactory processing in healthy resting subjects  

PubMed Central

A wide network of interconnected areas was previously found in neuroimaging studies involving normal as well as pathological subjects; however literature seems to suffer from a lack of investigation in glucose metabolism behaviour under olfactory condition. Thus, the present work describe for the first time a pure olfactory related brain response of metabolism by using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography in eleven resting subjects undergoing a neutral and a pure olfactory condition. By contrasting these experimental phases, it was possible to depict a re-organization pattern of default mode network structures in a relatively ecological environment. Moreover, by correlating such pattern with a battery of validated olfactory and neuropsychological tests, our work allowed in showing peculiar correlation data that could cluster the subjects sample in a certain range of normality. We believe the present study could integrate the current knowledge in olfactory research and could be a start-up for future contributions. PMID:24888510

Alessandrini, Marco; Micarelli, Alessandro; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Candidi, Matteo; Bruno, Ernesto; Di Pietro, Barbara; Schillaci, Orazio; Pagani, Marco

2014-01-01

326

PlantL-ascorbic acid: chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are unable to synthesise L-ascorbic acid (L-AA, ascorbate, vitamin C), and are thus entirely dependent upon dietary sources to meet needs. In both plant and animal metabolism, the biological functions of L-ascorbic acid are centred around the antioxidant properties of this molecule. Considerable evidence has been accruing in the last two decades of the importance of L-AA in protecting

Mark W Davey; Marc Van Montagu; Maite Sanmartin; Angelos Kanellis; Nicholas Smirnoff; John J Strain; Derek Favell; John Fletcher

2000-01-01

327

Bioenergetic and metabolic processes for the survival of sulfur-deprived Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work addressed bioenergetic, metabolic and physiological responses ofthe green alga Dunaliella salina to sulfur (S)-deprivation. Photo-autotrophically grown cells were suspended in a medium in which thesulfates were replaced by chloride salts. Growth characteristics, pigmentcontent, rates of photosynthesis and respiration, as well as endogenoussubstrate (starch and protein) accumulation were monitored as a functionof time under S-deprivation. Lack of S from

Huimin Cao; Liping Zhang; Anastasios Melis

2001-01-01

328

Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine emotion self-regulation and coregulation in romantic couples using daily self-reports of positive and negative affect. We fit these data using a damped linear oscillator model specified as a latent differential equation to investigate affect dynamics at the individual level and coupled influences for the 2 partners in each couple.…

Steele, Joel S.; Ferrer, Emilio

2011-01-01

329

Emotional Processing in High-Functioning Autism--Physiological Reactivity and Affective Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined physiological response and affective report in 10 adult individuals with autism and 10 typically developing controls. An emotion induction paradigm using stimuli from the International Affective Picture System was applied. Blood pressure, heart and self-ratings of experienced valence (pleasure), arousal and dominance (control)…

Bolte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Poustka, Fritz

2008-01-01

330

Neural correlates of affective picture processing--a depth ERP study.  

PubMed

Using functional neuroimaging techniques (PET and fMRI), various cortical, limbic, and paralimbic structures have been identified in the last decade as neural substrates of human emotion. In this study we used a novel approach (intracerebral recordings of event-related potentials) to add to our knowledge of specific brain regions involved in affective picture processing. Ten intractable epileptic patients undergoing pre-surgical depth electrode recording viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures and intracerebral event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. A total of 752 cortical and subcortical sites were investigated. Significant differences in ERPs to unpleasant as compared to neutral or pleasant pictures were frequently and consistently observed in recordings from various brain areas--the mesial temporal cortex (the amygdala, the hippocampus, the temporal pole), the lateral temporal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex (ACC and the medial frontal gyrus), and the lateral prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, the mean latencies of responses to emotional stimuli were somewhat shorter in the frontal lobe structures (with evidently earlier activation within lateral prefrontal areas when compared to mesial prefrontal cortex) and longer in the temporal lobe regions. These differences, however, were not significant. Additional clearly positive findings were observed in some rarely investigated regions--in the posterior parietal cortex, the precuneus, and the insula. An approximately equivalent number of positive findings was revealed in the left and right hemisphere structures. These results are in agreement with a multisystem model of human emotion, distributed far beyond the typical limbic system and substantially comprising lateral aspects of both frontal lobes as well. PMID:19362152

Brázdil, Milan; Roman, Robert; Urbánek, Tomás; Chládek, Jan; Spok, Dalibor; Marecek, Radek; Mikl, Michal; Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Daniel, Pavel; Rektor, Ivan

2009-08-01

331

Genetic variation in CACNA1C affects neural processing in major depression.  

PubMed

Genetic studies found the A allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1006737 in the CACNA1C gene, which encodes for the alpha 1C subunit of the voltage-dependent, L-type calcium ion channel Cav1.2, to be overrepresented in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered prefrontal brain functioning and impaired semantic verbal fluency (SVF) are robust findings in these patients. A recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study found the A allele to be associated with poorer performance and increased left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation during SVF tasks in healthy subjects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of rs1006737 on neural processing during SVF in MDD. In response to semantic category cues, 40 patients with MDD and 40 matched controls overtly generated words while brain activity was measured with fMRI. As revealed by whole brain analyses, genotype significantly affected brain activity in patients. Compared to patients with GG genotype, patients with A allele demonstrated increased task-related activation in the left middle/inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral cerebellum. Patients with A allele also showed enhanced functional coupling between left middle/inferior and right superior/middle frontal gyri. No differential effects of genotype on SVF performance or brain activation were found between diagnostic groups. The current data provide further evidence for an impact of rs1006737 on the left IFG and demonstrate that genetic variation in CACNA1C modulates neural responses in patients with MDD. The observed functional alterations in prefrontal and cerebellar areas might represent a mechanism by which rs1006737 influences susceptibility to MDD. PMID:24612926

Backes, Heidelore; Dietsche, Bruno; Nagels, Arne; Konrad, Carsten; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel

2014-06-01

332

Characterization of oil sands process-affected waters by liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Recovery of bitumen from oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada, occurs by surface mining or in situ thermal recovery, and both methods produce toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). A new characterization strategy for surface mining OSPW (sm-OSPW) and in situ OSPW (is-OSPW) was achieved by combining liquid chromatography with orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). In electrospray positive and negative ionization modes (ESI(+)/ESI(-)), mass spectral data were acquired with high resolving power (RP > 100,000-190,000) and mass accuracy (<2 ppm). The additional chromatographic resolution allowed for separation of various isomers and interference-free MS(n) experiments. Overall, ?3000 elemental compositions were revealed in each OSPW sample, corresponding to a range of heteroatom-containing homologue classes: Ox (where x = 1-6), NOx (where x = 1-4), SOx (where x = 1-4), NO?S, N, and S. Despite similarities between the OSPW samples at the level of heteroatom class, the two samples were very different when considering isomer patterns and double-bond equivalent profiles. The chromatographic separations also allowed for confirmation that, in both OSPW samples, the O? species detected in ESI(-) (i.e., naphthenic acids) were chemically distinct from the corresponding O? species detected in ESI(+). In comparison to model compounds, tandem MS spectra of these new O? species suggested a group of non-acidic compounds with dihydroxy, diketo, or ketohydroxy functionality. In light of the known endocrine-disrupting potential of sm-OSPW, the toxicity of these O? species deserves attention and the method should be further applied to environmental forensic analysis of water in the region. PMID:23607765

Pereira, Alberto S; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Martin, Jonathan W

2013-05-21

333

Management type affects composition and facilitative processes in altoandine dry grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed our study in the Dry Puna of the southern Peruvian Andes. Through a comparative approach we aimed to assess the effects of the two management systems, low grazing pressure by wild camelids vs. high grazing pressure by domestic livestock and periodic burning. Our general hypothesis was that the traditional high disturbance regime affects the dry Puna species diversity and composition through modifications of the magnitude of plant-plant-interactions and changes of the community structure due to shifts in species dominance. In 40 plots of 10 × 10 m, the cover value of each species was recorded and the species richness, floristic diversity, and community similarity of each treatment were compared. For each disturbance regime, differences of soil features (organic matter, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and potassium content) were tested. To evaluate plant-plant interactions, 4 linear transect divided into 500 plots of 10 × 10 cm were laid out and co-occurrence analysis was performed. We found that different disturbance regimes were associated with differences in the floristic composition, and that the high disturbance condition had lower species diversity and evenness. A decrease of tall species such as Festuca orthophylla and increase of dwarf and spiny Tetraglochin cristatum shrubs was observed as well. In addition, different disturbance intensities caused differences in the functional composition of the plant communities, since species with avoidance strategies are selected by high grazing pressure. High disturbance intensity was also associated to differences of soil features and to different clumped spatial structure of the dry Puna. Our results indicate also that: positive interactions are often species-specific mainly depending on the features of nurse and beneficiary species; the importance of positive interaction is higher at low grazing pressure than at high disturbance intensity; the magnitude and direction of the herbivory-mediated facilitation processes may be traced back to the grazing pressure of wild camelids.

Catorci, Andrea; Cesaretti, Sabrina; Velasquez, Jose Luis; Burrascano, Sabina; Zeballos, Horacio

2013-10-01

334

Geochemical and environmental processes affecting radionuclide migration from a formerly used seepage trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disposal of liquid waste, containing about 0.3 million curies (10 7 GBq) of fission nuclides, activation products, actinides and transuranics, in a shallow land seepage trench from 1962 to 1966, provided a field opportunity for investigating the chemical, geological, and hydrological processes which affect contaminant migration in soils and weathered bedrock. Gamma-log profiles of wells near the trench indicate that the waste liquids seeped along discrete layers parallel to bedding and along the strikes of faults and folds. Most of the radioactivity measured in the groundwaters consisted of 3H, 99Tc, 60Co, and 233U. The mobility of 99Tc, 60Co, and 233U has been attributed to low molecular weight anionic complexing. Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the groundwaters were extremely low because of the chemical treatments and precautions taken to establish and maintain an alkaline environment near the trench, which allows for 90Sr sorption and precipitation, and because of the strong tendency for 137Cs to be selectively sorbed by illite. Plutonium isotopic ratios indicate that much of the plutonium contamination near the trench results from the migration of 242Cm and 244Cm and their subsequent decay to 238Pu and 240Pu. Radionuclide concentrations in the groundwaters near the north end of the trench undergo seasonal variations, with the highest activities occurring in the spring and after prolonged rainfall. This suggests that contamination may be leached from the trench or from the relict waste migration layers when the groundwater level rises to saturate these zones or when precipitation infiltrates into the trench or along these relict migration layers during drainage. Suspected transport pathways from the trench to a nearby seep area appear to be associated with fault zones and limbs of a plunging limestone fold.

Olsen, C. R.; Lowry, P. D.; Lee, S. Y.; Larsen, I. L.; Cutshall, N. H.

1986-04-01

335

Task Difficulty Differentially Affects Two Measures of Processing Load: The Pupil Response during Sentence Processing and Delayed Cued Recall of the Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the influence of masking level (29% or 71% sentence perception) and test modality on the processing load during language perception as reflected by the pupil response. In addition, the authors administered a delayed cued stimulus recall test to examine whether processing load affected the encoding of…

Zekveld, Adriana A.; Festen, Joost M.; Kramer, Kramera

2013-01-01

336

How baryonic processes affect strong lensing properties of simulated galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed abundance of giant arcs produced by galaxy cluster lenses and the measured Einstein radii have presented a source of tension for ? cold dark matter (?CDM), particularly at low redshifts (z ˜ 0.2). Previous cosmological tests for high-redshift clusters (z > 0.5) have suffered from small number statistics in the simulated sample and the implementation of baryonic physics is likely to affect the outcome. We analyse zoomed-in simulations of a fairly large sample of cluster-sized objects, with Mvir > 3 × 1014 h-1 M?, identified at z = 0.25 and 0.5, for a concordance ?CDM cosmology. These simulations have been carried out by incrementally increasing the physics considered. We start with dark-matter-only simulations and then add gas hydrodynamics, with different treatments of baryonic processes: non-radiative cooling, radiative cooling with star formation and galactic winds powered by supernova explosions, and finally including the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. Our analysis of strong lensing properties is based on the computation of the cross-section for the formation of giant arcs and of the Einstein radii. We find that the addition of gas in non-radiative simulations does not change the strong lensing predictions significantly, but gas cooling and star formation together significantly increase the number of expected giant arcs and the Einstein radii, particularly for lower redshift clusters and lower source redshifts. Further inclusion of AGN feedback reduces the predicted strong lensing efficiencies such that the lensing probability distributions become closer to those obtained for simulations including only dark matter. Our results indicate that the inclusion of baryonic physics in simulations will not solve the arc-statistics problem at low redshifts, when the physical processes included provide a realistic description of cooling in the central regions of galaxy clusters. As outcomes of our analysis, we encourage the adoption of Einstein radii as a robust measure of strong lensing efficiency, and provide the ?CDM predictions to be used for future comparisons with high-redshift cluster samples.

Killedar, M.; Borgani, S.; Meneghetti, M.; Dolag, K.; Fabjan, D.; Tornatore, L.

2012-11-01

337

Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1-165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224-434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (?(34)SSO4 and ?(18)OSO4) verified that the SO4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (?(15)NNO3 and ?(18)ONO3) indicated that NO3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of ?(34)SSO4 and ?(15)NNO3. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different lithologies and land-use patterns. PMID:24727045

Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

2014-07-01

338

Digestion rate of dietary starch affects the systemic circulation of lipid profiles and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in weaned pigs.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of digestion rate of dietary starch on postprandial systemic circulating glucose, insulin and lipid profiles, and the activity and gene expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in weaned pigs. A total of twenty-four weaned pigs, surgically fitted with a catheter in the jugular vein, were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups, representing the high digestion rate starch (HDRS) group, the moderate-digestion rate starch (MDRS) group and the low-digestion rate starch (LDRS) group. The amylopectin:amylose ratios in the diets of each group were 27·6:1, 27·6:8·5 and 1:27·6, respectively. The serum concentrations of glucose, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in the HDRS group were increased to the peak point at postprandial 1·5, 2·5, 2·5, 1·5 and 1·5 h, those in the MDRS group were at postprandial 2·5, 3·5, 3·5, 3·5 and 3·5 h and those in the LDRS group were at postprandial 2·5, 3·5, 3·5, 1·5 and 3·5 h, respectively. The serum concentration of insulin in the HDRS group was higher (P < 0·05) than those in the MDRS group, and those in the MDRS group was also higher (P < 0·05) than those in the LDRS group at postprandial 0·5, 1·5 and 2·5 h, respectively. The serum concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than those in the MDRS group, and those in the MDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than in the LDRS group in each feeding cycle, in turn, respectively. The activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the liver and abdominal adipose tissues, that of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the myocardium and interscapular brown adipose tissues and that of the ATP-citrate lyase (ATP-CL) in the liver and interscapular brown adipose tissues in pigs of the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than that of the MDRS group. The mRNA levels of FAS in the myocardium, liver and interscapular brown adipose tissues of pigs in the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than those of the MDRS group. The activities and mRNA levels of FAS, ACC and ATP-CL in the myocardium, liver, abdominal and interscapular brown adipose tissues of the HDRS group were higher than those of the LDRS group. We conclude that the digestion rate of dietary starch affected not only the postprandial systemic circulating levels of glucose and insulin but also the lipid metabolism in weaned pigs. Dietary starch with higher digestion rate produces higher blood glucose and insulin response, ameliorates the blood lipid profiles and up-regulates the activity and gene expression profile of lipid metabolism-related genes in weaned pigs. PMID:21342605

Yin, Fugui; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Xie, Mingyong; Huang, Ju; Huang, Ruilin; Li, Tiejun

2011-08-01

339

Processing conditions affect nutrient digestibility of cold-pressed canola cake for grower pigs.  

PubMed

Cold-pressed canola cake is a coproduct of biodiesel production that contains more residual oil than expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted canola meal. Cold-pressed canola cake might be an attractive feedstuff for swine due to local availability from small plants. However, the nutritional quality and content of anti-nutritional factors of cold-pressed canola cake are poorly defined and vary with processing conditions. This experiment evaluated cold-pressed canola cake processed using 4 different conditions: a nonheated and heated barrel at slow and fast screw speed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Seven ileally cannulated barrows (26 kg of BW) were fed twice daily at 2.8 × maintenance diets containing either 44% of 1 of the 4 cold-pressed canola cake samples, expeller-pressed canola meal, canola seed, or an N-free diet in a 7 × 7 Latin square. The objectives were to measure the energy and AA digestibility and to calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content. Each 9-d experimental period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation, followed by 2-d feces and 2-d ileal digesta collections, and 7 observations per diet were obtained. Cold-pressed canola cake contained 41% CP, 16% ether extract, and 5 µmol of total glucosinolates/g (DM basis). Both apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract energy digestibility of energy in cold-pressed canola cake was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in heated vs. nonheated conditions and 8% greater (P < 0.05) in fast vs. slow screw speed without interaction, indicating that heat enhanced energy digestibility. The AID of energy of cold-pressed canola cake was 13 and 118% greater (P < 0.01) than expeller-pressed canola meal and canola seed, respectively. Heat and speed interacted (P < 0.05) for SID of AA of test ingredients, but effects were not consistent among AA. The DE and calculated NE content of cold-pressed canola cake was 0.73 and 0.52 Mcal/kg greater (P=0.001; DM basis), respectively, than expeller-pressed canola meal and did not differ from canola seed. Cold-pressed canola cake averaged 4.17 Mcal of DE/kg, 2.84 Mcal of NE/kg, 0.87% SID Lys, 0.46% SID Met, and 0.79% SID Thr (DM basis). In conclusion, processing conditions greatly affected the digestible nutrient content of cold-pressed canola cake. Content of residual ether extract was an important determinant of the energy value of cold-press canola cake, whereas residual glucosinolates did not seem to hamper nutrient digestibility. PMID:21421830

Seneviratne, R W; Beltranena, E; Newkirk, R W; Goonewardene, L A; Zijlstra, R T

2011-08-01

340

Cortical Metabolic Arrangement During Olfactory Processing: Proposal for a 18F FDG PET/CT Methodological Approach.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to investigate the cortical metabolic arrangements in olfactory processing by using F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography.Twenty-six normosmic individuals (14 women and 12 men; mean age 46.7?±?10 years) were exposed to a neutral olfactory condition (NC) and, after 1 month, to a pure olfactory condition (OC) in a relatively ecological environment, that is, outside the scanner. All the subjects were injected with 185-210 megabecquerel of F FDG during both stimulations. Statistical parametric mapping version 2 was used in order to assess differences between NC and OC.As a result, we found a significant higher glucose consumption during OC in the cuneus, lingual, and parahippocampal gyri, mainly in the left hemisphere. During NC, our results show a relative higher glucose metabolism in the left superior, inferior, middle, medial frontal, and orbital gyri as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex.The present investigation, performed with a widely available functional imaging clinical tool, may help to better understand the neural responses associated to olfactory processing in healthy individuals and in patients with olfactory disorders by acquiring data in an ecologic, noise-free, and resting condition in which possible cerebral activations related to unwanted attentional processes might be avoided. PMID:25340494

Micarelli, Alessandro; Pagani, Marco; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Bruno, Ernesto; Pavone, Isabella; Candidi, Matteo; Danieli, Roberta; Schillaci, Orazio; Alessandrini, Marco

2014-10-01

341

Assessing Factors Affecting Implementation of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The capability of organizations to operate on the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework is reliant on ITIL process measurements. Appropriate ITIL process measurements help ensure desired outcomes, enable corrective actions to take place prior to process failure, and direct process activities towards continuous improvement.…

Peterson, Kristy

2010-01-01

342

Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the rock around underground openings will draw water towards buried waste packages if they are encased in backfill. Analogue work in support of the U.S. repository program continues in the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

Stuckless, J. S.

2003-04-01

343

Lung vitamin E transport processes are affected by both age and environmental oxidants in mice  

SciTech Connect

Despite the physiological importance of alpha-tocopherol (AT), the molecular mechanisms involved in maintaining cellular and tissue tocopherol levels remain to be fully characterized. Scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1), one of a large family of scavenger receptors, has been shown to facilitate AT transfer from HDL to peripheral tissues via apo A-1-mediated processes and to be important in the delivery of AT to the lung cells. In the present studies the effects of age and two environmental oxidants ozone (O{sub 3}) (0.25 ppm 6 h/day) and cigarette smoke (CS) (60 mg/m{sup 3} 6 h/day) for 4 days on selected aspects of AT transport in murine lung tissues were assessed. While AT levels were 25% higher (p < 0.05) and 15% lower (p < 0.05) in plasma and lung tissue, respectively, in aged versus young mice, acute environmental exposure to O{sub 3} or CS at the doses used had no effect. Gene expression levels, determined by RT-PCR of AT transport protein (ATTP), SRB1, CD36, ATP binding cassette 3 (ABCA3) and ABCA1 and protein levels, determined by Western blots for SRB1, ATTP and ABCA1 were assessed. Aged mouse lung showed a lower levels of ATTP, ABCA3 and SRB1 and a higher level CD36 and ABCA1. Acute exposure to either O{sub 3} or CS induced declines in ATTP and SRB1 in both aged and young mice lung. CD36 increased in both young and aged mice lung upon exposure to O{sub 3} and CS. These findings suggest that both age and environmental oxidant exposure affect pathways related to lung AT homeostasis and do so in a way that favors declines in lung AT. However, given the approach taken, the effects cannot be traced to changes in these pathways or AT content in any specific lung associated cell type and thus highlight the need for further follow-up studies looking at specific lung associated cell types.

Valacchi, Giuseppe [Center for Comparative Respiratory Biology and Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States) and Department of Physiology, University of Siena, Siena via Aldo Moro, 53100 (Italy)]. E-mail: gvalacchi@ucdavis.edu; Vasu, Vihas T. [Center for Comparative Respiratory Biology and Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Yokohama, Wallace [Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Corbacho, Ana M. [Center for Comparative Respiratory Biology and Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Phung, Anh [Center for Comparative Respiratory Biology and Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lim, Yunsook [Center for Comparative Respiratory Biology and Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Aung, Hnin Hnin [Center for Comparative Respiratory Biology and Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Cross, Carroll E. [Center for Comparative Respiratory Biology and Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Davis, Paul A. [Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2007-07-15

344

Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow  

SciTech Connect

Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and/or injected fluids is critical to predict important chemical behaviors affecting fluid flow, such as mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. We successfully achieved the project goal and objectives by demonstrating the ability of our modeling technology to correctly predict the complex pH dependent solution chemistry of the Al3+ cation and its hydrolysis species: Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)30, and Al(OH)4- as well as the solubility of common aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate minerals in aqueous brines containing components (Na, K, Cl) commonly dominating hydrothermal fluids. In the sodium chloride system, where experimental data for model parameterization are most plentiful, the model extends to 300°C. Determining the stability fields of aluminum species that control the solubility of aluminum-containing minerals as a function of temperature and composition has been a major objective of research in hydrothermal chemistry.

Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

2008-05-29

345

Network reconstruction of platelet metabolism identifies metabolic signature for aspirin resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has not been a systematic, objective assessment of the metabolic capabilities of the human platelet. A manually curated, functionally tested, and validated biochemical reaction network of platelet metabolism, iAT-PLT-636, was reconstructed using 33 proteomic datasets and 354 literature references. The network contains enzymes mapping to 403 diseases and 231 FDA approved drugs, alluding to an expansive scope of biochemical transformations that may affect or be affected by disease processes in multiple organ systems. The effect of aspirin (ASA) resistance on platelet metabolism was evaluated using constraint-based modeling, which revealed a redirection of glycolytic, fatty acid, and nucleotide metabolism reaction fluxes in order to accommodate eicosanoid synthesis and reactive oxygen species stress. These results were confirmed with independent proteomic data. The construction and availability of iAT-PLT-636 should stimulate further data-driven, systems analysis of platelet metabolism towards the understanding of pathophysiological conditions including, but not strictly limited to, coagulopathies.

Thomas, Alex; Rahmanian, Sorena; Bordbar, Aarash; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.; Jamshidi, Neema

2014-01-01

346

Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. I. Chronic exposure to hypoxia affects the oxygen transport system and carbohydrate metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Freshwater planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia show a remarkable plasticity to cope with environmental changes in oxygen concentration and temperature. One of the key proteins of adaptive gene control in Daphnia pulex under hypoxia is hemoglobin (Hb), which increases in hemolymph concentration by an order of magnitude and shows an enhanced oxygen affinity due to changes in subunit composition. To explore the full spectrum of adaptive protein expression in response to low-oxygen conditions, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteome composition of animals acclimated to normoxia (oxygen partial pressure [Po2]: 20 kPa) and hypoxia (Po2: 3 kPa), respectively. Results The comparative proteome analysis showed an up-regulation of more than 50 protein spots under hypoxia. Identification of a major share of these spots revealed acclimatory changes for Hb, glycolytic enzymes (enolase), and enzymes involved in the degradation of storage and structural carbohydrates (e.g. cellubiohydrolase). Proteolytic enzymes remained constitutively expressed on a high level. Conclusion Acclimatory adjustments of the D. pulex proteome to hypoxia included a strong induction of Hb and carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. The scenario of adaptive protein expression under environmental hypoxia can be interpreted as a process to improve oxygen transport and carbohydrate provision for the maintenance of ATP production, even during short episodes of tissue hypoxia requiring support from anaerobic metabolism. PMID:19383146

Zeis, Bettina; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Paul, Rudiger J; Nunes, Frank; Schwerin, Susanne; Koch, Marita; Schutz, Wolfgang; Madlung, Johannes; Fladerer, Claudia; Pirow, Ralph

2009-01-01

347

Changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns through a wastewater reuse process, including WWTP and SAT concerning depth.  

PubMed

In this study, changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns by BIOLOG assay were discussed through a sequential wastewater reuse process, which includes activated sludge and treated effluent in wastewater treatment plant and soil aquifer treatment (SAT), especially focussing on the surface sand layer in conjunction with the vadose zone, concerning sand depth. A SAT pilot-scale reactor, in which the height of packed sand was 237 cm (vadose zone: 17 cm and saturated zone 220 cm), was operated and fed continuously by discharged anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) treated water. Continuous water quality measurements over a period of 10 months indicated that the treatment performance of the reactor, such as 83.2% dissolved organic carbon removal, appeared to be stable. Core sampling was conducted for the surface sand to a 30 cm depth, and the sample was divided into six 5 cm sections. Microbial activities, as evaluated by fluorescein diacetate, sharply decreased with increasing distance from the surface of the 30 cm core sample, which included significant decreases only 5 cm from the top surface. A similar microbial metabolic pattern containing a high degree of carbohydrates was obtained among the activated sludge, A2O treated water (influent to the SAT reactor) and the 0-5 cm layer of sand. Meanwhile, the 10-30 cm sand core layers showed dramatically different metabolic patterns containing a high degree of carboxylic acid and esters, and it is possible that the metabolic pattern exhibited by the 5-10 cm layer is at a midpoint of the changing pattern. This suggests that the removal of different organic compounds by biodegradation would be expected to occur in the activated sludge and in the SAT sand layers immediately below 5 cm from the top surface. It is possible that changes in the composition of the organic matter and/or transit of the limiting factor for microbial activities from carbon to phosphorus might have contributed to the observed dramatic changes in SAT metabolic patterns. PMID:24835957

Takabe, Yugo; Kameda, Ippei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Fumitake; Itoh, Sadahiko

2014-09-01

348

Quality of mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype, minimal processing and edible coating  

E-print Network

Minimally processed vegetables provide convenience, fresh characteristics and human health benefits. Some fresh carrots are minimally processed by abrasive peelers and washed to remove cellular fluids to produce carrot sticks, mini peeled carrots...

Dewi, Tjin Tjin

2012-06-07

349

Family-Based Processes Associated with Adolescent Distress, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Families Affected by Maternal HIV  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother–adolescent (ages 12–21) dyads (N=264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth aggressive conflict style, maternal bonding, maternal role reversal expectations, and overall family functioning. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that youth aggressive conflict resolution style was strongly associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. In HIV-affected families, youth less frequently reported using an aggressive conflict resolution style and more frequently reported positive maternal bonds; their mothers reported less positive family functioning than control families. Finally, maternal distress indirectly affected adolescent distress and risk behavior via youth aggressive conflict resolution style. PMID:20419574

Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2014-01-01

350

The Eagle and the Circle of Gold Stars: Does the Bologna Process Affect US Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…

Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen

2009-01-01

351

Study of major factors to affect photoresist profile on developable bottom anti-reflective coating process  

Microsoft Academic Search

As critical dimensions continue to shrink in lithography, new materials will be needed to meet the new demands imposed by this shrinkage. Recently, there are needs for novel materials with various substrates and immersing process, including double patterning process, a high resolution implant process, and so on. Among such materials, Developable Bottom Anti-reflective Coating material (DBARC) is a good candidate

Hyo Jung Roh; Dong Kyu Ju; Hyun Jin Kim; Jaehyun Kim

2011-01-01

352

Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…

Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.

2012-01-01

353

Selecting process quality indicators for the integrated care of vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating face and content validity, feasibility and reliability of process quality indicators developed previously in the United States or other countries. The indicators can be used to evaluate care and services for vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia within an integrated service system in Quebec, Canada. METHODS: A total of 33 clinical

Edeltraut Kröger; André Tourigny; Diane Morin; Lise Côté; Marie-Jeanne Kergoat; Paule Lebel; Line Robichaud; Shirley Imbeault; Solange Proulx; Zohra Benounissa

2007-01-01

354

Lessons learned from the decommissioning process affected by an accident during operation. The case of A1 NPP in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decommissioning of NPP's with standard shutdown is currently well known process. The A1 NPP in Slovakia was shutdown in 1977 after the accident in the core which caused the damage of the fuel and contamination of systems. Long period from 1977 to 2008 was needed to manage issues resulting from affecting the systems and structures of A1 NPP and the

Vladimir Daniska; Jan Timulak; Anton Pekar; Vojtech Niznansky; Ladislav Konecny

2007-01-01

355

Affective and Deliberative Processes in Risky Choice: Age Differences in Risk Taking in the Columbia Card Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated risk taking and underlying information use in 13- to 16- and 17- to 19-year-old adolescents and in adults in 4 experiments, using a novel dynamic risk-taking task, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). The authors investigated risk taking under differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes with 2 versions of…

Figner, Bernd; Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Wilkening, Friedrich; Weber, Elke U.

2009-01-01

356

Conceptualizing Personality as a Cognitive-Affective Processing System: A Framework for Models of Maladaptive Behavior Patterns and Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines a conceptualization of personality as a cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) and explores its implications for understanding disorders and pursuing therapeutic change. The CAPS conception of personality was proposed in 1995 in order to resolve a long-standing paradox in personality and social psychology, namely, the…

Shoda, Yuichi; Smith, Ronald E.

2004-01-01

357

Does Type of Crime Affect the Stress and Coping Process? Implications of Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimate partner violence occurs in relationships of intimacy, kinship, dependency, or trust. It ranges from physical, emotional, financial, and sexual abuse to neglect. A relatively unexplored area has been the study of the type of crime as a factor affecting stress and coping in victims. A small but compelling body of literature suggests that such stressors as crime victimization may

Diane L. Green; Michael N. Kane

2009-01-01

358

Making semantic judgements about affectively valanced words: A new test of processing bias in anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, subjects high and low in trait anxiety made judgements concerning the semantic nature of sentences containing emotionally valanced or emotionally neutral words. In Experiment 1, high trait anxious subjects responded to sentences containing affectively negative words more quickly than those containing neutral words. There were no anxiety related effects judgement times for sentences containing positive words, nor

Michael W. Green; Frank P. McKenna

1996-01-01

359

A PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF COGNITIVE PROCESSING OF AND AFFECTIVE RESPONSES TO SOCIAL EXPECTANCY VIOLATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several models of person perception predict that expect- ancy violations have both affective and cognitive consequences for the perceiver. Although extant evidence generally supports these claims, the temporal resolution of traditional self-report measures has limited researchers' ability to convincingly link underlying physiological pro- cesses with observed outcomes. In this study, we examined these issues by measuring brain (event-related brain potentials)

Bruce D. Bartholow; Monica Fabiani; Gabriele Gratton; B. Ann Bettencourt

2001-01-01

360

A study of specific visual stimuli that affect the learning process  

E-print Network

as stools of knowledge and instruments that positively affect learning. The main idea that supports this belief is the fact that any knowledge that a child gains in an educational facility is acquired through their five senses, all five senses. One...

Godkin, Blake Steven

2013-02-22

361

Metacognition and Affect: What Can Metacognitive Experiences Tell Us about the Learning Process?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims at highlighting the importance for learning of one of the facets of metacognition, namely metacognitive experiences (ME) that comprise feelings, judgments or estimates, and online task-specific knowledge. The emphasis is on the affective character of ME, which has received little attention in the past. Unlike online task-specific…

Efklides, Anastasia

2006-01-01

362

Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implications for Affect, Relationships, and Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five studies tested two general hypotheses: Individuals differ in their use of emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal and suppression, and these individual differences have implications for affect, well- being, and social relationships. Study 1 presents new measures of the habitual use of reappraisal and suppression. Study 2 examines convergent and discriminant validity. Study 3 shows that reappraisers experience and

James J. Gross; Oliver P. John

2003-01-01

363

Marital Conflict and Child Outcomes: The Role of Children's Affect and Coping Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined young children's affective distress and behavioral responses to parental marital conflict. Forty-eight 4-year-olds and their parents participated in the study. Mothers and fathers independently completed measures of marital conflict, children's reactions to marital conflict, and child behavior problems, while the children…

Martin, Sarah E.; Clements, Mari L.

364

Acute SSRI Administration Affects the Processing of Social Cues in Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancement of serotonin neurotransmission plays an important role in the antidepressant response to agents presently available to treat depression. This response forms the major evidence for the role of serotonin in affective and social behaviour in humans. The present study investigated the effects of acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSR1), citalopram (10 mg, i.v.) upon a measure

C J Harmer; Z Bhagwagar; D I Perrett; B A Völlm; P J Cowen; G M Goodwin; CJ Harmar

2003-01-01

365

40 CFR 63.52 - Approval process for new and existing affected sources.  

...applicability determination is negative, then no further action...paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, an owner...be based on the degree of emission reductions that...achieved if the control technologies or work practices are...source. If construction of a new affected...

2014-07-01

366

Knowledge structure affect members' technology adoption: A study of semiconductor manufacturing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure of knowledge exists in people's brains and affects their actions and learning modes. According to previous studies, humans can embed knowledge into carriers and transfer it to others. Human beings are able to not only acquire knowledge from carriers but also to rebuild it in their minds. Therefore, we analyze structure of knowledge of humans through knowledge carriers, in

Yen-Cheng Wang; Ching-Fang Lee; Sheng-Tsung Hou

2009-01-01

367

Affective Priming Effects of Musical Sounds on the Processing of Word Meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word

Nikolaus Steinbeis; Stefan Koelsch

2011-01-01

368

Affective Priming Effects of Musical Sounds on the Processing of Word Meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word

Nikolaus Steinbeis; Stefan Koelsch

2010-01-01

369

The Relationship between Gender, Comprehension, Processing Strategies, and Cognitive and Affective Response in Foreign Language Listening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of adult learners' reports on comprehension strategies, comprehension level, confidence, and affective response to two authentic Spanish radio broadcasts found gender differences in comprehension strategy use and perceived confidence level, suggesting the need for instruction about the evaluation of strategy effectiveness and about…

Bacon, Susan M.

1992-01-01

370

Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it's affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90%) of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75%) of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress. PMID:24649360

Hagos, Fisseha; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Balcha, Fikadu; Berhe, Semarya; Aregay, Alemseged

2014-01-01

371

Cue-induced cigarette craving and mixed emotions: a role for positive affect in the craving process.  

PubMed

Craving is an important component of nicotine addiction, and extant research has demonstrated a clear link between cue-induced craving and negative affect, with mixed results in the positive affect domain. The current study was designed to test the idea that cue-reactive craving might be associated with a mixed emotional process, or the simultaneous experience of positive and negative affect. Participants were 86 non-deprived regular smokers and tobacco chippers who provided simultaneous ratings of positive and negative affect during cue exposure to pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cigarette cues. Results indicated that self-reported craving was elevated in response to cigarette cues compared to other valenced cue types and craving was higher to pleasant cues than either neutral or unpleasant cues. Mixed emotional responses were higher to cigarette cues than other cue types. In addition, mixed emotional responses to cigarette cues predicted craving even after controlling for smoker type, difficulties regulating negative emotion, baseline craving level and mixed emotional responses to neutral cues. As the first study to investigate mixed emotions and cigarette craving, our results highlight the importance of examining the relationship between cue-reactive craving and emotional response using models of emotion that allow for measurement of nuanced emotional experience. In addition, our findings suggest that positive affect processes may indeed play a role in craving among non-deprived smokers. PMID:23380484

Veilleux, Jennifer C; Conrad, Megan; Kassel, Jon D

2013-04-01

372

Prosody–face Interactions in Emotional Processing as Revealed by the Facial Affect Decision Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research employing the facial affect decision task (FADT) indicates that when listeners are exposed to semantically\\u000a anomalous utterances produced in different emotional tones (prosody), the emotional meaning of the prosody primes decisions about an emotionally congruent rather than incongruent facial expression (Pell, M. D., Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 29, 45–73). This study undertook further development of the FADT by

Marc D. Pell

2005-01-01

373

The Therapist as Psychobiological Regulator: Dissociation, Affect Attunement and Clinical Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociation is defined as a protective coping mechanism employed on a broad spectrum: from day-to-day “spacing out” to psychic\\u000a numbing to multiplicity. A convergence of recent insights in traumatology, neuroscience, and developmental theory is reviewed.\\u000a These findings all point to the importance of affect regulation in infant and child development and in the therapeutic relationship,\\u000a where attunement to implicit communication

Susan Gill

2010-01-01

374

Affective Change Processes in Therapy for PTSD Stemming from Childhood Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an integrative, affectively focused therapy for the effects of childhood abuse. Emotion-focused therapy for adult survivors (EFT-AS) is an empirically supported, brief but comprehensive treatment that addresses symptomatology, and interpersonal and self-related disturbances. EFT-AS integrates the principles of exposure with construction of new meaning, and emphasizes both the role of adaptive emotion and the therapeutic relationship in

Sandra C. Paivio; Lana N. Shimp

1998-01-01

375

Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing  

PubMed Central

Patients with cerebellar damage often present with the cerebellar motor syndrome of dysmetria, dysarthria and ataxia, yet cerebellar lesions can also result in the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, including executive, visual-spatial, and linguistic impairments, and affective dysregulation. We have hypothesized that there is topographic organization in the human cerebellum such that the anterior lobe and lobule VIII contain the representation of the sensorimotor cerebellum; lobules VI and VII of the posterior lobe comprise the cognitive cerebellum; and the posterior vermis is the anatomical substrate of the limbic cerebellum. Here we analyze anatomical, functional neuroimaging, and clinical data to test this hypothesis. We find converging lines of evidence supporting regional organization of motor, cognitive, and limbic behaviors in the cerebellum. The cerebellar motor syndrome results when lesions involve the anterior lobe and parts of lobule VI, interrupting cerebellar communication with cerebral and spinal motor systems. Cognitive impairments occur when posterior lobe lesions affect lobules VI and VII (including Crus I, Crus II, and lobule VIIB), disrupting cerebellar modulation of cognitive loops with cerebral association cortices. Neuropsychiatric disorders manifest when vermis lesions deprive cerebrocerebellar limbic loops of cerebellar input. We consider this functional topography to be a consequence of the differential arrangement of connections of the cerebellum with the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebral hemispheres, reflecting cerebellar incorporation into the distributed neural circuits subserving movement, cognition, and emotion. These observations provide testable hypotheses for future investigations. PMID:20152963

Stoodley, Catherine J.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.