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Sample records for metal fueled lmr

  1. Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Shielding analysis of the LMR in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this paper were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present paper describes the 2- and 3-D calculations and results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program had a particular interest.

  3. Forced-convection boiling tests performed in parallel simulated LMR fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, S.D.; Carbajo, J.J.; Levin, A.E.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.

    1985-04-21

    Forced-convection tests have been carried out using parallel simulated Liquid Metal Reactor fuel assemblies in an engineering-scale sodium loop, the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety facility. The tests, performed under single- and two-phase conditions, have shown that for low forced-convection flow there is significant flow augmentation by thermal convection, an important phenomenon under degraded shutdown heat removal conditions in an LMR. The power and flows required for boiling and dryout to occur are much higher than decay heat levels. The experimental evidence supports analytical results that heat removal from an LMR is possible with a degraded shutdown heat removal system.

  4. Temperature Distributions in LMR Fuel Pin Bundles as Modeled by COBRA-IV-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Stout, Sherry

    2005-02-01

    Most pin type reactor designs for space power or terrestrial applications group the fuel pins into a number of relatively large fuel pin bundles or subassemblies. Fuel bundles for terrestrial liquid metal fast breeders reactors typically use 217 - 271 pins per sub-assembly, while some SP100 designs use up to 331 pins in a central subassembly that was surrounded by partial assemblies. Because thermal creep is exponentially related to temperature, small changes in fuel pin cladding temperature can make large differences in the lifetime in a high temperature liquid metal reactor (LMR). This paper uses the COBRA-IV-I computer code to determine the temperature distribution within LMR fuel bundles. COBRA-IV-I uses the sub-channel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy (or temperature) and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The COBRA code runs in only a few seconds and has been benchmarked and tested extensively over a wide range of flow conditions. In this report the flow and temperature distributions for two types of lithium cooled space reactor core designs were calculated. One design uses a very tight fuel pin packing that has a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.05 (small wire wrap with a diameter of 392 μm) as proposed in SP100. The other design uses a larger pitch to diameter ratio of 1.09 with a larger more conventional sized wire wrap diameter of 1 mm. The results of the COBRA pin bundle calculations show that the larger pitch-to-diameter fuel bundle designs are more tolerant to local flow blockages, and in addition they are less sensitive to mal-flow distributions that occur near the edges of the subassembly.

  5. Temperature Distributions in LMR Fuel Pin Bundles as Modeled by COBRA-IV-I

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Stout, Sherry

    2005-02-06

    Most pin type reactor designs for space power or terrestrial applications group the fuel pins into a number of relatively large fuel pin bundles or subassemblies. Fuel bundles for terrestrial liquid metal fast breeders reactors typically use 217 - 271 pins per sub-assembly, while some SP100 designs use up to 331 pins in a central subassembly that was surrounded by partial assemblies. Because thermal creep is exponentially related to temperature, small changes in fuel pin cladding temperature can make large differences in the lifetime in a high temperature liquid metal reactor (LMR). This paper uses the COBRA-IV-I computer code to determine the temperature distribution within LMR fuel bundles. COBRA-IV-I uses the sub-channel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy (or temperature) and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The COBRA code runs in only a few seconds and has been benchmarked and tested extensively over a wide range of flow conditions. In this report the flow and temperature distributions for two types of lithium cooled space reactor core designs were calculated. One design uses a very tight fuel pin packing that has a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.05 (small wire wrap with a diameter of 392 {mu}m) as proposed in SP100. The other design uses a larger pitch to diameter ratio of 1.09 with a larger more conventional sized wire wrap diameter of 1 mm. The results of the COBRA pin bundle calculations show that the larger pitch-to-diameter fuel bundle designs are more tolerant to local flow blockages, and in addition they are less sensitive to mal-flow distributions that occur near the edges of the subassembly.

  6. Failed fuel identification techniques for liquid-metal cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Gross, K.C.; Mikaili, R.; Frank, S.M.; Cutforth, D.C.; Angelo, P.L.

    1995-06-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), located in Idaho and operated for the US Department of Energy by Argonne National Laboratory, has been used as an irradiation testbed for LMR fuels and components for thirty years. During this time many endurance tests have been carried out with experimental LMR metal, oxide, carbide and nitride fuel elements, in which cladding failures were intentionally allowed to occur. This paper describes methods that have been developed for the detection, identification and verification of fuel failures.

  7. The role of SASSYS-1 in LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor) safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor systems analysis computer code is currently being used as the principal tool for analysis of reactor plant transients in LMR development projects. These include the IFR and EBR-II Projects at Argonne National Laboratory, the FFTF project at Westinghouse-Hanford, the PRISM project at General Electric, the SAFR project at Rockwell International, and the LSPB project at EPRI. The SASSYS-1 code features a multiple-channel thermal-hydraulics core representation coupled with a point kinetics neutronics model with reactivity feedback, all combined with detailed one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic models of the primary and intermediate heat transport systems, including pipes, pumps, plena, valves, heat exchangers and steam generators. In addition, SASSYS-1 contains detailed models for active and passive shutdown and emergency heat rejection systems and a generalized plant control system model. With these models, SASSYS-1 provides the capability to analyze a wide range of transients, including normal operational transients, shutdown heat removal transients, and anticipated transients without scram events. 26 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Seismic analysis of a large pool-type LMR (liquid metal reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic study of a 450-MWe liquid metal reactor (LMR) under 0.3-g SSE ground excitation. Two calculations were performed using the new design configuration. They deal with the seismic response of the reactor vessel, the guard vessel and support skirt, respectively. In both calculations, the stress and displacement fields at important locations of those components are investigated. Assessments are also made on the elastic and inelastic structural capabilities for other beyond-design basis seismic loads. Results of the reactor vessel analysis reveal that the maximum equivalent stress is only about half of the material yield stress. For the guard vessel and support skirt, the stress level is very small. Regarding the analysis if inelastic structural capability, solutions of the Newmark-Hall ductility modification method show that the reactor vessel can withstand seismics with ground ZPAs ranging from 1.015 to 1.31 g, which corresponds to 3.37 to 4.37 times the basic 0.3-g SSE. Thus, the reactor vessel and guard vessel are strong enough to resist seismic loads. 4 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. SAFE: A computer code for the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of LMR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.L.

    1993-12-01

    SAFE is a computer code developed for both the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of single LMR fuel elements. The code employs a two-dimensional control-volume based finite difference methodology with fully implicit time marching to calculate the temperatures throughout a fuel element and its associated coolant channel for both the steady-state and transient events. The code makes no structural calculations or predictions whatsoever. It does, however, accept as input structural parameters within the fuel such as the distributions of porosity and fuel composition, as well as heat generation, to allow a thermal analysis to be performed on a user-specified fuel structure. The code was developed with ease of use in mind. An interactive input file generator and material property correlations internal to the code are available to expedite analyses using SAFE. This report serves as a complete design description of the code as well as a user`s manual. A sample calculation made with SAFE is included to highlight some of the code`s features. Complete input and output files for the sample problem are provided.

  10. Development of LMR physics technology in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmig, P.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Reactor physics technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) applications has been developed through a wide range of research activities carried out by US National laboratory, industrial, and university organizations.These were focused on the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Clinch River Breeder Reactor, large-scale prototype breeder, and more recently on the Integral Fast Reactor, and Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module modular reactor concepts. Significant advancements are noted in the accuracy and economics of computational methodology, the quality of the basic nuclear data used for LMR design, and the quality of integral measurements used to support design and licensing activities. Cooperative efforts among US organizations have been the key to many advances. The systematic application of covariance data files for both integral and differential data contributes to further improvements in LMR core design technology. Since advanced LMRs can potentially provide a major fraction of electric power over the next millenium, LMR technology development is worthy of the best efforts. The major goals are reasonable construction costs, a high degree of natural safety, good operational reliability, and an economical, environmentally attractive fuel cycle. The successful operations of FFTF and EBR-II and the progress in reactor physics in recent years are good indications one can meet the challenge of introducing advanced LMRs.

  11. LMR Transient Calculation Code System (version 5).

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-09-01

    Version: 00 The Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) may undergo an unscrammed Transient Over-Power (TOP) or a Loss of Heat Sink (LOHS) type of accident involving power, temperature, and reactivity changes. The LTC (LMR Transient Calculation) Program calculates the time dependent reactor temperatures, reactivities, and power of the LMR after the initiation of the accident. A printout of the results including the input table of data is offered after the program run. No graphics are usedmore » in the program and the LTC.EXE (Quick Basic compiled) can make use of a math co-processor if available (GW Basic doesn't).« less

  12. Consequences of pipe ruptures in metal fueled, liquid metal cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    The capability to simulate pipe ruptures has recently been added to the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code. Using this capability, the consequences of severe pipe ruptures in both loop-type and pool-type reactors using metal fuel were investigated. With metal fuel, if the control rods scram then either type of reactor can easily survive a complete double-ended break of a single pipe; although, as might be expected, the consequences are less severe for a pool-type reactor. A pool-type reactor can even survive a protected simultaneous breaking of all of its inlet pipes without boiling of the coolant or melting of the fuel or cladding. 2 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Burnup Predictions for Metal Fuel Tests in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Nelson, Joseph V.

    2012-06-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to be designed, constructed, and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The FFTF operated successfully from initial startup in 1980 through the end of the last operating cycle in March, 1992. A variety of fuel tests were irradiated in FFTF to provide performance data over a range of conditions. The MFF-3 and MFF-5 tests were U10Zr metal fuel tests with HT9 cladding. The MFF-3 and MFF-5 tests were both aggressive irradiation tests of U10Zr metal fuel pins with HT9 cladding that were prototypic of full scale LMR designs. MFF-3 was irradiated for 726 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD), starting from Cycle 10C1 (from November 1988 through March 1992), and MFF-5 was irradiated for 503 EFPD starting from Cycle 11B1 (from January 1990 through March 1992). A group of fuel pins from these two tests are undergoing post irradiation examination at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD). The generation of a data package of key information on the irradiation environment and current pin detailed compositions for these tests is described. This information will be used in interpreting the results of these examinations.

  14. Novel, Integrated Reactor / Power Conversion System (LMR-AMTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Pablo Rubiolo, Principal Investigator

    2003-03-21

    The main features of this project were the development of a long life (up to 10 years) Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) and a static conversion subsystem comprising an Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric (AMTEC) topping cycle and a ThermoElectric (TE) Bottom cycle. Various coupling options of the LMR with the energy conversion subsystem were explored and, base in the performances found in this analysis, an Indirect Coupling (IC) between the LMR and the AMTEC/TE converters with Alkali Metal Boilers (AMB) was chosen as the reference design. The performance model of the fully integrated sodium-and potassium-AMTEC/TE converters shows that a combined conversion efficiency in excess of 30% could be achieved by the plant. (B204)

  15. Hybrid combustion with metallized fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Jianwen; Wygle, Brian S.; Bates, Ronald W.; Jones, Michael D.; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1993-01-01

    A chemical method of adding certain catalysts to improve the degradation process of a solid fuel is discussed. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis used to study the fundamental degradation behavior of a typical hybrid fuel (HTPB) shows that high surface temperatures increase the degradation rate. Fuels were tested in a laboratory-scale experimental hybrid rocket and their behavior was compared to a baseline behavior of HTPB fuel regression rates. It was found that a small amount of metal powder added to the fuel can significantly increase the regression rates.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL LIQUID METAL FUEL REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Happell, J.J.; Thomas, G.R.; Denise, R.P.; Bunts, J.L. Jr.

    1962-01-23

    A liquid metal fuel nuclear fission reactor is designed in which the fissionable material is dissolved or suspended in a liquid metal moderator and coolant. The liquid suspension flows into a chamber in which a critical amount of fissionable material is obtained. The fluid leaves the chamber and the heat of fission is extracted for power or other utilization. The improvement is in the support arrangement for a segrnented graphite core to permit dif ferential thermal expansion, effective sealing between main and blanket liquid metal flows, and avoidance of excessive stress development in the graphite segments. (AEC)

  17. Evaluation of a hanging core support concept for LMR application

    SciTech Connect

    Burelbach, J.P.; Cha, B.K.; Huebotter, P.R.; Kann, W.J.; Pan, Y.C.; Saiveau, J.G.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Wu, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes an innovative design concept for a liquid metal reactor (LMR) core support structure (CSS). A hanging core support structure is described and analyzed. The design offers inherent safety features, constructability advantages, and potential cost reductions. Some safety considerations are examined which include the in-service inspection (ISI), the backup support system and the structural behavior in a hypothetical case of a broken beam in the core support structure.

  18. Status of Transuranic Bearing Metallic Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Hayes; Bruce Hilton; Heather MacLean; Debbie Utterbeck; Jon Carmack; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2009-09-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the metallic fuel development under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The metallic fuel development program includes fuel fabrication, characterization, advanced cladding research, irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination (PIE). The focus of this paper is on the recent irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor and some PIE results from these tests.

  19. A metallic fuel cycle concept from spent oxide fuel to metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Reiko; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Arie, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2007-07-01

    A Metallic fuel cycle concept for Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES) has been proposed in a companion papers. The ultimate goal of the SCNES is to realize sustainable energy supply without endangering the environment and humans. For future transition period from LWR era to SCNES era, a new metallic fuel recycle concept from LWR spent fuel has been proposed in this paper. Combining the technology for electro-reduction of oxide fuels and zirconium recovery by electrorefining in molten salts in the nuclear recycling schemes, the amount of radioactive waste reduced in a proposed metallic fuel cycle concept. If the recovery ratio of zirconium metal from the spent zirconium waste is 95%, the cost estimation in zirconium recycle to the metallic fuel materials has been estimated to be less than 1/25. (authors)

  20. Forced-to-natural convection transition tests in parallel simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, A.E. ); Montgomery, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The Thermal-Hydraulic Out of Reactor Safety (THORS) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had as its objective the testing of simulated, electrically heated liquid metal reactor (LMR) fuel assemblies in an engineering-scale, sodium loop. Between 1971 and 1985, the THORS Program operated 11 simulated fuel bundles in conditions covering a wide range of normal and off-normal conditions. The last test series in the Program, THORS-SHRS Assembly 1, employed two parallel, 19-pin, full-length, simulated fuel assemblies of a design consistent with the large LMR (Large Scale Prototype Breeder -- LSPB) under development at that time. These bundles were installed in the THORS Facility, allowing single- and parallel-bundle testing in thermal-hydraulic conditions up to and including sodium boiling and dryout. As the name SHRS (Shutdown Heat Removal System) implies, a major objective of the program was testing under conditions expected during low-power reactor operation, including low-flow forced convection, natural convection, and forced-to-natural convection transition at various powers. The THORS-SHRS Assembly 1 experimental program was divided up into four phases. Phase 1 included preliminary and shakedown tests, including the collection of baseline steady-state thermal-hydraulic data. Phase 2 comprised natural convection testing. Forced convection testing was conducted in Phase 3. The final phase of testing included forced-to-natural convection transition tests. Phases 1, 2, and 3 have been discussed in previous papers. The fourth phase is described in this paper. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Multidimensional shielding analysis of the JASPER in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this report were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present report describes the 2-D and 3-D models, analyses, and calculated results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program has a particular interest.

  2. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Yu, Conrad [Antioch, CA

    2009-05-05

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  3. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Yu, Conrad

    2006-10-17

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  4. 33 CFR 183.538 - Metallic fuel line materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metallic fuel line materials. 183... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.538 Metallic fuel line materials. Each metallic fuel line connecting the fuel tank with the fuel inlet connection...

  5. Metal fuel test program in the FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Baker, R.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Aggressive irradiation testing of metal-fuel assemblies containing long fuel pins has been successfully conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and no cladding breaches have been observed up to burnups approaching 150 MWd/kg M. In-reactor measurements of performance indicate good behavior. Postirradiation examinations (under way and future) will characterize fuel and sodium bond performance, cladding strain behavior, fuel/cladding mechanical interaction, and other irradiation performance attributes. With continued FFTF operation, ultimate burnup capabilities and the breach mode in long metal-fuel pins will be determined. These results support the design development of the IFR fuel system, the design of the ALMR, and provide a potential advanced driver fuel design for the FFTF.

  6. Preparing oxidizer coated metal fuel particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Simmons, G. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A solid propellant composition of improved efficiency is described which includes an oxidizer containing ammonium perchlorate, and a powered metal fuel, preferably aluminum or beryllium, in the form of a composite. The metal fuel is contained in the crystalline lattice framework of the oxidizer, as well as within the oxidizer particles, and is disposed in the interstices between the oxidizer particles of the composition. The propellant composition is produced by a process comprising the crystallization of ammonium perchlorate in water, in the presence of finely divided aluminum or beryllium. A suitable binder is incorporated in the propellant composition to bind the individual particles of metal with the particles of oxidizer containing occluded metal.

  7. Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed.

  8. Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1992-06-01

    The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed.

  9. Microstructural Characterization of Cast Metallic Transmutation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    J. I. Cole; D. D. Keiser; J. R. Kennedy

    2007-09-01

    As part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is participating in an international collaboration to irradiate prototypic actinide-bearing transmutation fuels in the French Phenix fast reactor (FUTURIX-FTA experiment). The INL has contributed to this experiment by fabricating and characterizing two compositions of metallic fuel; a non-fertile 48Pu-12Am-40Zr fuel and a low-fertile 35U-29Pu-4Am-2Np-30Zr fuel for insertion into the reactor. This paper highlights results of the microstructural analysis of these cast fuels, which were reasonably homogeneous in nature, but had several distinct phase constituents. Spatial variations in composition appeared to be more pronounced in the low-fertile fuel when compared to the non-fertile fuel.

  10. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    STAN, MARIUS; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S.

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  11. Microexplosive Metallized Fuels for Energetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Brandon; Rubio, Mario; Gunduz, Ibrahim; Son, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Microexplosions have been widely investigated for multicomponent liquid fuels. This phenomenon is caused by internal bubble nucleation and growth from within a fuel droplet (i.e., intraparticle boiling), which induces droplet fragmentation. Microexplosive fuels are advantageous as they promote fuel atomization, which can reduce residence times, increase completeness of combustion, and reduce product agglomeration (if condensed phase products are formed). While this is well understood and utilized with liquid fuels, it has not been fully investigated for metallic fuel particles. Recent work has shown that mechanical activation of aluminum/polymer (inclusion) composites can also cause microexplosions, analogous to liquid emulsion fuels. Gases are produced when the polymer within the composite decomposes below the boiling point of aluminum, causing the composite particle to shatter into smaller particles. Here we show that fully metallic multicomponent fuels (e.g., Al-Li alloy) can also microexplode during combustion and compare this to inclusion composite ignition. Because the two components have a large disparity in boiling points, intraparticle boiling causes the particle to expand and eventually shatter the fuel particle, analogous to missive liquid fuels. National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a; AFOSR MURI, Contract #FA9550-13-1-0004.

  12. 33 CFR 183.562 - Metallic fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metallic fuel lines. 183.562...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.562 Metallic fuel lines. (a) Each metallic fuel line that is mounted to the boat structure must be connected to...

  13. Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  14. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  15. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1994-01-01

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta"-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then chanted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  16. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1993-02-03

    This invention is comprised of a new electrolytic process and apparatus using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in an alloy or within a sodium beta or beta-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for Cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then changed to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  17. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-09-20

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta[double prime]-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then shunted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required. 2 figs.

  18. Fuel cells and the theory of metals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocciarelli, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    Metal theory is used to study the role of metal catalysts in electrocatalysis, with particular reference to alkaline hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. Use is made of a simple model, analogous to that used to interpret field emission in vacuum. Theoretical values for all the quantities in the Tafel equation are obtained in terms of bulk properties of the metal catalysts (such as free electron densities and Fermi level). The reasons why some processes are reversible (H-electrodes) and some irreversible (O-electrodes) are identified. Selection rules for desirable properties of catalytic materials are established.

  19. An overview of seismic-induced hydrodynamic phenomena in LMR reactor tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.C.; Chang, Y.W.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid metal reactors (LMTs) usually contain a huge volume of liquid sodium as reactor coolant. Since most reactor components are submerged in the sodium coolant, the seismic-induced hydrodynamic effects are of great importance in the design of LMR reactor components. Because LMRs operate at low pressures, the reactor components are made of thin-walled structures. Of interest in reactor design, in particular, are the hydrodynamic pressures imposed on various components, such as the reactor vessel wall, thermal liner, and components projecting down into the liquid sodium. The sloshing wave height and impact forces on the reactor cover are also important in assessing the safety of the reactor system. This paper presents an overview of the seismic-induced hydrodynamic phenomena in the LMR reactor tanks. 10 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  1. FFTF metal fuel pin sodium bond quality verification

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Dittmer, J.O.

    1988-12-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Series III driver fuel design consists of U-10Zr fuel slugs contained in a ferritic alloy cladding. A liquid metal, sodium bond between the fuel and cladding is required to prevent unacceptable temperatures during operation. Excessive voiding or porosity in the sodium thermal bond could result in localized fuel melting during irradiation. It is therefore imperative that bond quality be verified during fabrication of these metal fuel pins prior to irradiation. This document discusses this verification.

  2. Precious Metal Recovery from Fuel Cell MEA's

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Shore

    2004-04-25

    In 2003, Engelhard Corporation received a DOE award to develop a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach to recover Pt from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies (MEA’s). The most important precious metal used in fuel cells is platinum, but ruthenium is also added to the anode electrocatalyst if CO is present in the hydrogen stream. As part of the project, a large number of measurements of Pt and Ru need to be made. A low-cost approach to measuring Pt is using the industry standard spectrophotometric measurement of Pt complexed with stannous chloride. The interference of Ru can be eliminated by reading the Pt absorbance at 450 nm. Spectrophotometric methods for measuring Ru, while reported in the literature, are not as robust. This paper will discuss the options for measuring Pt and Ru using the method of UV-VIS spectrophotometry

  3. Performance limit analysis of a metallic fuel for Kalimer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Cheon, J.S.; Lee, C.B.

    2007-07-01

    A metallic fuel is being considered as the fuel for SFR in Korea. The metal fuel development for SFR in Korea started in 2007 in the areas of metal fuel fabrication, cladding materials and fuel performance evaluation. The MACSIS code for a metallic fuel has been developed as a steady-state performance computer code. Present study represents the preliminary parametric results for evaluating the design limits of the metal fuel for SFR in Korea. The operating limits were analyzed by the MACSIS code. The modules of the creep rupture strength for the Mod.HT9 and the barrier cladding were inserted. The strain limits and the CDF limit were analyzed for the HT9, and the Mod.HT9. To apply the concept of a barrier cladding, the burnup limit of the barrier cladding was analyzed. (authors)

  4. Metal fuel test program in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Baker, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses irradiation testing of metal fuel assemblies in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) which has demonstrated the viability of this robust fuel design for liquid metal reactor applications. This fuel design provides high burnup capability with reduced fabrication costs relative to standard mixed-oxide FFTF driver fuel assemblies. Development of this fuel design required the establishment of innovative sodium bonding technology as well as special techniques for sodium bond quality verification. Eight metal fuel test assemblies have been irradiated under demanding conditions to burnups as high as 143 MWd/kgM with no indication of pin breach. The unique FFTF instrumentation system has permitted the in situ observation of axial fuel growth in metal fuel assemblies.

  5. LMR thermal hydraulics calculations in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Malloy, D.J.; Mohr, D.

    1987-04-27

    A wide range of thermal hydraulics computer codes have been developed by various organizations in the US. These codes cover an extensive range of purposes from within-assembly-wise pin temperature calculations to plant wide transient analysis. The codes are used for static analysis, for analysis of protected anticipated transients, and for analysis of a wide range of unprotected transients for the more recent inherently safe LMR designs. Some of these codes are plant-specific codes with properties of a specific plant built into them. Other codes are more general and can be applied to a number of plants or designs. These codes, and the purposes for which they have been used, are described.

  6. Colloids generation from metallic uranium fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, C.; Fortner, J.; Goldberg, M.; Shelton-Davis, C.

    2000-07-20

    The possibility of colloid generation from spent fuel in an unsaturated environment has significant implications for storage of these fuels in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Because colloids can act as a transport medium for sparingly soluble radionuclides, it might be possible for colloid-associated radionuclides to migrate large distances underground and present a human health concern. This study examines the nature of colloidal materials produced during corrosion of metallic uranium fuel in simulated groundwater at elevated temperature in an unsaturated environment. Colloidal analyses of the leachates from these corrosion tests were performed using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Results from both techniques indicate a bimodal distribution of small discrete particles and aggregates of the small particles. The average diameters of the small, discrete colloids are {approximately}3--12 nm, and the large aggregates have average diameters of {approximately}100--200 nm. X-ray diffraction of the solids from these tests indicates a mineral composition of uranium oxide or uranium oxy-hydroxide.

  7. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Heng; Kennedy, Rory

    2015-02-09

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.

  8. Fabrication and Preliminary Evaluation of Metal Matrix Microencapsulated Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A; Kiggans, Jim; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The metal matrix microencapsulated (M3) fuel concept for light water reactors (LWRs), consisting of coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix, is introduced. Fabrication of M3 fuels by hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, or extrusion methodologies has been demonstrated over the temperature range 800-1050 C. Various types of coated fuel particles with outermost layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, ZrC, and TiN have been incorporated into the zirconium metal matrix. Mechanical particle-particle and chemical particle-matrix interactions have been observed during the preliminary characterization of as-fabricated M3 specimens. Irradiation of three M3 rodlets with surrogate coated fuel particles was carried out at mean rod temperature of 400 C to 4.6 dpa in the zirconium metal matrix. Due to absence of texture in the metal matrix no irradiation growth strain (<0.09%) was detected during the post-irradiation examination.

  9. Nanotechnology Investigated for Future Gelled and Metallized Gelled Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to create combustion data for gelled and metallized gelled fuels using unique nanometer-sized gellant particles and/or nanometer-sized aluminum particles. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are formulating the fuels for both gas turbine and pulsed detonation engines. We intend to demonstrate metallized gelled fuel ignition characteristics for pulse detonation engines with JP/aluminum fuel and for gas turbine engines with gelled JP, propane, and methane fuel. The fuels to be created are revolutionary as they will deliver the highest theoretically maximum performance of gelled and metallized gelled fuels. Past combustion work has used micrometer-sized particles, which have limited the combustion performance of gelled and metallized gelled fuels. The new fuel used nanometer-sized aluminum oxide particles, which reduce the losses due to mismatch in the gas and solid phases in the exhaust. Gelled fuels provide higher density, added safety, reduced fuel slosh, reduced leakage, and increased exhaust velocity. Altogether, these benefits reduce the overall size and mass of the vehicle, increasing its flexibility.

  10. Metallic fuels: The EBR-II legacy and recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Porter; Steven L. Hayes; J. Rory Kennedy

    2012-09-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) metallic fuel was qualified for high burnup to approximately 10 atomic per cent. Subsequently, the electrometallurgical treatment of this fuel was demonstrated. Advanced metallic fuels are now investigated for increased performance, including ultra-high burnup and actinide burning. Advances include additives to mitigate the fuel/cladding chemical interaction and uranium alloys that combine Mo, Ti and Zr to improve alloy performance. The impacts of the advances—on fabrication, waste streams, electrorefining, etc.—are found to be minimal and beneficial. Owing to extensive research literature and computational methods, only a modest effort is required to complete their development.

  11. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    2001-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  12. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.

    1998-08-25

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field there between for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells. 11 figs.

  13. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    1998-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  14. Performance of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Hayes, S.L.

    1992-12-01

    Steady-state testing of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperatures was initiated in EBR-II in November of 1987. At that time U-10 wt. % Zr fuel clad with the low-swelling ferritic/martensitic alloy HT9 was being considered as driver fuel options for both EBR-II and FFTF. The objective of the X447 test described here was to determine the lifetime of HT9 cladding when operated with metallic fuel at beginning of life inside wall temperatures approaching {approximately}660{degree}C. Though stress-temperature design limits for HT9 preclude its use for high burnup applications under these conditions due to excessive thermal creep, the X447 test was carried out to obtain data on high temperature breach phenomena involving metallic fuel since little data existed in that area.

  15. Performance of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Hayes, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Steady-state testing of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperatures was initiated in EBR-II in November of 1987. At that time U-10 wt. % Zr fuel clad with the low-swelling ferritic/martensitic alloy HT9 was being considered as driver fuel options for both EBR-II and FFTF. The objective of the X447 test described here was to determine the lifetime of HT9 cladding when operated with metallic fuel at beginning of life inside wall temperatures approaching [approximately]660[degree]C. Though stress-temperature design limits for HT9 preclude its use for high burnup applications under these conditions due to excessive thermal creep, the X447 test was carried out to obtain data on high temperature breach phenomena involving metallic fuel since little data existed in that area.

  16. Highly Dispersed Metal Catalyst for Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will bring industrial catalyst experience to fuel cell research. Specifically, industrial catalysts, such as those used in platforming, utilize precious metal platinum as an active component in a finely dispersed form.

  17. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Fratoni, Massimiliano; Terrani, Kurt A

    2012-01-01

    Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel consists of TRISO or BISO coated fuel particles directly dispersed in a matrix of zirconium metal to form a solid rod (Fig. 1). In this integral fuel concept the cladding tube and the failure mechanisms associated with it have been eliminated. In this manner pellet-clad-interactions (PCI), thin tube failure due to oxidation and hydriding, and tube pressurization and burst will be absent. M3 fuel, given the high stiffness of the integral rod design, could as well improve grid-to-rod wear behavior. Overall M3 fuel, compared to existing fuel designs, is expected to provide greatly improved operational performance. Multiple barriers to fission product release (ceramic coating layers in the coated fuel particle and te metal matrix) and the high thermal conductivity zirconium alloy metal matrix contribute to the enhancement in fuel behavior. The discontinuous nature of fissile material encapsulated in coated particles provides additional assistance; for instance if the M3 fuel rod is snapped into multiple pieces, only the limited number of fuel particles at the failure cross section are susceptible to release fission products. This is in contrast to the conventional oxide fuel where the presence of a small opening in the cladding provides the pathway for release of the entire inventory of fission products from the fuel rod. While conventional metal fuels (e.g. U-Zr and U-Mo) are typically expected to experience large swelling under irradiation due to the high degree of damage from fission fragments and introduction of fission gas into the lattice, this is not the case for M3 fuels. The fissile portion of the fuel is contained within the coated particle where enough room is available to accommodate fission gases and kernel swelling. The zirconium metal matrix will not be exposed to fission products and its swelling is known to be very limited when exposed solely to neutrons. Under design basis RIA and LOCA, fuel performance will be

  18. Dimensional, microstructural and compositional stability of metal fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.A.; Dayananda, M.A.

    1993-03-15

    The projects undertaken were to address two areas of concern for metal-fueled fast reactors: metallurgical compatibility of fuel and its fission products with the stainless steel cladding, and effects of porosity development in the fuel on fuel/cladding interactions and on sodium penetration in fuel. The following studies are reported on extensively in appendices: hot isostatic pressing of U-10Zr by coupled boundary diffusion/power law creep cavitation, liquid Na intrusion into porous U-10Zr fuel alloy by differential capillarity, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel and selected Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel vs selected cladding steels, and interdiffusion of Ce in Fe-base alloys with Ni or Cr.

  19. Comparison of oxide- and metal-core behavior during CRBRP (Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant) station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Polkinghorne, S T; Atkinson, S A

    1986-01-01

    A resurrected concept that could significantly improve the inherently safe response of Liquid-Metal cooled Reactors (LMRs) during severe undercooling transients is the use of metallic fuel. Analytical studies have been reported on for the transient behavior of metal-fuel cores in innovative, inherently safe LMR designs. This paper reports on an analysis done, instead, for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design with the only innovative change being the incorporation of a metal-fuel core. The SSC-L code was used to simulate a protected station blackout accident in the CRBRP with a 943 MWt Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal-fuel core. The results, compared with those for the oxide-fueled CRBRP, show that the margin to boiling is greater for the IFR core. However, the cooldown transient is more severe due to the faster thermal response time of metallic fuel. Some additional calculations to assess possible LMR design improvements (reduced primary system pressure losses, extended flow coastdown) are also discussed. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.W.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.; Baker, L.; Cho, D.H.; Gabor, J.D.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sienicki, J.J.; Stein, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO/sub 2//sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included.

  1. Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

    1995-02-01

    Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities.

  2. MELCOR/CONTAIN LMR Implementation Report. FY14 Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, Larry L; Louie, David L.Y.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the preliminary implementation of the sodium thermophysical properties and the design documentation for the sodium models of CONTAIN-LMR to be implemented into MELCOR 2.1. In the past year, the implementation included two separate sodium properties from two different sources. The first source is based on the previous work done by Idaho National Laboratory by modifying MELCOR to include liquid lithium equation of state as a working fluid to model the nuclear fusion safety research. To minimize the impact to MELCOR, the implementation of the fusion safety database (FSD) was done by utilizing the detection of the data input file as a way to invoking the FSD. The FSD methodology has been adapted currently for this work, but it may subject modification as the project continues. The second source uses properties generated for the SIMMER code. Preliminary testing and results from this implementation of sodium properties are given. In this year, the design document for the CONTAIN-LMR sodium models, such as the two condensable option, sodium spray fire, and sodium pool fire is being developed. This design document is intended to serve as a guide for the MELCOR implementation. In addition, CONTAIN-LMR code used was based on the earlier version of CONTAIN code. Many physical models that were developed since this early version of CONTAIN may not be captured by the code. Although CONTAIN 2, which represents the latest development of CONTAIN, contains some sodium specific models, which are not complete, the utilizing CONTAIN 2 with all sodium models implemented from CONTAIN-LMR as a comparison code for MELCOR should be done. This implementation should be completed in early next year, while sodium models from CONTAIN-LMR are being integrated into MELCOR. For testing, CONTAIN decks have been developed for verification and validation use.

  3. Evaluation of Metal-Fueled Surface Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.; Marcille, Thomas F.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Hiatt, Matthew T.; Amiri, Benjamin W.

    2007-01-30

    Surface fission power systems for use on the Moon and Mars may provide the first use of near-term reactor technology in space. Most near-term surface reactor concepts specify reactor temperatures <1000 K to allow the use of established material and power conversion technology and minimize the impact of the in-situ environment. Metal alloy fuels (e.g. U-10Zr and U-10Mo) have not traditionally been considered for space reactors because of high-temperature requirements, but they might be an attractive option for these lower temperature surface power missions. In addition to temperature limitations, metal fuels are also known to swell significantly at rather low fuel burnups ({approx}1 a/o), but near-term surface missions can mitigate this concern as well, because power and lifetime requirements generally keep fuel burnups <1 a/o. If temperature and swelling issues are not a concern, then a surface reactor concept may be able to benefit from the high uranium density and relative ease of manufacture of metal fuels. This paper investigates two reactor concepts that utilize metal fuels. It is found that these concepts compare very well to concepts that utilize other fuels (UN, UO2, UZrH) on a mass basis, while also providing the potential to simplify material safeguards issues.

  4. Modeling of constituent redistribution in U Pu Zr metallic fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hayes, S. L.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    A computer model was developed to analyze constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Diffusion and thermochemical properties were parametrically determined to fit the postirradiation data from a fuel test performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The computer model was used to estimate redistribution profiles of fuels proposed for the conceptual designs of small modular fast reactors. The model results showed that the level of redistribution of the fuel constituents of the designs was similar to the measured data from EBR-II.

  5. Feasibility study on ultralong-cycle operation and material performance for compact liquid metal-cooled fast reactors: a review work

    SciTech Connect

    Tak, Taewoo; Choe, Jiwon; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung; Kim, T. K.; Hong, Ser Gi

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the feasibility of ultralong-cycle operation on a compact liquid metal-cooled fast reactor (LMR) firstly by assessing the operation of a long-life fast reactor core and secondly by evaluating material performance in respect to both long-cycle operation and compact-size fast reactor. Many kinds of reactor concepts have been proposed, and LMR and small modular reactor (SMR) are the issued leading technologies for generation four (Gen-IV) reactor system development. The breed-and-burn strategy was proposed as a core burning strategy to operate a long cycle, and it has been evaluated in this paper with two reactor concepts: constant axial shape of neutron flux, nuclide densities, and power shape during life of energy and ultralong cycle fast reactor. In addition, Super-Safe, Small, and Simple and small modular fast reactor, compact LMR concepts, have been simulated to evaluate their long-life operation strategies. For the other practical issues, the materials for fuel, coolant, and structure have been identified and some of them are selected to have their performance optimized specifically for compact LMR with a long-cycle operation. It is believed that this comprehensive review will propose a proper direction for future reactor development and will be followed by the next step research for a complete reactor model with the other reactor components.

  6. Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    R.S. Fielding; J. Crapps; C. Unal; J.R. Kennedy

    2013-03-01

    One of the advantages of metallic fuel is the abilility to cast the fuel slugs to near net shape with little additional processing. However, the high aspect ratio of the fuel is not ideal for casting. EBR-II fuel was cast using counter gravity injection casting (CGIC) but, concerns have been raised concerning the feasibility of this process for americium bearing alloys. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program has begun developing gravity casting techniques suitable for fuel production. Compared to CGIC gravity casting does not require a large heel that then is recycled, does not require application of a vacuum during melting, and is conducive to re-usable molds. Development has included fabrication of two separate benchscale, approximately 300 grams, systems. To shorten development time computer simulations have been used to ensure mold and crucible designs are feasible and to identify which fluid properties most affect casting behavior and therefore require more characterization.

  7. Modeling Constituent Redistribution in U-Pu-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Porter; Steve Hayes; Various

    2014-06-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) metallic fuels currently being tested have higher zirconium and plutonium concentrations than those tested in the past in EBR reactors. Current metal fuel performance codes have limitations and deficiencies in predicting AFC fuel performance, particularly in the modeling of constituent distribution. No fully validated code exists due to sparse data and unknown modeling parameters. Our primary objective is to develop an initial analysis tool by incorporating state-of-the-art knowledge, constitutive models and properties of AFC metal fuels into the MOOSE/BISON (1) framework in order to analyze AFC metallic fuel tests.

  8. Metal matrix composite fuel for space radioisotope energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. R.; Ning, H.; Reece, M. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bannister, N. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2013-02-01

    Radioisotope fuels produce heat that can be used for spacecraft thermal control or converted to electricity. They must retain integrity in the event of destruction or atmospheric entry of the parent spacecraft. Addition of a metal matrix to the actinide oxide could yield a more robust fuel form. Neodymium (III) oxide (Nd2O3) - niobium metal matrix composites were produced using Spark Plasma Sintering; Nd2O3 is a non-radioactive surrogate for americium (III) oxide (Am2O3). Two compositions, 70 and 50 wt% Nd2O3, were mechanically tested under equibiaxial (ring-on-ring) flexure according to ASTM C1499. The addition of the niobium matrix increased the mean flexural strength by a factor of about 2 compared to typical ceramic nuclear fuels, and significantly increased the Weibull modulus to over 20. These improved mechanical properties could result in reduced fuel dispersion in severe accidents and improved safety of space radioisotope power systems.

  9. Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods

    DOEpatents

    Seidel, Bobby R.; Tracy, Donald B.; Griffiths, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

  10. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  11. Binding of the Lactococcal Drug Dependent Transcriptional Regulator LmrR to Its Ligands and Responsive Promoter Regions

    PubMed Central

    van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Madoori, Pramod Kumar; Komarudin, Amalina Ghaisani; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The heterodimeric ABC transporter LmrCD from Lactococcus lactis is able to extrude several different toxic compounds from the cell, fulfilling a role in the intrinsic and induced drug resistance. The expression of the lmrCD genes is regulated by the multi-drug binding repressor LmrR, which also binds to its own promoter to autoregulate its own expression. Previously, we reported the crystal structure of LmrR in the presence and absence of the drugs Hoechst 33342 and daunomycin. Analysis of the mechanism how drugs control the repressor activity of LmrR is impeded by the fact that these drugs also bind to DNA. Here we identified, using X-ray crystallography and fluorescence, that riboflavin binds into the drug binding cavity of LmrR, adopting a similar binding mode as Hoechst 33342 and daunomycin. Microscale thermophoresis was employed to quantify the binding affinity of LmrR to its responsive promoter regions and to evaluate the cognate site of LmrR in the lmrCD promoter region. Riboflavin reduces the binding affinity of LmrR for the promoter regions. Our results support a model wherein drug binding to LmrR relieves the LmrR dependent repression of the lmrCD genes. PMID:26267906

  12. New Fuel Cycle and Fuel Management Options in Heavy Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, Ehud; Hejzlar, Pavel; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Toshinsky, Georgy; Wade, David

    2005-08-15

    Fast reactors cooled by lead or lead-bismuth alloy offer new interesting fuel cycle and fuel management options by virtue of the superb neutronics and safety features of these heavy liquid metal (HLM) coolants. One option is once-for-life cores having relatively low power density. These cores are fueled in the factory; there is no refueling or fuel shuffling on site. A second option is very long-life cores being made of a fissioning zone and a natural uranium blanket zone. The fissioning zone very slowly drifts toward the blanket. A third option is multirecycling of light water reactor (LWR) discharged fuel without partitioning of transuranics (TRUs) in fuel-self-sustaining reactors. LWR spent fuel could provide the initial fuel loading after extracting fission products and {approx}90% of its uranium. The makeup fuel is natural or depleted uranium. A fourth option is the high-burnup once-through fuel cycle using natural or depleted uranium feed. The initial fuel loading of this reactor is a mixture of enriched and natural uranium. The natural uranium utilization is 10 to 20 times higher than that of a once-through LWR. A fifth option is transmutation of TRUs from LWRs using critical HLM-cooled reactors; such reactors could be designed to have the same high actinide burning capability of accelerator-driven systems and have comparable safety, but at a substantially lower cost. These novel reactor designs and fuel management options are hereby reviewed.

  13. Metallic Fast Reactor Fuel Fabrication for Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas E. Burkes; Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Porter

    2009-07-01

    Fast reactors are once again being considered for nuclear power generation, in addition to transmutation of long-lived fission products resident in spent nuclear fuels. This re-consideration follows with intense developmental programs for both fuel and reactor design. One of the two leading candidates for next generation fast reactor fuel is metal alloys, resulting primarily from the successes achieved in the 1960s to early 1990s with both the experimental breeding reactor-II and the fast flux test facility. The goal of the current program is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional, fast-spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides, thereby closing the nuclear fuel cycle. In order to meet this goal, the program must develop efficient and safe fuel fabrication processes designed for remote operation. This paper provides an overview of advanced casting processes investigated in the past, and the development of a gaseous diffusion calculation that demonstrates how straightforward process parameter modification can mitigate the loss of volatile minor actinides in the metal alloy melt.

  14. MELCOR/CONTAIN LMR Implementation Report-Progress FY15

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, Larry L.; Louie, David L.Y.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the progress of the CONTAIN-LMR sodium physics and chemistry models to be implemented in to MELCOR 2.1. It also describes the progress to implement these models into CONT AIN 2 as well. In the past two years, the implementation included the addition of sodium equations of state and sodium properties from two different sources. The first source is based on the previous work done by Idaho National Laborat ory by modifying MELCOR to include liquid lithium equation of state as a working fluid to mode l the nuclear fusion safety research. The second source uses properties generated for the SIMMER code. Testing and results from this implementation of sodium pr operties are given. In addition, the CONTAIN-LMR code was derived from an early version of C ONTAIN code. Many physical models that were developed sin ce this early version of CONTAIN are not captured by this early code version. Therefore, CONTAIN 2 is being updated with the sodium models in CONTAIN-LMR in or der to facilitate verification of these models with the MELCOR code. Although CONTAIN 2, which represents the latest development of CONTAIN, now contains ma ny of the sodium specific models, this work is not complete due to challenges from the lower cell architecture in CONTAIN 2, which is different from CONTAIN- LMR. This implementation should be completed in the coming year, while sodi um models from C ONTAIN-LMR are being integrated into MELCOR. For testing, CONTAIN decks have been developed for verification and validation use. In terms of implementing the sodium m odels into MELCOR, a separate sodium model branch was created for this document . Because of massive development in the main stream MELCOR 2.1 code and the require ment to merge the latest code version into this branch, the integration of the s odium models were re-directed to implement the sodium chemistry models first. This change led to delays of the actual implementation. For aid in the future implementation of sodium

  15. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Donelson, Richard; Bryson, E. S.

    1998-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  16. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1998-11-10

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  17. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Guon, J.; Grantham, L.F.; Specht, E.R.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes an improved metal alloy reactor fuel consisting essentially of uranium, plutonium, and at least one element from the group consisting of yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium.

  18. Assessment of ceramic coatings for metal fuel melting crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a coating method and material for crucibles to prevent material interactions with the U-Zr/U-TRU-Zr fuels during the manufacturing of SFR fuels. Refractory coatings were applied to niobium substrates by vacuum plasma-spray coating method. Melt dipping tests conducted were the coated rods lowered into the fuel melt at 1600 C. degrees, and withdrawn and cooled outside the crucible in the inert atmosphere of the induction furnace. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods indicated that plasma-sprayed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating doesn't form significant reaction layer between fuel melt and coating layer. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods showed that TiC, TaC, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings exhibited the promising performance among other ceramic coatings. These materials could be promising candidate materials for the reusable melt crucible of metal fuel for SFR. In addition, in order to develop the vacuum plasma-spray coating method for re-usable crucible of metal fuel slugs to be overcome the issue of thermal expansion mismatch between coating material and crucible, various combinations of coating conditions were investigated to find the bonding effect on the substrate in pursuit of more effective ways to withstand the thermal stresses. It is observed that most coating methods maintained sound coating state in U-Zr melt. (authors)

  19. Temperature and burnup correlated fuel-cladding chemical interaction in U-10ZR metallic fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, William J.

    Metallic fuels are proposed for use in advanced sodium cooled fast reactors and provide a number of advantages over other fuel types considering their fabricability, performance, recyclability, and safety. Resistance to cladding "breach" and subsequent release of fission products and fuel constituents to the nuclear power plant primary coolant system is a key performance parameter for a nuclear fuel system. In metallic fuel, FCCI weakens the cladding, especially at high power-high temperature operation, contributing to fuel pin breach. Empirical relationships for FCCI have been developed from a large body of data collected from in-pile (EBR-II) and out-of-pile experiments [1]. However, these relationships are unreliable in predicting FCCI outside the range of EBR-II experimental data. This dissertation examines new FCCI data extracted from the MFF-series of prototypic length metallic fuel irradiations performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The fuel in these assemblies operated a temperature and burnup conditions similar to that in EBR-II but with axial fuel height three times longer than EBR-II experiments. Comparing FCCI formation data from FFTF and EBR-II provides new insight into FCCI formation kinetics. A model is developed combining both production and diffusion of lanthanides to the fuel-cladding interface and subsequent reaction with the cladding. The model allows these phenomena to be influenced by fuel burnup (lanthanide concentrations) and operating temperature. Parameters in the model are adjusted to reproduce measured FCCI layer thicknesses from EBR-II and FFTF. The model predicts that, under appropriate conditions, rate of FCCI formation can be controlled by either fission product transport or by the reaction rate of the interaction species at the fuel-cladding interface. This dissertation will help forward the design of metallic fuel systems for advanced sodium cooled fast reactors by allowing the prediction of FCCI layer formation in full

  20. Emissions of fuel metals content from a diesel vehicle engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Li, Chun-Teh; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Luo, Jih-Haur; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    This study was set out to assess the characteristics and significance of metal contents emitted from diesel engines. We found that the emitted concentrations of crust elements (including Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Si) were much higher than those of anthropogenic elements (including Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) from diesel vehicle engine exhausts under the transient-cycle condition. The emission concentrations of particulate matters from diesel vehicle engine were inversely proportional to the specified engine speeds. To the contrary, the increase of engine speeds resulted in increase of fractions of metal contents in particulate matters. We conducted simple linear regression analysis to relate the emission rates of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust to the consumption rates of metal contents in diesel fuel. This study yielded R2=0.999 which suggests that the emission of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust could be fully explained by the consumption of metal contents in diesel fuel. For illustration, we found that the annual emission rates of both crust and anthropogenic elements from all diesel engine vehicles (=269 000 and 58 700 kg yr -1, respectively) were significantly higher than those from the coal power plant, electrical arc furnace, and coke oven (=90 100 and 1660 kg yr -1, 2060 and 173 kg yr -1, and 60 500 and 3740 kg yr -1, respectively) in Taiwan area. The relatively high amount of metal contents emitted from diesel engines strongly suggests that the measurement on the control of metal contents in diesel fuel should be taken in the future.

  1. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Yu, Conrad

    2010-08-10

    An apparatus having a first substrate having (1) a cavity, (2) one or more resistive heaters, and (3) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen; a second substrate having (1) an outlet valve comprising a pressure relief structure and (2) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen, wherein said second substrate is coupled to said first substrate forming a sealed volume in said cavity; a metal hydride material contained within said cavity; and a gas distribution system formed by coupling a microfluidic interconnect to said pressure relief structure. Additional apparatuses and methods are also disclosed.

  2. Metal chelate catalysts for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, M.; Darby, R.; White, R.; Albelo, G.; Deininger, P.; Balliew, J.

    1980-08-01

    An aromatic dialdehyde, 9,9-dimethyl-4,5-xanthene-dicaroxaldehyde, suitable for the synthesis of a stacked polymer of meso-tetraphenyl-porphyrin was synthesized in high yield. From this, a dimer was formed. The cobalt complex of this dimer, along with metal complexes of polymers of phthalocyanine and TAA were tested for catalytic activity for the reduction of oxygen. The stacked dimer of TPP and the sheet polymer of TPP exhibited greater catalytic activity as the cobalt complexes than all other compounds tested with the exception of CoTAA.

  3. Metal chelate catalysts for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, R.; White, R.; Yamana, M.; Tsutsue, M.

    1981-07-01

    A variety of metal chelates were synthesized and evaluated for their activity as oxygen cathode electrocatalysts in strong acidic electrolytes. It was found that Cobalt tetraazaanulene (CoTAA) and iron phthalocyanine (FePc) exhibit the best activity of all the metal chelates synthesized, but have very limited stability. The proposed solution to this problem is the synthesis of polymeric forms of these chelates, with comparable active and considerably greater stability than the monomers. Three methods for stability testing were developed: (1) Potentiostatic, with periodic measurement of the current potential characteristic; (2) potentiostatic, with continuous monitoring of the current, and; (3) galvanostatic, with continuous monitoring of potential. Each method provides a good evaluation of activity versus time, and the method to be used depends upon the objective of the test. A polymeric form of Co(TAA) was synthesized by means of an acetylene terminated monomer, which in turn was made via a Co(TAA)Br2 intermediate. The activity of the polymer was found to be comparable to that of Co(TAA) monomer, and significantly greater than that of either the stacked or sheet polymeric forms of Cobalt tetraphenylporphrine (CoTPP) previously synthesized and tested.

  4. Status of fuel, blanket, and absorber testing in the fast flux test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.B.; Bard, F.E.; Leggett, R.D.; Pitner, A.L. )

    1992-01-01

    On December 2, 1980, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reached its full design power of 400 MW for the first time. From the start, the FFTF provided a modern liquid-metal reactor (LMR) test facility recognized for excellence, innovation, and efficiency of operation. Its unique instrumentation and special test capabilities have allowed the facility to stay at the cutting edge of technology. Prototypical size and core environment allow the FFTF to demonstrate core components and directly support design optimization of LMRs. Since December 1980, the FFTF has irradiated > 64,000 mixed-oxide driver and test fuel pins, > 1,000 metal-fueled pins, > 100 carbide-fueled pins, and > 35 nitride-fueled pins (supporting the U.S. space reactor program). This paper reviews the status of one of the major activities at the FFTF for its first 12 yr of operation - DOE-sponsored testing and development of fuel, blanket, and absorber assemblies for commercial LMRs.

  5. Fuel damage during off-normal transients in metal-fueled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, J.M.; Bauer, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel damage during off-normal transients is a key issue in the safety of fast reactors because the fuel pin cladding provides the primary barrier to the release of radioactive materials. Part of the Safety Task of the Integral Fast Reactor Program is to provide assessments of the damage and margins to failure for metallic fuels over the wide range of transients that must be considered in safety analyses. This paper reviews the current status of the analytical and experimental programs that are providing the bases for these assessments. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  7. Molten-Metal Electrodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, A.; Vohs, J. M.; Gorte, R. J.

    2010-11-03

    Molten In, Pb, and Sb were examined as anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) that operate between 973 and 1173 K. The results for these metals were compared with those reported previously for molten Sn electrodes. Cells were operated under “battery” conditions, with dry He or N2 flow in the anode compartment, to characterize the electrochemical oxidation of the metals at the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-electrolyte interface. In most cases, the open-circuit voltages (OCVs) were close to that based on equilibrium between the metals and their oxides. With Sn and In, the cell impedances increased dramatically at all temperatures after drawing current due to formation of insulating, oxide barriers at the electrolyte interface. Similar results were observed for Pb at 973 and 1073 K, but the impedance remained low even after PbO formation at 1173 K because this is above the melting temperature of PbO. Similarly, the impedances of molten Sb electrodes at 973 K were low and unaffected by current flow because of the low melting temperature of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The potential of using molten-metal electrodes for direct-carbon fuel cells and for energy-storage systems is discussed.

  8. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels and fuel gas from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by the use of molten metal halide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the spent molten metal halide with oxygen in a liquid phase gasification zone at a temperature and pressure sufficient to vaporize from about 25 to about 75 weight percent of the spent metal halide, the oxygen being introduced in an amount sufficient to remove from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the carbon contained in the spent molten metal halide to produce a fuel gas and regenerated metal halide; and (d) incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combusting carbon and sulfur compounds contained therein.

  9. A U. S. Perspective on Fast Reactor Fuel Fabrication Technology and Experience Part I: Metal Fuels and Assembly Design

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas E. Burkes; Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Porter; Douglas C. Crawford; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-06-01

    This paper is Part I of a review focusing on the United States experience with metallic fast reactor fuel fabrication and assembly design for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II and the Fast Flux Test Facility, and it also refers to the impact of development in other nations. Experience with metal fuel fabrication in the United States is extensive, including over 60 years of research conducted by the government, national laboratories, industry, and academia. This experience has culminated into a foundation of research and resulted in significant improvements to the technologies employed to fabricate metallic fast reactor fuel. This part of the review documents the current state of fuel fabrication technologies for metallic fuels, some of the challenges faced by previous researchers, and how these were overcome. Knowledge gained from reviewing previous investigations will aid both researchers and policy makers in forming future decisions relating to nuclear fuel fabrication technologies.

  10. A US perspective on fast reactor fuel fabrication technology and experience part I: metal fuels and assembly design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.; Crawford, Douglas C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.

    2009-06-01

    This paper is part I of a review focusing on the United States experience with metallic fast reactor fuel fabrication and assembly design for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Experience with metal fuel fabrication in the United States is extensive, including over 60 years of research conducted by the government, national laboratories, industry, and academia. This experience has culminated in a considerable amount of research that resulted in significant improvements to the technologies employed to fabricate metallic fast reactor fuel. This part of the review documents the current state of fuel fabrication technologies for metallic fuels, some of the challenges faced by previous researchers, and how these were overcome. Knowledge gained from reviewing previous investigations will aid both researchers and policy makers in forming future decisions relating to nuclear fuel fabrication technologies.

  11. LmrS is a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Jody L; Smith, Kenneth P; Kumar, Sanath H; Floyd, Jared T; Varela, Manuel F

    2010-12-01

    A multidrug efflux pump designated LmrS (lincomycin resistance protein of Staphylococcus aureus), belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transporters, was cloned, and the role of LmrS in antimicrobial efflux was evaluated. The highest relative increase in MIC, 16-fold, was observed for linezolid and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride (TPCL), followed by an 8-fold increase for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol. LmrS has 14 predicted membrane-spanning domains and is homologous to putative lincomycin resistance proteins of Bacillus spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Listeria spp. PMID:20855745

  12. Experimental Determination of Metal Fuel Point Defect Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M J; McCall, S

    2008-06-03

    Nuclear metallic fuels are one of many options for advanced nuclear fuel cycles because they provide dimensional stability, mechanical integrity, thermal efficiency, and irradiation resistance while the associated pyro-processing is technically relevant to concerns about proliferation and diversion of special nuclear materials. In this presentation we will discuss recent success that we have had in studying isochronal annealing of damage cascades in Pu and Pu(Ga) arising from the self-decay of Pu as well as the annealing characteristics of noninteracting point defect populations produced by ion accelerator irradiation. Comparisons of the annealing properties of these two populations of defects arising from very different source terms are enlightening and point to complex defect and mass transport properties in the plutonium specimens which we are only now starting to understand as a result of many follow-on studies. More importantly however, the success of these measurements points the way to obtaining important mass transport parameters for comparison with theoretical predictions or to use directly in existing and future materials modeling of radiation effects in nuclear metallic fuels. The way forward on such measurements and the requisite theory and modeling will be discussed.

  13. Carbon composites with metal nanoparticles for Alcohol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrapragada, Lakshman; Siddhardha, R. S.; Podilla, Ramakrishna; Muthukumar, V. S.; Creager, Stephen; Rao, A. M.; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2015-03-01

    Graphene due to its high surface area and superior conductivity has attracted wide attention from both industrial and scientific communities. We chose graphene as a substrate for metal nanoparticle deposition for fuel cell applications. There are many chemical routes for fabrication of metal-graphene composites, but they have an inherent disadvantage of low performance due to the usage of surfactants, that adsorb on their surface. Here we present a design for one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles and simultaneous deposition on graphene with laser ablation of gold strip and functionalized graphene. In this process there are two natural advantages, the nanoparticles are synthesized without any surfactants, therefore they are pristine and subsequent impregnation on graphene is linker free. These materials are well characterized with electron microscopy to find their morphology and spectroscopic techniques like Raman, UV-Vis. for functionality. This gold nanoparticle decorated graphene composite has been tested for its electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols for alkaline fuel cell applications. An electrode made of this composite showed good stability for more than 200 cycles of operation and reported a low onset potential of 100 mV more negative, an important factor for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  14. High performance, high durability non-precious metal fuel cell catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Thomas E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Schmoeckel, Alison K.

    2016-03-15

    This invention relates to non-precious metal fuel cell cathode catalysts, fuel cells that contain these catalysts, and methods of making the same. The fuel cell cathode catalysts are highly nitrogenated carbon materials that can contain a transition metal. The highly nitrogenated carbon materials can be supported on a nanoparticle substrate.

  15. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structural degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.

  16. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structuralmore » degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.« less

  17. Epsilon Metal Waste Form for Immobilization of Noble Metals from Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Rohatgi, Aashish; Zumhoff, Mac R.

    2013-10-01

    Epsilon metal (ε-metal), an alloy of Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, is being developed as a waste form to treat and immobilize the undissolved solids and dissolved noble metals from aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel. Epsilon metal is an attractive waste form for several reasons: increased durability relative to borosilicate glass, it can be fabricated without additives (100% waste loading), and in addition it also benefits borosilicate glass waste loading by eliminating noble metals from the glass and thus the processing problems related there insolubility in glass. This work focused on the processing aspects of the epsilon metal waste form development. Epsilon metal is comprised of refractory metals resulting in high reaction temperatures to form the alloy, expected to be 1500 - 2000°C making it a non-trivial phase to fabricate by traditional methods. Three commercially available advanced technologies were identified: spark-plasma sintering, microwave sintering, and hot isostatic pressing, and investigated as potential methods to fabricate this waste form. Results of these investigations are reported and compared in terms of bulk density, phase assemblage (X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy).

  18. Effect of a metal alloy fuel catalyst on bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ruma; Koerting, Claudia; Suib, Steven L; Best, Michael H; Berlin, Alvin J

    2005-11-01

    Many microorganisms have been demonstrated to utilize petroleum fuel products to fulfill their nutritional requirement for carbon. As a result, the ability of these microbes to degrade fuel has both a deleterious affect as well as beneficial applications. This study focused on the undesired ability of bacteria to grow on fuel and the potential for some metal alloys to inhibit this biodegradation. The objective of this study was to review the pattern of growth of two reference strains of petroleum-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas oleovorans and Rhodococcus rhodocrous, in a specific hydrocarbon environment in the presence of a commercially available alloy. The alloy formulated and supplied by Advanced Power Systems International Inc. (APSI) is sold for fuel reformulation and other purposes. The components of the alloy used in the study were antimony, tin, lead, and mercury formulated as pellets. Surface characterization also showed the presence of tin oxide and lead amalgam phases. Hydrocarbon used for the study was primarily 87-octane gasoline. The growth of the bacteria in the water and mineral-supplemented gasoline mixture over 6-8 weeks was monitored by the viable plate count method. While an initial increase in bacteria occurred in the first week, overall bacterial growth was found to be suppressed in the presence of the alloy. Results also indicate that the alloy surface characteristics that convey the catalytic activity may also contribute to the observed antibacterial activity. PMID:16262333

  19. Fully-Coupled Metallic Fuel Performance Simulations using BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, Jack D.; Unal, Cetin

    2015-08-27

    This document is a set of slides intended to accompany a talk at a meeting. The first topic taken up is zirconium redistribution. The rod edge Zr increase is evidently due to the Soret term and temperature gradient. Then metallic fission gas release modeling is considered. Based on a GRSIS/FEAST model, the approach of generating fission gas in the fuel matrix is described. A sensitivity study on parameters is presented, including sodium bond & diffusion coefficient sensitivity along with dt sensitivity. Finally, results of some coupled simulations are shown, with ideas about future work.

  20. DOE/NEAMS AMP CAMP I 2010 - multi species transport in metal fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, Gary A

    2011-01-21

    Essential aspects from the literature of metal nuclear fuel alloys and modeling the transport of constituents therein are discussed. The essential mathematical problem is described along with relevant issues for implementation of solution algorithms in the AMP nuclear fuel code.

  1. Molten metal electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadekar, Ashay Dileep

    Molten metal electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells are electrochemically characterized for their possible use in direct carbon oxidation and energy storage. The cells were operated in the battery mode at 973 K, without added fuel, in order to understand the oxidation characteristics of Sb alloys as anodes at electrolyte interfaces. The cells using 50-mol% In-Sb and Sn-Sb mixtures exhibited open-circuit voltages (OCV) of 1.0 and 0.93 V, values similar to those of cells with pure In and Sn anodes respectively, and insulating In2O3 and SnO2 layers formed at the electrolyte interface. The 50-mol% Sb-Bi cell had an OCV of 0.73 V initially, close to that with pure Sb anode. The OCV remained constant until all of the Sb had been oxidized, after which it dropped to 0.43 V, similar to the value for pure Bi. SEM analysis of the spent cell showed two distinct phases, with metallic Bi at the bottom and Sb2O3 at the top. The cell with 50-mol% Sb-Pb anode exhibited an OCV that changed continuously with conversion, from 0.73 V initially to 0.67 V following the addition of charge equivalent to oxidation of 120% the Sb. The total cell impedance remained low for this entire period. EDS measurements on the sectioned Sb-Pb cell suggested formation of a mixed oxide of Pb and Sb. An energy-storage concept using molten Sb as the fuel in a reversible solid-oxide electrochemical cell was tested using a button cell with a Sc-stabilized zirconia electrolyte at 973 K, by measuring the impedances under fuel-cell and electrolyzer conditions for a range of stirred Sb-Sb2O 3 compositions. The Sb-Sb2O3 electrode impedances were found to be on the order of 0.15 ohm.cm2 for both fuel-cell and electrolyzer conditions, for compositions up to 30% Sb and 70% Sb2O3. The OCVs were 0.75 V, independent of conversion. The use of molten neat Ag and alloyed Ag-Sb for direct-carbon anodes in SOFCs has been examined at 1273 K. For Ag, an OCV typical of that expected for carbon oxidation, 1.12 V, was observed when

  2. Concept for a small, colocated fuel cycle facility for oxide breeder fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Lerch, R.E.; Stradley, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) program to examine innovative liquid-metal reactor (LMR) system designs over the past three years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) collaborated on studies of mixed oxide fuel cycle options. A principal effort was an advanced concept for a small integrated fuel cycle colocated with a 1300-MW(e) reactor station. The study provided a scoping design, capital and operating cost estimates, and a basis on which to proceed with implementation of such a facility if future plans so dictate. The facility integrated reprocessing, waste management, and refabrication functions in a single facility of nominal 35-t/year capacity utilizing the latest technology developed in fabrication programs at WHC and in reprocessing at ORNL. The concept was based on many years of work at both sites and extensive design studies of prior years.

  3. Concept for a small, colocated fuel cycle facility for oxide breeder fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Stradley, J.G.; Lerch, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) program to examine innovative liquid-metal reactor (LMR) system designs over the past three years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) collaborated on studies of mixed oxide fuel cycle options. A principal effort was an advanced concept for a small integrated fuel cycle colocated with a 1300-MW(e) reactor station. The study provided a scoping design and a basis on which to proceed with implementation of such a facility if future plans so dictate. The facility integrated reprocessing, waste management, and refabrication functions in a single facility of nominal 35-t/year capacity utilizing the latest technology developed in fabrication programs at WHC and in reprocessing at ORNL. The concept was based on many years of work at both sites and extensive design studies of prior years.

  4. The evaluation of the use of metal alloy fuels in pressurized water reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.

    1992-10-26

    The use of metal alloy fuels in a PWR was investigated. It was found that it would be feasible and competitive to design PWRs with metal alloy fuels but that there seemed to be no significant benefits. The new technology would carry with it added economic uncertainty and since no large benefits were found it was determined that metal alloy fuels are not recommended. Initially, a benefit was found for metal alloy fuels but when the oxide core was equally optimized the benefit faded. On review of the optimization of the current generation of ``advanced reactors,`` it became clear that reactor design optimization has been under emphasized. Current ``advanced reactors`` are severely constrained. The AP-600 required the use of a fuel design from the 1970`s. In order to find the best metal alloy fuel design, core optimization became a central effort. This work is ongoing.

  5. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tripković, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-03-01

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO(2), SnO(2), NbO(2), ZrO(2), SiO(2), Ta(2)O(5) and Nb(2)O(5)) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in detail; however, due to different operating conditions it is not straightforward to link the chemical and the electrochemical environment. The largest differences reflect in (1) the oxidation state of the surface (the oxygen species coverage), (2) temperature and (3) the possibility of platinum dissolution at high potentials and the interference of redispersion with normal working potential of the PEMFC cathode. We have calculated the PtO(x) (x = 0, 1, 2) adsorption energies on different metal oxides' surface terminations as well as inside the metal oxides' bulk, and we have concluded that NbO(2) might be a good support for platinum redispersion at PEMFC cathodes. PMID:23358311

  6. Thermal analysis for fuel handling system for sodium cooled reactor considering minor actinide-bearing metal fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) is one of the components of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) used to close the fuel cycle. ABR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor that is used to consume transuranic elements resulting from the reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. ABR-1000 [1000 MW(thermal)] is a fast reactor concept created at Argonne National Laboratory to be used as a reference concept for various future trade-offs. ABR-1000 meets the GNEP goals although it uses what is considered base sodium fast reactor technology for its systems and components. One of the considerations of any fast reactor plant concept is the ability to perform fuel-handling operations with new and spent fast reactor fuel. The transmutation fuel proposed as the ABR fuel has a very little experience base, and thus, this paper investigates a fuel-handling concept and potential issues of handling fast reactor fuel containing minor actinides. In this study, two thermal analyses supporting a conceptual design study on the ABR-1000 fuel-handling system were carried out. One analysis investigated passive dry spent fuel storage, and the other analysis investigated a fresh fuel shipping cask. Passive dry storage can be made suitable for the ABR-1000 spent fuel storage with sodium-bonded metal fuel. The thermal analysis shows that spent fast reactor fuel with a decay heat of 2 kW or less can be stored passively in a helium atmosphere. The 2-kW value seems to be a reasonable and practical level, and a combination of reasonably-sized in-sodium storage followed by passive dry storage could be a candidate for spent fuel storage for the next-generation sodium-cooled reactor with sodium-bonded metal fuel. Requirements for the shipping casks for minor actinide-bearing fuel with a high decay heat level are also discussed in this paper. The shipping cask for fresh sodium-cooled-reactor fuel should be a dry type to reduce the reaction between residual moisture on fresh fuel and the

  7. Irradiaton of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Heather J. MacLean; Steven L. Hayes

    2007-09-01

    Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels.

  8. Development of inexpensive metal macrocyclic complexes for use in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.; Kosek, J.A.; Cropley, C.C.; Hamdan, M.

    1998-01-01

    Several metal macrocyclic complexes were synthesized for use as catalysts in fuel cells. An initial evaluation of their ability to catalyze the fuel cell reactions were completed. Based on this initial evaluation, one metal macrocyclic catalyst was selected and long-term stability testing in a fuel cell was initiated. The fuel cell employing this catalyst was operated continuously for one year with little signs of catalyst degradation. The effect of synthetic reformates on the performance of the catalyst in the fuel cell environment also demonstrated high tolerance of this catalyst for common contaminants and poisons.

  9. A metallic interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Diane Mildred

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrochemically converts the chemical energy of reaction into electrical energy. The commercial success of planar, SOFC stack technology has a number of challenges, one of which is the interconnect that electrically and physically connects the cathode of one cell to the anode of an adjacent cell in the SOFC stack and in addition, separates the anodic and cathodic gases. An SOFC stack operating at intermediate temperatures, between 600°C and 800°C, can utilize a metallic alloy as an interconnect material. Since the interconnect of an SOFC stack must operate in both air and fuel environments, the oxidation kinetics, adherence and electronic resistance of the oxide scales formed on commercial alloys were investigated in air and wet hydrogen under thermal cycling conditions to 800°C. The alloy, Haynes 230, exhibited the slowest oxidation kinetics and the lowest area-specific resistance as a function of oxidation time of all the alloys in air at 800°C. However, the area-specific resistance of the oxide scale formed on Haynes 230 in wet hydrogen was unacceptably high after only 500 hours of oxidation, which was attributed to the high resistivity of Cr2O3 in a reducing atmosphere. A study of the electrical conductivity of the minor phase manganese chromite, MnXCr3-XO4, in the oxide scale of Haynes 230, revealed that a composition closer to Mn2CrO4 had significantly higher electrical conductivity than that closer to MnCr 2O4. Haynes 230 was coated with Mn to form a phase closer to the Mn2CrO4 composition for application on the fuel side of the interconnect. U.S. Patent No. 6,054,231 is pending. Although coating a metallic alloy is inexpensive, the stringent economic requirements of SOFC stack technology required an alloy without coating for production applications. As no commercially available alloy, among the 41 alloys investigated, performed to the specifications required, a new alloy was created and designated DME-A2. The oxide scale

  10. Using graphitic foam as the bonding material in metal fuel pins for sodium fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Aydın; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2013-10-01

    The study evaluates the possible use of graphite foam as the bonding material between U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel and steel clad for sodium fast reactor applications using FEAST-METAL fuel performance code. Furthermore, the applicability of FEAST-METAL to the advanced fuel designs is demonstrated. Replacing the sodium bond with a chemically stable foam material would eliminate fuel clad metallurgical interactions, and allow for fuel swelling under low external stress. Hence, a significant improvement is expected for the steady state and transient performance. FEAST-METAL was used to assess the thermo-mechanical behavior of the new fuel form and a reference metallic fuel pin. Nearly unity conversion ratio, 75% smear density U-15Pu-6Zr metallic fuel pin with sodium bond, and T91 cladding was selected as a reference case. It was found that operating the reference case at high clad temperatures (600-660 °C) results in (1) excessive clad wastage formation/clad thinning due to lanthanide migration and formation of brittle phases at clad inner surface, and (2) excessive clad hoop strain at the upper axial section due mainly to the occurrence of thermal creep. The combination of these two factors may lead to cladding breach. The work concludes that replacing the sodium bond with 80% porous graphite foam and reducing the fuel smear density to 70%, it is likely that the fuel clad metallurgical interaction would be eliminated while the fuel swelling is allowed without excessive fuel clad mechanical interaction. The suggested design appears as an alternative for a high performance metallic fuel design for sodium fast reactors.

  11. N-Reactor (U-metal) Fuel Characteristics for Disposal Criticality Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Larry Lorin

    2000-05-01

    DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels encompass many fuel types. In an effort to facilitate criticality analysis for these various fuel types, they were categorized into nine characteristic fuel groups with emphasis on fuel matrix composition. Out of each fuel group, a representative fuel type was chosen for analysis as a bounding case within that fuel group. Generally, burnup data, fissile enrichments, and total fuel and fissile mass govern the selection of the representative or candidate fuel within that group. Additionally, the criticality analysis will also require data to support design of the canister internals, thermal, and radiation shielding. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and provide in a concise format, material and information/data needed to perform supporting analyses to qualify N-Reactor fuels for acceptance into the designated repository. The N Reactor fuels incorporate zirconium cladding and uranium metal with unique fabrication details in terms of physical size, and method of construction. The fuel construction and post-irradiation handling have created attendant issues relative to cladding failure in the underwater storage environment. These fuels were comprised of low-enriched metal (0.947 to 1.25 wt% 235U) that were originally intended to generate weapons-grade plutonium for national defense. Modifications in subsequent fuel design and changes in the mode of reactor operation in later years were focused more toward power production.

  12. Thermochemical Processing of Radioactive Waste Using Powder Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Panteleev, V. I.; Karlina, O. K.; Klimov. V. L.

    2003-02-25

    Problematic radioactive wastes were generated during various activities of both industrial facilities and research institutions usually in relative small amounts. These can be spent ion exchange resins, inorganic absorbents, wastes from research nuclear reactors, irradiated graphite, mixed, organic or chlorine-containing radioactive waste, contaminated soils, un-burnable heavily surface-contaminated materials, etc. Conventional treatment methods encounter serious problems concerning processing efficiency of such waste, e.g. complete destruction of organic molecules and avoiding of possible emissions of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemically hazardous species. Some contaminations cannot be removed from surface using common decontamination methods. Conditioning of ash residues obtained after treatment of solid radioactive waste including ashes received from treating problematic wastes also is a complicated task. Moreover due to relative small volume of specific type radioactive waste the development of target treatment procedures and facilities to conduct technological processes and their deployment could be economically unexpedient and ecologically no justified. Thermochemical processing technologies are used for treating and conditioning problematic radioactive wastes. The thermochemical processing uses powdered metal fuels (PMF) that are specifically formulated for the waste composition and react chemically with the waste components. The composition of the PMF is designed in such a way as to minimize the release of hazardous components and radionuclides in the off gas and to confine the contaminants in the ash residue. The thermochemical procedures allow decomposition of organic matter and capturing hazardous radionuclides and chemical species simultaneously. A significant advantage of thermochemical processing is its autonomy. Thermochemical treatment technologies use the energy of exothermic reactions in the mixture of radioactive or hazardous waste with PMF

  13. Approaches to mitigate metal catalyst deactivation in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) fuel electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adijanto, Lawrence

    While Ni/YSZ cermets have been used successfully in SOFCs, they also have several limitations, thus motivating the use of highly conductive ceramics to replace the Ni components in SOFC anodes. Ceramic electrodes are promising for use in SOFC anodes because they are expected to be less susceptible to sintering and coking, be redox stable, and be more tolerant of impurities like sulfur. In this thesis, for catalytic studies, the infiltration procedure has been used to form composites which have greatly simplified the search for the best ceramics for anode applications. In the development of ceramic fuel electrodes for SOFC, high performance can only be achieved when a transition metal catalyst is added. Because of the high operating temperatures, deactivation of the metal catalyst by sintering and/or coking is a severe problem. In this thesis, two approaches aimed at mitigating metal catalyst deactivation which was achieved by: 1) designing a catalyst that is resistant to coking and sintering and 2) developing a new method for catalyst deposition, will be presented. The first approach involved synthesizing a self-regenerating, "smart" catalyst, in which Co, Cu, or Ni were inserted into the B-site of a perovskite oxide under oxidizing conditions and then brought back to the surface under reducing conditions. This restores lost surface area of sintered metal particles through an oxidation/reduction cycle. Results will be shown for each of the metals, as well as for Cu-Co mixed metal systems, which are found to exhibit good tolerance to carbon deposition and interesting catalytic properties. The second strategy involves depositing novel Pd CeO2 core-shell nanostructure catalysts onto a substrate surface which had been chemically modified to anchor the nanoparticles. The catalyst deposited onto the chemically modified, hydrophobic surface is shown to be uniform and well dispersed, and exhibit excellent thermal stability to temperatures as high as 1373 K. Similar metal

  14. Metal foam heat exchangers for thermal management of fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabaee, M.; Hooman, K.

    2012-05-01

    The present study explores the possibility of using metal foams for thermal management of fuel cells so that air-cooled fuel cell stacks can be commercialized as replacements for currently-available water-cooled counterparts. Experimental studies have been conducted to examine the heat transfer enhancement from a thin metal foam layer sandwiched between two bipolar plates of a cell. To do this, effects of the key parameters including the free stream velocity and characteristics of metal foam such as porosity, permeability, and form drag coefficient on heat and fluid flow are investigated. The improvements as a result of the application of metal foam layers on fuel cell systems efficiency have been analyzed and discussed. Non-optimized results have shown that to remove the same amount of generated heat, the air-cooled fuel cell systems using aluminum foams require half of the pumping power compared to water-cooled fuel cell systems.

  15. Measuring the noble metal and iodine composition of extracted noble metal phase from spent nuclear fuel using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Palomares, R I; Dayman, K J; Landsberger, S; Biegalski, S R; Soderquist, C Z; Casella, A J; Brady Raap, M C; Schwantes, J M

    2015-04-01

    Masses of noble metal and iodine nuclides in the metallic noble metal phase extracted from spent fuel are measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Nuclide presence is predicted using fission yield analysis, and radionuclides are identified and the masses quantified using neutron activation analysis. The nuclide compositions of noble metal phase derived from two dissolution methods, UO2 fuel dissolved in nitric acid and UO2 fuel dissolved in ammonium-carbonate and hydrogen-peroxide solution, are compared. PMID:25644079

  16. Emission FTIR analyses of thin microscopic patches of jet fuel residue deposited on heated metal surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Vogel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Deposits laid down in patches on metal strips in a high pressure/high temperature fuel system simulator operated with aerated fuel at varying flow rates were analyzed by emission FTIR in terms of functional groups. Significant differences were found in the spectra and amounts of deposits derived from fuels to which small concentrations of oxygen-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-containing heterocyclics or metal naphthenates were added. The spectra of deposits generated on strips by heating fuels and air in a closed container were very different from those of the flowing fluid deposits. One such closed-container dodecane deposit on silver gave a strong surface-enhanced Raman spectrum.

  17. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-06-17

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactormore » designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). Lastly, a model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.« less

  18. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-06-17

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). Lastly, a model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  19. Performance of Low Smeared Density Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  20. Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M.A.; Creer, J.M.

    1988-10-01

    REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Run - Beyond - Cladding - Breach (RBCB) test results for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metallic fuels program

    SciTech Connect

    Batte, G.L. ); Hoffman, G.L. )

    1990-01-01

    In 1984 Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) began an aggressive program of research and development based on the concept of a closed system for fast-reactor power generation and on-site fuel reprocessing, exclusively designed around the use of metallic fuel. This is the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Although the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) has used metallic fuel since its creation 25 yeas ago, in 1985 ANL began a study of the characteristics and behavior of an advanced-design metallic fuel based on uranium-zirconium (U-Zr) and uranium-plutonium-zirconium (U-Pu-Zr) alloys. During the past five years several areas were addressed concerning the performance of this fuel system. In all instances of testing the metallic fuel has demonstrated its ability to perform reliably to high burnups under varying design conditions. This paper will present one area of testing which concerns the fuel system's performance under breach conditions. It is the purpose of this paper to document the observed post-breach behavior of this advanced-design metallic fuel. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Lanthanides in Metallic Nuclear Fuels: Their Behavior and Methods for Their Control

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Mariani; Douglas L. Porter; Thomas P. O'Holleran; Steven L. Hayes; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-12-01

    The thermodynamic and experimental basis is given for using dopant additives to bind lanthanides as intermetallic compounds in metallic nuclear fuels. Lanthanide fission products are a major factor in limiting the lifetime of the fuel, because they migrate to the fuel slug peripheral surface where they participate in fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) with the steel cladding. Lanthanide carryover in recycled metal fuels can accelerate FCCI, as recycled lanthanides would likely segregate from the fuel phase, putting the lanthanides in prompt contact with the cladding. In out-of-pile tests we examined the use of Pd for binding the lanthanides, with Pd selected because of its known metallurgical properties in fuel related systems and because of its known behavior in irradiated EBR-II fuels. Initial results confirmed that palladium may be expected to mitigate FCCI arising from lanthanides, and it has been recommended for in-pile tests. We also evaluated transport phenomena responsible for lanthanide migration, and identified liquid-like behaviors as being dominant. Liquid-like behaviors include transport with liquid metals, liquid metal solutions, and rapid surface transport of alloys/metals near their melting temperatures. The analysis led to establishing general criteria for selecting alternate dopant additives, and identifying Sn, Sb, and Te as alternates for further testing.

  3. Temperature and Burnup Correlated FCCI in U-10Zr Metallic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    William J. Carmack

    2012-05-01

    Metallic fuels are proposed for use in advanced sodium cooled fast reactors. The experience basis for metallic fuels is extensive and includes development and qualification of fuels for the Experimental Breeder Reactor I, the Experimental Breeder Reactor II, FERMI-I, and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactors. Metallic fuels provide a number of advantages over other fuel types in terms of fabricability, performance, recyclability, and safety. Key to the performance of all nuclear fuel systems is the resistance to “breach” and subsequent release of fission products and fuel constituents to the primary coolant system of the nuclear power plant. In metallic fuel, the experience is that significant fuel-cladding chemical (FCCI) interaction occurs and becomes prevalent at high power-high temperature operation and ultimately leads to fuel pin breach and failure. Empirical relationships for metallic fuel pin failure have been developed from a large body of in-pile and out of pile research, development, and experimentation. It has been found that significant in-pile acceleration of the FCCI rate is experienced over similar condition out-of-pile experiments. The study of FCCI in metallic fuels has led to the quantification of in-pile failure rates to establish an empirical time and temperature dependent failure limit for fuel elements. Up until now the understanding of FCCI layer formation has been limited to data generated in EBR-II experiments. This dissertation provides new FCCI data extracted from the MFF-series of metallic fuel irradiations performed in the FFTF. These fuel assemblies contain valuable information on the formation of FCCI in metallic fuels at a variety of temperature and burnup conditions and in fuel with axial fuel height three times longer than EBR-II experiments. The longer fuel column in the FFTF and the fuel pins examined have significantly different flux, power, temperature, and FCCI profiles than that found in similar tests conducted in

  4. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

    2006-05-12

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can supply useful

  5. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  6. The performance of 3500 MWth homogeneous and heterogeneous metal fueled core designs

    SciTech Connect

    Turski, R.; Yang, Shi-tien

    1987-11-01

    Performance parameters are calculated for a representative 3500 MWth homogeneous and a heterogeneous metal fueled reactor design. The equilibrium cycle neutronic characteristics, safety coefficients, control system requirements, and control rod worths are evaluated. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics for both configurations are also compared. The heavy metal fuel loading requirements and neutronic performance characteristics are also evaluated for the uranium startup option. 14 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Dimensional, microstructural and compositional stability of metal fuels. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.A.; Dayananda, M.A.

    1993-03-15

    The projects undertaken were to address two areas of concern for metal-fueled fast reactors: metallurgical compatibility of fuel and its fission products with the stainless steel cladding, and effects of porosity development in the fuel on fuel/cladding interactions and on sodium penetration in fuel. The following studies are reported on extensively in appendices: hot isostatic pressing of U-10Zr by coupled boundary diffusion/power law creep cavitation, liquid Na intrusion into porous U-10Zr fuel alloy by differential capillarity, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel and selected Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel vs selected cladding steels, and interdiffusion of Ce in Fe-base alloys with Ni or Cr.

  8. COPAR-FD. Release of Metallic Fission Products from Coated Nuclear Fuel Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tzung, F.; Richards, M.

    1992-09-01

    COPAR-FD is used to calculate the release of metallic fission products from coated nuclear fuel particles, using a finite-difference solution of the governing partial differential equation. COPAR-FD interfaces with the TRAMP and TRAFIC codes for calculating transport in and release from graphite fuel blocks.

  9. Fate of Noble Metals during the Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    B.R. Westphal; D. Vaden; S.X. Li; G.L. Fredrickson; R.D. Mariani

    2009-09-01

    During the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by electrochemical techniques, fission products are separated as the fuel is oxidized at the anode and refined uranium is deposited at the cathode. Those fission products that are oxidized into the molten salt electrolyte are considered active metals while those that do not react are considered noble metals. The primary noble metals encountered during pyroprocessing are molybdenum, zirconium, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, and technetium. Pyroprocessing of spent fuel to date has involved two distinctly different electrorefiner designs, in particular the anode to cathode configuration. For one electrorefiner, the anode and cathode collector are horizontally displaced such that uranium is transported across the electrolyte medium. As expected, the noble metal removal from the uranium during refining is very high, typically in excess of 99%. For the other electrorefiner, the anode and cathode collector are vertically collocated to maximize uranium throughput. This arrangement results in significantly less noble metals removal from the uranium during refining, typically no better than 20%. In addition to electrorefiner design, operating parameters can also influence the retention of noble metals, albeit at the cost of uranium recovery. Experiments performed to date have shown that as much as 100% of the noble metals can be retained by the cladding hulls while affecting the uranium recovery by only 6%. However, it is likely that commercial pyroprocessing of spent fuel will require the uranium recovery to be much closer to 100%. The above mentioned design and operational issues will likely be driven by the effects of noble metal contamination on fuel fabrication and performance. These effects will be presented in terms of thermal properties (expansion, conductivity, and fusion) and radioactivity considerations. Ultimately, the incorporation of minor amounts of noble metals from pyroprocessing into fast reactor metallic fuel

  10. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  11. Simulation of the impact of 3-D porosity distribution in metallic U-10Zr fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Di; Yacout, Abdellatif M.; Stan, Marius; Bauer, Theodore H.; Wright, Arthur E.

    2014-05-01

    Evolution of porosity generated in metallic U-Zr fuel irradiated in fast spectrum reactors leads to changes in fuel properties and impacts important phenomena such as heat transport and constituent redistribution. The porosity is generated as a result of the accumulation of fission gases and is affected by the possible bond sodium infiltration into the fuel. Typically, the impact of porosity development on properties, such as thermal conductivity, is accounted for through empirical correlations that are dependent on porosity and infiltrated sodium fractions. Currently available simulation tools make it possible to take into account fuel 3-D porosity distributions, potentially eliminating the need for such correlations. This development allows for a more realistic representation of the porosity evolution in metallic fuel and creates a framework for truly mechanistic fuel development models. In this work, COMSOL multi-physics simulation platform is used to model 3-D porosity distributions and simulate heat transport in metallic U-10Zr fuel. Available experimental data regarding microstructural evolution of fuel that was irradiated in EBR-II and associated phase stability information are used to guide the simulation. The impact of changes in porosity characteristics on material properties is estimated and the results are compared with calculated temperature distributions. The simulations demonstrate the developed capability and importance of accounting for detailed porosity distribution features for accurate fuel performance evaluation.

  12. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at.% burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low melting points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  13. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail

    2009-12-22

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  14. Heavy metal inventory and fuel sustainability of recycling TRU in FBR design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear fuel materials from spent fuel of light water reactors have a potential to be used for destructive devices with very huge energy release or in the same time, it can be utilized as a peaceful energy or civil applications, for generating electricity, desalination of water, medical application and others applications. Several research activities showed some recycled spent fuel can be used as additional fuel loading for increasing fuel breeding capability as well as improving intrinsic aspect of nuclear non-proliferation. The present investigation intends to evaluate the composition of heavy metals inventories and fuel breeding capability in the FBR design based on the loaded fuel of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel (SF) of 33 GWd/t with 5 years cooling time by adopting depletion code of ORIGEN. Whole core analysis of FBR design is performed by adopting and coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes. Nuclear data library, JFS-3-J-3.2R which is based on the JENDL 3.2 has been used for nuclear data analysis. JSFR design is the basis design reference which basically adopted 800 days cycle length for 4 batches system. Higher inventories of plutonium of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium composition than initial composition have been shown. Minor actinide (MA) inventory compositions obtain a different inventory trends at equilibrium composition for both fuel types. Higher Inventory of MA is obtained by MOX fuel and less MA inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium composition than initial composition. Some different MA inventories can be estimated from the different inventory trend of americium (Am). Higher americium inventory for MOX fuel and less americium inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium condition. Breeding ratio of TRU fuel is relatively higher compared with MOX fuel type. It can be estimated from relatively higher production of Pu-238 (through converted MA) in TRU fuel, and Pu-238 converts through neutron capture to produce Pu-239

  15. Heavy metal inventory and fuel sustainability of recycling TRU in FBR design

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-06

    Nuclear fuel materials from spent fuel of light water reactors have a potential to be used for destructive devices with very huge energy release or in the same time, it can be utilized as a peaceful energy or civil applications, for generating electricity, desalination of water, medical application and others applications. Several research activities showed some recycled spent fuel can be used as additional fuel loading for increasing fuel breeding capability as well as improving intrinsic aspect of nuclear non-proliferation. The present investigation intends to evaluate the composition of heavy metals inventories and fuel breeding capability in the FBR design based on the loaded fuel of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel (SF) of 33 GWd/t with 5 years cooling time by adopting depletion code of ORIGEN. Whole core analysis of FBR design is performed by adopting and coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes. Nuclear data library, JFS-3-J-3.2R which is based on the JENDL 3.2 has been used for nuclear data analysis. JSFR design is the basis design reference which basically adopted 800 days cycle length for 4 batches system. Higher inventories of plutonium of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium composition than initial composition have been shown. Minor actinide (MA) inventory compositions obtain a different inventory trends at equilibrium composition for both fuel types. Higher Inventory of MA is obtained by MOX fuel and less MA inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium composition than initial composition. Some different MA inventories can be estimated from the different inventory trend of americium (Am). Higher americium inventory for MOX fuel and less americium inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium condition. Breeding ratio of TRU fuel is relatively higher compared with MOX fuel type. It can be estimated from relatively higher production of Pu-238 (through converted MA) in TRU fuel, and Pu-238 converts through neutron capture to produce Pu-239

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Edelmann, Paul Guy; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  17. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold; Grantham, LeRoy F.; Specht, Eugene R.

    1992-01-01

    To increase the operating temperature of a reactor, the melting point and mechanical properties of the fuel must be increased. For an actinide-rich fuel, yttrium, lanthanum and/or rare earth elements can be added, as stabilizers, to uranium and plutonium and/or a mixture of other actinides to raise the melting point of the fuel and improve its mechanical properties. Since only about 1% of the actinide fuel may be yttrium, lanthanum, or a rare earth element, the neutron penalty is low, the reactor core size can be reduced, the fuel can be burned efficiently, reprocessing requirements are reduced, and the nuclear waste disposal volumes reduced. A further advantage occurs when yttrium, lanthanum, and/or other rare earth elements are exposed to radiation in a reactor, they produce only short half life radioisotopes, which reduce nuclear waste disposal problems through much shorter assured-isolation requirements.

  18. High-burnup core design using minor actinide-containing metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Obara, T.

    2013-07-01

    A neutronic design study of metal fuel fast reactor (FR) cores is conducted on the basis of an innovative fuel design concept to achieve an extremely high burnup and realize an efficient fuel cycle system. Since it is expected that the burnup reactivity swing will become extremely large in an unprecedented high burnup core, minor actinides (MAs) from light water reactors (LWRs) are added to fresh fuel to improve the core internal conversion. Core neutronic analysis revealed that high burnups of about 200 MWd/kg for a small-scale core and about 300 MWd/kg for a large-scale core can be attained while suppressing the burnup reactivity swing to almost the same level as that of conventional cores with normal burnup. An actinide burnup analysis has shown that the MA consumption ratio is improved to about 60% and that the accumulated MAs originating from LWRs can be efficiently consumed by the high-burnup metal fuel FR. (authors)

  19. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-07-18

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Fuel that had experienced a neutron environment in a reactor is known as spent, exposed, or irradiated fuel. In contrast fuel that has not yet been placed in a reactor is known as green, unexposed, or unirradiated fuel. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled (References 1 and 2) and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements (Reference 3). The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprised of two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with unirradiated fuel and one with irradiated fuel. Both the unirradiated and irradiated fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, three (3) green fuel

  20. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Implications of Sodium-Cooled Metal-Fueled Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ryan Clement; David W. Gerts

    2013-03-01

    If advanced fuel cycles are to include a large number of fast reactors (FRs), what should be the transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR)? The nuclear energy era started with the assumption that they should be breeder reactors (CR > 1), but the full range of possible CRs eventually received attention. For example, during the recent U.S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, the proposal was burner reactors (CR < 1). Yet, more recently, Massachusetts Institute of Technology's "Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle" proposed CR [approximately] 1. Meanwhile, the French company EDF remains focused on breeders. At least one of the reasons for the differences of approach is different fuel cycle objectives. To clarify matters, this paper analyzes the impact of TRU CR on many parameters relevant to fuel cycle systems and therefore spans a broad range of topic areas. The analyses are based on a FR physics parameter scan of TRU CR from 0 to [approximately]1.8 in a sodium-cooled metal-fueled FR (SMFR), in which the fuel from uranium-oxide-fueled light water reactors (LWRs) is recycled directly to FRs and FRs displace LWRs in the fleet. In this instance, the FRs are sodium cooled and metal fueled. Generally, it is assumed that all TRU elements are recycled, which maximizes uranium ore utilization for a given TRU CR and waste radiotoxicity reduction and is consistent with the assumption of used metal fuel separated by electrochemical means. In these analyses, the fuel burnup was constrained by imposing a neutron fluence limit to fuel cladding to the same constant value. This paper first presents static, time-independent measures of performance for the LWR [right arrow] FR fuel cycle, including mass, heat, gamma emission, radiotoxicity, and the two figures of merit for materials for weapon attractiveness developed by C. Bathke et al. No new fuel cycle will achieve a static equilibrium in the foreseeable future. Therefore, additional analyses are shown with dynamic, time

  1. PROCESSING OF URANIUM-METAL-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-10-01

    A process is given for recovering uranium from neutronbombarded uranium- aluminum alloys. The alloy is dissolved in an aluminum halide--alkali metal halide mixture in which the halide is a mixture of chloride and bromide, the aluminum halide is present in about stoichiometric quantity as to uranium and fission products and the alkali metal halide in a predominant quantity; the uranium- and electropositive fission-products-containing salt phase is separated from the electronegative-containing metal phase; more aluminum halide is added to the salt phase to obtain equimolarity as to the alkali metal halide; adding an excess of aluminum metal whereby uranium metal is formed and alloyed with the excess aluminum; and separating the uranium-aluminum alloy from the fission- productscontaining salt phase. (AEC)

  2. AN EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL LINER MATERIALS FOR ELIMINATING FCCI IN IRRADIATED METALLIC NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Keiser; J. I. Cole

    2007-09-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are being looked at as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Program for transmuting longlive transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products. In order to optimize the performance of these fuels, the concept of using liners to eliminate the fuel/cladding chemical interactions that can occur during irradiation of a fuel element has been investigated. The potential liner materials Zr and V have been tested using solid-solid diffusion couples, consisting of liner materials butted against fuel alloys and against cladding materials. The couples were annealed at the relatively high temperature of 700°C. This temperature would be the absolute maximum temperature present at the fuel/cladding interface for a fuel element in-reactor. Analysis was performed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive and wavelengthdispersive spectrometers (SEM/EDS/WDS) to evaluate any developed diffusion structures. At 700°C, minimal interaction was observed between the metallic fuels and either Zr or V. Similarly, limited interaction was observed between the Zr and V and the cladding materials. The best performing liner material appeared to be the V, based on amounts of interaction.

  3. Hoechst 33342 Is a Hidden “Janus” amongst Substrates for the Multidrug Efflux Pump LmrP

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Arthur; van Veen, Hendrik W.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug transporters mediate the active extrusion of antibiotics and toxic ions from the cell. This reaction is thought to be based on a switch of the transporter between two conformational states, one in which the interior substrate binding cavity is available for substrate binding at the inside of the cell, and another in which the cavity is exposed to the outside of the cell to enable substrate release. Consistent with this model, cysteine cross-linking studies with the Major Facilitator Superfamily drug/proton antiporter LmrP from Lactococcus lactis demonstrated binding of transported benzalkonium to LmrP in its inward-facing state. The fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 is a substrate for many multidrug transporters and is extruded by efflux pumps in microbial and mammalian cells. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other multidrug transporters, LmrP was found to actively accumulate, rather than extrude, Hoechst 33342 in lactococcal cells. Consistent with this observation, LmrP expression was associated with cellular sensitivity, rather than resistance to Hoechst 33342. Thus, we discovered a hidden “Janus” amongst LmrP substrates that is translocated in reverse direction across the membrane by binding to outward-facing LmrP followed by release from inward-facing LmrP. These findings are in agreement with distance measurements by electron paramagnetic resonance in which Hoechst 33342 binding was found to stabilize LmrP in its outward-facing conformation. Our data have important implications for the use of multidrug exporters in selective targeting of “Hoechst 33342-like” drugs to cells and tissues in which these transporters are expressed. PMID:26540112

  4. Characterization of Irradiated Metal Waste from the Pyrometallurgical Treatment of Used EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    B.R. Westphal; K.C. Marsden; W.M. McCartin; S.M. Frank; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; T.S. Yoo; D. Vaden; D.G. Cummings; K.J. Bateman; J. J. Giglio; T. P. O'Holleran; P. A. Hahn; M. N. Patterson

    2013-03-01

    As part of the pyrometallurgical treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a metal waste stream is generated consisting primarily of cladding hulls laden with fission products noble to the electrorefining process. Consolidation by melting at high temperature [1873 K (1600 degrees C)] has been developed to sequester the noble metal fission products (Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Te, and Pd) which remain in the iron-based cladding hulls. Zirconium from the uranium fuel alloy (U-10Zr) is also deposited on the hulls and forms Fe-Zr intermetallics which incorporate the noble metals as well as residual actinides during processing. Hence, Zr has been chosen as the primary indicator for consistency of the metal waste. Recently, the first production-scale metal waste ingot was generated and sampled to monitor Zr content for Fe-Zr intermetallic phase formation and validation of processing conditions. Chemical assay of the metal waste ingot revealed a homogeneous distribution of the noble metal fission products as well as the primary fuel constituents U and Zr. Microstructural characterization of the ingot confirmed the immobilization of the noble metals in the Fe-Zr intermetallic phase.

  5. Characterization of Irradiated Metal Waste from the Pyrometallurgical Treatment of Used EBR-II Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Brian R.; Frank, S. M.; McCartin, W. M.; Cummings, D. G.; Giglio, J. J.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Hahn, P. A.; Yoo, T. S.; Marsden, K. C.; Bateman, K. J.; Patterson, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the pyrometallurgical treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a metal waste stream is generated consisting primarily of cladding hulls laden with fission products noble to the electrorefining process. Consolidation by melting at high temperature [1873 K (1600 °C)] has been developed to sequester the noble metal fission products (Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Te, and Pd) which remain in the iron-based cladding hulls. Zirconium from the uranium fuel alloy (U-10Zr) is also deposited on the hulls and forms Fe-Zr intermetallics which incorporate the noble metals as well as residual actinides during processing. Hence, Zr has been chosen as the primary indicator for consistency of the metal waste. Recently, the first production-scale metal waste ingot was generated and sampled to monitor Zr content for Fe-Zr intermetallic phase formation and validation of processing conditions. Chemical assay of the metal waste ingot revealed a homogeneous distribution of the noble metal fission products as well as the primary fuel constituents U and Zr. Microstructural characterization of the ingot confirmed the immobilization of the noble metals in the Fe-Zr intermetallic phase.

  6. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  7. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

  8. Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini’s Repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein Mesh Repair of Direct Inguinal Hernias in Rural Population – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh M; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Kuthadi Sravan; Mithun, Gorre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lichtenstein’s tension free mesh hernioplasty is the commonly done open technique for inguinal hernias. As our hospital is in rural area, majority of patients are labourers, open hernias are commonly done. The present study was done by comparing Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini’s repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein mesh repair (LMR) of direct Inguinal Hernias to compare the technique of both surgeries and its outcome like postoperative complications and recurrence rate. Materials and Methods A comparative randomized study was conducted on patients reporting to MNR hospital, sangareddy with direct inguinal hernias. A total of fifty consecutive patients were included in this study of which, 25 patients were operated by LMR and 25 patients were operated by MBR+LMR and followed up for a period of two years. The outcomes of the both techniques were compared. Results Study involved 25 each of Lichtenstein’s mesh repair (LMR) and modified bassini’s repair (MBR) + LMR, over a period of 2 years. The duration of surgery for lichtenstein mesh repair is around 34.56 min compared to LMR+MBR, which is 47.56 min which was statistically significant (p-value is <0.0001). In this study the most common complication for both the groups was seroma. The pain was relatively higher in LMR+MBR group in POD 1, but not statistically significant (p-value is 0.0949) and from POD 7 the pain was almost similar in both groups. The recurrence rate is 2% for LMR and 0% for MBR+LMR. Conclusion LMR+MBR was comparatively better than only LMR in all direct inguinal hernias because of low recurrence rate (0%) and low postoperative complications, which showed in our present study. PMID:27042517

  9. Microstructural Changes In Thermally Cycled U-Pu-Zr-Am-Np Metallic Transmutation Fuel With 1.5% Lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn E. Janney; J. Rory Kennedy

    2008-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is developing metallic actinide-zirconium alloy fuels for the transmutation of minor actinides as part of a closed fuel cycle. The molten salt electrochemical process to be used for fuel recycle has the potential to carry over up to 2% fission product lanthanide content into the fuel fabrication process. Within the scope of the fuel irradiation testing program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), candidate metal alloy transmutation fuels containing quantities of lanthanide elements have been fabricated, characterized, and delivered to the Advanced Test Reactor for irradiation testing.

  10. Measuring the Noble Metal and Iodine Composition of Extracted Noble Metal Phase from Spent Nuclear Fuel Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Palomares, R. I.; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Biegalski, Steven R.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Casella, Amanda J.; Brady Raap, Michaele C.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-04-01

    Mass quantities of noble metal and iodine nuclides in the metallic noble metal phase extracted from spent fuel are measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA). Nuclide presence is predicted using fission yield analysis, and mass quantification is derived from standard gamma spectroscopy and radionuclide decay analysis. The nuclide compositions of noble metal phase derived from two dissolution methods, UO2 fuel dissolved in nitric acid and UO2 fuel dissolved in ammonium-carbonate and hydrogen-peroxide solution, are compared. Lastly, the implications of the rapid analytic speed of instrumental NAA are discussed in relation to potential nuclear forensics applications.

  11. Study of metallic materials for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-04-24

    Metallic interconnect acts as a gas separator and a gas distributor and therefore, it needs to function adequately in two widely different environments. The interconnect material will be exposed to air on one side and natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas on the other side. The viable material for the interconnect application must be resistant not only to oxidation but also carburization in hydrocarbon containing low-oxygen environments. In addition, the scales that develop on the exposed surfaces must possess adequate electrical conductivity for them to function as current leads over long service life of the fuel cell. This report addresses five topics of interest for the development of metallic interconnects with adequate performance in fuel cells for long service life. The research conducted over the years and the conclusions reached were used to identify additional areas of research on materials for improved performance of components, especially metallic interconnects, in the complex fuel cell environments. This report details research conducted in the following areas: measurement of area specific electrical resistivity, corrosion performance in dual gas environments by experiments using alloy 446, long term corrosion performance of ferritic and austenitic alloys in hydrogen and methane-reformed synthesis fuel-gas environments, approaches to reduce the area resistance of metallic interconnect, and reduction of electrical resistivity of alumina scales on metallic interconnect. Based on the key requirements for metallic interconnects and the data developed on the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in meeting those requirements, several areas are recommended for further research to develop metallic interconnects with acceptable and reliable long-term performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

  12. Validation of CONTAIN-LMR code for accident analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeev, S.; Hering, W.; Schikorr, M.; Stieglitz, R.

    2012-07-01

    CONTAIN-LMR 1 is an analytical tool for the containment performance of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this code, the modelling for the sodium fire is included: the oxygen diffusion model for the sodium pool fire, and the liquid droplet model for the sodium spray fire. CONTAIN-LMR is also able to model the interaction of liquid sodium with concrete structure. It may be applicable to different concrete compositions. Testing and validation of these models will help to qualify the simulation results. Three experiments with sodium performed in the FAUNA facility at FZK have been used for the validation of CONTAIN-LMR. For pool fire tests, calculations have been performed with two models. The first model consists of one gas cell representing the volume of the burn compartment. The volume of the second model is subdivided into 32 coupled gas cells. The agreement between calculations and experimental data is acceptable. The detailed pool fire model shows less deviation from experiments. In the spray fire, the direct heating from the sodium burning in the media is dominant. Therefore, single cell modeling is enough to describe the phenomena. Calculation results have reasonable agreement with experimental data. Limitations of the implemented spray model can cause the overestimation of predicted pressure and temperature in the cell atmosphere. The ability of the CONTAIN-LMR to simulate the sodium pool fire accompanied by sodium-concrete reactions was tested using the experimental study of sodium-concrete interactions for construction concrete as well as for shielding concrete. The model provides a reasonably good representation of chemical processes during sodium-concrete interaction. The comparison of time-temperature profiles of sodium and concrete shows, that the model requires modifications for predictions of the test results. (authors)

  13. Design and fabrication of specific ceramic?metallic fuels and targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, A.; Konings, R. J. M.; Somers, J.

    2003-06-01

    The fabrication of ceramic-metallic (cermet) composite fuel, containing (Y,An,Zr)O 2- x spheres, by dust free processes has been studied. The influence of several process parameters, such as, ceramic volume fraction, compaction pressure and sintering temperature, on the microstructure of the final composite have been investigated and optimised using cerium as a stand for americium and two metal matrices namely molybdenum and stainless steel. In addition, a cermet fuel with (near) spherical (Y,Pu,Zr)O 2- x particles, dispersed in stainless steel matrix, has been successfully fabricated and characterized.

  14. Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells completely free from noble metal catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shanfu; Pan, Jing; Huang, Aibin; Zhuang, Lin; Lu, Juntao

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, fuel cell technology has been undergoing revolutionary developments, with fundamental progress being the replacement of electrolyte solutions with polymer electrolytes, making the device more compact in size and higher in power density. Nowadays, acidic polymer electrolytes, typically Nafion, are widely used. Despite great success, fuel cells based on acidic polyelectrolyte still depend heavily on noble metal catalysts, predominantly platinum (Pt), thus increasing the cost and hampering the widespread application of fuel cells. Here, we report a type of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) employing a hydroxide ion-conductive polymer, quaternary ammonium polysulphone, as alkaline electrolyte and nonprecious metals, chromium-decorated nickel and silver, as the catalyst for the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. In addition to the development of a high-performance alkaline polymer electrolyte particularly suitable for fuel cells, key progress has been achieved in catalyst tailoring: The surface electronic structure of nickel has been tuned to suppress selectively the surface oxidative passivation with retained activity toward hydrogen oxidation. This report of a H2–O2 PEFC completely free from noble metal catalysts in both the positive and negative electrodes represents an important advancement in the research and development of fuel cells.

  15. Implementation of the TDCR liquid scintillation method at CNEA-LMR, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Arenillas, Pablo; Cassette, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    During the last two years, a triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) system was assembled and adjusted at the CNEA-LMR, Argentina. The new counting system will add complementary capabilities to the absolute measurements section of the CNEA-LMR. This work describes its implementation and validation. Several checks and a set of beta-emitting standard solutions were used in order to perform the validation experiments. In preliminary measurements, a 3H LNHB solution with reference activity concentration of (119.7+/-0.9) kBq/g on 11 November 2003 was used. The CNEA-LMR TDCR counter gave, at the same reference date, an activity concentration of (120+/-1) kBq/g. Results and improvements are presented in detail. Concerning the asymmetry of the system, the quantum efficiency of the three photomultiplier tubes was studied for different operating conditions of the focusing voltage. The counter also includes an automatic system to change the efficiency by defocusing the photomultipliers and on the other hand, it was coupled to a HPGe detector to also measure beta-gamma coincidences. PMID:16890447

  16. Modeling of Gap Closure in Uranium-Zirconium Alloy Metal Fuel - A Test Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Simunovic, Srdjan; Ott, Larry J; Gorti, Sarma B; Nukala, Phani K; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Turner, John A

    2009-10-01

    Uranium based binary and ternary alloy fuel is a possible candidate for advanced fast spectrum reactors with long refueling intervals and reduced liner heat rating [1]. An important metal fuel issue that can impact the fuel performance is the fuel-cladding gap closure, and fuel axial growth. The dimensional change in the fuel during irradiation is due to a superposition of the thermal expansion of the fuel due to heating, volumetric changes due to possible phase transformations that occur during heating and the swelling due to fission gas retention. The volumetric changes due to phase transformation depend both on the thermodynamics of the alloy system and the kinetics of phase change reactions that occur at the operating temperature. The nucleation and growth of fission gas bubbles that contributes to fuel swelling is also influenced by the local fuel chemistry and the microstructure. Once the fuel expands and contacts the clad, expansion in the radial direction is constrained by the clad, and the overall deformation of the fuel clad assembly depends upon the dynamics of the contact problem. The neutronics portion of the problem is also inherently coupled with microstructural evolution in terms of constituent redistribution and phase transformation. Because of the complex nature of the problem, a series of test problems have been defined with increasing complexity with the objective of capturing the fuel-clad interaction in complex fuels subjected to a wide range of irradiation and temperature conditions. The abstract, if short, is inserted here before the introduction section. If the abstract is long, it should be inserted with the front material and page numbered as such, then this page would begin with the introduction section.

  17. Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Olander

    2005-08-24

    A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

  18. Scoping studies of vapor behavior during a severe accident in a metal-fueling reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, B. W.; Marchaterre, J. F.

    1985-04-01

    The consequences of fuel melting and pin failures for a reactivity-insertion type accident in a sodium-cooled, pool-type reactor fueled with a metal alloy fuel were examined. The principal gas and vapor species released are shown to be Xe, Cs, and bond sodium contained within the fuel porosity. Condensation of sodium vapor as it expands into the upper sodium pool in a jet mixing regime may occur as rapidly as the vapor emerges from the disrupted core. If the predictions of rapid direct-contact condensation can be verified experimentally for the sodium system, the ability of vapor expansion to perform appreciable work on the system and the ability of an expanding vapor bubble to transport fuel and fission produce species to the cover gas region where they may be released to the containment are largely eliminated. The radionuclide species except for fission gas are largely retained within the core and sodium pool.

  19. Physics studies of higher actinide consumption in an LMR

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Fujita, E.K.; Khalil, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    The core physics aspects of the transuranic burning potential of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) are assessed. The actinide behavior in fissile self-sufficient IFR closed cycles of 1200 MWt size is characterized, and the transuranic isotopics and risk potential of the working inventory are compared to those from a once-through LWR. The core neutronic performance effects of rare-earth impurities present in the recycled fuel are addressed. Fuel cycle strategies for burning transuranics from an external source are discussed, and specialized actinide burner designs are described. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2007-12-09

    Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

  1. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  2. Metallography and fuel cladding chemical interaction in fast flux test facility irradiated metallic U-10Zr MFF-3 and MFF-5 fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, W. J.; Chichester, H. M.; Porter, D. L.; Wootan, D. W.

    2016-05-01

    The Mechanistic Fuel Failure (MFF) series of metal fuel irradiations conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) provides an important comparison between data generated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) and that expected in a larger-scale fast reactor. The MFF fuel operated with a peak cladding temperature at the top of the fuel column, but developed peak burnup at the centerline of the core. This places the peak fuel temperature midway between the core center and the top of fuel, lower in the fuel column than in EBR-II experiments. Data from the MFF-3 and MFF-5 assemblies are most comparable to the data obtained from the EBR-II X447 experiment. The two X447 pin breaches were strongly influenced by fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) at the top of the fuel column. Post irradiation examination data from MFF-3 and MFF-5 are presented and compared to historical EBR-II data.

  3. Determination of Uranium Metal Concentration in Irradiated Fuel Storage Basin Sludge Using Selective Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Welsh, Terri L.; Pool, Karl N.

    2014-03-01

    Uranium metal corroding in water-saturated sludges now held in the US Department of Energy Hanford Site K West irradiated fuel storage basin can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage. Knowledge of uranium metal concentration in sludge thus is essential to safe sludge management and process design, requiring an expeditious routine analytical method to detect uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of 30 wt% or higher total uranium concentrations.

  4. Chemical Forms and Distribution of Platinum Group Metals and Technetium During Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhitonov, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Amongst the fission products present in spent nuclear fuel of Nuclear Power Plants there are considerable quantities of platinum group metals (PGMs): ruthenium, rhodium and palladium. At the same time there are considerable amounts of technetium in the spent fuel, the problem of its removal at radiochemical plants being in operation encountering serious difficulties. Increased interest in this radionuclides is due not only to its rather large yield, but to higher mobility in the environment as well. However, the peculiarities of technetium chemistry in nitric acid solutions create certain problems when trying to separate it as a single product in the course of NPP's spent fuel reprocessing. The object of this work was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of platinum group metals and technetium behavior at various stages of spent fuel reprocessing and to seek the decisions which could make it possible to separate its as a single product. The paper will report data on platinum metals (PGM) and technetium distribution in spent fuel reprocessing products. The description of various techniques for palladium recovery from differing in composition radioactive solutions arising from reprocessing is given. (authors)

  5. Development and analysis of a metal-fueled accelerator-driven burner

    SciTech Connect

    Lypsch, F.; Hill, R. N.

    1995-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the safety characteristics of an accelerator driven metal-fueled fast system to a critical core on a consistent basis to determine how these characteristics are affected solely by subcriticality of the system. To accomplish this, an accelerator proton beam/tungsten neutron source model is surrounded by a subcritical blanket using metallic fuel and sodium as coolant. The consequences of typical accident transients, namely unprotected transient overpower (TOP), loss of heat sink (LOHS), and loss of flow (LOF) were calculated for the hybrid system and compared to corresponding results for a metal-fueled fast reactor. Results indicate that the subcritical system exhibits superior performance for TOP (reactivity-induced) transients; however, only in the critical system are reactivity feedbacks able to cause passive shutdown in the LOHS and LOF events. Therefore, for a full spectrum of accident initiators considered, the overall safety behavior of accelerator-driven metal-fueled systems can neither be concluded to be worse nor to be better than advanced reactor designs which rely on passive safety features.

  6. Development and analysis of a metal-fueled accelerator-driven burner

    SciTech Connect

    Lypsch, F.; Hill, R.N.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the safety characteristics of an accelerator driven metal fueled fast system to a critical core on a consistent basis to determine how these characteristics are affected solely by subcritically of the system. To accomplish this an accelerator proton beam/tungsten neutron source model is surrounded by a subcritical blanket using metallic fuel and sodium as coolant. The consequences of typical accident transients, namely unprotected transient overpower (TOP), loss of heat sink (LOHS), and loss of flow (LOP) were calculated for the hybrid system and compared to corresponding results for a metal-fueled fast reactor. Results indicate that the subcritical system exhibits superior performance for TOP (reactivity-induced) transits; however, only in the critical system are reactivity feedbacks able to cause passive shutdown in the LOHS ad LOP events. Therefore, for a full spectrum of accident initiators considered, the overall safety behavior of accelerator-driven metal-fueled systems can neither be concluded to be worse nor to be better than advanced reactor designs which rely on passive safety features.

  7. Corrosion-resistant fuel cladding allow for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, Jr., William F.; Colburn, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    An aluminide coating for a fuel cladding tube for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors) such as those using liquid sodium as a heat transfer agent. The coating comprises a mixture of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases and presents good corrosion resistance to liquid sodium at temperatures up to 700.degree. C. while additionally presenting a barrier to outward diffusion of .sup.54 Mn.

  8. Transition metal catalysed dehydrogenation of amine-borane fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Mal, Sib Sankar; Stephens, Frances H; Baker, R Tom

    2011-03-14

    Mixtures containing ammonia-borane and sec-butylamine-borane remain liquid throughout the hydrogen release process that affords tri(N-sec-butyl)borazine and polyborazylene. Concentrated solutions with metal catalysts afford >5 wt% H(2) in 1 h at 80 °C and addition of (EMIM)EtSO(4) ionic liquid co-solvent eliminates competing formation of insoluble linear poly(aminoborane) (EMIM = 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium). PMID:21258748

  9. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO.sub.2 anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, Ashok C.

    1994-01-01

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO.sub.2 ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well.

  10. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  11. Metal Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    S. Elangovan

    2006-04-01

    Interconnect development is identified by the US Department of energy as a key technical area requiring focused research to meet the performance and cost goals under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance initiative. In the Phase I SECA Core Technology Program, Ceramatec investigated a commercial ferritic stainless steel composition for oxidation resistance properties by measuring the weight gain when exposed to air at the fuel cell operating temperature. A pre-treatment process that results in a dense, adherent scale was found to reduce the oxide scale growth rate significantly. A process for coating the surface of the alloy in order to reduce the in-plane resistance and potentially inhibit chromium oxide evaporation was also identified. The combination of treatments provided a very low resistance through the scale. The resistance measured was as low as 10 milliohm-cm2 at 750 C in air. The oxide scale was also found to be stable in humidified air at 750 C. The resistance value was stable over several thermal cycles. A similar treatment and coating for the fuel side of the interconnect also showed an exceptionally low resistance of one milliohm-cm2 in humidified hydrogen at 750 c, and was stable through multiple thermal cycles. Measurement of interconnect resistance when it was exposed to both air and humidified hydrogen on opposite sides also showed low, stable resistance after additional modification to the pre-treatment process. Resistance stacks, using an interconnect stack with realistic gas flows, also provided favorable results. Chromium evaporation issue however requires testing of fuel stacks and was outside of the scope of this project. based on results to-date, the alloy selection and the treatment processes appear to be well suited for SOFC interconnect application.

  12. Metal-catalyst-free carbohydrazide fuel cells with three-dimensional graphene anodes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ji; Benipal, Neeva; Wang, Hui; Chadderdon, David J; Jiang, Yibo; Wei, Wei; Hu, Yun Hang; Li, Wenzhen

    2015-04-13

    As a potential solution to concerns on sustainable energy, the wide spread commercialization of fuel cell has long been hindered by limited reserves and relatively high costs of metal catalysts. 3D graphene, a carbon-only catalyst prepared by reduction of carbon monoxide with lithium oxide, is found to electrochemically catalyze carbohydrazide oxidation reaction efficiently. A prototype of a completely metal-catalyst-free anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) with a 3D graphene anode catalyst and an N-doped CNT (N-CNT) cathode catalyst generate a peak power density of 24.9 mW cm(-2) . The average number of electrons electrochemically extracted from one carbohydrazide molecule is 4.9, indicating the existence of CN bond activation, which is a key factor contributing to high fuel utilization efficiency. PMID:25469500

  13. Performance evaluation and characterization of metallic bipolar plates in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Yue

    Bipolar plate and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) are the two most repeated components of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. Bipolar plates comprise more than 60% of the weight and account for 30% of the total cost of a fuel cell stack. The bipolar plates perform as current conductors between cells, provide conduits for reactant gases, facilitate water and thermal management through the cell, and constitute the backbone of a power stack. In addition, bipolar plates must have excellent corrosion resistance to withstand the highly corrosive environment inside the fuel cell, and they must maintain low interfacial contact resistance throughout the operation to achieve optimum power density output. Currently, commercial bipolar plates are made of graphite composites because of their relatively low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) and high corrosion resistance. However, graphite composite's manufacturability, permeability, and durability for shock and vibration are unfavorable in comparison to metals. Therefore, metals have been considered as a replacement material for graphite composite bipolar plates. Since bipolar plates must possess the combined advantages of both metals and graphite composites in the fuel cell technology, various methods and techniques are being developed to combat metallic corrosion and eliminate the passive layer formed on the metal surface that causes unacceptable power reduction and possible fouling of the catalyst and the electrolyte. The main objective of this study was to explore the possibility of producing efficient, cost-effective and durable metallic bipolar plates that were capable of functioning in the highly corrosive fuel cell environment. Bulk materials such as Poco graphite, graphite composite, SS310, SS316, incoloy 800, titanium carbide and zirconium carbide were investigated as potential bipolar plate materials. In this work, different alloys and compositions of chromium carbide coatings on aluminum and SS316

  14. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-09-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  15. Nanostructure of Metallic Particles in Light Water Reactor Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Mcnamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-03-11

    The extraordinary nano-structure of metallic particles in light water reactor fuels points to possible high reactivity through increased surface area and a high concentration of high energy defect sites. We have analyzed the metallic epsilon particles from a high burn-up fuel from a boiling water reactor using transmission electron microscopy and have observed a much finer nanostructure in these particles than has been reported previously. The individual round particles that varying in size between ~20 and ~50 nm appear to consist of individual crystallites on the order of 2-3 nm in diameter. It is likely that in-reactor irradiation induce displacement cascades results in the formation of the nano-structure. The composition of these metallic phases is variable yet the structure of the material is consistent with the hexagonal close packed structure of epsilon-ruthenium. These findings suggest that unusual catalytic behavior of these materials might be expected, particularly under accident conditions.

  16. High temperature corrosion of metallic materials in molten carbonate fuel cells environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, G.; Vegni, S.; Capobianco, P.; Golgovici, F.

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are electrochemical devices that convert energy of a chemical reaction into electricity without any kind of combustion. So, MCFCs are promising for their high efficiency and their low environmental pollution. A limiting aspect for reaching the goal of 40,000 h of life-time is the corrosion of metallic parts of MCFC, especially for current collectors and separator plates. Generally, this corrosion leads to metal loss and to an important increase of the electrical resistance due to the formation of resistive oxides. One of the most critic components in a MCFC is the anodic side metallic components. More used choice for these components is actually a sheet of AISI310S cladded at both sides by a Ni layer. The analysis of the behaviour of this material after different steps of corrosion in a typical molten carbonate fuel cell environment could be important to understand some phenomena that cause the damage of the anodic current collector.

  17. A new code for predicting the thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic fuels in sodium fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Aydın; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to predict the irradiation behavior of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel pins and UO2-PuO2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named Fuel Engineering and Structural analysis Tool (FEAST). FEAST has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe fission gas release and fuel swelling, fuel chemistry and restructuring, temperature distribution, fuel-clad chemical interaction, and fuel and clad mechanical analysis including transient creep-fracture for the clad. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST can analyze fuel and clad thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis (non-disruptive) transient scenarios. FEAST was written in FORTRAN-90 and has a simple input file similar to that of the LWR fuel code FRAPCON. The metal-fuel version is called FEAST-METAL, and is described in this paper. The oxide-fuel version, FEAST-OXIDE is described in a companion paper. With respect to the old Argonne National Laboratory code LIFE-METAL and other same-generation codes, FEAST-METAL emphasizes more mechanistic, less empirical models, whenever available. Specifically, fission gas release and swelling are modeled with the GRSIS algorithm, which is based on detailed tracking of fission gas bubbles within the metal fuel. Migration of the fuel constituents is modeled by means of thermo-transport theory. Fuel-clad chemical interaction models based on precipitation kinetics were developed for steady-state operation and transients. Finally, a transient intergranular creep-fracture model for the clad, which tracks the nucleation and growth of the cavities at the grain boundaries, was developed for and implemented in the code. Reducing the empiricism in the constitutive models should make it more acceptable to extrapolate FEAST-METAL to new fuel compositions and higher burnup, as envisioned in advanced sodium reactors

  18. In situ characterization of metal fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.; Omberg, R.P.; Lawrence, L.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Hanford K Basins contain roughly 2,000 tons of uranium metal fuel previously irradiated in N Reactor. Current plans call for the fuel to be moved to a new storage location in the next few years. This paper describes near term activities to gather data on the mechanical condition and chemical state of the fuel and associated sludge. These on-going in-situ, nondestructive, examinations are intended to complement hot cell examinations which are planned for the near future. Characterization data will feed decisions on interim storage, long term storage and the environmental documentation process as the fuel is relocated. Several techniques have been, or are planned to be, employed during the conduct of examinations in the K Basins. (1) A video survey using underwater cameras has been made for the open top canisters which hold fuel in the K East Basin. These data have given early assessments of cladding degradation, canister corrosion, fuel swelling, and canister/fuel interactions; (2) Ultrasonic measurements of the water level in gas traps connected to sealed canisters have been used to provide indications of gas generation in or water leakage into the canisters; (3) Sampling of gas and water from closed canisters of fuel in the K West Basin will furnish indications of fuel corrosion, fission product release, and canister integrity and will guide choices of fuel to be retrieved for detailed hot cell examinations; (4) Depth measurements and qualitative properties assessments for the sludge on the floor of the basins and in the bottom of canisters have been made using underwater video techniques.

  19. Measurements for the JASPER program In-Vessel Fuel Storage experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L.; Shono, A.

    1992-01-01

    The In-Vessel-Fuel-Storage (IVFS) experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the first nine months of 1991 as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) that was started in 1986. This is the fourth in a series of eight experiments that were planned, all of which are intended to provide support in the development of current reactor shield designs proposed for liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems both in Japan and the United States. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Development Corporation (PNC). This document provides a description of the instrumentation and experimental configuration, test data, and data analysis.

  20. Metal matrix integrity and related technology development in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, P.M.; Krueger, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the concepts under development as a nuclear fuel waste isolation container is a thin-wall corrosion-resistant shell, supported internally by a cast metal matrix in which intact used fuel bundles are investigated. The integrity of the metal matrix can be influenced by metallurgical factors and by process parameters. Finite element solidification modelling and laboratory experiments with lead as an investment material have shown the influence of heat transfer parameters on matrix integrity. Controlled cooling of the container walls, for example, can be used to reduce the interaction time between the molten matrix, the fuel sheathing and the container wall, and achieve a void-free matrix. The results of the computer simulations have been used to design an improved casting system, based on controlled wall cooling, for investing nuclear fuel waste containers. Ultrasonic testing of bonds between some candidate container and metal matrix materials, in combination with the metallurgical characterization of the interface region, has allowed differentiation between bonded and unbonded regions. Matrix cracking near bonded interfaces was identified as a potential problem, which could limit the use of the ultrasonic scanning technique for matrix inspection. To produce a high quality interface with good chemical bonding, induction skin melting looks promising and is being further evaluated.

  1. Nanostructure of metallic particles in light water reactor used nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-06-01

    An extraordinary nano-structure has been observed in the metallic (Mo-Tc-Ru-Rh-Pd) particles that are known to form during irradiated in light water nuclear reactor fuels. This structure points possible high catalytic reactivity through the occurrence of a very high surface area as well as defect sites. We have analyzed separated metallic particles from dissolved high burn-up spent nuclear fuel using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The larger particles vary in diameter between ∼10 and ∼300 nm and possess a hexagonally close packed epsilon-ruthenium structure. These particles are not always single crystals but often consist of much smaller crystallites on the order of 1-3 nm in diameter with evidence suggesting the occurrence of some amorphous regions. It is possible that neutron irradiation and fission product recoils generated the unusual small crystallite size. The composition of the metallic particles was variable with low levels of uranium present in some of the particles. We hypothesize that the uranium may have induced the formation of the amorphous (or frustrated) metal structure. This unique nano-structure may play an important role in the environmental behavior of nuclear fuels.

  2. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

    2005-06-01

    Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

  3. Analysis of Phenix end-of-life natural convection test with the MARS-LMR code

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, H. Y.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, K. L.; Chang, W. P.; Kim, Y. I.

    2012-07-01

    The end-of-life test of Phenix reactor performed by the CEA provided an opportunity to have reliable and valuable test data for the validation and verification of a SFR system analysis code. KAERI joined this international program for the analysis of Phenix end-of-life natural circulation test coordinated by the IAEA from 2008. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of existing SFR system analysis code MARS-LMR and to identify any limitation of the code. The analysis was performed in three stages: pre-test analysis, blind posttest analysis, and final post-test analysis. In the pre-test analysis, the design conditions provided by the CEA were used to obtain a prediction of the test. The blind post-test analysis was based on the test conditions measured during the tests but the test results were not provided from the CEA. The final post-test analysis was performed to predict the test results as accurate as possible by improving the previous modeling of the test. Based on the pre-test analysis and blind test analysis, the modeling for heat structures in the hot pool and cold pool, steel structures in the core, heat loss from roof and vessel, and the flow path at core outlet were reinforced in the final analysis. The results of the final post-test analysis could be characterized into three different phases. In the early phase, the MARS-LMR simulated the heat-up process correctly due to the enhanced heat structure modeling. In the mid phase before the opening of SG casing, the code reproduced the decrease of core outlet temperature successfully. Finally, in the later phase the increase of heat removal by the opening of the SG opening was well predicted with the MARS-LMR code. (authors)

  4. Application of fuel cell for pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, H.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.

    2015-12-01

    Once pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste reacts with water and air it produces acid mine drainage (AMD) and leads to the other environmental problems such as contamination of surrounding soils. Pyrite is the major source of AMD and it can be controlled using a biological-electrochemical dissolution method. By enhancing the dissolution of pyrite using fuel cell technology, not only mining waste be beneficially utilized but also be treated at the same time by. As pyrite-containing mining waste is oxidized in the anode of the fuel cell, electrons and protons are generated, and electrons moves through an external load to cathode reducing oxygen to water while protons migrate to cathode through a proton exchange membrane. Iron-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which can utilize Fe as an electron donor promotes pyrite dissolution and hence enhances electrochemical dissolution of pyrite from mining waste. In this study mining waste from a zinc mine in Korea containing 17 wt% pyrite and 9% As was utilized as a fuel for the fuel cell inoculated with A. ferrooxidans. Electrochemically dissolved As content and chemically dissolved As content was compared. With the initial pH of 3.5 at 23℃, the dissolved As concentration increased (from 4.0 to 13 mg/L after 20 d) in the fuel cell, while it kept decreased in the chemical reactor (from 12 to 0.43 mg/L after 20 d). The fuel cell produced 0.09 V of open circuit voltage with the maximum power density of 0.84 mW/m2. Dissolution of As from mining waste was enhanced through electrochemical reaction. Application of fuel cell technology is a novel treatment method for pyrite and heavy metals containing mining waste, and this method is beneficial for mining environment as well as local community of mining areas.

  5. X-ray depth-dose characteristics of the Toshiba LMR-16.

    PubMed

    Mantel, J; Perry, H; Weinkam, J J

    1979-01-01

    The depth-dose characteristics of the Toshiba LMR-16 linear accelerator for 14-MeV x rays have been measured at an SSD of 100 cm using diodes and ion chambers. The surface dose and build-up depth both exhibit a considerable variation with field size. A new central axis model has been developed which takes account of these variations, and the agreement between the measured and computed data using this model is found to be excellent. Formulas are also presented to estimate the surface dose, buildup depth, and output factor as a function of field size. PMID:460069

  6. Metal hydride and pyrophoric fuel additives for dicyclopentadiene based hybrid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shark, Steven C.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of reactive energetic fuel additives that have the potential to increase the combustion performance of hybrid rocket propellants in terms of solid fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency. Additives that can augment the combustion flame zone in a hybrid rocket motor by means of increased energy feedback to the fuel grain surface are of great interest. Metal hydrides have large volumetric hydrogen densities, which gives these materials high performance potential as fuel additives in terms of specifc impulse. The excess hydrogen and corresponding base metal may also cause an increase in the hybrid rocket solid fuel regression rate. Pyrophoric additives also have potential to increase the solid fuel regression rate by reacting more readily near the burning fuel surface providing rapid energy feedback. An experimental performance evaluation of metal hydride fuel additives for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems is examined in this study. Hypergolic ignition droplet tests and an accelerated aging study revealed the protection capabilities of Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) as a fuel binder, and the ability for unaided ignition. Static hybrid rocket motor experiments were conducted using DCPD as the fuel. Sodium borohydride (NabH4) and aluminum hydride (AlH3) were examined as fuel additives. Ninety percent rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) was used as the oxidizer. In this study, the sensitivity of solid fuel regression rate and characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency to total fuel grain port mass flux and particle loading is examined. These results were compared to HTPB combustion performance as a baseline. Chamber pressure histories revealed steady motor operation in most tests, with reduced ignition delays when using NabH4 as a fuel additive. The addition of NabH4 and AlH3 produced up to a 47% and 85% increase in regression rate over neat DCPD, respectively. For all test conditions examined C* efficiency ranges

  7. Method for calculating the duration of vacuum drying of a metal-concrete container for spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyakin, Yu. E.; Nekhozhin, M. A.; Pletnev, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    A method for calculating the quantity of moisture in a metal-concrete container in the process of its charging with spent nuclear fuel is proposed. A computing method and results obtained by it for conservative estimation of the time of vacuum drying of a container charged with spent nuclear fuel by technologies with quantization and without quantization of the lower fuel element cluster are presented. It has been shown that the absence of quantization in loading spent fuel increases several times the time of vacuum drying of the metal-concrete container.

  8. Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

    1993-02-01

    Light hydrocarbon gases could be reacted with low cost alkaline earth metal oxide (CaO, MgO) in high-temperature plasma reactor to achieve very high ([le]100%) gas conversion to H[sub 2], CO, and the corresponding metal carbides. These carbides could be stored, transported, and hydrolyzed to acetylene or methyl acetylene, which in turn could be upgraded to a wide range of chemicals and premium liquid hydrocarbon fuels. An electric arc discharge reactor was built for converting methane. Literature reviews were made.

  9. Actinides in metallic waste from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janney, D. E.; Keiser, D. D.

    2003-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a pyroprocessing-based technique for conditioning spent sodium-bonded nuclear-reactor fuel in preparation for long-term disposal. The technique produces a metallic waste form whose nominal composition is stainless steel with 15 wt.% Zr (SS-15Zr), up to ˜ 11 wt.% actinide elements (primarily uranium), and a few percent metallic fission products. Actual and simulated waste forms show similar eutectic microstructures with approximately equal proportions of iron solid solution phases and Fe-Zr intermetallics. This article reports on an analysis of simulated waste forms containing uranium, neptunium, and plutonium.

  10. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Kevin; Ruka, Roswell J.

    2012-05-08

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  11. Modeling the behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels during extended transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, J. M.; Liu, Y. Y.; Billone, M. C.; Tsai, H. C.

    1993-09-01

    Passive safety features in metal-fueled reactors utilizing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel system make it possible to avoid core damage for extended time periods even when automatic scram systems fail to operate or heat removal systems are severely degraded. The time scale for these transients are intermediate between those that have traditionally been analyzed in fast reactor safety assessments and those of normal operation. Consequently, it has been necessary to validate models and computer codes (FPIN2 and LIFE-METAL) for application to this intermediate time regime. Results from out-of-reactor Whole Pin Furnace tests are being used for this purpose. Pretest predictions for tests FM-1 through FM-6 have been performed and calculations have been compared with the experimental measurements.

  12. Laboratory studies of shear/leach processing of zircaloy clad metallic uranium reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.L.; Bray, L.A.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Ryan, J.L.; Matsuzaki, C.L.; Pitman, S.G.; Haberman, J.H.

    1985-12-01

    The safety aspects addressed centered on understanding and explaining the undesirable reactions, ''fires,'' observed in a few instances during earlier processing of such fuel at the Nuclear Fuels Services (NFS) plant at West Valley, New York. Consideration of the dissolver fires that occurred at NFS leads to the conclusion that they resulted from rapid reactions with uranium metal, rather than with zirconium metal or with sensitized weld beads. The fires observed at NFS during hulls handling operations may have involved sensitized weld beads as suggested by earlier investigators, but current results suggest that these fires also could have been caused by reactions involving uranium metal. Very little pyrophoric activity was observed in leeached cladding hulls, indicating a very low probability for safety problems resulting from the U-Zr intermetallic zone in N-Reactor fuel. Consideration of the potential role of hydrides in the fires observed at NFS indicates that they were also not important factors. Consideration was also given to protective atmospheres to be used during shearing to prevent excessive reaction during that operation. A water deluge during shearing will likely provide adequate safety while meshing well with other process considerations. Studies on the dissolution of metallic uranium in nitric acid show an initial slower reaction followed by a faster reaction that proceeds at a sustained rate for a prolonged period of time. At solution concentrations typical of those encountered in practical uranium dissolver conditions, this sustained rate is governed by an equation such as: Dissolution rate = K (surface area) ((HNO3)+2(U))/sup 2.6/. Little difference was found in dissolution rates of as-fabricated and of irradiated fuel. The transuranic element content of leached cladding hulls was found to be approx. 400 nCi/g. This is too high to allow disposal as low-level waste.

  13. Characterization of the sodium void reactivity effect for advanced liquid metal reactor fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, S.F.

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the problems of a large positive sodium void reactivity effect in liquid metal reactors which have received increased attention following the accident at Chernobyl, a light water reactor with a positive coolant void coefficient. While the probability of voiding sodium is small, a large positive sodium void reactivity effect is, in many minds, unacceptable. Analyses were performed on models of an advanced liquid metal reactors to determine the effects fuel type have on the sodium void reactivity effect. Three fuel types were considered; metal, oxide, and nitride. Calculations were performed using three-dimensional, multigroup diffusion theory. Two programs were developed to aid the analyses. One calculated the capture-to-fission ratio and the other calculated reaction rates of selected materials. A one-group equation was derived to determine a theoretical basis for the sodium void reactivity effect. An option was presented for a shortened core having a near-zero sodium-void worth. The effect on the sodium void reactivity effect of using actinides as fuel is also considered.

  14. Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Solar Energy to Hydrogen Fuel Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabio, Erwin Murillo

    Photoactive metal oxide nanomaterials enable full or partial water splitting by reducing water to hydrogen and oxidizing water into oxygen through transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes, respectively, upon absorption of light of certain frequencies. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) is one of the useful instruments to study these materials through observation of their atomic structures using high resolution imaging and through chemical analyses using complementary analytical techniques. Combinations of z-contrast imaging, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to elucidate the structures of IrO2, H2Ti4O 9, H2K2Nb6O17 and WO 3 photocatalysts. STEM techniques were also employed to observe the reduction of V2O5 nanoribbons into photoactive VO 2 and to monitor the effect of sonication on the size and crystallinity of TBACa2Nb3O10 (TBA = tetrabutylammonium) nano sheets. Aberration-corrected STEM equipped with a fluid stage was utilized to examine water catalysis by TBACa2Nb3O10 in situ under the electron beam. Phenomena associated with calcium niobate catalysis such as photodeposition of Pt and IrO2 co-catalysts and the surface poisoning with Ag particles during water oxidation were observed in real time. Formation of gas bubbles during water reduction was also detected as it occurs using dark field imaging and EELS. Electron microscopy was also employed to probe charge separation and distribution of redox-active sites on photolabeled TBACa2Nb 3O10. The sizes, shapes, and particle densities vary with the precursor concentration and the presence of sacrificial agents. Photogenerated electrons and holes were shown to be accessible throughout the nanosheets, without evidence for spatial charge separation across the sheet. To measure the relative catalytic activities of multiple photocatalysts, a comparative quantum efficiency (QE) study was

  15. Gas-bubble growth mechanisms in the analysis of metal fuel swelling

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    During steady-state irradiation, swelling rates associated with growth of fission-gas bubbles in metallic fast reactor fuels may be expected to remain small. As a consequence, bubble-growth mechanisms are not a major consideration in modeling the steady-state fuel behavior, and it is usually adequate to consider the gas pressure to be in equilibrium with the external pressure and surface tension restraint. On transient time scales, however, various bubble-growth mechanisms become important components of the swelling rate. These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or ''punchout''; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

  16. Facile and Gram-scale Synthesis of Metal-free Catalysts: Toward Realistic Applications for Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Cho, Yong-Hun; Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoo, Ji Mun; Park, Ji Eun; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-03-01

    Although numerous reports on nonprecious metal catalysts for replacing expensive Pt-based catalysts have been published, few of these studies have demonstrated their practical application in fuel cells. In this work, we report graphitic carbon nitride and carbon nanofiber hybrid materials synthesized by a facile and gram-scale method via liquid-based reactions, without the use of toxic materials or a high pressure-high temperature reactor, for use as fuel cell cathodes. The resulting materials exhibited remarkable methanol tolerance, selectivity, and stability even without a metal dopant. Furthermore, these completely metal-free catalysts exhibited outstanding performance as cathode materials in an actual fuel cell device: a membrane electrode assembly with both acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The fabrication method and remarkable performance of the single cell produced in this study represent progressive steps toward the realistic application of metal-free cathode electrocatalysts in fuel cells.

  17. Facile and Gram-scale Synthesis of Metal-free Catalysts: Toward Realistic Applications for Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Cho, Yong-Hun; Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoo, Ji Mun; Park, Ji Eun; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous reports on nonprecious metal catalysts for replacing expensive Pt-based catalysts have been published, few of these studies have demonstrated their practical application in fuel cells. In this work, we report graphitic carbon nitride and carbon nanofiber hybrid materials synthesized by a facile and gram-scale method via liquid-based reactions, without the use of toxic materials or a high pressure-high temperature reactor, for use as fuel cell cathodes. The resulting materials exhibited remarkable methanol tolerance, selectivity, and stability even without a metal dopant. Furthermore, these completely metal-free catalysts exhibited outstanding performance as cathode materials in an actual fuel cell device: a membrane electrode assembly with both acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The fabrication method and remarkable performance of the single cell produced in this study represent progressive steps toward the realistic application of metal-free cathode electrocatalysts in fuel cells. PMID:25728910

  18. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 μm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  19. The Potential of Aluminium Metal Powder as a Fuel for Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. M.; Osborne, B.; Welch, C. S.

    Metal powder propulsion systems have been addressed intermittently since the Second World War, initially in the field of underwater propulsion where research in the application of propelling torpedoes continues until this day. During the post war era, researchers attempted to utilise metal powders as a fuel for ram jet applications in missiles. The 1960's and 1970's saw additional interest in the use of `pure powder' propellants, i.e. fluidised metal fuel and oxidiser, both in solid particulate form. Again the application was for employment in space-constrained missiles where the idea was to maximise the performance of high energy density powder propellants in order to enhance the missile's flight duration. Metal powder as possible fuel was investigated for in-situ resource utilisation propulsion systems post-1980's where the emphasis was on the use of gaseous oxygen or liquid oxygen combined with aluminium metal powder for use as a ``lunar soil propellant'' or carbon dioxide and magnesium metal powder as a ``Martian propellant''.Albeit aluminium metal powder propellants are lower in performance than cryogenic and Earth storable propellants, the former does have an advantage inasmuch that the propulsion system is generic, i.e. it can be powered with chemicals mined and processed on Earth, the Moon and Mars. Thus, due to the potential refuelling capability, the lower performing aluminium metal powder propellant would effectively possess a much higher change in velocity (V) for multiple missions than the cryogenic or Earth storable propellant which is only suitable for one planet or one mission scenario, respectively.One of the principal limitations of long duration human spaceflight beyond cis-lunar orbit is the lack of refuelling capabilities on distant planets resulting in the reliance on con- ventional non-cryogenic, propellants produced on Earth. If one could develop a reliable propulsion system operating on pro- pellants derived entirely of ingredients found on

  20. Separation and Recovery of Uranium Metal from Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel via Electrolytic Reduction and Electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    S. D. Herrmann; S. X. Li

    2010-09-01

    A series of bench-scale experiments was performed in a hot cell at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate the separation and recovery of uranium metal from spent light water reactor (LWR) oxide fuel. The experiments involved crushing spent LWR fuel to particulate and separating it from its cladding. Oxide fuel particulate was then converted to metal in a series of six electrolytic reduction runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl – 1 wt% Li2O at 650 °C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrolytic reduction runs identified the diffusion of select fission products from the spent fuel to the molten salt electrolyte. The extents of metal oxide conversion in the post-test fuel were also quantified, including a nominal 99.7% conversion of uranium oxide to metal. Uranium metal was then separated from the reduced LWR fuel in a series of six electrorefining runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl-KCl-UCl3 at 500 °C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrorefining runs identified additional partitioning of fission products into the molten salt electrolyte. Analyses of the separated uranium metal were performed, and its decontamination factors were determined.

  1. A Comparative Study between Modified Bassini’s Repair and Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) of Inguinal Hernias in Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    N., Naveen; R., Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bassini’s repair and the Lichtenstein’s tension free mesh hernioplasty are commonly used hernia repair techniques and yet there is no unison as to which is the best technique. Our hospital being in a rural setup and catering to majority of poor patients who are daily wagers, open hernia repairs are commonly done. This study was undertaken to compare the technique and post-operative course so as to determine the best suitable of the two procedures for them. Materials and Methods: A comparative randomized study was conducted on a total of 70 patients with inguinal hernia and were operated upon by either of technique and followed up. Outcome of both the techniques were analyzed and compared with other similar studies. Results: Study involved 35 each of Modified Bassini’s Repair (MBR) and Lichtenstein’s Mesh Repair (LMR), over a period of 18 months. MBR took more operating time than LMR. Commonest complication in both the groups was seroma formation. There were two recurrences in the MBR group and none in LMR group. Conclusion: LMR was comparatively better than MBR due to its simplicity, less dissection and early ambulation in the post-operative period and with no recurrence, in our study. PMID:24701491

  2. Status of fuel, blanket, and absorber testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.B.; Bard, F.E.; Leggett, R.D.; Pitner, A.L.

    1992-11-01

    Over 67,000 fuel, blanket and absorber pins have been irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) during its first 12 years of operation. Tests are run in highly controlled and monitored environments with core components similar in size to those in commercial liquid metal reactor (LMR) designs. While primary emphasis was placed on mixed oxide fuels, significant development programs have included metallic fuels, UO[sub 2] blankets, B[sub 4]C absorbers, and other fuels and materials of interest. Irradiation programs for mixed oxides have included progressively lower swelling cladding and duct alloys (e.g., 316 SS, D9 SS, and the ferritic HT9), which also have application to other core components. In many instances the current exposure levels of the advanced FFTF tests are the highest attained and reported in the literature. This paper summarizes the status of irradiation experience at the facility, presents some general conclusions, and reviews the potential for obtaining additional significant data.

  3. Status of fuel, blanket, and absorber testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.B.; Bard, F.E.; Leggett, R.D.; Pitner, A.L.

    1992-11-01

    Over 67,000 fuel, blanket and absorber pins have been irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) during its first 12 years of operation. Tests are run in highly controlled and monitored environments with core components similar in size to those in commercial liquid metal reactor (LMR) designs. While primary emphasis was placed on mixed oxide fuels, significant development programs have included metallic fuels, UO{sub 2} blankets, B{sub 4}C absorbers, and other fuels and materials of interest. Irradiation programs for mixed oxides have included progressively lower swelling cladding and duct alloys (e.g., 316 SS, D9 SS, and the ferritic HT9), which also have application to other core components. In many instances the current exposure levels of the advanced FFTF tests are the highest attained and reported in the literature. This paper summarizes the status of irradiation experience at the facility, presents some general conclusions, and reviews the potential for obtaining additional significant data.

  4. Metal decoration of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP) for fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, In-Hwan

    The synthesis and characterization of metal particles at nanometer length scale has been the object of much research in modern nanotechnology due to their great impact on new nanoscale scientific and technological applications. Nanoscale metal particles possess unique optical, thermal, electronic, magnetic properties and chemical reactivity since the size of the resulting materials is on the same order as the fundamental interaction distances that give rise to physical properties and thus shows the quantum size effect which is not observed in their bulky status. Therefore, an effective synthetic method is required to obtain uniform small metal powders with controlled size and a narrow size distribution and also to produce nanocomposites consisting of either metals or metal oxides supported on carbons or metals dispersed on metal oxides for a variety of applications in chemical industries, automobiles, energy and power generating devices, hydrogen economy as well as for sensors. On the other hand, although their excellent mechanical, thermal and electrical conductivity, excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance, and low impurity levels which are required as a breakthrough material to increase performance of next generation energy devices, exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (xGnP) has not been studied as deeply as recent new nano structured carbon materials such as single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), carbon nanohorn (CNH), graphite nanofiber (GNF), and fullerenes. In addition, xGnP is much cost-effective compared to other carbon nanostructures. Hence, it is interesting to evaluate the applicability of xGnP as a support material for fuel cell which is one of promising energy devices for the future. In this research, a new simple, efficient and economic way is presented for the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles such as Pt, Ru, Pd, etc and their deposition on various carbon supports and metal oxides via microwave heating in the

  5. Performance evaluation and characterization of metallic bipolar plates in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Yue

    Bipolar plate and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) are the two most repeated components of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. Bipolar plates comprise more than 60% of the weight and account for 30% of the total cost of a fuel cell stack. The bipolar plates perform as current conductors between cells, provide conduits for reactant gases, facilitate water and thermal management through the cell, and constitute the backbone of a power stack. In addition, bipolar plates must have excellent corrosion resistance to withstand the highly corrosive environment inside the fuel cell, and they must maintain low interfacial contact resistance throughout the operation to achieve optimum power density output. Currently, commercial bipolar plates are made of graphite composites because of their relatively low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) and high corrosion resistance. However, graphite composite's manufacturability, permeability, and durability for shock and vibration are unfavorable in comparison to metals. Therefore, metals have been considered as a replacement material for graphite composite bipolar plates. Since bipolar plates must possess the combined advantages of both metals and graphite composites in the fuel cell technology, various methods and techniques are being developed to combat metallic corrosion and eliminate the passive layer formed on the metal surface that causes unacceptable power reduction and possible fouling of the catalyst and the electrolyte. The main objective of this study was to explore the possibility of producing efficient, cost-effective and durable metallic bipolar plates that were capable of functioning in the highly corrosive fuel cell environment. Bulk materials such as Poco graphite, graphite composite, SS310, SS316, incoloy 800, titanium carbide and zirconium carbide were investigated as potential bipolar plate materials. In this work, different alloys and compositions of chromium carbide coatings on aluminum and SS316

  6. An examination of maintenance activities in liquid metal reactor facilities: An analysis by the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO)

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J; Knee, H E; Manning, J J; Manneschmidt, J F; Setoguchi, K

    1987-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is the largest repository of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability data in the world. It is jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. The CREDO database contains information on a population of more than 21,000 components and approximately 1300 event records. Total experience is approaching 1.2 billion component operating hours. Although data gathering for CREDO concentrates on event (failure) information, the work reported here focuses on the maintenance information contained in CREDO and the development of maintenance critical items lists. That is, components are ranked in prioritized lists from worse to best performers from a maintenance standpoint.

  7. Metal foams application to enhance cooling of open cathode polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid Hossain, Mohammad; Shabani, Bahman

    2015-11-01

    Conventional channel flow fields of open cathode Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) introduce some challenges linked to humidity, temperature, pressure and oxygen concentration gradients along the conventional flow fields that reduce the cell performance. According to previous experimental reports, with conventional air flow fields, hotspot formation due to water accumulation in Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) is common. Unlike continuous long flow passages in conventional channels, metal foams provide randomly interrupted flow passages. Re-circulation of fluid, due to randomly distributed tortuous ligaments, enhances temperature and humidity uniformity in the fluid. Moreover, the higher electrical conductivity of metal foams compared to non-metal current collectors and their very low mass density compared to solid metal materials are expected to increase the electrical performance of the cell while significantly reducing its weight. This article reviews the existing cooling systems and identifies the important parameters on the basis of reported literature in the air cooling systems of PEMFCs. This is followed by investigating metal foams as a possible option to be used within the structure of such PEMFCs as an option that can potentially address cooling and flow distribution challenges associated with using conventional flow channels, especially in air-cooled PEMFCs.

  8. Metals as electron acceptors in single-chamber microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Yining; Puranik, Sampada; Lei, Yu; Vadas, Timothy; Li, Baikun

    2014-12-01

    Two typical oxidized-status metals (Fe(III) and Cr(VI)) were studied as electron acceptors on cathodes in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) to explore novel sustainable technology for metal treatment. The batch-mode tests indicated that the voltages of SCMFCs steadily increased with Fe(III) concentrations (10, 30, and 50 mg L-1) and Cr(VI) concentrations (1, 3, and 10 mg L-1). The maximum power density was 658 ± 6 mW m-2 at 50 mg L-1 of Fe(III), and 419 ± 4 mW m-2 at 10 mg L-1 Cr(VI). The conversion efficiency of Cr(VI) and Fe(III) were high (>89%), and coulombic efficiency ranged 23-100%. Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L-1 started to irreversibly inhibit SCMFCs. The open circuit potentials (OCPs) well reflected the organic substrate removal in anode and metal reduction on cathode. Cathode liner sweep voltammetry (LSV) showed the electrochemical activity increased with metal concentrations, and the cathode of Fe(III) had better LSV performance than Cr(VI). Microbial community analysis of biofilms showed that the DNA band patterns of anode biofilms were similar, while cathode biofilms varied with electron acceptors. This study demonstrated the high power generation of SCMFCs with metals as electron acceptors, and revealed the great potential of expanding MFCs for diverse waste treatment.

  9. Export control guide: Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and preparation of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    The international Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also referred to as the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), states in Article III, paragraph 2(b) that {open_quotes}Each State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to provide . . . equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material to any non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful purposes, unless the source or special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards required by this Article.{close_quotes} This guide was prepared to assist export control officials in the interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws and controls relating to the international Trigger List for irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, components, and materials. The guide also contains information related to the production of plutonium metal. Reprocessing and its place in the nuclear fuel cycle are described briefly; the standard procedure to prepare metallic plutonium is discussed; steps used to prepare Trigger List controls are cited; descriptions of controlled items are given; and special materials of construction are noted. This is followed by a comprehensive description of especially designed or prepared equipment, materials, and components of reprocessing and plutonium metal processes and includes photographs and/or pictorial representations. The nomenclature of the Trigger List has been retained in the numbered sections of this document for clarity.

  10. Evaluation of Metal Halide, Plasma, and LED Lighting Technologies for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Light (H 2 LT)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, L. B.; Donohoe, S. P.; Jones, M. H.; White, W. A.; Klebanoff, L. E.; Velinsky, S. A.

    2015-04-22

    This article reports on the testing and comparison of a prototype hydrogen fuel cell light tower (H2LT) and a conventional diesel-powered metal halide light trailer for use in road maintenance and construction activities. The prototype was originally outfitted with plasma lights and then with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Light output and distribution, lighting energy efficiency (i.e., efficacy), power source thermal efficiency, and fuel costs are compared. The metal halide luminaires have 2.2 and 3.1 times more light output than the plasma and LED luminaires, respectively, but they require more power/lumen to provide that output. The LED luminaires have 1.6 timesmore » better light efficacy than either the metal halide or plasma luminaires. The light uniformity ratios produced by the plasma and LED towers are acceptable. The fuel cell thermal efficiency at the power required to operate the plasma lights is 48%, significantly higher than the diesel generator efficiency of 23% when operating the metal halide lights. Due to the increased efficiency of the fuel cell and the LED lighting, the fuel cost per lumen-hour of the H2LT is 62% of the metal halide diesel light tower assuming a kilogram of hydrogen is twice the cost of a gallon of diesel fuel.« less

  11. Design and analysis of a coupled solid oxide fuel cell and metal hydride bed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ke

    Solid oxide fuel cells have exhibited excellent performance at high temperature for a few years. However, the fuel supply and the practical fuel cell application need to be improved especially for transportation or stand-alone facility usage. Two modified hydrogen storage models (two vessel and three vessel hydrogen storage system) are presented in this study. The gravimetric density and volumetric density are calculated in order to meet the DOE requirements. Furthermore, the time dependence model of hydrogen releasing in metal hydride bed (MHB) is built up. And the simulations are carried on in isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The simulation results indicate: the isothermal model can provide sufficient hydrogen flow until the MHB is emptied; the adiabatic model can only last short period because of the fast temperature decreasing in MHB. The steady state and time dependence model of coupled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and MHB system are also investigated. The steady state model focuses on the heat recycle process for coupled system. The calculation shows the heat generated in system can provide enough energy for inner recycle. On the other hand, the time de-pendence model mainly concerns the time delay in such a coupled system. The simu-lation shows the time delay mainly comes from hydrogen feed.

  12. Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

  13. Cryogenic Gellant and Fuel Formulation for Metallized Gelled Propellants: Hydrocarbons and Hydrogen with Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wing; Starkovich, John; Adams, Scott; Palaszewski, Bryan; Davison, William; Burt, William; Thridandam, Hareesh; Hu-Peng, Hsiao; Santy, Myrrl J.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the viability of nanoparticulate gellant materials for gelled hydrocarbons and gelled liquid hydrogen was conducted. The gellants included alkoxides (BTMSE and BTMSH) and silica-based materials. Hexane, ethane, propane and hydrogen were gelled with the newly-formulated materials and their rheological properties were determined: shear stress versus shear rate and their attendant viscosities. Metallized hexane with aluminum particles was also rheologically characterized. The propellant and gellant formulations were selected for the very high surface area and relatively-high energy content of the gellants. These new gellants can therefore improve rocket engine specific impulse over that obtained with traditional cryogenic-fuel gellant materials silicon dioxide, frozen methane, or frozen ethane particles. Significant reductions in the total mass of the gellant were enabled in the fuels. In gelled liquid hydrogen, the total mass of gellant was reduced from 10-40 wt percent of frozen hydrocarbon particles to less that 8 wt percent with the alkoxide.

  14. A combinatorial study on catalytic synergism in supported metal catalysts for fuel cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuhiko; Ueda, Atsushi; Yamada, Yusuke; Shioyama, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    In order to accelerate the catalyst development for the increasing demand on the fuel cell technology, it has been attempted to adopt a combinatorial approach. The catalytic synergism, often observed on the supported metal catalysts for the fuel cell utilization, has been subjected to study. It is proposed herein that not only a comparison of catalysts in one reaction, but also the comparison of interrelated reactions by use of a common catalyst library brings about important information to elucidate the catalytic synergism. Preliminary results of the comparison between the water-gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of MeOH on a given set of catalyst library are presented. An important indicator to predict the serendipitous synergism is expected to be obtained from such information by use of artificial intelligence.

  15. The formation of protective nitride surfaces for PEM fuel cell metallic bipolar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, M. P.; Yang, B.; Wang, H.; Turner, J. A.; More, K. L.; Wilson, M.; Garzon, F.

    2006-08-01

    The selective gas nitridation of model nickel-based alloys was used to form dense, electrically conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride surface layers, including TiN, VN, CrN, Cr2N, as wellas a complex NiNbVN phase. Evaluation for use as a protective surface for metallic bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) indicated that CrN/Cr2N based surfaces holdpromise to meet U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) performance goals for automative applications. The thermally grown CrN/Cr2N surface formed on model Ni-Cr based alloys exhibited good stability and low electrical resistance in single-cell fuel cell testing under simulated drive-cycle conditions. Recent results indicate that similar protective chromium nitride surfaces can be formed on less expensive Fe-Cr based alloys potentially capable of meeting DOE cost goals.

  16. Outlooks of HLW Partitioning Technologies Usage for Recovering of Platinum Metals from Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhitonov, Y. A.; Estimantovskiy, V.; Romanovski, v.; Zatsev, B.; Todd, T.

    2003-02-24

    The existing practice of management of high level waste (HLW) generated by NPPs, call for a task of selective separation of the most dangerous long-lived radionuclides with the purpose of their subsequent immobilization and disposal. HLW partitioning allows to reduce substantially the cost of vitrified product storage owing to isolation of the most dangerous radionuclides, such as transplutonium elements (TPE) into separate fractions of small volumes, intended for ultimate storage. By now numerous investigations on partitioning of HLW of various composition have been carried out in many countries and a lot of processes permitting to recover cesium, strontium, TPE and rare earth elements (REE) have been already tested. Apart from enumerated radionuclides, a fair quantity of palladium and rhodium presents in spent fuel, but the problem of these elements recovery has not yet been decided at the operating radiochemical plants. A negative effect of platinum group metals (PGM) occurrence is determined by the formation of separate metal phase, which not only worsens the conditions of glass-melting but also shortens considerably the service life of the equipment. At the same time, the exhaustion of PGMs natural resources may finally lead to such a growth of their costs that the spent nuclear fuel would became a substituting source of these elements industrial production. Allowing above mentioned, it is of interest to develop the technique for ''reactor'' palladium and rhodium recovery process which would be compatible with HLW partitioning and could be realized using the same facilities. In the report the data on platinum metals distribution in spent fuel reprocessing products and the several flowsheets for palladium separation from HLW are presented.

  17. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

    2003-12-31

    Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal

  18. Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes

    SciTech Connect

    Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

    2004-01-02

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

  19. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Removal of Xe and Kr from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-08-07

    Removal of Xenon (Xe) and Krypton (Kr) from in parts per million (ppm) levels were demonstrated for the first time using two well known metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC. Results of an activated carbon were also included for comparison. Ni/DOBDC has higher Xe/Kr selectivities than those of the activated carbon. Moreover, results show that the Ni/DOBDC and HKUST-1 can selectively adsorb Xe and Kr from air even at 1000 ppm concentration. This shows a promising future for MOFs in a radioactive nuclides separation from spent fuel.

  20. Steady state temperature profiles in two simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Rose, S.D.; Wantland, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Temperature data from steady state tests in two parallel, simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications have been compared to determine the extent to which they agree. In general, good agreement was found in data at low flows and in bundle-center data at higher flows. Discrepancies in the data wre noted near the bundle edges at higher flows. An analysis of bundle thermal boundary conditions showed that the possible eccentric placement of one bundle within the housing could account for these discrepancies.

  1. Non-precious metal catalysis for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Nathaniel Dean

    Non-precious metal catalysts (NPMC) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are explored. Research into NPMCs is motivated by the growing need for cleaner, more efficient energy options. NPMCs are one option to make fuel cells more commercially viable. To this end, the present work studies and simulates the morphology and function of metal-nitrogen-carbon (MNC) oxygen reduction catalysts. A porosity study finds that mesoporosity is critical to high performance of autogenic pressure metal-nitrogen-carbon (APMNC) oxygen reduction catalysts. Various carbon materials are used as precursors to synthesis APMNC catalysts. The catalysts and the associated porous carbon materials are characterized morphologically, chemically, and electrochemically. The results indicated that substrates adsorbing the most nitrogen and iron show the highest activity. Furthermore, a relationship is found between mesoporosity and nitrogen content indicating the importance of transport to active site creation. A correlation is found between surface alkalinity and catalytic activity for APMNC catalysts. The basic site strength and quantity were calculated by two different methods, and it was shown that increased Bronsted- Lowry basicity correlates to more active catalysts. The relationship between alkalinity and catalytic activity could be the result of the impact of alkalinity on the electron density of the metal centers or basic sites could encourage active site formation. It is found that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeds both via a direct four-electron pathway to water at high potentials and an indirect peroxide pathway at low potentials on an APMNC catalyst. At higher potential, site availability inhibits peroxide generation causing the direct four-electron reduction pathway to dominate. Oxygen reduction begins to shift to the indirect peroxide pathway due to fast kinetics and higher site availability around 0.6 V vs RHE. The net peroxide generation remains relatively low

  2. Effectiveness of a dopant in U-Zr metallic fuel to prevent lanthanide migration

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wieneck, T.; O'Hare, E.; Fortner, J.

    2013-07-01

    The advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (about 50%) without requiring refueling by way of using metallic alloy fuel have gained interest. Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and its migration to cladding and reaction with cladding is a potential life-limiting phenomenon. As a means to solve this problem, adding an element that forms stable compounds with lanthanides to immobilize them has been proposed. The theoretical assessment shows that indium, thallium, gallium, and antimony are good candidates. Except for Sb, because these elements are low-melting temperature elements, liquid metal embrittlement of cladding is a concern if large sized agglomerates exist contacting the cladding. Alloy characterization of as-fabricated samples was performed to examine the effectiveness of the dopant addition method using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Although preliminary, the present results showed that indium is a better dopant to immobilize lanthanides.

  3. Geometric considerations relating to lateral migration radiography (LMR) as applied to the detection of land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Keshavmurthy, Shyam P.; Dugan, Edward T.; Jacobs, Alan M.

    1997-07-01

    Lateral migration radiography (LMR), a form of Compton backscatter radiography, is applied to the detection and identification of landmines. The LMR system consists of two inner uncollimated detectors positioned to optimally detect first scattered photons and two outer collimated detectors designed to detect primarily photons that have had two or more scatterings. The difference between the collimated and uncollimated detector response to both the landmines themselves and the different types of landmine image masking phenomena, form the basis of the image enhancement and landmine identification procedures. Surface feature information is the primary component of the uncollimated detector response. The collimated detector signal contains information about the surface features as well as the buried objects. The principles of the detection system have been shown in previous work and now the focus has shifted to the preparation for field tests and the associated problems. One of the expected events that the detector system will encounter is the variation of detector height with respect to the ground. This is caused by irregularities in the surface as will as oscillations of the detection vehicle. The collimated detectors and the uncollimated detector react differently to height variations. When the detector height increases the uncollimated detector response will be reduced due to the decrease in solid angle. Although the collimated detector will also be affected by the change in solid angle the dominate reaction is the loss of collimation causing the collimated detectors signal to increase. When the detector height decreases the opposite responses are observed. By using the information from both detector systems, the effects of the detector height variation can be removed.

  4. Manufacturing and characterization of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blennow, Peter; Hjelm, Johan; Klemensø, Trine; Ramousse, Severine; Kromp, Alexander; Leonide, André; Weber, André

    A metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell design offers competitive advantages, for example reduced material costs and improved robustness. This paper reports the performance and stability of a recently developed metal-supported cell design, based on a novel cermet anode, on a 25 cm 2 (1 cm 2/16 cm 2 active area) cell level. An electrochemical performance comparable to state-of-the-art anode-supported cells is demonstrated. Detailed electrochemical analysis allowed assignment of the overall polarization losses quantitatively to gas diffusion in the metal support, electrooxidation in the anode functional layer, oxygen reduction in the mixed ionic-electronic conducting cathode and an additional polarization process with a rather high relaxation frequency, which may be assigned to an insulating corrosion interlayer. The durability of the cells was investigated by means of galvanostatic operation for periods of up to 1000 h as well as the dynamic behavior, such as redox-, load- and thermal cycling tests. The galvanostatic stability tests indicated a fair, but significant degradation rate (∼5% decrease in cell voltage/1000 h at 650 °C and 0.25 A cm -2). Furthermore, the metal-supported cells underwent an endurance test of 100 redox cycles at 800 °C without severe degradation nor total failure.

  5. Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

  6. Metal-fueled HWR (heavy water reactors) severe accident issues: Differences and similarities to commercial LWRs (light water reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, P.G.; Hyder, M.L.; Monson, P.R. ); Coryell, E.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Differences and similarities in severe accident progression and phenomena between commercial Light Water Reactors (LWR) and metal-fueled isotopic production Heavy Water Reactors (HWR) are described. It is very important to distinguish between accident progression in the two systems because each reactor type behaves in a unique manner to a fuel melting accident. Some of the lessons learned as a result of the extensive commercial severe accident research are not applicable to metal-fueled heavy water reactors. A direct application of severe accident phenomena developed from oxide-fueled LWRs to metal-fueled HWRs may lead to large errors or substantial uncertainties. In general, the application of severe accident LWR concepts to HWRs should be done with the intent to define the relevant issues, define differences, and determine areas of overlap. This paper describes the relevant differences between LWR and metal-fueled HWR severe accident phenomena. Also included in the paper is a description of the phenomena that govern the source term in HWRs, the areas where research is needed to resolve major uncertainties, and areas in which LWR technology can be directly applied with few modifications.

  7. Analyses of various options for the breeder fuel cycle in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Stradley, J.G.; Yook, H.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a program to develop innovative liquid metal reactor (LMR) designs to assist in developing US future reactor strategy. This paper describes studies in progress to examine various fuel cycle strategies that relate to the reactor strategy. Three potential fuel cycle options that focus on supporting an initial 1300-MWe reactor station have been defined: completion and utilization of the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test/Secure Automated Fabrication (BRET/SAF) in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF); a co-located fuel cycle facility; and delayed closure of the fuel cycle for five to ten years. It appears feasible to increase the capacity of the original BRET design and SAF in the FMEF to accommodate the projected output (up to 35 MTHM/year) from the 1300-MWe liquid-metal concepts under study. Working with the reactor manufacturers, criteria were developed for a small fuel cycle facility co-located at a utility reactor site. The requirements considered the need to be able to support as little as approximately 400 MWe to as much as 35 MTHM/year reprocessing capability. A rough order-of-magnitude capital cost estimate ($300 million) was developed. Plans developed within the US Consolidated Management Office for an initial reactor project have envisioned that a cost savings could be realized by delaying closure of the fuel cycle as long as supplies of plutonium could be obtained relatively inexpensively. This might prove to be only five to ten years, but even that period might be long enough for the fuel cycle costs to be spread over more than one reactor rather than loaded on the initial project. This concept is being explored as is the question of the future coupling of a light water reactor (LWR) reprocessing industry for plutonium supply to breeder recycle. 12 figs.

  8. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Zelenay, Piotr

    2009-08-18

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  9. Dust survey following the final shutdown of TEXTOR: metal particles and fuel retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna-Zaleśna, E.; Weckmann, A.; Grzonka, J.; Rubel, M.; Esser, H. G.; Freisinger, M.; Kreter, A.; Sergienko, G.; Ström, P.

    2016-02-01

    The work presents results of a broad TEXTOR dust survey in terms of its composition, structure, distribution and fuel content. The dust particles were collected after final shutdown of TEXTOR in December 2013. Fuel retention, as determined by thermal desorption, varied significantly, even by two orders of magnitude, dependent on the dust location in the machine. Dust structure was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Several categories of dust have been identified. Carbon-based stratified and granular deposits were dominating, but the emphasis in studies was on metal dust. They were found in the form of small particles, small spheres, flakes and splashes which formed ‘comet’-like structures, clearly indicating directional effects in the impact on surfaces of plasma-facing components. Nickel-rich alloys from the Inconel liner and iron-based ones from various diagnostic holders were the main components of metal-containing dust, but also molybdenum and tungsten debris were detected. Their origin is discussed.

  10. Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W.

    2013-04-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.

  11. Evaluation of conceptual flowsheets for incorporating Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel materials in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.T.; Burch, W.D.; Collins, E.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Prince, B.E.; Bond, W.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Delene, J.G.; Mailen, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    A preliminary study by a group of experts at ORNL has generated and evaluated a number of aqueous and non-aqueous flowsheets for recovering transuranium actinides from LWR fuel for use as fuel in an LMR and, at the same time, for transmutation of the wastes to less hazardous materials. The need for proliferation resistance was a consideration in the flowsheets. The current state of development of the flowsheets was evaluated and recommendations for additional study were made. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Characteristics of aqueous colloids generated by corrosion of metallic uranium fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J. A.; Mertz, C. J.; Goldberg, M. M.; Siefert, S.

    2002-09-12

    Metallic uranium fuel from the Hanford N Reactor was corroded in aqueous solutions and the resulting colloidal suspensions were analyzed to determine particle size, morphology, population, and radionuclide association. The experiments used a range of solution chemistry conditions including deionized water, single salt solutions, and modified groundwater from Yucca Mountain. Colloids were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, and synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering. The results of these analyses indicate that stable suspensions of small (1-10 nm diameter), spherical uranium oxides are generated and aggregate to approximately 100-200 nm colloids. There is no indication that these colloids continue to aggregate to larger size. In silicate solutions, large acicular uranium silicate colloids are formed in small quantities as are large uranium-bearing smectite clay colloids. Plutonium clearly associates with colloidal particles. Large particles contain the same Pu/U ratio as the uncorroded fuel, possibly indicating that the Pu is incorporated in the particle matrix. Smaller particles are highly enriched in Pu relative to the uncorroded fuel.

  13. Development of novel proton exchange membrane fuel cells using stamped metallic bipolar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Shiauh-Ping; Lee, Chun-I.; Chen, Chi-Chang; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Yang, Chang-Chung

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the development of novel proton exchange membrane fuel cells using stamped metallic bipolar plates. To achieve uniformly distributed and low pressure-drop flow fields within fuel cells, a novel bipolar plate with straight channels is designed and verification of a fuel-cell short stack using this bipolar plate is performed. In the experiments, low-temperature and low-humidity operations and high-temperature and high-humidity operations are adopted to evaluate effects of stack temperature and inlet relative humidity on performance at various outlet pressures. Experimental results show that under low-temperature and low-humidity operations, increasing the outlet pressure enhances stack performance and reduces performance differences between various stack temperatures. Under high-temperature and high-humidity operations, stack performance increases with increasing outlet pressures, while the extent of their increase becomes smaller. Compared to low-temperature and low-humidity operations, high-temperature and high-humidity operations have better electrochemical reactions and membrane hydration and, thus, better stack performance. In this study, the operation with a stack temperature of 80 °C and outlet pressure of 4 atm produces the best performance of 1100 mA cm-2 at 0.646 V.

  14. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J; Kass, Michael D; Janke, Christopher James

    2009-11-01

    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  15. Microbial fuel cell driving electrokinetic remediation of toxic metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Habibul, Nuzahat; Hu, Yi; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-11-15

    An investigation of the feasibility of in-situ electrokinetic remediation for toxic metal contaminated soil driven by microbial fuel cell (MFC) is presented. Results revealed that the weak electricity generated from MFC could power the electrokinetic remediation effectively. The metal removal efficiency and its influence on soil physiological properties were also investigated. With the electricity generated through the oxidation of organics in soils by microorganisms, the metals in the soils would mitigate from the anode to the cathode. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soils increased gradually through the anode to the cathode regions after remediation. After about 143days and 108 days' operation, the removal efficiencies of 31.0% and 44.1% for Cd and Pb at the anode region could be achieved, respectively. Soil properties such as pH and soil conductivity were also significantly redistributed from the anode to the cathode regions. The study shows that the MFC driving electrokinetic remediation technology is cost-effective and environmental friendly, with a promising application in soil remediation. PMID:27388419

  16. Novel architectured metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Mo-doped SrFeO3-δ electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yucun; Meng, Xie; Liu, Xuejiao; Pan, Xin; Li, Junliang; Ye, Xiaofeng; Nie, Huaiwen; Xia, Changrong; Wang, Shaorong; Zhan, Zhongliang

    2014-12-01

    Barriers to technological advancement of metal-supported SOFCs include nickel coarsening in the anode, metallic interdiffusion between the anode and the metal substrate, as well as poor cathode adhesion. Here we report a robust and novel architectured metal-supported SOFC that consists of a thin dense yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layer sandwiched between a porous 430L stainless steel substrate and a porous YSZ thin layer. The key feature is simultaneous use of impregnated nano-scale SrFe0.75Mo0.25O3-δ coatings on the internal surfaces of the porous 430L and YSZ backbones respectively as the anode and cathode catalyst. Such a fuel cell exhibits power densities of 0.74 W cm-2 at 800 °C and 0.40 W cm-2 at 700 °C when operating on hydrogen fuels and air oxidants.

  17. Effect of delivery condition on desorption rate of ZrCo metal hydride bed for fusion fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.G.; Yun, S.H.; Chung, D.; Oh, Y.H.; Chang, M.H.; Cho, S.; Chung, H.; Song, K.M.

    2015-03-15

    For the safety of fusion fuel cycle, hydrogen isotope gases including tritium are stored as metal hydride form. To satisfy fueling requirement of fusion machine, rapid delivery from metal hydride bed is one of major factors for the development of tritium storage and delivery system. Desorption from metal hydride depends on the operation scenario by pressure and temperature control of the bed. The effect of operation scenario and pump performance on desorption rate of metal hydride bed was experimentally investigated using ZrCo bed. The results showed that the condition of pre-heating scenario before actual delivery of gas affected the delivery performance. Different pumps were connected to desorption line from bed and the effect of pump capacity on desorption rate were also found to be significant. (authors)

  18. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Cramer, Carolyn N.

    Oxidation-resistant alloys find use as interconnect materials, heat exchangers, and gas supply tubing in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, especially when operated at temperatures below ∼800 °C. If fueled with synthesis gas derived from coal or biomass, such metallic components could be exposed to impurities contained in those fuel sources. In this study, coupons of ferritic stainless steels Crofer 22 APU and SS 441, austenitic nickel-chromium superalloy Inconel 600, and an alumina-forming high nickel alloy alumel were exposed to synthesis gas containing ≤2 ppm phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, and reaction products were tested. Crofer 22 APU coupons coated with a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 protective layer were also evaluated. Phosphorus was found to be the most reactive. On Crofer 22 APU, the (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 passivation layer reacted to form an Mn-P-O product, predicted to be manganese phosphate from thermochemical calculations, and Cr 2O 3. On SS 441, reaction of phosphorus with (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 led to the formation of manganese phosphate as well as an Fe-P product, predicted from thermochemical calculations to be Fe 3P. Minimal interactions with antimony or arsenic in synthesis gas were limited to Fe-Sb and Fe-As solid solution formation. Though not intended for use on the anode side, a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 spinel coating on Crofer 22 APU reacted with phosphorus in synthesis gas to produce products consistent with Mn 3(PO 4) 2 and Co 2P. A thin Cr 2O 3 passivation layer on Inconel 600 did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides and arsenides and of iron phosphides and arsenides, though no reaction with Cr 2O 3 was apparent. On alumel, an Al 2O 3 passivation layer rich in Ni did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides, though no reaction with Al 2O 3 occurred. This work shows that unprotected metallic components of an SOFC stack and system can provide a sink for P, As and Sb impurities that may be present in fuel gases, and thus complicate

  19. Evaluation of an EMITEC resistively heated metal monolith catalytic converter on two M100 neat methanol-fueled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Gregory K.; Schaefer, Ronald M.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the evaluation of a resistively heated catalyst system on two different methanol fueled vehicles. The EMITEC catalyst consisted of a compact resistively heated metal monolith in front of a larger conventional main converter. The EMITEC catalyst was evaluated on two neat methanol-fueled vehicles, a 1981 Volkswagen Rabbit and a 1988 Toyota Corolla. Emission testing was conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) CVS-75 test cycle. The emissions of primary interest were cold start methanol (unburned fuel), carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde.

  20. An analytical study of volatile metallic fission product release from very high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel and core

    SciTech Connect

    Mitake, S.; Okamoto, F.

    1988-04-01

    Release characteristics of volatile metallic fission products from the coated fuel particle and the reactor core for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor during its power operation has been studied using numerical analysis. A computer code FORNAX, based on Fick's diffusion law and the evaporation mass transfer relation, has been developed, which considers, in particular, distribution and time histories of power density, fuel temperature, and failed and degraded fuel particle fractions in the core. Applicability of the code to evaluate the core design has been shown and the following have been indicated on the release of cesium from the reactor: 1. The release from the intact fuel particles by diffusion through their intact coatings shows larger contribution in the total core release at higher temperature. 2. The diffusion release from the intact particle is governed not only by the diffusion in the silicon carbide layer but also by that in the fuel kernel.

  1. Preconcentration and determination of metal ions from fuel ethanol with a new 2,2'-dipyridylamine bonded silica.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Eduardo G; Soares, Isaac V; Dias Filho, Newton L; da Silva, Niléia C; Garcia, Edemir F; Bastos, Andréa C; Perujo, Sérgio D; Ferreira, Tamires T; Rosa, André H; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2013-02-01

    A silica surface chemically modified with [3-(2,2'-dipyridylamine) propyl] groups was prepared, characterized, and evaluated for its metal ion preconcentration in fuel ethanol. To our knowledge, we are the first authors who have reported the present modification on silica gel surface. The material was characterized using infrared spectra, scanning electronic microscopy, and (13)C and (29)Si solid-state NMR spectra. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate for metal ion removal from fuel ethanol. The results showed that the Langmuir model describes the sorption equilibrium data of the metal ions in a satisfactory way. From the Langmuir isotherms, the following maximum adsorption capacities (in mmol g(-1)) were determined: 1.81 for Fe(III), 1.75 for Cr(III), 1.30 for Cu(II), 1.25 for Co(II), 1.15 for Pb(II), 0.95 for Ni(II), and 0.87 for Zn(II). Thermodynamic functions, the change of free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) showed that the adsorption of metal ions onto Si-Pr-DPA was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. The sorption-desorption of the metal ions made possible the development of a preconcentration and quantification method of metal ions in fuel ethanol. PMID:23116858

  2. Emission of Metals from Pelletized and Uncompressed Biomass Fuels Combustion in Rural Household Stoves in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Long; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Guohua; Zhu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Effort of reducing CO2 emissions in developing countries may require an increasing utilization of biomass fuels. Biomass pellets seem well-suited for residential biomass markets. However, there is limited quantitative information on pollutant emissions from biomass pellets burning, especially those measured in real applications. In this study, biomass pellets and raw biomass fuels were burned in a pellet burner and a conventional stove respectively, in rural households, and metal emissions were determined. Results showed that the emission factors (EFs) ranged 3.20–5.57 (Pb), 5.20–7.58 (Cu), 0.11–0.23 (Cd), 12.67–39.00 (As), 0.59–1.31 mg/kg (Ni) for pellets, and 0.73–1.34 (Pb), 0.92–4.48 (Cu), 0.08–0.14 (Cd), 7.29–13.22 (As), 0.28–0.62 (Ni) mg/kg for raw biomass. For unit energy delivered to cooking vessels, the EFs ranged 0.42–0.77 (Pb), 0.79–1.16 (Cu), 0.01–0.03 (Cd), 1.93–5.09 (As), 0.08–0.19 mg/MJ (Ni) for pellets, and 0.30–0.56 (Pb), 0.41–1.86 (Cu), 0.04–0.06 (Cd), 3.25–5.49 (As), 0.12–0.26 (Ni) mg/MJ for raw biomass. This study found that moisture, volatile matter and modified combustion efficiency were the important factors affecting metal emissions. Comparisons of the mass-based and task-based EFs found that biomass pellets produced higher metal emissions than the same amount of raw biomass. However, metal emissions from pellets were not higher in terms of unit energy delivered. PMID:25002204

  3. Ceramic plasma-sprayed coating of melting crucibles for casting metal fuel slugs

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. Kim; C.T. Lee; C.B. Lee; R.S. Fielding; J.R. Kennedy

    2013-10-01

    Thermal cycling and melt reaction studies of ceramic coatings plasma-sprayed on Nb substrates were carried out to evaluate the performance of barrier coatings for metallic fuel casting applications. Thermal cycling tests of the ceramic plasma-sprayed coatings to 1450 degrees C showed that HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating had good cycling characteristics with few interconnected cracks even after 20 cycles. Interaction studies by 1550 degrees C melt dipping tests of the plasma-sprayed coatings also indicated that HfN and Y2O3 do not form significant reaction layer between U–20 wt.% Zr melt and the coating layer. Plasma-sprayed Y2O3 coating exhibited the most promising characteristics among HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating.

  4. Metallic plate corrosion and uptake of corrosion products by nafion in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Kaulich, Burkhard; Kiskinova, Maya; Prasciolu, Mauro; Sgura, Ivonne

    2010-07-19

    Nafion contamination by ferrous-alloy corrosion products, resulting in dramatic drops of the Ohmic potential, is a suspected major failure mode of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that make use of metallic bipolar plates. This study demonstrates the potential of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy combined with X-ray absorption and fluorescence microspectroscopy for exploring corrosion processes of Ni and Fe electrodes in contact with a hydrated Nafion film in a thin-layer cell. The imaged morphology changes of the Ni and Fe electrodes and surrounding Nafion film that result from relevant electrochemical processes are correlated to the spatial distribution, local concentration, and chemical state of Fe and Ni species. The X-ray fluorescence maps and absorption spectra, sampled at different locations, show diffusion of corrosion products within the Nafion film only in the case of the Fe electrodes, whereas the Ni electrodes appear corrosion resistant. PMID:20564283

  5. Mesoscale Modeling of Heterogeneous Materials Systems: From Solid Oxide Fuel Cells to Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeljawad, Fadi F.

    Heterogeneous materials systems hold the key to the future development of a broad range of increasingly complex technological applications. For example, multi-phase and/or multi-component materials are at the forefront research on the development of efficient energy devices, and the future generation of structural materials with optimal mechanical properties. In this dissertation, we focus on two materials systems, namely, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), where we investigate, through theoretical and mesoscale computational models, the role of microstructure on the properties of these heterogeneous systems. For the solid oxide fuel cell project, a computational framework is developed to investigate the topological evolution of Ni phase in SOFC porous anodes, and the accompanying changes to a wide range of microstructural attributes that affect electrochemical performance. Additionally, with the aid of this framework, we study the reduction-oxidation instability, mechanical deformation and damage accumulation in SOFC anodes. In particular, the SOFC project is focused on the role of anode microstructure, characterized by particle size and ratio, on the microstructural stability and mechanical durability of SOFC anodes. For the bulk metallic glass project, a mesoscale model is introduced that accounts for the structural heterogeneity of monolithic BMGs and BMG composites, and captures the fundamental aspects of plastic deformation in such systems. We examine the effect of internal structure, characterized by rigid/soft short range order (SRO), on the deformation behavior of monolithic BMGs, while for BMG composites, we study the role of ductile phase microstructure, particle size, morphology and area fraction, on the mechanical properties and overall ductility of these systems.

  6. The Hanford spent nuclear metal fuel multi-canister overpack and vacuum drying {ampersand} hot conditioning process

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.J.

    1996-05-15

    Nuclear production reactors operated at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site from 1944 until 1988 to produce plutonium. Most of the irradiated fuel from these reactors was processed onsite to separate and recover the plutonium. When the processing facilities were closed in 1992, about 1,900 metric tons of unprocessed irradiated fuel remained in storage. Additional fuel was irradiated for research purposes or was shipped to the Hanford Site from offsite reactor facilities for storage or recovery of nuclear materials. The fuel inventory now in storage at the Hanford Site is predominantly N Reactor irradiated fuel, a metallic uranium alloy that is coextruded into zircaloy-2 cladding. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has rommitted to an accelerated schedule for removing spent nuclear fuel from the Hanford Site K Basins to a new interim storage facility in the 200 Area. Under the current proposed accelerated schedule, retrieval of spent nuclear fuel stored in the K East and West Basins must begin by December 1997 and be completed by December 1999. A key part of this action is retrieving fuel canisters from the water-filled K Basin storage pools and transferring them into multi@ister overpacks (MCOS) that will be used to handle and process the fuel, then store it after conditioning. The Westinghouse Hanford Company has developed an integrated process to deal with the K Basin spent fuel inventory. The process consists of cleaning the fuel, packaging it into MCOS, vacuum drying it at the K Basins, then transporting it to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) for staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage. This presentation dekribes the MCO function, design, and life-cycle, including an overview of the vacuum drying and hot conditioning processes.

  7. An anisotropic numerical model for thermal hydraulic analyses: application to liquid metal flow in fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitillo, F.; Vitale Di Maio, D.; Galati, C.; Caruso, G.

    2015-11-01

    A CFD analysis has been carried out to study the thermal-hydraulic behavior of liquid metal coolant in a fuel assembly of triangular lattice. In order to obtain fast and accurate results, the isotropic two-equation RANS approach is often used in nuclear engineering applications. A different approach is provided by Non-Linear Eddy Viscosity Models (NLEVM), which try to take into account anisotropic effects by a nonlinear formulation of the Reynolds stress tensor. This approach is very promising, as it results in a very good numerical behavior and in a potentially better fluid flow description than classical isotropic models. An Anisotropic Shear Stress Transport (ASST) model, implemented into a commercial software, has been applied in previous studies, showing very trustful results for a large variety of flows and applications. In the paper, the ASST model has been used to perform an analysis of the fluid flow inside the fuel assembly of the ALFRED lead cooled fast reactor. Then, a comparison between the results of wall-resolved conjugated heat transfer computations and the results of a decoupled analysis using a suitable thermal wall-function previously implemented into the solver has been performed and presented.

  8. Environmentally Friendly Carbon-Preserving Recovery of Noble Metals From Supported Fuel Cell Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Latsuzbaia, R; Negro, E; Koper, G J M

    2015-06-01

    The dissolution of noble-metal catalysts under mild and carbon-preserving conditions offers the possibility of in situ regeneration of the catalyst nanoparticles in fuel cells or other applications. Here, we report on the complete dissolution of the fuel cell catalyst, platinum nanoparticles, under very mild conditions at room temperature in 0.1 M HClO4 and 0.1 M HCl by electrochemical potential cycling between 0.5-1.1 V at a scan rate of 50 mV s(-1) . Dissolution rates as high as 22.5 μg cm(-2) per cycle were achieved, which ensured a relatively short dissolution timescale of 3-5 h for a Pt loading of 0.35 mg cm(-2) on carbon. The influence of chloride ions and oxygen in the electrolyte on the dissolution was investigated, and a dissolution mechanism is proposed on the basis of the experimental observations and available literature results. During the dissolution process, the corrosion of the carbon support was minimal, as observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PMID:25959077

  9. The thermodynamics of pyrochemical processes for liquid metal reactor fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.

    1987-01-01

    The thermodynamic basis for pyrochemical processes for the recovery and purification of fuel for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle is described. These processes involve the transport of the uranium and plutonium from one liquid alloy to another through a molten salt. The processes discussed use liquid alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium and molten chloride salts. The oxidation-reduction steps are done either chemically by the use of an auxiliary redox couple or electrochemically by the use of an external electrical supply. The same basic thermodynamics apply to both the salt transport and the electrotransport processes. Large deviations from ideal solution behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in the liquid alloys have a major influence on the solubilities and the performance of both the salt transport and electrotransport processes. Separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and decontamination from the more noble fission product elements can be achieved using both transport processes. The thermodynamic analysis is used to make process design computations for different process conditions.

  10. Calculation of the process of vacuum drying of a metal-concrete container with spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyakin, Yu. E.; Lavrent'ev, S. A.; Pavlyukevich, N. V.; Pletnev, A. A.; Fedorovich, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm and results of calculation of the process of vacuum drying of a metal-concrete container intended for long-term "dry" storage of spent nuclear fuel are presented. A calculated substantiation of the initial amount of moisture in the container is given.