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Sample records for metal ligand anchored

  1. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: molecular dynamics simulations and theory

    E-print Network

    Hu, Jinglei; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes, and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have ...

  2. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: molecular dynamics simulations and theory

    E-print Network

    Jinglei Hu; Guang-Kui Xu; Reinhard Lipowsky; Thomas R. Weikl

    2015-11-24

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes, and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  3. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R.

    2015-12-01

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  4. Cobalt and nickel macrocycles anchored to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films: Sensitization, catalysis, and ligand association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achey, Darren Craig

    The global demand for renewable, clean electricity and fuel has compelled efforts to utilize the immense power incident upon the Earth from the Sun. Photovoltaic systems could power the planet's electrical demands with only moderate efficiencies. However, mitigation of fossil fuels used for transportation and night-time electricity requires the storage of photon energy, for example, in the form of chemical bonds. Mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films provide a manifold for anchoring molecular species that absorb and utilize photons to catalyze fuel-generating reactions. The overarching theme of this thesis is to improve understanding of the semiconductor/molecule interface utilizing earth abundant first-row transition metal coordination compounds. Chapter 2 presents the non-ideal redox behavior of cobalt porphyrins anchored to semiconductor surfaces. Additionally, CoI porphyrins were utilized as photocatalysts for the 2e- reduction of organobromides to yield a CoIII-R intermediate. The cobalt-carbon bond of CoIII-R was photodissociated with visible light to yield Co II and R·. The organic radical dimerized to form R-R. Light excitation of CoI compounds was found to result in electron transfer to TiO2, Chapter 3. Cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, glyoximes, and corrins were all observed to exhibit this behavior. Electron transfer was demonstrated to primarily occur via excitation into the large extinction coefficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer absorption bands of CoI complexes. Chapter 4 focuses on the unique coordination chemistry of cobalt porphyrins anchored to a TiO2 thin film. Notably, pyridine axially ligated a CoII porphyrin following excited-state electron transfer of the CoI porphyrin to the TiO2. The rate constant for recombination of an electron in the TiO2 with CoII was observed to decrease with increasing pyridine concentration, behavior attributed primarily to a negative shift of the CoII/I potential in the presence of pyridine. Finally, Chapter 5 reports a comparative study of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the equilibrium between a 4-coordinate, low spin and a 6-coordinate, high spin nickel porphyrin, both in solution and anchored to TiO2. The mesoporous TiO2 thin film was found to influence the enthalpy and entropy of axial ligation while also altering the dissociative activation energy of axial ligation.

  5. Binding constants of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: A general theory corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Hu, Jinglei; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-12-28

    Adhesion processes of biological membranes that enclose cells and cellular organelles are essential for immune responses, tissue formation, and signaling. These processes depend sensitively on the binding constant K2D of the membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins that mediate adhesion, which is difficult to measure in the "two-dimensional" (2D) membrane environment of the proteins. An important problem therefore is to relate K2D to the binding constant K3D of soluble variants of the receptors and ligands that lack the membrane anchors and are free to diffuse in three dimensions (3D). In this article, we present a general theory for the binding constants K2D and K3D of rather stiff proteins whose main degrees of freedom are translation and rotation, along membranes and around anchor points "in 2D," or unconstrained "in 3D." The theory generalizes previous results by describing how K2D depends both on the average separation and thermal nanoscale roughness of the apposing membranes, and on the length and anchoring flexibility of the receptors and ligands. Our theoretical results for the ratio K2D/K3D of the binding constants agree with detailed results from Monte Carlo simulations without any data fitting, which indicates that the theory captures the essential features of the "dimensionality reduction" due to membrane anchoring. In our Monte Carlo simulations, we consider a novel coarse-grained model of biomembrane adhesion in which the membranes are represented as discretized elastic surfaces, and the receptors and ligands as anchored molecules that diffuse continuously along the membranes and rotate at their anchor points. PMID:26723621

  6. Binding constants of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: a general theory corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations

    E-print Network

    Guang-Kui Xu; Jinglei Hu; Reinhard Lipowsky; Thomas R. Weikl

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion processes of biological membranes that enclose cells and cellular organelles are essential for immune responses, tissue formation, and signaling. These processes depend sensitively on the binding constant K2D of the membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins that mediate adhesion, which is difficult to measure in the 'two-dimensional' (2D) membrane environment of the proteins. An important problem therefore is to relate K2D} to the binding constant K3D} of soluble variants of the receptors and ligands that lack the membrane anchors and are free to diffuse in three dimensions (3D). In this article, we present a general theory for the binding constants K2D and K3D of rather stiff proteins whose main degrees of freedom are translation and rotation, along membranes and around anchor points 'in 2D', or unconstrained 'in 3D'. The theory generalizes previous results by describing how K2D depends both on the average separation and thermal nanoscale roughness of the apposing membranes, and on the length and anchoring flexibility of the receptors and ligands. Our theoretical results for the ratio K2D/K3D of the binding constants agree with detailed results from Monte Carlo simulations without any data fitting, which indicates that the theory captures the essential features of the 'dimensionality reduction' due to membrane anchoring. In our Monte Carlo simulations, we consider a novel coarse-grained model of biomembrane adhesion in which the membranes are represented as discretized elastic surfaces, and the receptors and ligands as anchored molecules that diffuse continuously along the membranes and rotate at their anchor points.

  7. Anchor Side Chains of Short Peptide Fragments Trigger Ligand-Exchange of Class II MHC Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shashank; Höpner, Sabine; Rupp, Bernd; Günther, Sebastian; Dickhaut, Katharina; Agarwal, Noopur; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Kühne, Ronald; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Jung, Günther; Falk, Kirsten; Rötzschke, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Class II MHC molecules display peptides on the cell surface for the surveillance by CD4+ T cells. To ensure that these ligands accurately reflect the content of the intracellular MHC loading compartment, a complex processing pathway has evolved that delivers only stable peptide/MHC complexes to the surface. As additional safeguard, MHC molecules quickly acquire a ‘non-receptive’ state once they have lost their ligand. Here we show now that amino acid side chains of short peptides can bypass these safety mechanisms by triggering the reversible ligand-exchange. The catalytic activity of dipeptides such as Tyr-Arg was stereo-specific and could be enhanced by modifications addressing the conserved H-bond network near the P1 pocket of the MHC molecule. It affected both antigen-loading and ligand-release and strictly correlated with reported anchor preferences of P1, the specific target site for the catalytic side chain of the dipeptide. The effect was evident also in CD4+ T cell assays, where the allele-selective influence of the dipeptides translated into increased sensitivities of the antigen-specific immune response. Molecular dynamic calculations support the hypothesis that occupation of P1 prevents the ‘closure’ of the empty peptide binding site into the non-receptive state. During antigen-processing and -presentation P1 may therefore function as important “sensor” for peptide-load. While it regulates maturation and trafficking of the complex, on the cell surface, short protein fragments present in blood or lymph could utilize this mechanism to alter the ligand composition on antigen presenting cells in a catalytic way. PMID:18350151

  8. Ligand Intermediates in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gladysz, John A.

    1999-07-31

    The longest-running goal of this project has been the synthesis, isolation, and physical chemical characterization of homogeneous transition metal complexes containing ligand types believed to be intermediates in the metal-catalyzed conversion of CO/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and similar raw materials to organic fuels, feedstocks, etc. In the current project period, complexes that contain unusual new types of C{sub x}(carbide) and C{sub x}O{sub y} (carbon oxide) ligands have been emphasized. A new program in homogeneous fluorous phase catalysis has been launched as described in the final report.

  9. Metal nanoparticles functionalized with metal-ligand covalent bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiongwu

    Metal-organic contact has been recognized to play important roles in regulation of optical and electronic properties of nanoparticles. In this thesis, significant efforts have been devoted into synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles with various metal-ligand interfacial linkages and investigation of their electronic and optical properties. Ruthenium nanoparticles were prepared by the self-assembly of functional group onto bare Ru colloid surface. As to Ru-alkyne nanoparticles, the formation of a Ru-vinylidene (Ru=C=CH--R) interfacial bonding linkage was confirmed by the specific reactivity of the nanoparticles with imine derivatives and olefin at the metal-ligand interface, as manifested in NMR, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. Interestingly, it was found the electronic coupling coefficient (beta)for strongly depend upon such metal-ligand interfacial bonding. Next, such metal-ligand interfacial bonding was extended to ruthenium-nitrene pi bonds on ruthenium colloids, which were investigated by XPS. The nanoparticles exhibited a 1:1 atomic ratio of nitrogen to sulfur, consistent with that of sulfonyl nitrene fragments. In addition, the nanoparticle-bound nitrene moieties behaved analogously to azo derivatives, as manifested in UV-vis and fluorescence measurements. Further testimony of the formation of Ru=N interfacial linkages was highlighted in the unique reactivity of the nanoparticles with alkenes by imido transfer. Extensive conjugation between metal-ligand interfacial bond results in remarkable intraparticle charge delocalization on Ru-alkynide nanoparticles, which was manipulated by simple chemical reduction or oxidation. Charging of extra electrons into the nanoparticle cores led to an electron-rich metal core and hence red-shift of the triple bond stretching mode, lower binding energy of sp hybridized C 1s and dimmed fluorescence of nanoparticles. Instead, chemical oxidation resulted in the opposite impacts on these properties. By taking advantage of such extensively conjugated metal-ligand bonding and effective intraparticle charge delocalization of ruthenium nanoparticles, Ru=carbene nanoparticles functionalized with multiple moieties by olefin metathesis reactions was further exploited for metal ion sensing. When the nanoparticles were co-functionalized with 1-vinylpyrene and 4-vinylbenzo-18-crown-6, upon the binding of metal ions into the crown ether cavity, the emission intensity of the nanoparticle fluorescence from the conjugation of vinylpyrene was found to diminish, with the most significant effects observed with K+ ions. In the case of ruthenium nanoparticles co-functionalized with pyrene and histidine derivative moieties through Ru=carbene pi bonds. The selective complexation of the histidine moiety with transition metal ions led to marked diminishment of the emission intensity from conjugation of pyrene. Of all the metal ions tested, the impacts were much more drastic with Pb2+ , Co2+ and Hg2+ than with Li +, K+, Rb+, Mg2+ Ca 2+ and Zn2+ ions. These were ascribed to the selective binding of 18-crown-6 to potassium ions or complexation of histidine derivative to transition metal ions, where the metal ions led to polarization of the nanoparticle core electrons to the metal surface and hence impeded intraparticle charge delocalization. Functionalization of semiconductor with metal nanoparticles could be exploited to remarkably enhance their photo catalytic performance. Before this exploration, in the last chapter, the impacts of the TiO2 nanocrystalline structure on the photocatalytic activity were then examined by using the reduction of methylene blue in water. It was found that in the presence of anatase and brookite crystalline phase, TiO2 nanotube arrays exhibited the highest photo catalytic activity. This is ascribed to synergistic coupling of the anatase and brookite crystalline domains, which led to effective charge separation upon photoirradiation.

  10. Binding constants of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: a general theory corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations

    E-print Network

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion processes of biological membranes that enclose cells and cellular organelles are essential for immune responses, tissue formation, and signaling. These processes depend sensitively on the binding constant K2D of the membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins that mediate adhesion, which is difficult to measure in the 'two-dimensional' (2D) membrane environment of the proteins. An important problem therefore is to relate K2D} to the binding constant K3D} of soluble variants of the receptors and ligands that lack the membrane anchors and are free to diffuse in three dimensions (3D). In this article, we present a general theory for the binding constants K2D and K3D of rather stiff proteins whose main degrees of freedom are translation and rotation, along membranes and around anchor points 'in 2D', or unconstrained 'in 3D'. The theory generalizes previous results by describing how K2D depends both on the average separation and thermal nanoscale roughness of the apposing membranes, and on the length a...

  11. Use of tetradentate monoanionic ligands for stabilizing reactive metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Chomitz, Wayne A; Arnold, John

    2009-01-01

    Ligand scaffolding: The chemist's ability to choose from a wide range of supporting ligands is an important factor in designing new metal complexes. The introduction of new ligand scaffolds with different donor types and coordination numbers allows for the expansion of reaction chemistry at metal centers. This article surveys the use of the tetradentate monoanionic (TMDA) ligands (shown here) with main-group, transition-metal, and f-block elements. Supporting ligand design has played a vital role in the development of coordination and organometallic chemistry. A myriad of ligands with varying charge, donor-type, and denticity have been explored in this realm. A ligand type that has garnered recent attention involves a tetradentate monoanionic (TDMA) framework. TDMA ligands have been used with p-, d-, and f-block elements to form an array of interesting new complexes with applications ranging from bioinorganic chemistry to catalysis. Complexes incorporating TDMA ligands have been shown to stabilize reactive low-valent and cationic species. Functionalized beta-diiminato and TACN derivatives as well as tripodal ligands featuring both hard sigma-donors as well as "mixed-donors" are covered in this review. The synthetic challenges associated with the implementation of each ligand set are discussed. PMID:19160435

  12. Compensatory Mechanisms Allow Undersized Anchor-deficient Class I MHC Ligands to Mediate Pathogenic Autoreactive T Cell Responses1

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Deanna; Mukherjee, Gayatri; Kumar, P. Rajesh; Samanta, Dibyendu; McPhee, Caroline G.; Kay, Thomas W. H.; Almo, Steven C.; DiLorenzo, Teresa P.; Serreze, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reactive T cells must escape thymic negative selection to mediate pathogenic autoimmunity. In the NOD mouse model of autoimmune diabetes, several ? cell-cytotoxic CD8 T cell populations are known, with the most aggressive of these represented by AI4, a T cell clone with promiscuous antigen recognition characteristics. We have identified a long-elusive ? cell-specific ligand for AI4 as an unusually short H-2Db-binding 7-mer peptide lacking a C-terminal anchor residue and derived from the insulin A chain (InsA14-20). Crystallography reveals that compensatory mechanisms permit peptides lacking a C-terminal anchor to bind sufficiently to the MHC to enable destructive T cell responses, yet allow cognate T cells to avoid negative selection. InsA14-20 shares two solvent-exposed residues with previously identified AI4 ligands, providing a structural explanation for AI4’s promiscuity. Detection of AI4-like T cells, using mimotopes of InsA14-20 with improved H-2Db binding characteristics, establishes the AI4-like T cell population as a consistent feature of the islet infiltrates of NOD mice. Our work establishes undersized peptides as previously unrecognized targets of autoreactive CD8 T cells and presents a strategy for their further exploration as antigens in autoimmune disease. PMID:25063871

  13. DE NOVO DESIGN OF LIGANDS FOR METAL SEPARATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This application focuses on the development of appropriate computation tools and parameters for the de novo design of selective metal ligands. We have developed a successful suite of tools for computer-aided design of ligands for receptors of known three-dimensional structure (st...

  14. Ammonia formation by metal-ligand cooperative hydrogenolysis of a nitrido ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askevold, Bjorn; Nieto, Jorge Torres; Tussupbayev, Samat; Diefenbach, Martin; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Holthausen, Max C.; Schneider, Sven

    2011-07-01

    Bioinspired hydrogenation of N2 to ammonia at ambient conditions by stepwise nitrogen protonation/reduction with metal complexes in solution has experienced remarkable progress. In contrast, the highly desirable direct hydrogenation with H2 remains difficult. In analogy to the heterogeneously catalysed Haber-Bosch process, such a reaction is conceivable via metal-centred N2 splitting and unprecedented hydrogenolysis of the nitrido ligands to ammonia. We report the synthesis of a ruthenium(IV) nitrido complex. The high nucleophilicity of the nitrido ligand is demonstrated by unusual N-C coupling with ?-acidic CO. Furthermore, the terminal nitrido ligand undergoes facile hydrogenolysis with H2 at ambient conditions to produce ammonia in high yield. Kinetic and quantum chemical examinations of this reaction suggest cooperative behaviour of a phosphorus-nitrogen-phosphorus pincer ligand in rate-determining heterolytic hydrogen splitting.

  15. Synthesis of new copper nanoparticle-decorated anchored type ligands: applications as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Zandi-Atashbar, N; Ghiaci, M; Taghizadeh, M; Rezaei, B

    2015-02-01

    In this work, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) decorated on two new anchored type ligands were utilized to prepare two electrochemical sensors. These ligands are made from bonding amine chains to silica support including SiO2-pro-NH2 (compound I) and SiO2-pro-NH-cyanuric-NH2 (compound II). The morphology of synthesized CuNPs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-particles were in the range of 13-37 nm with the average size of 23 nm. These materials were used to modify carbon paste electrode. Different electrochemical techniques, including cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and hydrodynamic chronoamperometry, were used to study the sensor behavior. These electrochemical sensors were used as a model for non-enzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). To evaluate the abilities of the modified electrodes for H2O2 detection, the electrochemical signals were compared in the absence and presence of H2O2. From them, two modified electrodes showed significant responses vs. H2O2 addition. The amperograms illustrated that the sensors were selective for H2O2 sensing with linear ranges of 5.14-1250 ?mol L(-1) and 1.14-1120 ?mol L(-1) with detection limits of 0.85 and 0.27 ?mol L(-1) H2O2, sensitivities of 3545 and 11,293 ?A mmol(-1)L and with response times less than 5s for I/CPE and II/CPE, respectively. As further verification of the selected sensor, H2O2 contained in milk sample was analyzed and the obtained results were comparable with the ones from classical control titration method. PMID:25492200

  16. Multidentate oligomeric ligands to enhance the biocompatibility of iron oxide and other metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Palui, Goutam; Ji, Xin; Aldeek, Fadi; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2014-03-01

    We prepared a set of multi-coordinating and reactive amphiphilic polymer ligands and used them for surface-functionalizing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The amphiphilic oligomers were prepared by coupling (via one step nucleophilic addition) several dopamine anchoring groups, polyethylene glycol moieties and reactive groups onto a poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) chain. The availability of several anchoring groups in the same ligand greatly enhances the ligand affinity to the nanoparticle surfaces, via multiplecoordination, while the hydrophilic and reactive groups promote colloidal stability in buffer media and allow subsequent conjugation to target biomolecules. The hydrophilic nanoparticles capped with these polymers maintain compact size and exhibit great long term colloidal stability.

  17. The role of metals and ligands in organic hydroformylation.

    PubMed

    Gonsalvi, Luca; Guerriero, Antonella; Monflier, Eric; Hapiot, Frédéric; Peruzzini, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter the effect of transition metals and of ancillary stabilizing ligands on the activity, regioselectivity, and chemoselectivity in hydroformylation reactions applied to organic synthesis will be reviewed, highlighting recent cases of particular interest, including examples of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reactions. PMID:23571859

  18. Structure-Assisted Functional Anchor Implantation in Robust Metal–Organic Frameworks with Ultralarge Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jihye; Feng, Dawei; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-02-04

    A facile functionalization assisted by the structural attributes of PCN-333 has been studied while maintaining the integrity of the parent MOF including ultralarge pores, chemical robustness, and crystallinity. Herein we thoroughly analyzed ligand exchange phenomena in PCN-333 and demonstrate that the extent of exchange can be tailored by varying the exchange conditions as potential applications may require. Through this method a variety of functional groups are incorporated into PCN-333. To further show the capabilities of this system introduction of a BODIPY fluorophore as a secondary functionality was performed to the functionalized framework via a click reaction. We anticipate the PCN-333 with functional anchor can serve as a stable platform for further chemistry to be explored in future applications.

  19. Structure-assisted functional anchor implantation in robust metal-organic frameworks with ultralarge pores.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihye; Feng, Dawei; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-02-01

    A facile functionalization assisted by the structural attributes of PCN-333 has been studied while maintaining the integrity of the parent MOF including ultralarge pores, chemical robustness, and crystallinity. Herein we thoroughly analyzed ligand exchange phenomena in PCN-333 and demonstrate that the extent of exchange can be tailored by varying the exchange conditions as potential applications may require. Through this method a variety of functional groups are incorporated into PCN-333. To further show the capabilities of this system introduction of a BODIPY fluorophore as a secondary functionality was performed to the functionalized framework via a click reaction. We anticipate the PCN-333 with functional anchor can serve as a stable platform for further chemistry to be explored in future applications. PMID:25581395

  20. Biobased thioethers as metal-absorbing ligands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils have been reacted with thiols (mercaptans) to form biobased thioether-functionalized vegetable oils (TFVO). TFVO were efficient in the extraction of a model heavy-metal ion (Ag+) from an aqueous solution. TFVO, prepared from corn oil, was capable of reducing Ag+ concentration from 600...

  1. Anchored metal nanoparticles: effects of support and size on their energy, sintering resistance and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Charles T; Sellers, Jason R V

    2013-01-01

    Many catalysts consist of metal nanoparticles anchored to the surfaces of oxide supports. These are key elements in technologies for the clean production and use of fuels and chemicals. We show here that the chemical reactivity of the surface metal atoms on these nanoparticles is closely related to their chemical potential: the higher their chemical potential, the more strongly they bond to small adsorbates. Controlling their chemical potential by tuning the structural details of the material can thus be used to tune their reactivity. As their chemical potential increases, this also makes the metal surface less noble, effectively pushing its behavior upwards and to the left in the periodic table. Also, when the metal atoms are in a nanoparticle with higher chemical potential, they experience a larger thermodynamic driving force to sinter. Calorimetric measurements of metal vapor adsorption energies onto clean oxide surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum show that the chemical potential increases with decreasing particle size below 6 nm, and, for a given size, decreases with the adhesion energy between the metal and its support, Eadh. The structural factors that control the metal/oxide adhesion energy are thus also keys for tuning catalytic performance. For a given oxide, Eadh increases with (deltaHsub,M--deltaHf,MOx)/OmegaM2/3 for the metal, where deltaHsub,M is its heat of sublimation, deltaHf,MOx is the standard heat of formation of that metal's most stable oxide (per mole of metal), and OmegaM is the atomic volume of the bulk solid metal. The value deltaHsub,M--deltaHf,MOx equals the heat of formation of that metal's oxide from a gaseous metal atom plus O2(g), so it reflects the strength of the chemical bonds which that metal atom can make to oxygen, and OmegaM2/3 simply normalizes this energy to the area per metal atom, since Eadh is the adhesion energy per unit area. For a given metal, Eadh to different clean oxide surfaces increases as: MgO(100) approximately TiO2(110) < or = alpha-Al2O3(0001) < CeO2-x(111) < or = Fe3O4(111). Oxygen vacancies also increase Eadh, but surface hydroxyl groups appear to decrease Eadh, even though they increase the initial heat of metal adsorption. PMID:24015573

  2. Zwitterionic Group VIII transition metal initiators supported by olefin ligands

    DOEpatents

    Bazan, Guillermo C. (Goleta, CA); Chen, Yaofeng (Shanghai, CN)

    2011-10-25

    A zwitterionic Group VIII transition metal complex containing the simple and relatively small 3-(arylimino)-but-1-en-2-olato ligand that catalyzes the formation of polypropylene and high molecular weight polyethylene. A novel feature of this catalyst is that the active species is stabilized by a chelated olefin adduct. The present invention also provides methods of polymerizing olefin monomers using zwitterionic catalysts, particularly polypropylene and high molecular weight polyethylene.

  3. IR multiphoton depletion spectroscopy of metal cluster ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Benoit; Dénommée, Stéphane; Rayner, David M.; Heijnsbergen, Deniz van; Meijer, Gerard; Helden, Gert von

    2002-05-01

    Free electron laser IR photodepletion spectroscopy of metal cluster-ligand complexes in a molecular beam is demonstrated on Ag n(NH 3) m complexes in the range 800-1150 cm -1. Where direct comparison can be made, our spectra agree with spectra measured by CO 2 laser photodepletion spectroscopy. New vibrational spectroscopic data addressing previously unreachable spectral regions, including results for deuterated ND 3 are reported for complexes of Ag 3, Ag 4 and Ag 5.

  4. Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Richard F. University of Chicago

    2013-06-30

    The goals of this project were to design new electrophilic metal alkyl complexes and to exploit these systems in fundamental studies of olefin polymerization and other important and new catalytic reactions. A key target reaction is insertion copolymerization of olefins and polar CH2=CHX vinyl monomers such as vinyl halides and vinyl ethers. During the period covered by this report we (i) investigated the properties of ortho-alkoxy-arylphosphine ligands in Ni-based olefin polymerization catalysts, (ii) studied the synthesis of double-end-capped polyethylene using group 4 metal catalysts that contain tris-pyrazolylborate ligands, (iii) explored the ethylene insertion reactivity of group 4 metal tris-pyrazolyl-borate complexes, (iv) showed that (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species undergo multiple insertion of silyl vinyl ethers, (v) synthesized and explored the reactivity of base-free Ni benzyl complexes that contain ortho-phosphino-arene sulfonate ligands, (vi) established the mechanism of the reaction of vinyl chloride with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} catalysts, (vii) explored the role of cationic polymerization and insertion chemistry in the reactions of vinyl ethers with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species, (viii) discovered a new class of self-assembled tetranuclear Pd catalysts that produce high molecular weight linear polyethylene and copolymerize ethylene and vinyl fluoride, and (ix) developed model systems that enabled investigation of cis-trans isomerization of {phosphine-sulfonate}Pd(II) complexes.

  5. Tin, Antimony, Bismuth, and Tellurium Lewis Acids in sigma-Accepting Ligands for Transition Metals 

    E-print Network

    Lin, Tzu-Pin

    2012-10-19

    The interactions between ligands and transition metals have been an essential subject in inorganic chemistry. Other than the commonly known L-type (two-electron donors) and X-type ligands (one-electron donors), Z-type ...

  6. The Interactions and Exchanges of Metal-bound Sulfur Containing Ligands with Various Transition Metals 

    E-print Network

    Foley, William

    2011-02-22

    and kinetic lability. 23 The examination of zinc ion exchanges with various other transition metal complexes proves enlightening for the further understanding of the function and properties of zinc in the proteins. My research encompasses the synthesis... AND EXCHANGES OF METAL-BOUND SULFUR CONTAINING LIGANDS WITH VARIOUS TRANSITION METALS A Thesis by WILLIAM SCOTT FOLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  7. Band alignment in molecular devices: Influence of anchoring group and metal work function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Prodan, Emil; Car, Roberto; Selloni, Annabella

    2008-06-01

    Density functional theory calculations are carried out to investigate the electronic properties of molecular junctions formed by amine- and thiol-terminated alkane monolayers sandwiched between two metal (Au, Ag) electrodes. Based on extensive analysis of molecular monolayers of varying densities, we establish a relationship between the alignment of the molecular energy levels and the interface dipoles, which shows that the band alignment (BA) in the limit of long, isolated chains is independent of the link group and can be computed from a reference system of noninteracting molecule+metal molecule metal electrodes. The main difference between the amine and thiol linkers is the effective dipole moment at the contact. This is very large, about 4.5 D, for amine linkers, leading to a strong dependence of the BA on the monolayer density and a slow convergence to the isolated molecule limit. Instead, this convergence is relatively fast for S anchors due to the very small, ˜0.2D , effective dipoles at the contacts.

  8. Coinage metal complexes supported by the tri- and tetraphosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Dau, Minh Thuy; Shakirova, Julia R; Karttunen, Antti J; Grachova, Elena V; Tunik, Sergey P; Melnikov, Alexey S; Pakkanen, Tapani A; Koshevoy, Igor O

    2014-05-01

    A series of tri- and tetranuclear phosphine complexes of d(10) metal ions supported by the polydentate ligands, bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)phenylphosphine (PPP) and tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)phosphine (PPPP), were synthesized. All the compounds under study, [AuM2(PPP)2](3+) (M = Au (1), Cu (2), Ag (3)), [M4(PPPP)2](4+) (M = Ag (4), Au (5)), [AuAg3(PPPP)2](4+) (6), and [Au2Cu2(PPPP)2(NCMe)4](4+) (7), were characterized crystallographically. The trinuclear clusters 1-3 contain a linear metal core, while in the isostructural tetranuclear complexes 4-6 the metal framework has a plane star-shaped arrangement. Cluster 7 adopts a structural motif that involves a digold unit bridged by two arms of the PPPP phosphines and decorated two spatially separated Cu(I) ions chelated by the remaining P donors. The NMR spectroscopic investigation in DMSO solution revealed the heterometallic clusters 2, 3, and 6 are stereochemically nonrigid and undergo reversible metal ions redistribution between several species, accompanied by their solvation-desolvation. The complexes 1-3 and 5-7 exhibit room temperature luminescence in the solid state (?em = 6-64%) in the spectral region from 450 to 563 nm. The phosphorescence observed originates from the triplet excited states, determined by the metal cluster-centered d?* ? p? transitions. PMID:24750114

  9. Guanidinates: a new class of ligands for dimetal units with multiple metal-metal bonds 

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Chad C.

    2009-05-15

    ???Cl Distances (?) for Paddlewheel Families (M = Mo, W) and Differences in the Metal?Metal Distance Between the Corresponding Cationic and Neutral Species .................. 22 3 Listing of Compounds to be Discussed in Chapter III........... 32 4... of the progress in this field has come in quantum jumps closely associated with the development of new types of ligands. For example, substitution of the halide ions by carboxylate anions brought about an almost explosive growth. This allowed the preparation...

  10. Metal-ligand redox interaction in the multielectron chemistry of porphyrinogen coordination compounds

    E-print Network

    Bachmann, Julien

    2006-01-01

    Metal complexes of the macrocycle porphyrinogen (calix[4]pyrrole) are studied with an emphasis on the redox activity ("non-innocence") of the ligand (Chapter I). Porphyrinogen complexes of spherical, redox-inert metal ...

  11. Structural diversity of late transition metal complexes with flexible tetra-NHC ligands.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel T; Altmann, Philipp J; Haslinger, Stefan; Jandl, Christian; Pöthig, Alexander; Cokoja, Mirza; Kühn, Fritz E

    2015-11-14

    The synthesis of copper, gold, nickel, palladium, platinum, and iron complexes with open chain tetra-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands via transmetalation using silver NHC complexes is presented. The obtained complexes show differing coordination geometries depending on both ligand structure and metal. While the complexes of the coinage metals form di- or tetranuclear structures, the group 10 metal complexes exhibit a distorted square planar coordination geometry at the metal centers. In the case of iron an enhanced flexibility of the ligand - caused by a longer alkyl bridge - leads to octahedral complexes with a sawhorse-type coordination by the tetracarbene ligand and two cis acetonitrile ligands. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known example of a tetracarbene ligand in sawhorse-type coordination within an octahedral coordination sphere. The remaining cis-labile sites are prone to exchange reactions as shown by addition of trimethylphosphine. PMID:26216511

  12. The role of metal ion-ligand interactions during divalent metal ion adsorption.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Daniel S; Crawford, Russell J; Harding, Ian H

    2015-09-15

    A suite of seven different divalent metal ions (Ca(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II)) was adsorbed from solution onto two Fe2O3 samples, quartz SiO2 and three different amphoteric polystyrene latices (containing amine and carboxyl functional groups). For the metal oxides, a high correlation was observed between the pH at which 50% of the metal was removed from solution (pH50) and the first hydrolysis constant for the metal ion (pK1). For the polystyrene latices, a much higher correlation was observed between the pH50 and pKc (equilibrium constant describing metal-carboxyl affinity) as opposed to pK1. These observations provide evidence of a strong relationship that exists between a metal's affinity for a particular ligand in solution and for that metal ion's affinity for the same ligand present as part of an adsorbing surface. The isoelectric point of the amphoteric latex surface can be increased by decreasing the carboxyl content of the latex surface. For all 7 metal ions, this resulted in a substantial decrease, for any given pH, in adsorption. We suggest that this may be partly due to the decreased carboxyl content, but is dominantly attributable to the presence of less favorable electrostatic conditions. This, in turn, demonstrates that electrostatics play a controlling role in metal ion adsorption onto amphoteric latex surfaces and, in addition to the nature of the metal ion, also controls the pH at which adsorption takes place. PMID:26001134

  13. New Proton-Ionizable, Calixarene-Based Ligands for Selective Metal Ion Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, Richard A.

    2012-06-04

    The project objective was the discovery of new ligands for performing metal ion separations. The research effort entailed the preparation of new metal ion complexing agents and polymers and their evaluation in metal ion separation processes of solvent extraction, synthetic liquid membrane transport, and sorption. Structural variations in acyclic, cyclic, and bicyclic organic ligands were used to probe their influence upon the efficiency and selectivity with which metal ion separations can be performed. A unifying feature of the ligand structures is the presence of one (or more) side arm with a pendent acidic function. When a metal ion is complexed within the central cavity of the ligand, ionization of the side arm(s) produces the requisite anion(s) for formation of an overall electroneutral complex. This markedly enhances extraction/transport efficiency for separations in which movement of aqueous phase anions of chloride, nitrate, or sulfate into an organic medium would be required. Through systematic structural variations, new ligands have been developed for efficient and selective separations of monovalent metal ions (e.g., alkali metal, silver, and thallium cations) and of divalent metal ion species (e.g., alkaline earth metal, lead, and mercury cations). Research results obtained in these fundamental investigations provide important insight for the design and development of ligands suitable for practical metal ion separation applications.

  14. Ligand metalation in the reactivity of a tetravalent uranium amides.

    PubMed

    Korobkov, Ilia; Gambarotta, Sandro

    2010-04-01

    The reactions of organolithium reagents with the tetravalent UCl(2)[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2) and its DME solvate have been examined. Treatment of both compounds with methyl-lithium in diethyl ether resulted in one electron reduction of the metal center and gamma-deprotonation of one of the ligands. The dimeric {U[(mu-CH(2)-SiMe(2))N(SiMe(3))](2)[mu-Li(DME)]}(2) (1) was isolated from the reaction mixture regardless of the amount of MeLi employed. The employment of LiCH(2)SiMe(3) in DME led instead to multiple gamma-deprotonation events at the same carbon atom with formation of the trimetallic {U[(mu-CH(2)-SiMe(2))N(SiMe(3))][N(SiMe(3))(2)]}(2){U[(mu(3)-C-SiMe(2))N(SiMe(3))][N(SiMe(3))(2)]}{mu-OMe} (2) cluster centered on a fully deprotonated carbon atom. Crystallographic analysis revealed the presence of mu-OCH(3) units in the cluster as generated by DME solvent cleavage. A similar reaction carried out in the absence of DME led to the isolation of a closely related trimetallic {U[mu-(CH(2)-SiMe(2))N(SiMe(3))][N(SiMe(3))(2)]}(2){U[(mu(3)-C-SiMe(2))N(SiMe(3))][(mu-CH(2)-SiMe(2))N(SiMe(3))]} (3). One additional gamma-deprotonated fragment replacing the bridging methoxy group of 2 was present in this case. The presence of a fully deprotonated carbon atom bridging three metal centers and of one silicon atom was confirmed by both X-ray structures and NMR data. An attempt to reduce UCl(2)[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2) with KC(8) in a coordinating solvent resulted in ligand scrambling with the formation of two products. The first is a trimeric U(III) cluster formulated as {U-mu-Cl[N(SiMe(3))(2)][DME]}(2){U-mu-Cl[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2)}{mu(3)-Cl}(2) (4). The second was U[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3). A similar reduction reaction carried out in noncoordinating toluene resulted instead in an attack on the ligand affording the dimeric {U-mu-Cl[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2)[ horizontal lineN(SiMe(3))]}(2) (5). Alkylation of UCl(2)[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2) with n-butyl-lithium in hexane surprisingly yielded the pentavalent U[(mu-CH(2)-SiMe(2))N(SiMe(3))](2)[N(SiMe(3))(2)] (6). The acquisition of one additional ligand during the reaction hinted at the presence of other products in the reaction mixture. PMID:20201603

  15. Modelling of trace metal uptake by roots taking into account complexation by exogenous organic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Marc, Custos; Christian, Moyne; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2010-05-01

    The context of this study is phytoextraction of soil trace metals such as Cd, Pb or Zn. Trace metal transfer from soil to plant depends on physical and chemical processes such as minerals alteration, transport, adsorption/desorption, reactions in solution and biological processes including the action of plant roots and of associated micro-flora. Complexation of metal ions by organic ligands is considered to play a role on the availability of trace metals for roots in particular in the event that synthetic ligands (EDTA, NTA, etc.) are added to the soil to increase the solubility of the contaminants. As this role is not clearly understood, we wanted to simulate it in order to quantify the effect of organic ligands on root uptake of trace metals and produce a tool which could help in optimizing the conditions of phytoextraction.We studied the effect of an aminocarboxilate ligand on the absorption of the metal ion by roots, both in hydroponic solution and in soil solution, for which we had to formalize the buffer power for the metal. We assumed that the hydrated metal ion is the only form which can be absorbed by the plants. Transport and reaction processes were modelled for a system made up of the metal M, a ligand L and the metal complex ML. The Tinker-Nye-Barber model was adapted to describe the transport of solutes M, L and ML in the soil and absorption of M by the roots. This allowed to represent the interactions between transport, chelating reactions, absorption of the solutes at the root surface, root growth with time, in order to simulate metal uptake by a whole root system.Several assumptions were tested such as i) absorption of the metal by an infinite sink and according to a Michaelis-Menten kinetics, solutes transport by diffusion with and without ii) mass flow and iii) soil buffer power for the ligand L. In hydroponic solution (without soil buffer power), ligands decreased the trace metal flux towards roots, as they reduced the concentration of hydrated metal ion. In soil, depending on the L/M ratio, the presence of metal complexes could increase the metal flux taken up by roots since the ligand desorbed the metal on soil solid phase while the complex dissociated and provided metal ions to the solution in the vicinity of the root.The model enabled to surround the conditions in which phytoextraction is thus optimized. In addition of complexation by organic ligands added to the soil, we expect to integrate complexation by roots organic exudates and by soil organic matter, as well as the competition of the metal ions with Ca2+ et H+.

  16. The connection between metal ion affinity and ligand affinity in integrin I domains

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    The connection between metal ion affinity and ligand affinity in integrin I domains Thomas Vorup Abstract Integrins are cell-surface heterodimeric proteins that mediate cell­cell, cell­matrix, and cell­pathogen interactions. Half of the known integrin subunits contain inserted domains (I domains) that coordinate ligand

  17. SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE-SOLUBLE LIGANDS FOR EXTRACTING ACTINIDE METAL IONS FROM POROUS SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to develop novel, substituted diphosphonic acid ligands that can be used for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCDE) of actinide ions from solid wastes. These ligands will be used to investigate fundamental aspects of metal extraction into...

  18. A mixed-valence copper coordination polymer generated by hydrothermal metal/ligand redox reactions

    E-print Network

    Li, Jing

    hydro- thermal conditions and wish to extend this to mixed-valence copper complexes. Copper(I) compounds-valence copper compounds, with hydroxylated bipyridyl ligands,3g have been recently reportedA mixed-valence copper coordination polymer generated by hydrothermal metal/ligand redox reactions

  19. Si-H activation by means of metal ligand cooperation in a methandiide derived carbene complex.

    PubMed

    Weismann, Julia; Gessner, Viktoria H

    2015-09-24

    Si-H bond activation of a number of silanes via metal ligand cooperation in a carbene complex is reported. Thereby, the electronic flexibility of the carbene ligand allows for the activation via a unique mechanism with oxidative addition to an 18e species without a formal change in the number of valence electrons. PMID:26304998

  20. Phthalocyaninato complexes with peripheral alkylthio chains: disk-like adsorbate species for the vertical anchoring of ligands on gold surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Siemeling, Ulrich; Schirrmacher, Christian; Glebe, Ulrich; Bruhn, Clemens; Baio, Joe E.; Árnadóttir, Líney; Castner, David G.; Weidner, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Thin metalorganic films were prepared on gold by self-assembly of thioether-functionalised phthalocyaninato complexes from solution. The phthalocyaninato ligands used contain eight peripheral, ?-positioned, alkylthio substituents SR (1a: R = n-C8H17, 1b: R = n-C12H25), which serve as headgroups for surface binding and promote lateral assembly, while the disk-like phthalocyaninato core offers the scope for the attachment of axial ligands to the adsorbed molecules. This process was mimicked by coordination of pyridine (Py) to [Zn(1a)] and [Zn(1b)], respectively. The crystal structures of the products [Zn(1a)(Py)] and [Zn(1b)(Py)] were determined. The crystal structures of 4,5-bis(octylthio)phthalodinitrile and 4,5-bis(dodecylthio)phthalodinitrile were also determined. The films fabricated from [Mn(1a)Cl] and [Mn(1b)Cl] on gold were characterised by XPS, ToF-SIMS and NEXAFS spectroscopy, which revealed the presence of well-defined and homogeneous self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), whose constituents are bound to the substrate by thioether–gold linkages. The orientation of the macrocycles is predominantly parallel to the surface. Strong electronic interaction of the manganese(III) centre with the substrate leads to Cl loss upon adsorption and its reduction to MnII. PMID:21857743

  1. Transport of metal salts by zwitterionic ligands; simple but highly efficient salicylaldoxime extractants 

    E-print Network

    Parsons, S.; Tasker, Peter; White, Fraser J; Henderson, D.K.; Galbraith, S.G.; Davidson, J.E.; Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-09-01

    Attaching dialkylaminomethyl arms to commercial phenolic oxime copper extractants yields reagents which transport base metal salts very efficiently by forming neutral 1 : 1 or 1 : 2 complexes with zwitterionic forms of the ligands....

  2. Narcissistic self-sorting in self-assembled cages of rare Earth metals and rigid ligands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amber M; Wiley, Calvin A; Young, Michael C; Zhang, Xing; Lyon, Yana; Julian, Ryan R; Hooley, Richard J

    2015-05-01

    Highly selective, narcissistic self-sorting can be achieved in the formation of self-assembled cages of rare earth metals with multianionic salicylhydrazone ligands. The assembly process is highly sensitive to the length of the ligand and the coordination geometry. Most surprisingly, high-fidelity sorting is possible between ligands of identical coordination angle and geometry, differing only in a single functional group on the ligand core, which is not involved in the coordination. Supramolecular effects allow discrimination between pendant functions as similar as carbonyl or methylene groups in a complex assembly process. PMID:25784462

  3. Conformational diversity of flexible ligand in metal-organic frameworks controlled by size-matching mixed ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Xiu-Ni; Qin, Lan; Yan, Xiao-Zhi; Yu, Lei; Xie, Yi-Xin; Han, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of N-auxiliary flexible exo-bidentate ligand 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) and carboxylates ligands naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H2ndc) or 4,4?-(hydroxymethylene)dibenzoic acid (H2hmdb), in the presence of cadmium(II) salts have given rise to two novel metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands (FL-MOFs), namely, [Cd2(2,6-ndc)2(bpp)(DMF)]·2DMF (1) and [Cd3(hmdb)3(bpp)]·2DMF·2EtOH (2) (DMF=N,N-Dimethylformamide). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that compound 1 exhibits a three-dimensional self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster second building unit. Compound 2 displays an infinite three-dimensional 'Lucky Clover' shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster and V-shaped organic linkers. The flexible bpp ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which are successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process.

  4. Design and Formation of a Large, Tetrahedral, Metal-ligand Cluster Using 1,1'-Binaphthyl Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Biros, Shannon M.; Yeh, Robert M.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-03-13

    Many chemists have been fascinated with the development of discrete supramolecular structures that encapsulate guest molecules. These structures can be assembled through covalent or hydrogen bonds, electrostatic or metal-ligand interactions. These host structures have provided valuable insight into the forces involved in small molecule recognition. Our work has focused on the design and study of metal-ligand clusters of varying sizes. The naphthalene [M{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} cluster 1, shown in Figure 1, has demonstrated diastereoselective guest binding and chiral induction properties as well as the ability to catalyze reactions carried out inside the cavity in an enzyme-like manner. However, the size of the cavity (ca. 300-500 {angstrom}{sup 3}) has often limited the scope of substrates for these transformations.

  5. Metal effects on ligand non-innocence in Group 5 complexes of the redox-active [ONO] pincer ligand.

    PubMed

    Hananouchi, Steven; Krull, Brandon T; Ziller, Joseph W; Furche, Filipp; Heyduk, Alan F

    2014-12-28

    Isostructural vanadium, niobium and tantalum complexes of bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-phenol)amine ([ONO]H3), were prepared and characterized to evaluate the impact of the metal ion on redox-activity of the ligand platform. New vanadium and niobium complexes with the general formula, [ONO]MCl2L (M = V, L = THF, 1-V; M = Nb, L = Et2O, 1-Nb) were prepared and structurally analysed by X-ray crystallography. The solid-state structures indicate that the niobium derivative is electronically analogous to the tantalum analog 1-Ta, containing a reduced (ONO) ligand and a niobium(V) metal ion, [ONO(cat)]Nb(V)Cl2(OEt2); whereas, the vanadium derivative is best described as a vanadium(IV) complex, [ONO(sq)]V(IV)Cl2(THF). One-electron oxidation was carried out on all three metal complexes to afford [ONO]MCl3 derivatives (3-V, 3-Nb, 3-Ta). For all three derivatives, oxidation occurs at the (ONO) ligand. In the cases of niobium and tantalum, electronically similar complexes characterized as [ONO(sq)]M(V)Cl3 were obtained and for vanadium, ligand-based oxidation led to the formation of a complex best described as [ONO(q)]V(IV)Cl3. All complexes were characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. DFT and TD-DFT calculations were used to probe the electronic structure of the complexes and help verify the different electronic structures stemming from changes to the coordinated metal ion. PMID:25352212

  6. New avenues for ligand-mediated processes--expanding metal reactivity by the use of redox-active catechol, o-aminophenol and o-phenylenediamine ligands.

    PubMed

    Broere, Daniël L J; Plessius, Raoul; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar

    2015-10-01

    Redox-active ligands have evolved from being considered spectroscopic curiosities - creating ambiguity about formal oxidation states in metal complexes - to versatile and useful tools to expand on the reactivity of (transition) metals or to even go beyond what is generally perceived possible. This review focusses on metal complexes containing either catechol, o-aminophenol or o-phenylenediamine type ligands. These ligands have opened up a new area of chemistry for metals across the periodic table. The portfolio of ligand-based reactivity invoked by these redox-active entities will be discussed. This ranges from facilitating oxidative additions upon d(0) metals or cross coupling reactions with cobalt(iii) without metal oxidation state changes - by functioning as an electron reservoir - to intramolecular ligand-to-substrate single-electron transfer to create a reactive substrate-centered radical on a Pd(ii) platform. Although the current state-of-art research primarily consists of stoichiometric and exploratory reactions, several notable reports of catalysis facilitated by the redox-activity of the ligand will also be discussed. In conclusion, redox-active ligands containing catechol, o-aminophenol or o-phenylenediamine moieties show great potential to be exploited as reversible electron reservoirs, donating or accepting electrons to activate substrates and metal centers and to enable new reactivity with both early and late transition as well as main group metals. PMID:26148803

  7. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of metal complexes of cross-bridged tetraazamacrocyclic ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hubin, Timothy J.; Amoyaw, Prince N. -A.; Roewe, Kimberly D.; Simpson, Natalie C.; Maples, Randall D.; Carder Freeman, TaRynn N.; Cain, Amy N.; Le, Justin G.; Archibald, Stephen J.; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Khan, M. O. Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Using transition metals such as manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II), several new metal complexes of cross-bridged tetraazamacrocyclic chelators namely, cyclen- and cyclam-analogs with benzyl groups, were synthesized and screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The metal-free chelators tested showed little or no antimalarial activity. All the metal complexes of the dibenzyl cross-bridged cyclam ligand exhibited potent antimalarial activity. The Mn2+ complex of this ligand was the most potent with IC50s of 0.127 and 0.157 µM against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) P. falciparum strains, respectively. In general, the dibenzyl hydrophobic ligands showed better antimalarial activity compared to the activity of monobenzyl ligands, potentially because of their higher lipophilicity and thus better cell penetration ability. The higher antimalarial activity displayed by the manganese complex for the cyclam ligand in comparison to that of the cyclen, correlates with the larger pocket of cyclam compared to that of cyclen which produces a more stable complex with the Mn2+. Few of the Cu2+ and Fe2+ complexes also showed improvement in activity but Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ complexes did not show any improvement in activity upon the metal-free ligands for anti-malarial development. PMID:24857776

  8. PREDICTING SEDIMENT METAL TOXICITY USING A SEDIMENT BIOTIC LIGAND MODEL: METHODOLOGY AND INITIAL APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extension of the simultaneously extracted metals/acid-volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) procedure is presented that predicts the acute and chronic sediment metals effects concentrations. A biotic ligand model (BLM) and a pore water–sediment partitioning model are used to predict the ...

  9. Unusual metal coordination chemistry from an amino-amide derivative of 4-nitrophenol, a surprising ligand.

    PubMed

    McGinley, John; McKee, Vickie; Toftlund, Hans; Walsh, John M D

    2009-10-21

    The simple ligand N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzamide () exhibits several coordination modes depending on the reaction conditions, acting as a zwitterion on its own or being ionic in the presence of acid and depending on the concentration of metal present in a reaction, it can coordinate to the metal in either a 1:1 or a 1:2 metal:ligand mode. Furthermore, the role of solvent plays an important role in these complexation reactions with both four and six coordinate copper complexes being obtained using water as solvent but only six coordinate copper complexes obtained using acetonitrile as solvent. PMID:19789795

  10. Heterogeneous processes affecting metal ion transport in the presence of organic ligands: Reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Cetin

    2007-04-01

    The development of models to accurately simulate metal ion transport through saturated systems under variable chemical conditions, e.g., in systems containing organic ligands (L) such as natural organic matter (NOM), has two essential aspects: (1) establishing the ability to simulate metal ion sorption to aquifer solids over a range of metal/ligand ratios; and (2) to incorporate this ability to simulate metal speciation over a range in chemical conditions (e.g., pH, ligand activity) into mass transport models. Modeling approaches to evaluate metal ion sorption and transport in the presence of NOM include: (1) isotherm-based transport models, and (2) multicomponent (MC) transport models. The accuracy of transport models depends on how well the chemical interactions affecting metal ion transport in the presence of organic ligands (e.g., metal/ligand complexation) are described in transport equations. The isotherm-based transport models often fail to accurately describe metal ion transport in the presence of NOM since these models treat NOM as a single solute despite the fact that NOM is a multicomponent mixture of subcomponents with different chemical and polyfunctional behavior. On the other hand, the calculations presented in this study suggest that a multicomponent reactive transport model, in conjunction with a mechanistic modeling approach for the description of metal ion binding by NOM in a manner conducive to the application of surface complexation modeling (SCM), can effectively be used as an important predictive tool in simulating metal ion sorption and transport under variable chemical conditions in the presence of NOM.

  11. Correction: New avenues for ligand-mediated processes - expanding metal reactivity by the use of redox-active catechol, o-aminophenol and o-phenylenediamine ligands.

    PubMed

    Broere, Daniël L J; Plessius, Raoul; Ivar van der Vlugt, Jarl

    2015-09-21

    Correction for 'New avenues for ligand-mediated processes - expanding metal reactivity by the use of redox-active catechol, o-aminophenol and o-phenylenediamine ligands' by Daniël L. J. Broere et al., Chem. Soc. Rev., 2015, DOI: . PMID:26186062

  12. Correction: New avenues for ligand-mediated processes - expanding metal reactivity by the use of redox-active catechol, o-aminophenol and o-phenylenediamine ligands.

    PubMed

    Broere, Daniël L J; Plessius, Raoul; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar

    2015-09-21

    Correction for 'New avenues for ligand-mediated processes - expanding metal reactivity by the use of redox-active catechol, o-aminophenol and o-phenylenediamine ligands' by Daniël L. J. Broere et al., Chem. Soc. Rev., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cs00161g. PMID:26255842

  13. Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation iron pincer catalysts capable of metal-ligand cooperation by aromatization/dearomatization.

    PubMed

    Zell, Thomas; Milstein, David

    2015-07-21

    The substitution of expensive and potentially toxic noble-metal catalysts by cheap, abundant, environmentally benign, and less toxic metals is highly desirable and in line with green chemistry guidelines. We have recently discovered a new type of metal-ligand cooperation, which is based on the reversible dearomatization/aromatization of different heteroaromatic ligand cores caused by deprotonation/protonation of the ligand. More specifically, we have studied complexes of various transition metals (Ru, Fe, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, and Re) bearing pyridine- and bipyridine-based PNP and PNN pincer ligands, which have slightly acidic methylene protons. In addition, we have discovered long-range metal-ligand cooperation in acridine-based pincer ligands, where the cooperation takes place at the electrophilic C-9 position of the acridine moiety leading to dearomatization of its middle ring. This type of metal-ligand cooperation was used for the activation of chemical bonds, including H-H, C-H (sp(2) and sp(3)), O-H, N-H, and B-H bonds. This unusual reactivity likely takes place in various catalytic hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, and related reactions. In this Account, we summarize our studies on novel bifunctional iron PNP and PNN pincer complexes, which were designed on the basis of their ruthenium congeners. Iron PNP pincer complexes serve as efficient (pre)catalysts for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions under remarkably mild conditions. Their catalytic applications include atom-efficient and industrially important hydrogenation reactions of ketones, aldehydes, and esters to the corresponding alcohols. Moreover, they catalyze the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to sodium formate in the presence of sodium hydroxide, the selective decomposition of formic acid to carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and the E-selective semihydrogenation of alkynes to give E-alkenes. These catalysts feature, compared to other iron-based catalysts, very high catalytic activities which in some cases can even exceed those of state-of-the-art noble-metal catalysts. For the iron PNP systems, we describe the synthesis of the pyridine- and acridine-based PNP iron complexes and their performances and limitations in catalytic reactions, and we present studies on their reactivity with relevance to their catalytic mechanisms. In the case of the bipyridine-based PNN system, we summarize the synthesis of new complexes and describe studies on the noninnocence of the methylene position, which can be reversibly deprotonated, as well as on the noninnocence of the bipyridine unit. Overall, this Account underlines that the combination of cheap and abundant iron with ligands that are capable of metal-ligand cooperation can result in the development of novel, versatile, and efficient catalysts for atom-efficient catalytic reactions. PMID:26079678

  14. Encapsulation of transition metal catalysts by ligand-template directed assembly.

    PubMed

    Slagt, Vincent F; Kamer, Paul C J; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M; Reek, Joost N H

    2004-02-11

    Encapsulated transition metal catalysts are presented that are formed by templated self-assembly processes of simple building blocks such as porphyrins and pyridylphosphine and phosphite ligands, using selective metal-ligand interactions. These ligand assemblies coordinate to transition metals, leading to a new class of transition metal catalysts. The assembled catalyst systems were characterized using NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy and were identified under catalytic conditions using high-pressure infrared spectroscopy. Tris-3-pyridylphosphine binds three mesophenyl zinc(II) porphyrin units and consequently forms an assembly with the phosphorus donor atom completely encapsulated. The encapsulated phosphines lead exclusively to monoligated transition metal complexes, and in the rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation of 1-octene the encapsulation of the catalysts resulted in a 10-fold increase in activity. In addition, the branched aldehyde was formed preferentially (l/b = 0.6), a selectivity that is highly unusual for this substrate, which is attributed to the encapsulation of the transition metal catalysts. An encapsulated rhodium catalyst based on ruthenium(II) porphyrins and tris-meta-pyridyl phosphine resulted in an even larger selectivity for the branched product (l/b = 0.4). These encapsulated catalysts can be prepared easily, and various template ligands and porphyrins, such as tris-3-pyridyl phosphite and ruthenium(II) porphyrins, have been explored, leading to catalysts with different properties. PMID:14759211

  15. The rhizotoxicity of metal cations is related to their strength of binding to hard ligands.

    PubMed

    Kopittke, Peter M; Menzies, Neal W; Wang, Peng; McKenna, Brigid A; Wehr, J Bernhard; Lombi, Enzo; Kinraide, Thomas B; Blamey, F Pax C

    2014-02-01

    Mechanisms whereby metal cations are toxic to plant roots remain largely unknown. Aluminum, for example, has been recognized as rhizotoxic for approximately 100 yr, but there is no consensus on its mode of action. The authors contend that the primary mechanism of rhizotoxicity of many metal cations is nonspecific and that the magnitude of toxic effects is positively related to the strength with which they bind to hard ligands, especially carboxylate ligands of the cell-wall pectic matrix. Specifically, the authors propose that metal cations have a common toxic mechanism through inhibiting the controlled relaxation of the cell wall as required for elongation. Metal cations such as Al(3+) and Hg(2+), which bind strongly to hard ligands, are toxic at relatively low concentrations because they bind strongly to the walls of cells in the rhizodermis and outer cortex of the root elongation zone with little movement into the inner tissues. In contrast, metal cations such as Ca(2+), Na(+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) , which bind weakly to hard ligands, bind only weakly to the cell wall and move farther into the root cylinder. Only at high concentrations is their weak binding sufficient to inhibit the relaxation of the cell wall. Finally, different mechanisms would explain why certain metal cations (for example, Tl(+), Ag(+), Cs(+), and Cu(2+)) are sometimes more toxic than expected through binding to hard ligands. The data presented in the present study demonstrate the importance of strength of binding to hard ligands in influencing a range of important physiological processes within roots through nonspecific mechanisms. PMID:24142597

  16. Mononuclear Metal–O2 Complexes Bearing Macrocyclic N-Tetramethylated Cyclam Ligands

    PubMed Central

    CHO, JAEHEUNG; SARANGI, RITIMUKTA; NAM, WONWOO

    2013-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Metalloenzymes activate dioxygen to carry out a variety of biological reactions, including the biotransformation of naturally occurring molecules, oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics, and oxidative phosphorylation. The dioxygen activation at the catalytic sites of the enzymes occurs through several steps, such as the binding of O2 at a reduced metal center, the generation of metal–superoxo and –peroxo species, and the O–O bond cleavage of metal–hydroperoxo complexes to form high-valent metal-oxo oxidants. Because these mononuclear metal–dioxygen (M–O2) adducts are implicated as key intermediates in dioxygen activation reactions catalyzed by metalloenzymes, studies of the structural and spectroscopic properties and reactivities of synthetic biomimetic analogues of these species have aided our understanding of their biological chemistry. One particularly versatile class of biomimetic coordination complexes for studying dioxygen activation by metal complexes is M–O2 complexes bearing the macrocyclic N-tetramethylated cyclam (TMC) ligand. This Account describes the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization, and reactivity studies of M–O2 complexes bearing tetraazamacrocyclic n-TMC ligands, where M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni and n = 12, 13, and 14, based on recent results from our laboratory. We have used various spectroscopic techniques, including resonance Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to characterize several novel metal–O2 complexes. Notably, X-ray crystal structures had shown that these complexes are end-on metal-superoxo and side-on metal-peroxo species. The metal ions and the ring size of the macrocyclic TMC ligands control the geometric and electronic structures of the metal–O2 complexes, resulting in the end-on metal–superoxo versus side-on metal–peroxo structures. Reactivity studies performed with the isolated metal-superoxo complexes reveal that they can conduct electrophilic reactions such as oxygen atom transfer and C–H bond activation of organic substrates. The metal–peroxo complexes are active oxidants in nucleophilic reactions, such as aldehyde deformylation. We also demonstrate a complete intermolecular O2-transfer from metal(III)–peroxo complexes to a Mn(II) complex. The results presented in this Account show the significance of metal ions and supporting ligands in tuning the geometric and electronic structures and reactivities of the metal–O2 intermediates that are relevant in biology and in biomimetic reactions. PMID:22612523

  17. Metal Complexes of Macrocyclic Schiff-Base Ligand: Preparation, Characterisation, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Riyadh M.; Yousif, Enaam I.; Hasan, Hasan A.; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J.

    2013-01-01

    A new macrocyclic multidentate Schiff-base ligand Na4L consisting of two submacrocyclic units (10,21-bis-iminomethyl-3,6,14,17-tricyclo[17.3.1.18,12]tetracosa-1(23),2,6,8,10,12(24),13,17,19,21,-decaene-23,24-disodium) and its tetranuclear metal complexes with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) are reported. Na4L was prepared via a template approach, which is based on the condensation reaction of sodium 2,4,6-triformyl phenolate with ethylenediamine in mole ratios of 2?:?3. The tetranuclear macrocyclic-based complexes were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligand. The mode of bonding and overall geometry of the compounds were determined through physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. These studies revealed tetrahedral geometries about Mn, Co, and Zn atoms. However, square planar geometries have been suggested for NiII and CuII complexes. Biological activity of the ligand and its metal complexes against Gram positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli revealed that the metal complexes become more potentially resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligand. However, these metal complexes do not exhibit any effects on the activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. There is therefore no inhibition zone. PMID:23935414

  18. Metal complexes of macrocyclic schiff-base ligand: preparation, characterisation, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Riyadh M; Yousif, Enaam I; Hasan, Hasan A; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J

    2013-01-01

    A new macrocyclic multidentate Schiff-base ligand Na4L consisting of two submacrocyclic units (10,21-bis-iminomethyl-3,6,14,17-tricyclo[17.3.1.1]tetracosa-1(23),2,6,8,10,12(24),13,17,19,21,-decaene-23,24-disodium) and its tetranuclear metal complexes with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) are reported. Na?L was prepared via a template approach, which is based on the condensation reaction of sodium 2,4,6-triformyl phenolate with ethylenediamine in mole ratios of 2?:?3. The tetranuclear macrocyclic-based complexes were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligand. The mode of bonding and overall geometry of the compounds were determined through physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. These studies revealed tetrahedral geometries about Mn, Co, and Zn atoms. However, square planar geometries have been suggested for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. Biological activity of the ligand and its metal complexes against Gram positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli revealed that the metal complexes become more potentially resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligand. However, these metal complexes do not exhibit any effects on the activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. There is therefore no inhibition zone. PMID:23935414

  19. Metal complexes of ONO donor Schiff base ligand as a new class of bioactive compounds; Synthesis, characterization and biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Naik, K. H.; Selvaraj, S.; Naik, Nagaraja

    2014-10-01

    Present work reviews that, the synthesis of (E)-N";-((7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-8-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide [L] ligand and their metal complexes. The colored complexes were prepared of type [M2+L]X2, where M2+ = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr and Cd, L = (7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-8-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide, X = Cl-. Ligand derived from the condensation of 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and benzohydrazide in the molar ratio 1:1 and in the molar ratio 1:2 for metal complexes have been prepared. The chelation of the ligand to metal ions occurs through the both oxygen groups, as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligand. Reactions of the Schiff base ligand with Manganese(II), Cobalt(II), Nickel(II), Copper(II), Strontium(II), and Cadmium(II) afforded the corresponding metal complexes. The structures of the obtained ligand and their respective metal complexes were elucidated by infra-red, elemental analysis, Double beam UV-visible spectra, conductometric measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements and also thermochemical studies. The metal complex exhibits octahedral coordination geometrical arrangement. Schiff base ligand and their metal complexes were tested against antioxidants, antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities have been studied. The Schiff base metal complexes emerges effective ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity than free Schiff base ligand.

  20. Bivalent transition metal complexes of ONO donor hydrazone ligand: Synthesis, structural characterization and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Ravindra; Salunkhe, Nilesh; Yaul, Amit; Aswar, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Mononuclear transition metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) with a new hydrazone ligand derived from pyrazine-2-carbohydrazide and 2-hydroxyacetophenone have been synthesized. The isolated complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral and analytical methods including elemental analyses, IR, diffuse reflectance, (1)H-NMR, mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic moment, ESR, XRD, TG and SEM analysis. From the elemental analyses data, the stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:1 (metal:ligand) having the general formulae [M(HL)(Cl)(H2O)2], [M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] and [M(L)(H2O)], [M=Zn(II) and Cd(II)]. The molar conductance values indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of metal complexes. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand behaves as tridentate moiety with ONO donor atoms sequence towards central metal ion. The Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been assigned a monomeric octahedral geometry whereas tetrahedral to Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the ligand and its metal complexes were studied against bacterial species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes and fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus clavatus. The activity data show that the metal complexes have a promising biological activity comparable with the parent ligand against all bacterial and fungal species. PMID:26163785

  1. Electric transport properties of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks and the effect of ferrocene loading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianxi; Wächter, Tobias; Irmler, Andreas; Weidler, Peter G; Gliemann, Hartmut; Pauly, Fabian; Mugnaini, Veronica; Zharnikov, Michael; Wöll, Christof

    2015-05-13

    Understanding of the electric transport through surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs) is important both from a fundamental perspective as well as with regards to possible future applications in electronic devices. To address this mostly unexplored subject, we integrated a series of representative SURMOF thin films, formed by copper nodes and trimesic acid and known as HKUST-1, in a mercury-drop-based tunneling junction. Although the transport properties of these SURMOFs are analogous to those of hybrid metal-organic molecular wires, manifested by a very low value of the tunneling decay constant (? ? 0.006 Å(-1)), they are at the same time found to be consistent with a linear increase of resistance with film thickness. Upon loading of SURMOF pores with ferrocene (Fc), a noticeable increase in transport current was observed. A transport model and ab initio electronic structure calculations were used to reveal a hopping transport mechanism and to relate the changes upon Fc loading to those of the electronic and vibrational structures of the SURMOF films. PMID:25875419

  2. The Calculation of Accurate Metal-Ligand Bond Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Partridge, Harry, III; Ricca, Alessandra; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The optimization of the geometry and calculation of zero-point energies are carried out at the B3LYP level of theory. The bond energies are determined at this level, as well as at the CCSD(T) level using very large basis sets. The successive OH bond energies to the first row transition metal cations are reported. For most systems there has been an experimental determination of the first OH. In general, the CCSD(T) values are in good agreement with experiment. The bonding changes from mostly covalent for the early metals to mostly electrostatic for the late transition metal systems.

  3. Chiral phosphites as ligands in asymmetric metal complex catalysis and synthesis of coordination compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, Konstantin N.; Bondarev, Oleg G.; Polosukhin, Aleksei I.

    2004-07-01

    The data published during the last five years on the application of chiral derivatives of phosphorous acid in coordination chemistry and enantioselective catalysis are summarised and discussed. The effect of the nature of these ligands on the structure of metal complexes and on the efficiency of catalytic organic syntheses is shown. Hydroformylation, hydrogenation, allylic substitution and conjugate addition catalysed by transition metal complexes with optically active phosphites and hydrophosphoranes are considered. The prospects for the development of this field of research are demonstrated.

  4. Theoretical dynamical studies of metal clusters and cluster-ligand systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jellinek, J.

    1995-06-01

    In what follows we use the term cluster to designate a cohesive group of like atoms (molecules), i.e., bare ({open_quotes}neet{close_quotes} {open_quotes}naked{close_quotes}) clusters. More generally, the term is also used for organo- and inorganometallic compounds, i.e., ligated clusters. Although the approaches and techniques used by the various disciplines to study metal-ligand interactions are quite different, many of the central subjects and issues are common for them. The common subjects include possible geometric structures and isomeric forms, structural (isomerization) transitions, stability, fluxionality, structure-reactivity correlation (or lack of it), role of coordination, etc. However, the precise interpretation of these issues and the details emphasized by the different disciplines are dictated by the nature of the objects studied and may not, therefore, be identical. For example, questions regarding structures, isomerization transitions, fluxionality or even melting of metal clusters refer to the state and properties of the metal network itself. The same questions, when asked in connection with organo- and inorganometallic compounds, often refer to the arrangements and rearrangements of the ligands attached to a metal framework of a fixed structure. Of course, when required, the state of and changes in the metal framework are considered as well. The fields of metal-containing molecular compounds, surface science, and physics and chemistry of clusters furnish complementary information on a broad variety of metal-ligand systems. A comprehensive understanding of the nature and properties of these systems, as defined by the type and number of metal atoms and ligands involved, can be achieved only through a mutual awareness of and continuing progress in all of these research areas.

  5. XeF4 as a ligand for a metal ion.

    PubMed

    Tavcar, Gasper; Zemva, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Noble molecule: [Mg(XeF(2))(XeF(4))](AsF(6))(2) is the first coordination compound in which XeF(4) acts as a ligand to a metal center. It is also the first known compound, in which XeF(2) and XeF(4) are simultaneously coordinated to the same metal center (see structure; purple Xe, green F, gray Mg, yellow As). PMID:19140146

  6. Metal ion and ligand binding of integrin 51 and Timothy A. Springera,b,1

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    Metal ion and ligand binding of integrin 51 Wei Xiaa,b and Timothy A. Springera,b,1 a Program by Timothy A. Springer, October 30, 2014 (sent for review October 8, 2014) Integrin 51 binds to an Arg stabilizes integrins in the low-affinity, closed conformation. Comparisons in affinity be- tween four

  7. The second-shell metal ligands of human arginase affect coordination of the nucleophile and substrate.

    PubMed

    Stone, Everett M; Chantranupong, Lynne; Georgiou, George

    2010-12-14

    The active sites of eukaryotic arginase enzymes are strictly conserved, especially the first- and second-shell ligands that coordinate the two divalent metal cations that generate a hydroxide molecule for nucleophilic attack on the guanidinium carbon of l-arginine and the subsequent production of urea and l-ornithine. Here by using comprehensive pairwise saturation mutagenesis of the first- and second-shell metal ligands in human arginase I, we demonstrate that several metal binding ligands are actually quite tolerant to amino acid substitutions. Of >2800 double mutants of first- and second-shell residues analyzed, we found more than 80 unique amino acid substitutions, of which four were in first-shell residues. Remarkably, certain second-shell mutations could modulate the binding of both the nucleophilic water/hydroxide molecule and substrate or product ligands, resulting in activity greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. The data presented here constitute the first comprehensive saturation mutagenesis analysis of a metallohydrolase active site and reveal that the strict conservation of the second-shell metal binding residues in eukaryotic arginases does not reflect kinetic optimization of the enzyme during the course of evolution. PMID:21053939

  8. Orthogonal Ternary Functionalization of a Mesoporous Metal-Organic Framework via Sequential Postsynthetic Ligand Exchange.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Luo, Tian-Yi; Feura, Evan S; Zhang, Chen; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2015-08-26

    A sequential postsynthetic ligand exchange process was used to prepare a series of mono-, di-, and trifunctionalized mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Using this process, orthogonal functional groups were installed and thereafter postsynthetically modified with dye and quencher molecules. Microspectrophotometry studies were used to determine the distribution of the two orthogonal functional groups within the MOF crystals. PMID:26256310

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Transition Metal Complexes Derived from N, S Bidentate Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Md Yusof, Enis Nadia; Ravoof, Thahira Begum S. A.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.; Veerakumarasivam, Abhimanyu; Crouse, Karen Anne; Mohamed Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ahmad, Haslina

    2015-01-01

    Two bidentate NS ligands were synthesized by the condensation reaction of S-2-methylbenzyldithiocarbazate (S2MBDTC) with 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (2MB) and 3-methoxybenzaldehyde (3MB). The ligands were reacted separately with acetates of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) yielding 1:2 (metal:ligand) complexes. The metal complexes formed were expected to have a general formula of [M(NS)2] where M = Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and various spectroscopic techniques. The magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral results supported the predicted coordination geometry in which the Schiff bases behaved as bidentate NS donor ligands coordinating via the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur. The molecular structures of the isomeric S2M2MBH (1) and S2M3MBH (2) were established by X-ray crystallography to have very similar l-shaped structures. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes were evaluated for their biological activities against estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines. Only the Cu(II) complexes showed marked cytotoxicity against the cancer cell lines. Both Schiff bases and other metal complexes were found to be inactive. In concordance with the cytotoxicity studies, the DNA binding studies indicated that Cu(II) complexes have a strong DNA binding affinity. PMID:25988384

  10. Metal complexes containing non-innocent ligands for functional materials 

    E-print Network

    Reinhardt, Maxwell James

    2013-06-29

    The existence of complexes of that display non-innocence has been of interest in the field of coordination chemistry since the investigations of square-planar dithiolene complexes of the late transition metals in the ...

  11. Fixed-charge phosphine ligands to explore gas-phase coinage metal-mediated decarboxylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Vikse, Krista; Khairallah, George N; McIndoe, J Scott; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2013-05-14

    A combination of multistage mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to examine the decarboxylation reactions of a series of metal carboxylate complexes bearing a fixed-charge phosphine ligand, [(O3SC6H4)(C6H5)2PM(I)O2CR](-) (M = Cu, Ag, Au; R = Me, Et, benzyl, Ph). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of these complexes using an LTQ linear ion mass spectrometer results in three main classes of reactions being observed: (1) decarboxylation; (2) loss of the phosphine ligand; (3) loss of carboxylic acid. The gas-phase unimolecular chemistry of the resultant decarboxylated organometallic ions, [(O3SC6H4)(C6H5)2PM(I)R](-), were also explored using CID experiments, and fragment primarily via loss of the phosphine ligand. Energy-resolved CID experiments on [(O3SC6H4)(C6H5)2PM(I)O2CR](-) (M = Cu, Ag, Au; R = Me, Et, benzyl, Ph) using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer were performed to gain a more detailed understanding of the factors influencing coinage metal-catalyzed decarboxylation and DFT calculations on the major fragmentation pathways aided in interpretation of the experimental results. Key findings are that: (1) the energy required for loss of the phosphine ligand follows the order Ag < Cu < Au; (2) the ease of decarboxylation of the coordinated RCO2 groups follows the order of R: Ph < PhCH2 < Me < Et; (3) in general, copper is best at facilitating decarboxylation, followed by gold then silver. The one exception to this trend is when R = Ph and M = Au which has the highest overall propensity for decarboxylation. The influence of the phosphine ligand on decarboxylation is also considered in comparison with previous studies on metal carboxylates that do not contain a phosphine ligand. PMID:23467311

  12. Thioether-functionalized vegetable oils: Metal-absorbing biobased ligands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been synthesized and used to effectively remove a heavy metal ion from an aqueous solution. The use of thioether-functionalized corn oil (TF-corn oil) and thioether-functionalized canola oil (TF-canola oil) were both effective in the extraction of Ag+ ...

  13. Theoretical study on the structures and dissociation channels of metal dications solvated by acetonitrile ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chuanyun; Walker, Kendrick; Hagelberg, Frank; El-Nahas, Ahmed M.

    2004-04-01

    The structures and dissociation channels of metal dications solvated by one or two acetonitrile ligands, M2+(CH3CN)n (n=1, 2 for M=Be, and n=1 for M=Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn), were studied by density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) level. The dissociation processes studied include the loss of a neutral ligand, the dissociative electron transfer, and the cleavage of neutral and charged methyl (CH3 and CH3+). For the diligated Be complex, the dissociative proton transfer is considered in addition to the processes indicated. The equilibrium structures of these complexes were found to be linear with the metal atom attached to the N-end of the CH3CN ligands for all metals except Cu, for which the structure is slightly bent. The calculated dissociation energies indicate that the complexes are thermodynamically stable with respect to all considered processes for M=Be, Mg, Ca, and Fe, but are thermodynamically unstable with respect to the dissociative electron transfer process for M=Cu and Zn and to the cleavage of CH3+ for M=Cu. The energy barriers for the processes of dissociative electron transfer and the cleavage of CH3+ are determined for all units, which suggests that the Zn2+CH3CN and Cu2+CH3CN species are kinetically metastable with long lifetimes. The loss of neutral CH3 is energetically unfavorable for all species. The loss of a neutral ligand is energetically unfavorable for all metals except Ca, where the loss of a neutral ligand is competitive with the dissociative electron transfer. The theoretical results agree well with available experimental observations.

  14. De Novo Design of Ligands for Metal Separation - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Garland, R.

    2001-09-14

    This application focuses on the development of appropriate computation tools and parameters for the de novo design of selective metal ligands. We have developed a successful suite of tools for computer-aided design of ligands for receptors of known three-dimensional structure (structure-based design), including the prediction of affinity. Adaptation of the algorithms to place donor atoms at appropriate geometrical locations surrounding the metal of interest, rather than filling up a cavity with donor/acceptor atoms placed optimally to interact with a protein active site, is straightforward. Appropriate geometrical parameters for metals can be derived from crystal structures and force constants adapted from recent advances in theories of metal-ligand interactions. The practical goal is computer-aided design of ligands which would be selective for one metal over another with a predicted selectivity ratio and affinity.

  15. White phosphorus as a ligand for the coinage metals.

    PubMed

    Forfar, Laura C; Clark, Timothy J; Green, Michael; Mansell, Stephen M; Russell, Christopher A; Sanguramath, Rajashekharayya A; Slattery, John M

    2012-02-14

    Reaction of equimolar quantities of MX (M = Au, Cu, X = Cl; M = Ag, X = OTf) and GaCl(3) in CH(2)Cl(2) with P(4) leads to phosphorus ligating a cationic coinage metal centre. For Cu and Ag, ion-contacted coordination polymers are formed; for Au, an ion-separated complex is observed that features the [Au(?(2)-P(4))(2)](+) cation, which is the first homoleptic Au-P(4) complex to be characterised in the condensed phase. PMID:22234580

  16. Competitive metal-ligand binding between CdTe quantum dots and EDTA for free Ca2+ determination.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S Sofia M; Prieto, Diego R; Ribeiro, David S M; Barrado, Enrique; Prior, João A V; Santos, João L M

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a fluorometric approach for the selective determination of calcium by using CdTe nanocrystals as chemosensors, was developed. The quantum dots interacted not with the metal, but with a ligand that also bonded the metal. The fluorescence response was modulated by the extension of the competitive metal-ligand binding, and therefore the amount of free ligand. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with different capping layers were evaluated, as the QDs surface chemistry and capping nature affected recognition, thus the magnitude of the ensuing fluorescence quenching. The developed procedure was automated by using a multipumping flow system. Upon optimization, thioglycolic acid (TGA) and EDTA were selected as capping and ligand, respectively, providing a linear working range for calcium concentrations between 0.80-3.20 mg L(-1), and a detection limit of 0.66 mg L(-1). A quenching mechanism relying on nanocrystal destabilization upon detachment of surface Cd by the ligand was proposed. PMID:25618655

  17. K? Mainline X-ray Emission Spectroscopy as an Experimental Probe of Metal–Ligand Covalency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mainline feature in metal K? X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has long been recognized as an experimental marker for the spin state of the metal center. However, even within a series of metal compounds with the same nominal oxidation and spin state, significant changes are observed that cannot be explained on the basis of overall spin. In this work, the origin of these effects is explored, both experimentally and theoretically, in order to develop the chemical information content of K? mainline XES. Ligand field expressions are derived that describe the behavior of K? mainlines for first row transition metals with any dn count, allowing for a detailed analysis of the factors governing mainline shape. Further, due to limitations associated with existing computational approaches, we have developed a new methodology for calculating K? mainlines using restricted active space configuration interaction (RAS–CI) calculations. This approach eliminates the need for empirical parameters and provides a powerful tool for investigating the effects that chemical environment exerts on the mainline spectra. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the intermediate and final states involved in these transitions, we confirm the known sensitivity of K? mainlines to metal spin state via the 3p–3d exchange coupling. Further, a quantitative relationship between the splitting of the K? mainline features and the metal–ligand covalency is established. Thus, this study furthers the quantitative electronic structural information that can be extracted from K? mainline spectroscopy. PMID:24914450

  18. Bridging-ligand-substitution strategy for the preparation of metal-organic polyhedra

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-08-22

    Metal–organic polyhedra—discrete molecular architectures constructed through the coordination of metal ions and organic linkers—have recently attracted considerable attention due to their intriguing structures, their potential for a variety of applications and their relevance to biological self-assembly. Several synthetic routes have been investigated to prepare these complexes. However, to date, these preparative methods have typically been based on the direct assembly of metal ions and organic linkers. Although these routes are convenient, it remains difficult to find suitable reaction conditions or to control the outcome of the assembly process. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic strategy based on the substitution of bridging ligands in soluble metal–organic polyhedra. The introduction of linkers with different properties from those of the initial metal–organic polyhedra can thus lead to new metal–organic polyhedra with distinct properties (including size and shape). Furthermore, partial substitution can also occur and form mixed-ligand species that may be difficult to access by means of other approaches.

  19. Electrophilic metal alkyl chemistry in new ligand environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Richard F.

    2002-09-11

    Cationic group 4 and actinide Cp{sub 2}MR{sup +} metallocenes, and isolobal neutral group 3 and lanthanide Cp{sub 2}MR analogs, are exceptionally reactive in insertion and {sigma}-bond metathesis processes, and have been exploited extensively in catalysis and synthesis, most notably single-site olefin polymerization. The objectives of recent work were to design new electrophilic metal alkyls based on non-Cp{sub 2}M structures, and to exploit these systems in fundamental and applied studies related to olefin polymerization and other catalytic reactions. Key results are reported in the following areas: discrete non-metallocene cationic group 4 alkyls, activation of non-metallocene compounds with methylalumoxane, and cationic aluminum alkyl compounds. Numerous structural formulas are included.

  20. Synthesis of new microbial pesticide metal complexes derived from coumarin-imine ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhusseiny, Amel F.; Aazam, Elham S.; Al-Amri, Huda M.

    2014-07-01

    A series of metal complexes of zinc(II), cadmium(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and palladium(II) have been synthesized from coumarin-imine ligand, 8-[(1E)-1-(2-aminophenyliminio)ethyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-olate, [HL]. The structures of the complexes were proposed in the light of their spectroscopic, molar conductance, magnetic and thermal studies. The ligand coordinated in a tridentate manner through the azomethine nitrogen, the phenolic oxygen and the amine nitrogen and all complexes were non-electrolytes with different geometrical arrangements around the central metal ion. Photoluminescence data unambiguously showed remarkable fluorescence enhancement to Zn2+ over other cations. The antimicrobial screening tests revealed that copper(II) complex exhibited the highest potency and its minimum inhibitory concentration on the enzymatic activities of the tested microbial species was determined. No toxin productivity was detected for all tested toxigenic species upon the exposure of copper complex.

  1. Energy Dependence of the Ruthenium(II)-Bipyridine Metal-to-Ligand-Charge-Transfer Excited State Radiative Lifetimes: Effects of

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Energy Dependence of the Ruthenium(II)-Bipyridine Metal-to- Ligand-Charge-Transfer Excited State spectra of ruthenium- bipyridine (Ru-bpy) chromophores at 77 K have been postulated to arise from excited of ruthenium-(D)/polypyridyl ligand-(A) complex excited states that differ from expectation based on simple

  2. Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Emissions of Ruthenium(II) Pentaammine Complexes with Monodentate Aromatic Acceptor

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Emissions of Ruthenium(II) Pentaammine Complexes with Monodentate of pentaammine-MDA- ruthenium(II) ([Ru(NH3)5(MDA)]2+ ) complexes, where MDA is a monodentate aromatic ligand of different spin multiplicities. These issues are of considerable importance in [ruthenium

  3. Four homochiral coordination polymers contain N-acetyl-L-tyrosine and different N-donor ligand: Influence of metal cations, ancillary ligands and coordination modes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Meng-Li; Song, Hui-Hua

    2013-10-15

    Using the chiral ligand N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (Hacty) and maintaining identical reaction conditions, Zn(II), Co(II), and Cd(II) salts provided four novel homochiral coordination polymers ([Zn(acty)(bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n}1, ([Co(acty)(bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n}2, ([Cd(acty){sub 2}(bipy)H{sub 2}O]·H{sub 2}O){sub n}3, and ([Cd(acty)(bpe){sub 2}(Ac)]·6H{sub 2}O){sub n}4 (bipy=4,4?-bipyridine; bpe=1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane) in the presence of ancillary ligands. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural 1D chain structures. The neighboring chains are further linked into a 3D supramolecular structure via ??? stacking and hydrogen bond interactions. Compound 3 shows a 2D network and 4 generates 1D infinite chains along the c-axis. Compounds 3 and 4 are further connected into 3D supramolecular network by hydrogen bond interactions. More importantly, coordination in acyl oxygen atoms and ancillary ligands (bpe) as monodentate decorating ligands in 4 are rarely reported. Ancillary ligands and metal cations significantly influence the structure of the complexes. The photoluminescence properties of 1, 3, and 4 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism (CD) of the complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four new homochiral coordination polymers were prepared and structurally characterized, which investigate the influence of the ancillary ligands and metal ions on the design and synthesis of coordination polymers. Display Omitted - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that the chiral coordination polymers prepared with N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ligands. • The alkalescent acetyl oxygen atom is difficult to participate in coordination but it is happened in the N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ligands. • The ancillary ligands (4,4?-bipy and bpe) are present in an unusual coordination modes, monodentate decorating ligands in 1, 2 and 4. • Structure comparative analyses results indicate that the secondary ligands and metal ions influence the fabrication of these inorganic–organic arrangements.

  4. Highly Fluorescent Group 13 Metal Complexes with Cyclic, Aromatic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michael; Moore, Evan G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-11

    The neutral complexes of two ligands based on the 1-oxo-2-hydroxy-isoquinoline (1,2-HOIQO) motif with group 13 metals (Al, Ga, In) show bright blue-violet luminescence in organic solvents. The corresponding transition can be attributed to ligand-centered singlet emission, characterized by a small Stokes shifts of only a few nm combined with lifetimes in the range between 1-3 ns. The fluorescence efficiency is high, with quantum yields of up to 37% in benzene solution. The crystal structure of one of the indium(III) complexes (trigonal space group R-3, a = b = 13.0384(15) {angstrom}, c = 32.870(8) {angstrom}, ? = {beta} = 90{sup o}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}, V = 4839.3(14) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 6) shows a six-coordinate geometry around the indium center which is close to trigonal-prismatic, with a twist angle between the two trigonal faces of 20.7{sup o}. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations (Al and Ga: B3LYP/6-31G(d)); In: B3LYP/LANL2DZ of the fac and mer isomers with one of the two ligands indicate that there is no clear preference for either one of the isomeric forms of the metal complexes. In addition, the metal centers do not have a significant influence on the electronic structure, and as a consequence, on the predominant intraligand optical transitions.

  5. Extraction of metals using supercritical fluid and chelate forming ligand

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Laintz, K.E.

    1998-03-24

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated {beta}-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  6. Homoleptic Transition Metal Complexes of the 7-Azaindolide Ligand Featuring ?(1)-N1 Coordination.

    PubMed

    Przyojski, Jacob A; Kiewit, Monica L; Fillman, Kathlyn L; Arman, Hadi D; Tonzetich, Zachary J

    2015-10-01

    Homoleptic complexes of the anion of 7-azaindole (AzaIn) were synthesized and characterized for a series of 3d transition metals. For Mn(II), Fe(II), and Co(II), complexes of formula Na2[M(AzaIn)4]·2L (L = tetrahydrofuran (THF), 2-MeTHF, toluene, or benzene) were isolated by treatment of the corresponding metal chloride salts with 7-azaindole in the presence of sodium hexamethyldisilazide. The complexes adopt tetrahedral geometries with exclusive coordination to the transition metal ion through the pyrrolic N1 nitrogen atoms of the AzaIn ligands. Solid-state structures of the complexes demonstrate that the sodium cations remain tightly associated with the coordination entities through interaction with both the pyrrolic and pyridine nitrogen atoms of the azaindolide ligands. For Fe(II), replacement of the sodium cations by other alkali metal ions (Li or K) generates new complexes that demonstrate similar coordination geometries to the sodium salts. As a means of comparison, the Fe(II) complex of 4-azaindolide was also investigated. Na2[Fe(4-AzaIn)4]·2L adopts a similar solution structure to the 7-azaindolide complexes as judged by NMR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the bonding in the 7-azaindolide complexes. Results demonstrate that 7-azaindolide-?(1)-N1 is a nearly pure sigma donor ligand that features a high degree of ionic character in its bonding to mid 3d transition metal ions. PMID:26378471

  7. Synthesis of Ruthenium Boryl Analogues of the Shvo Metal-Ligand Bifunctional Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Koren-Selfridge, Liza; Query, Ian P; Hanson, Joel A; Isley, Nicholas A; Guzei, Ilia A; Clark, Timothy B

    2010-01-01

    Metal boryl complexes have received significant attention in the literature in recent years due to their role as key intermediates in a number of metal-catalyzed borylation reactions. The ligand scaffold is known to have a significant impact on the observed reactivity of these metal boryl complexes. A synthetic strategy to access ruthenium boryl analogues of the Shvo metal-ligand catalysts is described. Heating a precursor to Shvo's catalyst (1) with bis(catecholato)diboron at 50 °C provided ruthenium boryl complex 3 [2,5-Ph(2)-3,4-Tol(2)(?(5)-C(4)COBcat)Ru(CO)(2)Bcat] (Bcat = catecholatoboryl). Addition of bis(catecholato)diboron to complex 1 in the presence of a phenol results in ruthenium boryl complex5 [2,5-Ph(2)-3,4-Tol(2)(?(5)-C(4)COH)Ru(CO)(2)Bcat] at 22 °C in 30% isolated yield. A single crystal X-ray analysis of complex 5 confirmed the assigned structure. An improved synthesis of ruthenium boryl complex 5 was developed by the in situ formation of complex 3 [2,5-Ph(2)-3,4-Tol(2)(?(5)-C(4)COBcat)Ru(CO)(2)Bcat] followed by addition of the phenol, resulting in a 51% yield. PMID:20835402

  8. Synthesis of Ruthenium Boryl Analogues of the Shvo Metal–Ligand Bifunctional Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Koren-Selfridge, Liza; Query, Ian P.; Hanson, Joel A.; Isley, Nicholas A.; Guzei, Ilia A.; Clark, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Metal boryl complexes have received significant attention in the literature in recent years due to their role as key intermediates in a number of metal-catalyzed borylation reactions. The ligand scaffold is known to have a significant impact on the observed reactivity of these metal boryl complexes. A synthetic strategy to access ruthenium boryl analogues of the Shvo metal–ligand catalysts is described. Heating a precursor to Shvo’s catalyst (1) with bis(catecholato)diboron at 50 °C provided ruthenium boryl complex 3 [2,5-Ph2-3,4-Tol2(?5-C4COBcat)Ru(CO)2Bcat] (Bcat = catecholatoboryl). Addition of bis(catecholato)diboron to complex 1 in the presence of a phenol results in ruthenium boryl complex5 [2,5-Ph2-3,4-Tol2(?5-C4COH)Ru(CO)2Bcat] at 22 °C in 30% isolated yield. A single crystal X-ray analysis of complex 5 confirmed the assigned structure. An improved synthesis of ruthenium boryl complex 5 was developed by the in situ formation of complex 3 [2,5-Ph2-3,4-Tol2(?5-C4COBcat)Ru(CO)2Bcat] followed by addition of the phenol, resulting in a 51% yield. PMID:20835402

  9. BIG METALS, SMALL LIGANDS: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 15-COORDINATE COMPLEX THORIUM AMINODIBORANATE [Th(H3BN(CH3)2BH3)4

    E-print Network

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    BIG METALS, SMALL LIGANDS: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 15- COORDINATE COMPLEX THORIUM AMINODIBORANATE aminodiboranate ligands coordinate to the thorium center. The Werner coordination number of 15 in the solid state

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Anion-pi Interactions Metallacyclic Architectures of First-Row Transition Metals and N-Heteroaromatic Ligands 

    E-print Network

    Giles, Ian

    2012-07-16

    the subtle effects of ligand, anion, and metal ion on supramolecular architectures of tetrazine-based ligands in the context of anion-pi interactions and their importance in the design and synthesis of supramolecular architectures. Computational studies...

  11. Phase stability of transition metal dichalcogenide by competing ligand field stabilization and charge density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C, Santosh K.; Zhang, Chenxi; Hong, Suklyun; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2015-09-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been investigated extensively for potential application as device materials in recent years. TMDs are found to be stable in trigonal prismatic (H), octahedral (T), or distorted octahedral (Td) coordination of the transition metal. However, the detailed understanding of stabilities of TMDs in a particular phase is lacking. In this work, the detailed TMD phase stability using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) has been investigated to clarify the mechanism of phase stabilities of TMDs, consistent with the experimental observation. Our results indicate that the phase stability of TMDs can be explained considering the relative strength of two competing mechanisms: ligand field stabilization of d-orbitals corresponding to transition metal coordination geometry, and charge density wave (CDW) instability accompanied by a periodic lattice distortion (PLD) causing the phase transition in particular TMDs.

  12. Photoinduced charge, ion & energy transfer processes at transition-metal coordination compounds anchored to mesoporous, nanocrystalline metal-oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardo, Shane

    Photovoltaics provide a direct means of converting photons into useful, electric power; however traditional silicon-based technologies are too expensive for global commercialization. Dye-sensitized mesoporous semiconducting thin films, when utilized in regenerative photoelectrochemical cells, are one category of next generation photovoltaics that could eventually circumvent this issue. In fact, their architecture also affords a clear platform for implementation of a direct, solar fuel-forming system. The mechanisms involved in the myriad of molecular processes that occur in these molecular--solid-state hybrid materials are poorly understood. Thus, the overriding goal of this dissertation was to evaluate sensitized mesoporous, nanocrystalline metal-oxide thin films critically so as to elucidate mechanistic phenomena. Using transient and steady-state absorption and emission spectroscopies as well as (photo)electrochemistry, various previously unobserved processes have been identified. Chapter 2 demonstrates for the first time that the electric fields emanating from these charged thin films affect surface-anchored molecular sensitizers via a Stark effect. In most cases, further, but incomplete, ionic screening of the charged nanoparticles from the sensitizers, as non-Faradaic electrolyte redistribution, was spectroscopically inferred after rapid semiconductor charging. Chapter 3 highlights the reactivity of Co(I) coordination-compound catalysts anchored to anatase TiO2 thin-film electrodes. Visible-light excitation resulted in prompt excited-state electron injection into TiO2 while introduction of benzylbromide into the fluid solution surrounding the thin film led to a 2e--transfer, oxidative-addition reaction to Co1 forming a stable Co--benzyl product. Subsequent visible-light excitation initiated a photocatalytic cycle for C--C bond formation. Unique to the nanocrystalline thin films employed here, Chapter 4 demonstrates that traditional time-resolved polarization spectroscopy can be employed to monitor lateral self-exchange energy- and hole-transfer reactions across the sensitized TiO2 surface. Under conditions of poor excited-state injection, support for Ru*/II self exchange was obtained, while subsequent to electron injection, the resulting RuIII state of the sensitizer was often capable of RuIII/II self-exchange reactions. The kinetics for many processes associated with mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films can be modeled by a stretched-exponential function, which possesses an underlying distribution of rate constants. In Chapter 5, we provide the first implementation of an Arrhenius analysis for the temperature dependence of these distributions.

  13. Transition metals and organic ligands influence biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Mulchandani, Anjali; Gedalanga, Phillip B; Mahendra, Shaily

    2014-05-01

    1,4-Dioxane, a contaminant increasingly detected in water supplies, is a public health concern because it is classified as a possible human carcinogen. 1,4-Dioxane can be biodegraded by aerobic bacteria via monooxygenase-catalyzed reactions. While these metalloenzymes require trace metals as cofactors in their catalytic sites, these metals may be toxic at elevated concentrations. In this study, the effects of transition metals on 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190, a monooxygenase-expressing bacterium, were investigated. Dose-dependent inhibition of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by Cd(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) was observed, whereas Zn(II) had no measurable effect on biodegradation rates. 1,4-Dioxane biodegradation in cultures exposed to 2 mg/L Cu(II) was restored in the presence of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 mM alginin, 0.05, and 0.5 mM cysteine, and 0.005 mM tannin. These results indicated that specific ligands bind with transition metals and alleviate bacterial toxicity. In parallel experiments, tannin and cysteine inhibited 1,4-dioxane biodegradation, but alginin, BSA, and SRNOM did not affect the biodegradation rates. Thus, monooxygenase-catalyzed biodegradation rates are subject to interactions among transition metals and natural organic ligands in the environment. Mechanistic insights and quantitative data obtained in this study will be useful for designing bioremediation strategies at sites simultaneously contaminated with metals and organic pollutants. PMID:24627120

  14. Ligand and initiator effect in late and early transition metal catalyzed living radical polymerizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Isaac Webster

    This thesis was concerned with the development of novel catalysts and initiators for living radical polymerization (LRP). The effect of metal, ligand and initiator was studied in the LRP of styrene using transition metal porphyrins as well as a series of 18 Ti complexes with O, N as well as substituted cyclopentadienyl ligands in conjunction with epoxide and halide initiators. The nature of the metal center was first explored in a series of tetraphenyl porphyrins containing Cu, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Zn, and Ag. Styrene polymerization in the presence of these catalysts showed a linear dependence of molecular weight (Mn) on conversion but also gave broad polydisperisties (PDI). This behavior was attributed to a copolymerization of the porphyrin with styrene. Subsequently, the Cp2TiCl-catalyzed radical ring opening (RRO) of epoxides was introduced as a novel initiating reaction for LRP mediated by the unprecedented reversible end-capping of the propagating chain by Ti(III). These results were supported by a combination of NMR, GPC and reinitiation experiments and generated polymers with very narrow PDI (<1.2) and functional OH chain ends. Ti(III) was also shown to be compatible with activated and unactivated halides yielding the first halide initiated LRP which does not follow an atom transfer polymerization mechanism. Further studies of the stereoelectronic ligand effects in RRO and LRP ranked these catalysts as: L = metallocene (eta5-RCp: R = H ˜ Et ˜ iPr ˜ tBu > Ind >> Cp*) >> O-ligands (alkoxides > bisketonates) >> N ligands (hydrotris(pyrazol-1-ylborato) > phthalocyanine), while X = Cl > Br >> F ˜ Me ˜ CO and LnTiCl m > Ln-1TiClm+1. Additional experimentation examined the effect of reaction conditions and optimum results were obtained with [St]/[epoxide]/[Ti]/[Zn] = 50/1/4/8 at 60 °C--90 °C in dioxane using a 1,4-butandiol diglycidyl ether. Finally, the first example of a dual concurrent polymerization of styrene and epsilon-caprolactone was demonstrated using a single catalyst/initiator system (Ti/epoxide) and new criteria for quantifying the livingness of the process were outlined.

  15. Linear free energy relationships for metal-ligand complexation: Bidentate binding to negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonaro, Richard F.; Atalay, Yasemin B.; Di Toro, Dominic M.

    2011-05-01

    Stability constants for metal complexation to bidentate ligands containing negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms can be estimated from the following linear free energy relationship (LFER): log KML = ?OO( ?O log KHL,1 + ?O log KHL,2) where KML is the metal-ligand stability constant for a 1:1 complex, KHL,1 and KHL,2 are the proton-ligand stability constants (the ligand p Ka values), and ?O is the Irving-Rossotti slope. The parameter ?OO is metal specific and has slightly different values for five and six membered chelate rings. LFERs are presented for 21 different metal ions and are accurate to within approximately 0.30 log units in predictions of log KML values. Ligands selected for use in LFER development include dicarboxylic acids, carboxyphenols, and ortho-diphenols. For ortho-hydroxybenzaldehydes, ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, and ?-ketocarboxylic acids, a modification of the LFER where log KHL,2 is set equal to zero is required. The chemical interpretation of ?OO is that it accounts for the extra stability afforded to metal complexes by the chelate effect. Cu-NOM binding constants calculated from the bidentate LFERs are similar in magnitude to those used in WHAM 6. This LFER can be used to make log KML predictions for small organic molecules. Since natural organic matter (NOM) contains many of the same functional groups (i.e. carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols), the LFER log KML predictions shed light on the range of appropriate values for use in modeling metal partitioning in natural systems.

  16. Excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer band induces electron tunnelling in azurin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacchini, Chiara; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2014-03-01

    Optical excitation of azurin blue copper protein immobilized on indium-tin oxide, in resonance with its ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption band, resulted in a light-induced current tunnelling within the protein milieu. The related electron transport rate is estimated to be about 105 s-1. A model based on resonant tunnelling through an azurin excited molecular state is proposed. The capability of controlling electron transfer processes through light pulses opens interesting perspectives for implementation of azurin in bio-nano-opto-electronic devices.

  17. Excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer band induces electron tunnelling in azurin

    SciTech Connect

    Baldacchini, Chiara; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2014-03-03

    Optical excitation of azurin blue copper protein immobilized on indium-tin oxide, in resonance with its ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption band, resulted in a light-induced current tunnelling within the protein milieu. The related electron transport rate is estimated to be about 10{sup 5}?s{sup ?1}. A model based on resonant tunnelling through an azurin excited molecular state is proposed. The capability of controlling electron transfer processes through light pulses opens interesting perspectives for implementation of azurin in bio-nano-opto-electronic devices.

  18. Lead Halide Perovskites and Other Metal Halide Complexes As Inorganic Capping Ligands for Colloidal Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lead halide perovskites (CH3NH3PbX3, where X = I, Br) and other metal halide complexes (MXn, where M = Pb, Cd, In, Zn, Fe, Bi, Sb) have been studied as inorganic capping ligands for colloidal nanocrystals. We present the methodology for the surface functionalization via ligand-exchange reactions and the effect on the optical properties of IV–VI, II–VI, and III–V semiconductor nanocrystals. In particular, we show that the Lewis acid–base properties of the solvents, in addition to the solvent dielectric constant, must be properly adjusted for successful ligand exchange and colloidal stability. High luminescence quantum efficiencies of 20–30% for near-infrared emitting CH3NH3PbI3-functionalized PbS nanocrystals and 50–65% for red-emitting CH3NH3CdBr3- and (NH4)2ZnCl4-capped CdSe/CdS nanocrystals point to highly efficient electronic passivation of the nanocrystal surface. PMID:24746226

  19. Manganese K? X-ray emission spectroscopy as a probe of metal-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Martha A; Roemelt, Michael; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle; DuBoc, Carole; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Bergmann, Uwe; Glatzel, Pieter; Neese, Frank; DeBeer, Serena

    2011-09-01

    A systematic series of high-spin mononuclear Mn(II), Mn(III), and Mn(IV) complexes has been investigated by manganese K? X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). The factors contributing to the K? main line and the valence to core region are discussed. The K? main lines are dominated by 3p-3d exchange correlation (spin state) effects, shifting to lower energy upon oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III) due to the decrease in spin state from S = 5/2 to S = 2, whereas the valence to core region shows greater sensitivity to the chemical environment surrounding the Mn center. A density functional theory (DFT) approach has been used to calculate the valence to core spectra and assess the contributions to the energies and intensities. The valence spectra are dominated by manganese np to 1s electric dipole-allowed transitions and are particularly sensitive to spin state and ligand identity (reflected primarily in the transition energies) as well as oxidation state and metal-ligand bond lengths (reflected primarily in the transition intensities). The ability to use these methods to distinguish different ligand contributions within a heteroleptic coordination sphere is highlighted. The similarities and differences between the current Mn XES study and previous studies of Fe XES investigations are discussed. These findings serve as an important calibration for future applications to manganese active sites in biological and chemical catalysis. PMID:21805960

  20. Porous coordination polymers with ubiquitous and biocompatible metals and a neutral bridging ligand

    PubMed Central

    Noro, Shin-ichiro; Mizutani, Junya; Hijikata, Yuh; Matsuda, Ryotaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Susumu; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Inubushi, Yasutaka; Kubo, Kazuya; Nakamura, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    The design of inexpensive and less toxic porous coordination polymers (PCPs) that show selective adsorption or high adsorption capacity is a critical issue in research on applicable porous materials. Although use of Group II magnesium(II) and calcium(II) ions as building blocks could provide cheaper materials and lead to enhanced biocompatibility, examples of magnesium(II) and calcium(II) PCPs are extremely limited compared with commonly used transition metal ones, because neutral bridging ligands have not been available for magnesium(II) and calcium(II) ions. Here we report a rationally designed neutral and charge-polarized bridging ligand as a new partner for magnesium(II) and calcium(II) ions. The three-dimensional magnesium(II) and calcium(II) PCPs synthesized using such a neutral ligand are stable and show selective adsorption and separation of carbon dioxide over methane at ambient temperature. This synthetic approach allows the structural diversification of Group II magnesium(II) and calcium(II) PCPs. PMID:25592677

  1. Using a Combination of Experimental and Computational Methods to Explore the Impact of Metal Identity and Ligand Field Strength on the Electronic Structure of Metal Ions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernicone, Naomi C.; Geri, Jacob B.; York, John T.

    2011-01-01

    In this exercise, students apply a combination of techniques to investigate the impact of metal identity and ligand field strength on the spin states of three d[superscript 5] transition-metal complexes: Fe(acac)[subscript 3], K[subscript 3][Fe(CN)[subscript 6

  2. Room temperature rapid functionalization of E-H bonds (E = O, N, S) via the metal-ligand cooperation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Adam; Goldberg, Israel; Vigalok, Arkadi

    2014-01-01

    An arylpalladium PNF-type pincer complex reacts with water and anilines under very mild conditions, providing access to new PNO- and PNN-pincer complexes with concomitant hydrogen transfer to the ligand core. Such a metal-ligand cooperation mode allows for the irreversible double activation of even highly sterically hindered aniline molecules. With thiols, the activation mode depends on the nature of the substituent at the sulfur atom, with thiophenols giving products of C-S elimination. PMID:24344770

  3. Two Ce-containing 3D metal–organic frameworks: In situ formation of ligand (DDPD)

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xinyu; Yu, Liqiong; Huang, Rudan

    2014-02-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of cerium nitrate and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid (OH-H{sub 2}BDC) produce two new metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), ([Ce(DDPD){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2.5}]·4H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1) and ([Ce(OH-BDC)(OH-HBDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (2) (DDPD(II)=5,10-dioxo-5,10-dihydro-4,9-dioxapyrene-2,7-dicarboxylate(II)). These two complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It was remarkable that the in situ reaction of OH-H{sub 2}BDC to DDPD(II) was found in complex 1. In 1, Ce(III) ions are bridged by DDPD ligands to form infinite 1D chain, which is further connected via DDPD ligands to form 3D structure. Complex 2 possesses a neutral noninterpenetrating 2D layer structure. Furthermore, the fluorescence properties and magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: In complex 1, the in situ reaction of OH-H{sub 2}BDC to DDPD(II) was found. Complex 1 features a 3D network structure. Adjacent Ce(III) ions are bridged by two carboxylate groups to form a 1D infinite inorganic chain, and further linked by the DDPD(II) ligands. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 2 was synthesized via hydrothermal methods. • In situ reaction of OH-H{sub 2}BDC to DDPD(II) was found in complex 1. • Ce(III) ions are bridged by the DDPD(II) ligands to generate a 3D structure in complex 1. • Complex 2 possesses a neutral noninterpenetrating 2D layer structure. • Fluorescent properties and magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  4. Metal–ligand multiple bonds as frustrated Lewis pairs for C–H functionalization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary The concept of frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) has received considerable attention of late, and numerous reports have demonstrated the power of non- or weakly interacting Lewis acid–base pairs for the cooperative activation of small molecules. Although most studies have focused on the use of organic or main-group FLPs that utilize steric encumbrance to prevent adduct formation, a related strategy can be envisioned for both organic and inorganic complexes, in which "electronic frustration" engenders reactivity consistent with both nucleophilic (basic) and electrophilic (acidic) character. Here we propose that such a description is consistent with the behavior of many coordinatively unsaturated transition-metal species featuring metal–ligand multiple bonds, and we further demonstrate that the resultant reactivity may be a powerful tool for the functionalization of C–H and E–H bonds. PMID:23209486

  5. Assembly of new polyoxometalate-templated metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Mu, Bao; Lv, Lei; Huang, Rudan

    2015-03-01

    Four new polyoxometalate(POM)-templated metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands, namely, [Cu6(bip)12(PMoVI12O40)2(PMoVMoVI11O40O2)]·8H2O(1), [CuI3CuII3(bip)12(PMoVI12O40)2(PMoV12O34)]·8H2O(2), [Ni6(bip)12(PMoVI12O40)(PMoVI11MoVO40)2]Cl·6H2O(3), [CoII3CoIII2(H2bib)2(Hbib)2(PW9O34)2(H2O)6]·6H2O(4) (bip=1,3-bis(imidazolyl)propane, bib=1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane) have been obtained under hydrothermal condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. The studies of single crystal X-ray indicate that compounds 1-3 crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3, and compound 4 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1. Compounds 1 and 3 represent 3D frameworks, and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals, while compounds 2 and 4 show 3D frameworks by hydrogen bonds. This compounds provide new examples of host-guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands. In addition, the electrochemical property and the catalytic property of compound 1 have also been investigated.

  6. New metal complexes of N3 tridentate ligand: Synthesis, spectral studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdani, Abbas Ali Salih; Al Zoubi, Wail

    2015-02-01

    New tridentate ligand 3-amino-4-{1,5-dimethyl-3-[2-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylimino]-2phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo}-phenol L was synthesized from the reaction of 1,5-dimethyl-3-[2-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylimino]-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ylamine and 3.4-amino phenol. A complexes of these ligand [Ni(II)(L)(H2O)2 Cl]Cl, [pt(IV)(L)Cl3]Cl and [M(II)(L)Cl]Cl (M = Pd (II), Zn (II), Cd (II) and Hg (II) were synthesized. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods and magnetic moment measurements, elemental analysis, metal content, Chloride containing and conductance. These studies revealed octahedral geometries for the Ni (II), pt (IV) complexes, square planar for Pd (II) complex and tetrahedral for the Zn (II), Cd(II) and Hg (II) complexes. The study of complexes formation via molar ratio and job method in DMF solution has been investigated and results were consistent to those found in the solid complexes with a ratio of (M:L) as (1:1). The thermodynamic parameters, such as ?E*, ?H*, ?S* ?G* and K are calculated from the TGA curve using Coats-Redfern method. Hyper Chem-8 program has been used to predict structural geometries of compounds in gas phase. The synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were screened for their biological activity against bacterial species, two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonasaeruginosa).

  7. Aspects of C-H Activation in Metal Complexes Containing Sulfur Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski-DuBois, Mary C.

    2004-10-08

    The research project proposed to synthesize new metal complexes with sulfido, disulfido and other types of reactive sulfur ligands, and to explore the joint reactivity of metal and sulfur ligands with hydrogen and organic molecules. The overall objective was to investigate reaction pathways relevant to those observed for the heterogeneous metal sulfide catalysts which promote hydrogen activation, hydrogenation-dehydrogenation of organic substrates, and hydrogenolysis of carbon-heteroatom bonds. Particular emphasis was placed on CpRe derivatives (where Cp might be C5H5 or alkylated versions) so that comparisons could be made with the previously studied CpMo complexes, which showed extensive reactivity at the sulfur ligands. Heterogeneous rhenium sulfides generally show higher catalytic activity than molybdenum sulfides, and this is attributed, in part, to the weaker Re-S bond strength, relative to the moybdenum-sulfur bond. In our studies of discrete Re-sulfide complexes, we have also observed evidence for weaker Re-S bonds relative to the molybdenum systems. In addition we have characterized novel hydrogen activation by rhenium sulfido complexes, as well as carbon-hydrogen, carbon-sulfur and metal sulfur bond cleavage reactions. Hydrogen Activation. The complex Cp{prime}ReCl2S3 was synthesized in ca 70% yield and characterized by an X-ray diffraction study which confirms that the complex contains a {eta}2-trisulfide ligand. The cyclic voltammogram of Cp{prime}ReCl2S3 shows a wide window of redox stability with an irreversible reduction wave at -0.97 V and an irreversible oxidation at +1.03 V vs Fc. Nevertheless, the complex undergoes a facile reaction with hydrogen at 50 C to form H2S and a new dinuclear sulfido bridged rhenium complex. This reaction is of interest because it is the first example of the hydrogenolysis of a discrete metal polysulfide complex to produce H2S, a reaction also observed for heterogeneous rhenium sulfides. The reaction contrasts with those of related Cp-molybdenum complexes with sulfide ligands, which also activate hydrogen, but generally form hydrosulfido products without H2S elimination. C-H and C-S Cleavage Reactions. New mononuclear Cp{prime}Re(dithiolate) complexes such as Cp{prime}ReCl2(SC2H4S), 1, have been prepared and characterized and have been found to display a very interesting range of reactions. The thermal reaction of 1 involves the dehydrogenation of the alkanedithiolate ligand to form Cp{prime}ReCl2(SCH=CHS), 2 as well as a competing elimination of olefin from the dithiolate ligand in 1. On the basic of kinetic and related studies, the mechanism is proposed to involve a sequential series of reactions. In the first reaction, the olefin extrusion is proposed to produce a reactive Re-disulfide or Re-bis(sulfido) intermediate, CpReCl2S2 which serves as an oxidant for the dithiolate complex 1. The ability of the bis sulfido complex to dehydrogenate hydrocarbons is a unique feature and several additional dehydrogenation reactions with this system have been characterized, including the oxidation of other dithiolate complexes, of tetrahydro-naphthalene and of cyclohexadiene. Precedents for the role of metal sulfides in dehydrogenation reactions have been reported for heterogeneous metal sulfide surfaces. This work has begun to provide information about the electronic and structural features necessary for such reactivity. Carbon Sulfur Bond Formation. When the thermal reaction of 1 was carried out in the presence of excess dry ethene a new reaction was observed in which the dithiolate ligand is displaced by incoming olefin to form the cyclic organic product, 1,4-dithiane. The Re product is identified as Cp{prime}Re(alkene)Cl2 on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Similar reactions with alkynes have been found to form unsaturated 6-membered rings and reactions with 1,3 dithiolate complexes form the organic 7-membered rings. To our knowledge the formation of cyclic bis-thioethers by the reactions of an alkene or alkyne with a discrete dithiolate metal complex has not been repor

  8. Supported Molecular Iridium Catalysts: Resolving Effects of Metal Nuclearity and Supports as Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jing; Serna, Pedro; Aydin, Cerem; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2012-02-07

    The performance of a supported catalyst is influenced by the size and structure of the metal species, the ligands bonded to the metal, and the support. Resolution of these effects has been lacking because of the lack of investigations of catalysts with uniform and systematically varied catalytic sites. We now demonstrate that the performance for ethene hydrogenation of isostructural iridium species on supports with contrasting properties as ligands (electron-donating MgO and electron-withdrawing HY zeolite) can be elucidated on the basis of molecular concepts. Spectra of the working catalysts show that the catalytic reaction rate is determined by the dissociation of H{sub 2} when the iridium, either as mono- or tetra-nuclear species, is supported on MgO and is not when the support is the zeolite. The neighboring iridium sites in clusters are crucial for activation of both H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} when the support is MgO but not when it is the zeolite, because the electron-withdrawing properties of the zeolite support enable even single site-isolated Ir atoms to bond to both C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and H{sub 2} and facilitate the catalysis.

  9. Supramolecular isomers of metal-organic frameworks: the role of a new mixed donor imidazolate-carboxylate tetradentate ligand.

    PubMed

    Richards, Victoria J; Argent, Stephen P; Kewley, Adam; Blake, Alexander J; Lewis, William; Champness, Neil R

    2012-04-14

    Five new metal-organic frameworks prepared from the ligand 5-bis(3-(1-imidazolyl)propylcarbamoyl)terephthalate (bipta(2-)) and transition metal salts, Zn(2+) (1), Co(2+) (2), Mn(2+) (3, 4) and Cu(2+) (5), are reported. Single crystal X-ray studies reveal that the bipta(2-) ligand acts as a tetradentate ligand and combines with four-coordinate cationic metal nodes to give four-connected framework structures. Whilst reaction of bipta(2-) with Zn(II) gives rise to a framework of diamondoid topology 1, the analogous frameworks with Co(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) afford frameworks that incorporate square-planar nodes. Whereas 2 and 5 form frameworks of Cd(SO(4)) (cds) and square 4(4) nets (sql), respectively, reaction of Mn(II) with bipta(2-) forms two supramolecular isomers of topology cds for 3 and sql for 4. PMID:22301665

  10. Antioxidant, electrochemical, thermal, antimicrobial and alkane oxidation properties of tridentate Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Gökhan; Çelik, Cumali; Uru?, Serhan; Demirta?, ?brahim; Elmasta?, Mahfuz; Tümer, Mehmet

    2011-10-01

    In this study, two Schiff base ligands (HL 1 and HL 2) and their Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Ru(III) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. Alkane oxidation activities of the metal complexes were studied on cyclohexane as substrate. The ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (as Gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella fragilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans (as Gram-negative bacteria). The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ) free radical scavenging and reducing power activity of superoxide anion radical generated non-enzymatic systems. Electrochemical and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated.

  11. Metal ions modulate the conformation and stability of a G-quadruplex with or without a small-molecule ligand.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiru; Li, Shenghui; Chen, Jun; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Jinchao; Huang, Yan; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Hai-Chen; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Hu, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Small-molecule ligands for stabilizing the G-quadruplex in telomeres are promising chemotherapeutic agents. Despite extensive research, few G-quadruplex-stabilizing ligands have been clinically approved to date. We hypothesized that metal ions may be able to interfere with the ligand-mediated stabilization of the G-quadruplex. Here we found that several metal ions could interfere with the Na(+)-induced G-quadruplex conformation even in the presence of a ligand. The destabilizing effects of metal ions may not be negligible as most of them are essential elements in organisms. In contrast, Ba(2+) was found to be a potent stabilizing cation, which could compete with other destabilizing cations to modulate the stability of the G-quadruplex. Moreover, the destabilizing effects of divalent or trivalent cations were considerably inhibited when a metal chelator was used. These data suggested that the unfavorable effects of destabilizing cations must be minimized for enhancing the ligand-mediated stabilization of the G-quadruplex. PMID:26381587

  12. Synthesis, crystal structures and properties of three new mixed-ligand d{sup 10} metal complexes constructed from pyridinecarboxylate and in situ generated amino-tetrazole ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Dongsheng; Huang, Xihe; Huang Changcang; Huang Gansheng; Chen Jianzhong

    2009-07-15

    Three new metal-organic frameworks, [Zn(atz)(nic)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(atz)(isonic)]{sub n}.nHisonic(2) and [Cd(atz)(isonic)]{sub n}(3) (Hnic=nicotinic acid, Hisonic=isonicotinic acid), have been firstly synthesized by employing mixed-ligand of pyridinecarboxylate with the in situ generated ligand of 5-amino-tetrazolate(atz{sup -}), and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, TGA and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that 1 presents a two-dimensional (2D) 'sql' topological network constructed from the linear chain subunit of Zn(nic){sub 2} and atz{sup -} ligand. A remarkable feature of 2 is a 2-fold interpenetrated diamondoid network with free Hisonic molecules locating in the channels formed by the zigzag chain subunits of Zn(isonic){sub 2}. Complex 3 is a 3D non-interpenetrated pillared framework constructed from the double chain subunits of Cd-COO{sup -}Cd. It possesses a rarely observed (4,6)-connected 'fsc' topology. The thermal stabilities and fluorescent properties of the complexes were investigated. All of these complexes exhibited intense fluorescent emissions in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three new mixed-ligand d{sup 10} metal complexes have been synthesized by employing mixed-ligand synthetic approach. Complex 1 presents a 2D 'sql' topological network. Complex 2 is a 2-fold interpenetrated diamondoid network with microporous channels. Rarely observed (4,6)-connected 'fsc' topological network was found in complex 3.

  13. Anchor connector

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, D.F.; Bell, J.L. Jr.; Jones, D.L.; McFerron, R.G.

    1984-03-27

    An anchor connector incorporating a flexible joint for securing the tension legs of a tensioned leg platform. A latch dog head engages a first recess on the fixed member of the flexible joint and a template recess to prevent disconnection when the dog heads and latch carrier are in a lower position. With the latch carrier (40) in an upper position the latch dog heads fit within a second recess (44) in the fixed member with the dog heads clearing shoulder of template recess, whereby the connector may be released.

  14. Synthesis of metal complexes involving Schiff base ligand with methylenedioxy moiety: Spectral, thermal, XRD and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, M. L.; Jeyakumar, T.; Anandakumaran, J.; Karpanai Selvan, B.

    2014-10-01

    Metal complexes of Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Mn(II) Hg(II), and Ag(I) have been synthesized from Schiff base ligand, prepared by the condensation of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)aniline and 5-bromo salicylaldehyde. All the compounds have been characterized by using elemental analysis, molar conductance, FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectra, powder XRD and thermal analysis (TG/DTA) technique. The elemental analysis suggests the stoichiometry to be 1:1 (metal:ligand). The FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectral data suggest that the ligand coordinate to the metal atom by imino nitrogen and phenolic oxygen as bidentate manner. Mass spectral data further support the molecular mass of the compounds and their structure. Powder XRD indicates the crystalline state and morphology of the ligand and its metal complexes. The thermal behaviors of the complexes prove the presence of lattice as well as coordinated water molecules in the complexes. Melting point supports the thermal stability of all the compounds. The in vitro antimicrobial effects of the synthesized compounds were tested against five bacterial and three fungal species by well diffusion method. Antioxidant activities have also been performed for all the compounds. Metal complexes show more biological activity than the Schiff base.

  15. Potassium induced stitching of a flexible tripodal ligand into a bi-metallic two-dimensional coordination polymer for photo-degradation of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vimal K

    2015-05-21

    A novel strategy for the stitching of a tripodal ligand into a bi-metallic two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer has been reported. The reaction of 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde based ligand H3L with nickel acetate resulted in the metal functionalized 2D extended network via potassium induced activation of the nitro group of the ligand. The compound is highly active towards photo-degradation of organic dyes. PMID:25900142

  16. Converting between the oxides of nitrogen using metal-ligand coordination complexes.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Andrew J; Symes, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    The oxides of nitrogen (chiefly NO, NO3(-), NO2(-) and N2O) are key components of the natural nitrogen cycle and are intermediates in a range of processes of enormous biological, environmental and industrial importance. Nature has evolved numerous enzymes which handle the conversion of these oxides to/from other small nitrogen-containing species and there also exist a number of heterogeneous catalysts that can mediate similar reactions. In the chemical space between these two extremes exist metal-ligand coordination complexes that are easier to interrogate than heterogeneous systems and simpler in structure than enzymes. In this Tutorial Review, we will examine catalysts for the inter-conversions of the various nitrogen oxides that are based on such complexes, looking in particular at more recent examples that take inspiration from the natural systems. PMID:26158348

  17. Linkage isomerism in transition-metal complexes of mixed (arylcarboxamido)(arylimino)pyridine ligands.

    PubMed

    Boyce, David W; Salmon, Debra J; Tolman, William B

    2014-06-01

    The synthesis of a series of asymmetric mixed 2,6-disubstituted (arylcarboxamido)(arylimino)pyridine ligands and their coordination chemistry toward a series of divalent first-row transition metals (Cu, Co, and Zn) have been explored. Complexes featuring both anionic N,N',N?-carboxamido and neutral O,N,N'-carboxamide coordination have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry, and UV-visible and EPR spectroscopy. Specifically, (R)LM(X) (M = Cu; X = Cl(-), OAc(-)) and (R)L(H)MX2 (M = Cu, Co, Zn; X = Cl(-), SbF6(-)) complexes that feature N,N',N?- or O,N,N'-coordination are presented. Base-induced linkage isomerization from O,N,N'-carboxamide to N,N',N?-carboxamido coordination is also confirmed by multiple forms of spectroscopy. PMID:24819403

  18. Linkage Isomerism in Transition-Metal Complexes of Mixed (Arylcarboxamido)(arylimino)pyridine Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of asymmetric mixed 2,6-disubstituted (arylcarboxamido)(arylimino)pyridine ligands and their coordination chemistry toward a series of divalent first-row transition metals (Cu, Co, and Zn) have been explored. Complexes featuring both anionic N,N?,N?-carboxamido and neutral O,N,N?-carboxamide coordination have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry, and UV–visible and EPR spectroscopy. Specifically, RLM(X) (M = Cu; X = Cl–, OAc–) and RL(H)MX2 (M = Cu, Co, Zn; X = Cl–, SbF6–) complexes that feature N,N?,N?- or O,N,N?-coordination are presented. Base-induced linkage isomerization from O,N,N?-carboxamide to N,N?,N?-carboxamido coordination is also confirmed by multiple forms of spectroscopy. PMID:24819403

  19. Metal-Templated Ligand Architectures for Trinuclear Chemistry: Tricopper Complexes and Their O2 Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Davide; Day, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    A trinucleating framework was assmbled by templation of a heptadentate ligand around yttrium and lanthanides. The generated complexes orient three sets of two or three N-donors each for binding additional metal centers. Addition of three equivalents of copper(I) leads to the formation of tricopper(I) species. Reactions with dioxygen at low temperatures generate species whose spectroscopic features are consistent with a ?3,?3-dioxo-tricopper complex. Reactivity studies were performed with a variety of substrates. The dioxo-tricopper species deprotonates weak acids, undergoes oxygen atom transfer with one equivalent of triphenylphosphine to yield triphenylphosphine oxide, and abstracts two hydrogen atom equivalents from tetramethylpiperidine-N-hydroxide (TEMPO-H). Thiophenols reduce the oxygenated species to a CuI3 complex and liberate two equivalents of disulfide, consistent with a four-electron four-proton process. PMID:23539341

  20. Developing organo-Zintl deltahedral clusters as ligands for coordination to transition-metals via their organic tethers

    E-print Network

    to transition-metals to eventually form coordination compounds where the organo-Zintl species act as ligands: intermetallic- [2], organometallic- [3], and organo-Zintl [3b,4] cluster chemistry. From a historical been evident as progress has been made in intermetallic Zintlchemistry. Awide arrayofstructuresand

  1. Tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids to olefins via ruthenium metal-as-ligand catalysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new facile Ru-catalyzed route to bio-olefins3 from unsaturated fatty acids via readily accessible metal-as-ligand type catalyst precursors, [Ru(CO)2RCO2]n and Ru3(CO)12, will be described. The catalyst apparently functions in a tandem mode by dynamically isomerizing the positions of double bonds i...

  2. Preparation, spectral and biological investigation of formaldehyde-based ligand containing piperazine moiety and its various polymer metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shamim Ahmad; Nishat, Nahid; Parveen, Shadma; Rasool, Raza

    2011-10-01

    A novel tetradentate salicylic acid-formaldehyde ligand containing piperazine moiety (SFP) was synthesized by condensation of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and piperazine in presence of base catalyst, which was subjected for the preparation of coordination polymers with metal ions like manganese(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II). All the synthesized polymeric compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and electronic spectral studies. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and thermal data revealed that all the polymer metal complexes show good thermal stability than their parent ligand. Electronic spectral data and magnetic moment values revealed that polymer metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) show an octahedral geometry while Cu(II) and Zn(II) show distorted octahedral and tetrahedral geometry respectively. The antimicrobial screening of the ligand and coordination polymers was done by using Agar well diffusion method against various bacteria and fungi. It was evident from the data that antibacterial and antifungal activity increased on chelation and all the polymer metal complexes show excellent antimicrobial activity than their parent ligand.

  3. Carbonyl substitution chemistry of some trimetallic transition metal cluster complexes with polyfunctional ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Lindsay T.; Hondow, Nicole S.; Koutsantonis, George A.; Skelton, Brian W.; Torabi, A. Asgar; White, Allan H.; Wild, S. Bruce

    2008-11-03

    The trimetallic clusters [Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}(dppm)], [Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}] and [RuCo{sub 2}(CO){sub 11}] react with a number of multifunctional secondary phosphine and tertiary arsine ligands to give products consequent on carbonyl substitution and, in the case of the secondary phosphines, PH activation. The reaction with the unresolved mixed P/S donor, 1-phenylphosphino-2-thio(ethane), HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PHPh ({double_bond}LH{sub 2}), gave two products under various conditions which have been characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic means. These two complexes [Ru{sub 3}({mu}dppm)(H)(CO){sub 7}(LH)] and [Ru{sub 3}({mu}-dppm)(H)(CO){sub 8}(LH)Ru{sub 3}({mu}-dppm)(CO){sub 9}], show the versatility of the ligand, with it chelating in the former and bridging two Ru{sub 3} units in the latter. The stereogenic centres in the molecules gave rise to complicated spectroscopic data which are consistent with the presence of diastereoisomers. In the case of [Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}] the reaction with LH{sub 2} gave a poor yield of a tetranuclear butterfly cluster, [Ru{sub 4}(CO){sub 10}(L){sub 2}], in which two of the ligands bridge opposite hinge wingtip bonds of the cluster. A related ligand, HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}AsMe(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}OMe), reacted with [RuCo{sub 2}(CO){sub 11}] to give a low yield of the heterobimetallic Ru-Co adduct, [RuCo(CO){sub 6}(SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}AsMe(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}OMe))], which appears to be the only one of its type so far structurally characterized. The secondary phosphine, HPMe(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(CH{sub 2}OMe)) and its oxide HP(O)Me(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(CH{sub 2}OMe)) also react with the cluster [Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}(dppm)] to give carbonyl substitution products, [Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 5}(dppm)({mu}{sub 2}-PMe(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}OMe)){sub 4}], and [Ru{sub 3}H(CO){sub 7}(dppm)({mu}{sub 2},{eta}{sup 1}P({double_bond}O)Me(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}OMe))]. The former consists of an open Ru{sub 3} triangle with four phosphide ligands bridging the metal-metal bonds; the latter has the O atom symmetrically bridging one Ru-Ru bond, the P atom being attached to a non-bridged Ru atom.

  4. Infrared Spectroscopy of Metal Ion Complexes: Models for Metal Ligand Interactions and Solvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Weakly bound complexes of the form M^+-Lx (M=Fe, Ni, Co, etc.; L=CO2, C2H2, H2O, benzene, N2) are prepared in supersonic molecular beams by laser vaporization in a pulsed-nozzle cluster source. These species are mass analyzed and size-selected in a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Clusters are photodissociated at infrared wavelengths with a Nd:YAG pumped infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/OPA) laser or with a tunable infrared free-electron laser. M^+-(CO2)x complexes absorb near the free CO2 asymmetric stretch near 2349 cm-1 but with an interesting size dependent variation in the resonances. Small clusters have blue-shifted resonances, while larger complexes have additional bands due to surface CO2 molecules not attached to the metal. M^+(C2H2)n complexes absorb near the C-H stretches in acetylene, but resonances in metal complexes are red-shifted with repect to the isolated molecule. Ni^+ and Co^+ complexes with acetylene undergo intracluster cyclization reactions to form cyclobutadiene. Transition metal water complexes are studied in the O-H stretch region, and partial rotational structure can be measured. M^+(benzene) and M^+(benzene)2 ions (M=V, Ti, Al) represent half-sandwich and sandwich species, whose spectra are measured near the free benzene modes. These new IR spectra and their assignments will be discussed as well as other new IR spectra for similar complexes.

  5. Transition metal bisdithiolene complexes based on extended ligands with fused tetrathiafulvalene and thiophene moieties: new single-component molecular metals.

    PubMed

    Nunes, João P M; Figueira, Mauro J; Belo, Dulce; Santos, Isabel C; Ribeiro, Bruno; Lopes, Elsa B; Henriques, Rui T; Vidal-Gancedo, Jose; Veciana, Jaume; Rovira, Concepció; Almeida, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The gold and nickel bisdithiolene complexes based on new highly extended ligands incorporating fused tetrathiafulvalene and thiophene moieties (alpha-tdt=thiophenetetrathiafulvalenedithiolate and dtdt=dihydro- thiophenetetrathiafulvalenedithiolate), were prepared and characterised by using cyclic voltammetry, single crystal X-ray diffraction, EPR, magnetic susceptibility and electrical transport measurements. These complexes, initially obtained under anaerobic conditions as diamagnetic gold monoanic [nBu(4)N][Au(alpha-tdt)(2)] (4), [nBu(4)N][Au(dtdt)(2)] (3) and nickel dianionic species [(nBu(4)N)(2)][Ni(alpha-tdt)(2)] (8), [(nBu(4)N)(2)][Ni(dtdt)(2)] (7), can be easily oxidised to the stable neutral state just by air or iodine exposure. The monoanionic complexes crystallise in at least two polymorphs, all of which have good cation and anion segregation in alternated layers, the anion layers making a dense 2D network of short SS contacts. All of the neutral complexes, obtained as microcrystalline or quasi amorphous fine powder, present relatively large magnetic susceptibilities that correspond to effective magnetic moments in the range 1-3 mu(B) indicative of high spin states and very high electrical conductivity that in case of the Ni compound can reach sigma(RT) approximately 250 S cm(-1) with a clear metallic behaviour. These compounds are new examples of the still rare single-component molecular metals. PMID:17879249

  6. Synthesis, characterisation, spectral, thermal, XRD, molecular modelling and potential antibacterial study of metal complexes containing octadentate azodye ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Bipin Bihari; Chaulia, Satyanarayan; Sarangi, Ashish Kumar; Dehury, Satyanarayan; Panda, Jnyanaranjan

    2015-05-01

    Twelve tetrametallic complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with two new octadentate azodye ligands, 4,4?-bis(2?,4?-dihydroxy-5?carboxyphenylazo) diphenylether (LH6) and 4,4?-bis(2?,4?-dihydroxy-5?-acylphenylazo) diphenylether (L?H4) have been synthesised. The structural elucidation of the complexes was made basing upon analytical, conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, electronic spectra, ESR, NMR, ESI-MS, TG, DTG, DTA and X-ray diffraction (powder pattern) data. The cobalt (II) and nickel (II) complexes are found to be octahedral, copper (II) complexes are distorted octahedral and a tetrahedral stereochemistry has been suggested to zinc (II), cadmium (II) and mercury (II) complexes. The thermal analysis data provided the kinetic parameters as order of decomposition reaction, activation energy and frequency factor. The geometry of the ligands and their Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes were optimised and their physicochemical properties were calculated by using molecular modelling procedure. The ESI-MS determination supports the molecular formula and molecular weight of the ligands and the complexes. The Ni(II) complex is found to have a triclinic crystal system. The potential antibacterial study of the two ligands and eight metal complexes was made by cup-plate method against one gram positive and one gram negative bacteria. The results showed increase in the activity of some metal complexes as compare with azodye ligands.

  7. Variation in One Residue Associated with the Metal Ion-Dependent Adhesion Site Regulates ?IIb?3 Integrin Ligand Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xue; Xiu, Zhilong; Li, Guohui; Luo, Bing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The Asp of the RGD motif of the ligand coordinates with the ? I domain metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) divalent cation, emphasizing the importance of the MIDAS in ligand binding. There appears to be two distinct groups of integrins that differ in their ligand binding affinity and adhesion ability. These differences may be due to a specific residue associated with the MIDAS, particularly the ?3 residue Ala252 and corresponding Ala in the ?1 integrin compared to the analogous Asp residue in the ?2 and ?7 integrins. Interestingly, mutations in the adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) of integrins ?4?7 and ?L?2 increased the binding and adhesion abilities compared to the wild-type, while the same mutations in the ?2?1, ?5?1, ?V?3, and ?IIb?3 integrins demonstrated decreased ligand binding and adhesion. We introduced a mutation in the ?IIb?3 to convert this MIDAS associated Ala252 to Asp. By combination of this mutant with mutations of one or two ADMIDAS residues, we studied the effects of this residue on ligand binding and adhesion. Then, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type and mutant ?IIb?3 integrin ? I domains, and investigated the dynamics of metal ion binding sites in different integrin-RGD complexes. We found that the tendency of calculated binding free energies was in excellent agreement with the experimental results, suggesting that the variation in this MIDAS associated residue accounts for the differences in ligand binding and adhesion among different integrins, and it accounts for the conflicting results of ADMIDAS mutations within different integrins. This study sheds more light on the role of the MIDAS associated residue pertaining to ligand binding and adhesion and suggests that this residue may play a pivotal role in integrin-mediated cell rolling and firm adhesion. PMID:24116162

  8. Cytotoxic behavior and spectroscopic characterization of metal complexes of ethylacetoacetate bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tabl, Abdou Saad; El-wahed, Moshira Mohamed Abd; Rezk, Ahmed Mahmoud Salah Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Reaction of Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ion with 2,4-dihydrazino-thioamido-1-ethoxybutane led to the formation of mono and binuclear complexes. These complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis spectra, magnetic moments, molar conductances, 1H NMR and mass spectra (ligand and its Zn(II) complex), thermal analyses (DTA and TGA) and ESR measurements. The IR data suggest the involvement of sulfur and azomethane nitrogen atoms in coordination to the central metal ion .The Molar conductances of the complexes in DMF are commensurate with their non-ionic character. The ESR spectra of Cu(II) complexes show axial type symmetry (d(x2-y2)) ground state with covalent bond character. On the basis of spectral studies, octahedral or tetrahedral geometry has been assigned to the metal complexes. Complexes have been tested invitro against tumor cells and number of microorganisms in order to assess their antitumor and antimicrobial properties.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structures and properties of three new mixed-ligand d10 metal complexes constructed from pyridinecarboxylate and in situ generated amino-tetrazole ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongsheng; Huang, Xihe; Huang, Changcang; Huang, Gansheng; Chen, Jianzhong

    2009-07-01

    Three new metal-organic frameworks, [Zn(atz)(nic)] n(1), [Zn(atz)(isonic)] n· nHisonic(2) and [Cd(atz)(isonic)] n(3) (Hnic=nicotinic acid, Hisonic=isonicotinic acid), have been firstly synthesized by employing mixed-ligand of pyridinecarboxylate with the in situ generated ligand of 5-amino-tetrazolate(atz -), and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, TGA and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that 1 presents a two-dimensional (2D) "sql" topological network constructed from the linear chain subunit of Zn(nic) 2 and atz - ligand. A remarkable feature of 2 is a 2-fold interpenetrated diamondoid network with free Hisonic molecules locating in the channels formed by the zigzag chain subunits of Zn(isonic) 2. Complex 3 is a 3D non-interpenetrated pillared framework constructed from the double chain subunits of Cd-COO --Cd. It possesses a rarely observed (4,6)-connected " fsc" topology. The thermal stabilities and fluorescent properties of the complexes were investigated. All of these complexes exhibited intense fluorescent emissions in the solid state at room temperature.

  10. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  11. Competition between protein ligands and cytoplasmic inorganic anions for the metal cation: a DFT/CDM study.

    PubMed

    Dudev, Todor; Lim, Carmay

    2006-08-16

    Many of the essential metalloproteins are located in the cell, whose cytoplasmic fluid contains several small inorganic anions, such as Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, H2PO4-, and SO4(2-), that play an indispensable role in determining the cell's volume, regulating the cell's pH, signal transduction, muscle contraction, as well as cell growth and metabolism. However, the physical principles governing the competition between these abundant, intracellular anions and protein or nucleic acid residues in binding to cytoplasmic metal cations such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ are not well understood; hence, we have delineated the physicochemical basis for this competition using density functional theory in conjunction with the continuum dielectric method. The results show that the metal cation can bind to its target protein against a high background concentration of inorganic anions because (i) desolvating a negatively charged Asp/Glu carboxylate in a protein cavity costs much less than desolvating an inorganic anion in aqueous solution and (ii) the metal-binding site acts as a polydentate ligand that uses all its ligating entities to bind the metal cation either directly or indirectly. The results also show that the absolute hydration free energy of the "alien" anion as well as the net charge and relative solvent exposure of the metal-binding protein cavity are the key factors governing the competition between protein and inorganic ligands for a given cytoplasmic metal cation. Increasing the net negative charge of the protein cavity, while decreasing the number of available amide groups for metal binding, protects the metal-bound ligands from being dislodged by cellular anions, thus revealing a "protective" role for carboxylate groups in a protein cavity, in addition to their role in high affinity metal-binding. PMID:16895422

  12. Modulating Adsorption and Stability Properties in Pillared Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Model System for Understanding Ligand Effects.

    PubMed

    Burtch, Nicholas C; Walton, Krista S

    2015-11-17

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are nanoporous materials with highly tunable properties that make them ideal for a wide array of adsorption applications. Through careful choice of metal and ligand precursors, one can target the specific functionality and pore characteristics desired for the application of interest. However, among the wide array of MOFs reported in the literature, there are varying trends in the effects that ligand identity has on the adsorption, chemical stability, and intrinsic framework dynamics of the material. This is largely due to ligand effects being strongly coupled with structural properties arising from the differing topologies among frameworks. Given the important role such properties play in dictating adsorbent performance, understanding these effects will be critical for the design of next generation functional materials. Pillared MOFs are ideal platforms for understanding how ligand properties can affect the adsorption, stability, and framework dynamics in MOFs. In this Account, we highlight our recent work demonstrating how experiment and simulation can be used to understand the important role ligand identity plays in governing the properties of isostructural MOFs containing interconnected layers pillared by bridging ligands. Changing the identity of the linear, ditopic ligand in either the 2-D layer or the pillaring third dimension allows targeted modulation of the chemical functionality, porosity, and interpenetration of the framework. We will discuss how these characteristics can have important consequences on the adsorption, chemical stability, and dynamic properties of pillared MOFs. The structures discussed in this Account comprise the greatest diversity of isostructural MOFs whose stability properties have been studied, allowing valuable insight into how ligand properties dictate the chemical stability of isostructural frameworks. We also discuss how functional groups can affect adsorbate energetics at their most favorable adsorption sites to elucidate how functional groups can affect the adsorptive performance of these materials in ways that are unexpected based on the isolated ligand's properties. We then highlight a variety of simulation tools that not only can be used to understand the differing molecular-level behavior of the adsorbate and framework dynamics within these isostructural MOFs, but also can shed light on possible mechanisms that govern the differing chemical stability properties among these materials. Lastly, we provide perspective on the challenges and opportunities for utilizing the structure-property relationships arising from the ligand effects described in this Account for the design of further MOFs with enhanced chemical stability and adsorption properties. PMID:26529060

  13. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial studies of transition metal complexes of 14-membered tetraaza[N4] macrocyclic ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankarwar, Sunil G.; Nagolkar, Bhagwat B.; Shelke, Vinod A.; Chondhekar, Trimbak K.

    2015-06-01

    A series of metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), have been synthesized with newly synthesized biologically active macrocyclic ligand. The ligand was synthesized by condensation of ?-diketone 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propane-1,3-dione and o-phenylene diamine. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, IR, 1H-NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. From the analytical data, stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:2 (metal:ligand). Thermal behavior (TG/DTA) and kinetic parameters suggest more ordered activated state in complex formation. All the complexes are of high spin type and six coordinated. On the basis of IR, electronic spectral studies and magnetic behavior, an octahedral geometry has been assigned to these complexes. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the ligand and its metal complexes, has been screened in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma respectively.

  14. Experimental and computational studies on the formation of cyanate from early metal terminal nitrido ligands and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Anthony F; Silvia, Jared S; Lopez, Nazario; Cummins, Christopher C

    2014-03-28

    An important challenge in the artificial fixation of N2 is to find atom efficient transformations that yield value-added products. Here we explore the coordination complex mediated conversion of ubiquitous species, CO and N2, into isocyanate. We have conceptually split the process into three steps: (1) the six-electron splitting of dinitrogen into terminal metal nitrido ligands, (2) the reduction of the complex by two electrons with CO to form an isocyanate linkage, and (3) the one electron reduction of the metal isocyanate complex to regenerate the starting metal complex and release the product. These steps are explored separately in an attempt to understand the limitations of each step and what is required of a coordination complex in order to facilitate a catalytic cycle. The possibility of this cyanate cycle was explored with both Mo and V complexes which have previously been shown to perform select steps in the sequence. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of some of the steps and DFT calculations suggest that, although the reduction of the terminal metal nitride complex by carbon monoxide should be thermodynamically favorable, there is a large kinetic barrier associated with the change in spin state which can be avoided in the case of the V complexes by an initial binding of the CO to the metal center followed by rearrangement. This mandates certain minimal design principles for the metal complex: the metal center should be sterically accessible for CO binding and the ligands should not readily succumb to CO insertion reactions. PMID:24492850

  15. Increased Diversity of the HLA-B40 Ligandome by the Presentation of Peptides Phosphorylated at Their Main Anchor Residue*

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Miguel; Alpízar, Adán; Lombardía, Manuel; Ramos-Fernandez, Antonio; Ramos, Manuel; Albar, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules bind peptides derived from the intracellular degradation of endogenous proteins and present them to cytotoxic T lymphocytes, allowing the immune system to detect transformed or virally infected cells. It is known that HLA class I–associated peptides may harbor posttranslational modifications. In particular, phosphorylated ligands have raised much interest as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. By combining affinity purification with high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified more than 2000 unique ligands bound to HLA-B40. Sequence analysis revealed two major anchor motifs: aspartic or glutamic acid at peptide position 2 (P2) and methionine, phenylalanine, or aliphatic residues at the C terminus. The use of immobilized metal ion and TiO2 affinity chromatography allowed the characterization of 85 phosphorylated ligands. We further confirmed every sequence belonging to this subset by comparing its experimental MS2 spectrum with that obtained upon fragmentation of the corresponding synthetic peptide. Remarkably, three phospholigands lacked a canonical anchor residue at P2, containing phosphoserine instead. Binding assays showed that these peptides bound to HLA-B40 with high affinity. Together, our data demonstrate that the peptidome of a given HLA allotype can be broadened by the presentation of peptides with posttranslational modifications at major anchor positions. We suggest that ligands with phosphorylated residues at P2 might be optimal targets for T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24366607

  16. Mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies on transition metal complexes with a new tetradentate 12-membered new macrocyclic ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

    2004-11-01

    Complexes of Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) containing a novel macrocyclic tetradentate nitrogen donor (N 4) ligand prepared via reaction of 2,3-hexanedione and ethylenediamine has been prepared and characterized. The newly synthesized ligand (L) and its complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment susceptibility, EI-Mass, IR, Electronic and EPR spectral studies. The complexes are of high-spin type and four coordinated tetrahedral, five coordinated square pyramidal and six coordinated octahedral/tetragonal geometries. The ligand (L) and its soluble transition metal complexes have also been screened against different bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi in vitro.

  17. Photoemission mechanism of water-soluble silver nanoclusters: ligand-to-metal-metal charge transfer vs strong coupling between surface plasmon and emitters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuting; Yang, Taiqun; Pan, Haifeng; Yuan, Yufeng; Chen, Li; Liu, Mengwei; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Sanjun; Wu, Peng; Xu, Jianhua

    2014-02-01

    Using carboxylate-protected silver nanoclusters (Ag-carboxylate NCs) as a model, we separately investigated the contribution of the ligand shell and the metal core to understand the nature of photoluminescence of Ag NCs. A new Ag(0)NCs@Ag(I)-carboxylate complex core-shell structural model has been proposed. The emission from the Ag-carboxylate NCs could be attributed to ligand-to-metal-metal charge transfer from Ag(I)-carboxylate complexes (the oxygen atom in the carboxylate ligands to the Ag(I) ions) to the Ag atoms and subsequent radiative relaxation. Additionally, we found that the emission wavelength of the Ag NCs depends on the excitation wavelength implying a strong coupling between surface plasmon and emitter in Ag NCs. The strong coupling between the surface plasmon and the emitter determines the quantum yield and lifetime. The emission mechanism of Ag NCs and its relation to the organic templates and metal cores were clearly clarified. The results should stimulate additional experimental and theoretical research on the molecular-level design of luminescent metal probes for optoelectronics and other applications. PMID:24437963

  18. Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Spectral and Antifungal Studies of 2-Phenyl-N,N?-bis(pyridin-4-ylcarbonyl)butanediamide Ligand and Its Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Shiekh, Rayees Ahmad; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Nabi, Arshid

    2014-01-01

    2-Phenyl-N,N?-bis(pyridin-4-ylcarbonyl)butanediamide ligand with a series of transition metal complexes has been synthesized via two routes: microwave irradiation and conventional heating method. Microwave irritation method happened to be the efficient and versatile route for the synthesis of these metal complexes. These complexes were found to have the general composition M(L)Cl2/M(L)(CH3COO)2 (where M = Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and L = ligand). Different physical and spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the structural features of the synthesized compounds, which supported an octahedral geometry for these complexes. In vitro antifungal activity of the ligand and its metal complexes revealed that the metal complexes are highly active compared to the standard drug. Metal complexes showed enhanced activity compared to the ligand, which is an important step towards the designing of antifungal drug candidates. PMID:24772018

  19. Investigation of the ligand shells of homo-ligand and mixed-ligand monolayer protected metal nanoparticles : a scanning tunneling microscopy study

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Alicia M

    2007-01-01

    Monolayer Protected Metal Nanoparticles have recently found widespread use in and are the focus of intensive study in many areas of scientific research ranging from biology to physics to medicine. Consisting of a nanoscale, ...

  20. Novel bio-essential metal based complexes linked by heterocyclic ligand: Synthesis, structural elucidation, biological investigation and docking analysis.

    PubMed

    Arun, T; Subramanian, R; Raman, N

    2016-01-01

    New series of bio-essential metal based complexes linked by Schiff base ligand (L) and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) have been synthesized and characterized by diverse spectral techniques such as elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductivity measurements, FT-IR, UV-Vis., (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, EPR and Mass. The spectral data suggest that the metal complexes espouse octahedral geometry around the metal ions. Interactions of the complexes with CT DNA have been explored by electronic absorption, ethidium bromide displacement assay, viscosity measurements, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry in order to evaluate the possible DNA-binding mode and to calculate the corresponding DNA-binding constants. The DNA interaction studies propose that the intercalative mode of interaction and the complexes exhibit oxidative cleavage of pUC19 DNA in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as activator. The synthesized Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes have been screened for anti-microbial activity by micro dilution method against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) and three fungi strains (Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) revealing that the complexes are good anti-pathogenic agents than the ligand. Moreover, molecular docking analysis has been performed to confirm the nature of binding of the complexes with DNA. PMID:26690017

  1. Chirality at metal and helical ligand folding in optical isomers of chiral bis(naphthaldiminato)nickel(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Enamullah, Mohammed; Quddus, Mohammad Abdul; Hasan, Mohammad Rezabul; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Berardozzi, Roberto; Makhloufi, Gamall; Vasylyeva, Vera; Janiak, Christoph

    2015-12-22

    Enantiopure bis[{(R or S)-N-1-(Ar)ethyl-2-oxo-1-naphthaldiminato-?(2)N,O}]nickel(ii) complexes {Ar = C6H5 ( or ), p-OMeC6H4 ( or ), and p-BrC6H4 ( or )} are synthesized from the reactions between (R or S)-N-1-(Ar)ethyl-2-oxo-1-naphthaldimine and nickel(ii) acetate. Circular-dichroism spectra and their density-functional theoretical simulation reveal the expected mirror image relationship between the enantiomeric pairs / and / in solution. CD spectra are dominated by the metal-centered ?- or ?-chirality of non-planar four-coordinated nickel, this latter being in turn dictated by the ligand chirality. Single crystal structure determination for and shows that there are two symmetry-independent molecules (A and B) in each asymmetric unit that give a Z' = 2 structure. Two asymmetric and chiral bidentate N^O-chelate Schiff base ligands coordinate to the nickel atom in a distorted square planar N2O2-coordination sphere. The conformational difference between the symmetry-independent molecules arises from the "up-or-down" folding of the naphthaldiminato ligand with respect to the coordination plane, which creates right- (P) or left-handed (M) helical conformations. Overall, the combination of ligand chirality, chirality at the metal and ligand folding gives rise to discrete metal helicates of preferred helicity in a selective way. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) show an oxidation wave at ca. 1.30 V for the [Ni(L)2]/[Ni(L)2](+) couple, and a reduction wave at ca. -0.35 V for the [Ni(L)2]/[Ni(L)2](-) couple in acetonitrile. PMID:26619269

  2. Syntheses, structures, and photoluminescence properties of metal(II) halide complexes with pyridine-containing flexible tripodal ligands.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Okamura, Taka-Aki; Sun, Wei-Yin; Ueyama, Norikazu

    2006-10-16

    Seven coordination compounds, [Zn(L3)Cl2] . MeOH . H2O (1), [Mn(L3)2Cl2] . 0.5EtOH . 0.5H2O (2), [Cu3(L2)2Cl6] . 2DMF (3), [Cu3(L2)2Br6] . 4MeOH (4), [Hg2(L4)Cl4] (5), [Hg2(L4)Br4] (6), and [Hg3(L4)2I6] . H2O (7), were synthesized by the reactions of ligands 1,3,5-tris(3-pyridylmethoxyl)benzene (L3), 1,3,5-tris(2-pyridylmethoxyl)benzene (L2), and 1,3,5-tris(4-pyridylmethoxyl)benzene (L4) with the corresponding metal halides. All the structures were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In complexes 1 and 2, L3 acts as a bidentate ligand using two of three pyridyl arms to link two metal atoms to result in two different 1D chain structures. In complexes 3 and 4, each L2 serves as tridentate ligand and connects three Cu(II) atoms to form a 2D network structure. Complexes 5 and 6 have the same framework structure, and L4 acts as a three-connecting ligand to connect Hg(II) atoms to generate a 3D 4-fold interpenetrated framework, while the structure of complex 7 is an infinite 1D chain. The results indicate that the flexible ligands can adopt different conformations and thus can form complexes with varied structures. In addition, the coordination geometry of the metal atom and the species of the halide were found to have great impact on the structure of the complexes. The photoluminescence properties of the complexes were investigated, and the Zn(II), Mn(II) and Hg(II) complexes showed blue emissions in solid state at room temperature. PMID:17029363

  3. Spectroscopic, redox and biological activities of transition metal complexes with ons donor macrocyclic ligand derived from semicarbazide and thiodiglycolic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Sangeetika

    2004-07-01

    A novel macrocyclic Schiff base ligand (2,5,9,12,14,18-hexaoxo-7,16-dithia-1,3,4,10,11,13-hexaazacycloocta-decane ( H 6L ) with N 4S 2 coordinating sites was prepared by the reaction of the semicarbazide and thiodiglycolic acid. The transition metal complexes with macrocyclic ligand were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar conductance, IR, electronic, and EPR spectral studies. Mass, 1H NMR and IR spectral techniques suggest the structural features of macrocyclic ligand. Magnetic and electronic spectral studies suggest an octahedral geometry of complexes. Electrochemical behaviour of cobalt, nickel and copper complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammogram of the copper complex at room temperature shows a quasi-reversible peaks for Cu(III)?Cu(II) and Cu(II)?Cu(I) couples. The macrocyclic ligand and its complexes show growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi A. niger, A. alternata and P. variotii. Most of the complexes have higher activities than that of free ligand.

  4. New 15-membered tetraaza (N4) macrocyclic ligand and its transition metal complexes: Spectral, magnetic, thermal and anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.; EL-Gammal, Ohyla A.

    2015-03-01

    Novel tetraamidemacrocyclic 15-membered ligand [L] i.e. naphthyl-dibenzo[1,5,9,12]tetraazacyclopentadecine-6,10,11,15-tetraoneand its transition metal complexes with Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ru(III) and Pd(II) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal as well as magnetic and molar conductivity measurements. On the basis of analytical, spectral (IR, MS, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and EPR) and thermal studies distorted octahedral or square planar geometry has been proposed for the complexes. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some complexes against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) has been studied. The complexes (IC50 = 2.27-2.7, 8.33-31.1 ?g/mL, respectively) showed potent antitumor activity, towards the former cell lines comparable with their ligand (IC50 = 13, 26 ?g/mL, respectively). The results show that the activity of the ligand towards breast cancer cell line becomes more pronounced and significant when coordinated to the metal ion.

  5. Transition metal complexes of a new 15-membered [N5] penta-azamacrocyclic ligand with their spectral and anticancer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.; Serag El-Din, Azza A.

    2014-11-01

    Novel penta-azamacrocyclic 15-membered [N5] ligand [L] i.e. 1,5,8,12-tetetraaza-3,4: 9,10-dibenzo-6-ethyl-7-methyl-1,12-(2,6-pyrido)cyclopentadecan-5,7 diene-2,11-dione and its transition metal complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ru(III) and Pd(II) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal as well as magnetic and molar conductivity measurements. On basis of IR, MS, UV-Vis 1H NMR and EPR spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been proposed for all complexes except Co(II), Cu(II) nitrate complexes and Pd(II) chloride complex that adopt tetrahedral, square pyramidal and square planar geometries, respectively. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some complexes against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) has been studied. The complexes (IC50 = 2.04-9.7, 2.5-3.7 ?g/mL) showed potent antitumor activity comparable with their ligand (IC50 = 11.7, 3.45 ?g/mL) against the above mentioned cell lines, respectively. The results evidently show that the activity of the ligand becomes more pronounced and significant when coordinated to the metal ion.

  6. Syntheses, structures and tunable luminescence of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks based on azole-containing carboxylic acid ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dian; Rao, Xingtang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2015-10-01

    Design and synthesis of a series of isostructural lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (LnMOFs) serving as phosphors by coordinate the H2TIPA (5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid) ligands and lanthanide ions is reported. The color of the luminescence can be tuned by adjusting the relative concentration of the lanthanide ions in the host framework GdTIPA, and near-pure-white light emission can be achieved.

  7. A novel supramolecular polymer gel constructed by crosslinking pillar[5]arene-based supramolecular polymers through metal-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pi; Xing, Hao; Xia, Danyu; Ji, Xiaofan

    2015-12-21

    A novel heteroditopic A-B monomer was synthesized and used to construct linear supramolecular polymers utilizing pillar[5]arene-based host-guest interactions. Specifically, upon addition of Cu(2+) ions, the supramolecular polymer chains are crosslinked through metal-ligand interactions, resulting in the formation of a supramolecular polymer gel. Interestingly, this self-organized supramolecular polymer can be used as a novel fluorescent sensor for detecting Cu(2+) ions. PMID:26466511

  8. Review: Formation of Peptide Radical Ions Through Dissociative Electron Transfer in Ternary Metal-Ligand-Peptide Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Ivan K.; Laskin, Julia

    2011-12-31

    The formation and fragmentation of odd-electron ions of peptides and proteins is of interest to applications in biological mass spectrometry. Gas-phase redox chemistry occurring during collision-induced dissociation of ternary metal-ligand-peptide complexes enables the formation of a variety of peptide radicals including the canonical radical cations, M{sup +{sm_bullet}}, radical dications, [M{sup +}H]{sup 2+{sm_bullet}}, radical anions, [M-2H]{sup -{sm_bullet}}. In addition, odd-electron peptide ions with well-defined initial location of the radical site are produced through side chain losses from the radical ions. Subsequent fragmentation of these species provides information on the role of charge and the location of the radical site on the competition between radical-induced and proton-driven fragmentation of odd-electron peptide ions. This account summarizes current understanding of the factors that control the efficiency of the intramolecular electron transfer (ET) in ternary metal-ligand-peptide complexes resulting in formation of odd-electron peptide ions. Specifically, we discuss the effect of the metal center, the ligand and the peptide structure on the competition between the ET, proton transfer (PT), and loss of neutral peptide and neutral peptide fragments from the complex. Fundamental studies of the structures, stabilities, and the energetics and dynamics of fragmentation of such complexes are also important for detailed molecular-level understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in biological systems.

  9. Synthesis and spectral studies on metal complexes of s-triazine based ligand and non linear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugakala, R.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sheela, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    A series of transition metal complexes of type [ML] and [ML2]Cl2 (where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) have synthesized from 2-phenylamino-4,6-dichloro-s-triazine and 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole; their characteristics have been investigated by means of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, Mass, NMR and ESR spectra. The electrochemical behavior of copper(II) complexes we have studied, by using cyclic voltammetry. The ESR spectra of copper(II) complexes are recorded at 300 K and 77 K and their salient features are appropriately reported. Spectral datas, we found, show that the ligand acts as a neutral tridentate, and coordinates through the triazine ring nitrogen and pyrazolyl ring nitrogen atoms to the metal ion. Evident from our findings, the metal(II) complexes of [ML] type exhibit square pyramidal geometry, and that of [ML2]Cl2 exhibit octahedral geometry. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the ligand and its complexes are evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Vibris parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Penicillium oxalicum by well-diffusion method. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the ligand and its complexes are determined and compared with urea and KDP.

  10. Computational Modeling of the Triplet Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Excited-State Structures of Mono-Bipyridine-Ruthenium(II)

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    of Mono-Bipyridine-Ruthenium(II) Complexes and Comparisons to their 77 K Emission Band Shapes Richard L in the lowest energy triplet metal to ligand charge-transfer (3 MLCT = T0) excited states of ruthenium

  11. Synergistic assembly of heavy metal clusters and luminescent organic bridging ligands in metal-organic frameworks for highly efficient X-ray scintillation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Volotskova, Olga; Lu, Kuangda; Ahmad, Moiz; Sun, Conroy; Xing, Lei; Lin, Wenbin

    2014-04-30

    We have designed two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to efficiently convert X-ray to visible-light luminescence. The MOFs are constructed from M6(?3-O)4(?3-OH)4(carboxylate)12 (M = Hf or Zr) secondary building units (SBUs) and anthracene-based dicarboxylate bridging ligands. The high atomic number of Zr and Hf in the SBUs serves as effective X-ray antenna by absorbing X-ray photons and converting them to fast electrons through the photoelectric effect. The generated electrons then excite multiple anthracene-based emitters in the MOF through inelastic scattering, leading to efficient generation of detectable photons in the visible spectrum. The MOF materials thus serve as efficient X-ray scintillators via synergistic X-ray absorption by the metal-cluster SBUs and optical emission by the bridging ligands. PMID:24730683

  12. Metal-ligand ``multiple`` bonding: Revelations in the electronic structure of complexes of high-valent f-elements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.J.; Arney, D.S.J.; Schnabel, R.C.; Warner, B.P.; Bursten, B.E.; Green, J.C.; Marks, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project has been to extend the understanding of the nature of interactions between f-metals and first row elements (important both in natural systems and in ceramics), as well as providing important new information regarding basic differences in the chemical nature of d- and f-metals. By developing preparative routes to novel classes of early actinide and lanthanide complexes in which metal-ligand bonding is formally unsaturated, this project has provided the means to study orbital interactions and charge distribution in these species by physical, chemical, and theoretical means. Evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of these species is providing dramatic evidence for the involvement of valence metal orbitals [nf and (n+1)d] in bonding, and is yielding new insights into the factors influencing stability of related species.

  13. Fabrication of highly uniform gel coatings by the conversion of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tsotsalas, Manuel; Liu, Jinxuan; Tettmann, Beatrix; Grosjean, Sylvain; Shahnas, Artak; Wang, Zhengbang; Azucena, Carlos; Addicoat, Matthew; Heine, Thomas; Lahann, Joerg; Overhage, Jörg; Bräse, Stefan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Wöll, Christof

    2014-01-01

    We report the fabrication of 3D, highly porous, covalently bound polymer films of homogeneous thickness. These surface-bound gels combine the advantages of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, namely, the enormous flexibility and the large size of the maximum pore structures and, in particular, the possibility to grow them epitaxially on modified substrates, with those of covalently connected gel materials, namely, the absence of metal ions in the deposited material, a robust framework consisting of covalent bonds, and, most importantly, pronounced stability under biological conditions. The conversion of a SURMOF (surface-mounted MOF) yields a surface-grafted gel. These SURGELs can be loaded with bioactive compounds and applied as bioactive coatings and provide a drug-release platform in in vitro cell culture studies. PMID:24328287

  14. Rare-earth-metal methyl, amide, and imide complexes supported by a superbulky scorpionate ligand.

    PubMed

    Schädle, Dorothea; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia; Schädle, Christoph; Anwander, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of monomeric [(Tp(tBu,Me) )LuMe2 ] (Tp(tBu,Me) =tris(3-Me-5-tBu-pyrazolyl)borate) with primary aliphatic amines H2 NR (R=tBu, Ad=adamantyl) led to lutetium methyl primary amide complexes [(Tp(tBu,Me) )LuMe(NHR)], the solid-state structures of which were determined by XRD analyses. The mixed methyl/tetramethylaluminate compounds [(Tp(tBu,Me) )LnMe({?2 -Me}AlMe3 )] (Ln=Y, Ho) reacted selectively and in high yield with H2 NR, according to methane elimination, to afford heterobimetallic complexes: [(Tp(tBu,Me) )Ln({?2 -Me}AlMe2 )(?2 -NR)] (Ln=Y, Ho). X-ray structure analyses revealed that the monomeric alkylaluminum-supported imide complexes were isostructural, featuring bridging methyl and imido ligands. Deeper insight into the fluxional behavior in solution was gained by (1) H and (13) C?NMR spectroscopic studies at variable temperatures and (1) H-(89) Y HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Treatment of [(Tp(tBu,Me) )LnMe(AlMe4 )] with H2 NtBu gave dimethyl compounds [(Tp(tBu,Me) )LnMe2 ] as minor side products for the mid-sized metals yttrium and holmium and in high yield for the smaller lutetium. Preparative-scale amounts of complexes [(Tp(tBu,Me) )LnMe2 ] (Ln=Y, Ho, Lu) were made accessible through aluminate cleavage of [(Tp(tBu,Me) )LnMe(AlMe4 )] with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmeda). The solid-state structures of [(Tp(tBu,Me) )HoMe(AlMe4 )] and [(Tp(tBu,Me) )HoMe2 ] were analyzed by XRD. PMID:25392940

  15. Synthesis, spectral characterization, molecular modeling, thermal study and biological evaluation of transition metal complexes of a bidentate Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Bargujar, Savita; Nirwal, Rita; Qanungo, Kushal; Sharma, Saroj K.

    2013-09-01

    Complexes of copper(II) and nickel(II) of general composition M(L)2X2, have been synthesized [where L = 3-Bromoacetophenone thiosemicarbazone and X = CH3COO-, Cl- and NO3-]. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moments, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The ligand behaved as bidentate and coordinated through sulfur of sbnd Cdbnd S group and nitrogen atoms of sbnd Cdbnd N group. The copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes were found to have magnetic moments 1.94-2.02 BM, 2.96-3.02 BM respectively which was corresponding to one and two unpaired electrons respectively. The molar conductance of the complexes in solution of DMSO lies in the range of 10-20 ?-1 cm2 mol-1 indicating their non-electrolytic behavior. On the basis of EPR, electronic and infrared spectral studies, tetragonal geometry has been assigned for copper(II) complexes and an octahedral geometry for nickel(II) complexes. The values of Nephelauxetic parameter ? lie in the range 0.19-0.37 which indicated the covalent character in metal ligand ‘?' bond. Synthesized ligand and its copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes have also been screened against different bacterial and fungal species which suggested that complexes are more active than the ligands in antimicrobial activities.

  16. Thermochromism of Cu(I) Tetrakisguanidine Complexes: Reversible Activation of Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Bands.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Sven; Wagner, Arne; Hübner, Olaf; Kaifer, Elisabeth; Himmel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-11-01

    Tetranuclear, intensely blue-coloured Cu(I) complexes were synthesised in which two Cu2 X3 (-) units (X=Br or I) are bridged by a dicationic GFA (guanidino-functionalised aromatic) ligand. The UV/Vis spectra show a large metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) band around 638?nm. The tetranuclear "low-temperature" complexes are in a temperature-dependent equilibrium with dinuclear Cu(I) "high-temperature" complexes, which result from the reversible elimination of two CuX groups. A massive thermochromism effect results from the extinction of the strong MLCT band upon CuX elimination with increasing temperature. For all complexes, quantum chemical calculations predict a small and method-dependent energy difference between the possible electronic structures, namely Cu(I) and dicationic GFA ligand (closed-shell singlet) versus Cu(II) and neutral GFA ligand (triplet or broken-symmetry state). The closed-shell singlet state is disfavoured by hybrid-DFT functionals, which mix in exact Hartree-Fock exchange, and is favoured by larger basis sets and consideration of a polar medium. PMID:26418042

  17. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  18. Synthesis, spectra and DNA interactions of certain mononuclear transition metal(II) complexes of macrocyclic tetraaza diacetyl curcumin ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban; Gubendran, Ammavasi; Rajagopal, Gurusamy; Athappan, Periyakaruppan

    2012-02-01

    A series of mononuclear transition metal(II) complexes of type [M(LL)]2+ (LL = the template condensate of orthophenylene diamine and benzilidene diacetyl curcumin (ben-diacecur) and M = Cu(II) (1) or Co(II) (2) or Ni(II) (3) or Mn(II) (4)), have been isolated and the spectral behaviors are discussed. The ligand and complexes have also been characterized by the analytical and spectral methods like UV-Visible, FT-IR, NMR and EPR. Further, the interaction of the transition metal complexes with Calf thymus (CT) DNA have also been studied by the use of physical methods like UV-Visible, emission and CD spectroscopic techniques. The electrochemical responses of these metal complexes both in presence and absence of DNA have also been demonstrated. All these findings support the hypothesis of DNA interactions of all these metal complexes through the grooves with a higher degree of interaction by complex 1 (Kb = 1.4 × 105) possibly through the interposition of the aromatic rings of the ligand compared to complexes, 2-4. The complex 1 display significant oxidative cleavage of circular plasmid pUC18 DNA in the presence of H2O2 using the singlet oxygen as a reactive species. The spectral and electrochemical response of these complexes designate that the square-planar Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes interact much better than the axially coordinated octahedral Mn(II) complex.

  19. Analysis of the magnetic coupling in binuclear systems. III. The role of the ligand to metal charge transfer excitations revisited.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Carmen J; Angeli, Celestino; Taratiel, David; Caballol, Rosa; Malrieu, Jean-Paul

    2009-07-28

    In magnetic coordination compounds and solids the magnetic orbitals are essentially located on metallic centers but present some delocalization tails on adjacent ligands. Mean field variational calculations optimize this mixing and validate a single band modelization of the intersite magnetic exchange. In this approach, due to the Brillouin's theorem, the ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) excitations play a minor role. On the other hand the extensive configuration interaction calculations show that the determinants obtained by a single excitation on the top of the LMCT configurations bring an important antiferromagnetic contribution to the magnetic coupling. Perturbative and truncated variational calculations show that contrary to the interpretation given in a previous article [C. J. Calzado et al., J. Chem. Phys. 116, 2728 (2002)] the contribution of these determinants to the magnetic coupling constant is not a second-order one. An analytic development enables one to establish that they contribute at higher order as a correlation induced increase in the LMCT components of the wave function, i.e., of the mixing between the ligand and the magnetic orbitals. This larger delocalization of the magnetic orbitals results in an increase in both the ferro- and antiferromagnetic contributions to the coupling constant. PMID:19655887

  20. Analysis of the magnetic coupling in binuclear systems. III. The role of the ligand to metal charge transfer excitations revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzado, Carmen J.; Angeli, Celestino; Taratiel, David; Caballol, Rosa; Malrieu, Jean-Paul

    2009-07-01

    In magnetic coordination compounds and solids the magnetic orbitals are essentially located on metallic centers but present some delocalization tails on adjacent ligands. Mean field variational calculations optimize this mixing and validate a single band modelization of the intersite magnetic exchange. In this approach, due to the Brillouin's theorem, the ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) excitations play a minor role. On the other hand the extensive configuration interaction calculations show that the determinants obtained by a single excitation on the top of the LMCT configurations bring an important antiferromagnetic contribution to the magnetic coupling. Perturbative and truncated variational calculations show that contrary to the interpretation given in a previous article [C. J. Calzado et al., J. Chem. Phys. 116, 2728 (2002)] the contribution of these determinants to the magnetic coupling constant is not a second-order one. An analytic development enables one to establish that they contribute at higher order as a correlation induced increase in the LMCT components of the wave function, i.e., of the mixing between the ligand and the magnetic orbitals. This larger delocalization of the magnetic orbitals results in an increase in both the ferro- and antiferromagnetic contributions to the coupling constant.

  1. SOD activity and DNA binding properties of a new symmetric porphyrin Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Çay, Sevim; Köse, Muhammet; Tümer, Ferhan; Gölcü, Ay?egül; Tümer, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    4-Methoxy-2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)phenol (1) was prepared from the reaction of 4-methoxyphenol and formaldehyde. The compound (1) was then oxidized to the 4-methoxy-2,6-diformylphenol (2) compound. Molecular structure of compound (2) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. A new symmetric porphyrin Schiff base ligand 4-methoxy-2,6-bis[5-(4-iminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin]phenol (L) was prepared from the reaction of the 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin (TTP-NH2) and the compound (2) in the toluene solution. The metal complexes (Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(III), Pt(II) and Zn(II)) of the ligand (L) were synthesized and characterized by the spectroscopic and analytical methods. The DNA (fish sperm FSdsDNA) binding studies of the ligand and its complexes were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy. Additionally, superoxide dismutase activities of the porphyrin Schiff base metal complexes were investigated. Additionally, electrochemical, photoluminescence and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated. PMID:26172470

  2. Tuning the structure, dimensionality and luminescent properties of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks under ancillary ligand influence.

    PubMed

    D'Vries, Richard F; Gomez, German E; Hodak, José H; Soler-Illia, Galo J A A; Ellena, Javier

    2015-12-22

    This manuscript addresses the synthesis, structural characterization and optical properties of a 1D coordination polymer (CPs) and 2D and 3D Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) obtained from lanthanide metals, 3-hydroxinaftalene-2,7-disulfonic acid (3-OHNDS) and two different phenanthroline derivates as ancillary ligands. The first is a family of 2D compounds with formula [Ln(3-OHNDS)(H2O)2], where Ln = La(), Pr(), Nd() and Sm(). The addition of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) in the reaction produces 1D compounds with general formula [Ln(3-OHNDS)(phen)(H2O)]·3H2O, where Ln = La(), Pr(), Nd() and Sm(). Finally, the synthesis with 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3,4,7,8-TMPhen) as an ancillary ligand results in the formation of the 3D [La(3-OHNDS)(3,4,7,8-TMphen)(H2O)] () compound. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of 1D and 2D compounds were fully investigated in comparison with the 3-OHNDS ligand. One of the most important results was the obtaining of a white-light single-emitter without adding dopant atoms in the structure. With all these results in mind it was possible to establish structure-property relationships. PMID:26617197

  3. Metal chelates anchored to poly-l-peptides and linear d,l-?-peptides with promising nanotechnological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punzi, P.; Giordano, C.; Marino, F.; Morosetti, S.; De Santis, P.; Scipioni, A.

    2012-10-01

    Regular configurationally alternating amino acid sequences generate cyclic and linear helical peptides with a local ?-conformation able to self-assemble in nanowires and nanoscaffolds directed and stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The possibility of modulating the chemical profile of the various amino acid residues containing reactive side chains means that peptides could be flexible templates for creating various building blocks. A method for the design of molecules with potential spintronic properties is described. Peptides containing lysine residues, the side chains of which are bridged through the formation of metal chelates via Schiff bases, could provide stable molecular channels. When metal chelates with high electron spin states are used, their coupling could generate materials that are interesting due to their magnetic properties as well as for the patterning of nanometric lattices driven by their orientation under a magnetic field. With this aim, three alternating d- and l-lysine-containing octapeptides are synthesized and the formation of their bis(pyridoxalaldimine) copper(II) chelate derivatives is shown by absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopies.

  4. Chelating ligands for nanocrystals' surface functionalization.

    PubMed

    Querner, Claudia; Reiss, Peter; Bleuse, Joël; Pron, Adam

    2004-09-22

    A new family of ligands for the surface functionalization of CdSe nanocrystals is proposed, namely alkyl or aryl derivatives of carbodithioic acids (R-C(S)SH). The main advantages of these new ligands are as follows: they nearly quantitatively exchange the initial surface ligands (TOPO) in very mild conditions; they significantly improve the resistance of nanocrystals against photooxidation because of their ability of strong chelate-type binding to metal atoms; their relatively simple preparation via Grignard intermediates facilitates the development of new bifunctional ligands containing, in addition to the anchoring carbodithioate group, a second function, which enables the grafting of molecules or macromolecules of interest on the nanocrystal surface. To give an example of this approach, we report, for the first time, the grafting of an electroactive oligomer from the polyaniline family-aniline tetramer-on CdSe nanocrystals after their functionalization with 4-formyldithiobenzoic acid. The grafting proceeds via a condensation reaction between the aldehyde group of the ligand and the terminal primary amine group of the tetramer. The resulting organic/inorganic hybrid exhibits complete extinction of the fluorescence of its constituents, indicating efficient charge or energy transfer between the organic and the inorganic semiconductors. PMID:15366904

  5. Essentially Molecular Metal Complexes Anchored to Zeolite: Synthesis and Characterization of Rhodium Complexes and Ruthenium Complexes Prepared from Rh(acac)(2-C2H4)2 and cis-Ru(acac)2( -C2H4)2

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, I.; Gates, B

    2010-01-01

    Mononuclear complexes of rhodium and of ruthenium, Rh(acac)({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2} and cis-Ru(acac)2({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2} (acac = C{sub 5}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}{sup -}), were used as precursors to synthesize metal complexes bonded to zeolite {beta}. Infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra show that the species formed from Rh(acac)({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2} was Rh({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup +}, which was bonded to the zeolite at aluminum sites via two Rh-O bonds. Reaction of this supported rhodium complex with CO gave the supported rhodium gem-dicarbonyl Rh(CO){sub 2}{sup +}, which was characterized by two {nu}{sub CO} bands in the IR spectrum, at 2048 and 2115 cm{sup -1}, that were sharp (fwhm of 2115-cm{sup -1} band = 5 cm{sup -1}), indicating a high degree of uniformity of the supported species. Nearly the same result was observed (Liang, A. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 8460) for the isostructural rhodium complex supported on dealuminated HY zeolite, which was characterized by frequencies of the {nu}{sub CO} bands that were 4 and 2 cm{sup -1}, respectively, greater than those characterizing the zeolite {beta}-supported complex. This comparison indicates that the Rh atoms in Rh({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup +} anchored on zeolite {beta} were slightly more electron-rich than those on zeolite Y. This inference is supported by EXAFS results showing shorter Rh-C bonds in the zeolite {beta}-supported rhodium ethene complex than in the zeolite Y-supported rhodium ethene complex. In contrast to these supported rhodium complexes, the zeolite {beta}-supported ruthenium samples were shown by IR and EXAFS spectroscopies to consist of mixtures of mononuclear ruthenium complexes with various numbers of acac ligands; when CO reacted with the supported ruthenium complexes, the resultant ruthenium carbonyls were characterized by {nu}{sub CO} spectra characteristic of both ruthenium dicarbonyls and ruthenium tricarbonyls.

  6. Early-late, mixed-metal compounds supported by amidophosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Mokuolu, Q Folashade; Duckmanton, Paul A; Hitchcock, Peter B; Wilson, Claire; Blake, Alexander J; Shukla, Lena; Love, Jason B

    2004-07-01

    The sequential syntheses, structural characterisation and reactivity studies of a series of discrete early-late mixed-metal complexes supported by the unique amidophosphine ligand m-(But2CH)N(C6H4)PPh2L1 are described. This ligand was synthesised using a Schiff-base/ButLi protocol and the resultant lithium salt LiL1 found to adopt a tetrameric structure in the solid state in which both two-coordinate N-Li-N and eta6:eta6-arylLi metallocene bonding motifs are present. Reaction between HL1 and labile Pt(II) and Pd(II) chlorides formed MCl2(HL1)2 complexes 4 (M = Pt) and 5 (M = Pd) in which a weak N-H...pi(aryl) hydrogen bonding interaction was identified in the solid-state structure of 4. These compounds were found to be inert to transamination and protonolysis reactions with Ti amides and alkyls; instead, stepwise alkyl transfer from Ti to Pt, resulting in Pt(CH2SiMe3)2(HL1)2 6 was observed. Access to mixed-metal complexes was achieved using an early-metal-first approach. Reaction between the metalloligand TiCl2(L1)2 and labile Group 10 and group 9 compounds resulted in the formation of TiCl2(mu-L1)2PtCl2 8, TiCl2(mu-L1)2PtMe2 9, TiCl2(mu-L1)2PdCl2 10, TiCl2(mu-L1)2NiBr2 11, and [TiCl2(mu-L1)2RhCl(CO)]2 12. In the solid state, the Group 4/10 compounds 8, 9 and 10 adopt similar structures that exhibit both intramolecular But2C-H...Cl-Ti hydrogen bonding and arylNP pi-stacking interactions; this hydrogen-bonding interaction is conserved in solution. Unlike the above Group 4/10 complexes, the Ti-Rh complex 12 adopts a tetranuclear structure in the solid state that is stabilised by similar hydrogen-bonding and pi-stacking interactions. The Group 4/10 complexes were assessed as catalysts for olefin polymerisation and cross-coupling reactions. In combination with MAO, the mixed-metal complexes 8 and 10 were poor ethylene polymerisation catalysts and resulted in polymers of both high molecular weight and polydispersity. The Ti-Ni complex 11 formed oligomeric material only, while the mononuclear Ti metalloligand TiCl2(L1)2 gave the best results, showing low activity (6.14 kg mol(-1) bar(-1) h(-1)) and moderate polydispersity (12). The Ti-Pd complex 10 was assessed in arylamination and Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. While little or no catalytic activity was observed in arylamination reactions, 10 was found to effect Suzuki coupling between activated aryl bromides and phenylboronic acid at 80 degrees C. Unlike with TiCl2(L1)2, reactions between 8 and the reducing agents C8K or Mg led to intractable mixtures. However, the cyclic voltammetry of both compounds indicated that a reversible one-electron reduction process occurs at a similar potential (ca. -0.7 V) and was assigned to the formation of the monohalides TiCl(L1)2 and TiCl(mu-L1)2PtCl2. The reactivity of the metallocage TiCl(mu-L3)3Pt was also investigated. While reduction reactions were unsuccessful, the metallocage reacted with CO to form the Ti-Pt carbonyl, TiCl(mu-L3)3Pt(CO) 13. The X-ray crystal structure of 13 revealed that accommodation of CO at the Pt centre has caused the cage expansion and loss of agostic aryl-H...Pt interactions. Furthermore, reaction of TiCl(mu-L3)3Pt with excess MeI resulted in the formation of the Ti(IV)-Pt(II) complex trans-TiCl2(mu-L3)2(kappa1-L3MeI)Pt(Me)I. PMID:15252583

  7. Synthesis and characterization of metal complexes of Schiff base ligand derived from imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and 4-aminoantipyrine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selwin Joseyphus, R.; Shiju, C.; Joseph, J.; Justin Dhanaraj, C.; Arish, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of the Schiff base derived from imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and 4-aminoantipyrine were synthesized. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, mass, 1H NMR, electronic spectra, magnetic moment, molar conductance, thermal analysis, powder XRD and SEM. The analytical data show that the metal to ligand ratio is 1:1. The IR results show that the ligand acts as a bidentate donor coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and imidazole nitrogen atoms. From the electronic spectra and magnetic moment value predicts the geometry of the complexes. The surface morphology of the compounds was studied by SEM. The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity and antifungal activity using Kirby Bayer disc diffusion method. The DNA cleavage and superoxide dismutase activities of the compounds were investigated. The anticancer activities of the complexes have been carried out towards HeLa and HCT116 cancer cells.

  8. Two new lead(II) diphosphonates with second ligands as an intercalated species or a multidentate metal linker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zi-Yi; Ying, Shao-Ming; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of lead(II) acetate with N, N'-piperazinebis(methylenephosphonic acid) (H 2O 3PCH 2N(C 2H 4) 2NCH 2PO 3H 2, H 4L 1) and 5-sulfoisophalic acid monosodium salt (NaH 2SIP) or lead(II) acetate with isopropylimino-bis-(methylenephosphonic acid) ((CH 3) 2CHN (CH 2PO 3H 2) 2, H 4L 2) and succinic acid afforded two new lead(II) phosphonate hybrids, namely, Pb 4(H 2L 1)(SIP) 2(H 2O) 4·2H 2O 1 and Pb 4(L 2) 2·(HO 2CH 2CH 2CO 2H) 2. The structure of compound 1 features a 3D network formed by Pb(II) ions interconnected by H 2L 1 and the carboxylate-sulfonate SIP anions. The 3D network can be viewed as the neighboring layers of Pb 4(SIP) 2 being interconnected by H 2L 1 ligands to form a pillared layered architecture. The phosphonate groups of the diphosohonate ligands bridge the Pb(II) ions of the Pb 4(SIP) 2 layer to form a lead(II) phosphonate-sulfonate hybrid layer and the organic group of phosphonate ligand as pillars. In compound 2, the interconnection of the lead(II) ions via diphosphonate ligands lead to a <400> lead(II) diphosphonate layer. The succinic acid remains protonated and is located at interlayer space. The second ligand in compound 1 acts as a multidentate metal linker, whereas the succinic acid in compound 2 functions as an intercalated species in between the 2D layers.

  9. Mono, bi- and trinuclear metal complexes derived from new benzene-1,4-bis(3-pyridin-2-ylurea) ligand. Spectral, magnetic, thermal and 3D molecular modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-ghamry, Mosad A.; Saleh, Akila A.; Khalil, Saied M. E.; Mohammed, Amira A.

    2013-06-01

    New bis (pyridylurea) ligand, H2L, was synthesized by the reaction of ethylpyridine-2-carbamate (EPC) and p-phenylenediamine. The ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, electronic and mass spectra. Reaction of the prepared ligand with Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, VO2+ and UO22+ ions afforded mono, bi- and trinuclear metal complexes. Also, new mixed ligand complexes of the ligand H2L and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) with Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions were synthesized. The ligand behaves as bi- and tetradentate toward the transition metal ions, coordination via the pyridine sbnd N, the carbonyl sbnd O and/or the amidic sbnd N atoms in a non, mono- and bis-deprotonated form. The complexes were characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, electronic and mass spectra as well as conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results showed that the metal complexes exhibited different geometrical arrangements such as square planar, tetrahedral, octahedral and square pyramidal arrangements. The Coats-Redfern equation was used to calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different thermal decomposition steps of some complexes. 3D molecular modeling of the ligand, H2L and a representative complex were studied.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and inhibitory activity against bactria and fungi of acyclic and macrocyclic transition metal complexes containing a triamine coumarine Schiff base ligand.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hussein, A A; Linert, Wolfgang

    2015-04-15

    Two series of new mono and binuclear complexes with a Schiff base ligand derived from the condensation of 3-acetylcoumarine and diethylenetriamine, in the molar ratio 2:1 have been prepared. The ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, (1)H-NMR and mass spectra. The reaction of the Schiff base ligand with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and oxovanadium(IV) lead to mono or binuclear species of cyclic or macrocyclic complexes, depending on the mole ratio of metal to ligand and as well as on the method of preparation. The Schiff base ligand behaves as a cyclic bidentate, tetradendate or pentaentadentae ligand. The formation of macrocyclic complexes depends significantly on the dimension of the internal cavity, the rigidity of the macrocycles, the nature of its donor atoms and on the complexing properties of the anion involved in the coordination. Electronic spectra and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate that the geometries of the metal centers are either square pyramidal or octahedral for acyclic or macro-cyclic complexes. The structures are consistent with the IR, UV-visible, ESR, (1)H-NMR, mass spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic moment measurements. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi. Most of the complexes exhibit mild antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms. PMID:25681806

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and inhibitory activity against bactria and fungi of acyclic and macrocyclic transition metal complexes containing a triamine coumarine Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Hussein, A. A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Two series of new mono and binuclear complexes with a Schiff base ligand derived from the condensation of 3-acetylcoumarine and diethylenetriamine, in the molar ratio 2:1 have been prepared. The ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, 1H-NMR and mass spectra. The reaction of the Schiff base ligand with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and oxovanadium(IV) lead to mono or binuclear species of cyclic or macrocyclic complexes, depending on the mole ratio of metal to ligand and as well as on the method of preparation. The Schiff base ligand behaves as a cyclic bidentate, tetradendate or pentaentadentae ligand. The formation of macrocyclic complexes depends significantly on the dimension of the internal cavity, the rigidity of the macrocycles, the nature of its donor atoms and on the complexing properties of the anion involved in the coordination. Electronic spectra and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate that the geometries of the metal centers are either square pyramidal or octahedral for acyclic or macro-cyclic complexes. The structures are consistent with the IR, UV-visible, ESR, 1H-NMR, mass spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic moment measurements. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi. Most of the complexes exhibit mild antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  12. The Resolution of Chiral, Tetrahedral M4L6 Metal-LigandHosts

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Anna V.; Fiedler, Dorothea; Ziegler, Marco; Terpin,Andreas; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-08-28

    The supramolecular metal-ligand assemblies of M{sub 4}1{sub 6} stoichiometry are chiral (M = Ga{sup III}, Al{sup III}, In{sup III}, Fe{sup III}, Ti{sup IV}, or Ge{sup IV}, H{sub 4}1 = N,N'-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-1,5-diaminonaphthalene). The resolution process of {Delta}{Delta}{Delta}{Delta}- and {Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda}-[M{sub 4}1{sub 6}]{sup 12-} by the chiral cation s-nicotinium (S-nic{sup +}) is described for the Ga{sup III}, Al{sup III}, and Fe{sup III} assemblies, and the resolution is shown to be proton dependent. From a methanol solution of M(acac){sub 3}, H{sub 4}1, S-nicI, and KOH, the {Delta}{Delta}{Delta}{Delta}-KH{sub 3}(S-nic){sub 7}[(S-nic) {contained_in}M{sub 4}1{sub 6}] complexes precipitate, and the {Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda}-K{sub 6}(S-nic){sub 5}[(S-nic) {contained_in} M{sub 4}1{sub 6}] complexes subsequently can be isolated from the supernatant. Ion exchange enables the isolation of the (NEt{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12}, (NMe{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12} and K{sub 12}{sup +} salts of the resolved structures, which have been characterized by CD and NMR spectroscopies. Resolution can also be accomplished with one equivalent of NEt{sub 4}{sup +} blocking the cavity interior, demonstrating that external binding sites are responsible for the difference in S-nic{sup +} enantiomer interactions. Circular dichroism data demonstrate that the (NMe{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12} and (NEt{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12} salts of the resolved [Ga{sub 4}1{sub 6}]{sup 12-} and [Al{sub 4}1{sub 6}]{sup 12-} structures retain their chirality over extended periods of time (>20 d) at room temperature; heating the (NEt{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12}[Ga{sub 4}1{sub 6}] assembly to 75 C also had no effect on its CD spectrum. Finally, experiments with the resolved K{sub 12}[Ga{sub 4}1{sub 6}] assemblies point to the role of a guest in stabilizing the resolved framework.

  13. Ligand(s)-to-metal charge transfer as a factor controlling the equilibrium constants of late first-row transition metal complexes: revealing the Irving-Williams thermodynamical series.

    PubMed

    Varadwaj, Pradeep R; Varadwaj, Arpita; Jin, Bih-Yaw

    2015-01-14

    A unified relationship between the experimental formation constants and the ligand(s)-to-metal charge transfer values of versatile ligand complexes of late transition series first-row bivalent metal ions is uncovered. The latter property not only explicates the Irving-Williams series but also rationalizes quantitatively Pearson's concept of hard and soft acids and bases by correlating the gas-phase to aqueous solution-phase chemistry in a broad sense. PMID:25414118

  14. Quest for highly porous metal?metalloporphyrin framework based upon a custom-designed octatopic porphyrin ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Kim, Chungsik; Gao, Wen-Yang; Wojtas, Lukasz; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zhang, X. Peter; Ma, Shengqian

    2012-12-13

    A porous metal-metalloporphyrin framework, MMPF-2, has been constructed from a custom-designed octatopic porphyrin ligand, tetrakis(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)porphine, that links a distorted cobalt trigonal prism secondary building unit. MMPF-2 possesses permanent microporosity with the highest surface area of 2037 mg{sup 2} g{sup -1} among reported porphyrin-based MOFs, and demonstrates a high uptake capcity of 170 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} CO{sub 2} at 273 K and 1 bar.

  15. Metal complexes of the nanosized ligand N-benzoyl-N?-(p-amino phenyl) thiourea: Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and the metal uptake capacity of its ligating resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhusseiny, Amel F.; Eldissouky, Ali; Al-Hamza, Ahmed M.; Hassan, Hammed H. A. M.

    2015-11-01

    The new nanosized N-benzoyl-N?-(p-amino phenyl) thiourea ligand H2L was synthesized by nanoprecipitation method. The [Cu (H2L)2 Cl]·2H2O, [Zn (H2L)2(OAc)2], [Cd (H2L)2Cl2] and [Hg (H2L)2Cl2] complexes were synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical methods. Results revealed that the ligand act as hypodentate and bonded to the metal ion via the sulfur atom forming mononuclear non-electrolyte diamagnetic complex. Magnetic moment results indicated a reduction of Cu (II) to Cu (I) during the coordination process. Thermal studies demonstrated variable stabilities of the complexes and [Zn (H2L)2(OAc)2] exhibited the highest thermal stability while [Hg (H2L)2Cl2] was volatile. The prepared compounds were screened against different pathogenic microorganisms. The ligand performed high antibacterial activity against certain bacterial strain compared to its complexes, and the standard bacteriocide in use. The ligand was successfully immobilized on modified Amberlite XAD-16 forming the hypodentate ligating resin PS-SO2-H2L. The new resin was characterized and the extent of metal adsorption reached maximum at pH 6.0 for Cu (II), Cd (II) and Ag (I), with an adsorption amount of 4.3, 4.0 and 3.7 mmol g-1 respectively. The nanosized H2L represents a new category of promising adsorbent that would have a practical impact on biological and water treatment applications.

  16. Supramolecular spectral studies on metal-ligand bonding of novel quinoline azodyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab, M. A.; El-Sonbati, A. Z.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Barakat, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    A series of novel bidentate azodye quinoline ligands were synthesized with various p-aromatic amines like p-(OCH3, CH3, H, Cl and NO2). All ligands and their complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR data and spectroscopic studies. IR and 1H NMR studies reveal that the ligands (HLn) exists in the tautomeric azo/hydrazo form in both states with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The ligands obtained contain Ndbnd N and phenolic functional groups in different positions with respect to the quinoline group. IR spectra show that the azo compounds (HLn) act as monobasic bidentate ligand by coordinating via the azodye (sbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd ) and oxygen atom of the phenolic group. The ESR (g|| and g?) and bonding ?2 parameters of the copper ion were greatly affected by substituting several groups position of ring of quinoline and p-aromatic ring. The ESR spectra of copper complexes in powder form show a broad signal with values in order g|| > g? > ge > 2.0023. The value of covalency factor ? and orbital reduction factor K accounts for the covalent nature of the complexes. All complexes possessed an octahedral and square planar geometry. The thermal properties of the complexes were investigated using TGA and DSC. It is found that the change of substituent affects the thermal properties of complexes.

  17. Tetrathiafulvalene-based azine ligands for anion and metal cation coordination

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Awatef; El Alamy, Aziz; Alévêque, Olivier; Allain, Magali; Zouari, Nabil; Bouachrine, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Summary The synthesis and full characterization of two tetrathiafulvalene-appended azine ligands, namely 2-([2,2’-bi(1,3-dithiolylidene)]-4-yl)-6-((2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazono)methyl)pyridine (L1) and 5-([2,2’-bi(1,3-dithiolylidene)]-4-yl)-2-((2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazono)methyl)pyridine (L2) are described. The crystal structure of ligand L1 indicates that the ligand is completely planar with the presence of a strong intramolecular N3–H3···O1 hydrogen bonding. Titration experiments with inorganic anions showed that both ligands are suitable candidates for the sensing of fluoride anions. Ligand L2 was reacted with a Re(I) cation to yield the corresponding rhenium tricarbonyl complex 3. In the crystal structure of the newly prepared electroactive rhenium complex the TTF is neutral and the rhenium cation is hexacoordinated. The electrochemical behavior of the three compounds indicates that they are promising for the construction of crystalline radical cation salts. PMID:26425193

  18. Low-Coordinate First Row Early Transition Metal Complexes Stabilized by Modified Terphenyl Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Jessica Nicole

    The research in this dissertation is focused on the synthesis, structural, and magnetic characterization of two-coordinate open shell (d1-d4) transition metal complexes. Background information on this field of endeavor is provided in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 I describe the synthesis and characterization of the mononuclear chromium (II) terphenyl substituted primary amido complexes and a Lewis base adduct. These studies suggest that the two-coordinate chromium complexes have significant spin-orbit coupling effects which lead to moments lower than the spin only value of 4.90 muB owing to the fact that lambda (the spin orbit coupling parameter) is positive. The three-coordinated complex 2.3 had a magnetic moment of 3.77 muB. The synthesis and characterization of the first stable two-coordinate vanadium complexes are described in Chapter 3. The values suggest a significant spin orbital angular momentum contribution that leads to a magnetic moment that is lower than their spin only value of 3.87 muB. DFT calculations showed that the major absorptions in their UV-Vis spectra were due to ligand to metal charge transfer transitions. The titanium synthesis and characterization of the bisamido complex along with its three-coordinate titanium(III) precursor are described in Chapter 4. Compound 4.1 was obtained via the stoichiometric reaction of LiN(H)AriPr 6 with the Ti(III) complex TiCl3 *2NMe 3 in trimethylamine. The precursor 4.1 has trigonal pyramidal coordination at the titanium atom, with bonding to two amido nitrogens and a chlorine as well as a secondary interaction to a flanking aryl ring of a terphenyl substituent. Compound 4.2 displays a very distorted four-coordinate metal environment in which the titanium atom is bound to two amido nitrogens and to two carbons from a terphenyl aryl ring. This structure is in sharp contrast to the two-coordinate linear structure that was observed in its first row metal (V-Ni) analogs. The synthesis and characterization of mononuclear chromium(II) terphenyl primary substituted thiolate complexes are described in Chapter 5. Reaction of the terphenyl primary thiolate lithium derivatives LiSAriPr4 and LiSArMe6 with CrCl2THF2 in a 2:1 ratio afforded complexes 5.1 and 5.2, which are the very rare examples of chromium(II) thiolates with quasi-two-coordination at the metal center. Both deviate from linearity and have S-Cr-S angles of 111.02(3)° and 107.86(3) ° with secondary Cr-C(aryl ring) interactions of ca. 2.115 A and 1.971 A respectively. The initial work on titanium and vanadium terphenyl thiolates is described in Appendix I and II. In Chapter 6 I show that the reaction of K2COT (COT= 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene, C8H8) with an aryl chromium(II) halide gave (CrAriPr 4)2(mu2-n3:n4-COT) (6.1) in which a non-planar COT ring is complexed between two CrAriPr4 moieties -- a configuration previously unknown for chromium complexes of COT. OneCr2+ ion is bonded primarily to three COT carbons (Cr--C= 2.22-2.30 A ) as well as an ipso carbon (Cr-C= ca. 2.47 A) from a flanking aryl ring of its terphenyl substituent. The otherCr2+ ion bonds to an ipso carbon (Cr-C= ca. 2.53 A) from its terphenyl substituent as well as four COT carbons (Cr--C= 2.24-2.32 A). The COT carbon-carbon distances display an alternating pattern, consistent with the non-planarity and non-aromatic character of the ring. The magnetic properties of 6.1 indicate that theCr2+ ions have a high-spin d4 configuration with S = 2. The temperature dependence of the magnetism indicates that their behavior is due to zero-field splitting of the S = 2 state. Attempts to prepare 6.1 by the direct reaction of quintuple-bonded (CrAriPr4)2 with COT were unsuccessful. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  19. Blue fluorescence of three metal-organic zinc polymers containing tetrazinc units and asymmetric ligand of btc{sup 3-}

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Ling; Liu Bing; Zheng Fakun; Guo Guocong . E-mail: gcguo@ms.fjirsm.ac.cn; Huang Jinshun

    2005-11-15

    Three new zinc coordination polymers [Zn{sub 2}(btc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] {sub n} .n[Zn(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}] (1), [Zn{sub 3}(btc){sub 2}(2,2'-bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}] {sub n} .2nH{sub 2}O (2) and [Zn{sub 3}(btc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}] {sub n} .nH{sub 2}O (3) (H{sub 3}btc=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid, 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) were obtained by the diffusion method and their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 have the similar tetrametallic unit [Zn{sub 4}(btc){sub 2}] SBUs and these SBUs are further connected into stair-like structure, 2-D layer and 3-D framework for 1, 2 and 3, in which the btc{sup 3-} ligands adopt {mu} {sub 3}, {mu} {sub 4} and {mu} {sub 5} coordination modes, respectively. The title compounds show strong blue fluorescence, which may be assigned as {pi}*{sup {yields}}n transition of the ligand mixed with the ligand-to-metal change transfer (LMCT), indicating the fluorescence, indicates the title compounds may be good candidates for blue-light photoactive materials.

  20. DNA binding, anti-inflammatory and analgesic evaluation of metal complexes of N/S/O donor ligands; Synthesis, spectral characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Naik, K. H.; Ashok, B.; Naik, Nagaraja; Mulla, Jameel Ahmed S.; Prakasha, Avinash

    2015-04-01

    Transition metal complexes containing tri-dentate NSN donor ligands i.e., 5-((1(aminomethyl)cyclohexyl)methyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine (AMTA) (2) and 5-(2-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine (ATA) (4i-ii) have been synthesized. The newly synthesized ligands and their respective complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance measurement and various spectral studies [infrared (IR), electronic, and NMR (for ligands only)]. Metal complexes are like [M(AMTA)2], [M(ATA)2] type, where M = Mn(II), Co(II) and Cu(II). The proposed geometries of the complexes are octahedral in nature. The synthesized ligands and their complexes were exhibits effective anti-inflammatory, analgesic and DNA binding activities. All the tested compounds exhibited significant analgesic activity, whereas the compound 4i, 4(ia) and 4(iib) is equipotent with Diclofenac sodium.

  1. Transition metal complexes bearing NHC ligands substituted with secondary polyfluoroalkyl groups.

    PubMed

    Kola?íková, V; Šim?nek, O; Rybá?ková, M; Cva?ka, J; B?ezinová, A; Kví?ala, J

    2015-12-01

    Using three different approaches, racemic 1-(perfluoroalkyl)ethylamines were synthesized from perfluoroalkyl iodides or perfluoroalkanoic acids, and further transformed to the corresponding N,N'-disubstituted ethane-1,2-diimines and ethane-1,2-diamines as mixtures of diastereoisomers. Their cyclization afforded imidazolium or dihydroimidazolium salts, which led to silver or palladium complexes bearing NHC ligands substituted with secondary polyfluoroalkyl groups. The palladium complexes bearing a throwaway 3-chloropyridine ligand proved to be moderately active in the model Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. PMID:26374142

  2. Manipulating the Lateral Diffusion of Surface-Anchored EGF Demonstrates that Receptor Clustering Modulates its Phosphorylation Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stabley, Daniel; Retterer, Scott T; Marshal, Stephen; Salaita, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Upon activation, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor becomes phosphorylated and triggers a vast signaling network that has profound effects on cell growth. The EGF receptor is observed to assemble into clusters after ligand binding and tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation, but the role of these assemblies in the receptor signaling pathway remains unclear. To address this question, we measured the phosphorylation of EGFR when the EGF ligand was anchored onto laterally mobile and immobile surfaces. We found that cells generated clusters of ligand-receptor complex on mobile EGF surfaces, and generated a lower ratio of phosphorylated EGFR to EGF than when compared to immobilized EGF that is unable to cluster. This result was verified by tuning the lateral assembly of ligand-receptor complexes on the surface of living cells using patterned supported lipid bilayers. Nanoscale metal lines fabricated into the supported membrane constrained lipid diffusion and EGF receptor assembly into micron and sub-micron scale corrals. Single cell analysis indicated that clustering impacts EGF receptor activation, and larger clusters (> 1 m2) of ligand-receptor complex generated lower EGF receptor phosphorylation per ligand than smaller assemblies (< 1 m2) in HCC1143 cells that were engaged to ligand-functionalized surfaces. We investigated EGFR clustering by treating cells with compounds that disrupt the cytoskeleton (Latrunculin-B), clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Pitstop2), and inhibit EGFR activation (Gefitinib). These results help elucidate the nature of large-scale EGFR clustering, thus underscoring the general significance of receptor spatial organization in tuning function.

  3. Metal clusters as ligands. Substitution of fe ions in Fe/Mo/S clusters by thiophilic CuI ions.

    PubMed

    Koutmos, Markos; Coucouvanis, Dimitri

    2006-02-20

    The reactivity of Fe/S and Fe/Mo/S clusters, similar or analogous to those occurring in biological systems, with thiophilic metal ions has not been explored. In this Communication, we demonstrate that synthesis of heteropolynuclear clusters with different coordination geometries for different metals at different sites is possible by metal substitution or by metal addition reactions. The two clusters we report herein ([(Cl4-cat)2Mo2Cu5Fe4S9(PnPr3)7(SPnPr3)2]PF6 and [(Cl4-cat)2Mo2Cu6Fe4S10(PnPr3)8]) contain Fe, Mo, and Cu, which display pseudotetrahedral, pseudooctahedral, and pseudotrigonal geometries, respectively. The synthesis of these clusters is achieved by the addition of appropriate amounts of [Cu(CH3CN)4]+ to [(Cl4-cat)2Mo2Fe8(PnPr3)6]. The formation of the different products is temperature- and solvent-dependent. The Cu(I) units incorporated into the metal cluster framework, either bind to available lone pairs of the already bridging S ligands or displace the less thiophilic Fe atoms. Among the essential features of these new molecules are recognizable Fe/S fragments including an Fe6S9 core in the first cluster and the pentlandite Fe4Cu4S6 core in the second cluster. PMID:16471948

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial, DNA Cleavage, and In Vitro Cytotoxic Studies of Some Metal Complexes of Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Thiazole and Quinoline Moiety

    PubMed Central

    Yernale, Nagesh Gunvanthrao; Bennikallu Hire Mathada, Mruthyunjayaswamy

    2014-01-01

    A novel Schiff base ligand N-(4-phenylthiazol-2yl)-2-((2-thiaxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)methylene)hydrazinecarboxamide (L) obtained by the condensation of N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazinecarboxamide with 2-thioxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde and its newly synthesized Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and various spectral studies like FT-IR, 1H NMR, ESI mass, UV-Visible, ESR, TGA/DTA, and powder X-ray diffraction studies. The Schiff base ligand (L) behaves as tridentate ONS donor and forms the complexes of type [ML(Cl)2] with square pyramidal geometry. The Schiff base ligand (L) and its metal complexes have been screened in vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage activity of ligand and its metal complexes were studied using plasmid DNA pBR322 as a target molecule by gel electrophoresis method. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study the in vitro cytotoxicity properties for the ligand and its metal complexes against Artemia salina. The results showed that the biological activities of the ligand were found to be increased on complexation. PMID:24729778

  5. Spectroscopic and biological studies of new mononuclear metal complexes of a bidentate NN and NO hydrazone-oxime ligand derived from egonol.

    PubMed

    Babahan, Ilknur; Emirda?-Öztürk, Safiye; Poyrazo?lu-Çoban, Esin

    2015-04-15

    A novel ligand, vicinal dioxime ligand (egonol-hydrazone glyoxime) (LH2) was synthesized and characterized using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS, AAS, infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Mononuclear nickel (II), copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes with a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2 for LH2 were also synthesized. Zn(II) forms complex [Zn(LH)Cl2] with a metal to ligand ratio of 1:1. IR spectrum shows that the ligand act in a bidentate manner and coordinates N4 donor groups of the ligands to Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) ions. The detection of H-bonding (OH?O) in the [M(LH)2] metal complexes by IR spectra supported the square-planar MN4 coordination of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes. The antimicrobial activities of compounds LH2 and their Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were evaluated using the disc diffusion method against 16 bacteria and 5 yeasts. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against all the bacteria and yeasts were also determined. Among the attempted test compounds, it is showed that all the compounds (L, LH2, [Ni(LH)2], [Cu(LH)2], [Co(LH)2(H2O)2], [Zn(LH)Cl2]) were effective against used test microorganisms. PMID:25686861

  6. Spectroscopic and biological studies of new mononuclear metal complexes of a bidentate NN and NO hydrazone-oxime ligand derived from egonol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babahan, Ilknur; Emirda?-Öztürk, Safiye; Poyrazo?lu-Çoban, Esin

    2015-04-01

    A novel ligand, vicinal dioxime ligand (egonol-hydrazone glyoxime) (LH2) was synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, AAS, infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Mononuclear nickel (II), copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes with a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2 for LH2 were also synthesized. Zn(II) forms complex [Zn(LH)Cl2] with a metal to ligand ratio of 1:1. IR spectrum shows that the ligand act in a bidentate manner and coordinates N4 donor groups of the ligands to NiII, CuII, CoII and ZnII ions. The detection of H-bonding (Osbnd H⋯O) in the [M(LH)2] metal complexes by IR spectra supported the square-planar MN4 coordination of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes. The antimicrobial activities of compounds LH2 and their Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were evaluated using the disc diffusion method against 16 bacteria and 5 yeasts. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against all the bacteria and yeasts were also determined. Among the attempted test compounds, it is showed that all the compounds (L, LH2, [Ni(LH)2], [Cu(LH)2], [Co(LH)2(H2O)2], [Zn(LH)Cl2]) were effective against used test microorganisms.

  7. A thiosemicarbazone ligand functionalized by a phosphine group: reactivity toward coinage metal ions.

    PubMed

    Castiñeiras, Alfonso; Pedrido, Rosa

    2010-04-21

    The reactivity of the phosphino-thiosemicarbazone ligand 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-ethylthiosemicarbazone (HLPEt) toward M(I) halides (M = Cu, Ag, Au) was studied. The complexes obtained, with formulae [Cu(HLPEt)(2)]Br (1), [Cu(HLPEt)(2)]I.2H(2)O (2), [Ag(HLPEt)(LPEt)].3H(2)O (3), [Au(2)(HLPEt)(2)Cl]Cl.CH(3)OH (4) were satisfactorily characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESI and (1)H/(31)P NMR. Moreover, we have obtained the crystal structure of the ligand HLPEt and its sulfide oxidized form HLP(S)Et, which represents a new case of desulfurization process in thiosemicarbazone ligands. In addition, we present the crystal structure of the complexes 1 + H(2)O + 3MeOH and [Au(2)(HLPEt)(4)Cl]Cl.3CH(3)OH (5), together with their interesting crystal packing. The complex 5 is an interesting case of a pseudo-chloronium gold(I) complex. The ligand HLPEt and the complexes 3 and 4 display intense luminescence at room temperature. PMID:20354611

  8. A Tetrapositive Metal Ion in the Gas Phase: Thorium(IV) Coordinated by Neutral Tridentate Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yu; Hu, Han-Shi; Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng; Li, Jun; Gibson, John K.

    2013-07-01

    ESI of 1:1 mixtures of Th(ClO?)? and ligand TMOGA in acetonitrile resulted in the observation of the TMOGA supported tetracation, Th(L)???, in the gas phase. Three TMOGA ligands are necessary to stabilize the tetrapositive thorium ion; no Th(L)??? or Th(L)??? was observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that the Th(L)??? complex possesses C? symmetry with the thorium center coordinated by nine oxygen atoms from three ligands, which forms a twisted TPP geometry. Actinide compounds with such a geometry feature a nine-coordinate chiral actinide center. The Th-L binding energy and bond orders of Th(L)n?? decrease as the coordination number increases, consistent with the trend of concurrently increasing Th-O distances. The Th-O bonding is mainly electrostatic in nature, but the covalent interactions are not negligible. CID of the Th(L)??? complex mainly resulted in charge reduction to form Th(L)?(L-86)³?oss of neutral TMOGA was not observed. The protic ligand methanol stabilized only tri- and dications of ligated thorium. The intensity of the Th(L)??? peak was reduced as the percentage of water increased in the Th(ClO?)?/TMOGA solution.

  9. General cooperative effects of single atom ligands on a metal: a (195)Pt NMR chemical shift as a function of coordinated halido ligands' ionic radii overall sum.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, M; de Castro, F; Antonucci, D; Papadia, P; Fanizzi, F P

    2015-09-21

    An inverse linear relationship between the experimentally observed (195)Pt NMR signals and the overall sum of coordinated halido ligands' ionic radii was discovered in Pt(ii) and Pt(iv) complexes. The reduction of (195)Pt NMR frequencies parallels the increase of coordinated halido ligands' ionic radii sum. This suggests that each halido ligand may act as a conducting ring whose induced electric current shields the (195)Pt NMR signals proportionally to the ionic radius of the coordinated halido ligand. PMID:26242889

  10. Structurally Diverse Metal Coordination Compounds, Bearing Imidodiphosphinate and Diphosphinoamine Ligands, as Potential Inhibitors of the Platelet Activating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tsoupras, Alexandros B.; Roulia, Maria; Ferentinos, Eleftherios; Stamatopoulos, Ioannis; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.; Kyritsis, Panayotis

    2010-01-01

    Metal complexes bearing dichalcogenated imidodiphosphinate [R2P(E)NP(E)R2?]? ligands (E = O, S, Se, Te), which act as (E,E) chelates, exhibit a remarkable variety of three-dimensional structures. A series of such complexes, namely, square-planar [Cu{(OPPh2)(OPPh2)N-O, O}2], tetrahedral [Zn{(EPPh2)(EPPh2)N-E,E}2], E = O, S, and octahedral [Ga{(OPPh2)(OPPh2)N-O,O}3], were tested as potential inhibitors of either the platelet activating factor (PAF)- or thrombin-induced aggregation in both washed rabbit platelets and rabbit platelet rich plasma. For comparison, square-planar [Ni{(Ph2P)2N-S-CHMePh-P, P}X2], X = Cl, Br, the corresponding metal salts of all complexes and the (OPPh2)(OPPh2)NH ligand were also investigated. Ga(O,O)3 showed the highest anti-PAF activity but did not inhibit the thrombin-related pathway, whereas Zn(S,S)2, with also a significant PAF inhibitory effect, exhibited the highest thrombin-related inhibition. Zn(O,O)2 and Cu(O,O)2 inhibited moderately both PAF and thrombin, being more effective towards PAF. This work shows that the PAF-inhibitory action depends on the structure of the complexes studied, with the bulkier Ga(O,O)3 being the most efficient and selective inhibitor. PMID:20689709

  11. Ligand-Centred Fluorescence and Electronic Relaxation Cascade at Vibrational Time Scales in Transition-Metal Complexes.

    PubMed

    Messina, Fabrizio; Pomarico, Enrico; Silatani, Mahsa; Baranoff, Etienne; Chergui, Majed

    2015-11-19

    Using femtosecond-resolved photoluminescence up-conversion, we report the observation of the fluorescence of the high-lying ligand-centered (LC) electronic state upon 266 nm excitation of an iridium complex, Ir(ppy)3, with a lifetime of 70 ± 10 fs. It is accompanied by a simultaneous emission of all lower-lying electronic states, except the lowest triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) state that shows a rise on the same time scale. Thus, we observe the departure, the intermediate steps, and the arrival of the relaxation cascade spanning ?1.6 eV from the (1)LC state to the lowest (3)MLCT state, which then yields the long-lived luminescence of the molecule. This represents the first measurement of the total relaxation time over an entire cascade of electronic states in a polyatomic molecule. We find that the relaxation cascade proceeds in ?10 fs, which is faster than some of the highest-frequency modes of the system. We invoke the participation of the latter modes in conical intersections and their overdamping to low-frequency intramolecular modes. On the basis of literature, we also conclude that this behavior is not specific to transition-metal complexes but also applies to organic molecules. PMID:26509329

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemistry and biological evaluation of some binuclear transition metal complexes of bicompartmental ONO donor ligands containing benzo[b]thiophene moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahendra Raj, K.; Vivekanand, B.; Nagesh, G. Y.; Mruthyunjayaswamy, B. H. M.

    2014-02-01

    A series of new binucleating Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of bicompartmental ligands with ONO donor were synthesized. The ligands were obtained by the condensation of 3-chloro-6-substituted benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbohydrazides and 4,6-diacetylresorcinol. The synthesized ligands and their complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques. Elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, ESI-mass, UV-Visible, TG-DTA, magnetic measurements, molar conductance and powder-XRD data has been used to elucidate their structures. The bonding sites are the oxygen atom of amide carbonyl, azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen for ligands 1 and 2. The binuclear nature of the complexes was confirmed by ESR spectral data. TG-DTA studies for some complexes showed the presence of coordinated water molecules and the final product is the metal oxide. All the complexes were investigated for their electrochemical activity, only the Cu(II) complexes showed the redox property. Cu(II) complexes were square planar, whereas Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes were octahedral. Powder-XRD pattern have been studied in order to test the degree of crystallinity of the complexes and unit cell calculations were made. In order to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial activity of metal ions upon chelation, both the ligands and their metal complexes were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The results showed that the metal complexes were found to be more active than free ligands. The DNA cleaving capacities of all the complexes were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis method against supercoiled plasmid DNA. Among the compounds tested for antioxidant capacity, ligand 1 displayed excellent activity than its metal complexes.

  13. Diversification of ligand families through ferroin-neocuproin metal-binding domain manipulation.

    PubMed

    Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Neuburger, Markus; Rösel, Pirmin J; Schaffner, Silvia

    2009-07-01

    Derivatization of 5,5-bis(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2-bipyridine to give two new ligands, 3 and 4, which possess terminal alkene functionalities is described. The syntheses and characterization of the palladium(II) complexes [Pd(3)2][BF4]2 and [Pd(4)2][BF4]2, and the related [Pd( 2)2][BF4]2 in which 2 is 5,5-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)-2,2-bipyridine are reported. The labile nature of the ligand leads to [Pd(2)2][BF4]2 co-crystallizing with the free ligand as [Pd(2)2][BF4]2 x 2; in the solid state, the ligands in the [Pd(2)2]2+ cation distort (a bow-incline distortion) to alleviate bpy H6...H6 repulsions. Compound 2 has been converted to 5,5-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2,2-bipyridine (5) and 5,5-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)-6,6-dimethyl-2,2-bipyridine (6) to produce ligands suited to forming air-stable, copper(I) complexes of type [CuL2]+. [Cu(5)2][PF6] and [Cu(6)2][PF6] have been prepared and characterized, and the single crystal structures of 6 and [Cu(5)2][PF6] x 0.1C2H4Cl2 x 0.15CH2Cl2 are described. By altering the conditions under which 2 is methylated, competitive formation of 5,5,5,5-tetrakis(3-methoxyphenyl)-2,2:3,3:2,2-quaterpyridine occurs. PMID:19662284

  14. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  15. Synthesis and reactivity of a transition metal complex containing exclusively TEMPO ligands: Ni(?2-TEMPO)2.

    PubMed

    Isrow, Derek; Captain, Burjor

    2011-07-01

    The reaction of Ni(COD)(2) with two equivalents of the TEMPO radical at 68 °C affords the 16 e(-) "bow-tie" complex Ni(?(2)-TEMPO)(2), 1, in 78% yield. Compound 1 reacts with tert-butyl isocyanide and phenylacetylene at room temperature to yield the 16 e(-) distorted square planar nickel complexes Ni(?(2)-TEMPO)(?(1)-TEMPO)(CN(t)Bu), 2, and Ni(?(2)-TEMPO)(?(1)-TEMPOH)(CCPh), 4, respectively. The facile reactivity of 1 is aided by the transition of the TEMPO ligand from an ?(2) to ?(1) binding mode. Complex 4 is an unusual example of hydrogen atom transfer from phenylacetylene to a coordinated TEMPO ligand. PMID:21591738

  16. The development of N2S2 metal complexes as bidentate ligands for organometallic chemistry 

    E-print Network

    Rampersad, Marilyn Vena

    2007-04-25

    from CO addition to (NiN2S2)W(CO)4, which is in equilibrium with the resulting (NiN2S2)W(CO)5 species (Keq = 2.8 M-1, G = -1.4 kJ/mole at 50C). Complete NiN2S2 ligand displacement by CO-cleavage of the remaining W-S bond to form W(CO)6 was not observed...

  17. Ligand Noninnocence in Coinage Metal Corroles: A Silver Knife-Edge.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kolle E; Vazquez-Lima, Hugo; Fang, Yuanyuan; Song, Yang; Gagnon, Kevin J; Beavers, Christine M; Kadish, Karl M; Ghosh, Abhik

    2015-11-16

    Invited for the cover of this issue are Abhik Ghosh and his collaborators at UiT (The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø) and in the United States. The image depicts a silver corrole complex poised on the summit ridge of Mount Sir Alexander, a peak of the Canadian Rockies (image courtesy of Chris Goulet), symbolizing the balance between innocent and noninnocent ligands. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201502150. PMID:26486614

  18. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (?) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the cell than dyes with a tris-homoleptic anchor substituent. PMID:24818219

  19. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  20. Using low-frequency IR spectra for the unambiguous identification of metal ion-ligand coordination sites in purpose-built complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Gábor; Csendes, Zita; Peintler, Gábor; Berkesi, Ottó; Sipos, Pál; Pálinkó, István

    2014-03-01

    One of the aims of our long-term research is the identification of metal ion-ligand coordination sites in bioinspired metal ion-C- or N-protected amino acid (histidine, tyrosine, cysteine or cystine) complexes immobilised on the surface of chloropropylated silica gel or Merrifield resin. In an attempt to reach this goal, structurally related, but much simpler complexes have been prepared and their metal ion-ligand vibrations were determined from their low-frequency IR spectra. The central ions were Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) or Cu(II) and the ligands (imidazole, isopropylamine, monosodium malonate) were chosen to possess only one-type of potential donor group. The low-frequency IR spectra were taken of the complexes for each ion-ligand combination and the typical metal ion-functional group vibration bands were selected and identified. The usefulness of the obtained assignments is demonstrated on exemplary immobilised metal ion-protected amino acid complexes.

  1. Syntheses, crystal structures, and optical properties of five metal complexes constructed from a V-shaped thiophene-containing ligand and different dicarboxylate ligands.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Zi-Jian; Zheng, He-Gen

    2014-09-21

    Five new metal complexes, {[Ni(DIDP)(m-bdc)(H2O)]·5H2O}n (1), {[Zn(DIDP)(hfipbb)]·2DMA}n (2), {[Zn(DIDP)(4,4'-sdb)]·H2O}n (3), {[Co(DIDP)(p-bdc)]}n (4), and {[Co2(DIDP)(hfipbb)2]·H2O}n (5), have been synthesized by reactions of the corresponding metal ions with a V-shaped ligand 2,8-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)dibenzothiophene (DIDP) and different aromatic dicarboxylic acids, namely isophthalic acid (m-H2bdc), terephthalic acid (p-H2bdc), 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(benzoic acid) (H2hfipbb), and 4,4'-sulfonyldicarboxylic acid (4,4'-H2sdb), respectively. The structures of the complexes were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Complex 1 is a 1D chain structure containing a one-dimensional channel along the a direction and is further extended via O-H···S hydrogen bonds and C-H···? stacking interactions into a 3D framework. Complex 2 exhibits a quasi 2D + 2D ? 2D with parallel polycatenation of 2D (4, 4) nets. Complex 3 displays an unusual 2D + 2D ? 3D parallel polycatenated framework based on a 2D 6(3)-hcb network. Complex 4 shows a 2D 4-connected {4(4)·6(2)}-sql network containing a one-dimensional channel along the b direction. The adjacent 2D networks are further extended via C-H···O hydrogen bonds into a 3D supramolecular framework. Complex 5 features a 2-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with a 6-connected {4(12)·6(3)} pcu topology. Furthermore, the thermal stability for 1-5 and luminescence properties of 2 and 3 have been studied. Moreover, the solid-state UV-visible spectroscopy experiments show that complexes 1-5 are all optical semiconductors with band gaps of 3.06, 3.18, 3.23, 2.98, and 3.17 eV, respectively. PMID:25050987

  2. High current density electrodeposition of silver from silver-containing liquid metal salts with pyridine-N-oxide ligands.

    PubMed

    Sniekers, Jeroen; Brooks, Neil R; Schaltin, Stijn; Van Meervelt, Luc; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-28

    New cationic silver-containing ionic liquids were synthesized and used as non-aqueous electrolytes for the electrodeposition of silver layers. In the liquid state of these ionic liquids, a silver (i) cation is coordinated by pyridine-N-oxide (py-O) ligands in a 1?:?3 metal-to-ligand ratio, although in some cases a different stoichiometry of the silver center crystallized out. As anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Tf2N), trifluoromethanesulfonate (OTf), methanesulfonate (OMs) and nitrate were used, yielding compounds with the formulae [Ag(py-O)3][Tf2N], [Ag(py-O)3][OTf], [Ag(py-O)3][OMs] and [Ag(py-O)3][NO3], respectively. The compounds were characterized by CHN analysis, FTIR, NMR, DSC, TGA and the electrodeposition of silver was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear potential scans, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). With the exception of [Ag(py-O)3][Tf2N], which melts at 108 °C, all the silver(i) compounds have a melting point below 80 °C and were tested as electrolytes for silver electrodeposition. Interestingly, very high current densities were observed at a potential of -0.5 V vs. Ag/Ag(+) for the compounds with fluorine-free anions, i.e. [Ag(py-O)3][NO3] (current density of -10 A dm(-2)) and [Ag(py-O)3][OMs] (-6.5 A dm(-2)). The maximum current density of the compound with the fluorinated anion trifluoromethanesulfonate, [Ag(py-O)3][OTf], was much lower: -2.5 A dm(-2) at -0.5 V vs. Ag/Ag(+). Addition of an excess of ligand to [Ag(py-O)3][OTf] resulted in the formation of the room-temperature ionic liquid [Ag(py-O)6][OTf]. A current density of -5 A dm(-2) was observed at -0.5 V vs. Ag/Ag(+) for this low viscous silver salt. The crystal structures of several silver complexes could be determined by X-ray diffraction, and it was found that several of them had a stoichiometry different from the 1?:?3 metal-to-ligand ratio used in their synthesis. This indicates that the compounds form crystals with a composition different from that of the molten state. The electrochemical properties were measured in the liquid state, where the metal-to-ligand ratio was 1?:?3. Single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements showed that silver(i) is six coordinate in [Ag(py-O)3][Tf2N] and [Ag(py-O)3][OTf], while it is five coordinate in the other complexes. In [Ag3(py-O)8][OTf]3, there are two different coordination environments for silver ions: six coordinate central silver ions and five coordinate for the outer silver ions. In some of the silver(i) complexes, silver-silver interactions were observed in the solid state. PMID:24217798

  3. Ligand Design for Novel Metal-Organic Polyhedra and Metal-Organic Frameworks for Alternative Energy Applications 

    E-print Network

    Kuppler, Ryan John

    2011-10-21

    DESIGglyph1197 FOR glyph1197OVEL METAL-ORGAglyph1197IC POLYHEDRA Aglyph1197D METAL-ORGAglyph1197IC FRAMEWORKS FOR ALTERglyph1197ATIVE Eglyph1197ERGY APPLICATIOglyph1197S A Thesis by RYAN JOHN KUPPLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Chemistry LIGAglyph1197D DESIGglyph1197 FOR glyph1197OVEL METAL-ORGAglyph1197IC POLYHEDRA Aglyph1197D...

  4. Coordination compounds of a number of d and f metals with amide ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Murzubralmov, B.

    1986-10-01

    Several physiocochemical properties of amide coordination compounds of metals and the types of coordination of amides with complex-forming metal ions have been summarized in this review. The results of thermal investigations, including the intermediate and final products, and the structure of monosemicarbazidatozinc chloride have been presented, and the prospects of the practical utilization of the compounds have been considered.

  5. Phosphonate ligands encourage a platonic relationship between cobalt(II) and alkali metal ions.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart; Helliwell, Madeleine; Raftery, James; Tolis, Evangelos I; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2004-01-21

    Two new cobalt(ii) cages are reported where the metal core has a high symmetry related to a Platonic solid; the choice of alkali metal used in the base used for deprotonation appears to influence the resulting structures. PMID:14737519

  6. Exploiting metal-ligand bifunctional reactions in the design of iron asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robert H

    2015-05-19

    This is an Account of our development of iron-based catalysts for the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) and asymmetric pressure hydrogenation (AH) of ketones and imines. These chemical processes provide enantiopure alcohols and amines for use in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, fragrance, and other fine chemical industries. Fundamental principles of bifunctional reactivity obtained by studies of ruthenium catalysts by Noyori's group and our own with tetradentate ligands with tertiary phosphine and secondary amine donor groups were applied to improve the performance of these first iron(II) catalysts. In particular the correct positioning of a bifunctional H-Fe-NH unit in an iron hydride amine complex leads to exceptional catalyst activity because of the low energy barrier of dihydrogen transfer to the polar bond of the substrate. In addition the ligand structure with this NH group along with an asymmetric array of aryl groups orients the incoming substrate by hydrogen-bonding, and steric interactions provide the hydrogenated product in high enantioselectivity for several classes of substrates. Enantiomerically pure diamines or diphenylphosphino-amine compounds are used as the source of the asymmetry in the tetradentate ligands formed by the condensation of the amines with dialkyl- or diaryl-phosphinoaldehydes, a synthesis that is templated by Fe(II). The commercially available ortho-diphenylphosphinobenzaldehyde was used in the initial studies, but then diaryl-phosphinoacetaldehydes were found to produce much more effective ligands for iron(II). Once the mechanism of catalysis became clearer, the iron-templated synthesis of (S,S)-PAr2CH2CH2NHCHPhCHPhNH2 ligand precursors was developed to specifically introduce a secondary amine in the precatalyst structures. The reaction of a precatalyst with strong base yields a key iron-amido complex that reacts with isopropanol (in ATH) or dihydrogen (in AH) to generate an iron hydride with the Fe-H bond parallel to the secondary amine N-H. In the AH reactions, the correct acidity of the intermediate iron-dihydrogen complex and correct basicity of the amide are important factors for the heterolytic splitting of the dihydrogen to generate the H-Fe-N-H unit; the acidity of dihydrogen complexes including those found in hydrogenases can be estimated by a simple additive ligand acidity constant method. The placement of the hydridic-protonic Fe-H···HN interaction in the asymmetric catalyst structure influences the enantioinduction. The sense of enantioinduction is predictable from the structure of the H-Fe-N-H-containing catalyst interacting with the ketone in the same way as related H-Ru-N-H-containing catalysts. The modular construction of the catalysts permits large variations in order to produce alcohol or amine products with enantiomeric excess in the 90-100% range in several cases. PMID:25897779

  7. Schiff base ligands and their transition metal complexes in the mixtures of ionic liquid + organic solvent: a thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Shekaari, Hemayat; Kazempour, Amir; Khoshalhan, Maryam

    2015-01-21

    Schiff bases and their metal complexes in the mixtures of ionic liquid (IL) + organic solvent have shown great potential in attractive oxidation catalytic processes. The efficiency of such a process is strongly dependent on the various molecular interactions occurring between components. Thermodynamic properties of these systems can provide valuable information about structural interactions. Therefore, in this work, the interactions of the IL 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([HMIm]Cl) with Schiff bases in organic solvents were studied through the measurements of density, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. The effect of solvent on the interactions was examined by the solutions of IL + BPIC Schiff base + solvent (C2H6O-C3H8O-C4H10O). Moreover, the influence of Schiff base ligand and Schiff base complex structures was probed by the solutions of IL + DMA + ligand (salcn/salpr/salen) and IL + DMA + complex (VO(3-OMe-salen)/VO(salophen)/VO(salen)), respectively. Using the experimental data, some important thermodynamic properties, such as standard partial molar volume (V(0)(?,IL)), experimental slope (Sv), viscosity B-coefficient, solvation number (B/V(0)(?,IL) and limiting molar conductivity (?0) were calculated and discussed in terms of solute-solvent (IL-DMF/alcohol) and solute-cosolute (IL-Schiff base) interactions. PMID:25482659

  8. Selective fluorescence sensors for detection of nitroaniline and metal Ions based on ligand-based luminescent metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zongchao; Wang, Fengqin; Lin, Xiangyi; Wang, Chengmiao; Fu, Yiyuan; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yongnan; Li, Guodong

    2015-12-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials with high potential for applications in fluorescence sensors. In this work, two solvent-induced Zn(II)-based metal-organic frameworks, Zn3L3(DMF)2 (1) and Zn3L3(DMA)2(H2O)3 (2) (L=4,4?-stilbenedicarboxylic acid), were investigated as selective sensing materials for detection of nitroaromatic compounds and metal ions. The sensing experiments show that 1 and 2 both exhibit selective fluorescence quenching toward nitroaniline with a low detection limit. In addition, 1 exhibits high selectivity for detection of Fe3+ and Al3+ by significant fluorescence quenching or enhancement effect. While for 2, it only exhibits significant fluorescence quenching effect for Fe3+. The results indicate that 1 and 2 are both promising fluorescence sensors for detecting and recognizing nitroaniline and metal ions with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  9. DFT study on the selectivity of complexation of metal cations with a dioxadithia crown ether ligand.

    PubMed

    Korchowiec, Jacek; Korchowiec, Beata; Priebe, Waldemar; Rogalska, Ewa

    2008-12-25

    The interactions of a dioxadithia crown ether ligand with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Zn(2+) cations were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) modeling. The modeling was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanism of the selective complexation of the mono- and dications observed with this ligand experimentally. Two types of conformationally different complexes were located with both mono- and dications. In the first conformer, the cation is bonded to the ether oxygens; in the second conformer, the cation is bonded to the alkoxy and suger oxygens. In general, the complexes formed with dications were found to be more stable than those with monocations, with the stability decreasing with the period number within a given periodic table group of elements. The highest stability was observed for the complexes formed with zinc. The complex formed with lithium was the most stable among those involving monovalent cations. The system interaction energy was decomposed into electrostatic (ES), polarization (P), charge-transfer (CT), exchange (EX), and geometry-deformation (DEF) contributions using the self-consistent charge and configuration method for subsystems (SCCCMS). The stabilizing energy components (ES, P, and CT) exhibit the same trend as the total interaction energy, whereas the destabilizing contributions (EX and DEF) exhibit the opposite trend. It was found that the main contributions responsible for stabilization of the dicationic systems are the P and ES energies; in the monocationic systems, the CT stabilization is equally important. The gas-phase preferences changed when the solvent effect was included. The dioxadithia crown ether ligand preserved its selectivity toward Zn(2+), but the selectivity sequence toward monovalent cations was reversed. PMID:19055400

  10. On the Question of Site-Selective Ligand Exchange in Carboxylate-Substituted Metal Oxo Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Kreutzer, Johannes; Czakler, Matthias; Puchberger, Michael; Pittenauer, Ernst; Schubert, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Reaction of [Ti4Zr4O6(OBu)4(OMc)16] (OMc = methacrylate) with acetylacetone (acacH) resulted in dissection of the cluster and formation of [Ti(OBu)2(acac)2] and the smaller cluster [Ti2Zr4O4(OMc)16]. In contrast, the same reaction with [Zr6O4(OH)4(OOCR)12]2·6RCOOH (R = Et, CH2CH=CH2) led to site-selective substitution of two carboxylate ligands and formation of isostructural [Zr6O4(OH)4(OOCR)12–x(acac)x]2·6RCOOH (x ? 1). PMID:26300687

  11. Isospecific polymerization of 1-hexene by C1-symmetric half-metallocene dimethyl complexes of group 4 metals with bidentate N-substituted iminomethylpyrrolyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Keishi; Tsurugi, Hayato; Mashima, Kazushi

    2013-07-01

    Non-bridged half-metallocene dimethyl complexes of group 4 metals 2a-4a with an N-4-methoxyphenyl(iminomethyl)pyrrolyl ligand 1a were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. Upon activation with [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4], these complexes became active catalysts for the polymerization of 1-hexene. A series of hafnium complexes with various N-substituents on the imine group of ligands 1b-1g were also prepared and applied as catalysts for 1-hexene polymerization. The activation parameters for the exchange process between the two methyl groups bound to the metal for Cp*MMe2(R-pyr) complexes were estimated by NMR shape analysis at various temperatures. The findings indicated that the transition state of the ligand flipping process might be associated with the isoselectivity of the polymerization reaction. PMID:23235804

  12. Photochemistry of copper(II) chlorocomplexes in acetonitrile: Trapping the ligand-to-metal charge transfer excited state relaxations pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereshchenko, Andrey S.; Olshin, Pavel K.; Karimov, Artur M.; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu.; Burkov, Kim A.; Tveryanovich, Yury S.; Tarnovsky, Alexander N.

    2014-11-01

    Photochemistry of [Cu(MeCN)3Cl]+, [Cu(MeCN)Cl3]-, and [CuCl4]2- copper(II) chlorocomplexes in acetonitrile solution is studied by means of the combination of the steady-state photolysis and ultrafast transient absorption methods. The main relaxation pathways of the initially excited ligand-to-metal charge transfer states are internal conversion to the ground state, ionic dissociation without (photo)reduction of copper(II), and radical dissociation with (photo)reduction of copper(II). The copper(II)-to-copper(I) photoreduction quantum yields obtained from steady-state photolysis correlate with ultrafast spectroscopy data. The presence of oxygen does not affect the photoreduction quantum yields, which do not exceed 7% for the complexes studied and decrease in the series: [Cu(MeCN)3Cl]+ > [Cu(MeCN)Cl3]- > [CuCl4]2-.

  13. Metal-assisted synthesis of unsymmetrical magnolol and honokiol analogs and their biological assessment as GABAA receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Rycek, Lukas; Puthenkalam, Roshan; Schnürch, Michael; Ernst, Margot; Mihovilovic, Marko D

    2015-01-15

    We present the synthesis of new derivatives of natural products magnolol (1) and honokiol (2) and their evaluation as allosteric ligands for modulation of GABAA receptor activity. New derivatives were prepared via metal assisted cross-coupling reactions in two consecutive steps. Compounds were tested by means of two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology at the ?1?2?2 receptor subtype at low GABA concentrations. We have identified several compounds enhancing GABA induced current (IGABA) in the range similar or even higher than the lead structures. At 3?M, compound 8g enhanced IGABA by factor of 443, compared to 162 and 338 of honokiol and magnolol, respectively. Furthermore, 8g at EC10-20 features a much bigger window of separation between the ?1?2?2 and the ?1?1?2 subtypes compared to honokiol, and thus improved subtype selectivity. PMID:25510374

  14. Metal-assisted synthesis of unsymmetrical magnolol and honokiol analogs and their biological assessment as GABAA receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Rycek, Lukas; Puthenkalam, Roshan; Schnürch, Michael; Ernst, Margot; Mihovilovic, Marko D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the synthesis of new derivatives of natural products magnolol (1) and honokiol (2) and their evaluation as allosteric ligands for modulation of GABAA receptor activity. New derivatives were prepared via metal assisted cross-coupling reactions in two consecutive steps. Compounds were tested by means of two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology at the ?1?2?2 receptor subtype at low GABA concentrations. We have identified several compounds enhancing GABA induced current (IGABA) in the range similar or even higher than the lead structures. At 3 ?M, compound 8g enhanced IGABA by factor of 443, compared to 162 and 338 of honokiol and magnolol, respectively. Furthermore, 8g at EC10–20 features a much bigger window of separation between the ?1?2?2 and the ?1?1?2 subtypes compared to honokiol, and thus improved subtype selectivity. PMID:25510374

  15. Highly sensitive and selective fluorescence detection of copper (II) ion based on multi-ligand metal chelation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Yu, Tao; Sun, Mingtai; Yu, Huan; Zhang, Zhongping; Wang, Suhua; Jiang, Hui

    2014-08-01

    A fluorescent probe was synthesized and demonstrated to be highly selective and sensitive in the reaction with copper (II) ion, generating a large variation of the fluorescence intensity in a dose-response manner. The probe contains a dansyl moiety as fluorophore and a multidentate ligand for copper (II) ion recognition. The reaction of the molecular probe with copper (II) ion proceeds rapidly and irreversibly in a 1 to 1 stoichiometric way, leading to the production of stable copper (II) complex, which subsequently results in the quenching of fluorescence. The detection limit for copper (II) ion was measured to be about 2ppb. It was also shown that the probe has high selectivity for copper (II) ion and good anti-interference ability against other transition metal ions. The herein reported very simple and reliable fluorescence probe could be employed for copper (II) ion detection in many aspects. PMID:24881551

  16. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... A preformed anchor is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold or metals of the platinum group intended to be incorporated into a dental appliance, such as a denture, to help stabilize the appliance in the...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... A preformed anchor is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold or metals of the platinum group intended to be incorporated into a dental appliance, such as a denture, to help stabilize the appliance in the...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... A preformed anchor is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold or metals of the platinum group intended to be incorporated into a dental appliance, such as a denture, to help stabilize the appliance in the...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... A preformed anchor is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold or metals of the platinum group intended to be incorporated into a dental appliance, such as a denture, to help stabilize the appliance in the...

  20. Synthesis, spectral and thermal studies of some transition metal mixed ligand complexes: Modeling of equilibrium composition and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakantan, M. A.; Sundaram, M.; Nair, M. Sivasankaran

    2011-09-01

    Several mixed ligand Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of 2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine (AHP) and imidazoles viz., imidazole (him), benzimidazole (bim), histamine (hist) and L-histidine (his) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectral (vibrational, electronic, 1H NMR and EPR) data as well as by magnetic moment values. On the basis of elemental analysis and molar conductance values, all the complexes can be formulated as [MAB]Cl except histidine complexes as MAB. Thermogravimetric studies reveal the presence of coordinated water molecules in most of the complexes. From the magnetic measurements and electronic spectral data, octahedral structure was proposed for Ni(II) and Cu(II)-AHP-his, tetrahedral for Cu(II)-AHP-him/bim/hist, but square planar for the Cu(II)-AHP complex. The g?/ A? calculated supports tetrahedral environment around the Cu(II) in Cu(II)-AHP-him/bim/hist and distorted octahedral for Cu(II)-AHP-his complexes. The morphology of the reported metal complexes was investigated by scanning electron micrographs (SEM). The potentiometric study has been performed in aqueous solution at 37 °C and I = 0.15 mol dm -3 NaClO 4. MABH, MAB and MAB 2 species has been identified in the present systems. Proton dissociation constants of AHP and stability constants of metal complexes were determined using MINIQUAD-75. The most probable structure of the mixed ligand species is discussed based upon their stability constants. The in vitro biological activity of the complexes was tested against the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, fungus and yeast. The oxidative DNA cleavage studies of the complexes were performed using gel electrophoresis method. Cu(II) complexes have been found to promote DNA cleavage in presence of biological reductant such as ascorbate and oxidant like hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Quantum chemical calculations on metal dications solvated by formaldehyde, acetone and DMSO ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahas, Ahmed M.

    2002-10-01

    Ab initio and DFT calculations have been carried out to explore the thermodynamic and/or kinetic stabilities of M 2+L complexes (M=Be, Mg, Ca, and Zn, L=formaldehyde, acetone, and DMSO). Based on the computational data, all of the investigated monoligated doubly charged metal cation complexes are expected to be observable in the gas phase. In addition to thermodynamic stability, the kinetic energy barriers further stabilize the monoligated doubly charged metal cations. Thermodynamically unstable complexes are stabilized by Coulomb barriers. Monoligated metal dications have been classified into metastable and thermodynamically stable species. Comparison with experiments indicates agreement for magnesium and calcium containing systems.

  2. Toward understanding the bonding character in complexes of coinage metals with lone-pair ligands. CCSD(T) and DFT computations.

    PubMed

    Pašteka, Lukáš F; Rajský, Tomáš; Urban, Miroslav

    2013-05-30

    We present CCSD(T) interaction energies and the bonding analysis for complexes of Cu, Ag, and Au with the lone-pair ligands H2O, OF2, OMe2, NH3, NF3, NMe3, H2S, SF2, SMe2, PH3, PF3, PCl3, and PMe3 (ML complexes). Both electron correlation and relativistic effects are crucial in the bonding of all complexes. AuPH3, AuPF3, and AuPCl3 (AuPX3) complexes exhibit particularly large relativistic effects, 30-46 kJ/mol. Upon neglecting relativistic effects, the Au-P bonds almost vanish aside from weak long-range van der Waals interactions. Highest binding energies are computed for complexes with Au, followed by Cu and Ag. For all coinage metals the strongest interactions are computed for PX3 ligands followed by SX2 and NX3 OX2 ligands. Upon methylation the interaction energy rises significantly. Metal-thiol complexes, particularly AuSCH3, form a separate class. Exceptional stability of gold complexes is due to large relativistic enhancement of the electron affinity of Au. Along with the electron affinity of a metal, we link the pattern of interaction energies in ML complexes with ionization potentials (IPs) of ligands. Strong interaction with P containing ligands is attributed to their lower IP and the lone pair ? metal electron donation accompanied with the back-donation characteristic for P containing ligand. Energy data are accompanied with the natural bond orbital analysis. Computationally less demanding DFT computations with the PBE0 functional provide correct pattern of interaction energies when compared with benchmark CCSD(T) results. PMID:23627414

  3. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of binuclear metal complexes of a tetradentate N 2O 2 Schiff base ligand derived from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and benzylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebl, Magdy

    2008-09-01

    A tetradentate N 2O 2 donor Schiff base ligand, H 2L, was synthesized by the condensation of 4,6-diacetylresorcinol with benzylamine. The structure of the ligand was elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, electronic and mass spectra. Reaction of the Schiff base ligand with nickel(II), cobalt(II), iron(III), cerium(III), vanadyl(IV) and uranyl(VI) ions in 1:2 molar ratio afforded binuclear metal complexes. Also, reaction of the ligand with several copper(II) salts, including Cl -, NO 3-, AcO -, ClO 4- and SO 42- afforded different metal complexes that reflect the non-coordinating or weakly coordinating power of the ClO 4- anion as compared to the strongly coordinating power of SO 42- and Cl - anions. Characterization and structure elucidation of the prepared complexes were achieved by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, 1H NMR, electronic, mass and ESR spectra as well as magnetic susceptibility measurements. The metal complexes exhibited different geometrical arrangements such as square planar, octahedral, square pyramidal and pentagonal bipyramidal arrangements. The variety in the geometrical arrangements depends on the nature of both the anion and the metal ion.

  4. Structural, spectral and biological studies of binuclear tetradentate metal complexes of N 3O Schiff base ligand synthesized from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and diethylenetriamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emara, Adel A. A.

    2010-09-01

    The binuclear Schiff base, H 2L, ligand was synthesized by reaction of 4,6-diacetylresorcinol with diethylenetriamine in the molar ratio 1:2. The coordination behavior of the H 2L towards Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Fe(III), Cr(III), VO(IV) and UO 2(VI) ions has been investigated. The elemental analyses, magnetic moments, thermal studies and IR, electronic, 1H NMR, ESR and mass spectra were used to characterize the isolated ligand and its metal complexes. The ligand acts as dibasic with two N 3O-tetradentate sites and can coordinate with two metal ions to form binuclear complexes. The bonding sites are the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine and amine groups and the oxygen atoms of the phenolic groups. The metal complexes exhibit either square planar, tetrahedral, square pyramid or octahedral structures. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against four pathogenic bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) as Gram-positive bacteria, and ( Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas phaseolicola) as Gram-negative bacteria and two pathogenic fungi ( Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus fumigatus) to assess their antimicrobial properties. Most of the complexes exhibit mild antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  5. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  6. Zwitterionic late transition metal alkene polymerisation catalysts containing aminofulvene-aldiminate (AFA) ligands 

    E-print Network

    Rahman, Mohammed Mahmudur

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years significant progress has been made in the design and development of late transition metal cationic catalysts for olefin polymerisation. Never-the-less, the activation of catalyst precursors and generation ...

  7. Lewis acidic metal complexes with polydentate ligands for the preparation of biorenewable polymers 

    E-print Network

    Gamboa Martinez, Sergio Aaron; Gamboa, Sergio Aaron M.; Martinez, Sergio Aaron Gamboa

    2014-06-28

    Due to the ever increasing necessity to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels as feedstocks for polymeric materials, the work presented herein describes the investigation of new metal complexes as initiators for the ...

  8. Development of Metallodithiolates as a New Class of Versatile Ligands to Transition Metals 

    E-print Network

    Pinder, Tiffany

    2013-12-09

    ................................................. 10 Figure I-9. C4 paddlewheel complexes with NiN2S2 paddles except in 3 o’clock position where M = Pd2+. Metals on arrows become axles.... ............................................................................................................. 13 Figure I-10. C3 paddlewheel complexes with MN2S2 paddles, (M = Ni 2+, Fe(NO)2+, Cu2+) as indicated in each position. Metals on arrows become axles. .................................................................................... 16 Figure...

  9. Zinc ligands in the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens as determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Salt, D.E.; Prince, R.C.; Baker, A.J.M.; Raskin, I.; Pickering, I.J.

    1999-03-01

    Using the noninvasive technique of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the authors have been able to determine the ligand environment of Zn in different tissues of the Zn-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. The majority of intracellular Zn in roots of T. caerulescens was found to be coordinated with histidine. In the xylem sap Zn was found to be transported mainly as the free hydrated Zn{sup 2+} cation with a smaller proportion coordinated with organic acids. In the shoots, Zn coordination occurred mainly via organic acids, with a smaller proportion present as the hydrated cation and coordinated with histidine and the cell wall. Their data suggest that histidine plays an important role in Zn homeostasis in the roots, whereas organic acids are involved in xylem transport and Zn storage in shoots.

  10. NMR and IR spectroscopic examination of the hydrolytic stability of organic ligands in metal alkoxide complexes and of oxygen bridged heterometal bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Hoebbel, D.; Reinert, T.; Schmidt, H.

    1996-12-31

    IR and {sup 13}C NMR investigations of the hydrolytic stabilities of the saturated and unsaturated {beta}-keto ligands acetylacetone (ACAC), ethylacetoacetate (EAA), allylacetoacetate (AAA), methacryloxyethyl-acetoacetate (MEAA) of the Al-, Ti- and Zr-butoxide complexes show a strong dependence on the type of the metal alkoxide and the structure of the organic ligands. The hydrolytic stabilities of the ligands decrease in the order Al->Zr->Ti-alkoxide and ACAC > AAA > EAA {ge} MEAA. Sol-gel reactions of complexes having a weak ligand stability leads to a larger water consumption and to larger particle sizes in sols than those with stable ACAC ligands. Heterometal bonds, i.e. Si-O-Al, Si-O-Ti and Si-O-Zr, in the system diphenylsiloxanediol/metal alkoxide (complex) proved by {sup 29}Si and {sup 17}O NMR are hydrolyzed to a different extent depending on the water amount, the type of the Si-O-M bond and the structure of the heterometal species. The degradation of the heterometal bonds leads to a separation of M-O-M and Si-O-Si bonds which can entail a decreased homogeneity of the materials at a molecular level.

  11. On the stability of metal-aminoacid complexes in water based on water-ligand exchange reactions and electronic properties: detailed study on iron-glycine hexacoordinated complexes.

    PubMed

    Mandado, Marcos; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2010-11-30

    Thermodynamic stability of metal-aminoacid complexes in water is discussed in terms of the Gibbs free energy of water-ligand exchange processes, and the electronic stabilizing factors thoroughly investigated by means of 1-electron and 2-electron density properties. Hexacoordinated complexes formed between iron cations and glycine molecules acting as monodentate or bidentate ligands have been chosen as targets for the current study. Results agree with experimental findings, and complexes formed with bidentate ligands are found to be more stable than those formed with monodentate ones. The larger the number of the coordinated glycine molecules the more stable is the complex. Fe(III) complexes are more stable than Fe(II) ones, but differences are small and the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) exchange process appears to be energetically feasible for these complexes. Formation of the second glycine-iron interaction involving the amino nitrogen in the bidentate ligands is enthalpycally unfavorable but takes place due to the large entropy rise of the process. The larger stability of Fe(III) complexes is due however to the balance between energetic and solvation terms, which is favorable to these complexes. Electron density properties account satisfactorily for the electronic energy changes along the complex formation in terms of ligand-metal electron transfer and covalent bond orders. PMID:20839300

  12. Mixed ligand complexation of some transition metal ions in solution and solid state: Spectral characterization, antimicrobial, antioxidant, DNA cleavage activities and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobana, Sutha; Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Selvaraj, Shanmugaperumal

    2013-04-01

    Equilibrium studies of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligand complexes involving a primary ligand 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; A) and imidazoles viz., imidazole (him), benzimidazole (bim), histamine (hist) and L-histidine (his) as co-ligands(B) were carried out pH-metrically in aqueous medium at 310 ± 0.1 K with I = 0.15 M (NaClO4). In solution state, the stoichiometry of MABH, MAB and MAB2 species have been detected. The primary ligand(A) binds the central M(II) ions in a monodentate manner whereas him, bim, hist and his co-ligands(B) bind in mono, mono, bi and tridentate modes respectively. The calculated ? log K, log X and log X' values indicate higher stability of the mixed ligand complexes in comparison to binary species. Stability of the mixed ligand complex equilibria follows the Irving-Williams order of stability. In vitro biological evaluations of the free ligand(A) and their metal complexes by well diffusion technique show moderate activities against common bacterial and fungal strains. Oxidative cleavage interaction of ligand(A) and their copper complexes with CT DNA is also studied by gel electrophoresis method in the presence of oxidant. In vitro antioxidant evaluations of the primary ligand(A), CuA and CuAB complexes by DPPH free radical scavenging model were carried out. In solid, the MAB type of M(II)sbnd 5-FU(A)sbnd his(B) complexes were isolated and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectral techniques. Both the magnetic susceptibility and electronic spectral analysis suggest distorted octahedral geometry. Thermal studies on the synthesized mixed ligand complexes show loss of coordinated water molecule in the first step followed by decomposition of the organic residues subsequently. XRD and SEM analysis suggest that the microcrystalline nature and homogeneous morphology of MAB complexes. Further, the 3D molecular modeling and analysis for the mixed ligand MAB complexes have also been carried out.

  13. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand–receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:26350224

  14. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-09-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  15. Identification of nonprotein ligands to the metal ions bound to glutamine synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, C.D.; LoBrutto, R.; Kumar, A.; Villafranca, J.J.

    1988-01-12

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to study the environment of Mn/sup 2 +/ bound to the tight (n/sub 1/) metal ion binding site of glutamine synthetase in the presence of analogues of the tetrahedral adduct, L-methionine (S)-sulfoximine (Met(O)(NM)-S) and L-methionine (R)-sulfoximine (Met(O)(NH)-R). The Mn/sup 2 +/ EPR spectrum in the presence of Met(O)(NH)-S is identical with the previously published spectrum obtained from a mixture of isomers and is characteristic of a highly octahedral metal ion environment with a small zero field splitting. The presence of Met(O)(NH)-R produces and EPR spectrum that appears characteristic of a more distorted metal ion environment, with a larger zero field splitting. These data demonstrate that the two isomers interact differently with the enzyme-bound Mn/sup 2 +/. Broadening of the Mn/sup 2 +/ EPR spectrum in the presence of Met(O)NH) is observed in /sup 17/O-enriched water due to superhyperfine coupling of water to the metal ion. Superhyperfine coupling due to the /sup 14/N nucleus of the imine nitrogen of the sulfoximine moiety of Met(O)(NH)-S but not of Met-(O)(NH)-R has been detected by electron spin-echo envelope modulation spectroscopy. Two intense peaks are evident in the presence of Met(O)(NH)-S with frequencies at 1.7 and 3.3 MHz. These peaks are absent when (/sup 15/N)imine-labeled Met(O)(NH) is used, indicating the presence of the sulfoximine nitrogen of Met(O)(NH)-S in the inner coordination sphere of the metal ion. Taken together, these results suggest a model of the active site in which the metal ion is directly involved in the catalytic mechanism, serving to stabilize the tetrahedral adduct formed from ammonia and ..gamma..-glutamyl phosphate.

  16. A new nanomaterial synthesized from size-selected, ligand-free metal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wepasnick, K.; Tang, X.; Fairbrother, D. H.; Bowen, K. H.; Dollinger, A.; Strobel, C. H.; Huber, J.; Mangler, T.; Luo, Y.; Proch, S.; Gantefoer, G.

    2014-03-01

    Thins films are synthesized by deposition of size-selected Mon- cluster anions on an inert substrate. Scanning tunneling microscopy pictures indicate that the deposited material consists of individual particles with diameters corresponding to the size of the preformed clusters from the gas phase. Previous attempts to manufacture cluster materials from metals failed since these clusters coalesced at room temperature. Our data suggest the possibility to synthesize new nanomaterials from clusters of high fusing metals. This may prove to be the key to harness size-dependent and tuneable properties of clusters for creating novel classes of functional tailor-made materials.

  17. Assessing electronic structure approaches for gas-ligand interactions in metal-organic frameworks: the CO2-benzene complex.

    PubMed

    Witte, Jonathon; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2014-03-14

    Adsorption of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks is governed by many factors, the most dominant of which are the interaction of the gas with open metal sites, and the interaction of the gas with the ligands. Herein, we examine the latter class of interaction in the context of CO2 binding to benzene. We begin by clarifying the geometry of the CO2-benzene complex. We then generate a benchmark binding curve using a coupled-cluster approach with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] at the complete basis set (CBS) limit. Against this ?CCSD(T)/CBS standard, we evaluate a plethora of electronic structure approximations: Hartree-Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the resolution-of-the-identity approximation, attenuated MP2, and a number of density functionals with and without different empirical and nonempirical van der Waals corrections. We find that finite-basis MP2 significantly overbinds the complex. On the other hand, even the simplest empirical correction to standard density functionals is sufficient to bring the binding energies to well within 1 kJ/mol of the benchmark, corresponding to an error of less than 10%; PBE-D in particular performs well. Methods that explicitly include nonlocal correlation kernels, such as VV10, vdW-DF2, and ?B97X-V, perform with similar accuracy for this system, as do ?B97X and M06-L. PMID:24628196

  18. Polymer pendant ligand chemistry. 3. A biomimetic approach to selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solution with polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Song-Ping; Li, Wei; Franz, K.J.; Albright, R.L.; Fish, R.H.

    1995-05-24

    The design of organic ligands to selectively remove and recover metal ions from aqueous solution is a new and important area of environmental inorganic chemistry. One approach to designing organic ligands for these purposes is to use biological systems as examples for selective metal ion complexation. Thus, the authors report results on the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis(catechol) linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS), and sulfonated 3.3-linear tris(catechol) amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands that are chemically bonded to modified 6% cross-linked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB) for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity was dramatically shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1-3, while metal ion selectivity could be changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). Rates of removal and recovery of the Fe{sup 3+} ion with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6LICAMS and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads were also studied as well as relative equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies.

  19. Crystal and molecular structure of manganese(II) lapacholate, a novel polymeric species undergoing temperature-reversible metal to ligand electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Martínez, Miguel A; Rossi, Miriam; Goldberg, Alexander; Chacón Villalba, M Elizabeth; Aymonino, Pedro J

    2009-04-20

    Lapachol (2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphtoquinone) (HLap, C(15)H(14)O(3)) reacts with Mn(2+) producing a novel polymeric complex with formula: [Mn(Lap)(2)](n). Two ligands chelate the metal through their ortho oxygen (O1, O2) moiety while two para oxygens, from other Lap ligands, complete the octahedral coordination sphere. Thus far, all reported Lap metal complexes are mononuclear, lack the metal-trans-quinonic (para) oxygen binding and have Lap as a bidentate ligand. Synthesis, X-ray diffraction, IR, and UV-visible spectroscopic properties, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis of this complex are reported along with a density functional theory study describing electron transfer from the Mn to the Lap ligand at low temperature. X-ray structure determinations at 125, 197, and 300 K describe the progressive trend of a Mn contribution to the Mn-O1 bond length as a function of T. The Mn-O1 bond distance increases with temperature and may be therefore associated with a semiquinonate action at low T by the carbonyl O1 donor (and corresponding to Mn(III)). It transforms to a more classical coordinative bond at room T and stabilizes a Mn(II) species; this is a reversible phenomenon involving Mn(II)-Mn(III) oxidation states. PMID:19281193

  20. YTTRIUM-89 NMR: A POSSIBLE SPIN RELAXATION PROBE FOR STUDYING METAL ION INTERACTIONS WITH ORGANIC LIGANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spin-lattice relaxation mechanisms for aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solutions of Y(NO3)3 have been found to be mainly spin-rotation and dipolar relaxation with solvent protons, unlike most heavy spin=1/2 metal ions which are relaxed mainly by spin-rotation and chemical shif...

  1. Immobilization and chelation of metal complexes with bifunctional phosphine ligands: a solid-state NMR study

    E-print Network

    Bluemel, Janet

    , suspension NMR spectroscopy3can be applied routinely. Since most transition metals form stable phosphine com to bonding via one, two, or three siloxane bridges and there is also the possibility of cross- linking.' Therefore, we used the monoethoxy phosphine PPh2(C6H4)SiMe20Et1 that forms just one siloxane bridge when

  2. The effect of the nature of peripheral platinated and bridging mercapto ligands on the optical and electrochemical properties of binuclear Pt(II) complexes with a metal-metal chemical bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlenok, E. A.; Balashev, K. P.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of heterocyclic metalated and bridging ligands on the optical and electrochemical properties of [Pt(C^N)(?-N^S)]2 complexes ((C^N)- and (N^S)- are the deprotonated forms of 1-phenylpyrazole, 2-tolylpyridine, benzo[h]quinoline, 2-phenylbenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, 2-mercaptobenzoxazole, 2-mercaptopyridine) is studied by 1H NMR, electronic absorption, and emission spectroscopy, as well as by voltammetry. The long-wavelength spin-allowed (415-540 nm) absorption bands of the complexes are attributed to the metal-metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MMLCT) optical transitions. It is shown that the interaction of the d Z2 and ?{(C^N/*)} orbitals of two {Pt(C^N)} fragments of binuclear complexes leads to a cathodic shift (0.5-1.0 V) of their metal-centered oxidation potential and to an anodic shift (0.1-0.2 V) of their ligand-centered reduction potential with respect to [Pt(C^N)En]+ complexes. The luminescence of binuclear complexes in solutions at room temperature is assigned to the spin-forbidden MMLCT transition. It is shown that, in frozen (77 K) solutions, in addition to the MMLCT optical transitions, spin-forbidden radiative processes occur from the intraligand (?(C^N)-?{(C^N)/*}) and metal-to-ligand charge transfer (dPt-?{(C^N)/*}) excited states.

  3. A series of transition and non-transition metal complexes from a N 4O 2 hexadentate Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and efficient antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Saikat; Dey, Kamalendu

    2010-11-01

    Some transition and non-transition metal complexes of the hexadentate N 4O 2 donor Schiff base ligand 1,8- N-bis(3-carboxy)disalicylidene-3,6-diazaoctane-1,8-diamine, abbreviated to H 4fsatrien, have been synthesized. All the 14 metal complexes have been fully characterized with the help of elemental analyses, molecular weights, molar conductance values, magnetic moments and spectroscopic (UV-Vis, IR, NMR, ESR) data. The analytical data helped to elucidate the structures of the metal complexes. The Schiff base, H 4fsatrien, is found to act as a dibasic hexadentate ligand using N 2N 2O 2 donor set of atoms (leaving the COOH group uncoordinated) leading to an octahedral geometry for the complexes around all the metal ions except VO 2+ and UO 22+. However, surprisingly the same ligand functions as a neutral hexadentate and neutral tetradentate one towards UO 22+ and VO 2+, respectively. In case of divalent metal complexes they have the general formula [M(H 2fsatrien)] (where M stands for Cu, Co, Hg and Zn); for trivalent metal complexes it is [M(H 2fsatrien)]X· nH 2O (where M stands for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and X stands for CH 3COO, Cl, NO 3, ClO 4) and for the complexes of VO 2+ and UO 22+, [M(H 4fsatrien)]Y (where M = VO and Y = SO 4; M = UO 2 and Y = 2 NO 3). The Schiff base ligand and most of the complexes have been screened in vitro to judge their antibacterial ( Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and antifungal ( Aspergillus niger and Pencillium chrysogenum) activities.

  4. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.H.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

  5. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemistry and biological evaluation of some metal (II) complexes with ONO donor ligand containing benzo[b]thiophene and coumarin moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahendra Raj, K.; Mruthyunjayaswamy, B. H. M.

    2014-09-01

    Schiff base ligand 3-chloro-N?-((7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-8-yl)methylene)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide and its Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes were synthesized, characterized by elemental analysis and various physico-chemical techniques like, IR, 1H NMR, ESI-mass, UV-Visible, thermogravimetry - differential thermal analysis, magnetic measurements and molar conductance. Spectral analysis indicates octahedral geometry for all the complexes. Cu(II) complex have 1:1 stoichiometry of the type [M(L)(Cl)(H2O)2], whereas Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes have 1:2 stoichiometric ratio of the type [M(L)2]. The bonding sites are the oxygen atom of amide carbonyl, nitrogen of azomethine function and phenolic oxygen of the Schiff base ligand via deprotonation. The thermogravimetry - differential thermal analysis studies gave evidence for the presence of coordinated water molecules in the composition of Cu(II) complex which was further supported by IR measurements. All the complexes were investigated for their electrochemical activity, but only the Cu(II) complex showed the redox property. In order to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial potency of metal ions upon chelation, ligand and its metal complexes along with their respective metal chlorides were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The results showed that the metal complexes were found to be more active than free ligand. Ligand and its complexes were screened for free radical scavenging activity by DPPH method and DNA cleavage activity using Calf-thymus DNA (Cat. No-105850).

  7. Synthesis, characterization and biological relevance of some metal (II) complexes with oxygen, nitrogen and oxygen (ONO) donor Schiff base ligand derived from thiazole and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesh, G. Y.; Mruthyunjayaswamy, B. H. M.

    2015-04-01

    The novel Schiff base ligand 2-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)-N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazinecarboxamide (L) obtained by the condensation of N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazinecarboxamide with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and its newly synthesized Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes have been characterized by microanalysis, molar conductance, IR, 1H NMR, ESI-mass, UV-Visible, TGA/DTA, ESR and powder X-ray diffraction data to explicate their structures. The IR results confirmed the tridentate binding of the ligand involving oxygen atom of amide carbonyl, azomethine nitrogen and naphthol oxygen. 1H NMR spectral data of the ligand (L) and its Zn(II) complex agreed well with the proposed structures. Thermogravimetric studies for Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes indicated the presence of coordinated water molecules and the final product is the metal oxide. In order to appraise the effect of antimicrobial activity of metal ions upon chelation, the newly synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage activities were studied using plasmid DNA pBR322 (Bangal re Genei, Bengaluru, Cat. No 105850) as a target molecule by agarose gel electrophoresis method. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study the in vitro cytotoxicity properties against Artemia salina. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity were determined in vitro by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The ligand exhibited better in vitro-antioxidant activity than its metal complexes.

  8. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  9. Exploiting ?/? coordination isomerism to prepare homologous organoalkali metal (Li, Na, K) monomers with identical ligand sets.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Matthew G; Garcia-Vivo, Daniel; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; Robertson, Stuart D

    2011-03-14

    Tetraamine Me(6)TREN has been used as a scaffold support to provide coordinative saturation in the complexes PhCH(2)M?Me(6)TREN (M=Li, Na, K). The Li derivative displays a Li??C ? interaction with a pyramidalized CH(2) both in the solid state and in solution, and represents the first example of ?(4) coordination of Me(6)TREN to lithium. In the sodium derivative, the metal cation slips slightly towards the delocalized ? electrons whilst maintaining a partial ? interaction with the CH(2) group. For the potassium case, coordinative saturation successfully yields the first monomeric benzylpotassium complex, in which the anion binds to the metal cation exclusively through its delocalized ? system resulting in a planar CH(2) group. PMID:21341333

  10. Enhanced association for C70 over C60 with a metal complex with corannulene derivate ligands.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Celedonio M; García-Escudero, Luis A; García-Rodríguez, Raúl; Martín-Álvarez, Jose M; Miguel, Daniel; Rayón, Víctor M

    2014-11-14

    The geometry imposed by the coordination sphere around the metal, together with the choice of the "arms" can be advantageously used to build corannulene-based molecular tweezers, which show great affinities for C60 and C70, as revealed by NMR titration experiments, mass spectroscopy, DFT calculations and the single crystal X-ray structural analysis of the compound C60 ?1. PMID:25181755

  11. Cluster synthesis via ligand-arrested solid growth: triethylphosphine-capped fragments of binary metal chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Nathan R M; Hee, Allan G; Long, Jeffrey R

    2002-12-18

    A new and potentially highly generalizable technique for synthesizing molecular fragments of binary solids is demonstrated through application to selected transition metal chalcogenides. Employing a metal atom reactor, the solids are evaporated with a tungsten heating boat, and the resulting vapor is co-condensed with triethylphosphine. Major cluster products identified from a survey of first-row transition metal sulfides include the known species Cr6S8(PEt3)6, Co6S8(PEt3)6, and Cu12S6(PEt3)8, as well as the unprecedented species Fe4S4(PBun3)4, Ni4S4(PEt3)8, and Cu6S4(PEt3)4. Reactions utilizing Cu2Se resulted in the much larger clusters Cu26Se13(PEt3)14 and Cu70Se35(PEt3)21. The core of the former has a Th-symmetry structure featuring a body-centered icosahedron of Se2- anions, while the latter adopts a triangular structure based on three hexagonal closest packed layers of Se2- anions. In both cases, the Cu+ cations occupy distorted tetrahedral or trigonal planar sites similar to those encountered in Cu2Se; however, emergence of the face-centered cubic anion lattice of the bulk solid is not yet apparent at these cluster sizes. PMID:12475314

  12. Recognition of some lanthanides, actinides, and transition- and heavy-metal cations by N-donor ligands: thermodynamic and kinetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Hubscher-Bruder, Véronique; Haddaoui, Jaouad; Bouhroum, Saliha; Arnaud-Neu, Françoise

    2010-02-15

    The remarkable actinide(III) selectivity of the polyaromatic N-donors bis-triazine-pyridines (BTPs), hemi-bis-triazine-pyridines (hemi-BTPs) and bis-triazine-bipyridines (BTBPs) make these ligands the most promising candidates in partitioning and transmutation processes developed so far to better manage nuclear waste. The interactions of n-Pr-BTP, C(5)-hemi-BTP, and the two most extensively investigated BTBPs (C(5)-BTBP and CyMe(4)-BTBP) have been studied with some representative lanthanide(III), uranyl, thorium, and transition- and other heavy-metal cations in methanol. The formation of complexes of different stoichiometries, the stability of which depended on both the ligands and the cations, was shown using UV absorption spectrophotometry. Study of the complexation reactions of La(3+), Eu(3+) and Yb(3+) with these four ligands by stopped-flow spectrophotometry allowed determination of the rate constants and postulation of possible complexation mechanisms. PMID:20055507

  13. Combining ligand design and photo-ligation to provide optimal quantum dot-bioconjugates for sensing and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Naiqian; Palui, Goutam; Safi, Malak; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2014-03-01

    We describe the design and synthesis of two metal-coordinating zwitterion ligands to promote the transfer of hydrophobic QDs to buffer media over broad range of conditions. The ligands are prepared by appending either one or two lipoic acid anchoring groups onto a zwitterion, LA-TEG200-ZW and bis(LA)- ZW. Combining these ligands with a photochemical reduction of the lipoic acid group in the presence of UV irradiation, provides an easy to implement method to transfer luminescent QDs to buffer media, while preserving their optical and spectroscopic properties intact. The resulting zwitterion-QDs have very thin capping shell, which allows their self-assembly with full size proteins via metal-to-histidine coordination. These conjugates have great potential for use in various bio-motivated applications.

  14. Aromatizing olefin metathesis by ligand isolation inside a metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Karagiaridi, Olga; Sarjeant, Amy A; Stern, Charlotte L; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2013-10-01

    The aromatizing ring-closing metathesis has been shown to take place inside an extended porous framework. Employing a combination of solvent-assisted linker exchange and postsynthesis modification using olefin metathesis, the noninterpenetrated SALEM-14 was formed and converted catalytically into PAH-MOF-1 with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pillars. The metal-organic framework in SALEM-14 prevents "intermolecular" olefin metathesis from occurring between the pillars in the presence of the first generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst, while favoring the production of a PAH, which can be released from the framework under acidic conditions in dimethylsulfoxide. PMID:24047342

  15. Reactivity of functionalized indoles with rare-earth metal amides. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of rare-earth metal complexes incorporating indolyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhijun; Wei, Yun; Zhou, Shuangliu; Zhang, Guangchao; Zhu, Xiancui; Guo, Liping; Wang, Shaowu; Mu, Xiaolong

    2015-12-21

    The reactivity of several functionalized indoles 2-(RNHCH2)C8H5NH (R = C6H5 (1), (t)Bu (2), 2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3 (3)) with rare-earth metal amides is described. Reactions of 1 or 2 with [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(?-Cl)Li(THF)3 (RE = Eu, Yb) respectively produced the europium complexes [2-(C6H5N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]2Eu[N(SiMe3)2] (4) and [2-((t)BuN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]Eu[N(SiMe3)2]2 (5), and the ytterbium complex [2-((t)BuN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]2Yb[N(SiMe3)2] (6), containing bidentate anionic indolyl ligands via dehydrogenation of the amine to the imine. In contrast, reactions of the more sterically bulky indole 3 with [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(?-Cl)Li(THF)3 afforded complexes [2-(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3NCH2)C8H5N]RE[N(SiMe3)2](THF)2 (RE = Yb (7), Y (8), Er (9), Dy (10)) with the deprotonated indolyl ligand. While reactions of 3 with yttrium and ytterbium amides in refluxing toluene respectively gave the complexes [2-(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]3Y (11) and [2-(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]2Yb(II)(THF)2 (12), along with transformation of the amino group to the imino group, and also with a reduction of Yb(3+) to Yb(2+) in the formation of 12. Reactions of 3 with samarium and neodymium amides provided novel dinuclear complexes {[?-?(5):?(1):?(1)-2-(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3NCH2)C8H5N]RE[N(SiMe3)2]}2 (RE = Sm (13), Nd (14)) having indolyl ligands in ?-?(5):?(1):?(1) hapticities. The pathway for the transformation of the amino group to the imino group is proposed on the basis of the experimental results. The new complexes displayed excellent activity in the intramolecular hydroamination of aminoalkenes. PMID:26548974

  16. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  17. Versatile tuning of supramolecular hydrogels through metal complexation of oxidation-resistant catechol-inspired ligands

    PubMed Central

    Menyo, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    The mussel byssal cuticle employs DOPA-Fe3+ complexation to provide strong, yet reversible crosslinking. Synthetic constructs employing this design motif based on catechol units are plagued by oxidation-driven degradation of the catechol units and the requirement for highly alkaline pH conditions leading to decreased performance and loss of supramolecular properties. Herein, a platform based on a 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel system is used to explore the utility of DOPA analogues such as the parent catechol and derivatives, 4-nitrocatechol (nCat) and 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonone (HOPO), as structural crosslinking agents upon complexation with metal ions. HOPO moieties are found to hold particular promise, as robust gelation with Fe3+ occurs at physiological pH and is found to be largely resistant to oxidative degradation. Gelation is also shown to be triggered by other biorelevant metal ions such as Al3+, Ga3+ and Cu2+ which allows for tuning of the release and dissolution profiles with potential application as injectable delivery systems. PMID:24285981

  18. Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) complexes containing bioactive O,O-chelated ligands: homoleptic and heteroleptic metal-based biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, Barbara Sanz; Aiello, Iolinda; Crispini, Alessandra

    2015-05-28

    Historically, many useful drugs have been developed from natural sources and their mechanisms of action deeply investigated for therapeutic applications. Recently, the interaction between pharmacologically active biomolecules and transition metal ions has opened the way to the construction of new drugs, where the unique properties of metal complexes are combined with the specific mechanisms of action of the coordinated bioligands of natural extraction. In this context, this perspective summarizes some recent research studies devoted to the development of new metal-based drugs containing Zn(ii) or Cu(ii) metal ions. Both metals have a strong tendency to form highly stable complexes with N,N- and O,O-donor ligands bound through chelation, giving rise, particularly when the bound organic molecules are drug candidates of natural extraction, to drug delivery systems, new biologically active complexes and potential diagnostic agents due to their intrinsic spectroscopic properties. PMID:25904400

  19. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of rare earth metal ion complexes of N,N?-bis-(2-thiophenecarboxaldimine)-3,3?-diaminobenzidene, Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir, Mohammad; Abbasi, Ambreen; Faraz, Mohammad; Sherwani, Asif

    2015-12-01

    Lanthanide complexes of La3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Gd3+, Er3+ of general formula [Ln2 L(H2O)4(NO3)4](NO3)2·2H2O have been synthesized from Schiff base, N,N?-bis-(2-thiophenecarboxaldimine)-3,3?-diaminobenzidene. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, UV-Vis, fluorescence, FT-IR,1H NMR, mass spectroscopy, EDX, SEM and thermal analysis. FT-IR spectral data suggested that ligand coordinate with metal ions through azomethine nitrogen and uncondensed amino group. Molar conductance data revealed 1:2 electrolytic nature of complexes. From the analytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:2 (ligand:metal). Thephysico-chemical data suggested eight coordination number for Ln(III)Schiffbase complexes. SEM analysis shows morphological changes in the surfaces of complexes as compared to free ligand. Thermal decomposition profiles were consistent with proposed formulations. The anticancer activity of the complexes and theSchiffbase ligand has been studied towards human cervical cancer celllines (HeLa) and human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and it was found that complexes exhibited greater activity than theSchiffbase.

  20. In search for new bonding modes of the methylenedithiolato ligand: novel tri- and tetra-metallic clusters.

    PubMed

    Anju, R S; Saha, Koushik; Mondal, Bijan; Roisnel, Thierry; Halet, Jean-François; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2015-07-01

    Building upon our earlier results on the chemistry of diruthenium analogue of pentaborane (9) with heterocumulenes, we continued to investigate the reactivity of arachno-[(Cp*Ru)2(B3H8)(CS2H)], 1, (Cp* = ?(5)-C5Me5) towards group 7 and 8 transition metal carbonyl compounds under photolytic and thermolytic conditions. The metal carbonyl compounds show diverse reactivity pattern with arachno-1. For example, the photolysis of arachno-1 with [Re2(CO)10] yielded [(Cp*Ru)2B3H5(CH2S2){Re(CO)4}2], 2, [(Cp*RuCO)2(?-H)2(CH2S2){Re(CO)4}{Re(CO)3}], 3 and [(Cp*Ru)2(?-CO)(?-H)(CH2S2){Re(CO)3}], 4. The geometry of 2 with a nearly planar eight-membered ring containing heavier transition metals rhenium, ruthenium is unprecedented. Compounds 3 and 4 can be considered as M4-quadrilateral and M3-triangle with a methylenedithiolato ligand attached to the metal centres, respectively. [Mn2(CO)10], on the other hand, reacts with arachno-1 to yield heterometallic binuclear [(Cp*RuCO){Mn(CO)4}(?-H)(SCH3)], 5 and homocubane [(Cp*Ru)2{Mn(CO)3}-(CS2H2)B3H4], 6. In an attempt to generate group 8 analogues of 2-5, we performed the reaction of arachno-1 with [Fe2(CO)9] and [Ru3(CO)12]. Although, the objective of isolating analogous compounds was not achieved, the reaction with [Fe2(CO)9] led to novel tetrahedral cluster [(Cp*RuCO){(Fe(CO)3}2S(?-H)], 7. [Ru3(CO)12], in contrast, yielded known compounds [{Cp*Ru(CO)}2B2H6], 9 and [Cp*Ru(CO)2]2, 10. All the cluster compounds have been characterized by mass spectrometry, IR, and (1)H, (11)B, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the geometric structures were unequivocally established by crystallographic analysis of 2-5 and 7. PMID:25723783

  1. Metal flux in ligand mixtures. 2. Flux enhancement due to kinetic interplay: comparison of the reaction layer approximation with a rigorous approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zeshi; Buffle, Jacques; Town, Raewyn M; Puy, Jaume; van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2009-06-18

    The revisited reaction layer approximation (RLA) of metal flux at consuming interfaces in ligand mixtures, discussed in the previous paper (part 1 of this series) is systematically validated by comparison with the results of rigorous numerical simulations. The current paper focuses on conditions under which the total metal flux is enhanced in the ligand (and complex) mixture compared to the case where the individual fluxes of metal complexes are independent of each other. Such an effect is exhibited only in ligand mixtures and results from the kinetic interplay between the various complexes with different labilities. It is exemplified by the Cu/NTA/N-(2-carboxyphenyl)glycine system (see part 1 paper), in which we show that the flux due to the less labile complex (CuNTA) is increased in the presence of a ligand (2-carboxyphenyl)glycine) that forms labile Cu complexes, even when the latter is in negligible proportion in the bulk solution. This paper first explains how the so-called composite and equivalent reaction layer thicknesses computed by RLA can be determined graphically from the concentration profiles of free metal and its complexes, as obtained by rigorous calculations. This approach allows comparison between the latter and RLA predictions. Comparison between these reaction layer thicknesses is then done using the chemical system mentioned above. The mechanism of flux enhancement with this system is studied in detail by following the change of the concentration profiles and reaction layer thicknesses with the increase of concentration of the ligand forming labile complexes. The mechanism of flux enhancement is well explained by the RLA and is validated by the concentration profiles obtained by rigorous numerical simulations. Based on this validation, the RLA is used to predict the conditions of the individual complex labilities and degree of complexation required to get flux enhancement in a two-ligand system. Due to compensation effects between kinetic and thermodynamic factors, a maximum flux enhancement is observed in a specific range of ratios of the lability indices of the two complexes. Flux enhancement might play a significant role in metal uptake in environmental or biological systems and should be considered in data interpretation. PMID:19459605

  2. Synthesis, structures, and properties of two three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks, based on concurrent ligand extension.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dabin; Ren, Yanwei; Jiang, Huanfeng; Cai, Bowei; Lu, Jiaxian

    2012-06-18

    A tritopic carboxylate ligand, tris(4'-carboxybiphenyl)amine (L-H(3)), has been synthesized and applied in the construction of microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Two novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), {[Zn(2)(L)(OH)]·2DMF·H(2)O}(?) (1) and {[Cu(L-H)(DMA)]·DMA·2H(2)O}(?) (2), have been constructed out of L-H(3), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+), respectively. 1 has a 2-fold interpenetrating three-dimensional framework formed by L connectors and the [Zn(2)(CO(2))(3)] secondary building units (SBUs). As for 1, it is worth pointing out that one ?(2)-OH group links two Zn atoms between two neighboring SBUs to produce interesting Zn-O-Zn zigzag chains in the structure. 2 has a two-dimensional grid sheet formed by L-H connectors and the typical paddle-wheel [Cu(2)(CO(2))(4)] SBUs. Two-dimensional (2D) sheets nest with each other, which finally forms a three-dimensional (3D) nested framework. Two MOFs are characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, single-crystal and elemental analyses, and powder X-ray diffraction methods. Framework 1' exhibits high permanent porosity (Langmuir surface area = 848 m(2)/g), high thermal stability (up to 450 °C), highly active properties for Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, as well as the potential application for the CO(2) gas storage and luminescent material. The catalytic results reveal that 2' is indeed an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for olefin epoxidation reactions. PMID:22670898

  3. Blind-Anchor-Nut-Installation Fixture (BANIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Norman F., Jr.; Linker, James F.

    1994-01-01

    Blind-anchor-nut-installation fixture, BANIF, developed for replacing or installing anchor nuts in blind holes or other inaccessible places. Attachment of anchor nut to BANIF enables placement of anchor nut on blind side of component.

  4. Syntheses, structures and properties of three metal-organic complexes containing 2,2?-dipyridyl-5,5?-dicarboxylate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiancai; Zhang, Yudong; Shang, Sensen; Li, Yanzhou; Chen, Lijuan; Zhao, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Three new metal-organic complexes Cu[Hbpdc]2 (1), [Ni(bpdc)(H2O)]·H2O (2) and [Ni(H2bpdc)(H2O)2]SO4 (3) (H2bpdc=2,2?-bipyridyl-5,5?-dicarboxylic acid) have been hydrothermally prepared and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 is a 3-D supramolecular architecture formed by hydrogen bonding interactions between carboxyl O atoms and strong face-to-face ?⋯? stacking interactions between bipyridyl rings of Hbpdc- ligands, 2 exhibits an intriguing 2-D sheet constructed from [Ni(bpdc)(H2O)] units and 3 displays an infinite 1-D chain built by {[Ni(H2bpdc)(H2O)2]2+} fragments through SO42-. Moreover, thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analyses of 3 have been conducted and the TG curve shows two-stage weight loss between 300 and 950 K and the corresponding apparent activation energies are calculated by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) method and Friedman method. The most probable kinetic model function of the dehydration reaction of 3 has been estimated by Coats-Redfern integral method and Achar-Bridly-Sharp differential method.

  5. Hydroxylated derivatives of dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone as redox switchable earth-alkaline metal ligands and radical scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeski, Ivan; Mir?eski, Valentin; Saul, Stephanie; Pasieka, Bastian; Haeri, Haleh H.; Stefova, Marina; Stanoeva, Jasmina Petreska; Mitrev, Saša; Hoth, Markus; Kappl, Reinhard

    2013-05-01

    Benzoquinones (BQ) have important functions in many biological processes. In alkaline environments, BQs can be hydroxylated at quinoid ring proton positions. Very little is known about the chemical reaction leading to these structural transformations as well as about the properties of the obtained hydroxyl benzoquinones. We analyzed the behavior of the naturally occurring 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone under alkaline conditions and show that upon substitution of methoxy-groups, poly-hydroxyl-derivatives (OHBQ) are formed. The emerging compounds with one or several hydroxyl-substituents on single or fused quinone-rings exist in oxidized or reduced states and are very stable under physiological conditions. In comparison with the parent BQs, OHBQs are stronger radical scavengers and redox switchable earth-alkaline metal ligands. Considering that hydroxylated quinones appear as biosynthetic intermediates or as products of enzymatic reactions, and that BQs present in food or administered as drugs can be hydroxylated by enzymatic pathways, highlights their potential importance in biological systems.

  6. Growth modes of thin films of ligand-free metal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollinger, A.; Strobel, C. H.; Bleuel, H.; Marsteller, A.; Gantefoer, G.; Fairbrother, D. H.; Tang, Xin; Bowen, K. H.; Kim, Young Dok

    2015-05-01

    Size-selected Mon-, Wn-, and Fen- cluster anions are deposited on a weakly interacting substrate (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) and studied ex-situ using atomic force microscopy. Depending on size, three growth modes can be distinguished. Very small clusters consisting of less than 10-30 atoms behave similar to atoms and coalesce into 3-dimensional bulk-like islands. Medium sized clusters consisting of hundreds of atoms do not coalesce and follow a Stanski-Krastanov growth pattern. At low coverage, an almost perfect monolayer is formed. This is a new finding different from all previous studies on deposited metal clusters. For clusters with several thousands of atoms, the growth pattern again changes. At low coverage, the substrate is dotted with individual clusters, while at high coverage, the surface becomes extremely rough.

  7. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+,Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity.

  8. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.H.

    1997-04-22

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

  9. Synthesis and reactivity of metal complexes supported by the tetradentate monoanionic ligand bis(2-picolyl)(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl)amide (BPPA).

    PubMed

    Chomitz, Wayne A; Minasian, Stefan G; Sutton, Andrew D; Arnold, John

    2007-08-20

    Metal-halide complexes of Ti, V, Y, Zr, Al, Ga, and U supported by the tetradentate monoanionic (TDMA) ligand bis(2-picolyl)(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl)amine, H(BPPA), were synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. In addition, the complexes (BPPA)TiCl2, (BPPA)VBr2, [(BPPA)YCl2]2, (BPPA)AlCl2, (BPPA)GaCl2, and (BPPA)UI3 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. In all cases the ligand is bound kappa4 to the metal center. All structurally characterized compounds are monomeric in the solid-state with the exception of [(BPPA)YCl2]2, which exists as a dimer in the solid-state. The metal-alkyl complexes (BPPA)AlMe2 and (BPPA)Zr(CH2Ph)3 were also synthesized and characterized, and an X-ray structure of (BPPA)Zr(CH2Ph)3 was obtained. The transformation of BPPA from a monoanionic to a dianionic ligand via proton abstraction was observed and monitored by NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17655225

  10. Covalent attachment of diphosphine ligands to glassy carbon electrodes via Cu-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Metallation with Ni(II).

    PubMed

    Das, Atanu K; Engelhard, Mark H; Lense, Sheri; Roberts, John A S; Bullock, R Morris

    2015-07-21

    Covalent tethering of P(Ph)2N(C6H4C?CH)2 ligands (P(Ph)2N(C6H4C?CH)2 = 1,5-di-(4-ethynylphenyl)-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) to planar, azide-terminated glassy carbon electrode surfaces has been accomplished using a Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) coupling reaction, using a BH3?P protection-deprotection strategy. Deprotected, surface-confined ligands were metallated using [Ni(II)(MeCN)6](BF4)2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements demonstrate that metallation introduced 1.3 equivalents Ni(II) per diphosphine onto the electrode surface. Exposure of the surface to a second diphosphine ligand, P(Ph)2N(Ph)2, resulted in the removal of Ni from the surface. Protection, coupling, deprotection, and metallation conditions were optimized using solution-phase model systems, with benzyl azide as a model for the azide-terminated carbon surface; these reactions generate a [Ni(II)(diphosphine)2](2+) complex. PMID:25811536

  11. Anchoring groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groups are employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies. PMID:25594514

  12. Monitoring the solid-state electrochemistry of Cu(2,7-AQDC) (AQDC = anthraquinone dicarboxylate) in a lithium battery: coexistence of metal and ligand redox activities in a metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyue; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio

    2014-11-19

    By adopting a facile synthetic strategy, we obtained a microporous redox-active metal-organic framework (MOF), namely, Cu(2,7-AQDC) (2,7-H2AQDC = 2,7-anthraquinonedicarboxylic acid) (1), and utilized it as a cathode active material in lithium batteries. With a voltage window of 4.0-1.7 V, both metal clusters and anthraquinone groups in the ligands exhibited reversible redox activity. The valence change of copper cations was clearly evidenced by in situ XANES analysis. By controlling the voltage window of operation, extremely high recyclability of batteries was achieved, suggesting the framework was robust. This MOF is the first example of a porous material showing independent redox activity on both metal cluster nodes and ligand sites. PMID:25365211

  13. Interfacial self-assembly of metal-mediated viologen-like coordination polyelectrolyte hybrids of the bisterpyridine ligand and their optical, electrochemical, and electrochromic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao-Feng; Liu, An; Chen, Meng; Nakamura, Chikashi; Miyake, Jun; Qian, Dong-Jin

    2009-06-01

    Metal-mediated coordination polyelectrolyte multilayers with a bisterpyridine ligand (Bisterpy) have been self-assembled at air-water interfaces via coordination reactions of the bidentate ligand Bisterpy with inorganic salts in the subphases. To avoid dissolution of the viologen-like coordination polyelectrolyte monolayers, anionic poly(styrenesulfonic acid-o-maleic) (PSS) acid was added in the subphases as a supporting layer. The average molecular area of the ligand Bisterpy could reach 1.2-1.5 nm(2) on the surfaces of the subphases containing mixtures of inorganic salts (M) and PSS, although the ligand was unable to form a stable monolayer on the pure water surface. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method was used to deposit the Bisterpy/PSS and M-Bisterpy/PSS hybrid multilayers on the substrate surfaces, which were characterized by using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as electrochemical analysis. Quasi-reversible redox waves were recorded and centered at about -0.68 and -0.92 V (vs Ag/AgCl), respectively, corresponding to the two-electron process of the ligand, Bisterpy2+ <--> Bisterpy(*+) <--> Bisterpy(0), which were slightly shifted to lower potentials in the LB films of metal-mediated coordination polymers. The film compositions were determined by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared LB films showed strong stability and good electrochromic response upon the applied potential of -1.1 V vs Ag/AgCl and thus could act as potential materials in the development of redox-based molecular switches and display devices. PMID:20355920

  14. Association-dissociation of mammalian brain glutamine synthetase: effects of metal ions and other ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, R.B.; Wedler, F.C.

    1984-08-01

    Glutamine synthetase from ovine brain has been found to exist in vivo and in vitro as a Mn4E complex, where E is octameric enzyme. Previously observed anomolous effects of added metal ions and protein concentration on the observed specific activity in vitro can now be explained in terms of association-dissociation of the native octamer. In the absence of glycerol, added to stabilize the enzyme for long-term storage, activity decreases sharply below 4 micrograms/ml (20 nM octamer) in assay mixtures due to dissociation of octamer to tetramer and thence to inactive monomer. No dimeric species were detectable under any conditions. The octameric species Mn4EMn4 could be activated further by Mn(II) to form a species Mn4EMn4Mn8 that has a specific activity of ca. 900 U/mg in the transferase assay. Enzyme with one Mn(II)/subunit, Mn4EMn4, associated to octamers more extensively than Mn4E. Analysis of the data by the methods of Kurganov or Thomes and co-workers indicate that the tetramer/octamer equilibrium has a Kd value of ca. 2.5 X 10(-6) M, comparable to values calculated for other enzyme systems. The specific activities for octamer and monomer in the Mg(II)-dependent transferase assay were calculated to be 200 +/- 20 and 0 U/mg, respectively. Tetramers, produced by 2 M urea and then immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, exhibited a specific activity that was 86% of that of the identically treated octamers. Light-scattering experiments showed that, with 1.7-2.0 Mn(II) bound per subunit, the octameric enzyme octamers can associate further to an oligomeric species (Mn4EMn4Mn8)n, where n greater than or equal to 5. This oligomerization also was promoted strongly by lanthanide ions. Mg(II), however, caused only the association of tetramer to octamer.

  15. Formation of a metal-to-nitrogen bond of normal length by a neutral sufonamide group within a tridentate ligand. A new approach to radiopharmaceutical bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Perera, Theshini; Abhayawardhana, Pramuditha; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that a tertiary sulfonamide group, N(SO2R)R'2, can rehybridize to form a M-N bond of normal length even when the group is in a linear tridentate ligand, such as in the new tridentate N(SO2R)dpa ligands derived from di-(2-picolyl)amine (N(H)dpa). N(SO2R)dpa ligands were used to prepare fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2R)dpa)](PF6 or BF4) complexes. Structural characterization of the new complexes established that the tertiary sulfonamide nitrogen atom binds to Re with concomitant sp(2)-to-sp(3) rehybridization, facilitating facial coordination. The new fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2R)dpa)]X structures provide the only examples for any metal with the sulfonamide as part of a noncyclic linear tridentate ligand and with a normal metal-to-nitrogen(tertiary sulfonamide) bond length. Rare previous examples of such normal M-N bonds have been found only in more constrained situations, such as with tripodal tetradentate ligands. Our long-term objectives for the new tridentate N(SO2R)dpa ligands are to develop the fundamental chemistry relevant to the eventual use of the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) core (M = (99m)Tc, (186/188)Re) in imaging and therapy. The sulfonamide group uniquely contributes to two of our goals: expanding ways to conjugate the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) core to biological molecules and also developing new symmetrical tridentate ligands that can coordinate facially to this core. Tests of our conjugation method, conducted by linking the fac-[Re(I)(CO)3](+) core to a new tetraarylporphyrin (T(N(SO2C6H4)dpa)P) as well as to a dansyl (5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl) group, demonstrate that large molecular fragments can be tethered via a coordinated tertiary sulfonamide linkage to this core. PMID:23421481

  16. Group 3 metal initiators with an [OSSO]-type bis(phenolate) ligand for the stereoselective polymerization of lactide monomers.

    PubMed

    Kapelski, Andreas; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Spaniol, Thomas P; Okuda, Jun

    2012-06-01

    A series of 1,?-dithiaalkanediyl-bridged bis(phenols) of the general type [OSSO]H(2) with variable steric properties and various bridges were prepared. The stoichiometric reaction of the bis(phenols) 1,3-dithiapropanediyl-2,2'-bis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol), 1,3-dithiapropanediyl-2,2'-bis[4,6-di(2-phenyl-2-propyl)phenol], rac-2,3-trans-propanediyl-1,4-dithiabutanediyl-2,2'-bis[4,6-di(2-phenyl-2-propyl)phenol], rac-2,3-trans-butanediyl-1,4-dithiabutane diyl-2,2'-bis[4,6-di(2-phenyl-2-propyl)phenol], rac-2,3-trans-hexanediyl-1,4-dithiabutanediyl-2,2'-bis[4,6-di(2-phenyl-2-propyl)phenol], 1,3-dithiapropanediyl-2,2'-bis[6-(1-methylcyclohexyl)-4-methylphenol] (C(1), R=1-methylcyclohexyl), and 1,4-dithiabutanediyl-2,2'-bis[6-(1-methylcyclohexyl)-4-methylphenol] with rare-earth metal silylamido precursors [Ln{N(SiHMe(2))(2)(3)(thf)(x)] (Ln=Sc, x=1 or Ln=Y, x=2; thf=tetrahydrofuran) afforded the corresponding scandium and yttrium bis(phenolate) silylamido complexes [Ln(OSSO){N(SiHMe(2))(2)}(thf)] in moderate to good yields. The monomeric nature of these complexes was shown by an X-ray diffraction study of one of the yttrium complexes. The complexes efficiently initiated the ring-opening polymerization of rac- and meso-lactide to give heterotactic-biased poly(rac-lactides) and highly syndiotactic poly(meso-lactides). Variation of the ligand backbone and the steric properties of the ortho substituents affected the level of tacticity in the polylactides. PMID:22367758

  17. Synthesis, crystal structures and luminescent properties of zinc(II) metal-organic frameworks constructed from terpyridyl derivative ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Le; Shangguan, Yi-Qing; Hu, Huai-Ming; Xu, Bing; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Xie, Juan; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Meng-Lin; Dong, Fa-Xin; Xue, Gang-Lin

    2014-08-01

    Five zinc(II) metal-organic frameworks, [Zn3(344-pytpy)2Cl6]n·n(H2O) (1), [Zn(344-pytpy)(ox)]n (2), [Zn2(344-pytpy)(bdc)2]n·1.5n(H2O) (3), [Zn2(344-pytpy)2 (sfdb)2]n·1.5n(H2O) (4) and [Zn3(344-pytpy)2(btc)2]n·2n(H2O) (5), (344-pytpy=4?-(3-pyridyl)-4,2?:6?,4?-terpyridine, H2ox=oxalic acid, H2bdc=1,4-benzenedi-carboxylic acid, H2sfdb=4,4?-sulfonyldibenzoic acid and H3btc=1,3,5-benzene-tricarboxylic acid) have been prepared by hydrothermal reactions. Compound 1 is a 1D chain structure, in which 344-pytpy ligand links three ZnII centers through three of terminal N-donors. Compound 2 is a 4-connected 3D framework with the dia topological net and the Schläfli symbol of 66. Compound 3 displays a unusual 3-fold interpenetrating 3D coordination network which exhibits a new intriguing (3,3,4)-connected topological net with the Schläfli symbol of (4.82)(4.85)(83). Compound 4 features a two-fold interpenetrating 4-connected 2D framework with the sql topological net and the Schläfli symbol of (44.62). Compound 5 is a new self-interpenetrating (3,3,4,4)-connected topological net with the Schläfli symbol of (6.82)2(62.82.10.12)(62.83.10)2(62.8)2. The luminescence properties of 1-5 have been investigated by emission spectra and they possess great thermal stabilities which can be stable up to around 400 °C.

  18. Bio-sensitive activities of coordination compounds containing 1,10-phenanthroline as co-ligand: Synthesis, structural elucidation and DNA binding properties of metal(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Natarajan; Mahalakshmi, Rajkumar; Mitu, Liviu

    2014-10-01

    Present work reports the DNA binding and cleavage characteristics of a series of mixed-ligand complexes having the composition [M(L)(phen)2]Cl2 (where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) and phen as co-ligand) in detail. Their structural features and other properties have been deduced from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity as well as from IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and EPR spectral studies. The UV-Vis, magnetic susceptibility and EPR spectral data of metal complexes suggest an octahedral geometry. The binding properties of these complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been explored using electronic absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The DNA-binding constants for Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) complexes are 6.14 × 105 M-1, 1.8 × 105 M-1, 6.7 × 104 M-1 and 2.5 × 104 M-1 respectively. Detailed analysis reveals that these complexes interact with DNA through intercalation binding. Nuclease activity has also been investigated by gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the synthesized Schiff base and its mixed-ligand complexes have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The data reveal that the complexes exhibit higher activity than the parent ligand.

  19. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. Crystal structure of nonadentate tricompartmental ligand derived from pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid: Spectroscopic, electrochemical and thermal investigations of its transition metal(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadavi, Ramesh S.; Shenoy, Rashmi V.; Badiger, Dayananda S.; Gudasi, Kalagouda B.; Devi, L. Gomathi; Nethaji, Munirathinam

    2011-07-01

    The coordinating behavior of a new dihydrazone ligand, 2,6-bis[(3-methoxysalicylidene)hydrazinocarbonyl]pyridine towards manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) has been described. The metal complexes were characterized by magnetic moments, conductivity measurements, spectral (IR, NMR, UV-Vis, FAB-Mass and EPR) and thermal studies. The ligand crystallizes in triclinic system, space group P-1, with ? = 98.491(10)°, ? = 110.820(10)° and ? = 92.228(10)°. The cell dimensions are a = 10.196(7) Å, b = 10.814(7) Å, c = 10.017(7) Å, Z = 2 and V = 1117.4(12). IR spectral studies reveal the nonadentate behavior of the ligand. All the complexes are neutral in nature and possess six-coordinate geometry around each metal center. The X-band EPR spectra of copper(II) complex at both room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature showed unresolved broad signals with giso = 2.106. Cyclic voltametric studies of copper(II) complex at different scan rates reveal that all the reaction occurring are irreversible.

  2. Quinoxaline based bio-active mixed ligand transition metal complexes: Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical, antimicrobial, DNA binding, cleavage, antioxidant and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Dhanaraj, C Justin; Johnson, Jijo

    2015-10-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligand complexes have been synthesized from N(2), N(3)-bis(4-nitrophenyl)quinoxaline-2,3-diamine and 1,10-phenanthroline. The compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, UV-Vis., (1)H NMR, mass and ESR spectra. Octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for Cu(II) complex. Electrochemical behavior of the synthesized complexes was studied using cyclic voltammetry. Grain size and surface morphologies of the complexes were determined by powder XRD and SEM analyses. The mixed ligand metal complexes were screened for antimicrobial activity against bacterial species Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus; fungal species Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans by disc diffusion method. The DNA binding and DNA cleavage activities of the compounds were determined using electronic absorption titration and agarose gel electrophoresis respectively. The superoxide radical scavenging and free radical scavenging activities of the Cu(II) complex was also evaluated. Molecular docking studies of the synthesized mixed ligand metal complexes were carried out against B-DNA dodecamer and the protein Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pf DHFR). PMID:26232747

  3. Electroabsorption spectroscopy of charge-transfer states of transition-metal complexes. 2. Metal-to-ligand and ligand-to-metal charge-transfer excited states of pentaammineruthenium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.G.K.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Sutin, N.

    1996-05-16

    The absorption spectra of Ru{sup II}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}L and Ru{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}L (L is an aromatic N-heterocycle or nitrile) complexes in 50:50 glycerol-water glasses at 77 K (D{sub s} = 3.9) are a function of the applied field in the 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} V/m range. Analysis of the spectra in terms of the Liptay equations yields ground-excited state dipole-moment differences ranging from 4 to 37 D, depending upon the nature of L. The measured dipole moment differences, particularly those for the MLCT transitions, are much smaller than the values estimated from a simple consideration of the electron-transfer distances. The discrepancy between the observed and naive dipole moment estimates arises mainly from the multielectron nature of the response to excitation. Good agreement is obtained with the predictions of a model which includes refinement of the effective electron-transfer distance, the shift in the valence electron distribution in the excited state, and the effects of electron delocalization ({pi}-backbonding for Ru(II) and {pi}-bonding for the Ru(III) complexes). Other contributions, namely the dipole moment induced by the NH{sub 3} ligands and by the surrounding solvent molecules, are also considered. 55 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Synthesis of ligand-stabilized metal oxide nanocrystals and epitaxial core/shell nanocrystals via a lower-temperature esterification process.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Shun; Zaikova, Tatiana; Masuko, Keiichiro; Hutchison, James E

    2014-01-28

    The properties of metal oxide nanocrystals can be tuned by incorporating mixtures of matrix metal elements, adding metal ion dopants, or constructing core/shell structures. However, high-temperature conditions required to synthesize these nanocrystals make it difficult to achieve the desired compositions, doping levels, and structural control. We present a lower temperature synthesis of ligand-stabilized metal oxide nanocrystals that produces crystalline, monodisperse nanocrystals at temperatures well below the thermal decomposition point of the precursors. Slow injection (0.2 mL/min) of an oleic acid solution of the metal oleate complex into an oleyl alcohol solvent at 230 °C results in a rapid esterification reaction and the production of metal oxide nanocrystals. The approach produces high yields of crystalline, monodisperse metal oxide nanoparticles containing manganese, iron, cobalt, zinc, and indium within 20 min. Synthesis of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) can be accomplished with good control of the tin doping levels. Finally, the method makes it possible to perform epitaxial growth of shells onto nanocrystal cores to produce core/shell nanocrystals. PMID:24369702

  5. Hemi-Labile Ligands in Organolithium Chemistry: Rate Studies of the LDA-Mediated R-and -Metalations of Epoxides

    E-print Network

    Collum, David B.

    and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell UniVersity, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 ReceiVed June 24, 1999 of the coordination chemistry of lithium and to the belief that ligand dissociations are not important. However

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antimicrobial activity of binuclear metal complexes of a new asymmetrical Schiff base ligand: DNA binding affinity of copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebl, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    The 1:1 condensation of o-acetoacetylphenol and 1,2-diaminopropane under condition of high dilution gives the mono-condensed Schiff base, (E)-3-(1-aminopropan-2-ylimino)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)butan-1-one. The mono-condensed Schiff base has been used for further condensation with isatin to obtain the new asymmetrical dicompartmental Schiff base ligand, (E)-3-(2-((E)-4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutan-2-ylideneamino) propylimino)indolin-2-one (H3L) with a N2O3 donor set. Reactions of the ligand with metal salts give a series of new binuclear complexes. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, electronic, ESR and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as thermal analyses. The analytical and spectroscopic tools showed that the complexes can be formulated as: [(HL)(VO)2(SO4)(H2O)]·4H2O, [(HL)Fe2Cl4(H2O)3]·EtOH, [(HL)Fe2(ox)Cl2(H2O)3]·2H2O, [(L)M2(OAc)(H2O)m]·nH2O; M = Co, Ni or Cu, m = 4, 0 and n = 2, 3, [(HL)Cu2Cl]Cl·6H2O and [(L)(UO2)2(OAc)(H2O)3]·6H2O. The metal complexes exhibited octahedral geometrical arrangements except copper complexes that exhibited tetrahedral geometries and uranyl complex in which the metal ion is octa-coordinated. The Schiff base and its metal complexes were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus). The ligand and some of its complexes were found to be biologically active. The DNA-binding properties of the copper complexes (6 and 7) have been investigated by electronic absorption, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. The results obtained indicate that these complexes bind to DNA via an intercalation binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant, Kb of 1.34 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 M-1, respectively.

  7. Impact of Coordination Geometry, Bite Angle, and Trans Influence on Metal-Ligand Covalency in Phenyl-Substituted Phosphine Complexes of Ni and Pd.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Courtney M; McCollom, Samuel P; Forrest, Chelsie M; Blake, Anastasia V; Bellott, Brian J; Keith, Jason M; Daly, Scott R

    2015-06-15

    Despite the long-standing use of phosphine and diphosphine ligands in coordination chemistry and catalysis, questions remain as to their effects on metal-ligand bonding in transition metal complexes. Here we report ligand K-edge XAS, DFT, and TDDFT studies aimed at quantifying the impact of coordination geometry, diphosphine bite angle, and phosphine trans influence on covalency in M-P and M-Cl bonds. A series of four-coordinate NiCl2 and PdCl2 complexes containing PPh3 or Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2, where n = 1 (dppm), 2 (dppe), 3 (dppp), and 4 (dppb), was analyzed. The XAS data revealed that changing the coordination geometry from tetrahedral in Ni(PPh3)2Cl2 (1) to square planar in Ni(dppe)Cl2 (2) more than doubles the intensity of pre-edge features assigned to Ni-P and Ni-Cl 1s ? ?* transitions. By way of comparison, varying the diphosphine in Pd(dppm)Cl2 (4), Pd(dppp)Cl2 (6), and Pd(dppb)Cl2 (7) yielded Pd-P 1s ? ?* transitions with identical intensities, but a 10% increase was observed in the P K-edge XAS spectrum of Pd(dppe)Cl2 (5). A similar observation was made when comparing Ni(dppe)Cl2 (2) to Ni(dppp)Cl2 (3), and DFT and TDDFT calculations corroborated XAS results obtained for both series. Comparison of the spectroscopic and theoretical results to the diphosphine structures revealed that changes in M-P covalency were not correlated to changes in bite angles or coordination geometry. As a final measure, P and Cl K-edge XAS data were collected on trans-Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (8) for comparison to the cis diphosphine complex Pd(dppe)Cl2 (5). Consistent with phosphine's stronger trans influence compared to chloride, a 35% decrease in the intensity of the Pd-P 1s ? ?* pre-edge feature and a complementary 34% increase in Pd-Cl 1s ? ?* feature was observed for 8 (trans) compared to 5 (cis). Overall, the results reveal how coordination geometry, ligand arrangement, and diphosphine structure affect covalent metal-phosphorus and metal-chloride bonding in these late transition metal complexes. PMID:25996554

  8. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies, thermal analyses, biological activity of tridentate coordinated transition metal complexes of bi(pyridyl-2-ylmethyl)amine]ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Halim, Hanan F.; Mohamed, Gehad G.

    2016-01-01

    A new tridentate acyclic pincer ligand, [bi(pyridin-2-methyl)amine] (bpma, HL), was synthesized and reacted to form complexes with copper(II), nickel(II), iron(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II) ions. Both the ligand and its complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, molar conductance, infrared, 1H-NMR-spectroscopy, mass and thermal analyses. According to the spectroscopic data, all of the complexes share the same coordination environment around the metal atoms, consisting two nitrogen-pyridine entities, one nitrogen-methylamine entity, one/two water molecules and/or one/two chloride or bromide ions. Complexes also showed molar conductivity according to the presence of two halide anions outer the coordination sphere except Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes are non electrolytes. Analysis indicates that the metal ions have trigonal bipyramidal structure. Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) metal complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (G+) and Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (G-) bacteria. They showed remarkable antimicrobial activity.

  10. Comparing three approaches in extending biotic ligand models to predict the toxicity of binary metal mixtures (Cu-Ni, Cu-Zn and Cu-Ag) to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2014-10-01

    Metals are always found in the environment as mixtures rather than as solitary elements. However, effect models such as biotic ligand models (BLMs) are usually derived for toxicity prediction of single metals. Our study aimed at predicting mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni, Cu-Zn and Cu-Ag combinations to lettuce (Lactucasativa L.) by combining BLMs with three toxicity indexes: the toxic unit, the overall amounts of metal ions bound to the biotic ligands and the toxic equivalency factor. The accumulation of metal ions at the biotic ligands was used to determine the toxic potency of metals alone or in combination. On the basis of parameters derived from toxicity assessment of individual metals, these three extended BLMs appeared to be all acceptable (p<0.0001) in assessing toxicity of diverse metal mixtures. The BLM-based approaches integrated competition between metal ions in assessing mixture toxicity and showed different predictive ability for each metal combination. The outcome of modeling suggested that the combined toxicity depends on the specific components of the metal mixtures. The best developed models assist in identifying the type of underlying toxic mechanisms of diverse metal mixtures in terrestrial plants. PMID:25048917

  11. Effect of solution properties, competing ligands, and complexing metal on sorption of tetracyclines on Al-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Datta, Rupali

    2015-05-01

    In the current batch study, we investigated the effect of solution properties, competing ligands (phosphate (P(V)) and sulfate), and complexing metal (calcium (Ca(2+))) on tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) sorption by Al-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR). The sorption behavior for both TTC and OTC on Al-WTR was pH dependent. The sorption in absence of competing ligands and complexing metal increased with increasing pH up to circum-neutral pH and then decreased at higher pH. The presence of P(V) when added simultaneously had a significant negative effect (p??0.1). The presence of sulfate had a minimal/negligible effect on the sorption of TCs by Al-WTR. A significant negative effect (p?ligands and complexing metal. PMID:25647490

  12. Solvent effects on the metal-to-ligand charge transfer transition of the complex [Ru(NH3)5(Pyrazine)]2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, Marcelo A.; Rocha, Willian R.

    2014-09-01

    In this work the solvent effects on the structure and metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition of the complex [Ru(NH3)5(Pyrazine)]2+ was investigated in aqueous solution, using the hybrid Density Functional Theory/Effective Fragment Potential Hamiltonian (DFT/EFP/MD) approach. The MLCT transition causes a large charge separation in the complex and produces a dipole moment variation of 8.3 ± 1.1 Debye upon excitation in solution and causes a large red-shift of 0.55 ± 0.15 eV. The solvatochromic shift can be attributed to the large charge separation accompanying the MLCT transition in solution.

  13. A Highly Porous and Robust (3,3,4)-Connected Metal?Organic Framework Assembled with a 90° Bridging-Angle Embedded Octacarboxylate Ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Makal, Trevor A.; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-03-15

    A dicopper(II)-paddle-wheel-based metal-organic framework (PCN-80, see picture) with a rare (3,3,4)-connected topology has been synthesized by using a unique octatopic ligand featuring 90{sup o} bridging-angle dicarboxylate moieties. PCN-80 has Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir surface areas of 3850 and 4150 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}, respectively. It exhibits high gas-uptake capacity for H{sub 2} and large adsorption selectivity of CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2}.

  14. Preparation of core-shell coordination molecular assemblies via the enrichment of structure-directing "codes" of bridging ligands and metathesis of metal units.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Chen, Ying-Pin; Perry, Zachary; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-12-01

    A series of molybdenum- and copper-based MOPs were synthesized through coordination-driven process of a bridging ligand (3,3'-PDBAD, L(1)) and dimetal paddlewheel clusters. Three conformers of the ligand exist with an ideal bridging angle between the two carboxylate groups of 0° (H2?-L(1)), 120° (H2?-L(1)), and of 90° (H2?-L(1)), respectively. At ambient or lower temperature, H2L(1) and Mo2(OAc)4 or Cu2(OAc)4 were crystallized into a molecular square with ?-L(1) and Mo2/Cu2 units. With proper temperature elevation, not only the molecular square with ?-L(1) but also a lantern-shaped cage with ?-L(1) formed simultaneously. Similar to how Watson-Crick pairs stabilize the helical structure of duplex DNA, the core-shell molecular assembly possesses favorable H-bonding interaction sites. This is dictated by the ligand conformation in the shell, coding for the formation and providing stabilization of the central lantern shaped core, which was not observed without this complementary interaction. On the basis of the crystallographic implications, a heterobimetallic cage was obtained through a postsynthetic metal ion metathesis, showing different reactivity of coordination bonds in the core and shell. As an innovative synthetic strategy, the site-selective metathesis broadens the structural diversity and properties of coordination assemblies. PMID:25384026

  15. Preparation of Core-Shell Coordination Molecular Assemblies via the Enrichment of Structure-Directing "Codes" of Bridging Ligands and Metathesis of Metal Units

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Chen, YP; Perry, Z; Li, JR; Zhou, HC

    2014-12-03

    A series of molybdenum- and copper-based MOPs were synthesized through coordination-driven process of a bridging ligand (3,3'-PDBAD, L-1) and dimetal paddlewheel clusters. Three conformers of the ligand exist with an ideal bridging angle between the two carboxylate groups of 0 degrees (H-2 zeta-L(1)), 120 degrees (H-2 beta-L-1), and of 90 degrees (H-2 beta-L-1), respectively. At ambient or lower temperature, (HL1)-L-2 and Mo-2(OAc)(4) or Cu-2(OAc)(4) were crystallized into a molecular square with ?-L-1 and Mo-2/Cu-2 units. With proper temperature elevation, not only the molecular square with ?-L-1 but also a lantern-shaped cage with a-L-1 formed simultaneously. Similar to how Watson-Crick pairs stabilize the helical structure of duplex DNA, the core-shell molecular assembly possesses favorable H-bonding interaction sites. This is dictated by the ligand conformation in the shell, coding for the formation and providing stabilization of the central lantern shaped core, which was not observed without this complementary interaction. On the basis of the crystallographic implications, a heterobimetallic cage was obtained through a postsynthetic metal ion metathesis, showing different reactivity of coordination bonds in the core and shell. As an innovative synthetic strategy, the site-selective metathesis broadens the structural diversity and properties of coordination assemblies.

  16. Structures and multiple properties of two polar metal-organic frameworks based on achiral N,O-coordinated ligands: toward multifunctional materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Ning; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wan-Qing; Sun, Hui; Li, Xin-Yu; Li, Ke; Ren, Cai-Ze; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Li, Cuncheng

    2015-10-27

    Two novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Cd3(padc)(Hpadc)(H2padc)(H2O)]n·nH2O (, H3padc = pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid) and [Co4(pidc)2(Hpidc)4(H2O)3]n·12nH2O (, H2pidc = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid), that both crystallize in polar space groups, were solvothermally synthesized by using achiral N,O-coordinated ligands. Compound consists of trinuclear Cd(ii)-based units that are further bridged by the backbone of H3padc ligands to form a three-dimensional (3-D) (4,6)-connected fsc topology network, while compound features two types of double-helical tubes with different chiralities connecting with each other alternatively to construct a typical 2-D (3,6)-connected kgd topology network. Importantly, exhibits combined properties of photoluminescence (PL) and second harmonic generation (SHG), and represents the first noncentrosymmetric H3padc-based MOF that was obtained without any ancillary ligands. While shows strong antiferromagnetic interactions between paramagnetic Co(ii) centers, and the aqueous solution of exhibits effective homogeneous photocatalysis properties under visible irradiation. Further, the mechanisms of the physical properties of and are discussed in detail. PMID:26465876

  17. Highly Efficient Heterogeneous Hydroformylation over Rh-Metalated Porous Organic Polymers: Synergistic Effect of High Ligand Concentration and Flexible Framework.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Dai, Zhifeng; Liu, Xiaolong; Sheng, Na; Deng, Feng; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2015-04-22

    A series of diphosphine ligand constructed porous polymers with stable and flexible frameworks have been successfully synthesized under the solvothermal conditions from polymerizing the corresponding vinyl-functionalized diphosphine monomers. These insoluble porous polymers can be swollen by a wide range of organic solvents, showing similar behavior to those of soluble analogues. Rather than just as immobilizing homogeneous catalysts, these porous polymers supported with Rh species demonstrate even better catalytic performance in the hydroformylations than the analogue homogeneous catalysts. The sample extraordinary performance could be attributed to the combination of high ligand concentration and flexible framework of the porous polymers. Meanwhile, they can be easily separated and recycled from the reaction systems without losing any activity and selectivity. This excellent catalytic performance and easy recycling heterogeneous catalyst property make them be very attractive. These diphosphine ligand constructed porous polymers may provide new platforms for the hydroformylation of olefins in the future. PMID:25848868

  18. Intramolecular C-C Bond Coupling of Nitriles to a Diimine Ligand in Group 7 Metal Tricarbonyl Complexes.

    PubMed

    Yempally, Veeranna; Fan, Wai Yip; Arndtsen, Bruce A; Bengali, Ashfaq A

    2015-12-01

    Dissolution of M(CO)3(Br)(L(Ar)) [L(Ar) = (2,6-Cl2-C6H3-NCMe)2CH2] in either acetonitrile [M = Mn, Re] or benzonitrile (M = Re) results in C-C coupling of the nitrile to the diimine ligand. When reacted with acetonitrile, the intermediate adduct [M(CO)3(NCCH3)(L(Ar))]Br forms and undergoes an intramolecular C-C coupling reaction between the nitrile carbon and the methylene carbon of the ?-diimine ligand. PMID:26554575

  19. Consideration of the bioavailability of metal/metalloid species in freshwaters: experiences regarding the implementation of biotic ligand model-based approaches in risk assessment frameworks.

    PubMed

    Rüdel, Heinz; Díaz Muñiz, Cristina; Garelick, Hemda; Kandile, Nadia G; Miller, Bradley W; Pantoja Munoz, Leonardo; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Purchase, Diane; Shevah, Yehuda; van Sprang, Patrick; Vijver, Martina; Vink, Jos P M

    2015-05-01

    After the scientific development of biotic ligand models (BLMs) in recent decades, these models are now considered suitable for implementation in regulatory risk assessment of metals in freshwater bodies. The BLM approach has been described in many peer-reviewed publications, and the original complex BLMs have been applied in prospective risk assessment reports for metals and metal compounds. BLMs are now also recommended as suitable concepts for the site-specific evaluation of monitoring data in the context of the European Water Framework Directive. However, the use is hampered by the data requirements for the original BLMs (about 10 water parameters). Recently, several user-friendly BLM-based bioavailability software tools for assessing the aquatic toxicity of relevant metals (mainly copper, nickel, and zinc) became available. These tools only need a basic set of commonly determined water parameters as input (i.e., pH, hardness, dissolved organic matter, and dissolved metal concentration). Such tools seem appropriate to foster the implementation of routine site-specific water quality assessments. This work aims to review the existing bioavailability-based regulatory approaches and the application of available BLM-based bioavailability tools for this purpose. Advantages and possible drawbacks of these tools (e.g., feasibility, boundaries of validity) are discussed, and recommendations for further implementation are given. PMID:25750051

  20. Activity of N-coordinated multi-metal-atom active site structures for Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: Role of *OH ligands

    PubMed Central

    Holby, Edward F.; Taylor, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    We report calculated oxygen reduction reaction energy pathways on multi-metal-atom structures that have previously been shown to be thermodynamically favorable. We predict that such sites have the ability to spontaneously cleave the O2 bond and then will proceed to over-bind reaction intermediates. In particular, the *OH bound state has lower energy than the final 2 H2O state at positive potentials. Contrary to traditional surface catalysts, this *OH binding does not poison the multi-metal-atom site but acts as a modifying ligand that will spontaneously form in aqueous environments leading to new active sites that have higher catalytic activities. These *OH bound structures have the highest calculated activity to date. PMID:25788358

  1. Activity of N-coordinated multi-metal-atom active site structures for Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: Role of *OH ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holby, Edward F.; Taylor, Christopher D.

    2015-03-01

    We report calculated oxygen reduction reaction energy pathways on multi-metal-atom structures that have previously been shown to be thermodynamically favorable. We predict that such sites have the ability to spontaneously cleave the O2 bond and then will proceed to over-bind reaction intermediates. In particular, the *OH bound state has lower energy than the final 2 H2O state at positive potentials. Contrary to traditional surface catalysts, this *OH binding does not poison the multi-metal-atom site but acts as a modifying ligand that will spontaneously form in aqueous environments leading to new active sites that have higher catalytic activities. These *OH bound structures have the highest calculated activity to date.

  2. Activity of N-coordinated multi-metal-atom active site structures for Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: Role of *OH ligands

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Holby, Edward F.; Taylor, Christopher D.

    2015-03-19

    We report calculated oxygen reduction reaction energy pathways on multi-metal-atom structures that have previously been shown to be thermodynamically favorable. We predict that such sites have the ability to spontaneously cleave the O? bond and then will proceed to over-bind reaction intermediates. In particular, the *OH bound state has lower energy than the final 2 H?O state at positive potentials. Contrary to traditional surface catalysts, this *OH binding does not poison the multi-metal-atom site but acts as a modifying ligand that will spontaneously form in aqueous environments leading to new active sites that have higher catalytic activities. These *OH boundmore »structures have the highest calculated activity to date.« less

  3. Structural, photophysical and magnetic properties of transition metal complexes based on the dipicolylamino-chloro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine ligand.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, Iuliia; Pop, Flavia; Sun, Qinchao; Hauser, Andreas; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; El-Ghayoury, Abdelkrim; Avarvari, Narcis

    2015-05-21

    The ligand 3-chloro-6-dipicolylamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (Cl-TTZ-dipica) , prepared by the direct reaction between 3,6-dichloro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine and di(2-picolyl)-amine, afforded a series of four neutral transition metal complexes formulated as [Cl-TTZ-dipica-MCl2]2, with M = Zn(II), Cd(II), Mn(II) and Co(II), when reacted with the corresponding metal chlorides. The dinuclear structure of the isostructural complexes was disclosed by single crystal X-ray analysis, clearly indicating the formation of [M(II)-(?-Cl)2M(II)] motifs and the involvement of the amino nitrogen atom in semi-coordination with the metal centers, thus leading to distorted octahedral coordination geometries. Moreover, the chlorine atoms, either coordinated to the metal or as a substituent on the tetrazine ring, engage respectively in specific anion-? intramolecular and intermolecular interactions with the electron-poor tetrazine units in the solid state, thus controlling the supramolecular architecture. Modulation of the emission properties is observed in the case of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes when compared to the free ligand. A striking difference is observed in the magnetic properties of the Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes. An antiferromagnetic coupling takes place in the dimanganese(II) compound (J = -1.25 cm(-1)) while the Co(II) centers are ferromagnetically coupled in the corresponding complex (J = +0.55 cm(-1)), the spin Hamiltonian being defined as H = -JSA·SB. PMID:25868861

  4. Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of organic framework of macrocylic OONNOO-donor ligand with its metal organic framework: Host/guest stability measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, R. P.; Singh, R. P.

    2008-11-01

    In this study, we synthesized 1,2-di( o-aminophenoxy)ethane, as the starting material, used in the preparation of a novel hexadentate OONNOO-donor macrocyclic ligand-1,4,11,14-tetraoxo-7,8-diaza-5,6:9,10;15,16:19,20-terabezocyclododeca-8,17-iene. It has twenty membered organic framework (OF), which has been designed, synthesized and characterized. Our main findings of this paper are related to the organic framework of ligand, its capacity to digest the metal ions and the stability of metal organic framework (MOFs) with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and manganese(II). The authenticity of the used organic framework and its metal complexes have been detected and observed in solid state as well as in aqueous solutions. The main observations were made on the basis of physiochemical measurements viz.: elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, electronic, ESR spectroscopy. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility and electrochemistry measurements have been made. The 1H NMR spectra suggest stereochemistry and proton movement interaction. Considering the used organic framework there are a lot of carbon atoms in the molecule reflected by the 13C NMR spectrum. All these observations gave a clear view to confirming the encapsulation; arrive at the composition, structure and geometry of encapsulated complexes. In simple words, it confirms the host/guest coordination and its stability. Electrochemical properties of the complexes have been investigated to confirm the various changes in oxidation state of metals with change in potentials with respect to current at different scan rate.

  5. Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of organic framework of macrocylic OONNOO-donor ligand with its metal organic framework: host/guest stability measurements.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, R P; Singh, R P

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we synthesized 1,2-di(o-aminophenoxy)ethane, as the starting material, used in the preparation of a novel hexadentate OONNOO-donor macrocyclic ligand-1,4,11,14-tetraoxo-7,8-diaza-5,6:9,10;15,16:19,20-terabezocyclododeca-8,17-iene. It has twenty membered organic framework (OF), which has been designed, synthesized and characterized. Our main findings of this paper are related to the organic framework of ligand, its capacity to digest the metal ions and the stability of metal organic framework (MOFs) with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and manganese(II). The authenticity of the used organic framework and its metal complexes have been detected and observed in solid state as well as in aqueous solutions. The main observations were made on the basis of physiochemical measurements viz.: elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, electronic, ESR spectroscopy. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility and electrochemistry measurements have been made. The 1H NMR spectra suggest stereochemistry and proton movement interaction. Considering the used organic framework there are a lot of carbon atoms in the molecule reflected by the 13C NMR spectrum. All these observations gave a clear view to confirming the encapsulation; arrive at the composition, structure and geometry of encapsulated complexes. In simple words, it confirms the host/guest coordination and its stability. Electrochemical properties of the complexes have been investigated to confirm the various changes in oxidation state of metals with change in potentials with respect to current at different scan rate. PMID:18243048

  6. Construction of Ligand Group Orbitals for Polyatomics and Transition-Metal Complexes Using an Intuitive Symmetry-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Adam R.

    2013-01-01

    A molecular orbital (MO) diagram, especially its frontier orbitals, explains the bonding and reactivity for a chemical compound. It is therefore important for students to learn how to construct one. The traditional methods used to derive these diagrams rely on linear algebra techniques to combine ligand orbitals into symmetry-adapted linear…

  7. Topotactic elimination of water across a C-C ligand bond in a dense 3-D metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Hamish H-M; Kosa, Monica; Griffin, John M; Grey, Clare P; Major, Dan T; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2014-11-11

    Upon heating, lithium L-malate undergoes topotactic dehydration to form a phase containing the unsaturated fumarate ligand, in which the original 3-D framework remains intact. Insight into this unusual transformation has been obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction, MAS-NMR, in situ powder X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. PMID:25232700

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and antipathogenic studies of some transition metal complexes with N,O-chelating Schiff's base ligand incorporating azo and sulfonamide Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Bayoumi, Hoda A.; Ammar, Yousry A.; Aldhlmani, Sharah A.

    2013-03-01

    Chromium(III), Manganese(II), Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes of 4-[4-hydroxy-3-(phenyliminomethyl)-phenylazo]benzenesulfonamide, were prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, spectral, magnetic, molar conductance and thermal analysis. Square planar, tetrahedral and octahedral geometries have been assigned to the prepared complexes. Dimeric complexes are obtained with 2:2 molar ratio except chromium(III) complex is monomeric which is obtained with 1:1 molar ratios. The IR spectra of the prepared complexes were suggested that the Schiff base ligand(HL) behaves as a bi-dentate ligand through the azomethine nitrogen atom and phenolic oxygen atom. The crystal field splitting, Racah repulsion and nepheloauxetic parameters and determined from the electronic spectra of the complexes. Thermal studies suggest a mechanism for degradation of HL and its metal complexes as function of temperature supporting the chelation modes. Also, the activation thermodynamic parameters, such as ?E*, ?H*, ?S* and ?G* for the different thermal decomposition steps of HL and its metal complexes were calculated. The pathogenic activities of the synthesized compounds were tested in vitro against the sensitive organisms Staphylococcus aureus (RCMB010027), Staphylococcus epidermidis (RCMB010024) as Gram positive bacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia (RCMB 010093), Shigella flexneri (RCMB 0100542), as Gram negative bacteria and Aspergillus fumigates (RCMB 02564), Aspergillus clavatus (RCMB 02593) and Candida albicans (RCMB05035) as fungus strain, and the results are discussed.

  9. Investigation of the electronic structures of organolanthanide sandwich complex anions by photoelectron spectroscopy: 4f orbital contribution in the metal-ligand interaction.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Natsuki; Yada, Keizo; Masuda, Tomohide; Nakajo, Erika; Yabushita, Satoshi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    The electronic structures of lanthanide (Ln) ions sandwiched between 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT), Ln(COT)2(-), have been investigated by anion photoelectron spectroscopy. Complexes of 12 Ln atoms were investigated (excluding promethium (Pm), europium (Eu), and ytterbium (Yb)). The 213 nm photoelectron (PE) spectra of Ln(COT)2(-) exhibit two peaks assignable to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO; e2u) and the next HOMO (HOMO-1; e2g) approximately at 2.6 and 3.6 eV, respectively, and their energy gap increases as the central metal atom progresses from lanthanum (La) to lutetium (Lu). Since lanthanide contraction shortens the distance between the Ln atom and the COT ligands, the widening energy gap represents the destabilization of the e2u orbital as well as the stabilization of the e2g orbital. Evidence for 4f orbital contribution in the metal-ligand interaction has been revealed by the Ln atom dependence in which the same e2u orbital symmetry enables an interaction between the 4f orbital of Ln atoms and the ? orbital of COT. PMID:24742246

  10. A 3D chiral metal-organic framework based on left-handed helices containing 3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Yang, Tian-Yi; Feng, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Zong-Hui; Xu, Ling

    2015-10-01

    A chiral metal-organic framework, [Cu(atr)(OH)]·0.5H2O·0.5en (1) (Hatr=3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole, en=ethylenediamine), was constructed via diffusion reaction of the achiral Hatr ligand and CuSO4 as starting materials. Compound 1 crystallizes in the chiral space group P3221 and features a porous metal-organic framework with 44.1% solvent-accessible volume fabricated by left-handed helices with a pitch height of lp=10.442 Å. Six helices gather around in a cycle forming a large honeycomb channel with a 6.58 Å inner diameter. Cu(II) center and atr? ligand regarded as 3-connected nodes, compound 1 can be simplified to a 3-c uninodal {4.122} (qtz-h) topological network. A gradual decreasing in the magnetic moment depending on temperature decreasing indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. The powder XRD confirms the bulk sample is a single crystal pure phase, and the thermogravimetric analysis shows the thermal stability of 1 is up to ca. 240 °C.

  11. Group 11 Metal Compounds with Tripodal Bis(imidazole) Thioether Ligands. Applications as Catalysts in the Oxidation of Alkenes and as Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangwei; Anis, Reema; Hwang, Eunmi; Ovalle, Rafael; Varela-Ramírez, Armando; Aguilera, Renato J.; Contel, María

    2011-01-01

    New group 11 metal complexes have been prepared using the previously described tripodal bis(imidazole) thioether ligand (N-methyl-4,5-diphenyl-2-imidazolyl)2C(OMe)C(CH3)2S(tert-Bu) ({BITOMe,StBu}, 2). The pincer ligand offers a N2S donor atom set that can be used to coordinate the group 11 metals in different oxidation states [AuI, AuIII, AgI, CuI and CuII]. Thus the new compounds [Au{BITOMe,StBu}Cl][AuCl4]2 (3), [Au{BITOMe,StBu}Cl] (4), [Ag{BITOMe,StBu}X] (X = OSO2CF3 ? 5, PF6 ? 6) and [Cu{BITOMe,StBu}Cl2] (7) have been synthesized from reaction of 2 with the appropriate metal precursors, and characterized in solution. While attempting characterization in the solid state of 3, single crystals of the neutral dinuclear mixed AuIII-AuI species [Au2{BITOMe,S}Cl3] (8) were obtained and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The structure shows a AuIII center coordinated to the pincer ligand through one N and the S atom. The soft AuI center coordinates to the ligand through the same S atom that has lost the tert-butyl group, thus becoming a thiolate ligand. The short distance between the AuI–AuIII atoms (3.383 Å) may indicate a weak metal-metal interaction. Complexes 2–7 and the previously described CuI compound [Cu{BITOMe,StBu}]PF6 (9) have been evaluated in the oxidation of biphenyl ethylene with tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) as the oxidant. Results have shown that the AuI and AgI complexes 4 and 6 (at 10 mol % loading) are the more active catalysts in this oxidative cleavage. The antimicrobial activity of compounds 2–5, 7 and 9 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast has also been evaluated. The new gold and silver compounds display moderate to high antibacterial activity, while the copper derivatives are mostly inactive. The gold and silver complexes were also potent against fungi. Their cytotoxic properties have been analyzed in vitro utilizing HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. The compounds displayed a very low cytotoxicity on this cell line (5 to 10 times lower than cisplatin) and on normal primary cells derived from C57B6 mouse muscle explants, which may make them promising candidates as potential antimicrobial agents and safer catalysts due to low toxicity in human and other mammalian tissues. PMID:25134773

  12. Quantifying the density of surface capping ligands on semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Naiqian; Palui, Goutam; Merkl, Jan-Philip; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2015-03-01

    We have designed a new set of coordinating ligands made of a lipoic acid (LA) anchor and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrophilic moiety appended with a terminal aldehyde for the surface functionalization of QDs. This ligand design was combined with a recently developed photoligation strategy to prepare hydrophilic CdSe-ZnS QDs with good control over the fraction of intact aldehyde (-CHO) groups per nanocrystal. We further applied the efficient hydrazone ligation to react aldehyde-QDs with 2-hydrazinopyridine (2-HP). This covalent modification produces QD-conjugates with a well-defined absorption feature at 350 nm ascribed to the hydrazone chromophore. We exploited this unique optical signature to accurately measure the number of aldehyde groups per QD when the fraction of LA-PEG-CHO per nanocrystal was varied. This allowed us to extract an estimate for the number of LA-PEG ligands per QD. These results suggest that hydrazone ligation has the potential to provide a simple and general analytical method to estimate the number of surface ligands for a variety of nanocrystals such as metal, metal oxide and semiconductor nanocrystals.

  13. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  14. Gas adsorption and gas mixture separations using mixed-ligand MOF material

    DOEpatents

    Hupp, Joseph T. (Northfield, IL); Mulfort, Karen L. (Chicago, IL); Snurr, Randall Q. (Evanston, IL); Bae, Youn-Sang (Evanston, IL)

    2011-01-04

    A method of separating a mixture of carbon dioxiode and hydrocarbon gas using a mixed-ligand, metal-organic framework (MOF) material having metal ions coordinated to carboxylate ligands and pyridyl ligands.

  15. Synthesis of a-Alkylated Ketones via Tandem Acceptorless Dehydrogenation/a-Alkylation from Secondary and Primary Alcohols Catalyzed by Metal-Ligand Bifunctional Iridium Complex [Cp*Ir(2,2'-bpyO)(H2O)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongzhou; Ma, Juan; Li, Feng

    2015-11-01

    A new strategy for the synthesis of ?-alkylated ketones via tandem acceptorless dehydrogenation/?-alkylation from secondary and primary alcohols was proposed and accomplished. In the presence of metal-ligand bifunctional iridium complex [Cp*Ir(2,2'-bpyO)(H2O)], various desirable products were obtained in high yields. Compared with previous methods for the direct dehydrogenative coupling of secondary alcohols with primary alcohols to ?-alkylated ketones, this protocol has obvious advantages including complete selectivity for ?-alkylated ketones and more environmentally benign conditions. Notably, the study also exhibited the potential to develop tandem reactions catalyzed using a metal-ligand bifunctional iridium complex. PMID:26428210

  16. Reduction of CO2 by Pyridine Monoimine Molybdenum Carbonyl Complexes: Cooperative Metal-Ligand Binding of CO2.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Daniel; Lacy, David C; Peters, Jonas C; Kubiak, Clifford P

    2015-06-01

    [((Ar) PMI)Mo(CO)4 ] complexes (PMI=pyridine monoimine; Ar=Ph, 2,6-di-iso-propylphenyl) were synthesized and their electrochemical properties were probed with cyclic voltammetry and infrared spectroelectrochemistry (IR-SEC). The complexes undergo a reduction at more positive potentials than the related [(bipyridine)Mo(CO)4 ] complex, which is ligand based according to IR-SEC and DFT data. To probe the reaction product in more detail, stoichiometric chemical reduction and subsequent treatment with CO2 resulted in the formation of a new product that is assigned as a ligand-bound carboxylate, [(?iPr?2PhPMI)Mo(CO)3 (CO2 )](2-) , by NMR spectroscopic methods. The CO2 adduct [(?iPr?2PhPMI)Mo(CO)3 (CO2 )](2-) could not be isolated and fully characterized. However, the C-C coupling between the CO2 molecule and the PDI ligand was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic characterization of one of the decomposition products of [(?iPr?2PhPMI)Mo(CO)3 (CO2 )](2-) . PMID:25924730

  17. Highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles anchored on UiO-66(NH2) metal-organic framework as a reusable and dual functional visible-light-driven photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lijuan; Wu, Weiming; Liang, Ruowen; Lin, Rui; Wu, Ling

    2013-09-01

    Proper design and preparation of high-performance and stable dual functional photocatalytic materials remains a significant objective of research. In this work, highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles of about 3-6 nm in diameter are immobilized in the metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66(NH2) via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The resulting Pd@UiO-66(NH2) nanocomposite exhibits an excellent reusable and higher visible light photocatalytic activity for reducing Cr(vi) compared with UiO-66(NH2) owing to the high dispersion of Pd nanoparticles and their close contact with the matrix, which lead to the enhanced light harvesting and more efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. More significantly, the Pd@UiO-66(NH2) could be used for simultaneous photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, like methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB), and reduction of Cr(vi) with even further enhanced activity in the binary system, which could be attributed to the synergetic effect between photocatalytic oxidation and reduction by individually consuming photogenerated holes and electrons. This work represents the first example of using the MOFs-based materials as dual functional photocatalyst to remove different categories of pollutants simultaneously. Our finding not only proves great potential for the design and application of MOFs-based materials but also might bring light to new opportunities in the development of new high-performance photocatalysts.Proper design and preparation of high-performance and stable dual functional photocatalytic materials remains a significant objective of research. In this work, highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles of about 3-6 nm in diameter are immobilized in the metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66(NH2) via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The resulting Pd@UiO-66(NH2) nanocomposite exhibits an excellent reusable and higher visible light photocatalytic activity for reducing Cr(vi) compared with UiO-66(NH2) owing to the high dispersion of Pd nanoparticles and their close contact with the matrix, which lead to the enhanced light harvesting and more efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. More significantly, the Pd@UiO-66(NH2) could be used for simultaneous photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, like methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB), and reduction of Cr(vi) with even further enhanced activity in the binary system, which could be attributed to the synergetic effect between photocatalytic oxidation and reduction by individually consuming photogenerated holes and electrons. This work represents the first example of using the MOFs-based materials as dual functional photocatalyst to remove different categories of pollutants simultaneously. Our finding not only proves great potential for the design and application of MOFs-based materials but also might bring light to new opportunities in the development of new high-performance photocatalysts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns of Pd@UiO-66(NH2) before and after the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(vi) reaction; XPS patterns of Pd@UiO-66(NH2) before and after the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(vi) reaction; BET adsorption-desorption isotherms of UiO-66(NH2) (a) and Pd@UiO-66(NH2) (b); Mott-Schottky plot of UiO-66(NH2) in 0.2 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution (pH = 6.8); a schematic drawing of the structure of UiO-66(NH2) based on the structure of UiO-66. Zirconium-oxygen clusters (green part); N of the free amino groups (blue dots). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03153e

  18. Coordination mode of pentadentate ligand derivative of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol with nickel(II) and copper(II) metal ions: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, molecular modeling and fungicidal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Gautam, Seema; Kumar, Amit; Madan, Molly

    2015-02-01

    Complexes of nickel(II), and copper(II) were synthesized with pantadentate ligand i.e. 3,3?-thiodipropionicacid-bis(5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol) (L). The ligand was synthesized by the condensation of thiodipropionic acid and 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol in 1:2 ratio, respectively. Synthesized ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, mass, 1H NMR, IR, and molecular modeling. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, IR, electronic spectra, ESR, and molecular modeling. The newly synthesized complexes possessed general composition [M(L)X2] where M = Ni(II), Cu(II), L = pantadentate ligand and X = Cl-, CH3COO-. The IR spectral data indicated that the ligand behaved as a pantadentate ligand and coordinated to the metal ion through N2S3 donor atoms. The molar conductance value of Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes in DMSO corresponded to their electrolytic behavior. On the basis of spectral study, octahedral and tetragonal geometry was assigned for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes, respectively. In vitro fungicidal study of ligand and its complexes was investigated against fungi Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candidia krusei, and Candida tropicalis by means of well diffusion method.

  19. Ring-opening polymerization of lactide with group 3 metal complexes supported by dianionic alkoxy-amino-bisphenolate ligands: combining high activity, productivity, and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Amgoune, Abderramane; Thomas, Christophe M; Roisnel, Thierry; Carpentier, Jean-François

    2005-12-16

    A series of new alkoxy-amino-bis(phenols) (H2L 1-6) has been synthesized by Mannich condensations of substituted phenols, formaldehyde, and amino ethers or diamines. The coordination properties of these dianionic ligands towards yttrium, lanthanum, and neodymium have been studied. The resulting Group 3 metal complexes have been used as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide to provide poly(lactic acid)s (PLAs). The polymerizations are living, as evidenced by the narrow polydispersities of the isolated polymers, together with the linear natures of number average molecular weight versus conversion plots and monomer-to-catalyst ratios. Complex [Y(L6){N(SiHMe2)2}(THF)] (17) polymerized rac-lactide to heterotactic PLA (Pr = 0.90 at 20 degrees C) and meso-lactide to syndiotactic PLA (Pr = 0.75 at 20 degrees C). The in situ formation of [Y(L6)(OiPr)(THF)] (18) from 17 and 2-propanol resulted in narrower molecular weight distributions (PDI = 1.06). With complex 18, highly heterotactic PLAs with narrow molecular weight distributions were obtained with high activities and productivities at room temperature. The natures of the ligand substituents were shown to have a significant influence on the degree of control of the polymerizations, and in particular on the tacticity of the polymer. PMID:16224808

  20. pH-induced metal-ligand cross-links inspired by mussel yield self-healing polymer networks with near-covalent elastic moduli.

    PubMed

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Harrington, Matthew J; Birkedal, Henrik; Lee, Bruce P; Messersmith, Phillip B; Lee, Ka Yee C; Waite, J Herbert

    2011-02-15

    Growing evidence supports a critical role of metal-ligand coordination in many attributes of biological materials including adhesion, self-assembly, toughness, and hardness without mineralization [Rubin DJ, Miserez A, Waite JH (2010) Advances in Insect Physiology: Insect Integument and Color, eds Jérôme C, Stephen JS (Academic Press, London), pp 75-133]. Coordination between Fe and catechol ligands has recently been correlated to the hardness and high extensibility of the cuticle of mussel byssal threads and proposed to endow self-healing properties [Harrington MJ, Masic A, Holten-Andersen N, Waite JH, Fratzl P (2010) Science 328:216-220]. Inspired by the pH jump experienced by proteins during maturation of a mussel byssus secretion, we have developed a simple method to control catechol-Fe(3+) interpolymer cross-linking via pH. The resonance Raman signature of catechol-Fe(3+) cross-linked polymer gels at high pH was similar to that from native mussel thread cuticle and the gels displayed elastic moduli (G') that approach covalently cross-linked gels as well as self-healing properties. PMID:21278337

  1. Unique (3,8)-connected lanthanide arenedisulfonate metal-organic frameworks containing benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid co-ligand: Syntheses, structures and luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan-Qiong; Liu, Qi; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Pan, Qun-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Two isostructural 3D lanthanide arenedisulfonate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Ln(Hbidc)(nds)0.5(H2O)]n(Ln=Eu(1), La(2)) have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction of lanthanide oxide with 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonate sodium (Na2nds) and an auxiliary ligand, 1H-benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid (H3bidc). The two complexes are both constructed from 2D [Ln(Hbidc)]+ double layers pillared by nds2- ligands to generate 3D (3, 8)-connected open-framework structures with 1D long narrow channels running along the a axis. From topological point of view, the 3D framework is a (3, 8)-connected tfz-d net. The weak interactions including N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and ?-? stacking are observed in 1. The 2D IR correlation spectroscopy was applied to study the molecular interactions induced by thermal perturbation. The emission spectra of 1 exhibit the characteristic transition of 5D0?7FJ(J=0-4) of Eu(III).

  2. Cyclopentadienyl chromium diimine and pyridine-imine complexes: ligand-based radicals and metal-based redox chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Chiang, Linus; Patrick, Brian O; Storr, Tim; Smith, Kevin M

    2012-07-14

    Paramagnetic CpCr(III) complexes with antiferromagnetically-coupled anionic radical diimine and pyridine-imine ligands were prepared and characterized. The diimine chloro CpCr[(ArNCR)(2)]Cl complexes (1: Ar = 2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3) (Dpp), R = H; 2: Ar = 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3) (Xyl), R = Me; 3: Ar = 2,4,6-Me(3)C(6)H(2) (Mes), R = Me) were synthesized by treatment of previously reported Cr(diimine)(THF)(2)Cl(2) precursors with NaCp. Reduction of 1 with Zn gives CpCr[(DppNCH)(2)], 4, resulting from reduction of Cr(III) to Cr(II) with retention of the ligand-based radical. Alkoxide complexes CpCr[(DppNCH)(2)](OCR(2)R') (5: R = Me, R' = Ph; 6: R = iPr, R' = H) were synthesized by protonolysis of Cp(2)Cr with HOCR(2)R' in the presence of the neutral diimine and catalytic base. The corresponding radical pyridine-imine complexes CpCr(PyCHNMes)Cl (9), CpCr(PyCHNMes) (8), and CpCr(PyCHNMes)(OCMe(2)Ph) (11), were prepared by analogous routes. Oxidation of 8 with iodine gives CpCr(PyCHNMes)I (10) where oxidation of Cr(II) to Cr(III) again occurs with retention of the anionic pyridine-imine radical ligand. The molecular structures of complexes 1, 2, 4-8, 10 and 11 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Unusual low energy bands were observed in the UV-vis spectra of the reported complexes, with particularly strong transitions observed for the Cr(II) complexes 4 and 8. The electronic structure of pyridine-imine complexes 8 and 10 were investigated by theoretical calculations. PMID:22569909

  3. Postsynthetic Metal and Ligand Exchange in MFU-4l: A Screening Approach toward Functional Metal-Organic Frameworks Comprising Single-Site Active Centers.

    PubMed

    Denysenko, Dmytro; Jelic, Jelena; Reuter, Karsten; Volkmer, Dirk

    2015-05-26

    The isomorphous partial substitution of Zn(2+) ions in the secondary building unit (SBU) of MFU-4l leads to frameworks with the general formula [M(x)Zn(5-x)Cl4(BTDD)3], in which x?2, M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), or Cu(II), and BTDD = bis(1,2,3-triazolato-[4,5-b],[4',5'-i])dibenzo-[1,4]-dioxin. Subsequent exchange of chloride ligands by nitrite, nitrate, triflate, azide, isocyanate, formate, acetate, or fluoride leads to a variety of MFU-4l derivatives, which have been characterized by using XRPD, EDX, IR, UV/Vis-NIR, TGA, and gas sorption measurements. Several MFU-4l derivatives show high catalytic activity in a liquid-phase oxidation of ethylbenzene to acetophenone with air under mild conditions, among which Co- and Cu derivatives with chloride side-ligands are the most active catalysts. Upon thermal treatment, several side-ligands can be transformed selectively into reactive intermediates without destroying the framework. Thus, at 300?°C, Co(II)-azide units in the SBU of Co-MFU-4l are converted into Co(II)-isocyanate under continuous CO gas flow, involving the formation of a nitrene intermediate. The reaction of Cu(II)-fluoride units with H2 at 240?°C leads to Cu(I) and proceeds through the heterolytic cleavage of the H2 molecule. PMID:25882594

  4. Anticandidal cytotoxicity, antitumor activities, and purified cell wall modulation by novel Schiff base ligand and its metal (II) complexes against some pathogenic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Geweely, Neveen S

    2009-09-01

    The preparation of metal (II) complexes [CoCl(2).6H(2)O, Ni(CH(3)COO)(2).4H(2)O, Cu(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O, and Zn (CH3COO)(2) .2H(2)O] with 2[N-(cinnamlidene) amino]-5-nitro phenol as a novel ligands and their biological evaluation against candida species was studied. The inhibitory effects of the tested metal complexes were tested against six pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans, C. fructus, C. glabrata, C. oleophila, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis). The effect of the most efficient metal complex (Zn(II) complex) was more pronounced at 1.25 microg/ml, while Ni(II) complex was exhibited the least suppressive effect. Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes act as potential antitumor agents, while Zn(II) complex has shown promising cytotoxic activity with slow candidal respiration rate. Addition of Zn(II) complex leading to suppression of cell wall components in all candidal cells accompanied with leaking out of amino acids. Purification of the cell wall mannoprotein of C. glabrata treated with Zn(II) complex was established, resulting one pure fissured protein peak. Cell wall protein modulation was showed by appearance of two new protein bands with molecular weights of 72 and 39 KDa in C. glabrata cells treated with Zn(II) complex compared with one pure protein band 55.6 KDa in the non treated yeast cell. PMID:19655126

  5. 1,2-Distanna-closo-dodecaborate--a rare example of a 1,2-distannylene ligand in transition metal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Nickl, Claudia; Eichele, Klaus; Wesemann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The coordination chemistry of the novel bidentate tin ligand 1,2-distanna-closo-dodecaborate is illustrated for the first time by reactions with molybdenum, platinum and gold metal complexes. Up to three clusters coordinate two metal centers in close proximity. For all these metal complexes the typical ?-bridging coordination mode was observed exclusively. Furthermore, two cluster anions react with dichloromethane via substitution of the chloride ions. The carbon functionalized tin cluster [Et(4)N](2)[CH(2)(Sn(2)B(10)H(10))(2)] and the coordination complexes [Et(3)NMe](6)[Mo(2)(CO)(6)(Sn(2)B(10)H(10))(3)], [Et(3)NMe](2)[{HPt(PEt(3))(2)(Sn(2)B(10)H(10))}(2)], [Et(4)N](2)[{HPt(PPh(3))(2)(Sn(2)B(10)H(10))}(2)] and [{(TP)Au}(2)(Sn(2)B(10)H(10))] (TP = PhP(o-Ph(2)PC(6)H(4))(2)) are fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analyses and crystal structure analyses. PMID:22095111

  6. Metal-organic coordination architectures of tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ding, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Two new coordination complexes with tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups, [Co(L)2]n (1) and [Co3(L)4(N3)2·2MeOH]n (2) (L=tetrazole-1-acetate) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single crystal structure analysis shows that the cobalt-complex 1 has the 3D 3,6-connected (42.6)2(44.62.88.10)-ant topology. By introducing azide in this system, complex 2 forms the 2D network containing the [Co3] units. And the magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  7. Cationic d[sup O] metal alkyls incorporating tetraaza-macrocycle ancillary ligands. Synthesis and reactivity of (Me[sub 8]taa)M(R)[sup +] and (Me[sub 4]taen)M(R)[sup +] (M = Zr, Hf) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrhammer, R.; Black, D.G.; Gardner, T.G.; Olsen, J.D.; Jordan, R.F. )

    1993-09-08

    Electrophilic d[sup O] Cp[sub 2]M(R)[sup +] complexes have been exploited in stoichiometric and catalytic reactions, including olefin polymerization. A current challenge is to design new classes of cationic early metal alkyl complexes that are based on ancillary ligands which are more easily modified than Cp ligands and which give rise to improved/complementary reactivity. We have demonstrated that d[sup O] (N[sub 4]-macrocycle)M(R)[sup +] complexes are accessible using routes developed for Cp[sub 2]M(R)[sup +] cations and, like the metallocene systems, undergo insertion and intramolecular C-H activation reactions. The possibilities for developing reactive early metal organometallics based on macrocycles as tunable ancillary ligands seem promising. 18 refs.

  8. Synthesis of N4 donor macrocyclic Schiff base ligands and their Ru (II), Pd (II), Pt (II) metal complexes for biological studies and catalytic oxidation of didanosine in pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi krishna, E.; Muralidhar Reddy, P.; Sarangapani, M.; Hanmanthu, G.; Geeta, B.; Shoba Rani, K.; Ravinder, V.

    2012-11-01

    A series of tetraaza (N4 donor) macrocyclic ligands (L1-L4) were derived from the condensation of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) with some substituted aromatic amines/azide, and subsequently used to synthesize the metal complexes of Ru(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II). The structures of macrocyclic ligands and their metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H &13C NMR, mass and electronic spectroscopy, thermal, magnetic and conductance measurements. Both the ligands and their complexes were screened for their antibacterial activities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by MIC method. Besides, these macrocyclic complexes were investigated as catalysts in the oxidation of pharmaceutical drug didanosine. The oxidized products were further treated with sulphanilic acid to develop the colored products to determine by spectrophotometrically. The current oxidation method is an environmentally friendly, simple to set-up, requires short reaction time, produces high yields and does not require co-oxidant.

  9. Cross-Linking the Fibers of Supramolecular Gels Formed from a Tripodal Terpyridine Derived Ligand with d-Block Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kotova, Oxana; Daly, Ronan; dos Santos, Cidália M G; Kruger, Paul E; Boland, John J; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2015-08-17

    The tripodal terpyridine ligand, L, forms 1D helical supramolecular polymers/gels in H2O-CH3OH solution mediated through hydrogen bonding and ?-? interactions. These gels further cross-link into 3D supramolecular metallogels with a range of metal ions (M) such as Fe(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Ru(III); the cross-linking resulting in the formation of colored or colorless gels. The fibrous morphology of these gels was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); while the self-assembly processes between L and M were investigated by absorbance and emission spectroscopy from which their binding constants were determined by using a nonlinear regression analysis. PMID:26222397

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a three dimensional zinc(II) metal-organic framework constructed from flexible 1,2,3,4-tetra-(4-pyridyl)-butane ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianguo; Wu, Peiheng; Kang, Lin; Lu, Changsheng; Meng, Qingjin

    2011-08-01

    Employing the flexible tetrapodal ligand 1,2,3,4-tetra-(4-pyridyl)-butane (TPB) along with fumaric acid (H 2FMA) as the bridges, a metal-organic framework of [Zn(TPB)(FMA)·(2H 2O)] ( 1) was obtained and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral method (IR), single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fluorescent property. This polymer exhibits a three dimensional (3D) dense network with an interesting (4,4)-connected PtS topology. It also displays good thermal stability and strong photoluminescence in the blue region band. Thus it may serve as a candidate of thermally stable blue-light-emitting photoluminescent material.

  11. Metal flux and dynamic speciation at (bio)interfaces. Part VI: The roles of simple, fulvic and aggregate complexes on computed metal flux in freshwater ligand mixtures; comparison of Pb, Zn and Ni at planar and microspherical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zeshi; Buffle, Jacques

    2009-03-01

    The computations of metal flux in aquatic systems, at consuming interfaces like microorganism surfaces are of major importance in ecotoxicology and dynamic risk assessment. In this paper, the flux of Zn(II) and Ni(II), at a planar consuming interface in a typical natural freshwater, are studied. The system includes (a) simple ligands (OH -, CO32-); (b) fulvics; (c) aggregates, as complexants, i.e., those which play the major roles in controlling the metal distribution and/or metal flux in aquatic media. The above two metals are chosen because they participate, respectively, to intermediate and very slow chemical reactions with complexing sites, and are thus complementary to Pb(II) and Cu(II) (two metals with very fast reactions) studied in Parts III-V of this series. The effects of the various physico-chemical factors, in particular, the diffusion layer thickness, the stability constants and complexing site distribution of fulvics and the size distribution of aggregates, are studied in details. The contribution to the flux, of each complex type, is computed. This paper also compares the dynamic behaviour of Pb(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) as well as the labilities and flux contributions of their various complexes at planar and microspherical interfaces. This enables to make predictions on biouptake by microorganisms.

  12. Group 1 and group 2 metal complexes supported by a bidentate bulky iminopyrrolyl ligand: synthesis, structural diversity, and ?-caprolactone polymerization study.

    PubMed

    Kottalanka, Ravi K; Harinath, A; Rej, Supriya; Panda, Tarun K

    2015-11-18

    We report here a series of alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes, each with a bulky iminopyrrolyl ligand [2-(Ph3CN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C4H3NH] () moiety in their coordination sphere, synthesized using either alkane elimination or silylamine elimination methods or the salt metathesis route. The lithium salt of molecular composition [Li(2-(Ph3CN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C4H3N)(THF)2] () was prepared using the alkane elimination method, and the silylamine elimination method was used to synthesize the dimeric sodium and tetra-nuclear potassium salts of composition [(2-(Ph3CN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C4H3N)Na(THF)]2 () and [(2-(Ph3CN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C4H3N)K(THF)0.5]4 () respectively. The magnesium complex of composition [(THF)2Mg(CH2Ph){2-(Ph3CN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C4H3N}] () was synthesized through the alkane elimination method, in which [Mg(CH2Ph)2(OEt2)2] was treated with the bulky iminopyrrole ligand in 1?:?1 molar ratio, whereas the bis(iminopyrrolyl)magnesium complex [(THF)2Mg{2-(Ph3CN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C4H3N}2] () was isolated using the salt metathesis route. The heavier alkaline earth metal complexes of the general formula {(THF)nM(2-(Ph3CN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C4H3N)2} [M = Ca (), Sr (), and n = 2; M = Ba (), n = 3] were prepared in pure form using two synthetic methods: in the first method, the bulky iminopyrrole ligand was directly treated with the alkaline earth metal precursor [M{N(SiMe3)2}2(THF)n] (where M = Ca, Sr and Ba) in 2?:?1 molar ratio in THF solvent at ambient temperature. The complexes were also obtained using the salt metathesis reaction, which involves the treatment of the potassium salt () with the corresponding metal diiodides MI2 (M = Ca, Sr and Ba) in 2?:?1 molar ratio in THF solvent. The molecular structures of all the metal complexes (, ) in the solid state were established through single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complexes were tested as catalysts for the ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone. High activity was observed in the heavier alkaline earth metal complexes , with a very narrow polydispersity index in comparison to that of magnesium complexes and . PMID:26511076

  13. Tuning the Formations of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Modification of Ratio of Reactant, Acidity of Reaction System, and Use of a Secondary Ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Q; Xie, YB; Li, JR; Yuan, DQ; Yakovenko, AA; Sun, JH; Zhou, HC

    2012-01-01

    Four porous coordination networks (PCNs), {[Zn3O(H2O)(3)(adc)(3)]center dot 2(C2H6NH2)center dot 2(DMF)center dot 3(H2O)}(n) (PCN-131), Zn-2(DMA)(2)(adc)(2)]center dot 2(DMA)}(n) (PCN-132), {[Zn3O(DMF)(adc)(3)(4,4'-bpy)]center dot 2(C2H6NH2)center dot S}(n) (PCN-131'), and {[Zn(adc)(4,4'-bpy)(0.5)]center dot S}(n) (PCN-132'), have been synthesized by the assembly of anthrancene-9,10-dicarboxylic acid (H(2)adc) with Zn(II) under different reaction conditions, including modifications of reactant ratio, acidity variations, and the use of a secondary ligand. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that PCN-131, obtained from the dimethylformamide (DMF) solution under acid condition, has a three-dimentional (3D) framework structure with one-dimensional (1D) honeycomb channels. PCN-132 isolated from dimethylacetamide (DMA) solution without adding acid in synthesis is a two-dimensional (2D) layer compound. By employing 4,4'-bipyridyl (4,4'-bpy) as a secondary ligand, PCN-131' and PCN-132' were synchronously synthesized as a mixture outcome with more PCN-131' than PCN-132'. In PCN-131', 4,4'-bpy acting as a secondary ligand is arranged inside the honeycomb channel of the 3D PCN-131, resulting in an effective improvement of thermal stability of the network, while in PCN-132', 4,4'-bpy ligands link 2D layers of PCN-132 to form a pillared-layer 3D framework Gas adsorption has been performed for selected materials. The results show that the framework of PCN-131 is thermally unstable after removing the solvent molecules coordinated to their metal sites. While PCN-131' is stable for gas uptake, with an evaluated Langmuir surface area of 199.04 m(2) g(-1), it shows a selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4.

  14. Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Bowen; Zhao Jiongpeng; Yang Qian; Hu Tongliang; Du Wenping; Bu Xianhe

    2009-10-15

    Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co(L{sup 1}){sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [CuL{sup 1}N{sub 3}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(L{sup 2}){sub 2}.0.5C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH.H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (3) and [Co(L{sup 2}){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) (here, HL{sup 1}=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, HL{sup 2}=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4{sup 4}-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6})-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear mu{sub 1,1}-bridging azido Cu{sup II} entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied. - Graphical Abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups are reported.

  15. Ab initio and density functional theoretical design and screening of model crown ether based ligand (host) for extraction of lithium metal ion (guest): effect of donor and electronic induction.

    PubMed

    Boda, Anil; Ali, Sk Musharaf; Rao, Hanmanth; Ghosh, Sandip K

    2012-08-01

    The structures, energetic and thermodynamic parameters of model crown ethers with different donor, cavity and electron donating/ withdrawing functional group have been determined with ab initio MP2 and density functional theory in gas and solvent phase. The calculated values of binding energy/ enthalpy for lithium ion complexation are marginally higher for hard donor based aza and oxa crown compared to soft donor based thia and phospha crown. The calculated values of binding enthalpy for lithium metal ion with 12C4 at MP2 level of theory is in good agreement with the available experimental result. The binding energy is altered due to the inductive effect imparted by the electron donating/ withdrawing group in crown ether, which is well correlated with the values of electron transfer. The role of entropy for extraction of hydrated lithium metal ion by different donor and functional group based ligand has been demonstrated. The HOMO-LUMO gap is decreased and dipole moment of the ligand is increased from gas phase to organic phase because of the dielectric constant of the solvent. The gas phase binding energy is reduced in solvent phase as the solvent molecules weaken the metal-ligand binding. The theoretical values of extraction energy for LiCl salt from aqueous solution in different organic solvent is validated by the experimental trend. The study presented here should contribute to the design of model host ligand and screening of solvent for metal ion recognition and thus can contribute in planning the experiments. PMID:22318713

  16. Synthesis and characterization of d{sup 10} metal complexes with mixed 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene and multicarboxylate ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhi-Hao; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Shui-Sheng; Wang, Peng; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2013-06-15

    Seven new coordination polymers [Zn(H{sub 2}L)(mbdc)] (1), [Zn(H{sub 3}L)(btc)] (2), [Zn(H{sub 2}L)(Hbtc)] (3), [Zn(H{sub 2}L)(Hbtc)]·H{sub 2}O (4), [Zn{sub 2}(H{sub 2}L)(btc)(?{sub 2}-OH)] (5), [Cd(H{sub 2}L)(mbdc)] (6) and [Cd{sub 3}(H{sub 2}L){sub 2}(btc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·5H{sub 2}O (7) were synthesized by reactions of the corresponding metal salt with rigid ligand 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (H{sub 2}L) and different carboxylic acids of 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}mbdc) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}btc), respectively. The results of X-ray crystallographic analysis indicate that complex 1 is 1D chain while 2 is a (3,3)-connected 2D network with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (4,8{sup 2}). Complexes 3 and 6 are 2D networks, 4 is a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (6{sup 5},8) and 5 is a (3,8)-connected 2D network with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (3,4{sup 2}){sub 2}(3{sup 4},4{sup 6},5{sup 6},6{sup 8},7{sup 3},8), while 7 is a (3,10)-connected 3D net with Schläfli symbol of (3,4,5){sub 2}(3{sup 4},4{sup 8},5{sup 18},6{sup 12},7{sup 2},8). The thermal stability and photoluminescence of the complexes were investigated. Furthermore, DFT calculations were performed for 2–4 to discuss the temperature controlled self-assembly of the complexes. - Graphical abstract: Seven new coordination polymers with multicarboxylate and rigid ditopic 4-imidazole containing ligands have been obtained and found to show different structures and topologies. - Highlights: • Metal complexes with diverse structures of 1D chain, 2D network and 3D framework. • Mixed ligands of 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene and multicarboxylate. • Photoluminescence property.

  17. Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Yang, Qian; Hu, Tong-Liang; Du, Wen-Ping; Bu, Xian-He

    2009-10-01

    Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co( L1) 2] n ( 1) , [Cu L1N 3] n ( 2), [Cu( L2) 2·0.5C 2H 5OH·H 2O] n ( 3) and [Co( L2) 2] n ( 4) (here, H L1=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, H L2=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4 4-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4 3) 2(4 6)-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear ?1,1-bridging azido Cu II entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  18. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of microspine toes that independently find holes and ledges on a rock to create an anchor. Once the system is anchored, a linear translation mechanism moves the drill axially into the surface while maintaining the proper WOB. The linear translation mechanism is composed of a ball screw and stepper motor that can translate a carriage with high precision and applied load. The carriage slides along rails using self-aligning linear bearings that correct any axial misalignment caused by bending and torsion. The carriage then compresses a series of springs that simultaneously transmit the load to the drill along the bit axis and act as a suspension that compensates for the vibration caused by percussive drilling. The drill is a compacted, modified version of an off-the-shelf rotary percussive drill, which uses a custom carbide-tipped coring bit. By using rotary percussive drilling, the drill time is greatly reduced. The percussive action fractures the rock debris, which is removed during rotation. The final result is a 0.75-in. (.1.9- cm) diameter hole and a preserved 0.5- in. (.1.3-cm) diameter rock core. This work extends microspine technology, making it applicable to astronaut missions to asteroids and a host of robotic sampling concepts. At the time of this reporting, it is the first instrument to be demonstrated using microspine anchors, and is the first self-contained drill/anchor system to be demonstrated that is capable of drilling in inverted configurations and would be capable of drilling in microgravity.

  19. Assessing electronic structure approaches for gas-ligand interactions in metal-organic frameworks: The CO{sub 2}-benzene complex

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, Jonathon; Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 ; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720

    2014-03-14

    Adsorption of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks is governed by many factors, the most dominant of which are the interaction of the gas with open metal sites, and the interaction of the gas with the ligands. Herein, we examine the latter class of interaction in the context of CO{sub 2} binding to benzene. We begin by clarifying the geometry of the CO{sub 2}–benzene complex. We then generate a benchmark binding curve using a coupled-cluster approach with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] at the complete basis set (CBS) limit. Against this ?CCSD(T)/CBS standard, we evaluate a plethora of electronic structure approximations: Hartree-Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the resolution-of-the-identity approximation, attenuated MP2, and a number of density functionals with and without different empirical and nonempirical van der Waals corrections. We find that finite-basis MP2 significantly overbinds the complex. On the other hand, even the simplest empirical correction to standard density functionals is sufficient to bring the binding energies to well within 1 kJ/mol of the benchmark, corresponding to an error of less than 10%; PBE-D in particular performs well. Methods that explicitly include nonlocal correlation kernels, such as VV10, vdW-DF2, and ?B97X-V, perform with similar accuracy for this system, as do ?B97X and M06-L.

  20. Development of a dipodal Schiff base ligand with N-imine and O-naphtholate donors: A potential chelator towards Cu(II) metal ion established through potentiometric and spectrophotometric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, Minati; Gupta, Amit; Kanungo, B. K.

    2015-08-01

    A novel hydroxynaphthaldehyde derived Schiff base ligand N,N'-bis-[2-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)methyleneamino]ethyl]propanediamide (DOTA2HNAP) containing nitrogen and oxygen donor atoms has been developed. The lowest energy molecular structure of DOTA2HNAP and its complexes with Cu (II) metal ion were examined by molecular mechanics using MM+ force which later was re-optimized by semi-empirical method. The theoretical IR and UV spectra of the ligand were obtained using semi empirical/ZINDO/PM3 and were compared with the experimental ones. The coordinating ability of DOTA2HNAP with H+ and Cu(II) ions was investigated in 1:99 (DMSO: water) binary solvent mixture at 25±1°C by potentiometric and spectrophotometric method. The electronic spectra of the ligand show three distinct peaks (253nm, 320nm and 360nm) implicating existence of the Schiff base in quinone form that was well supported by theoretical spectral studies. Out of various complex species forming in solution, all the metal ions show higher stability of complexes when in 1:1 metal-ligand stoichiometry, binding through two N-imine and two O-naphtholate groups.

  1. Transition metal coordination polymers based on tetrabromoterephthalic and bis(imidazole) ligands: Syntheses, structures, topological analysis and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Xing, Peiqi; Geng, Xiujuan; Sun, Daofeng; Xiao, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Eight new coordination polymers (CPs), namely, [Zn(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)]n (1), [Co(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)]n (2), [CdCl(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)0.5]n (3), {[Cd(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·H2O}n (4), {[Cd0.5(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)0.5]·H2O}n (5), {[Co0.5(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)0.5]·2H2O}n (6), {[Co(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·H2O}n (7) and {[Co(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·Diox·2H2O}n (8), were synthesized under solvothermal conditions based on mix-ligand strategy (H2tbtpa=tetrabromoterephthalic acid and 1,2-mbix=1,2-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene, 1,2-bix=1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene). All of the CPs have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). X-ray diffraction analyses show that 1 and 2 are isotypics which have 2D highly undulated networks with (4,4)-sql topology with the existence of C-H ⋯Br interactions; for 3, it has a 2D planar network with (4,4)-sql topology with the occurrence of C-H ⋯Cl interactions other than C-H ⋯Br interactions; 4 shows a 3D 2-fold interpenetrated nets with rare 65·8-mok topology which has a self-catention property. As the same case as 1 and 2, 5 and 6 are also isostructural with planar layers with 44-sql topology which further assembled into 3D supramolecular structure through the interdigitated stacking fashion and the C-Br ⋯Cph interactions. As for 7, it has a 2D slightly undulated networks with (4,4)-sql topology which has one dimension channel. While 8 has a 2-fold interpenetrated networks with (3,4)-connect jeb topology with point symbol {63}{65·8}. And their structures can be tuned by conformations of bis(imidazol) ligands and solvent mixture. Besides, the TGA properties for all compounds and the luminescent properties for 1, 3, 4, 5 are discussed in detail.

  2. Comparative DNA binding abilities and phosphatase-like activities of mono-, di-, and trinuclear Ni(II) complexes: the influence of ligand denticity, metal-metal distance, and coordinating solvent/anion on kinetics studies.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vimal K; Singh, Ajnesh

    2014-10-01

    Six novel Ni(II) complexes, namely, [Ni2(HL(1))(OAc)2] (1), [Ni3L(1)2]·H2O·2CH3CN (2), [Ni2(L(2))(L(3))(CH3CN)] (3), [Ni2(L(2))2(H2O)2] (4), [Ni2(L(2))2(DMF)2]2·2H2O (5), and [Ni(HL(2))2]·H2O (6), were synthesized by reacting nitrophenol-based tripodal (H3L(1)) and dipodal (H2L(2)) Schiff base ligands with Ni(II) metal salts at ambient conditions. All the complexes were fully characterized with different spectroscopic techniques such as elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The solid-state structures of 2, 3, 5, and 6 were determined using single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The compounds 1, 3, 4, and 5 are dinuclear complexes where the two Ni(II) centers have octahedral geometry with bridging phenoxo groups. Compound 2 is a trinuclear complex with two different types of Ni(II) centers. In compound 3 one of the Ni(II) centers has a coordinated acetonitrile molecule, whereas in compound 4, a water molecule has occupied one coordination site of each Ni(II) center. In complex 5, the coordinated water of complex 4 was displaced by the dimethylformamide (DMF) during its crystallization. Complex 6 is mononuclear with two amine-bis(phenolate) ligands in scissorlike fashion around the Ni(II) metal center. The single crystals of 1 and 4 could not be obtained; however, from the spectroscopic data and physicochemical properties (electronic and redox properties) it was assumed that the structures of these complexes are quite similar to other analogues. DNA binding abilities and phosphatase-like activities of all characterized complexes were also investigated. The ligand denticity, coordinated anions/solvents (such as acetate, acetonitrile, water, and DMF), and cooperative action of two metal centers play a significant role in the phosphate ester bond cleavage of 2-hydroxypropyl-p-nitropenylphosphate by transesterification mechanism. Complex 3 exhibits highest activity among complexes 1-6 with 3.86 × 10(5) times greater rate enhancement than uncatalyzed reaction. PMID:25226493

  3. Unique (3,8)-connected lanthanide arenedisulfonate metal-organic frameworks containing benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid co-ligand: Syntheses, structures and luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan-Qiong; Liu, Qi; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Pan, Qun-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2013-10-15

    Two isostructural 3D lanthanide arenedisulfonate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Ln(Hbidc)(nds){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(Ln=Eu(1), La(2)) have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction of lanthanide oxide with 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonate sodium (Na{sub 2}nds) and an auxiliary ligand, 1H-benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}bidc). The two complexes are both constructed from 2D [Ln(Hbidc)]{sup +} double layers pillared by nds{sup 2?} ligands to generate 3D (3, 8)-connected open-framework structures with 1D long narrow channels running along the a axis. From topological point of view, the 3D framework is a (3, 8)-connected tfz-d net. The weak interactions including N–H?O, O–H?O hydrogen bonds and ?–? stacking are observed in 1. The 2D IR correlation spectroscopy was applied to study the molecular interactions induced by thermal perturbation. The emission spectra of 1 exhibit the characteristic transition of {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub J}(J=0–4) of Eu(III). - Graphical abstract: Two isostructural 3D (3,8)-connected lanthanide arenedisulfonates were hydrothermally synthesized. The 2D IR correlation spectroscopy was applied to study the molecular interactions induced by thermal perturbation. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The first lanthanide arenedisulfonates incorporating fused-ring aromatic carboxylic acid. • Three-dimensional (3,8)-connected framework with tfz-d network topology. • The emission spectra of 1 exhibit the characteristic transition of {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=0–4) of Eu(III). • The 2D IR correlation spectroscopy was applied to study the molecular interactions.

  4. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A preformed anchor is a device made of...

  5. Nanopatterned anchoring layers for liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Gear, Christopher S. (Christopher Stanwood)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory and fabrication of inhomogeneous Liquid Crystal anchoring layers. While chemical anchoring techniques have proved useful for many applications, especially Liquid Crystal Displays, they have ...

  6. Synthesis, crystal structures, luminescence and catalytic properties of two d10 metal coordination polymers constructed from mixed ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-xiao; Zhang, Ming-xi; Yu, Baoyi; Van Hecke, Kristof; Cui, Guang-hua

    2015-03-01

    Two new coordination polymers [Cd(bmb)(hmph)]n (1), {[Ag(bmb)]·H2btc}n (2) (bmb = 1,4-bis(2-methylbenzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, H2hmph = homophthalic acid, H3btc = 1,3,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods, IR spectroscopy, TGA, XRPD and elemental analysis. Complex 1 features a 3D threefold interpenetrating dia array with a 4-connected 66 topology. Complex 2 shows a 1D helix chain structure connected by L1 ligands, which is finally extended into a rarely 2D 4L2 supramolecular network via C-H⋯O hydrogen bond interactions. In addition, the luminescence and catalytic properties of the two complexes for the degradation of the methyl orange azo dye in a Fenton-like process were presented. The degradation efficiency of the methyl orange azo dye for 1 and 2 are 56% and 96%, respectively.

  7. Rapid Computer Aided Ligand Design and Screening of Precious Metal Extractants from TRUEX Raffinate with Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Aurora Sue; Wall, Nathalie; Benny, Paul

    2015-11-16

    Rhodium is the most extensively used metal in catalytic applications (i.e., oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid, automobile catalytic converters) and occurs in mixed ores with platinum group metals (PGMs) in the earth’s crust in low concentrations (0.4 - 10 ppb).[1-4] It is resistant to aerial oxidation and insoluble in all acids, including aqua regia making classical purification methods time-consuming and inefficient.[1, 4-6] To ensure adequate purity, several precipitation and dissolution steps are necessary during separation.[1] Low abundance, high demand, and extensive processing make rhodium the most expensive of all PGMs. From alternative sources, rhodium is also produced in sufficient quantities (0.47 kg per ton initial heavy metal (tIHM)) during the fission of U-235 in nuclear reactors along with other PGMs (i.e., Ag, Pd, Ru).[3, 7] A typical power water reactor operating with UO2 fuel after cooling can generate PGMs in quantities greater than found in the earth’s crust (0.5-2 kg/tIHM).[7] This currently untapped supply of PGMs has the potential to yield $5,000-30,000/tIHM.[8] It is estimated that by the year 2030, the amount of rhodium generated in reactors could exceed natural reserves.[3] Typical SNF processing removes the heavier lanthanides and actinides and can leave PGMs at ambient temperatures in aqueous acidic (Cl? or NO3?; pH < 1) solutions at various activities.[9] While the retrieval of these precious metals from SNF would minimize waste generation and improve resource utilization, it has been difficult to achieve thus far.

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some transition metal complexes containing ONO tridentate Schiff base ligand.

    PubMed

    Belal, A A M; El-Deen, I M; Farid, N Y; Zakaria, Rosan; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-10-01

    The main target of this paper is to get an interesting data for the preparation and characterizations of metal oxide (MO) nanoparticles using H2L Schiff base complexes as precursors through the thermal decomposition procedure. Five Schiff base complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal ions were synthesized from 2-[(2-hydroxy-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene)-amino]-benzoic acid new adduct (H2L). Theses complexes were characterized using infrared, electronic, mass and (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The elemental analysis data was confirmed that the stoichiometry of (metal:H2L) is 1:1 molar ratio. The molar conductance indicates that all of complexes are non electrolytic. The general chemical formulas of these complexes is [M(L)(NH3)]·nH2O. All complexes are tetrahedral geometry. The thermal decomposition behavior of H2L hydrated and anhydrous complexes has been discussed using thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) under nitrogen atmosphere. The crystalline phases of the reaction products were checked using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:25989615

  9. Anchored phosphatases modulate glucose homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Wang, Edith

    EMBO open Anchored phosphatases modulate glucose homeostasis Simon A Hinke1 , Manuel F Navedo2 principally controls glucose homeostasis. Nutrient-induced exocytosis of insulin granules from pancreatic b signalling events that facilitate insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis may be set by AKAP150 associated

  10. Anchoring, Activation, and the Construction of Values.

    PubMed

    Chapman; Johnson

    1999-08-01

    Anchoring is a pervasive judgment bias in which decision makers are systematically influenced by random and uninformative starting points. While anchors have been shown to affect a broad range of judgments including answers to knowledge questions, monetary evaluations, and social judgments, the underlying causes of anchoring have been explored only recently. We suggest that anchors affect judgments by increasing the availability and construction of features that the anchor and target hold in common and reducing the availability of features of the target that differ from the anchor. We test this notion of anchoring as activation in five experiments that examine the effects of several experimental manipulations on judgments of value and belief as well as on measures of cognitive processes. Our results indicate that prompting subjects to consider features of the item that are different from the anchor reduces anchoring, while increasing consideration of similar features has no effect. The anchoring-as-activation approach provides a mechanism for debiasing anchoring and also points to a common mechanism underlying anchoring and a number of other judgment phenomena. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10433900

  11. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a) Every... equipped with a stern anchor. (b) Every integrated tug and barge or articulated tug and barge unit...

  12. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a) Every... equipped with a stern anchor. (b) Every integrated tug and barge or articulated tug and barge unit...

  13. An equilibrium model for ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration, selective separation of metal ions using iminoacetic substituted polyamines and a theoretical model for the titration behavior of polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardana, U.R.

    1992-12-31

    This thesis consists of three chapters. Chapter 1, An equilibrium model for ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration, describes a theoretical model and experimental investigations which used the semi-equilibrium-dialysis method with N-n-dodecyl iminodiacetic acid as the ligand. In Chapter 2, Selective separation of metal ions using iminoacetic substituted polyamines, polyamines with a substituted ligand group are synthesized and used in investigating selective separation of copper ions from aqueous solution. In Chapter 3, A theoretical model for the titration behavior of polyamines, a novel approach to explain the titration behavior of polymeric amines based on the binding behavior of counterions is described. The application of this study is to the investigation of inexpensive and efficient methods of industrial waste water treatment.

  14. Cubane-type Cu(II)4 and Mn(II)2Mn(III)2 complexes based on pyridoxine: a versatile ligand for metal assembling.

    PubMed

    Marino, Nadia; Armentano, Donatella; Mastropietro, Teresa F; Julve, Miguel; De Munno, Giovanni; Martínez-Lillo, José

    2013-10-21

    By using Vitamin B6 in its monodeprotonated pyridoxine form (PN-H) [PN = 3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridine], two tetranuclear compounds of formula [Mn4(PN-H)4(CH3CO2)3Cl2]Cl·2CH3OH·2H2O (1) and [Cu4(PN-H)4Cl2(H2O)2]Cl2 (2) have been synthesized and magneto-structurally characterized. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P1 whereas 2 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with Fdd2 as space group. They exhibit Mn(II)2Mn(III)2 (1) and Cu(II)4 (2) cubane cores containing four monodeprotonated pyridoxine groups simultaneously acting as chelating and bridging ligands (1 and 2), three bridging acetate ligands in the syn-syn conformation (1), and two terminally bound chloride anions (1 and 2) plus two coordinated water molecules (2). The electroneutrality is achieved by the presence of chloride counterions in both compounds. Tri- [Mn(1) and Mn(3)] and divalent [Mn(2) and Mn(4)] manganese centers coexist in 1, all being six-coordinate with distorted Mn(1/3)O6 and Mn(2/4)O5Cl octahedral surroundings, respectively, the equatorial Mn-O bonds being about 0.2 Å shorter at the former ones. The two crystallographically independent copper(II) ions in 2 are five-coordinate in somewhat distorted CuO5 [Cu(1)] and CuO4Cl [Cu(2)] square pyramidal geometries. The values of the intracore metal-metal separation cover the ranges 3.144(1)-3.535(1) (1) and 2.922(6)-3.376(1) Å (2). The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 were investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K, and they correspond to an overall antiferromagnetic behavior with susceptibility maxima at 5.0 (1) and 65.0 K (2). The analysis of the magnetic susceptibility data showed the coexistence of intracore antiferro- and ferromagnetic interactions in the two compounds. Their values compare well with those existing in the literature for the parent systems. PMID:24074249

  15. Heterolytic Cleavage of Dihydrogen by an Iron(II) PNP Pincer Complex via Metal–Ligand Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The bis-carbonyl Fe(II) complex trans-[Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2Cl]+ reacts with Zn as reducing agent under a dihydrogen atmosphere to give the Fe(II) hydride complex cis-[Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2H]+ in 97% isolated yield. A crucial step in this reaction seems to be the reduction of the acidic NH protons of the PNP-iPr ligand to afford H2 and the coordinatively unsaturated intermediate [Fe(PNPH-iPr)(CO)2]+ bearing a dearomatized pyridine moiety. This species is able to bind and heterolytically cleave H2 to give cis-[Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2H]+. The mechanism of this reaction has been studied by DFT calculations. The proposed mechanism was supported by deuterium labeling experiments using D2 and the N-deuterated isotopologue of trans-[Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2Cl]+. While in the first case deuterium was partially incorporated into both N and Fe sites, in the latter case no reaction took place. In addition, the N-methylated complex trans-[Fe(PNPMe-iPr)(CO)2Cl]+ was prepared, showing no reactions with Zn and H2 under the same reaction conditions. An alternative synthesis of cis-[Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2H]+ was developed utilizing the Fe(0) complex [Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2]. This compound is obtained in high yield by treatment of either trans-[Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2Cl]+ or [Fe(PNP-iPr)Cl2] with an excess of NaHg or a stoichiometric amount of KC8 in the presence of carbon monoxide. Protonation of [Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2] with HBF4 gave the hydride complex cis-[Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2H]+. X-ray structures of both cis-[Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2H]+ and [Fe(PNP-iPr)(CO)2] are presented. PMID:23990692

  16. Soluble precursors for CuInSe2, CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2, and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 based on colloidal nanocrystals and molecular metal chalcogenide surface ligands.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengyang; Lee, Jong-Soo; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2012-03-21

    We report a new platform for design of soluble precursors for CuInSe(2) (CIS), Cu(In(1-x)Ga(x))Se(2) (CIGS), and Cu(2)ZnSn(S,Se)(4) (CZTS) phases for thin-film potovoltaics. To form these complex phases, we used colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with metal chalcogenide complexes (MCCs) as surface ligands. The MCC ligands both provided colloidal stability and represented essential components of target phase. To obtain soluble precursors for CuInSe(2), we used Cu(2-x)Se NCs capped with In(2)Se(4)(2-) MCC surface ligands or CuInSe(2) NCs capped with {In(2)Cu(2)Se(4)S(3)}(3-) MCCs. A mixture of Cu(2-x)Se and ZnS NCs, both capped with Sn(2)S(6)(4-) or Sn(2)Se(6)(4-) ligands was used for solution deposition of CZTS films. Upon thermal annealing, the inorganic ligands reacted with NC cores forming well-crystallized pure ternary and quaternary phases. Solution-processed CIS and CZTS films featured large grain size and high phase purity, confirming the prospects of this approach for practical applications. PMID:22329720

  17. Spectroscopic studies and biological evaluation of some transition metal complexes of azo Schiff-base ligand derived from (1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-4-aminopyrazol-5-one) and 5-((4-chlorophenyl)diazenyl)-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitha, C.; Sheela, C. D.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sumathi, S.

    2012-10-01

    A series of metal(II) complexes of VO(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized from the azo Schiff base ligand 4-((E)-4-((E)-(4-chlorophenyl)diazenyl)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one (CDHBAP) and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, ESR and EI-mass), magnetic moment measurements, molar conductance, DNA, SEM, X-ray crystallography and fluorescence studies. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements of the complexes indicate square pyramidal geometry for VO(II) and octahedral geometry for all the other complexes. The important infrared (IR) spectral bands corresponding to the active groups in the ligand and the solid complexes under investigation were studied and implies that CDHBAP is coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral tridentate manner. The redox behavior of copper(II) and vanadyl(II) complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The nuclease activity of the above metal(II) complexes shows that the complexes cleave DNA. All the synthesized complexes can serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were screened against bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella sonnie) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia bataicola). Amikacin and Ketoconozole were used as references for antibacterial and antifungal studies. The activity data show that the metal complexes have a promising biological activity comparable with the parent Schiff base ligand against bacterial and fungal species. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the ligand was measured and the NLO (non-linear optical) properties of the ligand are expected to result in the realization of advanced optical devices in optical fiber communication (OFC) and optical computing. The SEM image of the copper(II) complex implies that the size of the particles is 1 ?m.

  18. Versatile frameworks constructed from divalent metals with 4,4?-methylenedibenzoic acid and imidazole derivative ligands: Syntheses, crystal structures and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Seven coordination polymers, namely, [Zn(DBA)(Hpyim)]n·nH2O (1), [Cd(DBA)(Hpyim)]n (2), [Zn(DBA)(bix)]n·2nH2O (3), [Co(DBA)(bix)]n (4), [Ni(DBA)(bix)]n (5), [Co(DBA)(mbix)]n (6), and [Ni(DBA)(mbix)(H2O)2]n·nH2O (7), where H2DBA=4,4'-methylenedibenzoic acid, Hpyim=2-(2-pyridyl)imidazole, bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl) benzene and mbix=1,3-bis(imidazol-1-yl-methyl) benzene, were synthesized. Complex 1 is a one-dimensional (1D) infinite chain. Complex 2 has a two-dimensional (2D) 4-connected (4,4) network based on dinuclear units. Complex 3 features a 2D sheet constructed from mononuclear center. Complexes 4 and 5 exhibit similar 2D layers, which are further linked into 3D supramolecular frameworks through ?-? interactions. Complex 6 possesses a 3D 5-fold interpenetrating diamond framework, while complex 7 shows a 1D double-strand chain. The results indicate that the coordination modes of DBA, auxiliary ligands and metal ions play important roles in the formation of the final framework. Moreover, the luminescent properties of 1-3 and nonlinear optical and ferroelectric properties of 1 were also investigated.

  19. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ?2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale. PMID:23944468

  20. Novel transition-metal (M=Cr, Mo, W, Fe) carbonyl complexes with bis(guanidinato)silicon(II) ligands.

    PubMed

    Mück, Felix M; Kloss, Dorit; Baus, Johannes A; Burschka, Christian; Tacke, Reinhold

    2014-07-28

    The donor-stabilized silylene 2 (the first bis(guanidinato)silicon(II) complex) reacts with the transition-metal carbonyl complexes [M(CO)6 ] (M=Cr, Mo, W) to form the respective silylene complexes 7-10. In the reactions with [M(CO)6 ] (M=Cr, Mo, W), the bis(guanidinato)silicon(II) complex 2 behaves totally different compared with the analogous bis(amidinato)silicon(II) complex 1, which reacts with [M(CO)6 ] as a nucleophile to replace only one of the six carbonyl groups. In contrast, the reaction of 2 leads to the novel spirocyclic compounds 7-9 that contain a four-membered SiN2 C ring and a five-membered MSiN2 C ring with a M?Si and M?N bond (nucleophilic substitution of two carbonyl groups). Compounds 7-10 were characterized by elemental analyses (C, H, N), crystal structure analyses, and NMR spectroscopic studies in the solid state and in solution. PMID:25042407

  1. Pendant Ancillary Ligand Switches Off Auto-Oxidation of Group 13 Metal Alkyl Compounds Bearing Non-Bulky Alkyl Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kobrsi, Issam

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of 3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazole with excess Al(CH3)3 and Ga(CH3)3 afforded (3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolate)Al(CH3)2•3Al(CH3)3 (1) and (3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolate) Ga(CH3)2•3Ga(CH3)3 (2) respectively. 1 and 2 reacted with oxygen gas to produce (CH3)2M(µ-3,5-di-2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolate)(µ-OCH3)M(CH3)2 (M?=?Al, 3; M?=?Ga, 4). 3 and 4 contain the non-bulky dimethylalumino moiety, yet they are indefinitely stable in the presence of oxygen gas. This increased stability towards oxygen is due to ancillary 2-pyridyl groups bonding to the metal centers producing a pseudo-trigonal pyramidal Al and Ga environments. This environment blocks oxygen from further inserting into the M–C bond. The Al–N(pyridine) and Ga–N(pyridine) bonds reported herein are extremely elongated yet inactive towards dissociation due to the chelate effect. PMID:24945752

  2. Ligand field splittings in core level transitions for transition metal (TM) oxides: Tanabe-Sugano diagrams and (TM) dangling bonds in vacated O-atom defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucovsky, Gerry; Wu, Kun; Pappas, Brian; Whitten, Jerry

    2013-04-01

    Defect states in the forbidden band-gap below the conduction band edge are active as electron traps in nano-grain high-) transition metal (TM) oxides with thickness >0.3 nm, e.g., ZrO2 and HfO2. These oxides have received considerable attention as gate-dielectrics in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, and more recently are emerging as candidates for charge storage and memory devices. To provide a theoretical basis for device functionality, ab-initio many-electron theory is combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study O K edge and TM core level transitions. These studies identify ligand field splittings (?LF) for defect state features,. When compared with those obtained from O-atom and TM-atom core spectroscopic transitions, this provides direct information about defect state sun-nm bonding arrangements. comparisons are made for (i) elemental TiO2 and Ti2O3 with different formal ionic charges, Ti4+ and Ti3+ and for (ii) Magneli Phase alloys, TinO2n-1, n is an integer 9>=n>3, and (TiO2)x(HfO2)1-x alloys. The alloys display multi-valent behavior from (i) different ionic-charge states, (ii} local bond-strain, and (iii) metallic hopping transport. The intrinsic bonding defects in TM oxides are identified as pairs of singly occupied dangling bonds. For 6-fold coordinated Ti-oxides defect excited states in 2nd derivative O K pre-edge spectra are essentially the same as single Ti-atom d2 transitions in Tanabe-Sugano (T-S) diagrams. O-vacated site defects in 8-fold coordinated ZrO2 and HfO2 are described by d8 T-S diagrams. T-S defect state ordering and splittings are functions of the coordination and symmetry of vacated site bordering TM atoms. ?LF values from the analysis of T-S diagrams indicate medium range order (MRO) extending to 3rd and 4th nearest-neighbor (NN) TM-atoms. Values are different for 6-fold Ti, and 8-fold ZrO2 and HfO2, and scale inversely with differences in respective formal ionic radii. O-vacated site bonding defects in TM nano-grain oxides are qualitatively similar to vacant-site defects in non-crystalline SiO2 and GeO2 for ulta-thin films, < 0.2 nm thick, and yield similar performance in MOSCAPs on Ge substrates heralding applications in aggressively-scale CMOS devices.

  3. Thermodynamics of the interaction of Pd(dmen)(H2O)22+ with bio-relevant ligands with reference to the deactivation of metal-based drug by thiol ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, Mohamed R.; Shoukry, Mohamed M.; Ali, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Pd(dmen)Cl2 complex was synthesized and characterized, where dmen = N,N-dimethylethylenediamine. Stoichiometry and stability constants of the complexes formed between [Pd(dmen)(H2O)2]2+ and various biologically relevant ligands such as amino acids, peptides and dicarboxylic acids are investigated at 25 °C and at constant 0.1 M ionic strength. The concentration distribution diagrams of the various species formed are evaluated. The equilibrium constants for the displacement of coordinated ligands as inosine, glycine or methionine by cysteine are calculated. The results are expected to contribute to the chemistry of tumour therapy.

  4. Isolation of a potassium bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene)carbazolide: a stabilizing pincer ligand for reactive late transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, Daniela I; Kleinhans, George; Guisado-Barrios, Gregorio; Liles, David C; Ung, Gaël; Bertrand, Guy

    2014-03-01

    The synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of a potassium adduct of a monoanionic CNC-pincer ligand featuring two mesoionic carbenes is reported. Owing to the peculiar electronic and steric properties of this ligand, the first neutral stable Ni(II)-hydride, and an unusual Cu(II) complex displaying a seesaw geometry, have been isolated. PMID:24448261

  5. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  6. Probing Pore Constriction in a Ligand-gated Ion Channel by Trapping a Metal Ion in the Pore upon Agonist Dissociation*

    PubMed Central

    Pittel, Ilya; Witt-Kehati, Dvora; Degani-Katzav, Nurit; Paas, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are receptors activated by neurotransmitters to rapidly transport ions across cell membranes, down their electrochemical gradients. Recent crystal structures of two prokaryotic pLGICs were interpreted to imply that the extracellular side of the transmembrane pore constricts to close the channel (Hilf, R. J., and Dutzler, R. (2009) Nature 457, 115–118; Bocquet, N., Nury, H., Baaden, M., Le Poupon, C., Changeux, J. P., Delarue, M., and Corringer, P. J. (2009) Nature 457, 111–114). Here, we utilized a eukaryotic acetylcholine (ACh)-serotonin chimeric pLGIC that was engineered with histidines to coordinate a metal ion within the channel pore, at its cytoplasmic side. In a previous study, the access of Zn2+ ions to the engineered histidines had been explored when the channel was either at rest (closed) or active (open) (Paas, Y., Gibor, G., Grailhe, R., Savatier-Duclert, N., Dufresne, V., Sunesen, M., de Carvalho, L. P., Changeux, J. P., and Attali, B. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15877–15882). In this study, the interactions of Zn2+ with the pore were probed upon agonist (ACh) dissociation that triggers the transition of the receptor from the active conformation to the resting conformation (i.e. during deactivation). Application of Zn2+ onto ACh-bound open receptors obstructed their pore and prevented ionic flow. Removing ACh from its extracellular binding sites to trigger deactivation while Zn2+ is still bound led to tight trapping of Zn2+ within the pore. Together with single-channel recordings, made to explore single pore-blocking events, we show that dissociation of ACh causes the gate to shut on a Zn2+ ion that effectively acts as a “foot in the door.” We infer that, upon deactivation, the cytoplasmic side of the pore of the ACh-serotonin receptor chimera constricts to close the channel. PMID:20466725

  7. TiO2/carboxylate-rich porous carbon: A highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lingling; Huang, Dongliang; Shi, Hefei; Gu, Mengbin; Li, Jilei; Dong, Fei; Luo, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    A novel visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on TiO2/carboxylate-rich porous carbon composite (TiO2/CRPC) was successfully synthesized by low temperature carbonization process in air. Sodium gluconate plays a crucial role in the formation of TiO2/CRPC. Different functional groups of sodium gluconate play synergetic roles in the formation of TiO2/CRPC. XRD and Raman spectra studies indicated that there are two different TiO2 crystalline phases existing in TiO2/CRPC, which are anatase and brookite, and the CRPC is amorphous. Via FT-IR and XPS spectra investigations, it was demonstrated that carboxylate group, the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) forming functional group, was solidified into the CRPC and form the LMCT complex on TiO2 surface through the fabrication of TiO2/CRPC. Compared with the pure TiO2, TiO2/CRPC exhibit enhanced absorption in the UV and visible light region around 260-600 nm. The strong absorption in the visible light region gives TiO2/CRPC advantages over pure TiO2 for the degradation of organic pollutants. TiO2/CRPC can activate O2 in air under mild conditions and exhibit excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities. However, TiO2/C composite obtained by using glucose instead of sodium gluconate exhibits poor photocatalytic activity, which demonstrated that carboxylate-TiO2 complexes are responsible for the prominent photocatalytic properties of TiO2/CRPC under visible light irradiation.

  8. A systematic study of the interactions between chemical partners (metal, ligands, counterions, and support) involved in the design of Al2O3-supported nickel catalysts from diamine-Ni(II) chelates.

    PubMed

    Négrier, Fabien; Marceau, Eric; Che, Michel; Giraudon, Jean-Marc; Gengembre, Léon; Löfberg, Axel

    2005-02-24

    1.5 Ni wt %/Al2O3 catalysts have been prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using [Ni(diamine)x(H2O)(6-2x)]Y2 precursors (diamine = 1,2-ethanediamine (en) and trans-1,2-cyclohexanediamine (tc); x = 0, 1, and 2; Y = NO3- and Cl-), to avoid the formation, during calcination, of difficult-to-reduce nickel aluminate. N2 was chosen for thermal treatment to help reveal and take advantage of the reactions occurring between Ni2+, ligands, counterions, and support. In the case of [Ni(en)2(H2O)2]Y2 salts used as precursors, in situ UV-vis and DRIFT spectroscopies show that after treatment at 230 degrees C Ni(II) ions are grafted to alumina via two OAl bonds and that the diamine ligands still remain coordinated to grafted nickel ions but in a monodentate way, bridging the cation with the alumina surface. With Y = Cl-, the chloride counterions desorb as hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen released upon decomposition of the en ligands is able to reduce a fraction of nickel ions into metal as evidenced by XPS. In contrast, with Y = NO3-, compounds such as CO or NO are formed during thermal treatment, indicating that nitrate ions burn the en ligands. After thermal treatment at 500 degrees C, a surface phase containing Ni(II) ions forms, characterized by XPS and UV-vis spectroscopy. Temperature-programmed reduction shows that these ions can be quantitatively reduced to the metallic state at 500 degrees C, in contrast with the aluminate obtained when the preparation is carried out from [Ni(H2O)6]2+, which is reduced only partly at 950 degrees C. On the other hand, a total self-reduction of nickel complexes leading to 2-5-nm metal particles is obtained upon thermal treatment via the hydrogen released by a hydrogen-rich ligand such as tc, whatever the Y counterion. An appropriate choice of the ligand and the counterion allows then to obtain selectively Ni(II) ions or a dispersed reduced nickel phase after treatment in N2, as a result of the reactions occurring between the chemical partners present on alumina. PMID:16851295

  9. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  10. Guanidyl groups: new metal-binding ligands in biomolecules. Reactions of chloro(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) with arginine in two cytochromes c and with other guanidyl ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Ratilla, E.M.A.; Kostic, N.M.

    1988-06-22

    The recognized functions of arginine (Arg) residues in proteins-binding of cofactors and anions-involve electrostatic attraction to the guanidinium cation. Although transition metals are common in metalloproteins and in metal-activated enzymes, their covalent binding to Arg side chain has not been proposed. Indeed, metal-guanidyl complexes are barely known. The precedent reported herein shows that Arg can bind metals, and that inorganic complexes hold promise as heavy-atom and spectroscopic tags for Arg.

  11. Anchoring protein crystals to mounting loops with hydrogel using inkjet technology.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao

    2014-11-01

    X-ray crystallography is an important technique for structure-based drug discovery, mainly because it is the only technique that can reveal whether a ligand binds to the target protein as well as where and how it binds. However, ligand screening by X-ray crystallography involves a crystal-soaking experiment, which is usually performed manually. Thus, the throughput is not satisfactory for screening large numbers of candidate ligands. In this study, a technique to anchor protein crystals to mounting loops by using gel and inkjet technology has been developed; the method allows soaking of the mounted crystals in ligand-containing solution. This new technique may assist in the design of a fully automated drug-screening pipeline. PMID:25372671

  12. Silatranes for binding inorganic complexes to metal oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Materna, Kelly L; Brennan, Bradley J; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-12-21

    A ruthenium complex containing silatrane functional groups has been synthesized and covalently bound to a conductive metal oxide film composed of nanoparticulate ITO (nanoITO). The silatrane-derived siloxane surface anchors were found to be stable in the examined range of pH 2 to 11 in aqueous phosphate buffer, and the ruthenium complex was found to have stable electrochemical features with repeated electrochemical cycling. The non-coordinating properties of the silatrane group to metals, which facilitates synthesis of silatrane-labeled coordination complexes, together with the facile surface-binding procedure, robustness of the surface linkages, and stability of the electrochemical properties suggest that incorporating silatrane motifs into ligands for inorganic complexes provides superior properties for attachment of catalysts to metal oxide surfaces under aqueous conditions. PMID:26506505

  13. Heterometal nanoparticles from Ru-based molecular clusters covalently anchored onto functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Vidick, Deborah; Ke, Xiaoxing; Devillers, Michel; Poleunis, Claude; Delcorte, Arnaud; Moggi, Pietro; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2015-01-01

    Summary Heterometal clusters containing Ru and Au, Co and/or Pt are anchored onto carbon nanotubes and nanofibers functionalized with chelating phosphine groups. The cluster anchoring yield is related to the amount of phosphine groups available on the nanocarbon surface. The ligands of the anchored molecular species are then removed by gentle thermal treatment in order to form nanoparticles. In the case of Au-containing clusters, removal of gold atoms from the clusters and agglomeration leads to a bimodal distribution of nanoparticles at the nanocarbon surface. In the case of Ru–Pt species, anchoring occurs without reorganization through a ligand exchange mechanism. After thermal treatment, ultrasmall (1–3 nm) bimetal Ru–Pt nanoparticles are formed on the surface of the nanocarbons. Characterization by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) confirms their bimetal nature on the nanoscale. The obtained bimetal nanoparticles supported on nanocarbon were tested as catalysts in ammonia synthesis and are shown to be active at low temperature and atmospheric pressure with very low Ru loading. PMID:26199832

  14. Effects of the size of aromatic chelate ligands and d 10 metal ions on the structures of dicarboxylate complexes: From dinuclear molecule to helical chains and 2D network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhong-Xi; Wang, Ji-Jiang; Hu, Huai-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Li; Wu, Qing-Ran; Li, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Four new mixed-ligand complexes, namely [Zn 2(pam) 2(2,2'-bpy) 2] ( 1), [Cd(pam)(2,2'-bpy) 2] n ( 2), [Zn(pam)(phen)] n ( 3) and [Cd (pam)(phen)] n · 0.5 n CH 3CH 2OH · 0.5 nH 2O ( 4) (H 2pam = pamoic acid, 2,2'-bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Complex 1 possesses a discrete dinuclear metallamacrocyclic structure. Complex 2 is a 1D homochiral helical coordination polymer that is built from achiral components, whereas 3 displays a 1D helical chain structure. 4 is an unusual 2D double-layered structure generated by ? ⋯ ? interactions of two 2D networks. The structural differences of these complexes are mainly due to the differences of the size of the rigid aromatic chelate ligands and d 10 metal ions. It appears that the chelate ligands and metal ions of the larger size favor the formation of high-dimensional structures, whereas those of the smaller size favor the formation of low-dimensional structures in the present system. The photoluminescence and thermal stability of these complexes were investigated.

  15. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  16. Synthesis, thermolysis and pyrolysis of group IV metal pinacolates: The impact of a vicinal diol as a supporting ligand for molecular precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechmann, Cecilia A.

    In an effort to investigate the suitability of an alternative ligand class for molecular precursors, the following studies were carried out: (1) New zirconium species were obtained by reaction of zirconium isopropoxide alcoholate, Zr2(OiPr)8(HOiPr) 2, with pinacol (HOCMe2CMe2OH). Control of reaction stoichiometries followed by azeotropic distillation of evolved isopropanol led to the successful preparation of a range of homo- and heteroleptic trinuclear species, Zr3(OCMe2CMe2O)2(O iPr)8(HOiPr)2, Zr3(OCMe 2CMe2O)4(OCMe2CMe2OH) 2(OiPr)2, and Zr3(OCMe2CMe 2O)4(OCMe2CMe2OH)4. Dinuclear products could be obtained by carrying out the reactions at room temperature or by addition of excess pinacol (in which case Zr2(OCMe2 CMe2O)2(OCMe2CMe2OH) 4 was the product). (2) Similar reactions between Ti(Oi Pr)4 and pinacol gave dinuclear products under all conditions. Both homo- (Ti2(OiPr)2(OCMe2CMe 2O)2(OCMe2CMe2OH)2) and heterometallic complexes (Ti2(OCMe2CMe2O) 2(OCMe2CMe2OH)4) were characterized. (3) Controlled addition of water to either of the isolated titanium pinacolates gave Ti3(mu3-O)(OCMe2CMe2O) 4(OCMe2CMe2OH)2. (4) Reaction of zirconium pinacolates with water led to the isolation of Zr4(mu 2-O)(OCMe2CMe2O)4(OCMe2CMe 2OH)6 and Zr6(mu3-O)4(H 2O)2(OCMe2CMe2O)5(OCMe 2CMe2OH)5. 17O NMR studies aided in the investigation of active equilibria and reversibility of hydrolysis. (5) The thermolysis of Zr2(OCMe2CMe2O) 2(OCMe2CMe2OH)4 gave ZrO2 in a mixture of crystalline phases. GC-MS and NMR analysis of the volatiles revealed 4 C6 products as well as two ligand coupled products. Isotope-labeling studies were carried out to probe the mechanisms by which the organic products were formed. (6) Reaction of Zr2(OCMe 2CMe2O)2(OCMe2CMe2OH) 4 with Ti(OiPr)4 gives (OiPr) 2TiZr2(OCMe2CMe2O)4(OCMe 2CMe2OH)2 which reacts with a second equivalent of Ti(OiPr)4 to give (OiPr) 4Ti2Zr2(OCMe2CMe2O) 6. (7) Reaction of Li{N(SiMe3)2}·Et 2O or Na{N(SiMe3)2}·x THF with Zr2(OCMe2CMe2O)2(OCMe 2CMe2OH)4 gave (THF)LiZr2(OCMe 2CMe2O)3(OCMe2CMe2OH) 3 or (HOCMe2CMe2OH)2Na2Zr 2(OCMe2CMe2O)4(OCMe2CMe 2OH)2 respectively. Similar reactions with larger +1 or +2 metals led to the formation of insoluble precipitates.

  17. Dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes supported by indolyl ligands in ?-?(2) :?(1) :?(1) hapticities and their high catalytic activity for isoprene 1,4-cis-polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangchao; Wei, Yun; Guo, Liping; Zhu, Xiancui; Wang, Shaowu; Zhou, Shuangliu; Mu, Xiaolong

    2015-02-01

    Two series of new dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes supported by indolyl ligands in novel ?-?(2) :?(1) :?(1) hapticities are synthesized and characterized. Treatment of [RE(CH2 SiMe3 )3 (thf)2 ] with 1 equivalent of 3-(tBuN=CH)C8 H5 NH (L1 ) in THF gives the dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes trans-[(?-?(2) :?(1) :?(1) -3-{tBuNCH(CH2 SiMe3 )}Ind)RE(thf)(CH2 SiMe3 )]2 (Ind=indolyl, RE=Y, Dy, or Yb) in good yields. In the process, the indole unit of L1 is deprotonated by the metal alkyl species and the imino C=N group is transferred to the amido group by alkyl CH2 SiMe3 insertion, affording a new dianionic ligand that bridges two metal alkyl units in ?-?(2) :?(1) :?(1) bonding modes, forming the dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes. When L1 is reduced to 3-(tBuNHCH2 )C8 H5 NH (L2 ), the reaction of [Yb(CH2 SiMe3 )3 (thf)2 ] with 1 equivalent of L2 in THF, interestingly, generated the trans-[(?-?(2) :?(1) :?(1) -3-{tBuNCH2 }Ind)Yb(thf)(CH2 SiMe3 )]2 (major) and cis-[(?-?(2) :?(1) :?(1) -3-{tBuNCH2 }Ind)Yb(thf)(CH2 SiMe3 )]2 (minor) complexes. The catalytic activities of these dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes for isoprene polymerization were investigated; the yttrium and dysprosium complexes exhibited high catalytic activities and high regio- and stereoselectivities for isoprene 1,4-cis-polymerization. PMID:25490879

  18. Preventing Anchoring Errors in Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Phillips, Susan D.

    1984-01-01

    Contrasted a debiasing condition, in which undergraduate subjects (N=73) were warned of possible anchoring errors and how to avoid them, with a no-debiasing condition. Results indicated that debiasing was irrelevant because neither the replication sample nor the debiased sample demonstrated significant anchoring errors in their judgments. (LLL)

  19. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  20. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  1. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401 Anchoring instructions...manufactured home must be secured against the wind by use of anchor assembly type installations...require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section....

  2. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401 Anchoring instructions...manufactured home must be secured against the wind by use of anchor assembly type installations...require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section....

  3. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401 Anchoring instructions...manufactured home must be secured against the wind by use of anchor assembly type installations...require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section....

  4. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401 Anchoring instructions...manufactured home must be secured against the wind by use of anchor assembly type installations...require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section....

  5. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401 Anchoring instructions...manufactured home must be secured against the wind by use of anchor assembly type installations...require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section....

  6. Adhesion of membranes via receptor-ligand complexes: Domain formation, binding cooperativity, and active processes

    E-print Network

    Thomas R. Weikl; Mesfin Asfaw; Heinrich Krobath; Bartosz Rozycki; Reinhard Lipowsky

    2009-06-09

    Cell membranes interact via anchored receptor and ligand molecules. Central questions on cell adhesion concern the binding affinity of these membrane-anchored molecules, the mechanisms leading to the receptor-ligand domains observed during adhesion, and the role of cytoskeletal and other active processes. In this review, these questions are addressed from a theoretical perspective. We focus on models in which the membranes are described as elastic sheets, and the receptors and ligands as anchored molecules. In these models, the thermal membrane roughness on the nanometer scale leads to a cooperative binding of anchored receptor and ligand molecules, since the receptor-ligand binding smoothens out the membranes and facilitates the formation of additional bonds. Patterns of receptor domains observed in Monte Carlo simulations point towards a joint role of spontaneous and active processes in cell adhesion. The interactions mediated by the receptors and ligand molecules can be characterized by effective membrane adhesion potentials that depend on the concentrations and binding energies of the molecules.

  7. Transition metal(II) complexes of a novel symmetrical benzothiazole-based ligand: synthesis, spectral/structural characterization and fluorescence properties.

    PubMed

    Gulcan, Mehmet; Karata?, Ya?ar; I??k, Sema; Öztürk, Gülsiye; Akba?, Esvet; ?ahin, Ertan

    2014-11-01

    2,6-bis (benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-(tert-butyl) phenol ligand (HL) derived from o-aminothiophenol and 4-tert-butyl-2,6-diformylphenol was synthesized and characterized by using elemental analysis, FTIR, X-ray crystallographic analysis, (1)H and (13)C-NMR and UV-vis spectra. Its complexes with Cu (II), Ni (II) and Co (II) were prepared and isolated as solid products and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral techniques as well as magnetic susceptibility. The FTIR spectra showed that the benzothiazole-based ligand under investigation behaves as a bidentate ligand. The UV-vis spectra and magnetic moment data suggested an octahedral geometry around Ni (II) and Co (II) complexes, and tetragonal geometry for Cu (II) complex. Moreover, the evaluation of absorption and emission properties of the ligand and its complexes were carried out in different solvents. The ligand and its complexes showed absorption maxima in the range of 275 - 432 nm, and emission maxima from 367 to 581 nm in toluene, tetrahydrofuran and ethyl acetate. PMID:25212791

  8. Covalent Anchor Positions Play an Important Role in Tuning Catalytic Properties of a Rationally Designed MnSalen-containing Metalloenzyme.

    PubMed

    Garner, Dewain K; Liang, Lei; Barrios, David A; Zhang, Jun-Long; Lu, Yi

    2011-09-01

    Two questions important to the success in metalloenzyme design are how to attach or anchor metal cofactors inside protein scaffolds, and in what way such positioning affects enzymatic properties. We have previously reported a dual anchoring method to position a nonnative cofactor, MnSalen (1), inside the heme cavity of apo sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) and showed that the dual anchoring can increase both the activity and enantioselectivity over the single anchoring methods, making this artificial enzyme an ideal system to address the above questions. Here we report systematic investigations of the effect of different covalent attachment or anchoring positions on reactivity and selectivity of sulfoxidation by the MnSalen-containing Mb enzymes. We have found that changing the left anchor from Y103C to T39C has an almost identical effect of increasing rate by 1.8-fold and increasing selectivity by +14% for S, whether the right anchor is L72C or S108C. At the same time, regardless of the identity of the left anchor, changing the right anchor from S108C to L72C increases rate by 4-fold and selectivity by +66%. The right anchor site was observed to have a greater influence than the left anchor site on the reactivity and selectivity in sulfoxidation of a wide scope of other ortho-, meta- and para- substituted substrates. The 1•Mb(T39C/L72C) showed the highest reactivity (TON up to 2.31 min(-1)) and selectivity (ee% up to 83%) among the different anchoring positions examined. Molecular dynamic simulations indicate that these changes in reactivity and selectivity may be due to the steric effects of the linker arms inside the protein cavity. These results indicate that small differences in the anchor positions can result in significant changes in reactivity and enantioselectivity, probably through steric interactions with substrates when they enter the substrate-binding pocket, and that the effects of right and left anchor positions are independent and additive in nature. The finding that the anchoring arms can influence both the positioning of the cofactor and steric control of substrate entrance will help design better functional metalloenzymes with predicted catalytic activity and selectivity. PMID:22013554

  9. Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), and Fe(II) metal complexes containing N,N'-(3,4-diaminobenzophenon)-3,5-Bu t2-salicylaldimine ligand: Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal properties, electrochemistry, and spectroelectrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, E.; Kilic, A.; Durgun, M.; Küpecik, L.; Yilmaz, I.; Arslan, S.

    2010-02-01

    The synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and electro-spectrochemical properties of steric hindered Schiff-base ligand [ N,N'-(3,4-benzophenon)-3,5-Bu t2-salicylaldimine (LH 2)] and its mononuclear Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II) and Fe(II) complexes are described in this work. The new dissymmetric steric hindered Schiff-base ligand containing a donor set of NONO was prepared through reaction of 3,4-diaminobenzophenon with 3,5-Bu t2-salicylaldehyde. Certain metal complexes of this ligand were synthesized by treating an ethanolic solution of the ligand with an equimolar amount of metal salts. The ligand and its complexes were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, molar conductivity and thermal analysis methods in addition to magnetic susceptibility, electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry techniques. The tetradentate and mononuclear metal complexes were obtained by reacting N,N'-(3,4-benzophenon)-3,5-Bu t2-salicylaldimine (LH 2) with some metal acetate in a 1:1 mole ratio. The molar conductance data suggest metal complexes to be non-electrolytes.

  10. The structures of the isomorphous potassium and rubidium salts of 4-nitrobenzoic acid and an overview of the metal complex stereochemistries of the alkali metal salt series with this ligand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham

    2015-06-01

    4-Nitrobenzoic acid (PNBA) has proved to be a useful ligand for the preparation of metal complexes but the known structures of the alkali metal salts of PNBA do not include the rubidium salt. The structures of the isomorphous potassium and rubidium polymeric coordination complexes with PNBA, namely poly[?2-aqua-aqua-?3-(4-nitrobenzoato)-potassium], [K(C7H4N2O2)(H2O)2]n, (I), and poly[?3-aqua-aqua-?5-(4-nitrobenzoato)-rubidium], [Rb(C7H4N2O2)(H2O)2]n, (II), have been determined. In (I), the very distorted KO6 coordination sphere about the K(+) centres in the repeat unit comprise two bridging nitro O-atom donors, a single bridging carboxylate O-atom donor and two water molecules, one of which is bridging. In Rb complex (II), the same basic MO6 coordination is found in the repeat unit, but it is expanded to RbO9 through a slight increase in the accepted Rb-O bond-length range and includes an additional Rb-O(carboxylate) bond, completing a bidentate O,O'-chelate interaction, and additional bridging Rb-O(nitro) and Rb-O(water) bonds. The comparative K-O and Rb-O bond-length ranges are 2.7352?(14)-3.0051?(14) and 2.884?(2)-3.182?(2)?Å, respectively. The structure of (II) is also isomorphous, as well as isostructural, with the known structure of the nine-coordinate caesium 4-nitrobenzoate analogue, (III), in which the Cs-O bond-length range is 3.047?(4)-3.338?(4)?Å. In all three complexes, common basic polymeric extensions are found, including two different centrosymmetric bridging interactions through both water and nitro groups, as well as extensions along c through the para-related carboxylate group, giving a two-dimensional structure in (I). In (II) and (III), three-dimensional structures are generated through additional bridges involving the nitro and water O atoms. In all three structures, the two water molecules are involved in similar intra-polymer O-H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions to both carboxylate and water O-atom acceptors. A comparison of the varied coordination behaviour of the full set of Li-Cs salts with 4-nitrobenzoic acid is also made. PMID:26044333

  11. Triethoxysilyl-substituted aminoethanethiol ligands for zinc and cadmium complexes and aminoethanethiol-modified silica gel. Evaluation of the corresponding supported molecular trap for metallic pollutant uptake (Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+).

    PubMed

    Bresson, C; Menu, M J; Dartiguenave, M; Dartiguenave, Y

    2000-06-01

    The reaction of 2-[3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamino]ethanethiol (LH, a) and 1-methyl-2-[3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamino]ethanethiol (LH, b) with ZnX2 and CdX2 (X = Cl, Br, I, NO3) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or CH2Cl2 gives several complexes depending on the experimental conditions. Elemental analyses, IR, Raman, 13C[1H], 1H NMR and mass spectroscopies indicated the formation of mononuclear and dinuclear complexes. In the absence of NEt3 as proton quencher, the protonated ligands react in their zwitterionic form giving dinuclear [M(LH)X2]2 [M = Zn (1), Cd (2); LH = a, b; X = Cl, Br, I] or mononuclear M(NO3)2(LH)2 [M = Zn (5), Cd (6); LH = a] complexes. In both cases, coordination occurs through the S atoms, the ligands acting as terminal and bridging species. With NEt3, the deprotonated ligands are chelated through their N and S atoms and bridging occurs through the S atoms in [MLX]2 [M = Zn (3), Cd (4); LH = a; X = Cl, Br] complexes. The LH ligand is chemically grafted onto silica, the procedure optimized and the resulting material characterized by 13C and 29Si cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) NMR and DRIFT. This material is evaluated as a supported molecular trap for binding heavy metals (Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+) in aqueous solution. In both batch and column processes, it appears that Hg2+ and Pb2+ are trapped more than Cd2+, but in all cases values lower than those allowed were obtained. PMID:11256706

  12. Metal flux and dynamic speciation at (bio)interfaces. Part V: The roles of simple, fulvic and aggregate complexes on Pb flux in freshwater ligand mixtures, computed at planar consuming interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zeshi; Buffle, Jacques

    2009-03-01

    The computations of metal flux in aquatic systems, at consuming interfaces like oganism membranes are of major importance in ecotoxicology and dynamic risk assessment. In this paper, the flux of Pb(II), at a planar consuming interface in natural waters, is studied. The system includes (a) simple ligands (OH -, CO32-); (b) fulvics and (c) aggregates, as complexants, i.e. those which may play the major roles in controlling the metal flux in aquatic media. The effects of various physico-chemical factors, in particular, the diffusion layer thickness, the stability constants of fulvic and aggregate complexes, the complexing site distribution of fulvics and the size distribution of aggregates, are studied in details.

  13. Investigations on the use of main group metal complexes of salen ligands as catalysts for the copolymerization of CO2 and epoxides 

    E-print Network

    Billodeaux, Damon Ray

    2005-08-29

    -derived catalysts, but recent studies indicate that chromium complexes of the salen (N,N-bis-(salicylidene)-1,2-ethylene diimine) family of ligands are far superior to the zinc complexes in terms of reactivity and diminishing the formation of unwanted byproducts...

  14. Polymerization catalysts containing electron-withdrawing amide ligands

    DOEpatents

    Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM); Click, Damon R. (Bloomington, IN)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention describes methods of making a series of amine-containing organic compounds which are used as ligands for group 3-10 and lanthanide metal compounds. The ligands have electron-withdrawing groups bonded to them. The metal compounds, when combined with a cocatalyst, are catalysts for the polymerization of olefins.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a series of transition metal complexes with a new symmetrical polyoxaaza macroacyclic Schiff base ligand: X-ray crystal structure of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes and their antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keypour, Hassan; Shayesteh, Maryam; Rezaeivala, Majid; Chalabian, Firoozeh; Valencia, Laura

    2013-01-01

    A new symmetrical [N4O2] hexadentate Schiff base ligand, (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)-2-(3-(2-((E)-pyridin-2-lmethyleneamino)phenoxy)naphthalen-2-yloxy)benzenamine, abbreviated to L, and its complexes of Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) have been synthesized in the presence of metal ions. The complexes were structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, NMR and molar conductivity. The crystal structures of two complexes, [NiL(ONO2)2]·2H2O and [CoLCl2]CH3OH·0.5H2O, have been determined by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study. In these complexes, the ligand is coordinated in a neutral form via pyridine and azomethine nitrogen atoms. The metal ions complete their six coordination with two coordinated nitrate or chloride ions, forming a distorted octahedral geometry. The synthesized compounds have antibacterial activity against the three Gram-positive bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epid and also against the three Gram-negative bacteria: Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella typhi. The activity data show that the complexes are more potent antibacterials than the parent Schiff base.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Studies of Some Metal(II) Complexes of Tetradentate Schiff Base Ligand: (4E)-4-[(2-{(E)-[1-(2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]amino}ethyl)imino]pentan-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Ejidike, Ikechukwu P.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes of (4E)-4-[(2-{(E)-[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]amino}ethyl)imino]pentan-2-one have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, electronic and IR spectral studies, and XRD. FTIR confirmed the ligand coordinates the metal ion to form mononuclear complex via the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the phenolic group and azomethine group, respectively. Tetrahedral geometry is proposed for Co(II) complex and square-planar geometry for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The antibacterial studies of the compounds were determined and they show that the metal complexes are more active than the free ligands. The antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS method was examined and it shows Cu(II); IC50 = 2.31 ± 1.54?µM for DPPH and Co(II); IC50 = 1.83 ± 1.08?µM for ABTS were the most active. PMID:26074738

  17. Perfluorinated Taddol Phosphoramidite as an L,Z-Ligand on Rh(I) and Co(-I): Evidence for Bidentate Coordination via Metal-C6F5 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Derek M.; Rappé, Anthony K.

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated Taddol-based phosphoramidite, CKphos, is a highly selective ligand for formation of the vinylogous amide cycloadduct in the Rh(I) catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition of alkenyl isocyanates and alkynes. CKphos overrides substrate bias of product selectivity in the cycloaddition, providing indolizinones in excellent product and enantioselectivities. Excellent selectivities are attributed to a shortened Rh-P bond and coordination of one C6F5 to rhodium via a Z-type interaction, making the phosphoramidite a bidentate L,Z-ligand on rhodium. Evidence for the shortened Rh-P and C6F5 coordination is provided by X-ray, NMR and DFT computation analyses. Additionally, an anionic cobalt complex with CKphos was synthesized and two Co-C6F5 interactions are seen. Rh(C2H4)Cl•CKphos catalyst in the [2+2+2] cycloaddition of alkenyl isocyanates and alkynes represents a rare example of metal-C6F5 Z-type interaction affecting selectivity in transition metal catalysis. PMID:23671790

  18. Concentric Anchor-Beacons (CAB) Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Wong, Vincent

    Concentric Anchor-Beacons (CAB) Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks Vijayanth Vivekanandan with range-determining hardware to obtain distance information. In this paper, we propose a concentric anchor-beacons a small number of anchor nodes. Each anchor emits beacons at different power levels. From the information

  19. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  20. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  1. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  2. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  3. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  4. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A preformed... the platinum group intended to be incorporated into a dental appliance, such as a denture, to...

  6. Tightening procedures for large diameter anchor bolts 

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Ryan Charles

    1997-01-01

    judgment concerning how tight to tighten the nuts on the anchor bolt system. Recent bolt failures have raised concerns about nut tightening procedures. When the nuts of a double nut system are not tightened sufficiently, fatigue loading, and even impact...

  7. Secondary anchor targeted cell release.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Ali; Lee-Montiel, Felipe T; Amos, Jennifer R; Imoukhuede, P I

    2015-11-01

    Personalized medicine offers the promise of tailoring therapy to patients, based on their cellular biomarkers. To achieve this goal, cellular profiling systems are needed that can quickly and efficiently isolate specific cell types without disrupting cellular biomarkers. Here we describe the development of a unique platform that facilitates gentle cell capture via a secondary, surface-anchoring moiety, and cell release. The cellular capture system consists of a glass surface functionalized with APTES, d-desthiobiotin, and streptavidin. Biotinylated mCD11b and hIgG antibodies are used to capture mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and human breast cancer (MCF7-GFP) cell lines, respectively. The surface functionalization is optimized by altering assay components, such as streptavidin, d-desthiobiotin, and APTES, to achieve cell capture on 80% of the functionalized surface and cell release upon biotin treatment. We also demonstrate an ability to capture 50% of target cells within a dual-cell mixture. This engineering advancement is a critical step towards achieving cell isolation platforms for personalized medicine. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2214-2227. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26010879

  8. Spectroscopic and biological studies of new binuclear metal complexes of a tridentate ONS hydrazone ligand derived from 4-amino-6-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one and 4,6-diacetylresorcinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adly, Omima M. I.; Emara, Adel A. A.

    2014-11-01

    The binuclear hydrazone, H2L, ligand derived from 4-amino-6-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one and 4,6-diacetylresorcinol, in the molar ratio 2:1, and its copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), cerium(III), iron(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) complexes have been synthesized. Structures of the ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (infrared, electronic, mass, 1H NMR and ESR) data, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductivity measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The ligand acts as dibasic with two ONS tridentate sites. The bonding sites are the azomethine nitrogen, phenolate oxygen and sulfur atoms. The metal complexes exhibit different geometrical arrangements such as square planer, tetrahedral and octahedral. The Coats-Redfern equation was used to calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different thermal decomposition steps of some complexes. The ligand and its metal complexes showed antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), yeast (Candida albicans) and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus). Structural parameters of the ligand and its metal complexes were theoretically computed on the basis of semiempirical PM3 level, and the results were correlated with their experimental data.

  9. Complexes possessing rare "tertiary" sulfonamide nitrogen-to-metal bonds of normal length: fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2R)dien)]PF6 complexes with hydrophilic sulfonamide ligands.

    PubMed

    Abhayawardhana, Pramuditha L; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2014-01-21

    Tertiary sulfonamide nitrogen-to-metal bonds of normal length are very rare. We recently discovered such a bond in one class of fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2R)(CH2Z)2)](n) complexes (Z = 2-pyridyl) with N(SO2R)dpa ligands derived from di-(2-picolyl)amine (N(H)dpa). fac-[M(CO)3(N(SO2R)(CH2Z)2)](n) agents (M = (186/188)Re, (99m)Tc) could find use as radiopharmaceutical bioconjugates when R is a targeting moiety. However, the planar, electron-withdrawing 2-pyridyl groups of N(SO2R)dpa destabilize the ligand to base and create relatively rigid chelate rings, raising the possibility that the rare M-N(sulfonamide) bond is an artifact of a restricted geometry. Also, the hydrophobic 2-pyridyl groups could cause undesirable accumulation in the liver, limiting future use in radiopharmaceuticals. Our goal is to identify a robust, hydrophilic, and flexible N(CH2Z)2 chelate framework. New C2-symmetric ligands, N(SO2R)(CH2Z)2 with (Z = CH2NH2; R = Me, dmb, or tol), were prepared by treating N(H)dien(Boc)2, a protected diethylenetriamine (N(H)dien) derivative, with methanesulfonyl chloride (MeSO2Cl), 3,5-dimethylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (dmbSO2Cl), and 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (tolSO2Cl). Treatment of fac-[Re(CO)3(H2O)3](+) with these ligands, designated as N(SO2R)dien, afforded new fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2R)dien)]PF6 complexes. Comparing the fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2Me)dien)]PF6 and fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2Me)dpa)]PF6 complexes, we find that the Re(I)-N(sulfonamide) bonds are normal in length and statistically identical and that the methyl (13)C NMR signal has an unusually upfield shift compared to that in the free ligand. We attribute this unusual upfield shift to the fact that the sulfonamide N undergoes an sp(2)-to-sp(3) rehybridization upon coordination to Re(I) in both complexes. Thus, the sulfonamide N of N(SO2R)dien ligands is a good donor, even though the chelate rings are conformationally flexible. Addition of the strongly basic and potentially monodentate ligand, 4-dimethylaminopyridine, did not affect the fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2tol)dien)]PF6 complex, even after several weeks. This complex is also stable to heat in aqueous solution. These results indicate that N(SO2R)dien ligands form fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2R)dien)]PF6 complexes sufficiently robust to be utilized for radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:24400928

  10. Electronic spectra and photophysics of platinum(II) complexes with alpha-diimine ligands - Solid-state effects. I - Monomers and ligand pi dimers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miskowski, Vincent M.; Houlding, Virginia H.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of emission behavior for Pt(II) complexes containing alpha-diimine ligands have been observed in dilute solution. If the complex also has weak field ligands such as chloride, ligand field (d-d) excited states become the lowest energy excited states. If only strong field ligands are present, a diimine 3(pi-pi/asterisk/) state becomes the lowest. In none of the cases studied did metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state lie lowest.

  11. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants’ WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  12. Two new metal-organic coordination polymers of lead with O-, N-donor ligands: Synthesis, characterization, luminescence and thermal behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Abhinandan; Kumar Jana, Swapan; Bera, Madhusudan; Hazari, Debdoot; Sankar Chowdhuri, Durga; Zangrando, Ennio; Dalai, Sudipta

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of two new lead(II) coordination polymers, [Pb2(picOH)4]·H2O (1) and [Pb3(Sip)2(H2O)2]·H2O (2) has been reported, where HpicOH=3-hydroxypicolinic acid and NaH2Sip=5-sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt. Both the complexes were structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. Complex 1, where the 3-hydroxypicolinate ligand is used for the first time in conjunction with Pb(II), revealed to be a 1D polymeric array. Complex 2 showed a 3D structure with 5-sulfoisophthalate ligand adopting two novel binding modes of high denticity (?6?6 and ?7?7). The photoluminescence and thermal properties of the two complexes have been studied.

  13. Terminal and new bridging coordination of methylguanidine, arginine, and canavanine to platinum(II). The first crystallographic study of bonding between a transition metal and a guanidine ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Ratilla, E.M.A.; Scott, B.K.; Moxness, M.S.; Kostic, N.M. )

    1990-03-07

    The compound (Pt(trpy)Cl)Cl reacts with the guanidine-containing compounds methylguanidine, arginine, and canavanine to form the yellow monometallic complexes (Pt(trpy)MeGua){sup 2+}, (Pt(trpy)ArgH){sup 2+}, and (Pt(trpy)CanH){sup 2+} and the red bimetallic complexes ((Pt(trpy)){sub 2}MeGua){sup 4+}, ((Pt(trpy)){sub 2}Arg){sup 3+}, and ((Pt(trpy)){sub 2}Can){sup 3+}. The yellow and the red complexes containing each of the three ligands are separated by cation-exchange chromatography, and the corresponding PF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and BPh{sub 4}{sup {minus}} salts are isolated by precipitation. The stability of the complexes upon heating and acidification and the relative difficulties of displacement of the guanidine ligands are studied semiquantitatively. The compositions of the new complexes are determined by mass, uv-vis, ir, and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 195}Pt NMR spectroscopy. In the yellow complexes, each guanidine ligand probably binds to a Pt(trpy){sup 2+} group through a trigonal (imino-type) nitrogen atom. In the red complexes, each guanidine ligand bridges two Pt(trpy){sup 2+} groups, probably through a tetrahedral (amino-type)and a trigonal nitrogen atom. Results of the crystallographic study of ((Pt(trpy)){sub 2}Can)(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3} {times} 5.5H{sub 2}O are reported. 44 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Current state of laser synthesis of metal and alloy nanoparticles as ligand-free reference materials for nano-toxicological assays.

    PubMed

    Rehbock, Christoph; Jakobi, Jurij; Gamrad, Lisa; van der Meer, Selina; Tiedemann, Daniela; Taylor, Ulrike; Kues, Wilfried; Rath, Detlef; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the abundance of nanomaterials in medical devices and everyday products, toxicological effects related to nanoparticles released from these materials, e.g., by mechanical wear, are a growing matter of concern. Unfortunately, appropriate nanoparticles required for systematic toxicological evaluation of these materials are still lacking. Here, the ubiquitous presence of surface ligands, remaining from chemical synthesis are a major drawback as these organic residues may cause cross-contaminations in toxicological studies. Nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid are a promising alternative as this synthesis route provides totally ligand-free nanoparticles. The first part of this article reviews recent methods that allow the size control of laser-fabricated nanoparticles, focusing on laser post irradiation, delayed bioconjugation and in situ size quenching by low salinity electrolytes. Subsequent or parallel applications of these methods enable precise tuning of the particle diameters in a regime from 4-400 nm without utilization of any artificial surface ligands. The second paragraph of this article highlights the recent progress concerning the synthesis of composition controlled alloy nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquids. Here, binary and ternary alloy nanoparticles with totally homogeneous elemental distribution could be fabricated and the composition of these particles closely resembled bulk implant material. Finally, the model AuAg was used to systematically evaluate composition related toxicological effects of alloy nanoparticles. Here Ag(+) ion release is identified as the most probable mechanism of toxicity when recent toxicological studies with gametes, mammalian cells and bacteria are considered. PMID:25247135

  15. Current state of laser synthesis of metal and alloy nanoparticles as ligand-free reference materials for nano-toxicological assays

    PubMed Central

    Rehbock, Christoph; Jakobi, Jurij; Gamrad, Lisa; van der Meer, Selina; Tiedemann, Daniela; Taylor, Ulrike; Kues, Wilfried; Rath, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Summary Due to the abundance of nanomaterials in medical devices and everyday products, toxicological effects related to nanoparticles released from these materials, e.g., by mechanical wear, are a growing matter of concern. Unfortunately, appropriate nanoparticles required for systematic toxicological evaluation of these materials are still lacking. Here, the ubiquitous presence of surface ligands, remaining from chemical synthesis are a major drawback as these organic residues may cause cross-contaminations in toxicological studies. Nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid are a promising alternative as this synthesis route provides totally ligand-free nanoparticles. The first part of this article reviews recent methods that allow the size control of laser-fabricated nanoparticles, focusing on laser post irradiation, delayed bioconjugation and in situ size quenching by low salinity electrolytes. Subsequent or parallel applications of these methods enable precise tuning of the particle diameters in a regime from 4–400 nm without utilization of any artificial surface ligands. The second paragraph of this article highlights the recent progress concerning the synthesis of composition controlled alloy nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquids. Here, binary and ternary alloy nanoparticles with totally homogeneous elemental distribution could be fabricated and the composition of these particles closely resembled bulk implant material. Finally, the model AuAg was used to systematically evaluate composition related toxicological effects of alloy nanoparticles. Here Ag+ ion release is identified as the most probable mechanism of toxicity when recent toxicological studies with gametes, mammalian cells and bacteria are considered. PMID:25247135

  16. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbany, Z.; Handayani, G.

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  17. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, M.P.

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK{sub a}s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 5.94, log{beta}{sub 120} = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 9.34, log{beta}{sub l20} = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is log{beta}{sub 110} = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of {sup 242}Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  18. Two new metal-organic coordination polymers of lead with O-, N-donor ligands: Synthesis, characterization, luminescence and thermal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Abhinandan; Kumar Jana, Swapan; Bera, Madhusudan; Hazari, Debdoot; Sankar Chowdhuri, Durga; Zangrando, Ennio; Dalai, Sudipta

    2013-01-15

    The synthesis of two new lead(II) coordination polymers, [Pb{sub 2}(picOH){sub 4}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (1) and [Pb{sub 3}(Sip){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (2) has been reported, where HpicOH=3-hydroxypicolinic acid and NaH{sub 2}Sip=5-sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt. Both the complexes were structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. Complex 1, where the 3-hydroxypicolinate ligand is used for the first time in conjunction with Pb(II), revealed to be a 1D polymeric array. Complex 2 showed a 3D structure with 5-sulfoisophthalate ligand adopting two novel binding modes of high denticity ({eta}{sup 6}{mu}{sub 6} and {eta}{sup 7}{mu}{sub 7}). The photoluminescence and thermal properties of the two complexes have been studied. - Graphical abstract: 1D and 3D inorganic organic hybrid luminescent material of Pb(II) have been synthesized by using 3-hydroxypicolinate and 5-sulfoisophthalate anions. The 5-sulfoisophthalate ligand shows two novel binding modes with high denticity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-hydroxypicolinic acid is used for first time with Pb{sup 2+} in a MOF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-sulfoisophthalic acid displays two novel binding modes of high denticity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complex 1 shows high thermal stability (up to 167 Degree-Sign C). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MLCT is present in both the complexes.

  19. Potentiometric and Blood Plasma Simulation Studies of Nickel(II) Complexes of Poly(amino)amido Pentadentate Ligands: Computer Aided Metal-Based Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Graham E.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibria of nickel(II) with N,N?-di(aminoethylene)-2,6-pyridinedicarbonylamine (L1), Bis-(N,N-dimethylethyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (L2), and N,N?-bis[2(2-pyridyl)-methyl]pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide (L3) have been studied at 25°C and an ionic strength of 0.15?mol?dm?3 by glass electrode potentiometry. The protonation and formation constants added to blood plasma model predict that Cu(II) competes effectively against Ni(II), Zn(II), and Ca(II) for these ligands in vivo. PMID:25371660

  20. Metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) photochemistry. Experimental evidence for the participation of a higher lying MLCT state in polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, R.S.; Worl, L.A.; Murtaza, Z.; Meyer, T.J. ); Kober, E.M. )

    1990-01-11

    Evidence is presented which supports the existence of a thermally accessible, higher lying metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state for polypyridyl complexes of Ru(II) and Os(II). This state is shown to exist for complexes both in solution and in the solid state. It is typically found to occur at 300-800 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest lying MLCT state and to have a decay rate constant of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} s{sup {minus}1}. This decay rate constant is about 10 times faster than the decay rate constant for the next lower lying MLCT state. The decay process appears to be almost completely nonradiative with the radiative decay rate constant estimated to be 10{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1} or slower. The higher lying MLCT states can make a significant contribution to nonradiative decay at room temperature.

  1. Fibre-Reinforced Adhesive for Structure Anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnat, J.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The topic of this paper is the glue-concrete interface of bonded anchors loaded by tension force. The paper is closely focused on bond strength experiments using high strength concrete up to class C50/60 or higher together with pure epoxy resin and fibre-reinforced resin. The goal of this research is to find the limits of the effective use of such glue types in high performance concrete, and also to verify the most commonly used design methods for bonded anchors. The presented research includes experimental analysis of the glue-concrete interface and the influence of its parameters on anchor behaviour. The presented analysis shows some problems of the 'separated failure modes' approach and also presents experimentally verified bond strength values obtained for the currently most widespread glue types. Results of fibre reinforced epoxy resin are also presented in this paper.

  2. Binding of hydrocarbons and other extremely weak ligands to transition metal complexes that coordinate hydrogen: Investigation of cis-interactions and delocalized bonding involving sigma bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Kubas, G.J.; Eckert, J.; Luo, X.L.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). At the forefront of chemistry are efforts to catalytically transform the inert C-H bonds in alkanes to more useful products using metal compounds. The goal is to observe binding and cleavage of alkane C-H bonds on metals or to use related silane Si-H bonding as models, analogous to the discovery of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) binding to metals. Studies of these unique sigma complexes (M{hor_ellipsis}H-Y; Y{double_bond}H, Si, C) will aid in developing new catalysts or technologies relevant to DOE interest, e.g., new methods for tritium isotope separation. Several transition metals (Mo, W, Mn, and Pt) were found to reversibly bind and cleave H{sub 2}, silanes, and halocarbons. The first metal-SiH{sub 4} complexes, thus serving as a model for methane reactions. A second goal is to study the dynamics and energetics of H-Y bonds on metals by neutron scattering, and evidence for interactions between bound H-Y and nearby H atoms on metal complexes has been found.

  3. Strong resistance of citrate anions on metal nanoparticles to desorption under thiol functionalization.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Won; Shumaker-Parry, Jennifer S

    2015-02-24

    Thiols are widely utilized to functionalize metal nanoparticles, including ubiquitous citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for fundamental studies and biomedical applications. For more than two decades, citrate-to-thiol ligand exchange has been used to introduce functionality to AuNPs in the 5-100 nm size regime. Contrary to conventional assumptions about the completion of ligand exchange processes and formation of a uniform self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the NP surface, coadsorption of thiols with preadsorbed citrates as a mixed layer on AuNPs is demonstrated. Hydrogen bonding between carboxyl moieties primarily is attributed to the strong adsorption of citrate, leading to the formation of a stabilized network that is challenging to displace. In these studies, adsorbed citrates, probed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, remain on the surface following thiol addition to the AuNPs, whereas acetoacetate anions are desorbed. XPS quantitative analysis indicates that the surface density of alkyl and aryl thiolates for AuNPs with an average diameter of ?40 nm is 50-65% of the value of a close-packed SAM on Au(111). We present a detailed citrate/thiolate coadsorption model that describes this final mixed surface composition. Intermolecular interactions between weakly coordinated oxyanions, such as polyprotic carboxylic acids, can lead to enhanced stability of the metal-ligand interactions, and this needs to be considered in the surface modification of metal nanoparticles by thiols or other anchor groups. PMID:25625548

  4. Anti-inflammatory drugs interacting with Zn (II) metal ion based on thiocyanate and azide ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic studies, DFT calculations and antibacterial assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiniforoshan, Hossein; Tabrizi, Leila; Hadizade, Morteza; Sabzalian, Mohammad R.; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi; Rezapour, Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    Zinc (II) complexes with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) naproxen (nap) and ibuprofen (ibu) were synthesized in the presence of nitrogen donor ligands (thiocyanate or azide). The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopes. The binding modes of the ligands in complexes were established by means of molecular modeling of the complexes, and calculation of their IR, NMR and absorption spectra at DFT (TDDFT)/B3LYP level were studied. The experimental and calculated data verified monodentate binding through the carboxylic oxygen atoms of anti-inflammatory drugs in the zinc complexes. The calculated 1H, FT-IR and UV-Vis data are in better agreement with the experimental results, and confirm the predicted tetrahedral structures for the Zn (II) complexes. In addition to DFT calculations of complexes, natural bond orbital (NBO) was performed at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Biological studies showed the antibacterial activity of zinc complexes against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

  5. Adsorption phenomena of cubane-type tetranuclear Ni(II) complexes with neutral, thioether-functionalized ligands on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heß, Volkmar; Matthes, Frank; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Monakhov, Kirill Yu.; Besson, Claire; Kögerler, Paul; Ghisolfi, Alessio; Braunstein, Pierre; Schneider, Claus M.

    2015-11-01

    The controlled and intact deposition of molecules with specific properties onto surfaces is an emergent field impacting a wide range of applications including catalysis, molecular electronics, and quantum information processing. One strategy is to introduce grafting groups functionalized to anchor to a specific surface. While thiols and disulfides have proven to be quite effective in combination with gold surfaces, other S-containing groups have received much less attention. Here, we investigate the surface anchoring and organizing capabilities of novel charge-neutral heterocyclic thioether groups as ligands of polynuclear nickel(II) complexes. We report on the deposition of a cubane-type {Ni4} (= [Ni(?3-Cl)Cl(HL·S)]4) single-molecule magnet from dichloromethane solution on a Au(111) surface, investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction, both immediately after deposition and after subsequent post-annealing. The results provide strong evidence for partial decomposition of the coordination complex upon deposition on the Au(111) surface that, however, leaves the magnetic {Ni4Cl4n} (n = 1 or 2) core intact. Only post-annealing above 480 K induces further decomposition and fragmentation of the {Ni4Cl4n} core. The detailed insight into the chemisorption-induced decomposition pathway not only provides guidelines for the deposition of thioether-functionalized Ni(II) complexes on metallic surfaces but also reveals opportunities to use multidentate organic ligands decorated with thioether groups as transporters for highly unstable inorganic structures onto conducting surfaces, where they are stabilized retaining appealing electronic and magnetic properties.

  6. Method and apparatus for dissociating metals from metal compounds extracted into supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Hunt, Fred H. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Workington, GB); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for dissociating metal-ligand complexes in a supercritical fluid by treating the metal-ligand complex with heat and/or reducing or oxidizing agents is described. Once the metal-ligand complex is dissociated, the resulting metal and/or metal oxide form fine particles of substantially uniform size. In preferred embodiments, the solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the ligand is a .beta.-diketone such as hexafluoroacetylacetone or dibutyldiacetate. In other preferred embodiments, the metals in the metal-ligand complex are copper, silver, gold, tungsten, titanium, tantalum, tin, or mixtures thereof. In preferred embodiments, the reducing agent is hydrogen. The method provides an efficient process for dissociating metal-ligand complexes and produces easily-collected metal particles free from hydrocarbon solvent impurities. The ligand and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated to provide an economic, efficient process.

  7. 33 CFR 164.19 - Requirements for vessels at anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...a dragging anchor; and (c) Whenever weather, tide, or current conditions are likely to cause the vessel's anchor to drag, action is taken to ensure the safety of the vessel, structures, and other vessels, such as being ready to veer...

  8. Standardization of test methodology: a comparison between three suture anchors 

    E-print Network

    Jonnalagadda, Silpa P.

    2005-08-29

    Suture anchors have been used successfully in many applications in orthopedics. They have been in the forefront of research in the recent years. Most of the studies, though, have focused on human suture anchors. This research concentrates...

  9. Plastic Limit Analysis of Offshore Foundation and Anchor 

    E-print Network

    Chi, Chao-Ming

    2010-10-12

    This study presents the applications of plastic limit analysis to offshore foundations and anchors, including the drag embedment anchors (DEAs) for mobile offshore drilling units (MODU’s) and spudcan foundations for jack-up ...

  10. Upper bound analysis for drag anchors in soft clay 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Byoung Min

    2007-04-25

    This study presents an upper bound plastic limit analysis for predicting drag anchor trajectory and load capacity. The shank and fluke of the anchor are idealized as simple plates. The failure mechanism involves the motion ...

  11. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  12. Metal complexes of Co, Ni and Cu with the pincer ligand HN(CH(2)CH(2)P(i)Pr(2))(2): preparation, characterization and electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenel, Sergio S.; Kerr, John B.; Arnold, John

    2011-01-01

    A series of Co, Ni and Cu complexes with the ligand HN(CH?CH?PiPr?)? (HNP?) has been isolated and their electrochemical behaviour investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The nickel complexes [(HNP?)NiOTf]OTf and [(HNP?)NiNCCH?](BF?)? display reversible reductions, as does the related amide derivative (NP?)NiBr. The related copper(I) and cobalt(II) derivatives were also isolated and characterized. The addition of piperidine to [(HNP?)NiNCCH?](BF?)? led to the formation of the new species [(HNP?)Ni(N(H)C(CH?)NC?H??)](BF?)?. The nucleophilic addition of piperidine to acetonitrile to produce HN=C(CH?)NC?H?? was found to be catalyzed by [(HNP?)NiNCCH?](BF?)?.

  13. 1,1'-Bis(pyrazol-3-yl)ferrocene: A Clip Ligand That Forms Supramolecular Aggregates and Prismatic Hexanuclear Coinage Metal Complexes.

    PubMed

    Veronelli, Mattia; Dechert, Sebastian; Demeshko, Serhiy; Meyer, Franc

    2015-07-20

    Two ferrocene derivatives with appended pyrazole substituents, namely, 1,1'-bis(5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)ferrocene (H2LH) and 1,1'-bis(5-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)ferrocene (H2LF), were synthesized. In solid state they form distinct H-bonded dimers with orthogonal (H2LH, C2 symmetry) or antiparallel (H2LF, C2h symmetry) arrangement of the two ferrocene/pyrazole hybrid molecules. Supramolecular dimerization was also detected in solution at low temperatures, though diffusion-ordered spectroscopy and variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy revealed several dynamic processes. Redox potentials of the ferrocene derivatives are affected by the nature of the pyrazole substituent (Me, CF3). In their deprotonated form [LR]2-, both ferrocene/pyrazole hybrids serve as ligands and form oligonuclear CuI, AgI, and AuI complexes that were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. X-ray crystallography revealed the structures of Cu6L3H and Ag6L3F, which both contain two parallel and eclipsed [M(?-pz)]3 metallamacrocycles (M = Cu, Ag) linked by three ferrocene units. MI···MI distances between the two triangular M3N6 decks are shorter in Ag6L3F (3.28-3.30 vs 3.44-3.51 Å in the case of Cu6L3H), indicating substantial intramolecular closed-shell Ag(d10)-Ag(d10) interactions. However, Cu6L3H features close intermolecular Cu···Cu contacts as short as 3.37 Å. Mössbauer data for both the ligands and complexes were collected, and electrochemical properties were measured; preliminary luminescence data are reported. PMID:26114413

  14. Synthetic and structural studies of linear bis-catechol amide, N,N{prime}-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-1,7-diazaheptane (5-LICAM), and its complexes with Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}: Utilization of a polymer-supported, sulfonated analog, 5-LICAMS, as a biomimetic ligand for divalent metal ion removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Song-Ping, Franz, K.J.; Fish, R.H.; Olmstead, M.M.

    1995-05-24

    The synthesis and structural characterization of the linear bis(catechol) amide ligand, N,N{prime}-bis(2,3-dihydroxy-benzoyl)-1.7-diazaheptane (5-LICAM, 1), was studied along with several metal complexes, namely, Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. In order to test the utilization of 1 in removing Ni{sup 2+} from aqueous solution for environmental inorganic applications, the authors synthesized the polymer pendant ligand version, PS-5-LICAM, bonded to modified 6% macroporous divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads (0.55 mmol/g), with an important modification of a sulfonate group on the catechol ring, PS-5-LICAMS, to impart hydrophilicity to the ligand site. Indeed, it was found that the PS-5-LICAMS ligand removed 0.35 mmol of Ni/g of polymer beads from aqueous solution at pH 2.5, but unfortunately, was not selective to Ni{sup 2+} in competition with other divalent metal ions. An in depth discussion of the X-ray structure of ligand 2 and that of the Ni complex, 3, will be presented.

  15. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  18. 50 CFR 622.432 - Anchoring restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchoring restriction. 622.432 Section 622.432 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the...

  19. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  20. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  1. Simple suture and anchor in rabbit hips

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Filho, Fernando Cal; Guarniero, Roberto; de Godoy Júnior, Rui Maciel; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Garcia, Lucas Cortizo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Using biomechanical studies, this research aims to compare hip capsulorrhaphy in rabbits, carried out with two different techniques: capsulorrhaphy with simple sutures and with anchors. Method Thirteen New Zealand Albino (Oryctolaguscuniculus) male rabbits, twenty-six hip joints, were used. First, a pilot project was performed with three rabbits (six hip joints). This experiment consisted of ten rabbits divided into two groups: group 1 underwent capsulorrhaphy on both right and left hips with simple suture using polyglycolic acid absorbable thread, and group 2 underwent capsulorrhaphy with titanium anchors. After a four-week postoperative period, the animals were euthanized and the hip joints were frozen. On the same day of the biomechanical studies, after the hip joints were previously unfrozen, the following parameters were evaluated: rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy. Results There was no relevant statistical difference in rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy between the simple suture and anchor groups. Conclusion Through biomechanical analyses, using parameters of rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy, it has been shown that capsulorrhaphy with simple suture and with anchors has similar results in rabbit hip joints. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:24453618

  2. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  3. A Description of the Anchor Test Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The Anchor Test Study is described as to objectives, the need for the study, tests selected for the study, States' participation, renumeration of School Test Coordinator, teacher participation, schedule of activities, reports of test results, pupil personnel data needed, and the tests administered during the restandardization phase and equating…

  4. Marine Fisheries On the cover: Anchored

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W On the cover: Anchored fish aggregating devices. growing in use Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. Hobart Marine Fisheries Rel'iell' tUSPS 090-0ROI is pub- lished monthly by the Scientific Publications Office. National Marine Fisheries Service. OAA, 7600 Sand Point Way

  5. The first scorpionate ligand based on diazaphosphole.

    PubMed

    Mlate?ek, Martin; Dostál, Libor; R?ži?ková, Zde?ka; Honzí?ek, Jan; Holubová, Jana; Erben, Milan

    2015-11-18

    The reaction of PhBCl2 with 1H-1,2,4-?(3)-diazaphosphole in the presence of NEt3 gives a new scorpionate ligand, phenyl-tris(1,2,4-diazaphospholyl)borate (PhTdap). The coordination behaviour of this ligand toward transition and non-transition metals has been comprehensively studied. In the thallium(i) complex, Tl(PhTdap), ?(2)-N,N bonding supported with intramolecular ?(3)-phenyl coordination has been observed in the solid state. Tl(PhTdap) also shows unusual intermolecular ?-interactions between five-membered diazaphosphole rings and the thallium atom giving infinite molecular chains in the crystal. In the square planar complex [Pd(C,N-C6H4CH2NMe2)(PhTdap)], ?(2)-bonded scorpionate has been detected in both solution and in the solid state. For other studied compounds with the central metal ion Ti(iv), Mo(ii), Mn(i), Fe(ii), Ru(ii), Co(ii), Co(iii), Ni(ii) and Cd(ii), the ?(3)-N,N,N coordination pattern was observed. Electronic properties of PhTdap and its ligand-field strength were elucidated from UV-Vis spectra of transition-metal species. The CH/P replacement on going from tris(pyrazolyl)borate to the ligand PhTdap causes a slight increase in electronic density rendered to the central metal atom. The following order of ligand-field strength has been established: HB(3,5-Me2pz)3 < PhB(pz)3 < HB(1,2,4-triazolyl) < HB(pz)3 < PhB(1,2,4-triazolyl) < PhTdap. The crystal structures of ten metal complexes bearing the new ligand are reported. The possibility of PhTdap coordination through the phosphorus atom is also briefly discussed. PMID:26537349

  6. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  7. Anchored Interactive Learning Environments Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Anchored Interactive Learning Environments Thad Crews Department of Computer Science Western, Anchored Interactive Learning Environments (AILE). AILE extend well-developed theories of educationalPlayer, an Interactive Learning Envi- ronment (ILE) anchored in the Rescue at Boone's Meadow (RBM) episode from

  8. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...for the soil type or classification. (b) Specifications...tie-down straps and ground anchors —(1) Ground...the maximum spacing of ground anchors and their accompanying...based on the soil classification determined in accordance... (i) The installed ground anchor type and...

  9. Group VI metal complexes of tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)phenylborate: modulation of ligand donation via coordination of M(CO)3 units at the borate phenyl substituent.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Paul J; Weberg, Alexander B; Bohrmann, Trent D; Xu, Hanyue; Young, Victor G

    2015-02-28

    A series of d(6) metal complexes of tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)phenylborate ([PhB(CH2PPh2)3](-), PhBP3), including [Et4N][M(CO)3(PhBP3)] (M = Cr, Mo, W), inaugural group VI metal tris(phosphino)borate complexes, and zwitterionic Mn(CO)3(PhBP3) have been synthesized and fully characterized. An analysis of IR ?(CO) data for [Et4N][M(CO)3(PhBP3)] indicates that PhBP3 is significantly less strongly donating than Tp towards zerovalent M(CO)3 fragments; PhBP3 does not function as a strongly donating scorpionate in this system as its does towards cationic metal fragments suggesting that PhBP3 may not function as an effective surrogate of hydrotris(1-pyrazolyl)borate towards zerovalent metals. While the metal centers of [Et4N][M(CO)3(PhBP3)] are very likely still more electron-rich than those of M(CO)3(triphos), the anions of [Et4N][M(CO)3(PhBP3)] do not provide robust oxidative addition products analogous to those of M(CO)3(triphos). A new bi-functional role for PhBP3 was investigated via the synthesis of seven structurally characterized bimetallics in which zerovalent M(CO)3 and monovalent [Mn(CO)3](+) fragments bind the three phosphine atoms and the borate phenyl substituent. IR ?(CO) data support modest attenuation of PhBP3 donor ability at phosphorus upon ?(6)-phenyl substituent binding, representing a new inductive strategy for tuning tris(phosphino)phenylborate donation at the ?(3)-phosphine-bound metal fragment. PMID:25604963

  10. Water-Stable, Hydroxamate Anchors for Functionalization of TiO2 Surfaces with Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, W.R.; Milot, R.L.; Song, H.; Snoeberger III, R.C.; Batista, Victor S.; Schmuttenmaer, C.A.; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    A novel class of derivatized hydroxamic acid linkages for robust sensitization of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) under various aqueous conditions is described. The stability of linkages bound to metal oxides under various conditions is important in developing photocatalytic cells which incorporate transition metal complexes for solar energy conversion. In order to compare the standard carboxylate anchor to hydroxamates, two organic dyes differing only in anchoring groups were synthesized and attached to TiO{sub 2} NPs. At acidic, basic, and close to neutral pH, hydroxamic acid linkages resist detachment compared to the labile carboxylic acids. THz spectroscopy was used to compare ultrafast interfacial electron transfer (IET) into the conduction band of TiO{sub 2} for both linkages and found similar IET characteristics. Observable electron injection and stronger binding suggest that hydroxamates are a suitable class of anchors for designing water stable molecules for functionalizing TiO{sub 2}.

  11. AnchorDock: Blind and Flexible Anchor-Driven Peptide Docking.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shimon, Avraham; Niv, Masha Y

    2015-05-01

    The huge conformational space stemming from the inherent flexibility of peptides is among the main obstacles to successful and efficient computational modeling of protein-peptide interactions. Current peptide docking methods typically overcome this challenge using prior knowledge from the structure of the complex. Here we introduce AnchorDock, a peptide docking approach, which automatically targets the docking search to the most relevant parts of the conformational space. This is done by precomputing the free peptide's structure and by computationally identifying anchoring spots on the protein surface. Next, a free peptide conformation undergoes anchor-driven simulated annealing molecular dynamics simulations around the predicted anchoring spots. In the challenging task of a completely blind docking test, AnchorDock produced exceptionally good results (backbone root-mean-square deviation ? 2.2Å, rank ?15) for 10 of 13 unbound cases tested. The impressive performance of AnchorDock supports a molecular recognition pathway that is driven via pre-existing local structural elements. PMID:25914054

  12. Sticking and patching: tuning and anchoring cyclometallated ruthenium(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Cathrin D; Ris, Daniel P; Meier, Stefan C; Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Neuburger, Markus; Zampese, Jennifer A

    2015-01-28

    A series of [Ru(bpy)2(C^N)][PF6] (HC^N = 2-phenylpyridine derivative) complexes functionalized in the cyclometallating C^N phenyl ring with F, Me, OMe, CO2Me, S(t)Bu, SO2Me (ligands H1-H6) or in the C^N pyridine ring with 4-CO2Me or 4-C6H4P(O)(OEt)2 substituents (ligands H7 or H9) have been prepared and characterized; representative crystal structures confirm the structural features of the complexes. When the C^N ligand contains a CO2H substituent (ligand H28), deprotonation in addition to cyclometallation occurs to give a neutral, zwitter-ionic complex [Ru(bpy)2(8)]. The synthesis of the cationic complexes requires addition of a silver(i) salt (AgPF6 or AgBF4) to abstract Cl(-) from cis-[Ru(bpy)2Cl2] and (1)H NMR spectroscopic data are consistent with interactions between Ag(+) and the coordinated C^N ligand in [Ru(bpy)2(C^N)](+). The absorption spectra of [Ru(bpy)2(C^N)][PF6] (C^N = 1-6) are similar, but the introduction of the anchoring domains in [Ru(bpy)2(C^N)][PF6] with C^N = 7 or 9 enhances the absorption response; the greatest influence is observed in [Ru(bpy)2(9)](+) with the introduction of the 4-C6H4P(O)(OEt)2 substituent. Trends in emission and electrochemical behaviours of the complexes are interpreted in terms of the influence of the electronic properties of the C^N ligand substituents on the energies of the HOMO which is localized on the C^N ligand and Ru centre. This study provides an optimized synthetic route to the phosphonate ester derivative [Ru(bpy)2(9)][PF6], designed to anchor to a semiconductor surface; this complex also exhibits the most favourable absorption properties among the complexes studied. PMID:25411760

  13. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires.

    PubMed

    Reeler, Nini E A; Lerstrup, Knud A; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V; Laursen, Bo W; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two ?-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or ?-? interactions). PMID:26471461

  14. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-10-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two ?-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or ?-? interactions).

  15. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two ?-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or ?-? interactions). PMID:26471461

  16. Multifunctional ligand for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.; Singh, P.R.

    1996-05-14

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical are revealed. The ligand comprises either a phosphorous or germanium core and at least two hydrazine groups forming a ligand for bonding to a metal extending from the phosphorous or germanium core.

  17. Spectral, magnetic, biocidal screening, DNA binding and photocleavage studies of mononuclear Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal complexes of tricoordinate heterocyclic Schiff base ligands of pyrazolone and semicarbazide/thiosemicarbazide based derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, N.; Selvan, A.; Manisankar, P.

    2010-07-01

    We depict the synthesis and characterization of copper(II) and zinc(II) coordination compounds of 4-(3',4'-dimethoxybenzaldehydene)2-3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-semicarbazone ( 1a), 4-(3',4'-dimethoxybenzaldehydene)2-3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-thiosemicarbazone ( 1b), 4-(3'-hydroxy-4'-nitrobenzaldehydene)2-3-dimeth yl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-semicarbazone ( 1c) and 4-(3'-hydroxy-4'-nitrobenzal dehydene)2-3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-thiosemicarbazone ( 1d). All the remote compounds have the general composition [ML 2] (M = Cu(II) and Zn(II)); L = Schiff base ( 1a- 1d). All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, ESI-Mass, magnetic susceptibility measurements, cyclic voltammetric measurements, and EPR spectral studies. It has been originated that the Schiff bases with Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions form mononuclear complexes on 1:2 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. Distorted octahedral environment is suggested for the metal complexes. The conductivity data confirm the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. The interaction of CuL 21a- 1d complexes with CT DNA was investigated by spectroscopic, electrochemical and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that the copper complexes bind to DNA via an intercalative mode. Moreover, the complexes have been found to promote the photocleavage of plasmid DNA pBR322 under irradiation at 365 nm. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes were screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities against different species of pathogenic fungi and bacteria and their biopotency has been discussed.

  18. Three-dimensional supramolecular networks constructed from Keggin anions and metal-organic complex with unpredicted oxidation of an N-heterocycle ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Ya-Guang; Zhang, Chun-Jing; Kong, Qing-Jiao

    2009-03-01

    Two novel Keggin polyoxometalate compounds, [Cu 2(PCA) 4(H 2O) 2][SiW 12O 40]·8H 2O ( 1) and [Cu(PCA) 2(H 2O) 4][Cu(PCA) 3(H 2O)][SiW 12O 40]·H 2O ( 2) (PCA = pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), were synthesized by in situ generation of pyridine-4-carboxylic acid ligand from 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane precursor under hydrothermal conditions. Compounds 1 and 2 were structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV spectrography, TGA and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility was measured at 2-300 K for 1. The compound 1 consists of polyoxoanions [?-SiW 12O 40] 4-, dimer cations [Cu 2(PCA) 4(H 2O) 2] 4+ and lattice water molecules. The water molecules link [?-SiW 12O 40] 4- and [Cu 2(PCA) 4(H 2O) 2] 4+ into three-dimensional (3D) architecture via hydrogen bonds. Polyoxoanions of 2 are linked into 1D chains through hydrogen bonds. Moreover, 1D chains are further extended into 3D supramolecular networks by hydrogen bonds and ?···? stacking interactions of pyridine-4-carboxylic acid molecules. The variable-temperature magnetic measurement of 1 shows an antiferromagnetic interaction in the 2-300 K temperature range.

  19. Ring opening metathesis polymerization-derived block copolymers bearing chelating ligands: synthesis, metal immobilization and use in hydroformylation under micellar conditions.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Gajanan M; Weckesser, Jochen; Blechert, Siegfried; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    Norborn-5-ene-(N,N-dipyrid-2-yl)carbamide (M1) was copolymerized with exo,exo-[2-(3-ethoxycarbonyl-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-carbonyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium iodide (M2) using the Schrock catalyst Mo(N-2,6-Me?-C?H?)(CHCMe?Ph)(OCMe(CF?)?)?[Mo] to yield poly(M1-b-M2). In water, poly(M1-b-M2) forms micelles with a critical micelle-forming concentration (cmc) of 2.8 x 10?? mol L?¹; Reaction of poly(M1-b-M2) with [Rh(COD)Cl]? (COD = cycloocta-1,5-diene) yields the Rh(I)-loaded block copolymer poly(M1-b-M2)-Rh containing 18 mg of Rh(I)/g of block copolymer with a cmc of 2.2 x 10?? mol L?¹. The Rh-loaded polymer was used for the hydroformylation of 1-octene under micellar conditions. The data obtained were compared to those obtained with a monomeric analogue, i.e. CH?CON(Py)?RhCl(COD) (C1, Py = 2-pyridyl). Using the polymer-supported catalyst under micellar conditions, a significant increase in selectivity, i.e. an increase in the n:iso ratio was accomplished, which could be further enhanced by the addition of excess ligand, e.g., triphenylphosphite. Special features of the micellar catalytic set up are discussed. PMID:20502652

  20. Chiral C{sub 1}-symmetric group 4 metallocenes as catalysts for stereoregular {alpha}-olefin polymerization. Metal, ancillary ligand, and counteranion effects

    SciTech Connect

    Giardello, M.A.; Eisen, M.S.; Stern, C.L.; Marks, T.J.

    1995-12-13

    Chiral C{sub 1}-symmetric Zr and Hf complexes of the novel, chelating, cyclopentadienyl-based, Me{sub 2}SiCp{double_prime}(R{sup *}Cp) ancillary ligand have been synthesized. The diastereoselectivity in the initial synthetic complexation reaction is found to be insensitive to reaction conditions and chiral auxiliary. For the (-)-menthyl derivatives, optically pure metallocene may be isolated in good yield after a single recrystallization of the initial complexation and alkylation reaction products. However, the (+)-neomenthyl derivative has only been isolated as a pseudoracemate due to cocrystallization of both the (R) and (S) isomers in the same crystal lattice. The metallocenes are found to be configurationally stable in donor solvents at ambient and elevated temperatures. Active polymerization catalysts are prepared by reaction of the various metallocenes with a variety of cocatalysts. For propylene polymerization, relatively high isotacticities (>95% mmmm pentad content) are observed, which rival or exceed those of many axially- and C{sub 2}-symmetric catalyst systems. Significantly, polymer isotacticities and molecular weight have been found to depend markedly on the quantity and structure of the cocatalyst. Further, these ion-pairing effects offer additional means to modulate polymer stereoregularity and molecular weight. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Cell mechanosensory recognizes ligand compliance at biomaterial interface.

    PubMed

    Cosenza, Chiara; Lettera, Vincenzo; Causa, Filippo; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Battista, Edmondo; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cells activate signalling through ligand-receptor bonds by sensing the mechanical properties of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Ligands, indeed, have to withstand the pulling force elicited by cell receptors through focal adhesions (FAs). On this basis, we developed functional ligands to be simply adsorbed on surfaces and constituted by a two-domain peptide: one derived from ECM proteins and available to receptors to offer biochemical cues, and another adsorbed on material to withstand the tension upon receptor engagement. Tuneable compliance of the anchoring domain of the peptide ligand was verified by single peptide analysis through molecular dynamics and adsorption measurements. We showed that the highest adsorbed peptides combined with integrin cell-binding motifs allow for the cell recognition and polarization with larger mature FA areas. On the contrary, the lowest adsorbed sequences did not provide mechanical resistance to the integrin pulling action, leading to more rounded cells with smaller FA areas. This evidence demonstrates that cell mechanosensory can discriminate ligands on surfaces and should be considered as a criterion in ligand design for material bioactivation. PMID:26559356

  2. Segregation of receptor-ligand complexes in cell adhesion zones: Phase diagrams and role of thermal membrane roughness

    E-print Network

    Bartosz Rozycki; Reinhard Lipowsky; Thomas R. Weikl

    2010-07-22

    The adhesion zone of immune cells, the 'immunological synapse', exhibits characteristic domains of receptor-ligand complexes. The domain formation is likely caused by a length difference of the receptor-ligand complexes, and has been investigated in experiments in which T cells adhere to supported membranes with anchored ligands. For supported membranes with two types of anchored ligands, MHCp and ICAM1, that bind to the receptors TCR and LFA1 in the cell membrane, the coexistence of domains of TCR-MHCp and LFA1-ICAM1 complexes in the cell adhesion zone has been observed for a wide range of ligand concentrations and affinities. For supported membranes with long and short ligands that bind to the same cell receptor CD2, in contrast, domain coexistence has been observed for a rather narrow ratio of ligand concentrations. In this article, we determine detailed phase diagrams for cells adhering to supported membranes with a statistical-physical model of cell adhesion. We find a characteristic difference between the adhesion scenarios in which two types of ligands in a supported membrane bind (i) to the same cell receptor or (ii) to two different cell receptors, which helps to explain the experimental observations. Our phase diagrams fully include thermal shape fluctuations of the cell membranes on nanometer scales, which lead to a critical point for the domain formation and to a cooperative binding of the receptors and ligands.

  3. Non-cyclopentadienyl ligands for olefin polymerization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.R.; Scott, B.L.; Watkin, J.G.

    1997-12-31

    The use of metallocene-type catalysts for olefin polymerization has been investigated extensively over the last two decades. We have been examining alternative non-cyclopentadienyl ligand sets which may be utilized together with Group IV or lanthanide metal centers to form active polymerization catalysts. Our investigations have focused upon the synthesis of a series of {open_quotes}tied-back{close_quotes} bis-amide ligands bearing electron withdrawing substituents, in order to exert control over the electrophilicity of the metal center. The synthesis of the new ligands, formation of metal complexes containing these ligands, and use of the metal complexes as catalysts for polymerization of alpha-olefins will be described.

  4. Optimized Finite Difference Method for the Full-Potential XANES Simulations: Application to Molecular Adsorption Geometries in MOFs and Metal-Ligand Intersystem Crossing Transients.

    PubMed

    Guda, Sergey A; Guda, Alexander A; Soldatov, Mikhail A; Lomachenko, Kirill A; Bugaev, Aram L; Lamberti, Carlo; Gawelda, Wojciech; Bressler, Christian; Smolentsev, Grigory; Soldatov, Alexander V; Joly, Yves

    2015-09-01

    Accurate modeling of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) is required to unravel the local structure of metal sites in complex systems and their structural changes upon chemical or light stimuli. Two relevant examples are reported here concerning the following: (i) the effect of molecular adsorption on 3d metals hosted inside metal-organic frameworks and (ii) light induced dynamics of spin crossover in metal-organic complexes. In both cases, the amount of structural models for simulation can reach a hundred, depending on the number of structural parameters. Thus, the choice of an accurate but computationally demanding finite difference method for the ab initio X-ray absorption simulations severely restricts the range of molecular systems that can be analyzed by personal computers. Employing the FDMNES code [ Phys. Rev. B , 2001 , 63 , 125120 ] we show that this problem can be handled if a proper diagonalization scheme is applied. Due to the use of dedicated solvers for sparse matrices, the calculation time was reduced by more than 1 order of magnitude compared to the standard Gaussian method, while the amount of required RAM was halved. Ni K-edge XANES simulations performed by the accelerated version of the code allowed analyzing the coordination geometry of CO and NO on the Ni active sites in CPO-27-Ni MOF. The Ni-CO configuration was found to be linear, while Ni-NO was bent by almost 90°. Modeling of the Fe K-edge XANES of photoexcited aqueous [Fe(bpy)3](2+) with a 100 ps delay we identified the Fe-N distance elongation and bipyridine rotation upon transition from the initial low-spin to the final high-spin state. Subsequently, the X-ray absorption spectrum for the intermediate triplet state with expected 100 fs lifetime was theoretically predicted. PMID:26575941

  5. Resisting anchoring effects: The roles of metric and mapping knowledge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The biasing influence of anchors on numerical estimates is well established, but the relationship between knowledge level and the susceptibility to anchoring effects is less clear. In two studies, we addressed the potential mitigating effects of having knowledge in a domain on vulnerability to anchoring effects in that domain. Of critical interest was a distinction between two forms of knowledge-metric and mapping knowledge. In Study 1, participants who had studied question-relevant information-that is, high-knowledge participants-were less influenced by anchors than were participants who had studied irrelevant information. The results from knowledge measures suggested that the reduction in anchoring was tied to increases in metric rather than mapping knowledge. In Study 2, participants studied information specifically designed to influence different types of knowledge. As we predicted, increases in metric knowledge-and not mapping knowledge-led to reduced anchoring effects. Implications for debiasing anchoring effects are discussed. PMID:25911272

  6. Electrochemical investigations of the [tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)thiaphenolato)ruthenate(II)] monoanion reveal metal- and ligand-centered events: radical, reactivity, and rate.

    PubMed

    Grapperhaus, Craig A; Poturovic, Selma

    2004-05-17

    Electrochemical investigations of [bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium)][tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)thiaphenolato)ruthenate(II)], PPN[Ru(DPPBT)(3)] (1), and [(bis(2-(diphenylphosphino)thiaphenolato)methane)(2-(diphenylphosphino)thiaphenolato)ruthenium(II)] chloride, [Ru((DPPBT)(2)CH(2))(DPPBT)]Cl (2) are reported. Complex 1 is oxidized reversibly in a metal-centered event by one electron at a potential of +455 mV (vs Ag/AgCl) to the ruthenium(III) derivative [tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)thiaphenolato)ruthenium(III)], 3. Complex 3 can also be prepared by iodine oxidation of 1 in acetonitrile. Oxidation of 3 in acetonitrile is reversible on a cyclic voltammetry time scale but irreversible upon bulk oxidation yielding Ru-X. Monitoring the oxidation of 3 by UV-visible spectroscopy reveals a proposed metal-coordinated thiyl radical intermediate with a maximum absorbance at 850 nm. This intermediate decays at a temperature of -20 degrees C with a rate constant of (5.82 +/- 0.73) x 10(-)(3) s(-)(1) with a small, positive deltaH and a large, negative deltaS. Ru-X can be oxidized reversibly to Ru-Y at a potential of +806 mV but cannot be reduced. Complex 2 is reversibly oxidized by one electron in a metal-centered event to 4 at a potential of +767 mV. PMID:15132639

  7. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterisation of cyano and trifluoromethyl substituted polypyridines and their transition metal complexes 

    E-print Network

    Delf, Alexander Robert L.

    2011-06-27

    This thesis is concerned with the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterisation of cyano (CN) and trifluoromethyl (CF3) substituted polypyridine ligands and their metal complexes. The ligands investigated ...

  8. Ring opening metathesis polymerization-derived block copolymers bearing chelating ligands: synthesis, metal immobilization and use in hydroformylation under micellar conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Gajanan M; Weckesser, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Summary Norborn-5-ene-(N,N-dipyrid-2-yl)carbamide (M1) was copolymerized with exo,exo-[2-(3-ethoxycarbonyl-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-carbonyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium iodide (M2) using the Schrock catalyst Mo(N-2,6-Me2-C6H3)(CHCMe2Ph)(OCMe(CF3)2)2 [Mo] to yield poly(M1-b-M2). In water, poly(M1-b-M2) forms micelles with a critical micelle-forming concentration (cmc) of 2.8 × 10?6 mol L?1; Reaction of poly(M1-b-M2) with [Rh(COD)Cl]2 (COD = cycloocta-1,5-diene) yields the Rh(I)-loaded block copolymer poly(M1-b-M2)-Rh containing 18 mg of Rh(I)/g of block copolymer with a cmc of 2.2 × 10?6 mol L?1. The Rh-loaded polymer was used for the hydroformylation of 1-octene under micellar conditions. The data obtained were compared to those obtained with a monomeric analogue, i.e. CH3CON(Py)2RhCl(COD) (C1, Py = 2-pyridyl). Using the polymer-supported catalyst under micellar conditions, a significant increase in selectivity, i.e. an increase in the n:iso ratio was accomplished, which could be further enhanced by the addition of excess ligand, e.g., triphenylphosphite. Special features of the micellar catalytic set up are discussed. PMID:20502652

  9. Tuning different kinds of entangled metal-organic frameworks by modifying the spacer group of aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands and the reactant ratio.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Xia; Zhai, Ji-Quan; Zhang, Xin; Qin, Ye-Yan; Yao, Yuan-Gen

    2015-12-22

    Taking advantage of the conformational flexibility of the bpp ligand and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, six interesting entangled coordination polymers, {[Cd(fum)(bpp)(H2O)]·(H2O)}n (), {[Cd(fum)(bpp)2]·(H2O)5}n (), {[Cd2(suc)1.5(bpp)2(NO3)(H2O)2]·6H2O}n (), {[Cd(suc)(bpp)2]·(H2O)1.5}n (), {[Cd2(glu)2(bpp)3]·10H2O}n (), and {Cd(adp)(bpp)(H2O)}n () have been prepared and structurally characterized (bpp = 1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)propane, fum = fumaric, suc = succinate, glu = glutaric, adp = adipic). Compounds and are comprised of undulated 2D 4(4)-sql networks. In the structure of compound , two identical undulated layers are parallelly interpenetrated with each other to give a 2D ? 2D interpenetrating framework. For , the dangling arms projected from 2D layers are intercalated into the neighboring sheets, producing a 2D ? 3D polythreading framework. Compound shows a rare example of a 2D self-penetrating framework with a (3,4)-connected (4(2)·6(3)·8)(4(2)·6) topology. Compound presents an unusual 2D self-threading network with a novel 4-connected {4(2)·6(3)·8} topology. Compound displays a 3D self-penetrating system based on a 2D ? 3D parallel polycatenation array. Compound exhibits an unprecedented 3D self-penetrating structure having both 1D + 1D ? 1D polycatenation and 3D + 3D ? 3D interpenetration characteristics. A comparison of these six compounds demonstrates that both the different spacer lengths of the aliphatic dicarboxylates and reactant ratios appear to play a significant role in the assembly of entangled frameworks. In addition, thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties of have been examined in the solid state at room temperature. PMID:26621568

  10. Transition Metal Complexes of Cr, Mo, W and Mn Containing {eta}{sup 1}(S)-2,5-Dimethylthiophene, Benzothiophene and Dibenzothiophene Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, M.

    2000-09-21

    The UV photolysis of hexanes solutions containing the complexes M(CO){sub 6} (M=Cr, Mo, W) or CpMn(CO){sub 3} (Cp={eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) and excess thiophene (T{sup *}) (T{sup *}=2,5-dimethylthiophene (2,5-Me{sub 2}T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT)) produces the {eta}{sup 1}(S)-T{sup *} complexes (CO){sub 5}M({eta}{sup 1}(S)-T{sup *}) 1-8 or Cp(CO){sub 2}Mn({eta}{sup 1}(S)-T{sup *})9-11, respectively. However, when T{sup *}=DBT, and M=Mo, a mixture of two products result which includes the {eta}{sup 1}(S)-DBT complex (CO){sub 5}Mo({eta}{sup 1}(S)-DBT) 4a and the unexpected {pi}-complex (CO){sub 3}Mo({eta}{sup 6}-DBT) 4b as detected by {sup 1}H NMR. The liability of the {eta}{sup 1}(S)-T{sup *} ligands is illustrated by the rapid displacement of DBT in the complex (CO){sub 5}W({eta}{sup 1}(S)-DBT) (1) by THF, and also in the complexes (CO){sub 5}Cr({eta}{sup 1}(S)-DBT) (5) and CpMn(CO){sub 2}({eta}{sup 1}(S)-DBT) (9) by CO (1 atm) at room temperature. Complexes 1-11 have been characterized spectroscopically ({sup 1}H NMR, IR) and when possible isolated as analytically pure solids (elemental analysis, EIMS). Single crystal, X-ray structural determinations are reported for (CO){sub 5}W({eta}{sup 1}(S)-DBT) and Cp(CO){sub 2}Mn({eta}{sup 1}(S)-DBT).

  11. The low temperature radiolysis of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 complexes with alkaline earth metal nitrates: An evidence for energy transfer to the macrocyclic ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakurdaeva, O. A.; Nesterov, S. V.; Shmakova, N. A.; Sokolova, N. A.; Feldman, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    Formation of paramagnetic intermediates in macrocyclic complexes of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) with alkaline earth metal nitrates under X-rays irradiation was studied by EPR spectroscopy. NO32- dianions appear to be predominant intermediate species in the samples irradiated at 77 K at low doses (up to 40 kGy). This result was interpreted as an evidence for energy transfer within the complex from crown ether to nitrate anion. Increase in the absorbed dose from 40 kGy to 284 kGy results in built-up of a new EPR signal assigned to macrocyclic -CH2-?H-O- radicals produced from crown ether moieties. Thermal annealing of the irradiated macrocyclic complexes at 273 ? led to fast decay of NO32- . This process was accompanied by a formation of -CH2-?H-O- radicals in secondary reactions. The nature of the metal cations coordinated in the macrocycle cavity had no appreciable effect on the composition of radical products and their post-radiation transformations.

  12. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a rotary DC motor that can drag the microspine arrays across the surface to engage them with asperities, as well as a linear actuator to disengage the hooks from the surface. Additionally, the ankle allows the gripper to rotate freely about all three axes so that when the robot takes a step, the gripper may optimally orient itself with respect to the wall or ground. Finally, the ankle contains some minimal elasticity, so that between steps, the gripper returns to a default position that is roughly parallel to the wall.

  13. On the Metal Ion Selectivity of Oxoacid Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin; Chagnes, Alexandre; Cote, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between metal chelate stability, ligand basicity, and metal ion acidity are reviewed and the general applicability is illustrated by linear correlations between aqueous stability constants and ligand pKa values for 35 metals with 26 ligands. The results confirm that most individual ligands of this type exhibit a stability ordering that correlates with the Lewis acidity of the metal ion. It is concluded that the general metal ion selectivity exhibited by liquid-liquid oxoacid extractants such as carboxylic acids, -diketones, and alkylphosphoric acids reflects the intrinsic affinity of the metal ion for the negative oxygen donor ligand.

  14. Non-symmetric pincer ligands: complexes and applications in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Asay, Matthew; Morales-Morales, David

    2015-10-28

    Pincer ligands have become ubiquitous in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. Recently, new varieties of pincer ligands with non-symmetrical backbones and/or ligating groups have been reported and their application in transition metal complexes has been exploited in a variety of catalytic transformations. This non-symmetric approach vastly increases the structural and electronic diversity of this class of ligand. This approach has proven beneficial in a variety of ways, such as the use of a single weakly coordinating moiety, which can dissociate and thereby create a vacant coordination site to increase the catalyst activity. Additionally, this provides further access to chiral ligands and complexes for asymmetric induction. This perspective highlights recent, important examples of non-symmetric pincer ligands, which feature aryl or pyridine backbones, and the synthesis and use of subsequent complexes in catalytic transformations, and discusses the future potential of this type of ligand system. PMID:26396037

  15. Developing Ligands for Palladium(II)-Catalyzed C–H Functionalization: Intimate Dialogue between Ligand and Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Engle, Keary M.; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous transition metal–catalyzed reactions are indispensable to all facets of modern chemical synthesis. It is thus difficult to imagine that for much of the early 20th century, the reactivity and selectivity of all known homogeneous metal catalysts paled in comparison to their heterogeneous and biological counterparts. In the intervening decades, advances in ligand design bridged this divide, such that today some of the most demanding bond-forming events are mediated by ligand-supported homogeneous metal species. While ligand design has propelled many areas of homogeneous catalysis, in the field of Pd(II)-catalyzed C–H functionalization, suitable ligand scaffolds are lacking, which has hampered the development of broadly practical transformations based on C–H functionalization logic. In this review, we offer an account of our research employing three ligand scaffolds, mono-N-protected amino acids, 2,6-disubstituted pyridines, and 2,2?-bipyridines, to address challenges posed by several synthetically versatile substrate classes. Drawing on this work, we discuss principles of ligand design, such as the need to match a ligand to a particular substrate class, and how ligand traits such as tunability and modularity can be advantageous in reaction discovery. PMID:23565982

  16. Interplay of Metalloligand and Organic Ligand to Tune Micropores within Isostructural Mixed-Metal Organic Frameworks (M MOFs) for Their Highly Selective Separation of Chiral and Achiral Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Madhab, Das; He, Yabing; Kim, Jaheon; Guo, Qunsheng; Zhao, Cong-Gui; Hong, Kunlun; Xiang, Sheng-Chang; Zhang, Zhangjing; Thomas, K Mark; Krishna, Rajamani; Chen, Banglin

    2012-01-01

    Four porous isostructural mixed-metal-organic frameworks (M'MOFs) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The pores within these M'MOFs are systematically tuned by the interplay of both the metalloligands and organic ligands which have enabled us not only to direct their highly selective separation of chiral alcohols 1-phenylethanol (PEA), 2-butanol (BUT), and 2-pentanol (2-PEN) with the highest ee up to 82.4% but also to lead highly selective separation of achiral C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} separation. The potential application of these M'MOFs for the fixed bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) separation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} has been further examined and compared by the transient breakthrough simulations in which the purity requirement of 40 ppm in the outlet gas can be readily fulfilled by the fixed bed M'MOF-4a adsorber at ambient conditions.

  17. EXAFS Studies of Some Copper(II) Mixed-Ligand Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, S. K.; Katare, R. K.; Shrivastava, B. D.

    2007-02-02

    X-ray K-absorption spectroscopic studies have been carried out on copper (II) mixed-ligand complexes with glutamic acid and aspartic acid as the primary ligands, where as water, pyridine, imidazole and benz-imidazole have been used as secondary ligands. Chemical shifts obtained from the X-ray absorption data have indicated that the glutamic acid complexes are more ionic as compared to their corresponding aspartic acid complexes having similar secondary ligands. Further, we have estimated the average metal-ligand bond distances from the from structure data. For the different complexes studied under the present investigation, the studies reveal that the bonding parameter {alpha}1 decreases with the increase in the percentage covalency of the metal-ligand bond. Thus, the bonding parameter {alpha}1 may be used for the estimation of percentage covalency of the metal-ligand bond in other similar complexes.

  18. A zinc(II) metal-organic framework with a novel topology formed from 4,4',4''-nitrilotribenzoate and 4,4'-bipyridine ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Su, Jian; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Jie Ying; Tian, Yu Peng

    2015-09-01

    A metal-organic framework with a novel topology, poly[sesqui(?2-4,4'-bipyridine)bis(dimethylformamide)bis(?4-4,4',4''-nitrilotribenzoato)trizinc(II)], [Zn3(C21H12NO6)2(C10H8N2)1.5(C3H7NO)2]n, was obtained by the solvothermal method using 4,4',4''-nitrilotribenzoic acid and 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy). The structure, determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, possesses three kinds of crystallographically independent Zn(II) cations, as well as binuclear Zn2(COO)4(bipy)2 paddle-wheel clusters, and can be reduced to a novel topology of a (3,3,6)-connected 3-nodal net, with the Schläfli symbol {5.6(2)}4{5(2).6}4{5(8).8(7)} according to the topological analysis. PMID:26322613

  19. Rare-earth-metal alkylaluminates supported by N-donor-functionalized cyclopentadienyl ligands: C-H bond activation and performance in isoprene polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jende, Lars N; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia; Anwander, Reiner

    2013-11-25

    Homoleptic tetramethylaluminate complexes [Ln(AlMe4)3] (Ln=La, Nd, Y) reacted with HCp(NMe2) (Cp(NMe2) =1-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-ethyl]-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-cyclopentadienyl) in pentane at -35 °C to yield half-sandwich rare-earth-metal complexes, [{C5 Me4CH2CH2NMe2 (AlMe3)}Ln(AlMe4)2]. Removal of the N-donor-coordinated trimethylaluminum group through donor displacement by using an equimolar amount of Et2O at ambient temperature only generated the methylene-bridged complexes [{C5Me4CH2CH2NMe(?-CH2)AlMe3}Ln(AlMe4)] with the larger rare-earth-metal ions lanthanum and neodymium. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the formation of isostructural complexes and the C-H bond activation of one aminomethyl group. The formation of Ln(?-CH2)Al moieties was further corroborated by (13)C and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR spectroscopy. In the case of the largest metal center, lanthanum, this C-H bond activation could be suppressed at -35 °C, thereby leading to the isolation of [(Cp(NMe2))La(AlMe4)2], which contains an intramolecularly coordinated amino group. The protonolysis reaction of [Ln(AlMe4)3] (Ln=La, Nd) with the anilinyl-substituted cyclopentadiene HCp(AMe2) (Cp(AMe2) =1-[1-(N,N-dimethylanilinyl)]-2,3,4,5-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl) at -35 °C generated the half-sandwich complexes [(Cp(AMe2))Ln(AlMe4)2]. Heating these complexes at 75 °C resulted in the C-H bond activation of one of the anilinium methyl groups and the formation of [{C5Me4C6H4NMe(?-CH2)AlMe3}Ln(AlMe4)] through the elimination of methane. In contrast, the smaller yttrium metal center already gave the aminomethyl-activated complex at -35 °C, which is isostructural to those of lanthanum and neodymium. The performance of complexes [{C5Me4CH2CH2NMe(?-CH2 )AlMe3}-Ln(AlMe4)], [(Cp(AMe2))Ln(AlMe4)2], and [{C5Me4C6H4NMe(?-CH2)AlMe3}Ln(AlMe4)] in the polymerization of isoprene was investigated upon activation with [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4], [PhNMe2 H][B(C6F5)4], and B(C6F5)3. The highest stereoselectivities were observed with the lanthanum-based pre-catalysts, thereby producing polyisoprene with trans-1,4 contents of up to 95.6 %. Narrow molecular-weight distributions (Mw/Mn <1.1) and complete consumption of the monomer suggested a living-polymerization mechanism. PMID:24151010

  20. Homochiral metal complexes for biodegradable polymer synthesis 

    E-print Network

    Buffet, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Chapter One introduces the principle of alkoxide and phosphine oxide as ligands for lanthanides and electropositive metals, ligand self-recognition, stereoselective polymerisation of lactide, fixation of CO2 and finally ...

  1. Heteropentanuclear Oxalato-Bridged nd-4f (n=4, 5) Metal Complexes with NO Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Aqueous Stability and Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen; Cremer, Laura; Gavriluta, Anatolie; Jovanovi?, Katarina K; Filipovi?, Lana; Hummer, Alfred A; Büchel, Gabriel E; Doj?inovi?, Biljana P; Meier, Samuel M; Rompel, Annette; Radulovi?, Siniša; Tommasino, Jean Bernard; Luneau, Dominique; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-09-21

    A series of heteropentanuclear oxalate-bridged Ru(NO)-Ln (4d-4f) metal complexes of the general formula (nBu4N)5[Ln{RuCl3(?-ox)(NO)}4], where Ln=Y (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5) and ox=oxalate anion, were obtained by treatment of (nBu4N)2[RuCl3(ox)(NO)] (1) with the respective lanthanide salt in 4:1 molar ratio. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, while 1, 2, and 5 were in addition analyzed by X-ray crystallography, 1 by Ru K-edge XAS and 1 and 2 by (13)C?NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that in 2 and 5 four complex anions [RuCl3(ox)(NO)](2-) are coordinated to Y(III) and Dy(III), respectively, with formation of [Ln{RuCl3(?-ox)(NO)}4](5-) (Ln=Y, Dy). While Y(III) is eight-coordinate in 2, Dy(III) is nine-coordinate in 5, with an additional coordination of an EtOH molecule. The negative charge is counterbalanced by five nBu4N(+) ions present in the crystal structure. The stability of complexes 2 and 5 in aqueous medium was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of ruthenium-lanthanide complexes 2-5 were assayed in two human cancer cell lines (HeLa and A549) and in a noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) and compared with those obtained for the previously reported Os(NO)-Ln (5d-4f) analogues (nBu4N)5[Ln{OsCl3(ox)(NO)}4] (Ln=Y (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9)). Complexes 2-5 were found to be slightly more active than 1 in inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa and A549 cells, and significantly more cytotoxic than 5d-4f metal complexes 6-9 in terms of IC50 values. The highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 20.0 and 22.4??M was found for 4 in HeLa and A549 cell lines, respectively. These cytotoxicity results are in accord with the presented ICP-MS data, indicating five- to eightfold greater accumulation of ruthenium versus osmium in human A549 cancer cells. PMID:26260662

  2. Heteropentanuclear Oxalato-Bridged nd–4f (n=4, 5) Metal Complexes with NO Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Aqueous Stability and Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen; Cremer, Laura; Gavriluta, Anatolie; Jovanovi?, Katarina K; Filipovi?, Lana; Hummer, Alfred A; Büchel, Gabriel E; Doj?inovi?, Biljana P; Meier, Samuel M; Rompel, Annette; Radulovi?, Siniša; Tommasino, Jean Bernard; Luneau, Dominique; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    A series of heteropentanuclear oxalate-bridged Ru(NO)-Ln (4d–4f) metal complexes of the general formula (nBu4N)5[Ln{RuCl3(?-ox)(NO)}4], where Ln=Y (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5) and ox=oxalate anion, were obtained by treatment of (nBu4N)2[RuCl3(ox)(NO)] (1) with the respective lanthanide salt in 4:1 molar ratio. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, while 1, 2, and 5 were in addition analyzed by X-ray crystallography, 1 by Ru K-edge XAS and 1 and 2 by 13C?NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that in 2 and 5 four complex anions [RuCl3(ox)(NO)]2? are coordinated to YIII and DyIII, respectively, with formation of [Ln{RuCl3(?-ox)(NO)}4]5? (Ln=Y, Dy). While YIII is eight-coordinate in 2, DyIII is nine-coordinate in 5, with an additional coordination of an EtOH molecule. The negative charge is counterbalanced by five nBu4N+ ions present in the crystal structure. The stability of complexes 2 and 5 in aqueous medium was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of ruthenium-lanthanide complexes 2–5 were assayed in two human cancer cell lines (HeLa and A549) and in a noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) and compared with those obtained for the previously reported Os(NO)-Ln (5d–4f) analogues (nBu4N)5[Ln{OsCl3(ox)(NO)}4] (Ln=Y (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9)). Complexes 2–5 were found to be slightly more active than 1 in inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa and A549 cells, and significantly more cytotoxic than 5d–4f metal complexes 6–9 in terms of IC50 values. The highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 20.0 and 22.4??M was found for 4 in HeLa and A549 cell lines, respectively. These cytotoxicity results are in accord with the presented ICP-MS data, indicating five- to eightfold greater accumulation of ruthenium versus osmium in human A549 cancer cells. PMID:26260662

  3. Moving to Sustainable Metals. Multifunctional Ligands in Catalytic, Outer Sphere C-H, N-H and O-H Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Robert

    2015-03-03

    Much of our work during this grant period has emphasized green chemistry and sustainability. For example, we were able to convert glycerine, a waste byproduct of biodiesel production, into lactic acid, a compound with numerous applications, notably in the food and cosmetics industry, as well as being a source material for a biodegradable plastic. This work required a catalyst, that ceases to work after a certain lapse of time. We were able to identify the way in which this deactivation occurs by identifying some of the metal catalyst deactivation products. These proved to be multimetallic clusters containing up to six metals and up to 14 hydrogen atoms. Both the catalytic reaction itself and the deactivation structures are novel and unexpected. We have previously proposed that nitrogen heterocycles could be good energy carriers in a low CO2 future world. In another part of our study, we found catalysts for introduction of hydrogen, an energy carrier that is hard to store, into nitrogen heterocycles. The mechanism of this process proved to be unusual in that the catalyst transfers the H2 to the heterocycle in the form of H+ and H-, first transferring the H+ and only then the H-. In a third area of study, some of our compounds, originally prepared for DOE catalysis purposes, also proved useful in hydrocarbon oxidation and in water oxidation. The latter is important in solar-to-fuel work, because, by analogy with natural photosynthesis, the goal of the Yale Solar Group of four PIs is to convert sunlight to hydrogen and oxygen, which requires water splitting catalysts. The catalysts that proved useful mediate the latter reaction: water oxidation to oxygen. In a more technical study, we developed methods for distinguishing the case where catalysis is mediated by a soluble catalyst from cases where catalysis arises from a deposit of finely divided solid. One particular application involved electrocatalysis, where catalysis is driven by application of a voltage to electrodes dipped in the reactant mixture. We measured the mass increase of an electrode as material is deposited, and were able to see how this process is affected by the voltage supplied to the electrode. Our work continues to be well cited and we often receive requests for information or samples from fellow researchers.

  4. 2D?3D polycatenated and 3D?3D interpenetrated metal–organic frameworks constructed from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and rigid bis(imidazole) ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Erer, Hakan; Ye?ilel, Okan Zafer; Ar?c?, Mürsel; Keskin, Seda; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2014-02-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks, namely, [Zn(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (2), and ([Cd{sub 2}(µ{sub 3}-tdc){sub 2}(µ-dimb){sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n}(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: In this study, hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. These coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 2 display polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework. • Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework. • Complex 1 adsorbs the highest amount of H{sub 2} at 100 bar and 298 K. • Complexes display blue fluorescent emission bands.

  5. 2D?3D polycatenated and 3D?3D interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks constructed from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and rigid bis(imidazole) ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erer, Hakan; Ye?ilel, Okan Zafer; Ar?c?, Mürsel; Keskin, Seda; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2014-02-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H2O produced three new metal-organic frameworks, namely, [Zn(?-tdc)(H2O)(?-dib)]n (1), [Cd(?-tdc)(H2O)(?-dib)]n (2), and {[Cd2(?3-tdc)2(?-dimb)2]·(H2O)}n(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 66. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H2 storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature.

  6. Ligand Induced Spectral Changes in CdSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Jon M; De Angelis, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    The rational design of ligand molecules has earned lots of attention as an elegant means to tailor the electronic and optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Aromatic dithiocarbamate molecules, in particular, are known to greatly influence the optoelectronic properties of CdSe QDs, red-shifting the absorption features and enhancing the photoluminescence. Here, we present an integrated computational study, which combines ab initio molecular dynamics and excited state calculations including thousands of excitations, aimed at understanding the impact of this kind of surface ligand on the optoelectronic properties of CdSe QDs. We demonstrate that the valence electronic states of the dithiocarbamate molecules, mostly localized in the anchoring moiety, are responsible for the red-shift of the absorption features of capped CdSe QDs. Ligands develop interfacial electronic states close to the band edges of the CdSe, which enhance the absorption features of the QD and might open new channels for the radiative decay from the excited state, improving optical emission. Hybridized QD/ligand states could also funnel interfacial charge transfer between the inorganic core and surface molecules, a process that lies at the heart of many photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices. This work may pave the way toward the design of new capping ligands that, adsorbed on the QD surface, could provide control over the optoelectronic properties of the semiconductor core. PMID:26289823

  7. Mechanokinetics of receptor-ligand interactions in cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Lü, Shouqin; Zhang, Yan; Long, Mian

    2015-04-01

    Receptor-ligand interactions in blood flow are crucial to initiate such biological processes as inflammatory cascade, platelet thrombosis, as well as tumor metastasis. To mediate cell adhesion, the interacting receptors and ligands must be anchored onto two apposing surfaces of two cells or a cell and a substratum, i.e., two-dimensional (2D) binding, which is different from the binding of a soluble ligand in fluid phase to a receptor, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) binding. While numerous works have been focused on 3D kinetics of receptor-ligand interactions in the immune system, 2D kinetics and its regulations have been less understood, since no theoretical framework or experimental assays were established until 1993. Not only does the molecular structure dominate 2D binding kinetics, but the shear force in blood flow also regulates cell adhesion mediated by interacting receptors and ligands. Here, we provide an overview of current progress in 2D binding and regulations, mainly from our group. Relevant issues of theoretical frameworks, experimental measurements, kinetic rates and binding affinities, and force regulations are discussed.

  8. Solid phase extractive preconcentration of uranium(VI) using quinoline-8-ol anchored chloromethylated polymeric resin beads.

    PubMed

    Praveen, R S; Metilda, P; Daniel, S; Rao, T Prasada

    2005-10-31

    A new chelating polymeric sorbent has been developed using Merrifield chloromethylated resin anchored with quinoline-8-ol (HQ). The modified polymeric resin was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The HQ anchored resin showed superior binding affinity for U(VI) over Th(IV) and La(III). The influence of various physicochemical parameters on the recovery of U(VI) were optimized by both static and dynamic methods. The phase exchange kinetic studies performed for U(VI) revealed that <5min was sufficient for reaching equilibrium metal ion sorption. The maximum sorption capacity of HQ anchored resin for U(VI) was found to be 120.30mgg(-1) of resin which is higher than other solid phase extraction sorbents reported so far excepting N,N-dibutyl, N'-benzoyl thiourea sorbed Amberlite XAD-16. The developed HQ anchored polymeric resin is highly selective as none of the extraneous species were found to have any deleterious effect. Solid phase extraction (SPE) studies performed using HQ anchored polymeric resin offered enrichment factor of 100 and the lowest concentration below which recoveries become non-quantitative is 5mugl(-1). The accuracy of the developed SPE method in conjunction with Arsenazo III procedure was tested by analyzing marine sediment (MESS-3) and soil (IAEA-Soil 7) reference materials. Furthermore, the above procedure has been successfully employed for the analysis of real soil and sediment samples. PMID:18970265

  9. Transosseous Acetabular Labral Repair as an Alternative to Anchors

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Carro, Luis; Cabello, Andres Gonzalez; Rakha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Patnaik, Sarthak; Centeno, Elias; Miranda, Victor; Fernández, Ana Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Labral tears are the most common pathology in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy and the most common cause of mechanical hip symptoms. Labral repair techniques have been described in the literature using suture anchors placed as close as possible to the acetabular rim without penetrating the articular surface. Optimal surgical technique for labral repair is very important, and an inappropriate entry point and guide angulation may lead to intra-articular penetration of the anchor, chondral damage, anchor loosening, or inadequate fixation. A shallow dysplastic hip, the drilling trajectory, the narrow width of the acetabular rim, or some specific anatomic variations may generate difficulty during anchor placement. Suture anchors themselves have been associated with several significant complications, including rim fracture, osteolysis, enlargement of drill holes, and infection. The treatment of labral lesions with transosseous suture is an alternative to anchor use, eliminating the need for anchors and avoiding anchor-associated complications. This technique offers versatility to surgeons and is more cost-effective for patients and health services. We aim to describe the indications and technique for transosseous labral repair without anchors. PMID:26697295

  10. New Retrievable Coil Anchors: Preliminary In Vivo Experiences in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, A. Wright, K.C.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To design and test retrievable coil anchors to improve the safety and efficacy of coil embolization. Methods. Fifty-two 0.038-inch homemade retrievable stainless steel coils were equipped with one of four different pre-shaped nitinol anchors and tested in 38 pigs. All coils with the anchor were completely retrieved and redeployed 3-18 times (median 7 times) prior to release. Types 1 and 2 anchored coils were acutely deployed in the external iliac arteries (n = 10 each), and chronically tested (1 week) in the common carotid arteries (n = 6 each). Larger type 1 (n = 4), type 3 (n = 6), and type 4 (n = 4) anchored coils were acutely deployed in the abdominal aorta. The largest type 1 anchors (n = 6) were acutely tested in the inferior vena cava. Results. All anchored coils were successfully retrieved and repositioned several times. All but two coils formed a compact plug and there was no coil migration except with two mechanically defective type 3 anchors. Conclusion. The use of retrievable anchors allowed the coils to be retrieved and repositioned, prevented coil migration, and enabled compact coil configuration.

  11. Tether-Supported Biomembranes with Alpha-Helical Peptide-Based Anchoring Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lina; Tu, Raymond; Gilchrist, M. Lane

    2013-01-01

    The strict requirement of constructing a native lipid environment to preserve the structure and functionality of membrane proteins is the starting constraint when building biomaterials and sensor systems from these biomolecules. In order to enhance the viability of supported biomembranes systems and build new ligand display interfaces, we apply rationally-designed peptides partitioned into the lipid bilayer interface. Peptides designed to form membrane-spanning alpha-helical anchoring domains are synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis. K3A4L2A7L2A3K2-FITC is synthesized at 100 mg scale for use as a biomembrane anchoring molecules, where orthogonal side-chain modifications allows us to introduce probes enabling peptide localization within supported bilayers. The peptides are found to form alpha-helical domains within liposomes as assessed with circular dichroism spectroscopy. These peptides are designed to incorporate into lipid bilayers supported by microspheres and serve as biomembrane anchoring moieties to amino-terminated surfaces. Here, the silica bead surface (4.7 ?m diameter) is activated with homobifunctional NHS-PEG3000-NHS as “polymer cushion” spacers. This tethering to a subset of the K3A4L2A7L2A3K2-FITC molecules present in the bilayer is achieved by fusion of liposomes followed by coupling of the peptide amino groups to the NHS presented from the silica microsphere surfaces. The biomembrane distributions of tethered and untethered K3A4L2A7L2A3K2-FITC is probed with confocal microscopy and found to give 3D reconstructions consistent with largely homogeneous supported biomembranes. The fluidity of the untethered fraction of the peptides within supported membranes is quantified using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique. The presence of the PEG3000 polymer cushion facilitated a 28.9% increase in peptide diffusivity over untethered bilayers at the lowest peptide to lipid ratio we examined. We show that rationally designed peptide based anchors can be used to tether lipid bilayers, creating a polymer cushioned lipid microenvironment on surfaces with high lateral mobility and facilitating the development of a new platform for ligand displays. PMID:23190371

  12. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    SciTech Connect

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  13. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, John E. (Spokane, WA); King, Grant W. (Spokane, WA)

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  14. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  15. Formation of Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles by variation of the surface ligand: preparation, structure, and insulating-to-metallic transition.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammed; Gopakumar, G; Shoba, T L; Mulla, I S; Vijayamohanan, K; Kulkarni, S K; Urban, J; Vogel, W

    2002-11-01

    Copper and copper (I) oxide nanoparticles protected by self-assembled monolayers of thiol, carboxyl, and amine functionalities [X(CH(2))(n)-CH(3), where X can be -COOH, -NH(2), or -SH] have been prepared by the controlled reduction of aqueous copper salts using Brust synthesis. The optical absorption spectrum (lambda(max)=289 nm) is found to be invariant with the nature of the capping molecule while the particle shape and distribution are found to depend strongly on it. A comparison of the protection efficiency for different capping agents such as dodecanethiol (DDT), tridecylamine (TDA), and lauric acid (LA) suggests that although zerovalent Cu is initially formed for dodecanethiol, all other cases allow oxidation to Cu(2)O nanoparticles. Despite the variation in particle size and relative stability, nanoparticles have been found to form oxides after a few days, especially for the case of LA and TDA surface capping. For all the samples studied, the size has been found to be 4-8 nm by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The protective ability is found to be better for dodecanethiol SAM (similar to the case of Au and Ag nanoparticles), while the order of capping efficiency varies as Cu-DDT>Cu-TDA>Cu-LA. In the present study we also demonstrate a reversible metal-insulator transition (MIT) in capped nanoparticles of Cu using temperature-dependent electrical resistivity measurement. However, the LA-capped sample does not show any such transition, possibly due to the oxide formation. PMID:12702371

  16. Conformational Studies of Zn-Ligand-Hexose Diastereomers Using Ion Mobility

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    Conformational Studies of Zn-Ligand-Hexose Diastereomers Using Ion Mobility Measurements-dimensional conformations. This information allows us to gain insight into the structure of these complexes before in the overall conformation of the metal­ligand­monosaccharide complex. For glucose and galactose, metal

  17. Effect of Functionalized CNT on Nematic anchoring

    E-print Network

    Jitendra Kumar; Raj K Gupta; Sandeep Kumar; V. Manjuladevi

    2015-07-18

    Nematic phase is the most fundamental mesophase exhibited by most of the rod shaped anisotropic liquid crystalline molecules. Nematics are orientationally ordered fluids whose average orientation direction can be manipulated on application of electric and magnetic fields. Carbon nanotube (CNT), a highly shape anisotropic object can find numerous industrial application because of its interesting electronic and mechanical properties. The self-organizing properties of nematics can be used to align CNTs dispersed in them. We have dispersed functionalized CNTs in nematic liquid crystal and carried out many experimental studies. We will present results of electro-optic switching and dielectric measurements on some CNT-LC dispersion. We have observed that addition of functionalized CNTs in a liquid crystal (LC) has led to improvement in the nematic ordering which is evidential from enhancement in dielectric anisotropy (De) measurement. These results indicate that the anchoring energy at alignment layers has been influenced by presence of FCNT in the LC host. The anchoring enhancement can be attributed to p-p electron stacking between the FCNT, LC and the alignment layer.

  18. Behavior of 10 full-scale ground anchors installed in stiff clay 

    E-print Network

    Powers, William Francis

    1993-01-01

    Results from load tests conducted on ten, full-scale instrumented ground anchors installed in stiff clay, illustrated that anchor performance is load-history dependent. Anchors having shorter bonded lengths performed ...

  19. Simulation of the catenary effect under wind disturbances in anchoring of small boats

    E-print Network

    Mwarage, Jessy Mbagara

    2012-01-01

    It has been conventional knowledge for as long as ships have existed that the catenary effect of an anchor line augments the efficiency of an anchoring system. This is achieved by making the anchor line as heavy as possible ...

  20. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Drag Embedment Anchors and Suction Caissons 

    E-print Network

    Beemer, Ryan

    2011-08-08

    The need for experimental and analytical modeling in the field of deep water offshore anchoring technologies is high. Suction caisson and drag embedment anchors (DEA) are common anchors used for mooring structures in deep ...