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Sample records for metal mixture responses

  1. Toxic responses of bivalves to metal mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, P.; Menon, N.R. )

    1992-02-01

    Although there is a growing body of information on the toxicity of individual heavy metals to economically important on the toxicity of individual heavy metals to economically important species of bivalves, literature on the lethal toxicity of metal mixtures to bivalves under controlled conditions is rather limited. In the present investigation the toxic effects of combinations of copper - mercury and copper - mercury and copper - cadmium at lethal levels of two marine bivalve species, Perna indica and Donax incarnatus, have been delineated.

  2. Toxicological Responses of Environmental Mixtures: Environmental Metals Mixtures Display Synergistic Induction of Metal-Responsive and Oxidative Stress Genes in Placental Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A.; Ray, Paul D.; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metals mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu2+ transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. PMID:26472158

  3. Children Exposed to Metals Mixtures Demonstrate Dysregulation of Infectious Disease Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to toxic metals can have harmful health effects, particularly in children. Although studies have investigated the individual effects toxic metals have on gene expression and health outcomes, there are no studies assessing the effect of metal mixtures on gene expression p...

  4. Transcriptional impact of organophosphate and metal mixtures on olfaction: Copper dominates the chlorpyrifos-induced response in adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Fred A.; Tilton, Susan C.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; Stapleton, Patricia L.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical exposures in fish have been linked to loss of olfaction leading to an inability to detect predators and prey and decreased survival. However, the mechanisms underlying olfactory neurotoxicity are not well characterized, especially in environmental exposures which involve chemical mixtures. We used zebrafish to characterize olfactory transcriptional responses by two model olfactory inhibitors, the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and mixtures of CPF with the neurotoxic metal copper (Cu). Microarray analysis was performed on RNA from olfactory tissues of zebrafish exposed to CPF alone or to a mixture of CPF and Cu. Gene expression profiles were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and hierarchical clustering, whereas gene set analysis was used to identify biological themes in the microarray data. Microarray results were confirmed by real-time PCR on genes serving as potential biomarkers of olfactory injury. In addition, we mined our previously published Cu-induced zebrafish olfactory transcriptional response database (Tilton et al., 2008) for the purposes of discriminating pathways of olfaction impacted by either the individual agents or the CPF-Cu mixture transcriptional signatures. CPF exposure altered the expression of gene pathways associated with cellular morphogenesis and odorant binding, but not olfactory signal transduction, a known olfactory pathway for Cu. The mixture profiles shared genes from the Cu and CPF datasets, whereas some genes were altered only by the mixtures. The transcriptional signature of the mixtures was more similar to that in zebrafish exposed to Cu alone then for CPF. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture containing a common environmental metal and pesticide causes a unique transcriptional signature that is heavily influenced by the metal, even when organophosphate predominates. Our findings support using zebrafish microarray analysis to elucidate mechanisms of olfactory loss and to identify the components of mixtures which

  5. A multimodal imaging workflow to visualize metal mixtures in the human placenta and explore colocalization with biological response markers.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, Megan M; Austin, Christine; Remark, Romain; Merad, Miriam; Gnjatic, Sacha; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Borboa-Olivares, Hector; Guzman-Huerta, Mario; Wright, Rosalind J; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish

    2016-04-01

    Fetal exposure to essential and toxic metals can influence life-long health trajectories. The placenta regulates chemical transmission from maternal circulation to the fetus and itself exhibits a complex response to environmental stressors. The placenta can thus be a useful matrix to monitor metal exposures and stress responses in utero, but strategies to explore the biologic effects of metal mixtures in this organ are not well-developed. In this proof-of-concept study, we used laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to measure the distributions of multiple metals in placental tissue from a low-birth-weight pregnancy, and we developed an approach to identify the components of metal mixtures that colocalized with biological response markers. Our novel workflow, which includes custom-developed software tools and algorithms for spatial outlier identification and background subtraction in multidimensional elemental image stacks, enables rapid image processing and seamless integration of data from elemental imaging and immunohistochemistry. Using quantitative spatial statistics, we identified distinct patterns of metal accumulation at sites of inflammation. Broadly, our multiplexed approach can be used to explore the mechanisms mediating complex metal exposures and biologic responses within placentae and other tissue types. Our LA-ICP-MS image processing workflow can be accessed through our interactive R Shiny application 'shinyImaging', which is available at or through our laboratory's website, . PMID:26987553

  6. Systematic Proteomic Approach to Characterize the Impacts of Chemical Interactions on Protein and Cytotoxicity Responses to Metal Mixture Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical interactions have posed a big challenge in toxicity characterization and human health risk assessment of environmental mixtures. To characterize the impacts of chemical interactions on protein and cytotoxicity responses to environmental mixtures, we established a systems...

  7. Predicting the toxicity of metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Balistrieri, Laurie S; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of single and multiple metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) solutions to trout is predicted using an approach that combines calculations of: (1) solution speciation; (2) competition and accumulation of cations (H, Ca, Mg, Na, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) on low abundance, high affinity and high abundance, low affinity biotic ligand sites; (3) a toxicity function that accounts for accumulation and potency of individual toxicants; and (4) biological response. The approach is evaluated by examining water composition from single metal toxicity tests of trout at 50% mortality, results of theoretical calculations of metal accumulation on fish gills and associated mortality for single, binary, ternary, and quaternary metal solutions, and predictions for a field site impacted by acid rock drainage. These evaluations indicate that toxicity of metal mixtures depends on the relative affinity and potency of toxicants for a given aquatic organism, suites of metals in the mixture, dissolved metal concentrations and ratios, and background solution composition (temperature, pH, and concentrations of major ions and dissolved organic carbon). A composite function that incorporates solution composition, affinity and competition of cations for two types of biotic ligand sites, and potencies of hydrogen and individual metals is proposed as a tool to evaluate potential toxicity of environmental solutions to trout. PMID:23973545

  8. Transcriptional responses to complex mixtures: a review.

    PubMed

    Sen, Banalata; Mahadevan, Brinda; DeMarini, David M

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of people to hazardous compounds is primarily through complex environmental mixtures, those that occur through media such as air, soil, water, food, cigarette smoke, and combustion emissions. Microarray technology offers the ability to query the entire genome after exposure to such an array of compounds, permitting a characterization of the biological effects of such exposures. This review summarizes the published literature on the transcriptional profiles resulting from exposure of cells or organisms to complex environmental mixtures such as cigarette smoke, diesel emissions, urban air, motorcycle exhaust, carbon black, jet fuel, and metal ore and fumes. The majority of the mixtures generally up-regulate gene expression, with heme oxygenase 1 and CYP1A1 being up-regulated by all of the mixtures. Most of the mixtures altered the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response (OH-1, metallothioneins), immune/inflammation response (IL-1b, protein kinase), xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), coagulation and fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator/inhibitor), proto-oncogenes (FUS1, JUN), heat-shock response (HSP60, HSP70), DNA repair (PCNA, GADD45), structural unit of condensed DNA (Crf15Orf16, DUSP 15), and extracellular matrix degradation (MMP1, 8, 9, 11, 12). Genes involved in aldehyde metabolism, such as ALDH3, appeared to be uniquely modulated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke-exposed populations have been successfully distinguished from control nonexposed populations based on the expression pattern of a subset of genes, thereby demonstrating the utility of this approach in identifying biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility. The analysis of gene-expression data at the pathway and functional level, along with a systems biology approach, will provide a more comprehensive insight into the biological effects of complex mixtures and will improve risk assessment of the same. We suggest critical components of study design and reporting that will

  9. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution leaving a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180.degree. C. whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles.

  10. A test of the additivity of acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of ni with Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna, using the inflection point of the concentration-response curves.

    PubMed

    Traudt, Elizabeth M; Ranville, James F; Smith, Samantha A; Meyer, Joseph S

    2016-07-01

    Mixtures of metals are often present in surface waters, leading to toxicity that is difficult to predict. To provide data for development of multimetal toxicity models, Daphnia magna neonates were exposed to individual metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) and to binary combinations of those metals in standard 48-h lethality tests conducted in US Environmental Protection Agency moderately hard reconstituted water with 3 mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC)/L added as Suwannee River fulvic acid. Toxicity tests were performed with mixtures of Ni and 1) Cd, which is considerably more toxic than Ni; 2) Cu, which is less toxic than Cd but more toxic than Ni; and 3) Zn, which has a toxicity threshold similar to Ni. For each combination of metals in the binary mixtures, the concentration of 1 metal was held constant while the second metal was varied through a series that ranged from nonlethal to lethal concentrations; then the roles of the metals were reversed. Inflection points of the concentration-response curves were compared to test for additivity of toxicity. Sublethal concentrations of Ni caused less-than-additive toxicity with Cd, slightly less-than-additive toxicity with Zn, and greater-than-additive toxicity with Cu. One explanation of these results might be competition among the metals for binding to biological ligands and/or dissolved organic matter. Therefore, models might have to incorporate sometimes competing chemical interactions to accurately predict metal-mixture toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1843-1851. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26681657

  11. Predicting the shock compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenburg, D. A.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2013-06-01

    A model framework for predicting the dynamic shock-compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures using readily obtained measurements from quasi-static tests is presented. Low-strain-rate compression data are first analyzed to determine the region of the bulk response over which particle rearrangement does not contribute to compaction. This region is then fit to determine the densification modulus of the mixture, σD, an newly defined parameter describing the resistance of the mixture to yielding. The measured densification modulus, reflective of the diverse yielding phenomena that occur at the meso-scale, is implemented into a rate-independent formulation of the P-α model, which is combined with an isobaric equation of state to predict the low and high stress dynamic compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures. The framework is applied to two metal + metal-oxide (thermite) powder mixtures, and good agreement between the model and experiment is obtained for all mixtures at stresses near and above those required to reach full density. At lower stresses, rate-dependencies of the constituents, and specifically those of the matrix constituent, determine the ability of the model to predict the measured response in the incomplete compaction regime.

  12. Combined toxicity of heavy metal mixtures in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xialu; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhou, Qi; Mao, Guochuan; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2016-09-01

    With rapid industrialization, China is now facing great challenges in heavy metal contamination in the environment. Human exposure to heavy metals through air, water and food commonly involves a mixture consisting of multiple heavy metals. In this study, eight common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni) that cause environmental contamination were selected to investigate the combined toxicity of different heavy metal mixtures in HL7702 cells. Toxicity (24 h LC50 ) of each individual metal on the cells ranked Hg > Cr = Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb; toxicity of the different mixtures ranked: M5 > M3PbHgCd > M5+Mn > M5+Cu > M2CdNi > M4A > M8-Mn > M8 > M5+Zn > M4B > M8-Cr > M8-Zn > M8-Cu > M8-Pb > M8-Cd > M8-Hg > M8-Ni > M3PbHgNi > M3CuZnMn. The cytotoxicity data of individual metals were successfully used to build the additive models of two- to eight-component metal mixtures. The comparison between additive model and combination model or partly additive model was useful to evaluate the combined effects in mixture. Synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of the toxicity were observed in different mixtures. These results suggest that the combined effects should be considered in the risk assessment of heavy metal co-exposure, and more comprehensive investigations on the combined effects of different heavy metal mixtures are needed in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26865462

  13. Assessing the risk of metal mixtures in contaminated sediments on Chironomus riparius based on cytosolic accumulation.

    PubMed

    Péry, Alexandre R R; Geffard, Alain; Conrad, Arnaud; Mons, Raphaël; Garric, Jeanne

    2008-11-01

    Sediments usually contain mixtures of trace metals introduced via natural geochemical processes and anthropogenic activities. Kinetics and effects of these metals are strongly dependent both on the composition of the mixture and on the physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment. Relating effects to metal concentration may consequently be advised. However, total accumulation may be a poor predictor of metal toxicity for Chironomus riparius exposed to contaminated field sediments. As an alternative, we proposed to relate effects on Chironomus growth with cytosolic metal accumulation, measured in larvae after a short exposure period. Dose-response relationships were derived for zinc, copper, and cadmium through single-metal exposure data analysed with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics models. They permitted, on the basis of cytosolic accumulation measures, to predict successfully the effects of mixtures of cadmium, zinc, and copper on the growth of larvae exposed to spiked sediments, as well as to field sediments in which zinc and copper were assumed to be predominant. PMID:18514899

  14. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels. PMID:25814321

  15. Effects of metal salt mixtures on Daphnia magna reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Biesinger, K.E.; Christensen, G.M.; Fiandt, J.T.

    1986-02-01

    Three binary metal experiments were conducted using a complete block design; testing the chlorides of Cd, Hg, and Zn individually and in combinations of Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg on Daphnia magna reproduction. These mixtures were tested at one-half, once, and twice the 16% reproductive impairment concentration previously determined for individual metals. The Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg mixtures all showed significant reductions in reproduction at concentrations where the metal salts alone caused no significant effect.

  16. Metal mixture (As-Cd-Pb)-induced cell transformation is modulated by OLA1.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Baeza, Elia; Rojas, Emilio; Valverde, Mahara

    2016-07-01

    Environmental pollutants are complex mixtures in which metals are ubiquitous. Metal mixtures of arsenic, cadmium and lead are present in the occupational environment and generate health effects such as cardiovascular, renal and cancer diseases. Cell transformation induced by metal mixtures that depend on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell viability maintenance and avoidance of senescence was previously reported by our group. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of a Obg-like ATPase1 (OLA1) in the cell transformation of BALB/c 3T3 A31-1-1 clonal cells induced by a metal mixture (2 µM NaAsO2, 2 µM CdCl2 and 5 µM Pb(C2H3O2)2 3H2O) through ROS generation. The interest in OLA1 is justified because this protein has been proposed to be a negative regulator of the cellular antioxidant response. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown OLA1 before the initiation stage of the transformation assay. We evaluated (ROS) and OLA1 protein expression throughout the initiation and promotion stages of transformation. OLA1 knockdown modulated metal mixture-induced cell transformation more strongly when the metal mixture was an initiator stimulus than when it was a promoter. The ability of the metal mixture to initiate cell transformation was diminished by OLA1 knockdown, an effect that depended on intracellular ROS levels. The effect of OLA1 was synergistic with N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) co-treatment. Oxidative stress-associated transcription factors Egr1 and Smad were also down-regulated by the OLA1 knockdown, contributing to the rescue of metal mixture cell transformation. PMID:26984302

  17. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  18. Enhanced selective metal adsorption on optimised agroforestry waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Emilio; Ferreira, Laura; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Tavares, Teresa; Pazos, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to ascertain the potentials of different agroforestry wastes to be used as biosorbents in the removal of a mixture of heavy metals. Fern (FE), rice husk (RI) and oak leaves (OA) presented the best removal percentages for Cu(II) and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The performance of a mixture of these three biosorbents was evaluated, and an improvement of 10% in the overall removal was obtained (19.25mg/g). The optimum mixture proportions were determined using simplex-centroid mixture design method (FE:OA:RI=50:13.7:36.3). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the optimised mixture were fit by the pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption mechanism was studied, and the effects of the carboxylic, hydroxyl and phenolic groups on metal-biomass binding were demonstrated. Finally, the recoveries of the metals using biomass were investigated, and cationic metal recoveries of 100% were achieved when acidic solutions were used. PMID:25681794

  19. Metal-halide mixtures for latent heat energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K.; Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Some candidates for alkali metal and alkali halide mixtures suitable for thermal energy storage at temperatures 600 C are identified. A solar thermal system application which offer advantages such as precipitation of salt crystals away from heat transfer surfaces, increased thermal conductivity of phase change materials, corrosion inhibition, and a constant monotectic temperature, independent of mixture concentrations. By using the lighters, metal rich phase as a heat transfer medium and the denser, salt rich phase as a phase change material for latent heat storage, undesirable solidification on the heat transfer surface may be prevented, is presented.

  20. Metal-halide mixtures for latent heat energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K.; Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Alkali metal and alkali halide mixtures are identified which may be suitable for thermal energy storage at temperatures above 600 C. The use of metal-halides is appropriate because of their tendency to form two immiscible melts with a density difference, which reduces scale formation and solidification on heat transfer surfaces. Also, the accumulation of phase change material along the melt interface is avoided by the self-dispersing characteristic of some metal-halides, in particular Sr-SrCl2, Ba-BaCl2, and Ba-BaBr2 mixtures. Further advantages lie in their high thermal conductivities, ability to cope with thermal shock, corrosion inhibition, and possibly higher energy densities.

  1. MRNA and miRNA expression patterns associated to pathways linked to metal mixture health effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pacheco, M; Hidalgo-Miranda, A; Romero-Córdoba, S; Valverde, M; Rojas, E

    2014-01-10

    Metals are a threat to human health by increasing disease risk. Experimental data have linked altered miRNA expression with exposure to some metals. MiRNAs comprise a large family of non-coding single-stranded molecules that primarily function to negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Although several human populations are exposed to low concentrations of As, Cd and Pb as a mixture, most toxicology research focuses on the individual effects that these metals exert. Thus, this study aims to evaluate global miRNA and mRNA expression changes induced by a metal mixture containing NaAsO2, CdCl2, Pb(C2H3O2)2·3H2O and to predict possible metal-associated disease development under these conditions. Our results show that this metal mixture results in a miRNA expression profile that may be responsible for the mRNA expression changes observed under experimental conditions in which coding proteins are involved in cellular processes, including cell death, growth and proliferation related to the metal-associated inflammatory response and cancer. PMID:24080485

  2. Comparative Analysis of Stress Induced Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans following Exposure to Environmental and Lab Reconstituted Complex Metal Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Pradhan, Ajay; Khan, Faisal Ahmad; Lindström, Pia; Ragnvaldsson, Daniel; Ivarsson, Per; Olsson, Per-Erik; Jass, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention. PMID:26168046

  3. Method of treating alkali metal sulfide and carbonate mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.; Rennick, Robert D.; Savinsky, Martin W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of removing and preferably recovering sulfur values from an alkali metal sulfide and carbonate mixture comprising the steps of (1) introducing the mixture in an aqueous medium into a first carbonation zone and reacting the mixture with a gas containing a major amount of CO.sub.2 and a minor amount of H.sub.2 S; (2) introducing the resultant product from step 1 into a stripping zone maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and contacting this product with steam to produce a gaseous mixture, comprising H.sub.2 S and water vapor, and a liquor of reduced sulfide content; (3) introducing the liquor of reduced sulfide content into a second carbonation zone, and reacting the liquor with substantially pure gaseous CO.sub.2 in an amount sufficient to precipitate bicarbonate crystals and produce an offgas containing CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S for use in step 1; (4) recovering the bicarbonate crystals from step 3, and thermally decomposing the crystals to produce an alkaline metal carbonate product and a substantially pure CO.sub.2 offgas for use in step 3.

  4. Transcriptional responses to complex mixtures - A review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of people to hazardous compounds is primarily through complex environmental mixtures, those that occur through media such as air, soil, water, food, cigarette smoke, and combustion emissions. Microarray technology offers the ability to query the entire genome after expos...

  5. Metal mixture modeling evaluation project: 2. Comparison of four modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Farley, Kevin J; Meyer, Joseph S; Balistrieri, Laurie S; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Janssen, Colin R; Kamo, Masashi; Lofts, Stephen; Mebane, Christopher A; Naito, Wataru; Ryan, Adam C; Santore, Robert C; Tipping, Edward

    2015-04-01

    As part of the Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation (MMME) project, models were developed by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan), the US Geological Survey (USA), HDR|HydroQual (USA), and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom) to address the effects of metal mixtures on biological responses of aquatic organisms. A comparison of the 4 models, as they were presented at the MMME workshop in Brussels, Belgium (May 2012), is provided in the present study. Overall, the models were found to be similar in structure (free ion activities computed by the Windermere humic aqueous model [WHAM]; specific or nonspecific binding of metals/cations in or on the organism; specification of metal potency factors or toxicity response functions to relate metal accumulation to biological response). Major differences in modeling approaches are attributed to various modeling assumptions (e.g., single vs multiple types of binding sites on the organism) and specific calibration strategies that affected the selection of model parameters. The models provided a reasonable description of additive (or nearly additive) toxicity for a number of individual toxicity test results. Less-than-additive toxicity was more difficult to describe with the available models. Because of limitations in the available datasets and the strong interrelationships among the model parameters (binding constants, potency factors, toxicity response parameters), further evaluation of specific model assumptions and calibration strategies is needed. PMID:25418584

  6. Effects of Binary Mixtures of Inducers (Toluene Analogs) and of Metals on Bioluminescence Induction of a Recombinant Bioreporter Strain

    PubMed Central

    Kong, In Chul

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the effects of binary mixtures of bioluminescence inducers (toluene, xylene isomers, m-toluate) and of metals (Cu, Cd, As(III), As(V), and Cr) on bioluminescence activity of recombinant (Pm-lux) strain KG1206. Different responses and sensitivities were observed depending on the types and concentrations of mixtures of inducers or metals. In the case of inducer mixtures, antagonistic and synergistic modes of action were observed, whereas metal mixtures showed all three modes of action. Antagonistic mode of action was most common for mixtures of indirect inducers, which showed bioluminescence ranging from 29% to 62% of theoretically expected effects (P(E)). On the other hand, synergistic mode of action was observed for mixtures of direct and indirect inducers, which showed bioluminescence between 141% and 243% of P(E).In the case of binary metal mixtures, bioluminescence activities were ranged from 62% to 75% and 113% to 164% of P(E) for antagonistic and synergistic modes of action, respectively (p-values 0.0001–0.038). Therefore, mixture effects could not be generalized since they were dependent on both the types and concentrations of chemicals, suggesting that biomonitoring may constitute a better strategy by investigating types and concentrations of mixture pollutants at contaminated sites. PMID:25313497

  7. Testing an application of a biotic ligand model to predict acute toxicity of metal mixtures to rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Kamo, Masashi; Naito, Wataru

    2015-04-01

    The authors tested the applicability of a previously developed biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of single metals and metal mixtures (cadmium, lead, and zinc) to rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a single available dataset. The BLM used in the present study hypothesizes that metals inhibit an essential cation (calcium) and organisms die as a result of its deficiency, leading to an assumption that the proportion of metal-binding ligand (f) is responsible for the toxic effects of metals on the survival of rainbow trout. The f value is a function of free-ion concentrations of metals computed by a chemical speciation model, and the function has affinity constants as model parameters. First, the survival effects of single metals were statistically modeled separately (i.e., f-survival relationship) by using the generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution. The modeled responses of survival rates to f overlapped reasonably irrespective of metals tested, supporting the theoretical prediction from the BLM that f-survival relationships are comparable regardless of metal species. The authors thus developed the generalized linear mixed model based on all data pooled across the single-metal tests. The best-fitted model well predicted the survival responses observed in mixture tests (r = 0.97), providing support for the applicability of the BLM to predict effects of metal mixtures. PMID:25323464

  8. Behavioral avoidance of a metals mixture by rainbow trout and brown trout

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Bergman, H.L.; Woodward, D.F.; Little, E.E.; Deloney, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    Behavioral avoidance responses by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were determined in the laboratory to predict the effect of mixtures of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc on the spatial distribution of fishes in the Clark fork River (CFR), Montana. The typical ambient concentration of these metals (in {micro}g/l) in the CFR was 12 Cu, 1.1 Cd, 3.2 Pb, and 50 Zn. Laboratory tests were conducted in an opposing-flow avoidance chamber using metals concentrations ranging from 10% to 1,000% of this CFR ambient concentration. Rainbow trout avoided all metals concentrations tested from 10% to 1,000% of ambient. Brown trout failed to avoid the 10% metals concentration but did avoid all concentrations higher than 50%. In a further experiment, both species were acclimated to pH 8.0 water and avoided all changes in acidity. However, the avoidance of metals was not altered by acidity additions in brown trout and only slightly altered in rainbow trout. In all experiments, brown trout were less sensitive than rainbow trout, which was consistent with observed species distributions within the river. Behavior avoidance of this metals mixture by rainbow and brown trout in the laboratory indicates metals may have contributed to reduced abundance and altered distribution of salmonids in the CFR.

  9. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    SciTech Connect

    Baderna, Diego Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-15

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. - Graphical abstract: Metals investigated: Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury, Nickel and Zinc. - Highlights: • The short-term phytotoxicity of seven metals was investigated with 3 higher plants. • Italian limits for arsenic and nickel in

  10. Dynamic Response of Monolithic and Laminate/Particulate Reactive Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chung-Ting

    Two dynamic compression methods were applied to a monolithic metal and reactive mixtures to investigate their responses: (a) Dynamic experiments using a split Hopkinson pressure bar were applied to reactive mixtures densified by explosive consolidation in order to establish their mechanical response and failure mechanisms. (b) Laser compression and release, which can impart high stresses, up to hundreds GPa, in times of nanoseconds and fractions thereof, was applied to establish the spalling strength of vanadium and the reaction threshold for Ni/Al laminates. The spallation and fragmentation exhibited by recovered mono- and poly-crystalline vanadium prove that the laser intensities and crystal structure play important roles in determining spall strength, fragmentation, and microstructural processes. Densified reactive mixtures with different microstructures (Ni, Mo, W, Nb and Ta with Al) were subjected to the quasi-static and dynamic strain rates. Two distinct failure mechanisms, axial splitting and shear failure, were observed in the recovered specimens. Axial splitting occurred when the bonding between the powders was poor; shear failure was primarily associated with extensive deformation of continuous Ta and Nb phases. Finite element simulations provided valuable information in interpreting the experimental results and predicting failure mechanisms akin to those observed. Ni/Al laminates were subjected to laser compression. The strain rates varied from 105 to 108 s-1, and the initial stress varied from 30 to ˜300 GPa. It is found the thickness of the lamellar and the interlaminar bonding strength are the two critical factors in determining mechanical failure. The intermetallic reaction leading to Ni3Al and NiAl were produced by the laser energies and laser pulse durations in direct laser shock experiments. Laser-driven compression was also applied to study the high temperature synthesis in nano-scale Ni/Al laminates with bilayer thickness 54 nm. Intermetallic

  11. Toxicity of binary mixtures of metals and pyrethroid insecticides to Daphnia magna Straus. Implications for multi-substance risks assessment.

    PubMed

    Barata, Carlos; Baird, D J; Nogueira, A J A; Soares, A M V M; Riva, M C

    2006-06-10

    Two different concepts, termed concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), describe general relationships between the effects of single substances and their corresponding mixtures allowing calculation of an expected mixture toxicity on the basis of known toxicities of the mixture components. Both concepts are limited to cases in which all substances in a mixture influence the same experimental endpoint, and are usually tested against a "fixed ratio design" where the mixture ratio is kept constant throughout the studies and the overall concentration of the mixture is systematically varied. With this design, interaction among toxic components across different mixture ratios and endpoints (i.e. lethal versus sublethal) is not assessed. In this study lethal and sublethal (feeding) responses of Daphnia magna individuals to single and binary combinations of similarly and dissimilarly acting chemicals including the metals (cadmium, copper) and the pyrethroid insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin) were assayed using a composite experimental design to test for interactions among toxic components across mixture effect levels, mixture ratios, lethal and sublethal toxic effects. To account for inter-experiment response variability, in each binary mixture toxicity assay the toxicity of the individual mixture constituents was also assessed. Model adequacy was then evaluated comparing the slopes and elevations of predicted versus observed mixture toxicity curves with those estimated for the individual components. Model predictive abilities changed across endpoints. The IA concept was able to predict accurately mixture toxicities of dissimilarly acting chemicals for lethal responses, whereas the CA concept did so in three out of four pairings for feeding response, irrespective of the chemical mode of action. Interaction effects across mixture effect levels, evidenced by crossing slopes, were only observed for the binary mixture Cd and Cu for lethal effects

  12. A Mixture Rasch Model with Item Response Time Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…

  13. Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches.

    PubMed

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Furlong, Edward T; Phillips, Pat J; Scott, Tia-Marie; Kolpin, Dana W; Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Lesteberg, Kelsey E; Rearick, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are present in low concentrations (<100 ng/L) in most municipal wastewater effluents but may be elevated locally because of factors such as input from pharmaceutical formulation facilities. Using existing concentration data, the authors assessed pharmaceuticals in laboratory exposures of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and added environmental complexity through effluent exposures. In the laboratory, larval and mature minnows were exposed to a simple opioid mixture (hydrocodone, methadone, and oxycodone), an opioid agonist (tramadol), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all compounds. Larval minnow response to effluent exposure was not consistent. The 2010 exposures resulted in shorter exposed minnow larvae, whereas the larvae exposed in 2012 exhibited altered escape behavior. Mature minnows exhibited altered hepatosomatic indices, with the strongest effects in females and in mixture exposures. In addition, laboratory-exposed, mature male minnows exposed to all pharmaceuticals (except the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mixture) defended nest sites less rigorously than fish in the control group. Tramadol or antidepressant mixture exposure resulted in increased splenic T lymphocytes. Only male minnows exposed to whole effluent responded with increased plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Female minnows exposed to pharmaceuticals (except the opioid mixture) had larger livers, likely as a compensatory result of greater prominence of vacuoles in liver hepatocytes. The observed alteration of apical endpoints central to sustaining fish populations confirms that effluents containing waste streams from pharmaceutical formulation facilities can adversely impact fish populations but that the effects may not be temporally consistent. The present study highlights the importance of including diverse biological endpoints spanning

  14. Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Scott, Tia-Marie; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Rearick, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are present in low concentrations (<100 ng/L) in most municipal wastewater effluents but may be elevated locally because of factors such as input from pharmaceutical formulation facilities. Using existing concentration data, the authors assessed pharmaceuticals in laboratory exposures of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and added environmental complexity through effluent exposures. In the laboratory, larval and mature minnows were exposed to a simple opioid mixture (hydrocodone, methadone, and oxycodone), an opioid agonist (tramadol), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all compounds. Larval minnow response to effluent exposure was not consistent. The 2010 exposures resulted in shorter exposed minnow larvae, whereas the larvae exposed in 2012 exhibited altered escape behavior. Mature minnows exhibited altered hepatosomatic indices, with the strongest effects in females and in mixture exposures. In addition, laboratory-exposed, mature male minnows exposed to all pharmaceuticals (except the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mixture) defended nest sites less rigorously than fish in the control group. Tramadol or antidepressant mixture exposure resulted in increased splenic T lymphocytes. Only male minnows exposed to whole effluent responded with increased plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Female minnows exposed to pharmaceuticals (except the opioid mixture) had larger livers, likely as a compensatory result of greater prominence of vacuoles in liver hepatocytes. The observed alteration of apical endpoints central to sustaining fish populations confirms that effluents containing waste streams from pharmaceutical formulation facilities can adversely impact fish populations but that the effects may not be temporally consistent. The present study highlights the importance of including diverse biological endpoints spanning

  15. Effect of a heavy metal model mixture on biological parameters of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Vosyliene, Milda Zita; Kazlauskiene, Nijole; Svecevicius, Gintaras

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a model mixture (HMMM) of seven heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Mn) on the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at all stages of development (embryos, larvae, adults) were investigated based on the annual average concentrations of these metals in cooling waste waters discharging from Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Lithuania) into the Drŭksiai lake. According to mortality parameters, the most sensitive to HMMM were larvae, although no significant differences between the sensitivity of embryos and adult fish to HMMM were found. Maximal toxic effect of HMMM was observed during the hatching period. Long-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of HMMM affected embryo development, growth of larvae, their cardio-respiratory and behavioural responses, induced significant changes in morphological, morpho-physiological, physiological and haematological parameters of adult fish. Respiratory responses and growth parameters of fish were found to be the most sensitive to low concentrations of HMMM. Adult fish were capable of detecting and avoiding low, sublethal concentrations of HMMM. Heavy metals in a mixture at low concentrations were more toxic than single ones. According to the background of the damages induced by HMMM, after-effects in a fish organism, as well as in a whole population, can be predicted. PMID:12729042

  16. Metal mixture modeling evaluation project: 3. Lessons learned and steps forward.

    PubMed

    Farley, Kevin J; Meyer, Joseph S

    2015-04-01

    A comparison of 4 metal mixture toxicity models (that were based on the biotic ligand model [BLM] and the Windermere humic aqueous model using the toxicity function [WHAM-FTOX ]) was presented in a previous paper. In the present study, a streamlined version of the 4 models was developed and applied to multiple data sets and test conditions to examine key assumptions and calibration strategies that are crucial in modeling metal mixture toxicity. Results show that 1) a single binding site on or in the organism was a useful and oftentimes sufficient framework for predicting metal toxicity; 2) a linear free energy relationship (LFER) for bidentate binding of metals and cations to the biotic ligand provided a good first estimate of binding coefficients; 3) although adjustments in metal binding coefficients or adjustments in chemical potency factors can both be used in model calibration for single-metal exposures, changing metal binding coefficients or chemical potency factors had different effects on model predictions for metal mixtures; and 4) selection of a mixture toxicity model (based on concentration addition or independent action) was important in predicting metal mixture toxicity. Moving forward, efforts should focus on reducing uncertainties in model calibration, including development of better methods to characterize metal binding to toxicologically active binding sites, conducting targeted exposure studies to advance the understanding of metal mixture toxicity, and further developing LFERs and other tools to help constrain the model calibration. PMID:25475765

  17. Evaluation of the nephrotoxicity of complex mixtures containing organics and metals: advantages and disadvantages of the use of real-world complex mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, J E; Yang, R S; Berman, E

    1995-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary health effects study, the nephrotoxicity of complex industrial waste mixtures was assessed. Adult, male Fischer 344 rats were gavaged with samples of complex industrial waste and nephrotoxicity evaluated 24 hr later. Of the 10 tested samples, 4 produced increased absolute or relative kidney weight, or both, coupled with a statistically significant alteration in at least one of the measured serum parameters (urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CREAT), and BUN/CREAT ratio). Although the waste samples had been analyzed for a number of organic chemicals and 7 of the 10 samples were analyzed also for 12 elemental metals and metalloids, their nephrotoxicity was not readily predicted from the partial chemical characterization data. Because the chemical form or speciation of the metals was unknown, it was not possible to estimate their contribution to the observed biological response. Various experimental approaches, including use of real-world complex mixtures, chemically defined synthetic mixtures, and simple mixtures, will be necessary to adequately determine the potential human health risk from exposure to complex chemical mixtures. PMID:7621803

  18. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. PMID:25841179

  19. Joint toxic action of binary metal mixtures of copper, manganese and nickel to Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Son, Jino; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yongeun; Shin, Key-Il; Hyun, Seunghun; Cho, Kijong

    2016-10-01

    The joint toxic effects of binary metal mixtures of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) on reproduction of Paronhchiurus kimi (Lee) was evaluated using a toxic unit (TU) approach by judging additivity across a range of effect levels (10-90%). For all metal mixtures, the joint toxic effects of metal mixtures on reproduction of P. kimi decreased in a TU-dependent manner. The joint toxic effects of metal mixtures also changed from less than additive to more than additive at an effect level lower than or equal to 50%, while a more than additive toxic effects were apparent at higher effect levels. These results indicate that the joint toxicity of metal mixtures is substantially different from that of individual metals based on additivity. Moreover, the close relationship of toxicity to effect level suggests that it is necessary to encompass a whole range of effect levels rather than a specific effect level when judging mixture toxicity. In conclusion, the less than additive toxicity at low effect levels suggests that the additivity assumption is sufficiently conservative to warrant predicting joint toxicity of metal mixtures, which may give an additional margin of safety when setting soil quality standards for ecological risk assessment. PMID:27318557

  20. pH-Dependent Metal Ion Toxicity Influences the Antibacterial Activity of Two Natural Mineral Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Tanya M.; Koehl, Jennifer L.; Summers, Jack S.; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that several mineral products sold for medicinal purposes demonstrate antimicrobial activity, but little is known about the physicochemical properties involved in antibacterial activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using in vitro mineral suspension testing, we have identified two natural mineral mixtures, arbitrarily designated BY07 and CB07, with antibacterial activity against a broad-spectrum of bacterial pathogens. Mineral-derived aqueous leachates also exhibited antibacterial activity, revealing that chemical, not physical, mineral characteristics were responsible for the observed activity. The chemical properties essential for bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli were probed by testing antibacterial activity in the presence of metal chelators, the hydroxyl radical scavenger, thiourea, and varying pH levels. Chelation of the BY07 minerals with EDTA or desferrioxamine eliminated or reduced BY07 toxicity, respectively, suggesting a role of an acid-soluble metal species, particularly Fe3+ or other sequestered metal cations, in mineral toxicity. This conclusion was supported by NMR relaxation data, which indicated that BY07 and CB07 leachates contained higher concentrations of chemically accessible metal ions than leachates from non-bactericidal mineral samples. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the acidic environment of the hydrated minerals significantly contributes to antibacterial activity by increasing the availability and toxicity of metal ions. These findings provide impetus for further investigation of the physiological effects of mineral products and their applications in complementary antibacterial therapies. PMID:20209160

  1. Shock Compression and Impact Response of Ta + Iron(III)Oxide Powder Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2009-06-01

    The shock compression and impact response of equivolumetric Ta + Iron(III)Oxide thermite powder mixtures is investigated through instrumented parallel plate and rod-on-anvil impact experiments. Measurements of stress and shock velocity in the powder mixtures are made with PFDV stress gauges using a uniaxial strain configuration, allowing for determination of the materials' shock compressibility. Results reveal densification of the mixture at stresses up to the crush strength of ˜ 5.4 GPa. Densification trends are incorporated into existing compaction models to determine their applicability to the present metal + oxide powder mixture. At stresses above 5.4 GPa an expanded volume state is observed in the plane strain configuration, indicating possible reaction in the mixture. Reaction initiation conditions are also studied in the plane stress configuration, where powders pressed to ˜ 75 % theoretical density are mounted on a rod and accelerated to impact an anvil over the velocity range 300-500 m/s. Initiation of reactive mixtures is observed through high-speed digital photography. Research funded by DTRA Grant # HDTRA1-D7-1-0018.

  2. Shock compression response of Ti+B reactive powder mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, M.; Gurumurthy, A.; Kennedy, G. B.; Gokhale, A. M.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2014-05-01

    The shock compression response of Ti+2B (1:2 Ti:B stoichiometric ratio) reactive powder mixtures at ~50% theoretical material density (TMD) is investigated for shock pressures up to 5 GPa to investigate the possible shock-induced chemical reactivity of this highly exothermic mixture. The shock adiabat is produced from instrumented parallel-plate gas-gun impact experiments on encapsulated powders using poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) stress gauges to measure the input and propagated stresses and wave speed in the powder. The shock compression regime is probed from crush-up to full density and onward to assess the potential onset of a shock-induced chemical reaction event in the powder mixture. A series of two-dimensional continuum meso-scale simulations on validated simulated microstructures are performed to predict the shock compression response and identify the meso-scale mechanics that are essential for reaction. The suitability of the synthetic microstructural representations is evaluated by comparing the experimental and predicted pressure traces.

  3. Shock compression response of Ti+B reactive powder mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Manny; Gurumurthy, Ashok; Kennedy, Gregory; Gokhale, Arun; Thadhani, Naresh

    2013-06-01

    The shock compression response of Ti+2B (1:2 Ti:B stoichiometric ratio) reactive powder mixtures at ~50% theoretical material density (TMD) is investigated for shock pressures up to 5 GPa to investigate the possible shock-induced chemical reactivity of this highly exothermic mixture. The shock adiabat is produced from instrumented parallel-plate gas-gun impact experiments on encapsulated powders using poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) stress gauges to measure the input and propagated stress and wave speed in the powder. The shock compression regime is probed from crush-up to full density and onward to assess the potential onset of a shock-induced chemical reaction event in the powder mixture. A series of two-dimensional continuum meso-scale simulations on real and simulated microstructures are performed to predict the shock compression response and identify the meso-scale mechanics that is essential for the so-called ``ballotechnic'' reaction. These meso-scale mechanics are investigated through stereological evolution metrics that track particle interface evolution and their respective field variables. The suitability of the synthetic microstructural representations is evaluated by comparing the experimental and predicted pressure traces. We gratefully acknowledge support and funding from DTRA through Grant No. HDTRA1-10-1-0038 and the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship through the High Performance Computing and Modernization Office (HPCMO).

  4. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions

    PubMed Central

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M.; Hradil, George

    2011-01-01

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:22102792

  5. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-11-15

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:22102792

  6. Can nutrients mask community responses to insecticide mixtures?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Alexa C; Luis, Ana T; Culp, Joseph M; Baird, Donald J; Cessna, Allan J

    2013-09-01

    The ecological effect of simultaneous exposure to two nutrient gradients, three insecticides and different predator intensities was investigated over a 3-week period in 80 outdoor, artificial streams using field-collected benthic invertebrates. The experimental design consisted of a 2 × 5 factorial structure with two nutrient levels (oligotrophic or mesotrophic) and five concentrations of the ternary insecticide mixture consisting of the insecticides (chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and imidacloprid). Equivalent toxic unit doses were summed to create a ternary insecticide dose (e.g., 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.1 = 0.3 TU) resulting in a range of ternary insecticide mixture toxicity (i.e., control groundwater, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 TU). Two genera of insect predators, Gomphus spp. (Odonata) and Agnetina spp. (Plecoptera) were also added into each replicate stream, at densities and sizes comparable to those found at our collection site, to evaluate how the contribution of predators may change in nutrient limited (oligotrophic) versus amended (mesotrophic) systems. We describe a causal mechanism whereby the combined action of nutrients and insecticides reshaped aquatic community structure by interacting through multiple pathways. Specifically, mesotrophic conditions reduced the toxic effects of ternary insecticide mixtures for aquatic insects which, in some cases, appeared to increase abundance of aquatic insects. However, higher levels of insecticides in mesotrophic streams negated this effect and were even more toxic; for example, to aquatic insect grazers than the same insecticide doses in oligotrophic treatment levels. Effects of predators were only significant in oligotrophic streams. Evidence is provided as to how nutrient and contaminant interactions can greatly complicate the assessment of community level responses to insecticide mixtures due to direct and indirect effects of the resulting changes in the density of different genera and functional feeding groups within a

  7. Metal silicate mixtures - Spectral properties and applications to asteroid taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Smith, Dorian G. W.; Lambert, Richard St. J.; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of combinations of olivine, orthopyroxene, and iron meteorite metal are experimentally studied, and the obtained variations in spectral properties are used to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the assemblages. The presence of metal most noticeably affects band area ratios, peak-to-peak and peak-to-minimum reflectance ratios, and band widths. Band width and band areas are useful for determining metal abundance in olivine and metal and orthopyroxene and metal assemblages, respectively. Mafic silicate grain size variations are best determined using band depth criteria. Band centers are most useful for determining mafic silicate composition. An application of these parameters to the S-class asteroid Flora is presented.

  8. Effect of a metal mixture on cadmium accumulation in transplanted macrophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of a metal mixture (Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) on Cd accumulation in the freshwater macrophyte Eriocaulon septangulare, was examined in a mesocosm experiment at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern, Ontario. Cd was added alone to treatment 1 and together with the metal mixture (at three increasing levels) to treatments 2, 3, and 4. Each treatment was represented by two mesocosms. Macrophytes were collected from the littoral region of lake 104, transported to nearby Roddy lake, and planted in plastic gardening trays containing exposed limnocorral sediments. The trays were lowered to the bottom of the limnocorrals and after 40 and 80 days the macrophytes were analyzed for metal content. The transplanted macrophytes accumulated Cd in both their shoots and roots. On day 40, Cd levels in the shoots of macrophytes exposed to the highest level of metal mixture were lower than in shoots from macrophytes exposed to cadmium alone, Between day 40 to day 80 Cd was lost from the shoots of macrophytes in all treatments. Cd levels in roots were higher in macrophytes exposed to the metal mixture on day 40 and significantly higher on day 80 compared to exposure to Cd alone. Elevated Cd levels in the roots of macrophytes exposed to the metal mixture reflected higher Cd levels in the water. The macrophyte Eriocaulon shows promise in environmental monitoring where test species are transplanted.

  9. An application of the biotic ligand model to predict the toxic effects of metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Nagai, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly developing biotic ligand model (BLM) allows us to predict the toxicity of heavy metals in water of various chemistries; however, the current BLM predicts the toxicity of a single metal and not the toxic effects of metal mixtures. The toxic mechanisms of heavy metals are not yet completely understood, but hypocalcemia is suggested to be the most likely toxic mechanism for some metals. The BLM, which predicts the toxicity of metals by the amount of metals binding to ligand, is modified to predict the toxicity by the proportion of nonmetal binding ligand that is available for calcium uptake under the assumption that the organisms die because of hypocalcemia when so few ligands are available for calcium uptake. Because the proportion can be computed when multiple metals are present, the toxic effects of metal mixtures can be predicted. Zinc, copper, and cadmium toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are considered. All data are collected from the literature, and a meta-analysis using the modified version of the BLM is conducted. The present study found that the proportion of nonmetal binding ligand is a constant value for any test condition. The proportion is not influenced by water chemistry or by metal species. Using the nature of constant proportion, toxicities of metals are well estimated. In addition, the toxic effects of metal mixtures are the simple sum of the toxicities of each metal (additive effect) corresponding to the bioavailable form of the metals. In terms of total concentration of metals in water, however, nonadditive effects, such as antagonism and synergism, are possible. PMID:18260697

  10. A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyang; Cobbina, Samuel J; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Liuqing

    2016-05-01

    The rational for the study was to review the literature on the toxicity and corresponding mechanisms associated with lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), individually and as mixtures, in the environment. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the environment, enabling them to biomagnify in the food chain. Living systems most often interact with a cocktail of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may induce DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this review, the major mechanism associated with toxicities of individual metals was the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, toxicities were expressed through depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Interestingly, a metal like Pb becomes toxic to organisms through the depletion of antioxidants while Cd indirectly generates ROS by its ability to replace iron and copper. ROS generated through exposure to arsenic were associated with many modes of action, and heavy metal mixtures were found to have varied effects on organisms. Many models based on concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been introduced to help predict toxicities and mechanisms associated with metal mixtures. An integrated model which combines CA and IA was further proposed for evaluating toxicities of non-interactive mixtures. In cases where there are molecular interactions, the toxicogenomic approach was used to predict toxicities. The high-throughput toxicogenomics combines studies in genetics, genome-scale expression, cell and tissue expression, metabolite profiling, and bioinformatics. PMID:26965280

  11. Multiple Response Regression for Gaussian Mixture Models with Known Labels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyul; Du, Ying; Sun, Wei; Hayes, D Neil; Liu, Yufeng

    2012-12-01

    Multiple response regression is a useful regression technique to model multiple response variables using the same set of predictor variables. Most existing methods for multiple response regression are designed for modeling homogeneous data. In many applications, however, one may have heterogeneous data where the samples are divided into multiple groups. Our motivating example is a cancer dataset where the samples belong to multiple cancer subtypes. In this paper, we consider modeling the data coming from a mixture of several Gaussian distributions with known group labels. A naive approach is to split the data into several groups according to the labels and model each group separately. Although it is simple, this approach ignores potential common structures across different groups. We propose new penalized methods to model all groups jointly in which the common and unique structures can be identified. The proposed methods estimate the regression coefficient matrix, as well as the conditional inverse covariance matrix of response variables. Asymptotic properties of the proposed methods are explored. Through numerical examples, we demonstrate that both estimation and prediction can be improved by modeling all groups jointly using the proposed methods. An application to a glioblastoma cancer dataset reveals some interesting common and unique gene relationships across different cancer subtypes. PMID:24416092

  12. Integrating multiple bioassays to detect and assess impacts of sublethal exposure to metal mixtures in an estuarine fish.

    PubMed

    Barbee, Nicole C; Ganio, Katherine; Swearer, Stephen E

    2014-07-01

    Estuaries are natural sinks for a wide range of urban, industrial and agricultural contaminants that accumulate at potentially toxic but non-lethal concentrations, yet we know relatively little about the long-term impacts of toxicants at these levels on aquatic organisms. In this study, we present an integrated, multi-pronged approach to detect and assess the impacts to estuarine fish of exposure to sublethal concentrations of metal mixtures. Our aims were to (1) examine the effects of sublethal metal exposure on the embryonic development of Galaxias maculatus, an estuarine spawning fish native to southeastern Australia, (2) determine whether sublethal exposure during development has knock-on effects on larval behaviour, and (3) establish whether a signature of metal exposure during embryogenesis can be detected in larval otoliths ("ear bones"). G. maculatus eggs are fertilised in water but develop aerially, in direct contact with estuarine sediments. We were thus also able to explore the relative importance of two exposure pathways, water and sediment. Embryos were exposed to two concentrations of a metal mixture containing Cu, Zn and Pb in water (during fertilisation) and on spiked sediments (during development), using a fully crossed experimental design. Overall, we found that exposure to the metal mixture reduced embryo survival and slowed embryonic development, resulting in poorer quality larvae that exhibited a reduced phototactic response. Differences in exposure to metals between treatment and control embryos were also permanently recorded in the developing otoliths. Combined these three approaches have the potential to be a powerful novel bioassessment tool as they provide a means of identifying a history of metal exposure during the embryonic period and linking it to suboptimal early growth and performance traits which could have long term fitness consequences. PMID:24794343

  13. Lead, arsenic and manganese metal mixture exposures: focus on biomarkers of effect

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, VL; Mateus, ML; Batoréu, MC; Aschner, M; Marreilha dos Santos, AP

    2015-01-01

    Summary The increasing exposure of human populations to excessive levels of metals continues to represent a matter of public health concern. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed for the detection of adverse health effects induced by lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn); however, these studies have relied on exposures to each single metal, which fails to replicate real-life exposure scenarios. These 3 metals are commonly detected in different environmental, occupational and food contexts and they share common neurotoxic effects, which are progressive and once clinically apparent may be irreversible. Thus, chronic exposure to low levels of a mixture of these metals represents an additive risk of toxicity. Building upon their shared mechanisms of toxicity, such as oxidative stress, interference with neurotransmitters and effects on hematopoietic system, we address putative biomarkers, which may be assist in assessing onset of neurological diseases associated with exposure to this metal mixture. PMID:25693681

  14. Ecotoxicity of mixtures of metals to the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    SciTech Connect

    Kraak, M.H.S.; Lavy, D.; Schoon, H.; Toussaint, M.; Peeters, W.H.M.; Straalen, N.M. . Dept. of Aquatic Ecotoxicology)

    1994-01-01

    The effects of equitoxic mixtures of CuCl[sub 2], ZnCl[sub 2], and CdCl[sub 2] on the filtration rate of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha were determined. The amounts of added metals were expressed in toxic units, and a range of toxic units was tested. Cu + Zn was less than concentration additive, Zn + Cd was concentration additive, and Cu + Cd was more than concentration additive in their effects on the filtration rate of Dreissena polymorpha. An equitoxic mixture of all three metals was concentration additive. The effects of a mixture could not be predicted from the effects of the single metals. The concentrations at which Cu and Cd contributed to the toxicity of a mixture of Cu + Zn + Cd were at or below the NOECs for these metals, determined in single-metal toxicity tests. At low but elevated Cu and Zn concentrations in water, no accumulation of these metals in the mussels took place; Cd, on the contrary, was accumulated at all Cd concentrations in the water.

  15. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Addolorata; de Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-04-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific olfactory receptor responses by manipulating mixtures in a mathematically predictable manner. This result is general and applies, independently of the number of odor components, to any olfactory sensory neuron type with a response curve that can be represented as a sigmoidal function of the odor concentration.

  16. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    PubMed Central

    Marasco, Addolorata; De Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific olfactory receptor responses by manipulating mixtures in a mathematically predictable manner. This result is general and applies, independently of the number of odor components, to any olfactory sensory neuron type with a response curve that can be represented as a sigmoidal function of the odor concentration. PMID:27053070

  17. Elastic response and phase behavior in binary liquid crystal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sidky, Hythem; Whitmer, Jonathan K

    2016-05-11

    Utilizing density-of-states simulations, we perform a full mapping of the phase behavior and elastic responses of binary liquid crystalline mixtures represented by the multicomponent Lebwohl-Lasher model. Our techniques are able to characterize the complete phase diagram, including nematic-nematic phase separation predicted by mean-field theories, but previously not observed in simulations. Mapping this phase diagram permits detailed study of elastic properties across the miscible nematic region. Importantly, we observe for the first time local phase separation and disordering driven by the application of small linear perturbations near the transition temperature and more significantly through nonlinear stresses. These findings are of key importance in systems of blended nematics which contain particulate inclusions, or are otherwise confined. PMID:27093188

  18. Removing Endotoxin from Metallic Biomaterials with Compressed Carbon Dioxide-Based Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Tarafa, Pedro J.; Williams, Eve; Panvelker, Samir; Zhang, Jian; Matthews, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins have strong affinity for metallic biomaterials because of surface energy effects. Conventional depyrogenation methods may not eradicate endotoxins and may compromise biological properties and functionality of metallic instruments and implants. We evaluated the solubilization and removal of E. coli endotoxin from smooth and porous titanium (Ti) surfaces and stainless steel lumens using compressed CO2-based mixtures having water and/or surfactant Ls-54. The CO2/water/Ls-54 ternary mixture in the liquid CO2 region (25 °C and 27.6 MPa) with strong mixing removed endotoxin below detection levels. This suggests that the ternary mixture penetrates and dissolves endotoxins from all the tested substrates. The successful removal of endotoxins from metallic biomaterials with compressed CO2 is a promising cleaning technology for biomaterials and reusable medical devices. PMID:21499532

  19. Attempts to initiate detonations in metal-sulphur mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H. S.; Goroshin, S.; Yoshinaka, A.; Romano, M.; Jiang, J.; Hooton, I.; Zhang, F.

    2000-04-01

    The possibility of self-sustained solid-solid detonations (SSD) in Mn+S mixtures has been investigated. Charges 50 mm in diameter under different degrees of confinement were used. The initiation charges used include nitromethane, tetryl, and C-4. No self-sustained SSD were observed in the present study. Neither did the degree of confinement nor the type or weight of the initiation charge appear to make a significant difference in the results obtained. The shock and reaction front are initially coupled but decay rapidly. Decoupling occurs after about 25 mm of propagation when the shock has decayed to about 2.5 km/sec which corresponds to the estimated sound speed of the reactant. The lack of significant feedback of the chemical energy released to the shock via work done by the expansion of the solid products is probably the cause for failure to obtain SSD in Mn+S.

  20. Taste responses to binary mixtures of amino acids in the sea catfish, Arius felis.

    PubMed

    Kohbara, J; Caprio, J

    1996-02-01

    In vivo electrophysiological recordings in the sea catfish, Arius felis, showed that the magnitude of the integrated facial taste responses to binary mixtures of amino acids was predictable with knowledge obtained from previous cross-adaptation studies of the relative independence of the respective binding sites of the component stimuli. Each component from which equal aliquots were drawn to form the mixtures was adjusted in concentration to provide for approximately equal response magnitudes. The magnitude of the taste responses to binary mixtures whose component amino acids showed minimal cross-adaptation was significantly greater than that to binary mixtures whose components exhibited considerable cross-reactivity. There was no evidence for mixture suppression. The relative magnitude of the taste responses in the sea catfish to stimulus mixtures is similar to that previously reported for olfactory receptor responses in the freshwater channel catfish and chorda tympani taste responses in the hamster. PMID:8646491

  1. An optically trapped mixture of alkali-metal and metastable helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Adonis; Mishra, Hari Prasad; Vassen, Wim; Knoop, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold collisions between alkali-metal and metastable triplet helium (He*) atoms provide the opportunity to study Feshbach resonances in the presence of a strong loss channel, namely Penning ionization, which strongly depends on the internal spin-states of the atoms. Recently we have realized the first optically trapped alkali-metal-metastable helium mixture. To prepare the ultracold 87 Rb+4 He* mixture in a single beam optical dipole trap (ODT), we apply evaporative cooling in a strong quadrupole magnetic trap (QMT) for both species and subsequent transfer to the ODT via a hybrid trap. We will present lifetime measurements of different spin-state mixtures, testing the application of the universal loss model to this interesting multichannel collision system.

  2. [Measurement of Mole Ratio for Alkali Metal Mixture by Using Spectral Absorption Method].

    PubMed

    Zou, Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Yao; Chen, Xi-yuan

    2015-08-01

    The ratio of alkali metal mixture is one of the most important parameters in gauge head belonging to the ultra-sensitivity inertial measurement equipment, which is required to detect precisely. According to the feature that ratio of alkali metal is related to alkali metal vapor density, the theory of optical depth is used to detect the ratio of alkali metal in the present article. The result shows that the data got by the theory of optical depth compared with empirical formula differs at three orders of magnitude, which can't ensure the accuracy. By changing the data processing method, model between spectral absorption rate and temperature in cell is established. The temperature in alkali metal cell is calibrated by spectral absorption rate. The ratio of alkali metal atoms in the cell is analyzed by calculating the alkali density with empirical formula. The computational error is less than 10%. PMID:26672309

  3. Toxicity of binary mixtures of metal oxide nanoparticles to Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ran; Wu, Junkang; Liu, Meiting; Zhu, Guangcan; Chen, Lianghui; Chang, Yan; Lu, Huijie

    2016-06-01

    Although the widely used metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) titanium dioxide NPs (n-TiO2), cerium dioxide NPs (n-CeO2), and zinc oxide NPs (n-ZnO) have been well known for their potential cytotoxicities to environmental organisms, their combined effects have seldom been investigated. In this study, the short-term binary effect of n-CeO2 and n-TiO2 or n-ZnO on a model ammonia oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea were evaluated based on the examinations of cells' physiological, metabolic, and transcriptional responses. The addition of n-TiO2 mitigated the negative effect of more toxic n-CeO2 and the binary toxicity (antagonistic toxicity) of n-TiO2 and n-CeO2 was generally lower than the single NPs induced one. While the n-CeO2/n-ZnO mixture exerted higher cytotoxicity (synergistic cytotoxicity) than that from single NPs. The increased addition of the less toxic n-CeO2 exaggerated the binary toxicity of n-CeO2/n-ZnO mixture although the solubility of n-ZnO was not significantly affected, which excluded the contribution of the dissolved Zn ions to the enhancement of the combined cytotoxicity. The cell membrane disturbances and NP internalizations were detected for all the NP impacted cultures and the electrostatic interactions among the two distinct NPs and the cells were expected to play a key role in mediating their direct contacts and the eventual binary nanotoxicity to the cells. PMID:27016814

  4. Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Wubs, Martijn; Asger Mortensen, N

    2015-05-13

    This review provides a broad overview of the studies and effects of nonlocal response in metallic nanostructures. In particular, we thoroughly present the nonlocal hydrodynamic model and the recently introduced generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model. The influence of nonlocal response on plasmonic excitations is studied in key metallic geometries, such as spheres and dimers, and we derive new consequences due to the GNOR model. Finally, we propose several trajectories for future work on nonlocal response, including experimental setups that may unveil further effects of nonlocal response. PMID:25893883

  5. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-01-31

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end we shall use an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the First Quarter of this three year project work has centered around recruiting a graduate student to take responsibility for execution of portions of the research, and modifying the furnace and supporting equipment to allow the combustion of coal/MMS mixtures. We have readied the analytical panel for measuring NO{sub x} and other gaseous pollutants. We expect initial experiments for data gathering for coal/MSS mixtures to commence in the next Quarter.

  6. RESPONSE OF PORTABLE VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) ANALYZERS TO CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives the responses of two types of portable VOC analyzers (Century Systems OVA-108 and Bacharach TLV Sniffer), calibrated with methane and used to measure a variety of chemical vapor mixtures. Instrument response data for both binary and ternary mixtures of selected c...

  7. An NCME Instructional Module on Latent DIF Analysis Using Mixture Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Suh, Youngsuk; Lee, Woo-yeol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an introduction to differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using mixture item response models. The mixture item response models for DIF analysis involve comparing item profiles across latent groups, instead of manifest groups. First, an overview of DIF analysis based on latent groups, called…

  8. A NONADDITITIVE TUMOR RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects, but this may not be consistent with the actual biological response. We used a rodent model of hereditary renal cancer to investigate the carcinogenic response of a mixture of drinkin...

  9. Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moolenaar, S.W.; Beltrami, P.

    1998-07-01

    Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

  10. Metal ions potentiate microglia responsiveness to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Peferoen, Laura A N; Vogel, Daphne Y S; Alsalem, Inás W A; Amor, Sandra; Bontkes, Hetty J; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2016-02-15

    Oral metal exposure has been associated with diverse adverse reactions, including neurotoxicity. We showed previously that dentally applied metals activate dendritic cells (MoDC) via TLR4 (Ni, Co, Pd) and TLR3 (Au). It is still unknown whether the low levels of dental metals reaching the brain can trigger local innate cells or prime them to become more responsive. Here we tested whether dentally applied metals (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Au, Hg) activate primary human microglia in vitro and, as a model, monocytic THP-1-cells, in high non-toxic as well as near-physiological concentrations. In addition the effects of 'near-physiological' metal exposure on endotoxin (LPS) responsiveness of these cells were evaluated. IL-8 and IL-6 production after 24h was used as read out. In high, non-toxic concentrations all transition metals except Cr induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in microglia, with Ni and Co providing the strongest stimulation. When using near-physiological doses (up to 10× the normal plasma concentration), only Zn and Cu induced significant IL-8 production. Of note, the latter metals also markedly potentiated LPS responsiveness of microglia and THP-1 cells. In conclusion, transition metals activate microglia similar to MoDCs. In near-physiological concentrations Zn and Cu are the most effective mediators of innate immune activation. A clear synergism between innate responses to Zn/Cu and LPS was observed, shedding new light on the possible relation between oral metal exposure and neurotoxicity. PMID:26857501

  11. Extractability and leachability of heavy metals in Technosols prepared from mixtures of unconsolidated wastes.

    PubMed

    Camps Arbestain, M; Madinabeitia, Z; Anza Hortalà, M; Macías-García, F; Virgel, S; Macías, F

    2008-12-01

    Mixtures of wastes were prepared to improve on the characteristics of the individual ingredients as Technosols, with special attention given to heavy metal extractability. An anaerobic digested sewage sludge and a CaO-treated aerobic sludge were used. A mixture of the two sludges (50:50 DW basis) was also prepared to provide a third type of sludge. The residues were mixed with other types of waste, such as fly ash, Linz-Donowitz slag, foundry sand, shot blasting machine scrap, fettling and barley straw. Extractability of Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn by 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction (Me(CACI(2)) was carried out, and leachability of these elements was estimated by acidification of an aqueous suspension of the mixtures with 0.5 N acetic acid (Me(acetic)). The total concentrations of the metals were also determined (Me(T)). The Me(CACI(2)/Me(T) ratios for Cu and Ni (means: 4.0% and 3.1%) were higher than those for Cr and Zn (means: 0.07% each). The mean Me(acetic)/Me(T) ratios followed the order Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr (19.5%, 4.1%, 3.7%, and 0.09%, respectively). The results highlight the existence of complex interactions among organic matter solubility, pH and heavy metal extractability. PMID:18329263

  12. Electrostatic separator for micronized mixtures of metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messal, Sara; Corondan, Razvan; Chetan, Ionut; Ouiddir, Rabah; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    In spite of their extensive use for processing mixtures of granules exceeding 1 mm in size, very few industrial electrostatic separators are capable of handling micronized metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment. The aim of the present work is to validate the possibility of using a novel belt-type electrostatic separator for the selective sorting of such particulate mixtures, the dimensions of which are in the order of 0.1 mm. In this type of separator, the metal particles get charged by electrostatic induction in contact with the grounded metal belt electrode, while the plastics remain uncharged in the electric field and are collected separately. The experiments are performed with 2-g samples of a mixture composed in equal proportions (50% - 50%) of Aluminium and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) particles of average diameter ranging between 125 μm and 250 μm. They enabled the evaluation of the effects and the interaction of two control variables of the process: the angle of inclination of the roll-type electrode and the high voltage applied to it.

  13. Interactive effects of waterborne metals in binary mixtures on short-term gill-metal binding and ion uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Som; Nadella, Sunita R; Wood, Chris M

    2015-08-01

    Metal binding to fish gills forms the basis of the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach, which has emerged as a useful tool for conducting site-specific water quality assessments for metals. The current BLMs are designed to assess the toxicity of individual metals, and cannot account for the interactive effects of metal mixtures to aquatic organisms including fish. The present study was designed mainly to examine the interactive effects of waterborne metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Ni) in specific binary combinations on short-term (3h) gill-metal binding and essential ion (Ca(2+) and Na(+)) uptake (a physiological index of toxicity) in fish, using juvenile freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model species. We hypothesized that binary mixtures of metals that share a common mode of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Zn - Ca(2+) antagonists, Cu and Ag - Na(+) antagonists) would reduce the gill binding of each other via competitive interactions and induce less than additive effects on ion transport. In addition, the mixture of metals that have different modes of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Cu, or Cd and Ni) would not exhibit any interactive effects either on gill-metal binding or ion transport. We found that both Zn and Cu reduced gill-Cd binding and vice versa, however, Ni did not influence gill-Cd binding in fish. Surprisingly, Ag was found to stimulate gill-Cu binding especially at high exposure concentrations, whereas, Cu had no effect on gill-Ag binding. The inhibitory effect of Cd and Zn in mixture on branchial Ca(2+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cd or Zn alone. Similarly, the inhibitory effect of Cu and Ag in mixture on branchial Na(+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cu or Ag alone. The inhibitory effects of Cd and Zn mixture on Ca(2+) uptake as well as Cu and Ag mixture on Na(+) uptake were found to follow the principles of simple additivity. In contrast, no significant additive effect on either Ca(2+) or Na

  14. CHEMICAL INDUCTION OF TUMORS IN OYSTERS BY A MIXTURE OF AROMATIC AND CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, AMINES, AND METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tumors were induced in eastern oysters (Crassotrea virginica) by a mixture f aromatic hydrocarbons, an aromatic amine, polychlori-nated biphenyls, chlorinated hydrocarbons, a nitrosoamine and heavy metals. idney and nteric tumors developed in oysters following exposure to a mixtu...

  15. Relief Creation on Molybdenum Plates in Discharges Initiated by Gyrotron Radiation in Metal-Dielectric Powder Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Malakhov, D. V.; Sorokin, A. A.; Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Letunov, A. A.; Petrov, A. E.; Ryabikina, I. G.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Sokolov, A. S.; Smirnov, V. A.; Kharchev, N. K.

    2016-02-01

    We show the possibility of creating a metal microcrystalline relief (micro- and nanosized) on molybdenum plates in a plasma gas-phase discharge initiated by gyrotron radiation in molybdenum-dielectric powder mixtures.

  16. Preliminary investigation of a technique to separate fission noble metals from fission product mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, G.B.; Jensen, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    A variation of the gold-ore fire assay technique was examined as a method for recovering Pd, Rh and Ru from fission products. The mixture of fission product oxides is combined with glass-forming chemicals, a metal oxide such as PbO (scavenging agent), and a reducing agent such as charcoal. When this mixture is melted, a metal button is formed which extracts the noble metals. The remainder cools to form a glass for nuclear waste storage. Recovery depended only on reduction of the scavenger oxide to metal. When such reduction was achieved, no difference in noble metal recovery efficiency was found among the scavengers studied (PbO, SnO, CuO, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/). Not all reducing agents studied, however, were able to reduce all scavenger oxides to metal. Only graphite would reduce SnO and CuO and allow noble metal recovery. The scavenger oxides Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and PbO, however, were reduced by all of the reducing agents tested. Similar noble metal recovery was found with each. Lead oxide was found to be the most promising of the potential scavengers. It was reduced by all of the reducing agents tested, and its higher density may facilitate the separation. Use of lead oxide also appeared to have no deterimental effect on the glass quality. Charcoal was identified as the preferred reducing agent. As long as a separable metal phase was formed in the melt, noble metal recovery was not dependent on the amount of reducing agent and scavenger oxide. High glass viscosities inhibited separation of the molten scavenger, while low viscosities allowed volatile loss of RuO/sub 4/. A viscosity of approx. 20 poise at the processing temperature offered a good compromise between scavenger separation and Ru recovery. Glasses in which PbO was used as the scavenging agent were homogeneous in appearance. Resistance to leaching was close to that of certain waste glasses reported in the literature. 12 figures. 7 tables.

  17. Investigation of antioxidant properties of metal ascorbates and their mixtures by voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vtorushina, A. N.; Nikonova, E. D.

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes modern ways for selection of anti-radical substances. Molding of such components with a carbon-based material decreases the rate of its oxidative destruction. Addition of such a component to a carbon-based material decreases the rate of its oxidative destruction. The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of ascorbates metals (Ca, Mg, Li, Co, Fe), used in the practice of medicine, as well as mixtures based on them together with well-known antioxidants. In this article we examine the effect of metals on the process of ascorbate oxygen electroreduction. From these ascorbates lithium and magnesium ascorbate showed the greatest activity toward cathode oxygen reduction process. Also mixtures with well-known examined antioxidants ascorbate (glucose, dihydroquercetin) were investigated at different concentrations of components. It is shown that the multicomponent mixtures exhibit lower activity than the individual drugs. Recommended the creation of drugs on the basis of ascorbate Mg and Li with not more than 3 number of components.

  18. Optical properties of silicon titanium oxide mixtures prepared by metallic mode reactive sputtering.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Daniel; Bräuer, Günter; Fritz, Benjamin; Vergöhl, Michael

    2012-11-20

    In this paper different SiO(2)-TiO(2) mixtures are prepared by metallic mode reactive sputtering. The samples were sputtered from cylindrical targets in a sputter-up configuration using an additional plasma source for oxidization. The different ratios of SiO(2) and TiO(2) in the mixtures are prepared by a target sputtering power variation. Optical film properties of the mixtures such as refractive index, which is determined by ellipsometric measurements, and optical bandgap, which is measured by photometric (transmission) measurements, are investigated. The thin-film structure is investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis and the stress of the films is presented. It is shown that the metallic mode reactive sputtering in the present configuration is applicable to continuously tune optical and mechanical properties. Finally the sputtered mixed materials are compared with other optical standard materials such as Nb(2)O(5), Ta(2)O(5), HfO(2), and Al(2)O(3). PMID:23207316

  19. Contributions of a compost-biochar mixture to the metal sorption capacity of a mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Forján, R; Asensio, V; Rodríguez-Vila, A; Covelo, E F

    2016-02-01

    One technique applied to restore degraded or contaminated soils is to use amendments made of different types of waste materials, which in turn may contain metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn. For this reason, it is important to determine the capacity of the soil to retain these materials, and to compare the sorption capacity between an amended soil and another unamended soil. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility and availability of these metals in the soil after applying the amendment, and how it affected the soil's sorption capacity. Sorption isotherms were compared with the empirical models of Langmuir and Freundlich to estimate the sorption capacity. The overall capacity of the soils to sorb Cu, Pb or Zn was evaluated as the slope Kr. The amendments used in this study were a mixture made of compost and biochar in different proportions (20, 40, 60, 100 %), which were applied to the mine tailing from a settling pond from a copper mine. The mine tailing that were amended with the mixture of compost and biochar had a higher sorption capacity than the mine tailing from the unamended pond, and their sorption isotherms had a greater affinity towards Cu, Pb and Zn than the mine tailing that was studied. Therefore, the results obtained show that adding a mixture of compost and biochar favours the retention of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine tailing. PMID:26432263

  20. Responses of protocerebral neurons in Manduca sexta to sex-pheromone mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hong; Chiu, Hong-Yan; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Male Manduca sexta moths are attracted to a mixture of two components of the female's sex pheromone at the natural concentration ratio. Deviation from this ratio results in reduced attraction. Projection neurons innervating prominent male-specific glomeruli in the male's antennal lobe produce maximal synchronized spiking activity in response to synthetic mixtures of the two components centering around the natural ratio, suggesting that behaviorally effective mixture ratios are encoded by synchronous neuronal activity. We investigated the physiological activity and morphology of downstream protocerebral neurons that responded to antennal stimulation with single pheromone components and their mixtures at various concentration ratios. Among the tested neurons, only a few gave stronger responses to the mixture at the natural ratio whereas most did not distinguish among the mixtures that were tested. We also found that the population response distinguished among the two pheromone components and their mixtures, prior to the peak population response. This observation is consistent with our previous finding that synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons reaches its maximum before the firing rate reaches its peak. Moreover, the response patterns of protocerebral neurons are diverse, suggesting that the representation of olfactory stimuli at the level of protocerebrum is complex. PMID:23974854

  1. Nonlinear optical response of metal-barrier-metal junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, B.; Faris, S. M.; Gustafson, T. K.; Bridges, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The optical response of metal-barrier-metal (MBM) junctions is discussed, with emphasis on the nonlinearity of response associated with reversal of polarity as optical intensity is increased. This nonlinear behavior can be used to measure correlation functions of optical pulses or to generate ultrashort electrical pulses. Expressions for the current flowing through the insulating barrier (junction), and for the rectification current, are given. Pulse signal and polarity of the electrical pulse evolves as the junction bias is varied about the null-signal bias. The apparatus used to obtain rectification pulse signals is described; the calculated evolution of the rectified pulse shape is found to correspond to that of pulse signals obtained experimentally. The generation of pulses six orders of magnitude smaller than a previously-obtained instrument-limited 1.6 nanosecond pulse has been observed.

  2. PCBS: CANCER DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT AND APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES (1996)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report updates the cancer dose-response assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and shows how information on toxicity, disposition, and environmental processes can be considered together to evaluate health risks from PCB mixtures in the environment. Processes that ch...

  3. Simultaneous decontamination of cross-polluted soils with heavy metals and PCBs using a nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the use of nano-metallic calcium (Ca) and calcium oxide (CaO) dispersion mixture for the simultaneous remediation of contaminated soils with both heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Regardless of soil moisture content, nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture achieved about 95-99% of heavy metal immobilization by a simple grinding process. During the same treatment, reasonable PCB hydrodechlorination efficiencies were obtained (up to 97%), though higher hydrodechlorination efficiency by preliminary drying of soil was observed. PMID:24723351

  4. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated alkanes and alkenes by iron metal and metal mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Reductive dechlorination using zero valent metals such as iron has seen an increase in interest over the past few years with the extension of iron dechlorination to in-situ treatment of ground water using a process developed by Gillham and O`Hannes in 1994. Earlier applications included the use of metals for water treatment for the degradation of halogenated pesticides. This increased interest is demonstrated by the recent ACS symposium on zero valent metal dechlorination. The work that will be presented involves the reduction of selected chlorinated alkanes and alkenes beginning with chlorobutanes. The position of the chlorines on the carbon chain relative to each other was studied by determining the rates of the dechlorination processes. These studies were carried out in seated batch reactors so that loss of the chlorinated hydrocarbons was minimized and total carbon and chloride mass balances could be obtained. The goal of the studies was to understand the mechanism of the reaction that is believed to follow metal corrosion processes involving two electron transfer reactions.

  5. The effects of high metal concentrations in soil-compost mixtures on soil enzymes.

    PubMed

    Warman, P R; Munroe, M D

    2010-10-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the impact of high-metal composts on the activities of four soil enzymes. High concentrations of metal salts (Cr, Cu, Ni or a Co-Mo-Pb combination) were added to feedstocks during the thermophilic stage of composting. These four metal-enriched composts and an unamended control compost were then mixed with soil collected from long-term agriculture plots under organic management or conventional management. The compost-soil mixtures were prepared at two rates (1:1 or 1:3 compost:soil, v/v) and incubated at 20 degrees C for three weeks. These 20 combinations plus the five composts and the two soils were added to pots and incubated for three weeks. Following incubation, soil enzyme activities (acid phosphatase, arysulfatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase) were measured using traditional assay procedures. Compared to the control, none of the high-metal composts inhibited soil enzyme activity. Notably, the Cu compost treatment produced significantly higher activity of all four enzymes in the soil compared to the control. Previous soil management influenced the activity of three enzymes, arysulfatase and dehydrogenase had greater activity in the organic soil while phosphatase activity was greater in the conventional soil. Increasing the proportion of compost in the pot had a positive effect on phosphodiesterase activity only. In conclusion, the high-metal compost treatments either enhanced or caused no adverse effects on soil enzyme activity. PMID:20803367

  6. Microgravity effects on electrodeposition of metals and metal-cermet mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maybee, George W.; Riley, Clyde; Coble, H. Dwain

    1987-01-01

    An experimental system, designed to investigate the potential advantages of electrodeposition in microgravity, is being developed by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-Huntsville Division and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. It is intended to fly as an Orbiter payload when NASA resumes STS operations. The system will provide power, thermal conditioning, command and control for the production of electrodeposits; system performance data will be recorded for post-flight analysis. Plated metal surfaces will be created using simple electrolytic cells with pure metal electrodes immersed in aqueous electrolytic solutions. Crystalline structure and other properties will be analyzed to identify differences between samples produced in flight and those obtained from ground-based operations.

  7. Uptake of iodide by a mixture of metallic copper and cupric compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, G.; Alnot, M.; Ehrhardt, J.J.; Bessiere, J.

    1999-05-15

    Environmental contaminants harmful to the health of present and future generations involve nuclear fission products as iodine radioisotopes. {sup 129}I is potentially one of the more mobile products because of its long half-life and its tendency to go into solution as an anion that is not retarded with silicate minerals. Ability of copper/cupric compound mixtures to remove iodide from solution was investigated to predict sorption of radioactive iodine in the environment and to assess their use in a nuclear reprocessing method. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to study the stability of such mixtures in solution and to obtain equilibrium constants of Cu(0)/Cu(II)/I{sup {minus}} and Cu(0)/Cu(II)/Cl{sup {minus}} systems. Both calculations and experimental results showed that a Cu(0)/Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (azurite) mixture selectively uptakes iodide ions (initial concentrations: 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup {minus}1} M) in the presence of 10{sup {minus}1} M chloride ions. Reaction of iodide with copper powder and azurite crystal or copper plate and azurite powder have also been investigated, leading to precipitation of CuI onto massive copper phase. The different solids were separately analyzed by XPS and MEB-EDX, giving some insight in the uptake mechanism. It is proposed that soluble copper released by the cupric compound is reduced at the surface of metallic copper, leading to a preferential precipitation of CuI on copper surface.

  8. Exposure to cadmium-phenanthrene mixtures elicits complex toxic responses in the freshwater tubificid oligochaete, Ilyodrilus templetoni.

    PubMed

    Gust, Kurt A; Fleeger, John W

    2006-07-01

    The joint toxicity of metal-hydrocarbon mixtures in sediments was investigated using cadmium (Cd) and phenanthrene (Phen) as model contaminants. Sediment bioassays were utilized to quantify effects of individual and combined contaminants in the bulk-deposit feeding oligochaete Ilyodrilus templetoni. Combined contaminants elicited antagonistic lethal effects and independent responses for feeding rate (measured as sediment ingestion). The 10-d LC(50) for Cd alone was 1375 mg kg(-1) (95% C.I. 1340-1412), whereas Phen elicited no mortality even when loaded to sediment saturation. The presence of Phen decreased Cd lethality, increasing the LC(50) of Cd by as much as 40%. Regression analyses indicated that Phen was nearly 10 times more potent than Cd in eliciting feeding rate reductions. Exposure to Cd-Phen mixtures resulted in feeding rate reductions equivalent to those caused by Phen alone. The marked reduction in sediment ingestion induced by the co-pollutant Phen reduced exposure to Cd via ingestion. We suggest that this Phen-induced reduction in Cd exposure decreased Cd bioaccumulation and subsequent lethality. More generally, we suggest that even if the toxicological effects among dissimilarly acting chemicals (including metals and hydrocarbons) are independent, contaminant mixtures may elicit unexpected interactive effects facilitated by modifying exposure. PMID:16465559

  9. Characterization of microwave-induced electric discharge phenomena in metal-solvent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Gutmann, Bernhard; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-02-01

    Electric discharge phenomena in metal-solvent mixtures are investigated utilizing a high field density, sealed-vessel, single-mode 2.45 GHz microwave reactor with a built-in camera. Particular emphasis is placed on studying the discharges exhibited by different metals (Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni) of varying particle sizes and morphologies in organic solvents (e.g., benzene) at different electric field strengths. Discharge phenomena for diamagnetic and paramagnetic metals (Mg, Zn, Cu) depend strongly on the size of the used particles. With small particles, short-lived corona discharges are observed that do not lead to a complete breakdown. Under high microwave power conditions or with large particles, however, bright sparks and arcs are experienced, often accompanied by solvent decomposition and formation of considerable amounts of graphitized material. Small ferromagnetic Fe and Ni powders (<40 μm) are heated very rapidly in benzene suspensions and start to glow in the microwave field, whereas larger particles exhibit extremely strong discharges. Electric discharges were also observed when Cu metal or other conductive materials such as silicon carbide were exposed to the microwave field in the absence of a solvent in an argon or nitrogen atmosphere. PMID:24551491

  10. Glossopharyngeal taste responses of the channel catfish to binary mixtures of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Caprio, J

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the neural processing of binary mixtures in the glossopharyngeal (IX) taste system of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and finds that the nature of the components of a mixture determines the intensity of the neural response to it. Taste buds in fish innervated by IX are located along the gill rakers of the first gill arch and rostral floor of the oral cavity, and function primarily in the consummatory phase of feeding behavior; however, few studies of IX taste responses have been reported in any species of teleost. Here, we report IX taste responses to eight different binary mixtures of amino acids whose components were adjusted to be approximately equipotent in electrophysiological recordings. Four binary (group I) mixtures whose components were indicated from prior electrophysiological cross-adaptation experiments to bind to independent receptor sites resulted in significantly larger (22% average increase) integrated IX taste activity than four other (group II) binary mixtures whose components were indicated to bind to the same or highly cross-reactive receptor sites. These results are similar to those observed previously from facial nerve recordings in channel catfish, and to olfactory and taste responses in other vertebrate and invertebrate species. The group I results help to explain behavioral observations that chemical mixtures of chemosensory stimuli are often more stimulatory than their individual components. PMID:11015321

  11. On the inflammatory response in metal-on-metal implants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metal-on-metal implants are a special form of hip endoprostheses that despite many advantages can entail serious complications due to release of wear particles from the implanted material. Metal wear particles presumably activate local host defence mechanisms, which causes a persistent inflammatory response with destruction of bone followed by a loosening of the implant. To better characterize this inflammatory response and to link inflammation to bone degradation, the local generation of proinflammatory and osteoclast-inducing cytokines was analysed, as was systemic T cell activation. Methods By quantitative RT-PCR, gene expression of cytokines and markers for T lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and osteoclasts, respectively, was analysed in tissue samples obtained intraoperatively during exchange surgery of the loosened implant. Peripheral T cells were characterized by cytofluorometry before surgery and 7 to 10 days thereafter. Results At sites of osteolysis, gene expression of cathepsin K, CD14 and CD3 was seen, indicating the generation of osteoclasts, and the presence of monocytes and of T cells, respectively. Also cytokines were highly expressed, including CXCL8, IL-1ß, CXCL2, MRP-14 and CXCL-10. The latter suggest T cell activation, a notion that could be confirmed by detecting a small, though conspicuous population of activated CD4+ cells in the peripheral blood T cells prior to surgery. Conclusion Our data support the concept that metallosis is the result of a local inflammatory response, which according to histomorphology and the composition of the cellular infiltrate classifies as an acute phase of a chronic inflammatory disease. The proinflammatory environment, particularly the generation of the osteoclast-inducing cytokines CXCL8 and IL1-ß, promotes bone resorption. Loss of bone results in implant loosening, which then causes the major symptoms of metallosis, pain and reduced range of motion. PMID:24650243

  12. Toxicity and bioavailability of heavy metal mixtures in natural and synthetic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Frugis, M.; Clements, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Toxicity tests were conducted to compare differences in bioavailability of a metal mixture (zinc, copper, cadmium and lead) in natural and synthetic sediments to Chironomus tentans and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Preliminary tests were conducted with sediment collected at five stations from the Arkansas River (Leadville, CO) and one from the La Cache Poudre River (Fort Collins, CO). After seven days of exposure, mortality on C. tentans in sediment from the most contaminated station (AR3) was significantly different from the reference station (PDR). Bioaccumulation in these insects showed significant correlation with abiotic factors: particle size, organic matter, total carbon and cation exchange capacity. During a second experiment, particle size and carbon contents of synthetic sediment were modified to reflect composition of natural sediment. Two types of artificial sediments were spiked with 0X, 0.085X, 0.175X and 0.35X of metal mixture measured in AR3. After ten days, mortality of C. tentans in the 0.35X and AR3 treatments were similar. In a final experiment, synthetic and natural sediments were spiked at 0X, 0.175X, 0.35X, and 0.70X. Again, mortality of contents in 0.35X and AR3 were not significantly different. A 48hrs-acute test conducted with C. dubia showed that interstitial water from AR3 and AR5 stations had higher toxicity than other stations. In addition, toxicity of interstitial water from synthetic sediment was greater than from spiked natural sediment or sediments collected from the Arkansas River. These results indicate that heavy metals are more bioavailable in synthetic sediments than in natural substrates.

  13. Solvatochromic probe response within ionic liquids and their equimolar mixtures with tetraethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rewa; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-09-25

    Synergism in a probe response within a mixture hints at the presence of strong interactions involving the solvent constituents of the mixture and possibly the probe. Unusual and rare "hyperpolarity" resulting from the synergism in probe response exhibited by ionic liquid (IL) mixtures with glycol family solvents is investigated in detail for equimolar mixtures of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) with many structurally different ILs using several UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence solvatochromic probes. Thirteen different ILs, of the same cation 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium and different anions, of the same anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and different cations, and of C2 methyl-substituted imidazolium cations, are used to assess the structural dependence of the IL on synergism exhibited by (IL + TEG) mixture. Responses from UV-vis absorbance probes are used to obtain ET [dipolarity/polarizability and/or H-bond donating (HBD) acidity] and Kamlet-Taft parameters [π* (dipolarity/polarizability), α (HBD acidity), and β (HB accepting basicity)] within (IL + TEG) mixtures. The band I-to-band III fluorescence intensity ratio of dipolarity probe pyrene along with the lowest energy fluorescence band maxima of pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde (PyCHO, a probe for the permittivity of the medium), coumarin-153 and N,N-dimethyl-6-propionyl-2-naphthylamine PRODAN (neutral photoinduced charge-transfer fluorescence probes), and 6-p-toluidine-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (TNS) and l-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) (ionic photoinduced charge-transfer fluorescence probes) are used to assess whether synergism is exhibited by (IL + TEG) equimolar mixtures. Probe responses within TEG equimolar mixtures with ILs are compared to those with common organic solvents. An attempt is made to establish a correlation between the synergism observed in the probe response within an (IL + TEG) mixture and the structural features of the cation and anion of the IL, such as acidity of the protons of the

  14. Estimation of Item Response Models Using the EM Algorithm for Finite Mixtures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, David J.; Hanson, Bradley A.

    This paper presents a detailed description of maximum parameter estimation for item response models using the general EM algorithm. In this paper the models are specified using a univariate discrete latent ability variable. When the latent ability variable is discrete the distribution of the observed item responses is a finite mixture, and the EM…

  15. A Mixture Proportional Hazards Model with Random Effects for Response Times in Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new model for test response times is proposed that combines latent class analysis and the proportional hazards model with random effects in a similar vein as the mixture factor model. The model assumes the existence of different latent classes. In each latent class, the response times are distributed according to a…

  16. On the shock response of cubic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N. K.; Gray, G. T.; Millett, J. C. F.

    2009-11-01

    The response of four cubic metals to shock loading is reviewed in order to understand the effects of microstructure on continuum response. Experiments are described that link defect generation and storage mechanisms at the mesoscale to observations in the bulk. Four materials were reviewed; these were fcc nickel, the ordered fcc intermetallic Ni3Al, the bcc metal tantalum, and two alloys based on the intermetallic phase TiAl; Ti-46.5Al-2Cr-2Nb and Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B. The experiments described are in two groups: first, equation of state and shear strength measurements using Manganin stress gauges and, second, postshock microstructural examinations and measurement of changes in mechanical properties. The behaviors described are linked through the description of time dependent plasticity mechanisms to the final states achieved. Recovered targets displayed dislocation microstructures illustrating processes active during the shock-loading process. Reloading of previously shock-prestrained samples illustrated shock strengthening for the fcc metals Ni and Ni3Al while showing no such effect for bcc Ta and for the intermetallic TiAl. This difference in effective shock hardening has been related, on the one hand, to the fact that bcc metals have fewer available slip systems that can operate than fcc crystals and to the observation that the lower symmetry materials (Ta and TiAl) both possess high Peierls stress and thus have higher resistances to defect motion in the lattice under shock-loading conditions. These behaviors, compared between these four materials, illustrate the role of defect generation, transport, storage, and interaction in determining the response of materials to shock prestraining.

  17. Theoretic model and computer simulation of separating mixture metal particles from waste printed circuit board by electrostatic separator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming; Zhou, Yaohe

    2008-05-30

    Traditionally, the mixture metals from waste printed circuit board (PCB) were sent to the smelt factory to refine pure copper. Some valuable metals (aluminum, zinc and tin) with low content in PCB were lost during smelt. A new method which used roll-type electrostatic separator (RES) to recovery low content metals in waste PCB was presented in this study. The theoretic model which was established from computing electric field and the analysis of forces on the particles was used to write a program by MATLAB language. The program was design to simulate the process of separating mixture metal particles. Electrical, material and mechanical factors were analyzed to optimize the operating parameters of separator. The experiment results of separating copper and aluminum particles by RES had a good agreement with computer simulation results. The model could be used to simulate separating other metal (tin, zinc, etc.) particles during the process of recycling waste PCBs by RES. PMID:17981393

  18. Generalization of independent response model for toxic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Haas, C N; Kersten, S P; Wright, K; Frank, M J; Cidambi, K

    1997-02-01

    Interaction between toxic compounds has long been known to researchers. Attempts to model this interaction have been based on two basic paradigms--termed additivity and independence (1, 2). Previous models based on these assumptions focused on measuring the interaction between the compounds and then classifying the type of interaction as synergism, antagonism, additivity or independence (3, 4). The aim of this work is to present a generalization of the independent action hypothesis that is quantitatively capable of describing deviations regardless of the underlying single component dose response models. The mathematical framework of copulas is employed. This approach is then tested against data sets with both human health and ecological risk applications. PMID:9569938

  19. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-06-02

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process.

  20. Response Times to Gustatory-Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Timothy G; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Marks, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    A mixture of perceptually congruent gustatory and olfactory flavorants (sucrose and citral) was previously shown to be detected faster than predicted by a model of probability summation that assumes stochastically independent processing of the individual gustatory and olfactory signals. This outcome suggests substantial integration of the signals. Does substantial integration also characterize responses to mixtures of incongruent flavorants? Here, we report simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of 3 possible flavorants: monosodium glutamate, MSG (gustatory: "umami" quality), citral (olfactory: citrus quality), and a mixture of MSG and citral (gustatory-olfactory). Each stimulus (and, on a fraction of trials, water) was presented orally through a computer-operated, automated flow system, and subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 non-water stimuli. Unlike responses previously found to the congruent mixture of sucrose and citral, responses here to the incongruent mixture of MSG and citral took significantly longer (RTs were greater) and showed lower detection rates than the values predicted by probability summation. This outcome suggests that the integration of gustatory and olfactory flavor signals is less extensive when the component flavors are perceptually incongruent rather than congruent, perhaps because incongruent flavors are less familiar. PMID:26304508

  1. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability. PMID:26941699

  2. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability. PMID:26941699

  3. Stimulus-responsive metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S; Desai, Aamod V; Ghosh, Sujit K

    2014-09-01

    Materials that can recognize the changes in their local environment and respond by altering their inherent physical and/or chemical properties are strong candidates for future "smart" technology materials. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years owing to their designable architecture, host-guest chemistry, and softness as porous materials. Despite this fact, studies on the tuning of the properties of MOFs by external stimuli are still rare. This review highlights the recent developments in the field of stimulus-responsive MOFs or so-called smart MOFs. In particular, the various stimuli used and the utility of stimulus-responsive smart MOFs for various applications such as gas storage and separation, sensing, clean energy, catalysis, molecular motors, and biomedical applications are highlighted by using representative examples. Future directions in the developments of stimulus-responsive smart MOFs and their applications are proposed from a personal perspective. PMID:24844581

  4. The mechanisms associated with the development of hypertension after exposure to lead, mercury species or their mixtures differs with the metal and the mixture ratio.

    PubMed

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Beside life-style risk factors, exposure to lead and mercury species are increasingly discussed as potential risk factors. Although there are a few previous studies, the underlying mechanism by which exposure to lead and mercury disturb blood pressure regulation is not currently understood. Potential mechanisms are oxidative stress production, kidney damage and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), all of which can interact to cause dysregulation of blood pressure. Male rats (Wistar) were exposed to lead, inorganic mercury, methylmercury or two mixtures of all three metals for four weeks through the drinking water. The two mixture ratios were based on ratios of known reference values or environmental exposure from the literature. To investigate the potential mechanism of actions, blood pressure was measured after four weeks and compared to plasma nitrotyrosine or reduced/oxidized glutathione levels in liver as markers for oxidative stress. Plasma renin and angiotensin II levels were used as markers for RAS activation. Finally, kidney function and injury were assessed via urinary and plasma creatinine levels, creatinine clearance and urinary kidney-injury molecule (KIM-1). While exposure to lead by itself increased oxidative stress and kidney damage along with blood pressure, inorganic mercury did not affect blood pressure or any end-point examined. Conversely, methylmercury instead increased RAS activation along with blood pressure. Surprisingly, when administered as mixtures, lead no longer increased oxidative stress or altered kidney function. Moreover, the mixture based on an environmental ratio no longer had an effect on blood pressure, while the reference value ratio still retained an increase in blood pressure. Based on our results, the prominent mechanism of action associated with the development of hypertension seems to be oxidative

  5. In vivo responses of single olfactory receptor neurons of channel catfish to binary mixtures of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kang, J; Caprio, J

    1997-01-01

    For the first time in any vertebrate, in vivo responses of single olfactory receptor neurons to odorant mixtures were studied quantitatively. Extracellular electrophysiological response of 54 single olfactory receptor neurons from 23 channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to binary mixtures of amino acids and to their components were recorded simultaneously with the electroolfactogram (EOG). For 57% (73 of 128) of the tests, no significant change (N) from spontaneous activity occurred. Responses to the remaining 55 tests of binary mixtures were excitatory (E; 13%) or suppressive (S; 30%). No response type was associated with any specific mixture across the neurons sampled. Eighty-six percent of the responses of catfish olfactory receptor neurons to binary mixtures were classified similar to at least one of the component responses, a percentage comparable (i.e., 89%) with that observed for single olfactory bulb neurons in the same species to equivalent binary mixtures. The responses of single olfactory receptor neurons to component-similar binary mixtures (i.e., component responses were both E, both S, and both N, respectively) were generally (80% of 59 tests) classified similar to the responses to the components. For E+N and S+N binary mixtures, the N component often (66% of 58 tests) reduced or concealed (i.e., "masked") the excitatory and suppressive responses, respectively. For the majority (6 of 11 tests) of E + S binary mixtures, null activity resulted. Responses to the remaining five tests were either excitatory (n = 3) or suppressive (n = 2). PMID:9120550

  6. Enhanced heavy metal immobilization in soil by grinding with addition of nanometallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Kakeda, Mitsunori

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the use of a nanometallic Ca and CaO dispersion mixture for the immobilization of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr and Pb) in contaminated soil. Simple grinding achieved 85-90% heavy metal immobilization, but it can be enhanced further to 98-100% by addition of a nanometallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture produced by grinding. Observations using SEM-EDS elemental maps and semi-quantitative analysis showed that the amounts of As, Cd, Cr, and Pb measurable on the soil particle surface decrease after nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment. The leachable heavy metal concentrations were reduced after nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment to concentrations lower than the Japan soil elution standard regulatory threshold: <0.01 mg L(-1) for As, Cd, and Pb; and 0.05 mg L(-1) for Cr. Effects of soil moisture and pH on heavy metal immobilization were not strongly influenced. The most probable mechanisms for the enhancement of heavy metal immobilization capacity with nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment might be due to adsorption and entrapment of heavy metals into newly formed aggregates, thereby prompting aggregation of soil particles and enclosure/binding with Ca/CaO-associated immobile salts. Results suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO mixture is suitable for use in immobilization of heavy-metal-contaminated soil under normal moisture conditions. PMID:22818089

  7. Pheromones as mixtures: geometric designs and response surface modeling for optimization of mating disruption of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone blends composed of one or more components are mixtures. Mixtures present a unique problem for experiment design when response (e.g., insect attraction to a blend) is a function of proportionality of the blend's components. In mixtures, the ingredients must total to a constant value. Prop...

  8. Hydrogen generation using silicon nanoparticles and their mixtures with alkali metal hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patki, Gauri Dilip

    mole of Si. We compare our silicon nanoparticles (˜10nm diameter) with commercial silicon nanopowder (<100nm diameter) and ball-milled silicon powder (325 mesh). The increase in rate upon decreasing the particle size to 10 nm was even greater than would be expected based upon the increase in surface area. While specific surface area increased by a factor of 6 in going from <100 nm to ˜10 nm particles, the hydrogen production rate increased by a factor of 150. However, in all cases, silicon requires a base (e.g. NaOH, KOH, hydrazine) to catalyze its reaction with water. Metal hydrides are also promising hydrogen storage materials. The optimum metal hydride would possess high hydrogen storage density at moderate temperature and pressure, release hydrogen safely and controllably, and be stable in air. Alkali metal hydrides have high hydrogen storage density, but exhibit high uncontrollable reactivity with water. In an attempt to control this explosive nature while maintaining high storage capacity, we mixed our silicon nanoparticles with the hydrides. This has dual benefits: (1) the hydride- water reaction produces the alkali hydroxide needed for base-catalyzed silicon oxidation, and (2) dilution with 10nm coating by, the silicon may temper the reactivity of the hydride, making the process more controllable. Initially, we analyzed hydrolysis of pure alkali metal hydrides and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Lithium hydride has particularly high hydrogen gravimetric density, along with faster reaction kinetics than sodium hydride or magnesium hydride. On analysis of hydrogen production we found higher hydrogen yield from the silicon nanoparticle—metal hydride mixture than from pure hydride hydrolysis. The silicon-hydride mixtures using our 10nm silicon nanoparticles produced high hydrogen yield, exceeding the theoretical yield. Some evidence of slowing of the hydride reaction rate upon addition of silicon nanoparticles was observed.

  9. PCBS: CANCER DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT AND APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cancer dose-response assessment is developed for PCBS, considering toxicity, disposition, and environmental processes to evaluate human cancer risk. ow-dose linear models are applied to animal cancer studies of commercial mixtures to develop a range of potency estimates, then i...

  10. Thermoregulatory response to an organophosphate and carbamate insecticide mixture: testing the assumption of dose-additivity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Herr, David W; Gennings, Chris; Graff, Jaimie E; McMurray, Matthew; Stork, LeAnna; Coffey, Todd; Hamm, Adam; Mack, Cina M

    2006-01-01

    Most toxicity data are based on studies using single compounds. This study assessed if there is an interaction between mixtures of the anticholinesterase insecticides chlorpyrifos (CHP) and carbaryl (CAR) using hypothermia and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition as toxicological endpoints. Core temperature (T(c)) was continuously monitored by radiotelemetry in adult Long-Evans rats administered CHP at doses ranging from 0 to 50mg/kg and CAR doses of 0-150 mg/kg. The temperature index (TI), an integration of the change in T(c) over a 12h period, was quantified. Effects of mixtures of CHP and CAR in 2:1 and 1:1 ratios on the TI were examined and the data analyzed using a statistical model designed to assess significant departures from additivity for chemical mixtures. CHP and CAR elicited a marked hypothermia and dose-related decrease in the TI. The TI response to a 2:1 ratio of CHP:CAR was significantly less than that predicted by additivity. The TI response to a 1:1 ratio of CHP and CAR was not significantly different from the predicted additivity. Plasma and brain ChE activity were measured 4h after dosing with CHP, CAR, and mixtures in separate groups of rats. There was a dose-additive interaction for the inhibition of brain ChE for the 2:1 ratio, but an antagonistic effect for the 1:1 ratio. The 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures had an antagonistic interaction on plasma ChE. Overall, the departures from additivity for the physiological (i.e., temperature) and biochemical (i.e., ChE inhibition) endpoints for the 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures studies did not coincide as expected. An interaction between CHP and CAR appears to depend on the ratio of compounds in the mixture as well as the biological endpoint. PMID:16182429

  11. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  12. ACUTE TOXICITY OF FIVE SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED METALS, INDIVIDUALLY AND IN A MIXTURE, TO THE ESTUARINE MEIOBENTHIC HARPACTICOID COPEPOD AMPHIASCUS TENUIREMIS. (R825279)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The acute effects of many individual, seawater-solubilized metals on meiobenthic copepods and nematodes are well known. In sediments, however, metals most often occur as mixtures, and it is not known whether such mixtures exhibit simple additive toxicity to me...

  13. Photochemical products in urban mixtures enhance inflammatory responses in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Kenneth G; Jeffries, Harvey E; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M; Doyle, Melanie; Voicu, Iuliana; Jaspers, Ilona

    2004-01-01

    Complex urban air mixtures that realistically mimic urban smog can be generated for investigating adverse health effects. "Smog chambers" have been used for over 30 yr to conduct experiments for developing and testing photochemical models that predict ambient ozone (O(3)) concentrations and aerosol chemistry. These chambers were used to generate photochemical and nonirradiated systems, which were interfaced with an in vitro exposure system to compare the inflammatory effects of complex air pollutant mixtures with and without sunlight-driven chemistry. These are preliminary experiments in a new project to study the health effects of particulate matter and associated gaseous copollutants. Briefly, two matched outdoor chambers capable of using real sunlight were utilized to generate two test atmospheres for simultaneous exposures to cultured lung cells. One chamber was used to produce a photochemically active system, which ran from sunrise to sunset, producing O(3) and the associated secondary products. A few hours after sunset, NO was added to titrate and remove completely the O(3), forming NO(2). In the second chamber, an equal amount of NO(2) and the same amount of the 55-component hydrocarbon mixture used to setup the photochemical system in the first side were injected. A549 cells, from an alveolar type II-like cell line grown on membranous support, were exposed to the photochemical mixture or the "original" NO(2)/hydrocarbon mixture for 5 h and analyzed for inflammatory response (IL-8 mRNA levels) 4 h postexposure. In addition, a variation of this experiment was conducted to compare the photochemical system producing O(3) and NO(2), with a simple mixture of only the O(3) and NO(2). Our data suggest that the photochemically altered mixtures that produced secondary products induced about two- to threefold more IL-8 mRNA than the mixture of NO(2) and hydrocarbons or O(3). These results indicate that secondary products generated through the photochemical reactions

  14. Tracking traces of transition metals present in concrete mixtures by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry studies.

    PubMed

    Bassioni, Ghada; Pillay, Alvin E; El Kadi, Mirella; Fegali, Fadi; Fok, Sai Cheong; Stephen, Sasi

    2010-01-01

    Transition metals can have a significant impact in research related to the dosage optimization of superplasticizers. It is known that the presence of transition metals can influence such doses, and the application of a contemporary instrumental method to obtain the profiles of subsisting transition elements in concrete mixtures would be useful. In this work, inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is investigated as a possible tool to track traces of transition metals in concrete mixtures. Depth profiling using ICP-MS on proofed and unproofed concrete shows the presence of Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn at trace intensities in the bulk of the samples under investigation. The study demonstrates that the transition metals present in the concrete sample are largely a part of the cement composition and, to a minor degree, a result of exposure to the seawater after curing. The coated concrete samples have a metal distribution pattern similar to the uncoated samples, but slight differences in intensity bear testimony to the very low levels that originate from the exposure to seawater. While X-ray diffraction fails to detect these traces of metals, ICP-MS is successful in detecting ultra-trace intensities to parts per trillion. This method is not only a useful application to track traces of transition metals in concrete, but also provides information to estimate the pore size distribution in a given sample by very simple means. PMID:21173466

  15. Fitting a Mixture Item Response Theory Model to Personality Questionnaire Data: Characterizing Latent Classes and Investigating Possibilities for Improving Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maij-de Meij, Annette M.; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Mixture item response theory (IRT) models aid the interpretation of response behavior on personality tests and may provide possibilities for improving prediction. Heterogeneity in the population is modeled by identifying homogeneous subgroups that conform to different measurement models. In this study, mixture IRT models were applied to the…

  16. Exchangeable Ions Are Responsible for the In Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Natural Clay Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Caitlin C.; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2013-01-01

    We have identified a natural clay mixture that exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. We collected four samples from the same source and demonstrated through antibacterial susceptibility testing that these clay mixtures have markedly different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we used X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to characterize the mineralogical and chemical features of the four clay mixture samples. XRD analyses of the clay mixtures revealed minor mineralogical differences between the four samples. However, ICP analyses demonstrated that the concentrations of many elements, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn, in particular, vary greatly across the four clay mixture leachates. Supplementation of a non-antibacterial leachate containing lower concentrations of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn to final ion concentrations and a pH equivalent to that of the antibacterial leachate generated antibacterial activity against E. coli and MRSA, confirming the role of these ions in the antibacterial clay mixture leachates. Speciation modeling revealed increased concentrations of soluble Cu2+ and Fe2+ in the antibacterial leachates, compared to the non-antibacterial leachates, suggesting these ionic species specifically are modulating the antibacterial activity of the leachates. Finally, linear regression analyses comparing the log10 reduction in bacterial viability to the concentration of individual ion species revealed positive correlations with Zn2+ and Cu2+ and antibacterial activity, a negative correlation with Fe3+, and no correlation with pH. Together, these analyses further indicate that the ion concentration of specific species (Fe2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+) are responsible for antibacterial activity and that killing activity is not solely attributed to pH. PMID:23691149

  17. Expanding metal mixture toxicity models to natural stream and lake invertebrate communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Keller, William (Bill)

    2015-01-01

    A modeling approach that was used to predict the toxicity of dissolved single and multiple metals to trout is extended to stream benthic macroinvertebrates, freshwater zooplankton, and Daphnia magna. The approach predicts the accumulation of toxicants (H, Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in organisms using 3 equilibrium accumulation models that define interactions between dissolved cations and biological receptors (biotic ligands). These models differ in the structure of the receptors and include a 2-site biotic ligand model, a bidentate biotic ligand or 2-pKa model, and a humic acid model. The predicted accumulation of toxicants is weighted using toxicant-specific coefficients and incorporated into a toxicity function called Tox, which is then related to observed mortality or invertebrate community richness using a logistic equation. All accumulation models provide reasonable fits to metal concentrations in tissue samples of stream invertebrates. Despite the good fits, distinct differences in the magnitude of toxicant accumulation and biotic ligand speciation exist among the models for a given solution composition. However, predicted biological responses are similar among the models because there are interdependencies among model parameters in the accumulation–Tox models. To illustrate potential applications of the approaches, the 3 accumulation–Tox models for natural stream invertebrates are used in Monte Carlo simulations to predict the probability of adverse impacts in catchments of differing geology in central Colorado (USA); to link geology, water chemistry, and biological response; and to demonstrate how this approach can be used to screen for potential risks associated with resource development.

  18. Faster Response for Memory-Metal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Cooling accelerated by attaching Peltier junction. Electric current carries heat to or from junction between two dissimilar metals, direction of heat flow depending on direction of current and particular metals used. Direction of current is opposite to that of same two metals operating as thermocouple.

  19. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-07-10

    This report presents completed sealed tube stability test results for the following eight refrigerant/lubricant mixtures: R-22/mineral oil; R-124/alkylbenzene; R-134a/pentaerythritol (PE) ester (mixed acid); R- 134a/PE (branched acid); R-134a/ PE (100 cSt viscosity); R- 142b/alkylbenzene; R-143a/ PE (branched acid); R-152a/alkylbenzene. Partial results are shown for an additional eight refrigerant-lubricant mixtures. Though work is in progress, no data are available at this point in time for the five remaining test mixtures. Reported are: visual observations on aged sealed tubes, gas chromatographic analyses on the vapor phase contents of the tubes, chloride ion contents of HCFC containing mixtures or fluoride ion contents of HFC mixtures, and total acid number values and infrared analysis results for mixtures containing ester lubricants.

  20. Electro-olfactogram and multiunit olfactory receptor responses to complex mixtures of amino acids in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Kang, J S; Caprio, J

    1991-10-01

    In vivo electrophysiological recordings from populations of olfactory receptor neurons in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, clearly showed that both electro-olfactogram and integrated neural responses of olfactory receptor cells to complex mixtures consisting of up to 10 different amino acids were predictable with knowledge of (a) the responses to the individual components in the mixture and (b) the relative independence of the respective receptor sites for the component stimuli. All amino acid stimuli used to form the various mixtures were initially adjusted in concentration to provide approximately equal response magnitudes. Olfactory receptor responses to both multimixtures and binary mixtures were recorded. Multimixtures were formed by mixing equal aliquots of 3-10 different amino acids. Binary mixtures were formed by mixing equal aliquots of two equally stimulatory solutions. Solution 1 contained either one to nine different neutral amino acids with long side-chains (LCNs) or one to five different neutral amino acids with short side-chains (SCNs). Solution 2, comprising the binary mixture, consisted of only a single stimulus, either a LCN, SCN, basic, or acidic amino acid. The increasing magnitude of the olfactory receptor responses to mixtures consisting of an increasing number of neutral amino acids indicated that multiple receptor site types with highly overlapping specificities exist to these compounds. For both binary mixtures and multimixtures composed of neutral and basic or neutral and acidic amino acids, the receptor responses were significantly enhanced compared with those mixtures consisting of an equal number of only neutral amino acids. These results demonstrate that receptor sites for the basic and acidic amino acids, respectively, are highly independent of those for the neutral amino acids, and suggest that a mechanism for synergism is the simultaneous activation of relatively independent receptor sites by the components in the mixture

  1. Heavy metals retention capacity of a non-conventional sorbent developed from a mixture of industrial and agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Agouborde, Lina; Navia, Rodrigo

    2009-08-15

    Zinc and copper removal from aqueous solutions using brine sediments (industrial residue), sawdust (agricultural residue) and the mixture of both materials has been researched through batch and column tests. Brine sediments were found to be mainly constituted by halite and calcite, while its main cations exchangeable were sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium. In sawdust the main exchangeable cations detected were calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. FT-IR spectra of sawdust and brine sediment-sawdust mixture showed that brine sediments produced important changes in carboxylic, alcoholic and phenolic groups present in the sawdust. The maximum zinc adsorption capacity was found to be 4.85, 2.58 and 5.59 mg/g using an adsorbent/solution ratio of 1/40, for brine sediments, sawdust and the mixture, respectively. For copper, the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 4.69, 2.31 and 4.33 mg/g, using adsorbent/solution ratios of 1/40, for brine sediments, sawdust and the mixture, respectively. Maximum copper adsorption capacity of the mixture, on the contrary to zinc adsorption, was lightly inferior to maximum adsorption capacity obtained in brine sediments. Adsorption isotherms data adjusted better to the Langmuir model. Additionally, columns reached the saturation point at 690 min for zinc and 360 min for copper. The main mechanism involved in the removal of both metals may be the ionic exchange between sodium and calcium ions present in brine sediments and H(+) present in functional groups of sawdust. The use of brine sediments, sawdust and their mixture, presents an interesting option both, for wastewater decontamination (as a possible non-conventional sorbent for the removal of heavy metals) and as a waste recycling option. PMID:19188023

  2. Ab initio interaction potentials and scattering lengths for ultracold mixtures of metastable helium and alkali-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedziera, Dariusz; Mentel, Łukasz; Żuchowski, Piotr S.; Knoop, Steven

    2015-06-01

    We have obtained accurate ab initio +4Σ quartet potentials for the diatomic metastable triplet helium+alkali-metal (Li, Na, K, Rb) systems, using all-electron restricted open-shell coupled cluster singles and doubles with noniterative triples corrections CCSD(T) calculations and accurate calculations of the long-range C6 coefficients. These potentials provide accurate ab initio quartet scattering lengths, which for these many-electron systems is possible, because of the small reduced masses and shallow potentials that result in a small amount of bound states. Our results are relevant for ultracold metastable triplet helium+alkali-metal mixture experiments.

  3. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals in Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae) in synthetic sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrahy, E.A.; Clements, W.H.

    1997-02-01

    This research investigated toxicity and bioaccumulation of a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in Chironomus tentans in synthetic sediment, and compared predicted to measured steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). In a toxicity test, C. tentans were exposed to various dilutions of a base concentration (1.0 X) of a mixture of the four metals (5 {micro}g/g Cd. 10 {micro}g/g Cu. 70 {micro}g/g Pb, and 300 {micro}g/g Zn) in synthetic sediment. Mortality ranged from 17 to 100%. To measure bioaccumulation of the metals, C. tentans were exposed to 0.35 X the base concentration for a period of up to 14 d in two uptake tests. Bioaccumulation of all four metals increased over the 14-d uptake phases. Concentrations of metals in chironomids were significantly correlated with exposure time in the uptake phases. Only concentrations of copper approached background levels after 7 d depuration. Uptake rate coefficients and elimination rate constants were determined for each metal. Bioaccumulation factors were highest for Cd and lowest for Pb. With the exception of Pb, steady-state BAFs were within a factor of about two of those calculated using the first-order kinetic model. The high BAFs calculated may indicate greater bioavailability in synthetic sediment. Studies comparing toxicity and bioaccumulation of natural and synthetic sediments are necessary before the use of synthetic sediments is widely adopted.

  4. Shallow water acoustic response and platform motion modeling via a hierarchical Gaussian mixture model.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    A hierarchical Gaussian mixture model is proposed to characterize shallow water acoustic response functions that are time-varying and sparse. The mixture model is based on the assumption that acoustic paths can be partitioned into two sets. The first is a relatively coherent set of arrivals that on average exhibit Doppler spreading about a mean Doppler and the remaining set is of multiple surface scattered paths that exhibit a spectrally flat Doppler. The hierarchy establishes constraints on the parameters of each of these Gaussian models such that coherent components of the response are both sparse and in the ensemble obey the Doppler spread profile. This is accomplished with a Bernoulli model that indicates the ensonification state of each element in the bi-frequency representation of the acoustic response function. Estimators of the time-varying acoustic response for the full duration of a broadband transmission are developed and employed to compensate for the shared time-varying dilation process among the coherent arrivals. The approach ameliorates response coherence degradation and can be employed to enhance coherent multi-path combining and is a useful alternative to time recursive estimation. The model is tested with acoustic communication recordings taken in shallow water at low signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:27106339

  5. A combined spectrophotometric-AAS method for the analysis of trace metal, EDTA, and metal-EDTA mixture solutions in adsorption modeling experiments.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, K; Hugül, M; Demirci-Cekiç, S; Reşat; Apak

    2000-10-01

    The adsorption of free- and bound-metal ions (metal complexes) as well as of ligands onto various hydrous oxide type sorbents have been extensively modelled using EDTA as the model ligand. This type of modelling uses metal ion-EDTA mixture solutions containing stoichiometrically equivalent or excessive amounts of either constituent. Consequently, for mixture solutions equilibrated with the sorbent, the aim was to develop a suitable method for determining either metal complex+free ligand (MY(2-)+H(2)Y(2-)) or metal complex+free metal (MY(2-)+M(2+)) in the aqueous filtrate, the metal M being lead or cadmium. The conventional method of analyzing such filtrates is exchanging different metal-EDTA complexes with Fe(NO(3))(3) followed by HPLC using UV detection. The developed method utilizes Vis- and AA-spectrometry widespread in common laboratories, eliminating the need for HPLC and UV techniques that require higher operational cost, expertise and contaminant-free media. The developed procedure is based on the following analyses for the possible constituents of equilibrated solution (with the sorbent). All EDTA (free or bound, as H(2)Y(2-) or MY(2-)) species are converted into FeY(-) by adding Fe(NO(3))(3), and heating at 80 degrees C for 1 h. All metal (free or bound, as M(2+) or MY(2-)) species are determined by AAS. All unbound (free) Fe(3+) species are determined by the thiocyanate spectrophotometric method at 480 nm. Then 'EDTA-bound iron (III)' is defined as added Fe minus colorimetrically (thiocyanate method) found Fe, and 'AAS-found metal' (lead or cadmium) corresponds to M(2+) and/or MY(2-), depending on the analyzed solution. If EDTA-bound Fe(III) is greater than AAS-found metal, then one has a (MY(2-)+H(2)Y(2-)) mixture where AAS-found metal is (MY(2-)), and free EDTA, i.e. (H(2)Y(2-)), is calculated from the difference. If EDTA-bound Fe(III) is smaller than AAS-found metal, then one has a (M(2+)+ MY(2-)) mixture where EDTA-bound Fe(III) is (MY(2-)), and the

  6. Response dynamics of bluff-body stabilized conical premixed turbulent flames with spatial mixture gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Cetegen, Baki M.

    2009-03-15

    Response of bluff-body stabilized conical turbulent premixed flames was experimentally studied for a range of excitation frequencies (10-400 Hz), mean flow velocities (5, 10 and 15 m/s) and three different spatial mixture distributions (uniform, inner and outer enrichment). Upstream excitation was provided by a loudspeaker producing velocity oscillation amplitudes of about 8% of the mean flow velocity. Flame response was detected by a photomultiplier observing the CH{sup *} emission from the flame. The studied turbulent flames exhibited transfer function characteristics of a low-pass filter with a cutoff Strouhal number between 0.08 and 0.12. The amplification factors at low frequencies ranged from 2 to 20 and generally increased for mean flow velocities from 5 to 15 m/s. The highest levels of amplification were found for the outer mixture enrichment followed in decreasing order by uniform and inner mixture gradient cases. The high levels of flame response for the outer enrichment case were attributed to the enhanced flame-vortex interaction in outer jet shear layer. At high excitation levels (u{sup '}/U{sub m}{approx}0.3) for U{sub m}=5 m/ s where non-linear flame response is expected, the flame exhibited a reduced amplitude response in the frequency range between 40 and 100 Hz for the uniform and outer equivalence ratio gradient cases and no discernible effect for the inner equivalence ratio gradient. In all cases, transfer function phase was found to vary linearly with excitation frequency. Finally, a relationship between the amplitude characteristics of the bluff-body wake transfer function and flame blowoff equivalence ratio was presented. (author)

  7. Gene expression responses in male fathead minnows exposed to binary mixtures of an estrogen and antiestrogen

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Kroll, Kevin J; Liu, Li; Orlando, Edward F; Watanabe, Karen H; Sepúlveda, María S; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Perkins, Edward J; Ankley, Gerald T; Denslow, Nancy D

    2009-01-01

    Background Aquatic organisms are continuously exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, many of which can interfere with their endocrine system, resulting in impaired reproduction, development or survival, among others. In order to analyze the effects and mechanisms of action of estrogen/anti-estrogen mixtures, we exposed male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) for 48 hours via the water to 2, 5, 10, and 50 ng 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)/L, 100 ng ZM 189,154/L (a potent antiestrogen known to block activity of estrogen receptors) or mixtures of 5 or 50 ng EE2/L with 100 ng ZM 189,154/L. We analyzed gene expression changes in the gonad, as well as hormone and vitellogenin plasma levels. Results Steroidogenesis was down-regulated by EE2 as reflected by the reduced plasma levels of testosterone in the exposed fish and down-regulation of genes in the steroidogenic pathway. Microarray analysis of testis of fathead minnows treated with 5 ng EE2/L or with the mixture of 5 ng EE2/L and 100 ng ZM 189,154/L indicated that some of the genes whose expression was changed by EE2 were blocked by ZM 189,154, while others were either not blocked or enhanced by the mixture, generating two distinct expression patterns. Gene ontology and pathway analysis programs were used to determine categories of genes for each expression pattern. Conclusion Our results suggest that response to estrogens occurs via multiple mechanisms, including canonical binding to soluble estrogen receptors, membrane estrogen receptors, and other mechanisms that are not blocked by pure antiestrogens. PMID:19594897

  8. Physiological and transcriptional responses of Nitrosomonas europaea to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ran; Wu, Junkang; Liu, Meiting; Chen, Lianghui; Zhu, Guangcan; Lu, Huijie

    2016-07-01

    The short-term combined effects of two most extensively used nanoparticles (NPs) TiO2 NPs (n-TiO2) and ZnO NPs (n-ZnO) versus their individual cytotoxicities on a model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, were investigated at both physiological and transcriptional levels. n-ZnO exerted more serious impairment effects on cell morphology, cell density, membrane integrity, and ammonia monooxygenase activity than n-TiO2. However, the co-existing n-TiO2 displayed a dose-dependent mitigation effect on n-ZnO cytotoxicity. Consistently, the n-TiO2 and n-ZnO mixture-impacted global transcriptional expression profile, obtained with the whole-genome microarray technique, was more comparable to the n-TiO2-impacted one than that impacted by n-ZnO. The expressions of numerous genes associated with heavy metal scavenging, DNA repair, and oxidative stress response were less up-regulated under the binary impacts of NP mixture than n-ZnO. Moreover, only n-ZnO alone stimulated the up-regulations of heavy metal resistance genes, which further implied the capacity of co-existing n-TiO2 to alleviate n-ZnO cytotoxicity. In addition, the damage of cell membrane structures and the suppression of cell membrane biogenesis-related gene expressions under the influence of either individual NPs or their combinations strongly suggested that the interruption of cell membranes and the associated metabolic activities would probably be one of NPs' critical cytotoxicity mechanisms. PMID:26996914

  9. Expanding metal mixture toxicity models to natural stream and lake invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Balistrieri, Laurie S; Mebane, Christopher A; Schmidt, Travis S; Keller, Wendel Bill

    2015-04-01

    A modeling approach that was used to predict the toxicity of dissolved single and multiple metals to trout is extended to stream benthic macroinvertebrates, freshwater zooplankton, and Daphnia magna. The approach predicts the accumulation of toxicants (H, Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in organisms using 3 equilibrium accumulation models that define interactions between dissolved cations and biological receptors (biotic ligands). These models differ in the structure of the receptors and include a 2-site biotic ligand model, a bidentate biotic ligand or 2-pKa model, and a humic acid model. The predicted accumulation of toxicants is weighted using toxicant-specific coefficients and incorporated into a toxicity function called Tox, which is then related to observed mortality or invertebrate community richness using a logistic equation. All accumulation models provide reasonable fits to metal concentrations in tissue samples of stream invertebrates. Despite the good fits, distinct differences in the magnitude of toxicant accumulation and biotic ligand speciation exist among the models for a given solution composition. However, predicted biological responses are similar among the models because there are interdependencies among model parameters in the accumulation-Tox models. To illustrate potential applications of the approaches, the 3 accumulation-Tox models for natural stream invertebrates are used in Monte Carlo simulations to predict the probability of adverse impacts in catchments of differing geology in central Colorado (USA); to link geology, water chemistry, and biological response; and to demonstrate how this approach can be used to screen for potential risks associated with resource development. PMID:25477294

  10. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY -PRODUCTS (DBP) W AS LESS THAN ADDITIVE.

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may under or over represent the actual biological res...

  11. Empirical evaluation of sufficient similarity in dose-response for environmental risk assessment of a mixture of 11 pyrethroids.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical mixtures in the environment are often the result of a dynamic process. When dose-response data are available on random samples throughout the process, equivalence testing can be used to determine whether the mixtures are sufficiently similar based on a pre-specified biol...

  12. Thermal Hazard Evaluation of Cumene Hydroperoxide-Metal Ion Mixture Using DSC, TAM III, and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    You, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) is widely used in chemical processes, mainly as an initiator for the polymerization of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. It is a typical organic peroxide and an explosive substance. It is susceptible to thermal decomposition and is readily affected by contamination; moreover, it has high thermal sensitivity. The reactor tank, transit storage vessel, and pipeline used for manufacturing and transporting this substance are made of metal. Metal containers used in chemical processes can be damaged through aging, wear, erosion, and corrosion; furthermore, the containers might release metal ions. In a metal pipeline, CHP may cause incompatibility reactions because of catalyzed exothermic reactions. This paper discusses and elucidates the potential thermal hazard of a mixture of CHP and an incompatible material's metal ions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal activity monitor III (TAM III) were employed to preliminarily explore and narrate the thermal hazard at the constant temperature environment. The substance was diluted and analyzed by using a gas chromatography spectrometer (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) to determine the effect of thermal cracking and metal ions of CHP. The thermokinetic parameter values obtained from the experiments are discussed; the results can be used for designing an inherently safer process. As a result, the paper finds that the most hazards are in the reaction of CHP with Fe(2+). When the metal release is exothermic in advance, the system temperature increases, even leading to uncontrollable levels, and the process may slip out of control. PMID:27136518

  13. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-08-01

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the Third Quarter of this project we present our data on trace metal partitioning obtained from combustion of MSS and Gas, MSS and Coal and Coal and Gas alone.

  14. Perturbation theory of structure in classical liquid mixtures: Application to metallic systems near phase separation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The partial structure factors of classical simple liquid mixtures near phase separation are dicussed. The theory is developed for particles interacting through pair potentials, and is thus appropriate both to insulating fluids, and also to metallic systems if these may be described by an effective ion-ion pair interaction. The motivation arose from consideration of metallic liquid mixtures, in which resistive anomalies have been observed near phase separation. A mean field theory correction appropriate to 3 pair potential for the effects of correlated motions in the reference fluid is studied. The work is cast in terms of functions which are closely related to the direct correlation functions of Ornstein and Zernike. The results are qualitatively in accord with physical expectations. Quantitative agreement with experiment seems to turn on the selection of the hard core reference potential in terms of the metallic effective pair potential. It is suggested that the present effective pair potentials are perhaps not properly used to calculate the metallic structure factors at long wavelength.

  15. Study of metal transfer in CO2 laser+GMAW-P hybrid welding using argon-helium mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wang; Hua, Xueming; Liao, Wei; Li, Fang; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    The metal transfer in CO2 Laser+GMAW-P hybrid welding by using argon-helium mixtures was investigated and the effect of the laser on the mental transfer is discussed. A 650 nm laser, in conjunction with the shadow graph technique, is used to observe the metal transfer process. In order to analyze the heat input to the droplet and the droplet internal current line distribution. An optical emission spectroscopy system was employed to estimate default parameter and optimized plasma temperature, electron number densities distribution. The results indicate that the CO2 plasma plume have a significant impact to the electrode melting, droplet formation, detachment, impingement onto the workpiece and weld morphology. Since the current distribution direction flow changes to the keyhole, to obtain a metal transfer mode of one droplet per pulse, the welding parameters should be adjusted to a higher pulse time (TP) and a lower voltage.

  16. Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium. PMID:22945625

  17. EXPRESSION OF RAINBOW TROUT P450 MRNA IN RESPONSE TO MIXTURES OF B[A]P, CADMIUM, AND ESTRADIOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A great deal of uncertainty exists regarding the response of biological indicators of exposure to mixtures of chemical stressors. Enzymatic transformation systems that are exposed to xenobiotic insult may interact unpredictably when more than one stressor is present. In particu...

  18. PROCEDURES FOR DERIVING EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING SEDIMENT BENCHMARKS (ESBS) FOR THE PROTECTION OF BENTHIC ORGANISMS: METALS MIXTURES (CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD, NICKEL, SILVER, AND ZINC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations of metal mixtures in sediment which are protective of the presence of benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it accounts for t...

  19. Metal-binding peptides: Their role in responses to metal stress

    SciTech Connect

    Rauser, W.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Excess metals are one stress that plants may encounter. The metals Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn are considered because of concern for their entry into the foodchain of animals and man. Studies of metal tolerant plants and cell cultures suggest three types of responses: exclusion of metal from protoplasts by binding to cell walls, differential membrane transport reducing metal exposure of enzymes, and intracellular chelation of metal in innocuous forms. One group of compounds involved in the latter response are metal-binding peptides designated phytochelatins. They are a family of small peptides composed of five kinds of amino acids, including 2 to 11 cysteines which provide thiols for selective binding of metal. Metals induce the synthesis of phytochelatins through unknown enzymes involving glutathione. In plant cell cultures the peptides bind about 90% of the intracellular Cd. In roots of young plants up to half of the metal is bound by phytochelatins. Intact plants probably use a combination of responses to deal with excess metals, phytochelatins may dominate in certain cases.

  20. Integrated photo-responsive metal oxide semiconductor circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban D. (Inventor); Dargo, David R. (Inventor); Lyons, John C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An infrared photoresponsive element (RD) is monolithically integrated into a source follower circuit of a metal oxide semiconductor device by depositing a layer of a lead chalcogenide as a photoresistive element forming an ohmic bridge between two metallization strips serving as electrodes of the circuit. Voltage from the circuit varies in response to illumination of the layer by infrared radiation.

  1. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-01-31

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.

  2. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-05-04

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end we shall use an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined.

  3. Shear and dielectric responses of propylene carbonate, tripropylene glycol, and a mixture of two secondary amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainaru, Catalin; Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Böhmer, Roland; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2012-08-01

    Propylene carbonate and a mixture of two secondary amides, N-methylformamide and N-ethylacetamide, are investigated by means of broadband dielectric and mechanical shear spectroscopy. The similarities between the rheological and the dielectric responses of these liquids and of the previously investigated tripropylene glycol are discussed within a simple approach that employs an electrical circuit for describing the frequency-dependent behavior of viscous materials. The circuit is equivalent to the Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model, but allows for a negative capacitive element. The circuit can be used to calculate the dielectric from the mechanical response and vice versa. Using a single parameter for a given system, good agreement between model calculations and experimental data is achieved for the entire relaxation spectra, including secondary relaxations and the Debye-like dielectric peak in the secondary amides. In addition, the predictions of the shoving model are confirmed for the investigated liquids.

  4. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-02-05

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the Fifth Quarter of this project we focus on determining whether certain trace metals are associated with certain major species, such as calcium and iron. To this end we present data showing correlations between As, Se,and Sb and major species, such as Ca and Fe. Conversely, lack of correlation between trace metals and elements, such as aluminum can also be used to infer lack of chemical association.

  5. Toxicity Induced by a Metal Mixture (Cd, Pb and Zn) in the Yeast Pichia kudriavzevii: The Role of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Vanessa A; Silva, Cristina F; Soares, Eduardo V

    2016-05-01

    The present work aims to contribute for the elucidation of the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity associated with the exposure of Pichia kudriavzevii to multi-metals (Cd, Pb and Zn). Cells of the non-conventional yeast P. kudriavzevii exposed for 6 h to the action of multi-metals accumulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), evaluated through the oxidation of the probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. A progressive loss of membrane integrity (monitored using propidium iodide) was observed in multi-metal-treated cells. The triggering of intracellular ROS accumulation preceded the loss of membrane integrity. These results suggest that the disruption of membrane integrity can be attributed to the oxidative stress. The exposure of yeast cells to single metal showed that, under the concentrations tested, Pb was the metal responsible for the induction of the oxidative stress. Yeast cells coexposed to an antioxidant (ascorbic acid) and multi-metals did not accumulate intracellular ROS, but loss proliferation capacity. Together, the data obtained indicated that intracellular ROS accumulation contributed to metal toxicity, namely for the disruption of membrane integrity of the yeast P. kudriavzevii. It was proposed that Pb toxicity (the metal responsible for the toxic symptoms under the conditions tested) result from the combination of an ionic mechanism and the intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:26781618

  6. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-10-09

    This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.

  7. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-10-09

    This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.

  8. Molecular dynamics investigation of separation of hydrogen sulfide from acidic gas mixtures inside metal-doped graphite micropores.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Hsing

    2015-09-21

    The separation of poisonous compounds from various process fluids has long been highly intractable, motivating the present study on the dynamic separation of H2S in acidic-gas-mixture-filled micropores. The molecular dynamics approach, coupled with the isothermal-isochoric ensemble, was used to model the molecular interactions and adsorption of H2S/CO2/CO/H2O mixtures inside metal-doped graphite slits. Due to the difference in the adsorption characteristics between the two distinct adsorbent materials, the metal dopant in the graphitic micropores leads to competitive adsorption, i.e. the Au and graphite walls compete to capture free adsorbates. The effects of competitive adsorption, coupled with changes in the gas temperature, concentration, constituent ratio and slit width on the constituent separation of mixtures were systematically studied. The molecule-wall binding energies calculated in this work (those of H2S, H2O and CO on Au walls and those of H2O, CO and CO2 on graphite walls) show good agreement with those obtained using density functional theory (DFT) and experimental results. The z-directional self-diffusivities (Dz) for adsorbates inside the slit ranged from 10(-9) to 10(-7) m(2) s(-1) as the temperature was increased from 10 to 500 K. The values are comparable with those for a typical microporous fluid (10(-8)-10(-9) m(2) s(-1) in a condensed phase and 10(-6)-10(-7) m(2) s(-1) in the gaseous state). The formation of H-bonding networks and hydrates of H2S is disadvantageous for the separation of mixtures. The results indicate that H2S can be efficiently separated from acidic gas mixtures onto the Au(111) surface by (i) reducing the mole fraction of H2S and H2O in the mixtures, (ii) raising the gas temperature to the high temperature limit (≥400 K), and (iii) lowering the slit width to below the threshold dimension (≤23.26 Å). PMID:26256825

  9. Calcium fluxes in juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd, Cu or mixtures of these metals

    SciTech Connect

    Pelgrom, S.M.G.J.; Lock, R.A.C.; Balm, P.H.M.; Bonga, S.E.W.

    1997-04-01

    In juvenile tilapia the effects of waterborne Cu, Cd, and combinations of these metals on whole-body Ca fluxes were studied, using {sup 45}Ca as tracer. The maintenance of Ca homeostasis in fish is crucial throughout life but is especially important in young fish; Ca is also critical for growth. Single metal exposure had no effect on Ca fluxes after 6 d of exposure. In fish coexposed to 200 {micro}g Cu L{sup {minus}1} + 70 {micro}g Cd L{sup {minus}1} however, Ca influx was significantly decreased, whereas Ca efflux was not affected. As a result, the net flux was decreased. Because the effect on Ca fluxes observed in Cu/Cd-coexposed fish could not have been predicted from the effects of single metal exposures, this study underscores the impact of interactions between toxicants. Because natural freshwaters are commonly polluted by mixtures of metals, interactions between toxicants are important in risk assessment of heavy metals.

  10. Hydrotreating catalysts comprising a mixture of a sulfide of a promoter metal, amorphous sulfide of trivalent chromium and microcrystalline molybdenum or tungsten sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.J.; Ho, T.C.; Chianelli, R.R.; Steger, J.J.; Montagna, A.A.

    1989-04-25

    A process is described for preparing a catalyst comprising a mixture of (i) an amorphous sulfide of trivalent chromium, (ii) microcrystallites of a metal sulfide of a metal selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a sulfide of at least one promoter metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Mn, Zn, Cu, mixtures thereof and mixtures thereof with Fe, the process comprising heating a precursor at a temperature of at least about 200/sup 0/C., in the presence of sulfur and under oxygen free conditions for a time sufficient to form the catalyst. The precursor comprises a mixture of (i) a hydrated oxide of trivalent chromium and (ii) a thiometallate salt of the general formula (ML)(Mo/sub y/W/sub 1-y/S/sub 4/) wherein M is one or more of the divalent promoter metals selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Mn, Zn, Cu, mixtures thereof and mixtures thereof with Fe, wherein Y is any value ranging from 0 to 1, L is one or more neutral, nitrogen-containing ligands, at least one of which is a chelating polydentate ligand.

  11. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-01

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding (μPIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  12. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    SciTech Connect

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  13. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF A COMPLEX METAL MIXTURE TO THE SOFTSHELL CLAM 'MYA ARENARIA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adults of the softshell clam Mya arenaria were continuously subjected to a flowing raw seawater solution containing a mixture of salts of manganese, zinc, lead, nickel, copper, and cadmium. Final calculated concentrations, in micrograms per liter of the toxicant solution were 720...

  14. Investigation of paramagnetic response of metallic epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paramagnetic properties of epoxies which were impregnated with metal ions were examined as the primary task in this research. A major conclusion was that the quality control of the epoxies was insufficient to permit reliable evaluation. Subsequently, a new set of specimens is being prepared. As an additional task, a new method is investigated for estimating heats of combustion for saturated hydrocarbons. The results of that investigation have shown that the empirical approach is a promising method for on-line measurements.

  15. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas. PMID:11944694

  16. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  17. Controlling optical response of metallic nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Grigorenko, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    In this talk I am going to discuss the direct and inverse problems in nanoplasmonics in classical, and in particular quantum regimes of excitations. The inverse problem in nanoplasmonics is aimed to control the eigenspectrum, excitations,and other physical properties of nanosized quantum systems via controlling their size, shape, and structural composition. Using a combination of modern modeling techniques and optimization procedures, one can succeed to solve the inverse problem, namely, to find a nanostructure which has the desired functionality, or to find optimal control field in the presence of known nanostructured metallic surface.

  18. Screening Metal-Organic Frameworks by Analysis of Transient Breakthrough of Gas Mixtures in a Fixed Bed Adsorber

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Rajamani; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2011-07-07

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) offer considerable potential for separating a variety of mixtures that are important in applications such as CO₂ capture and H₂ purification. In view of the vast number of MOFs that have been synthesized, there is a need for a reliable procedure for comparing screening and ranking MOFs with regard to their anticipated performance in pressure swing adsorption (PSA) units. For this purpose, the most commonly used metrics are the adsorption selectivity and the working capacity. Here, we suggest an additional metric for comparing MOFs that is based on the analysis of the transient response of an adsorber to a step input of a gaseous mixture. For a chosen purity of the gaseous mixture exiting from the adsorber, a dimensionless breakthrough time τ{sub break} can be defined and determined; this metric determines the frequency of required regeneration and influences the productivity of a PSA unit. The values of τ{sub break} are dictated both by selectivity and by capacity metrics .By performing transient adsorber calculations for separation of CO₂/H₂, CO₂/CH₄, CH₄/H₂, and CO₂/CH₄/H₂ mixtures, we compare the values of τbreak to highlight some important advantages of MOFs over conventionally used adsorbents such as zeolite NaX. For a given separation duty, such comparisons provide a more realistic ranking of MOFs than afforded by either selectivity or capacity metrics alone. We conclude that breakthrough calculations can provide an essential tool for screening MOFs.

  19. Exposure to Mixtures of Metals and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: A Multidisciplinary Review Using an Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework.

    PubMed

    von Stackelberg, Katherine; Guzy, Elizabeth; Chu, Tian; Claus Henn, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Current risk assessment guidance calls for an individual chemical-by-chemical approach that fails to capture potential interactive effects of exposure to environmental mixtures and genetic variability. We conducted a review of the literature on relationships between prenatal and early life exposure to mixtures of lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) with neurodevelopmental outcomes. We then used an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework to integrate lines of evidence from multiple disciplines based on evolving guidance developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Toxicological evidence suggests a greater than additive effect of combined exposures to As-Pb-Cd and to Mn with any other metal, and several epidemiologic studies also suggest synergistic effects from binary combinations of Pb-As, Pb-Cd, and Pb-Mn. The exposure levels reported in these epidemiologic studies largely fall at the high-end (e.g., 95th percentile) of biomonitoring data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), suggesting a small but significant potential for high-end exposures. This review integrates multiple data sources using an AOP framework and provides an initial application of the OECD guidance in the context of potential neurodevelopmental toxicity of several metals, recognizing the evolving nature of regulatory interpretation and acceptance. PMID:26096925

  20. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE OF TSC2 MUTANT LONG EVANS (EKER) RATS TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer risk assessment methods for chemical mixtures in drinking water are not well defined. Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may not represent the actual biological response. A rodent model of hereditary ...

  1. Direct determination of metallic elements in crude oils and petroleum products by GF-AAS using a two solvent mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Platteau, O.

    1994-12-31

    The very low detection limits attainable for element determinations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) is of particular interest to directly analyze metallic elements in materials difficult to handle, for which sample preparation procedures are troublesome and time-consuming. Crude oils and their by-products known as {open_quote}black products{close_quote} are this type of materials. Both the wet and dry ashing procedures, currently applied to obtain an aqueous solution containing the elements of interest, are lengthy and have a high probability for sample contamination by the addition of reagents and sample handling. The simple dilution with an adequate solvent is by far a better alternative but, the results obtained by some authors show a significant dependence on the matrix. Also, in these determinations organometallic compounds soluble in the selected solvent must be used as standards, these materials are expensive, many are unstable and their similarity to a typical organic matrix is highly questionable. As an alternative to these procedures, a two solvent mixture have been tested which allows the use of aqueous inorganic solutions of standards to perform the elements determinations by GF-AAS. The mixture is composed of 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone (DEBK) and isopropanol (ISOPOH). It has been established that a mixture of DIBK/lSOPOH (1+4) can tolerate up to 30% of water by volume. Determinations of V and Ni by GF-AAS in samples of crude oil dissolved in the mentioned solvents mixture and those prepared by dry ashing as well as by X-ray fluorescence analysis, show good recoveries for the proposed method. The results for Ni were acceptable only after the addition of a solution of 1500 ppm Pd 10% (m/V) or dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DRSA) as matrix modifiers to the sample (1+4, V/V) in the graphite furnace.

  2. Zero inflation in ordinal data: Incorporating susceptibility to response through the use of a mixture model

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Mary E.; Anderson, Stewart J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The aim of the paper is to produce a methodology that will allow users of ordinal scale data to more accurately model the distribution of ordinal outcomes in which some subjects are susceptible to exhibiting the response and some are not (i.e., the dependent variable exhibits zero inflation). This situation occurs with ordinal scales in which there is an anchor that represents the absence of the symptom or activity, such as “none”, “never” or “normal”, and is particularly common when measuring abnormal behavior, symptoms, and side effects. Due to the unusually large number of zeros, traditional statistical tests of association can be non-informative. We propose a mixture model for ordinal data with a built-in probability of non-response that allows modeling of the range (e.g., severity) of the scale, while simultaneously modeling the presence/absence of the symptom. Simulations show that the model is well behaved and a likelihood ratio test can be used to choose between the zero-inflated and the traditional proportional odds model. The model, however, does have minor restrictions on the nature of the covariates that must be satisfied in order for the model to be identifiable. The method is particularly relevant for public health research such as large epidemiological surveys where more careful documentation of the reasons for response may be difficult. PMID:18351711

  3. Deformation Response and Life of Metallic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2005-01-01

    The project was initially funded for one year (for $100,764) to investigate the potential of particulate reinforced metals for aeropropulsion applications and to generate fatigue results that quantify the mean stress effect for a titanium alloy matrix material (TIMETAL 21S). The project was continued for a second year (for $85,000) to more closely investigate cyclic deformation, especially ratcheting, of the titanium alloy matrix at elevated temperature. Equipment was purchased (for $19,000) to make the experimental program feasible; this equipment included an extensometer calibrator and a multi-channel signal conditioning amplifier. The project was continued for a third year ($50,000) to conduct cyclic relaxation experiments aimed at validating the elastic-viscoelastic-viscoplastic model that NASA GRC had developed for the titanium alloy. Finally, a one-year no cost extension was granted to enable continued analysis of the experimental results and model comparisons.

  4. Characterization and Modeling Analysis for Metal-Semiconductor-Metal GaAs Diodes with Pd/SiO2 Mixture Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shih-Wei; Lai, Shih-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Characterization and modeling of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) GaAs diodes using to evaporate SiO2 and Pd simultaneously as a mixture electrode (called M-MSM diodes) compared with similar to evaporate Pd as the electrode (called Pd-MSM diodes) were reported. The barrier height (φb) and the Richardson constant (A*) were carried out for the thermionic-emission process to describe well the current transport for Pd-MSM diodes in the consideration of the carrier over the metal-semiconductor barrier. In addition, in the consideration of the carrier over both the metal-semiconductor barrier and the insulator-semiconductor barrier simultaneously, thus the thermionic-emission process can be used to describe well the current transport for M-MSM diodes. Furthermore, in the higher applied voltage, the carrier recombination will be taken into discussion. Besides, a composite-current (CC) model is developed to evidence the concepts. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones. PMID:23226352

  5. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-02-05

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Progress in the Sixth Quarter (January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002) was slow because of slagging problems in the combustor. These required the combustor to be rebuilt, a job that is not yet complete. A paper describing our results heretofore has been accepted by the Journal Environmental Science and Technology.

  6. Community responses of aquatic insects to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.; Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J.

    1987-07-01

    Community level toxicity tests were conducted in outdoor experimental streams to examine the responses of aquatic insects to heavy metals. Introduced substrates (plastic trays filled with small cobble) were colonized at several locations in a river impacted by heavy metals. After 30 d, 4delta trays from an upstream control site were transferred to 12 outdoor experimental streams. Each stream was randomly assigned to one of three treatments: control, low metals, and high metals. Two trays were removed from each stream after 4 and 10 d exposure. Community structure on these trays was compared to field data collected from control and impacted sites. Macroinvertebrate density and number of taxa were reduced in both treated streams and at impacted field sites. Owing to differences in relative sensitivity to metals, the percent composition of dominant taxa also varied among treatments.

  7. Latent energy storage with salt and metal mixtures for solar dynamic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. A.; Konstantinou, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines three design alternatives for the development of a solar dynamic heat receiver as applied to power systems operating in low earth orbit. These include a base line design used for comparison in ongoing NASA studies, a system incorporating a salt energy storage system with the salt dispersed within a metal mesh and a hybrid system incorporating both a molten salt and molten metal for energy storage. Based on a typical low earth orbit condition, designs are developed and compared to determine the effect of resultant conductivity, heat capacity and heat of fusion on system size, weight, temperature gradients, cycle turbine inlet temperature and material utilization.

  8. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  9. A homogeneous transition metal complex for clean hydrogen production from methanol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lugo, Rafael E; Trincado, Mónica; Vogt, Matthias; Tewes, Friederike; Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2013-04-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic process that mimics the enzymatic function of alcohol dehydrogenase is critical for using biomass alcohols for both the production of H2 as a chemical energy carrier and fine chemicals under waste-free conditions. Dehydrogenation of alcohol-water mixtures into their corresponding acids with molecular hydrogen as the sole by-product from the reaction can be catalysed by a ruthenium complex with a chelating bis(olefin) diazadiene ligand. This complex, [K(dme)2][Ru(H)(trop2dad)], stores up to two equivalents of hydrogen intramolecularly, and catalyses the production of H2 from alcohols in the presence of water and a base under homogeneous conditions. The conversion of a MeOH-H2O mixture proceeds selectively to CO2/H2 gas formation under neutral conditions, thereby allowing the use of the entire hydrogen content (12% by weight). Isolation and characterization of the ruthenium complexes from these reactions suggested a mechanistic scenario in which the trop2dad ligand behaves as a chemically 'non-innocent' co-operative ligand. PMID:23511424

  10. A homogeneous transition metal complex for clean hydrogen production from methanol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lugo, Rafael E.; Trincado, Mónica; Vogt, Matthias; Tewes, Friederike; Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2013-04-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic process that mimics the enzymatic function of alcohol dehydrogenase is critical for using biomass alcohols for both the production of H2 as a chemical energy carrier and fine chemicals under waste-free conditions. Dehydrogenation of alcohol-water mixtures into their corresponding acids with molecular hydrogen as the sole by-product from the reaction can be catalysed by a ruthenium complex with a chelating bis(olefin) diazadiene ligand. This complex, [K(dme)2][Ru(H)(trop2dad)], stores up to two equivalents of hydrogen intramolecularly, and catalyses the production of H2 from alcohols in the presence of water and a base under homogeneous conditions. The conversion of a MeOH-H2O mixture proceeds selectively to CO2/H2 gas formation under neutral conditions, thereby allowing the use of the entire hydrogen content (12% by weight). Isolation and characterization of the ruthenium complexes from these reactions suggested a mechanistic scenario in which the trop2dad ligand behaves as a chemically ‘non-innocent’ co-operative ligand.

  11. Determination of metallic iron in a mixture of lime, calcium sulphide and pyrrhotite.

    PubMed

    Sastri, V S

    A method is described for the determination of metallic iron in a complex matrix consisting of calcium oxide, calcium sulphide, carbon and pyrrhotite. The procedure consists of leaching the sample with 5% ammonium chloride solution (10% sucrose solution in some cases) followed by treatment with mercury(II) chloride solution and titration with dichromate solution. PMID:18962353

  12. Histogram-based classification with Gaussian mixture modeling for GBM tumor treatment response using ADC map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jing; Kim, Hyun J.; Pope, Whitney B.; Okada, Kazunori; Alger, Jeffery R.; Wang, Yang; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Brown, Matthew S.

    2009-02-01

    This study applied a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histograms to evaluate glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor treatment response using diffusion weighted (DW) MR images. ADC mapping, calculated from DW images, has been shown to reveal changes in the tumor's microenvironment preceding morphologic tumor changes. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of features that represent changes from pre- and post-treatment tumor ADC histograms to detect treatment response. The main contribution of this work is to model the ADC histogram as the composition of two components, fitted by GMM with expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. For both pre- and post-treatment scans taken 5-7 weeks apart, we obtained the tumor ADC histogram, calculated the two-component features, as well as the other standard histogram-based features, and applied supervised learning for classification. We evaluated our approach with data from 85 patients with GBM under chemotherapy, in which 33 responded and 52 did not respond based on tumor size reduction. We compared AdaBoost and random forests classification algorithms, using ten-fold cross validation, resulting in a best accuracy of 69.41%.

  13. Testing WHAM-FTOX with laboratory toxicity data for mixtures of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb).

    PubMed

    Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The Windermere humic aqueous model using the toxicity function (WHAM-FTOX ) describes cation toxicity to aquatic organisms in terms of 1) accumulation by the organism of metabolically active protons and metals at reversible binding sites, and 2) differing toxic potencies of the bound cations. Cation accumulation (νi , in mol g(-1) ) is estimated through calculations with the WHAM chemical speciation model by assuming that organism binding sites can be represented by those of humic acid. Toxicity coefficients (αi ) are combined with νi to obtain the variable FTOX (= Σ αi νi ) which, between lower and upper thresholds (FTOX,LT , FTOX,UT ), is linearly related to toxic effect. Values of αi , FTOX,LT , and FTOX,LT are obtained by fitting toxicity data. Reasonable fits (72% of variance in toxic effect explained overall) were obtained for 4 large metal mixture acute toxicity experiments involving daphnids (Cu, Zn, Cd), lettuce (Cu, Zn, Ag), and trout (Zn, Cd, Pb). Strong nonadditive effects, most apparent in results for tests involving Cd, could be explained approximately by purely chemical competition for metal accumulation. Tentative interpretation of parameter values obtained from these and other experimental data suggests the following order of bound cation toxicity: H < Al < (Cu Zn Pb UO2 ) < (Cd Ag). Another trend is a strong increase in Cd toxicity relative to that of Zn as organism complexity increases (from bacteria to fish). PMID:25318827

  14. Recovery of metals from a mixture of various spent batteries by a hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2016-10-01

    Spent batteries contain hazardous materials, including numerous metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, etc.) that are present at high concentrations. Therefore, proper treatment of these wastes is necessary to prevent their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Current recycling processes are mainly applied to treat each type of spent battery separately. In this laboratory study, a hydrometallurgical process has been developed to simultaneously and efficiently solubilize metals from spent batteries. Among the various chemical leaching agents tested, sulfuric acid was found to be the most efficient and cheapest reagent. A Box-Behnken design was used to identify the influence of several parameters (acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, retention time and number of leaching steps) on the removal of metals from spent batteries. According to the results, the solid/liquid ratio and acid concentration seemed to be the main parameters influencing the solubilization of zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium and cobalt from spent batteries. According to the results, the highest metal leaching removals were obtained under the optimal leaching conditions (pulp density = 180 g/L (w/v), [H2SO4] = 1 M, number of leaching step = 3 and leaching time = 30 min). Under such optimum conditions, the removal yields obtained were estimated to be 65% for Mn, 99.9% for Cd, 100% for Zn, 74% for Co and 68% for Ni. Further studies will be performed to improve the solubilization of Mn and to selectively recover the metals. PMID:27318877

  15. Electronic temperature effects on the optical response of metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, Sh.

    2006-09-01

    At the present work we study the optical properties of spherical nanometals by Lindhard's quantum theory for the electron gas and then there is a theoretical study aiming at understanding the role of the electronic temperature on the optical response of simple metal clusters as the nanoparticles. The electronic temperature dependence of the optical response of simple metal clusters is investigated by many different quantum mechanical theories. The longitudinal and transverse dielectric functions are the most important quantities of a quantum many- electron system which are calculated at the present work.

  16. Environmental concentrations of agricultural-use pesticide mixtures evoke primary and secondary stress responses in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Williams, Jessica L; Gledhill, Melissa; Sekela, Mark A; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2011-11-01

    The present study sought to determine whether environmentally realistic mixtures of agriculturally important pesticides are stressful to fish. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed for 96 h to concentrations of a pesticide mixture found in a waterway that is the focus of salmon restoration efforts (Nicomekl River, BC, Canada). This mixture contained organochlorine, organophosphorus, phenylurea, and triazine classes of pesticides. Fish given a realistic mixture exposure (total concentration, 1.01 µg/L) had increased plasma cortisol concentration, packed red cell volume, hematocrit (Hct), as well as decreased white cell volume, leukocrit (Lct). Similar changes in Hct and Lct were apparent after exposure to a lower concentration (0.186 µg/L). Interestingly, no changes in plasma cortisol concentration, Hct, or Lct were noted after exposure to a higher concentration (13.9 µg/L). This suggests that the exposure likely impaired the mechanisms enabling the stress response. Across all exposures, plasma glucose concentration was related to plasma cortisol concentration, not to pesticide mixture concentration. This suggests that a secondary stress response may be more related to variability in individual primary stress response than to differences in pesticide exposure concentrations. In summary, the present study indicates that salmon living in agrichemical-contaminated waterways may be experiencing stress, and this may pose a threat to their survival. PMID:21898556

  17. Solubility of metal oxides in molten equimolar KBr-NaBr mixture at 973 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherginets, V. L.; Rebrova, T. P.; Naumenko, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    Solubility products (p K s,MO, molality) are measured by potentiometric titration with a Pt(O2)|ZrO2(Y2O3) oxygen electrode in the molten KBr-NaBr equimolar mixture at 973 K for the following oxides: CaO (5.00 ± 0.3), MnO (7.85 ± 0.3), NiO (9.72 ± 0.04), PbO (5.20 ± 0.3), and SrO (3.81 ± 0.3). The correlation between p K s,MeO and the polarization of the corresponding cations by Goldschmidt is obtained.

  18. Adsorption of mixtures of nutrients and heavy metals in simulated urban stormwater by different filter materials.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Xie, Tao; Dastgheibi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several best management practices have been developed for the removal of different types of pollutants from stormwater runoff that lead to effective stormwater management. Filter materials that remove a wide range of contaminants have great potential for extensive use in filtration systems. In this study, four filter materials (calcite, zeolite, sand, and iron filings) were investigated for their adsorption and efficiency in the removal of nutrients and heavy metals when they exist individually versus when they co-exist. Laboratory batch experiments were conducted separately under individual and mixed contaminants conditions at different initial concentrations. Adsorption capacities varied under the individual and mixed contaminant conditions due to different removal mechanisms. Most filter materials showed lower removal efficiency under mixed contaminant conditions. In general, iron filings were found effective in the removal of nutrients and heavy metals simultaneously to the maximum levels. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to model the batch adsorption results and the former better fitted the experimental results. Overall, the results indicate that the filter materials used in this study have the potential to be effective media for the treatment of nutrients and heavy metals commonly found in urban stormwater runoff. PMID:24410683

  19. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Robinson, David B.; Luo, Weifang; Cai, Trevor Y.; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that canmore » determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. As a result, we expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.« less

  20. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, David B.; Luo, Weifang; Cai, Trevor Y.; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that can determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. As a result, we expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.

  1. A rechargeable lithium metal battery operating at intermediate temperatures using molten alkali bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide mixture as an electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watarai, Atsushi; Kubota, Keigo; Yamagata, Masaki; Goto, Takuya; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika; Ui, Koichi; Kumagai, Naoaki

    The physicochemical properties of molten alkali bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, MTFSI (M = Li, K, Cs), mixture (x LiTFSI = 0.20, x KTFSI = 0.10, x CsTFSI = 0.70) were studied to develop a new rechargeable lithium battery operating at intermediate temperature (100-180 °C). The viscosity and ionic conductivity of this melt at 150 °C are 87.2 cP and 14.2 mS cm -1, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry revealed that the electrochemical window at 150 °C is as wide as 5.0 V, and that the electrochemical deposition/dissolution of lithium metal occurs at the cathode limit. A Li/MTFSI (M = Li, K, Cs)/LiFePO 4 cell showed an excellent cycle performance at a constant current rate of C/10 at 150 °C; 95% of the initial discharge capacity was maintained after 50 cycles. Except for the initial few cycles, the coulombic efficiencies were approximately 100% for all the cycles, indicating the stabilities of the molten MTFSI mixture and all the electrode materials.

  2. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-01

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints. PMID:26023056

  3. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  4. Optical responses of a metal with sub-nm gaps.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Tae Yun; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    If the size of a metallic structure is reduced to be comparable to or even smaller than the typical quantum-mechanical lengths such as the Fermi wavelength or Thomas-Fermi wavelength, the electronic structure and optical responses are modulated by quantum effects. Here, we calculate the optical responses of a metal with sub-nm gaps using the eigenstates obtained from an effective-mass quantum theory. According to our simulation, the dielectric responses can be significantly modified by tuning the inter-gap distances. Remarkably, sub-nm gaps occupying a 0.3% volumetric fraction can elongate the penetration depth by an order of magnitude in the terahertz regime. We find that the detailed dependences of electron-photon interaction matrix elements on the involved electronic wavefunctions play an important role in the optical responses. The results draw our attention to these recently fabricated systems. PMID:26964884

  5. Optical responses of a metal with sub-nm gaps

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Tae Yun; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    If the size of a metallic structure is reduced to be comparable to or even smaller than the typical quantum-mechanical lengths such as the Fermi wavelength or Thomas-Fermi wavelength, the electronic structure and optical responses are modulated by quantum effects. Here, we calculate the optical responses of a metal with sub-nm gaps using the eigenstates obtained from an effective-mass quantum theory. According to our simulation, the dielectric responses can be significantly modified by tuning the inter-gap distances. Remarkably, sub-nm gaps occupying a 0.3% volumetric fraction can elongate the penetration depth by an order of magnitude in the terahertz regime. We find that the detailed dependences of electron-photon interaction matrix elements on the involved electronic wavefunctions play an important role in the optical responses. The results draw our attention to these recently fabricated systems. PMID:26964884

  6. Calculation of K{sub {infinity}} for homogeneous {sup 235}U metal mixtures: Will the real K{sub {infinity}} please stand up?

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Petrie, L.M.; Wright, R.Q.; Parks, C.V.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly analyzes a journal article about calculating k{sub {infinity}} for metals mixed with uranium 235, and compares the article results with other calculation methods. The article suggested that continuous energy cross sections gave more accurate results than groupwise cross sections. The mixtures described in the article were dry, fast systems with several unusual characteristics; however, the majority of multigroup libraries used for analysis were developed for well moderated thermal systems. The results of calculations performed using several different codes and cross sections for three uranium/metal mixtures are presented in this paper. 1 tab.

  7. Heavy metal stress and some mechanisms of plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  8. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  9. Electrochemical response of metal complexes in homogeneous solution under photoirradiation

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Arisa; Kondo, Mio; Okamura, Masaya; Yoshida, Masaki; Masaoka, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical detection of metal complexes in the photoexcited state is important for understanding photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes, which play a central role in photo-energy conversion systems. In general, however, the redox potentials of excited states have been indirectly estimated by a combination of spectroscopic properties and ground-state redox potentials. To establish a simple method for directly determining the redox potentials of the photoexcited states of metal complexes, electrochemical measurements under several conditions were performed. The electrochemical response was largely influenced not only by the generation of photoexcited molecules but also by the convection induced by photoirradiation, even when the global temperature of the sample solution was unchanged. The suppression of these unfavourable electrochemical responses was successfully achieved by adopting well-established electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, as an initial demonstration, the photoexcited state of a Ru-based metal complex was directly detected, and its redox potential was determined using a thin layer electrochemical method. PMID:24937471

  10. Perinatal and Childhood Exposure to Cadmium, Manganese, and Metal Mixtures and Effects on Cognition and Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Alison P.; Henn, Birgit Claus; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) neurotoxicity is well established. In recent years, a growing body of evidence suggests that environmental exposure to other metals including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and their mixtures also pose public health threats. In this paper we summarize the recent literature examining the relationship of prenatal and childhood environmental metal exposures with cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children. We conducted a literature search to identify epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship of Cd, Mn, and metal mixtures with children’s neurodevelopmental/cognitive and behavioral outcomes. We restricted the search to peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2009 and March 2015. We identified a total of 31 articles of which 16, 17, and 16 studies examined the effects of Cd, Mn, or metal mixtures, respectively. Based on our review, there is suggestive evidence that prenatal/childhood Cd exposure may be associated with poorer cognition, but additional research is clearly needed. We found little evidence of behavioral effects of early life Cd exposure, and no studies found a significant relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies of early life Mn exposure consistently reported negative impacts on both cognition and behavior. There is also growing evidence that co-exposure to multiple metals can result in increased neurotoxicity compared to single metal exposures, in particular during early life. Few studies have evaluated behavioral effects related to metal co-exposures. PMID:26231505

  11. Perinatal and Childhood Exposure to Cadmium, Manganese, and Metal Mixtures and Effects on Cognition and Behavior: A Review of Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Alison P; Claus Henn, Birgit; Wright, Robert O

    2015-09-01

    Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) neurotoxicity is well established. In recent years, a growing body of evidence suggests that environmental exposure to other metals including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) and their mixtures also poses public health threats. In this paper, we summarize the recent literature examining the relationship of prenatal and childhood environmental metal exposures with cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children. We conducted a literature search to identify epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship of Cd, Mn, and metal mixtures with children's neurodevelopmental/cognitive and behavioral outcomes. We restricted the search to peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2009 and March 2015. We identified a total of 31 articles of which 16, 17, and 16 studies examined the effects of Cd, Mn, or metal mixtures, respectively. Based on our review, there is suggestive evidence that prenatal/childhood Cd exposure may be associated with poorer cognition, but additional research is clearly needed. We found little evidence of behavioral effects of early life Cd exposure, and no studies found a significant relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies of early life Mn exposure consistently reported negative impacts on both cognition and behavior. There is also growing evidence that co-exposure to multiple metals can result in increased neurotoxicity compared to single-metal exposure, in particular during early life. Few studies have evaluated behavioral effects related to metal co-exposure. PMID:26231505

  12. Mixture Item Response Theory-MIMIC Model: Simultaneous Estimation of Differential Item Functioning for Manifest Groups and Latent Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilir, Mustafa Kuzey

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new psychometric model (mixture item response theory-MIMIC model) that simultaneously estimates differential item functioning (DIF) across manifest groups and latent classes. Current DIF detection methods investigate DIF from only one side, either across manifest groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, etc.), or across latent classes…

  13. ABOVE- AND BELOWGROUND RESPONSES OF C3-C4 SPECIES MIXTURES TO ELEVATED CO2 AND SOIL WATER AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the influences of CO2 [Control, ~370 umol-1; 200 umol mol-1 above ambient applied by free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)] and soil water (Wet, Dry) on above- and below-ground responses of C3 (cotton, Gossypium hirsutum) and C4 (sorghum bicolor) plants in monocultures and two density mixtures...

  14. Public health response to metallic mercury spills in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Monroe, C T; Pezzino, G; Knoche, L L; Henning, L; Belt, P

    1999-11-01

    Local and state public health officials are called on to respond to environmental public health hazards just as they historically have been called on to respond to communicable disease outbreaks. Recent experience with metallic mercury spills in Kansas suggests that neither the legal authority nor the scientific knowledgebase is as well developed for response to environmental hazards as for communicable disease threats. PMID:10662059

  15. Supercapacitors Based on Metal Electrodes Prepared from Nanoparticle Mixtures at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2010-01-01

    Films comprising Au and Ag nanoparticles are transformed into porous metal electrodes by desorption of weak organic ligands followed by wet chemical etching of silver. Thus prepared electrodes provide the basis for supercapacitors whose specific capacitances approach 70 F/g. Cyclic voltammetry measurement yield “rectangular” I-V curves even at high scan rates, indicating that the supercapacitors have low internal resistance. Owing to this property, the supercapacitors have a high power density ~12 kW/kg, comparable with that of the state-of-the-art carbon-based devices. The entire assembly protocol does not require high-temperature processing or the use of organic binders.

  16. Improvement in Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using a Mixture Item Response Theory Model.

    PubMed

    Maij-de Meij, Annette M; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk

    2010-11-30

    Usually, methods for detection of differential item functioning (DIF) compare the functioning of items across manifest groups. However, the manifest groups with respect to which the items function differentially may not necessarily coincide with the true source of the bias. It is expected that DIF detection under a model that includes a latent DIF variable is more sensitive to this source of bias. In a simulation study, it is shown that a mixture item response theory model, which includes a latent grouping variable, performs better in identifying DIF items than DIF detection methods using manifest variables only. The difference between manifest and latent DIF detection increases as the correlation between the manifest variable and the true source of the DIF becomes smaller. Different sample sizes, relative group sizes, and significance levels are studied. Finally, an empirical example demonstrates the detection of heterogeneity in a minority sample using a latent grouping variable. Manifest and latent DIF detection methods are applied to a Vocabulary test of the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB). PMID:26760725

  17. Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) liver to a brominated flame retardant mixture.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer M; Gubbins, Matt; Collins, Catherine; Matejusova, Iveta; Kerr, Rose; Chipman, James K; Kuiper, Raoul; Vethaak, A Dick; George, Stephen G

    2013-10-15

    Male European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were exposed to a technical mixture of brominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs, DE-71, Pentamix) that had been purified to remove contaminating dioxins. Controls were exposed to carrier solvent alone. Fish were exposed to decadally increasing concentrations of Pentamix via both sediment and spiked food. The GENIPOL P. flesus cDNA microarray, differentially expressed gene profiling (DEG) and quantitative PCR were employed to detect hepatic transcriptional differences between exposed fish and controls. Gene transcriptional changes were more sensitive to Pentamix exposure than biomarkers measured previously. Pentamix exposure induced transcripts coding for enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A, aldo-keto reductases) and elicited endocrine disruption (vitellogenin and thyroid hormone receptor alpha), with effects on CYP1A and VTG occurring at the highest exposure. Ontology analysis clearly showed dose-responsive changes indicative of oxidative stress, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to PBDEs in both sediment and food has a significant adverse effect on a broad range of crucial biochemical processes in the livers of this widely distributed estuarine fish species, the flounder. PMID:23948077

  18. Exposure of humans to a volatile organic mixture. 3. Inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Graham, D.E.; Devlin, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades that has been called the sick building syndrome. These symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. It is likely that the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in synthetic materials used in homes and office buildings contribute to these symptoms. However, there have been very few studies in which humans have been exposed to known amounts of VOCs under carefully controlled conditions. In the study, 14 subjects were exposed to a mixture of VOCs (25 mg/sq meter total hydrocarbon) that is representative of what is found in new homes and office buildings. Because irritations of the nose and throat are symptoms often associated with the upper respiratory tract and may result from an inflammatory response in the upper airways, the authors used nasal lavage to monitor neutrophil (PMN) influx into the nasal passages following exposure to VOCs. There were statistically significant increases in PMNs, both immediately after a 4-h exposure to VOCs and 18 h later.

  19. Finite Mixture Dynamic Regression Modeling of Panel Data with Implications for Dynamic Response Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the problem of estimating dynamic linear regression models when the data are generated from finite mixture probability density function where the mixture components are characterized by different dynamic regression model parameters. Specifically, conventional linear models assume that the data are generated by a single…

  20. Micro-scale simulation of dynamic compaction of oxide and metal powder mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamegai, M.; Walton, Otis R.; Taylor, A. G.

    1989-10-01

    Many features of the dynamic compaction of powders are potentially favorable for use in processing high T(sub c) oxide superconductors. Conventional sintering methods tend to produce unwanted impurities, voids, and oxygen-deficient grain boundaries and have, thus, failed to form bulk oxide superconductors with high critical current. One proposed approach for a dynamic process is to compress a mixture of high purity single crystallite particles and fine silver particles. Computer modeling of dynamic compaction has thus far been limited to bulk simulation of the process by continuum mechanics codes. Results of compaction experiments are not reliably predicted with such techniques because the micro-scale dynamics of powder compaction are only modeled by phenomenological approximation. A micro-scale simulation technique was developed and applied to computer models similar to those of molecular dynamics, which were originally designed to simulate the flow behavior of inelastic, frictional particles. In this method, the oxide grain is represented by a nearly elastic sphere while an individual silver grain is modeled by an aggregate of effective inelastic-frictional particles bound by a prescribed interparticle force. The first 2-D simulation results for a simple configuration (a single aggregate silver grain crushed between two nearly elastic ceramic spheres) are compared with the continuum calculations for the same configuration. This micro-scale simulation technique can be extended to study an assembly of dissimilar grains in 3-D space.

  1. Properties of silicon dioxide layers with embedded metal nanocrystals produced by oxidation of Si:Me mixture

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional layers of metal (Me) nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 were produced by pulsed laser deposition of uniformly mixed Si:Me film followed by its furnace oxidation and rapid thermal annealing. The kinetics of the film oxidation and the structural properties of the prepared samples were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The electrical properties of the selected SiO2:Me nanocomposite films were evaluated by measuring C-V and I-V characteristics on a metal-oxide-semiconductor stack. It is found that Me segregation induced by Si:Me mixture oxidation results in the formation of a high density of Me and silicide nanocrystals in thin film SiO2 matrix. Strong evidence of oxidation temperature as well as impurity type effect on the charge storage in crystalline Me-nanodot layer is demonstrated by the hysteresis behavior of the high-frequency C-V curves. PMID:21711632

  2. Application of solvent engineering to optimize lipase-catalyzed 1,3-diglyacylcerols by mixture response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Chang, Shu-Wei; Shieh, Chwen-Jen

    2003-11-01

    1,3-Diacylglycerol (DAG) has been introduced in Japan as a cooking oil under the trade name of Econa to reduce body fat accumulation. Solvent engineering was applied to determine the optimum solvent mixtures for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of 1,3-DAG by mixture response surface methodology. n-Hexane was required to maintain the lipase activity and the product selectivity could be adjusted by changing the hydrophobicity of reaction medium. The optimum yield (approximately 40%) of 1,3-DAG synthesis was obtained with n-hexane/octane (1:1, v/v). PMID:14677712

  3. Nonspecific bronchial responsiveness assessed in vitro following acute inhalation exposure to ozone and ozone/sulfuric acid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    El-Fawal, H.A.N.; McGovern, T.; Schlesinger, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Air pollution may play some role in the recent increase in severity and prevalence of asthma, but the specific chemical components with the ambient pollutant mix that may be responsible have not been delineated. Since ambient exposures involve mixtures, it is essential to examine airway responses to realistic pollutant mixtures. This study examined the ability of single (3-h) inhalation exposures to ozone and to mixtures of ozone plus sulfuric acid to induce nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness in healthy rabbits. Airway responsiveness was assessed using an in vitro assay involving administration of increasing doses of acetylcholine to bronchial rings obtained from animals exposed to 0.1-0.6 ppm ozone or to mixtures of ozone and 50-125 {mu}g/m{sup 3} sulfuric acid aerosol; results were compared to those reported previously for sulfuric acid alone. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in healthy animals and suggest that interaction with sulfuric acid may reduce the effectiveness of both pollutants. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Hydrotreating process employing catalysts comprising a supported mixture of a sulfide of a promoter metal, trivalent chromium and molybdenum or tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.C.; Young, A.R. II; Chianelli, R.R.; Jacobson, A.J.

    1986-05-27

    A process is described for improving the oxidation stability of a nitrogen and sulfur containing lube oil feed which comprises contacting the feed at an elevated temperature of at least about 150/sup 0/C and in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst comprising a support mixture of a sulfide of (i) trivalent chromium, (ii) Mo, W or mixture thereof and (iii) at least one promoter metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Mn, Cu, Zn and mixture thereof and mixture thereof with Fe. The catalyst has been prepared by compositing a pre-selected quantity of inorganic refractory oxide support material with (a) a hydrated oxide of trivalent chromium and (b) one or more catalyst precursor salts containing a thiometalate anion of Mo, W or mixture thereof and a cation containing at least one of the promoter metals wherein the promoter metal in the cation is divalent and is chelated by at least one neutral, nitrogen-containing polydenate ligand and heating the composite at elevated temperature, in the presence of sulfur or sulfur bearing compound and under oxygen-free conditions for a time sufficient to form the catalyst, the contacting of the feed with the catalyst occurring for a time sufficient to improve the oxidation stability of the oil.

  5. Progress in evaluating the corrosion of candidate HLW container metals in irradiated air-steam mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, as a site for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is concerned with the development and performance modeling of waste packages for the potential repository. Argonne National Laboratory has performed experimental studies in support of the waste package effort. This effort is currently guided by the Waste Package Plan, which calls for a systems engineering approach to waste package development. Part of this approach involves formulating an approved set of selection criteria to choose the materials to be used in fabricating the waste packages. Technical issues related to the performance of metals in the air/water vapor environment expected in the potential Yucca Mountain repository are discussed. Preliminary experiments, focused on the atmospheric corrosion of copper-based materials, are summarized. These experiments were performed over a broad range of conditions: temperatures between 90 and 150{degrees}C; relative humidities of 0, 15, 40, and 100%; and gamma dose rates between 0.01 and 0.3 Mrad/hr. In irradiated moist air, copper-based materials form cooper oxides and nitrate phases depending on the dose rate, humidity and temperature. The rates of general corrosion increase with temperature, humidity, and dose rate. Chemical intermediates formed by radiolysis of moist air have been clearly associated with observed corrosion. No significant corrosion was observed for Alloy 825. 13 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Vapors and Droplets Mixture Deposition of Metallic Coatings by Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Bolot, R.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.; Montavon, G.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the very low pressure plasma-spraying (VLPPS) process has been intensely developed and implemented to manufacture thin, dense and finely structured ceramic coatings for various applications, such as Y2O3 for diffusion barriers, among other examples. This paper aims at presenting developments carried out on metallic coatings. Aluminum was chosen as a demonstrative material due to its "moderate" vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 38.23 KJ cm-3) compared to the one of copper (i.e., 55.33 KJ cm-3), cobalt (i.e., 75.03 KJ cm-3), or even tantalum (i.e., 87.18 KJ cm-3). The objective of this work is primarily to better understand the behavior of a solid precursor injected into the plasma jet leading to the formation of vapors and to better control the factors affecting the coating structure. Nearly dense aluminum coatings were successfully deposited by VLPPS at 100 Pa with an intermediate power plasma torch (i.e., Sulzer Metco F4 type gun with maximum power of 45 kW). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to study and analyze the vapor behavior into the plasma jet. Simplified CFD modeling allowed better understanding of some of the thermo-physical mechanisms. The effect of powder-size distribution, substrate temperature and spray distance were studied. The phase composition and microstructural features of the coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. Moreover, Vickers microhardness measurements were implemented.

  7. Gene Expression Responses in Male Fathead Minnows Exposed to Binary Mixtures of an Estrogen and Antiestrogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic organisms are continuously exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, many of which can interfere with their endocrine system, resulting in impaired reproduction, development or survival, among others. In order to analyze the effects and mechanisms of action of estrogen...

  8. Biochemical responses and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus after exposure to treated municipal effluents.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Naouel; Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; Ben Khedher, Sana; Chouba, Lassaad; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the responses of biochemical biomarkers and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus exposed to the increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluents (TME) discharged into the Tunisian coastal area. Clams were exposed to 0%, 1%, 3% and 10% for 7 and 14 day and the following biochemical responses were measured: (1) catalase activity and lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) as oxidative stress biomarkers, (2) gluthathione S-transferase (GST) activity as a phase II conjugation enzyme; (3) cholinesterase activity (ChE) as biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins as a proteins highly induced by heavy metals. A significant uptake of Cu, Cd and Zn in digestive gland and serious biochemical alterations were observed. Thus, exposure of clams to croissant concentration of TME have the potential to increase the oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, CAT activity) and MT levels; and decrease ChE activity in both gills and digestive gland. Current experimental results suggest that CAT, GST, ChE activities and MT and TBARs levels in gills and digestive gland of clam R. decussatus are sensitive and suitable responses for assessing the effects of anthropogenic contaminants on the aquatic ecosystems, particularly effluent complex mixtures. PMID:22664226

  9. Understanding the biological responses of nanostructured metals and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Terry C.; Reiss, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    Metals produced by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) offer distinct advantages for medical applications such as orthopedic devices, in part because of their nanostructured surfaces. We examine the current theoretical foundations and state of knowledge for nanostructured biomaterials surface optimization within the contexts that apply to bulk nanostructured metals, differentiating how their microstructures impact osteogenesis, in particular, for Ultrafine Grained (UFG) titanium. Then we identify key gaps in the research to date, pointing out areas which merit additional focus within the scientific community. For example, we highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques (NGS) to reveal gene and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression changes induced by nanostructured metals. While our understanding of bio-nano interactions is in its infancy, nanostructured metals are already being marketed or developed for medical devices such as dental implants, spinal devices, and coronary stents. Our ability to characterize and optimize the biological response of cells to SPD metals will have synergistic effects on advances in materials, biological, and medical science.

  10. Sharp and asymmetric transmission response in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides containing Kerr nonlinear media.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Jian; Xu, Yi; Lan, Sheng; Dai, Qiao-Feng; Wu, Li-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Based on the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), we analytically and numerically investigate the transmission response in metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) plasmonic waveguides with a side coupled nanocavity (SCNC). By filling the nanocavity with a Kerr nonlinear medium, the position of the resonant dip in the transmission spectrum can be tuned by the incident light intensity. The oscillation of a Fabry-Perot nanocavity formed by incorporating a finite length of the same Kerr nonlinear media into the MDM waveguide acts as a background for the transmission response of the system and induces a sharp and asymmetric response line shape. As a result, the wavelength shift required for the plasmonic device to be switched from the maximum to the minimum transmission can be reduced by half in a structure less than 400 nm long. Such an effect may be potentially applied to constructing SPP-based all-optical switching with low power threshold at nanoscale. PMID:20173825

  11. Electro-olfactogram and multiunit olfactory receptor responses to binary and trinary mixtures of amino acids in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Caprio, J; Dudek, J; Robinson, J J

    1989-02-01

    In vivo electrophysiological recordings from populations of olfactory receptor neurons in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, clearly showed that responses to binary and trinary mixtures of amino acids were predictable with knowledge obtained from previous cross-adaptation studies of the relative independence of the respective binding sites of the component stimuli. All component stimuli, from which equal aliquots were drawn to form the mixtures, were adjusted in concentration to provide for approximately equal response magnitudes. The magnitude of the response to a mixture whose component amino acids showed significant cross-reactivity was equivalent to the response to any single component used to form that mixture. A mixture whose component amino acids showed minimal cross-adaptation produced a significantly larger relative response than a mixture whose components exhibited considerable cross-reactivity. This larger response approached the sum of the responses to the individual component amino acids tested at the resulting concentrations in the mixture, even though olfactory receptor dose-response functions for amino acids in this species are characterized by extreme sensory compression (i.e., successive concentration increments produce progressively smaller physiological responses). Thus, the present study indicates that the response to sensory stimulation of olfactory receptor sites is more enhanced by the activation of different receptor site types than by stimulus interaction at a single site type. PMID:2703818

  12. Stratification effects on laminar premixed-flame response to mixture perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Tiernan; Chen, Jyh-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    While complete mixing on the molecular level is desirable for ensuring that combustion processes are limited by chemical kinetics rather than mass transport, it is often the case that practical devices operate with some degree of unmixedness. As such, phenomena such as ignition or flame propagation will inevitably occur in regions that exhibit mixture or thermal non-uniformity. Here we present unsteady simulations of laminar premixed flames in the low-Mach limit subject to mixture perturbations of varying wavelength and amplitude, and qualify their effect on the flame behavior. When flames experience variations in mixture the transport processes in the flame zone vary with time and the flame behavior can depend on the burned gas history. Also, the possibility of extending flames beyond their flammability limits so as to maximize the overall mass of fuel burned is explored by exploiting these unsteady effects.

  13. Deterioration of yttria-stabilized zirconia by boron carbide alone or mixed with metallic or oxidized Fe, Cr, Zr mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bremaecker, A.; Ayrault, L.; Clément, B.

    2014-08-01

    In the frame of severe accident conditions (PHEBUS FPT3 test), different experiments were carried out on the interactions of 20% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and 20% ceria-stab zirconia with boron carbide or its oxidation products (B2O3): either tests under steam between 1230° and 1700 °C with B4C alone or B4C mixed with metals, either tests under Ar with boron oxide present in a mixture of iron and chromium oxides. In all cases an interaction was observed with formation of intergranular yttrium borate. At 1700 °C boron oxide is able to “pump out” the Y stabiliser from the YSZ grains but also some trace elements (Ca and Al) and to form a eutectic containing YBO3 and yttrium calcium oxy-borate (YCOB). At the same time a substantial swelling (“bloating”) of the zirconia happens, qualitatively similar to the foaming of irradiated fuel in contact with a Zr-melt. In all samples the lowering of the Y (or Ce)-content in the YSZ grains is so sharp that in the interaction layers zirconia is no longer stabilized. This is important when YSZ is envisaged as simulant of UO2 or as inert matrix for Am-transmutation.

  14. Dose-response relationship of an environmental mixture of pyrethroids following an acute oral administration in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose-response relationship of an environmental mixture of pyrethroids following an acute oral administration in the rat M.F. Hughes1, D.G. Ross1, J.M. Starr1, E.J. Scollon1,2, M.J. Wolansky1,3, K.M. Crofton1, M.J. DeVito1,4 1U.S. EPA, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2U.S. EPA,...

  15. Generating a Metal-responsive Transcriptional Regulator to Test What Confers Metal Sensing in Cells.

    PubMed

    Osman, Deenah; Piergentili, Cecilia; Chen, Junjun; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya; Foster, Andrew W; Lurie-Luke, Elena; Huggins, Thomas G; Robinson, Nigel J

    2015-08-01

    FrmR from Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (a CsoR/RcnR-like transcriptional de-repressor) is shown to repress the frmRA operator-promoter, and repression is alleviated by formaldehyde but not manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, or Zn(II) within cells. In contrast, repression by a mutant FrmRE64H (which gains an RcnR metal ligand) is alleviated by cobalt and Zn(II). Unexpectedly, FrmR was found to already bind Co(II), Zn(II), and Cu(I), and moreover metals, as well as formaldehyde, trigger an allosteric response that weakens DNA affinity. However, the sensory metal sites of the cells' endogenous metal sensors (RcnR, ZntR, Zur, and CueR) are all tighter than FrmR for their cognate metals. Furthermore, the endogenous metal sensors are shown to out-compete FrmR. The metal-sensing FrmRE64H mutant has tighter metal affinities than FrmR by approximately 1 order of magnitude. Gain of cobalt sensing by FrmRE64H remains enigmatic because the cobalt affinity of FrmRE64H is substantially weaker than that of the endogenous cobalt sensor. Cobalt sensing requires glutathione, which may assist cobalt access, conferring a kinetic advantage. For Zn(II), the metal affinity of FrmRE64H approaches the metal affinities of cognate Zn(II) sensors. Counter-intuitively, the allosteric coupling free energy for Zn(II) is smaller in metal-sensing FrmRE64H compared with nonsensing FrmR. By determining the copies of FrmR and FrmRE64H tetramers per cell, then estimating promoter occupancy as a function of intracellular Zn(II) concentration, we show how a modest tightening of Zn(II) affinity, plus weakened DNA affinity of the apoprotein, conspires to make the relative properties of FrmRE64H (compared with ZntR and Zur) sufficient to sense Zn(II) inside cells. PMID:26109070

  16. Generating a Metal-responsive Transcriptional Regulator to Test What Confers Metal Sensing in Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Deenah; Piergentili, Cecilia; Chen, Junjun; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya; Foster, Andrew W.; Lurie-Luke, Elena; Huggins, Thomas G.; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    FrmR from Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (a CsoR/RcnR-like transcriptional de-repressor) is shown to repress the frmRA operator-promoter, and repression is alleviated by formaldehyde but not manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, or Zn(II) within cells. In contrast, repression by a mutant FrmRE64H (which gains an RcnR metal ligand) is alleviated by cobalt and Zn(II). Unexpectedly, FrmR was found to already bind Co(II), Zn(II), and Cu(I), and moreover metals, as well as formaldehyde, trigger an allosteric response that weakens DNA affinity. However, the sensory metal sites of the cells' endogenous metal sensors (RcnR, ZntR, Zur, and CueR) are all tighter than FrmR for their cognate metals. Furthermore, the endogenous metal sensors are shown to out-compete FrmR. The metal-sensing FrmRE64H mutant has tighter metal affinities than FrmR by approximately 1 order of magnitude. Gain of cobalt sensing by FrmRE64H remains enigmatic because the cobalt affinity of FrmRE64H is substantially weaker than that of the endogenous cobalt sensor. Cobalt sensing requires glutathione, which may assist cobalt access, conferring a kinetic advantage. For Zn(II), the metal affinity of FrmRE64H approaches the metal affinities of cognate Zn(II) sensors. Counter-intuitively, the allosteric coupling free energy for Zn(II) is smaller in metal-sensing FrmRE64H compared with nonsensing FrmR. By determining the copies of FrmR and FrmRE64H tetramers per cell, then estimating promoter occupancy as a function of intracellular Zn(II) concentration, we show how a modest tightening of Zn(II) affinity, plus weakened DNA affinity of the apoprotein, conspires to make the relative properties of FrmRE64H (compared with ZntR and Zur) sufficient to sense Zn(II) inside cells. PMID:26109070

  17. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana

    2006-01-01

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. PMID:15998561

  18. Corrosion response of nuclear reactor materials to mixtures of decontamination reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Speranzini, R.A.; Burchart, P.A.; Kanhai, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of the corrosiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA to nuclear reactor materials was undertaken. Specimens of type 304 stainless steel (SS), type 410 SS,c carbon steel (CS) 1018 and A508, and heat treated alloy 600 were suspended in recirculating mixtures of two or more of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA at temperatures of 90{sup 0}C or 117{sup 0}C for 22 h. The results suggest that removal of oxalic acid from decontamination solutions should lower the corrosivity of the solutions to nuclear reactor materials, particularly 304 SS and 410 SS.

  19. Corrosion response of nuclear reactor materials to mixtures of decontamination reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Speranzini, R.A.; Burchart, P.A.; Kanhai, K.A.

    1989-02-01

    An experimental study of the corrosiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA to nuclear reactor materials was undertaken. Specimens of type 304 stainless steel (SS), type 410 SS, carbon steel (CS) 1018 and A508, and heat-treated alloy 600 were suspended in recirculating mixtures of two or more combinations of citric acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA at temperatures of 90 C or 117 C for 22 hours. The results suggest that removal of oxalic acid from decontamination solutions should lower the corrosiveness of the solutions to nuclear reactor materials, particularly types 304 SS and 410 SS.

  20. Response of a salt marsh microbial community to metal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Teixeira, Catarina; Reis, Izabela; Magalhães, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.

    2013-09-01

    Salt marshes are important sinks for contaminants, namely metals that tend to accumulate around plant roots and could eventually be taken up in a process known as phytoremediation. On the other hand, microbial communities display important roles in the salt marsh ecosystems, such as recycling of nutrients and/or degradation of organic contaminants. Thus, plants can benefit from the microbial activity in the phytoremediation process. Nevertheless, above certain levels, metals are known to be toxic to microorganisms, fact that can eventually compromise their ecological functions. In this vein, the aim of present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the effect of selected metals (Cd, Cu and Pb) on the microbial communities associated to the roots of two salt marsh plants. Sediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis were collected in the River Lima estuary (NW Portugal), and spiked with each of the metals at three different Effects Range-Median (ERM) concentrations (1, 10×, 50×), being ERM the sediment quality guideline that indicates the concentration above which adverse biological effects may frequently occur. Spiked sediments were incubated with a nutritive saline solution, being left in the dark under constant agitation for 7 days. The results showed that, despite the initial sediments colonized by J. maritimus and P. australis displayed significant (p < 0.05) differences in terms of microbial community structure (evaluated by ARISA), they presented similar microbial abundances (estimated by DAPI). Also, in terms of microbial abundance, both sediments showed a similar response to metal addition, with a decrease in number of cells only observed for the higher addition of Cu. Nevertheless, both Cu and Pb, at intermediate metals levels promote a shift in the microbial community structure, with possibly effect on the ecological function of these microbial communities in salt marshes. These changes may affect plants phytoremediation

  1. Application of biotic ligand and toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling to predict the accumulation and toxicity of metal mixtures to zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Han, Feng; Zhu, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Predicting the accumulation and toxicity of mixtures of metals to aquatic organisms is a key challenge in ecotoxicological studies. In this study, the accumulation and toxicity of mixed essential (Cu) and nonessential (Cd and Pb) metals in zebrafish larvae exposed to a binary mixture of these elements at environmentally relevant concentrations were predicted using a refined toxicokinetic (TK)-toxicodynamic (TD) model aided with biotic ligand model (BLM) and toxic equivalent factor (TEF) approach. Competitive inhibition and non-competitive interaction/inhibition were observed in bio-uptake. Both Pb and Cd behaved as competitive inhibitors of Cu uptake at high Cu concentrations (>0.1 μM). By contrast, Cu uptake was independent of Cd or Pb when the Cu concentrations were below 10(-7) M. Furthermore, low concentrations of Cu had an adiaphorous effect on Cd or Pb uptake. Cd uptake was inhibited by Pb, and the Pb uptake rates consistently decreased in the presence of Cd. The accumulation processes of Cd-Pb, Cu-Cd, and Cu-Pb were accurately predicted by the BLM-aided TK models. The traditional TD model could successfully predict the toxicity of Cd-Pb mixtures, but not those of Cu-Cd or Cu-Pb mixtures. The revised TD model, which considered the possible different killing rates (Kk) above or below the threshold, offered better prediction for the toxicity of Cu-Cd or Cu-Pb mixtures. The overall findings may be of key significance in understanding and predicting metal uptake, accumulation, and toxicity in binary or multiple metal exposure scenarios. PMID:26874871

  2. Response of electrochemical oxygen sensors to inert gas-air and carbon dioxide-air mixtures: measurements and mathematical modelling.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P T; Gant, S E; Dowker, K P; Batt, R

    2011-02-15

    Electrochemical oxygen gas sensors are widely used for monitoring the state of inertisation of flammable atmospheres and to warn of asphyxiation risks. It is well established but not widely known by users of such oxygen sensors that the response of the sensor is affected by the nature of the diluent gas responsible for the decrease in ambient oxygen concentration. The present work investigates the response of electrochemical sensors, with either acid or alkaline electrolytes, to gas mixtures comprising air with enhanced levels of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon or helium. The measurements indicate that both types of sensors over-read the oxygen concentrations when atmospheres contain high levels of helium. Sensors with alkaline electrolytes are also shown to underestimate the severity of the hazard in atmospheres containing high levels of carbon dioxide. This deviation is greater for alkaline electrolyte sensors compared to acid electrolyte sensors. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict the response of an alkaline electrolyte, electrochemical gas sensor. Differences between predicted and measured sensor responses are less than 10% in relative terms for nearly all of the gas mixtures tested, and in many cases less than 5%. Extending the model to simulate responses of sensors with acid electrolytes would be straightforward. PMID:21112151

  3. Multiple Responses of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria to Mixture of Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Marilena Lăzăroaie, Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Most of our knowledge about pollutants and the way they are biodegraded in the environment has previously been shaped by laboratory studies using hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strains isolated from polluted sites. In present study Gram-positive (Mycobacterium sp. IBBPo1, Oerskovia sp. IBBPo2, Corynebacterium sp. IBBPo3) and Gram-negative (Chryseomonas sp. IBBPo7, Pseudomonas sp. IBBPo10, Burkholderia sp. IBBPo12) bacteria, isolated from oily sludge, were found to be able to tolerate pure and mixture of saturated hydrocarbons, as well as pure and mixture of monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were more tolerant to mixture of saturated (n-hexane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene) and polyaromatic (naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, fluorene) hydrocarbons than Gram-positive bacteria. There were observed cellular and molecular modifications induced by mixture of saturated, monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These modifications differ from one strain to another and even for the same bacterial strain, according to the nature of hydrophobic substrate. PMID:24031541

  4. PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTS IN URBAN MIXTURES ENHANCE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN LUNG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complex urban air mixtures that realistically mimic urban smog can be generated for investigating adverse health effects. "Smog chambers" have been used for over 30 yr to conduct experiments for developing and testing photochemical models that predict ambient ozone (O(3)) concent...

  5. Responses of phytoplankton and Hyalella azteca to agrichemical mixtures in a constructed wetland mesocosms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the capability of a constructed wetland to mitigate toxicity of a variety of possible mixtures such as nutrients only (N, P), pesticides only (atrazine, S-metolachlor, permethrin), and nutrients+pesticides on phytoplankton chlorophyll a, 48 h aqueous Hyalella azteca survival, and 10 d se...

  6. APPROXIMATION OF MULTIFLUID MIXTURE RESPONSE FOR SIMULATION OF SHARP AND DIFFUSE MATERIAL INTERFACES ON AN EULERIAN GRID

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, I; Liu, B

    2005-09-29

    Multimaterial Eulerian and Arbitrary Lagragian-Eulerian (ALE) codes usually use volume fractions of materials to track individual components in mixed cells. Material advection usually is calculated either by interface capturing, where a high-order van Leer-like slope reconstruction technique is applied, or interface tracking, where a normal reconstruction technique is applied. The former approach is more appropriate for gas-like substances, and the latter is ideal for solids and liquids, since it does not smear out material interfaces. A wide range of problems involves both diffuse and sharp interfaces between substances and demands a combination of these techniques. It is possible to treat all substances that can diffuse into each other as a single material and only keep mass fractions of the individual components of the mixture. The material response can be determined based on the assumption of pressure and temperature equilibrium between components of the mixture. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to solve the corresponding system of equations. In order to avoid these problems one can introduce an effective gamma and employ the ideal gas approximation to calculate mixture response. This method provides reliable results, is able to compute strong shock waves, and deals with complex equations of state. Results from a number of simulations using this scheme are presented.

  7. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals. Quarterly report, 1 April 1992--30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-07-10

    This report presents completed sealed tube stability test results for the following eight refrigerant/lubricant mixtures: R-22/mineral oil; R-124/alkylbenzene; R-134a/pentaerythritol (PE) ester (mixed acid); R- 134a/PE (branched acid); R-134a/ PE (100 cSt viscosity); R- 142b/alkylbenzene; R-143a/ PE (branched acid); R-152a/alkylbenzene. Partial results are shown for an additional eight refrigerant-lubricant mixtures. Though work is in progress, no data are available at this point in time for the five remaining test mixtures. Reported are: visual observations on aged sealed tubes, gas chromatographic analyses on the vapor phase contents of the tubes, chloride ion contents of HCFC containing mixtures or fluoride ion contents of HFC mixtures, and total acid number values and infrared analysis results for mixtures containing ester lubricants.

  8. Treatment of electronic waste to recover metal values using thermal plasma coupled with acid leaching - A response surface modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Swagat S.; Nayak, Pradeep; Mukherjee, P.S.; Roy Chaudhury, G.; Mishra, B.K.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sentences/phrases were modified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Necessary discussions for different figures were included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More discussion have been included on the flue gas analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Queries to both the reviewers have been given. - Abstract: The global crisis of the hazardous electronic waste (E-waste) is on the rise due to increasing usage and disposal of electronic devices. A process was developed to treat E-waste in an environmentally benign process. The process consisted of thermal plasma treatment followed by recovery of metal values through mineral acid leaching. In the thermal process, the E-waste was melted to recover the metal values as a metallic mixture. The metallic mixture was subjected to acid leaching in presence of depolarizer. The leached liquor mainly contained copper as the other elements like Al and Fe were mostly in alloy form as per the XRD and phase diagram studies. Response surface model was used to optimize the conditions for leaching. More than 90% leaching efficiency at room temperature was observed for Cu, Ni and Co with HCl as the solvent, whereas Fe and Al showed less than 40% efficiency.

  9. Variation and distribution of metals and metalloids in soil/ash mixtures from Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Itai, Takaaki; Otsuka, Masanari; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Muto, Mamoru; Opoku-Ankomah, Yaw; Ansa-Asare, Osmund Duodu; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-02-01

    Illegal import and improper recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) are an environmental issue in developing countries around the world. African countries are no exception to this problem and the Agbogbloshie market in Accra, Ghana is a well-known e-waste recycling site. We have studied the levels of metal(loid)s in the mixtures of residual ash, formed by the burning of e-waste, and the cover soil, obtained using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (P-XRF) coupled with determination of the 1M HCl-extractable fraction by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The accuracy and precision of the P-XRF measurements were evaluated by measuring 18 standard reference materials; this indicated the acceptable but limited quality of this method as a screening tool. The HCl-extractable levels of Al, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, In, Sb, Ba, and Pb in 10 soil/ash mixtures varied by more than one order of magnitude. The levels of these metal(loid)s were found to be correlated with the color (i.e., soil/ash ratio), suggesting that they are being released from disposed e-waste via open burning. The source of rare elements could be constrained using correlation to the predominant metals. Human hazard quotient values based on ingestion of soil/ash mixtures exceeded unity for Pb, As, Sb, and Cu in a high-exposure scenario. This study showed that along with common metals, rare metal(loid)s are also enriched in the e-waste burning site. We suggest that risk assessment considering exposure to multiple metal(loid)s should be addressed in studies of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24184547

  10. Reducing the deactivation of Ni-metal during the catalytic partial oxidation of a surrogate diesel fuel mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Daniel J.; Campos, Andrew; Smith, Mark W.; Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Spivey, James J.

    2010-09-01

    Ni catalysts are active and selective for the conversion of hydrocarbon into synthesis gas. However, conventional supported Ni catalysts rapidly deactivate at the high temperatures required for partial oxidation of diesel fuel by sintering and metal vaporization, as well as by carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning. Thus, to reduce deactivation Ni (3 wt%) was substituted into the structures of Ba-hexaaluminate (BNHA) and La–Sr–Zr pyrochlore (LSZN), and their activity was compared to a supported Ni/Al2O3 for the catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) of a surrogate diesel fuel. Characterization by XRD showed a single phase β-alumina for the hexaaluminate, while LSZN had a pyrochlore structure with a defect SrZrO3 perovskite phase. Temperature programmed reduction experiments confirmed Ni was reducible in all catalysts. XANES results confirmed that Ni atoms were substituted into the hexaaluminate and pyrochlore structures, as spectra for each catalyst showed different coordination environments for Ni compared to a NiO standard. During CPOX activity tests (T = 900 °C and WHSV = 50,000 scc/gcat/h), the LSZN pyrochlore produced stable H2 and CO yields in the presence of 5 wt% 1-methylnaphthalene and 50 ppmw dibenzothiophene/n-tetradecane for 2 h, while both Ni/Al2O3 and BNHA catalysts were irreversibly deactivated by this mixture over the same time. Finally, activity loss was strongly linked to carbon formation.

  11. Mixture-amount design and response surface modeling to assess the effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on developmental performance of Anastrepha ludens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling were used to study the effects of three flavonoids and two phenolic acids, alone or in mixtures, in an artificial larval diet on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]). Pupal weight, percentage o...

  12. The effect of low-temperature transformation of mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials on content, leachability and toxicity of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka; Kopeć, Michał

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the process of low-temperature transformation and the addition of plant material to sewage sludge diversifying the content of mobile forms of heavy metals and their ecotoxicity. The experimental design included: sewage sludge+rape straw, sewage sludge+wheat straw, sewage sludge+sawdust, sewage sludge+bark and sewage sludge with no addition. The mixtures were subjected to thermal transformation in a chamber furnace, under conditions without air. The procedure consisted of two stages: the first stage (130°C for 40 min) focused on drying the material, whereas in the second stage (200°C for 30 min) proper thermal transformation of materials took place. Thermal transformation of the materials, caused an increase in total contents of heavy metals in comparison to the material before transformation. From among elements, the cadmium content changed the most in materials after thermal transformation. As a result of thermal transformation, the content of water soluble form of the heavy metals decreased significantly in all the prepared mixtures. Low toxicity of the extracts from materials for Vibrio fischeri and Lepidium sativum was found in the research, regardless of transformation process. L. sativum showed higher sensitivity to heavy metals occurring in the studied extracts from materials than V. fischeri, evidence of which are the positive significant correlations between the content of metals and the inhibition of root growth of L. sativum. PMID:25433992

  13. Evaluating Whole Chemical Mixtures and Sufficient Similarity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation supports apresentation describing dose-response assessment for complex chemical mixtures including deriving reference doses for mixtures evaluating sufficient similarity among chemical mixtures.

  14. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

  15. Cell responses to metallic nanostructure arrays with complex geometries.

    PubMed

    Jahed, Zeinab; Molladavoodi, Sara; Seo, Brandon B; Gorbet, Maud; Tsui, Ting Y; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2014-11-01

    Metallic nanopillar/nanowires are emerging as promising platforms for biological applications, as they allow for the direct characterization and regulation of cell function. Herein we study the response of cells to a versatile nanopillar platform. Nanopillar arrays of various shape, size, and spacing and different nanopillar-substrate interfacial strengths were fabricated and interfaced with fibroblasts and several unique cell-nanopillar interactions were observed using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Nanopillar penetration, engulfment, tilting, lift off and membrane thinning, were observed by manipulating nanopillar material, size, shape and spacing. These unique cell responses to various nanostructures can be employed for a wide range of applications including the design of highly sensitive nano-electrodes for single-cell probing. PMID:25123921

  16. Vacuum Violet Photo-Response of AlGaN-Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dong; Lu, Hai; Chen, Dun-Jun; Ren, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou; Li, Liang

    2013-11-01

    Al0.5Ga0.5 N-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors (PDs) with a large device area of 5 × 5 mm2 are fabricated on a sapphire substrate, which are tested for vacuum ultraviolet light detection by using a synchrotron radiation source. The PD exhibits low dark current of less than 1 pA under 30 V bias and a spectral cutoff around 260 nm, corresponding to the energy bandgap of Al0.5Ga0.5N. A peak photo-responsivity of 14.68 mA/W at 250 nm with a rejection ratio (250/360 nm) of more than four orders of magnitude is obtained under 30 V bias. For wavelength less than 170 nm, the photoresponsivity of the PD is found to increase as wavelength decreases, which is likely caused by the enhanced photoemission effect.

  17. Immunosuppression of the trimellitic anhydride-induced th2 response by novel nonanatural products mixture in mice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Many natural dietary products prevent or cure allergic inflammation; however, the ability of mixtures of these natural medicinals to suppress allergic skin inflammation is unknown. We examined the inhibitory effects of nonanatural products mixture (NPM-9), which provides immunoregulatory activation, on Th2-mediated skin allergic inflammation. Oral administration of NPM-9 in mice reduced ear thickness and specific IgE production in trimellitic anhydride- (TMA-)induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS). NPM-9 also suppressed IL-4 and IL-1β production in splenocytes but prevented only TMA-induced IL-1β production in inflamed ears. To characterize the mechanism of this effect, we examined NPM-9 immunosuppression on an OVA-induced Th2 allergic state. Oral administration of NPM-9 inhibited Th2-mediated serum IgE overproduction. NPM-9 also downregulated the polarized Th2 response, whereas it upregulated Th1 response in splenocytes. These data suggest that NPM-9 may be a useful therapeutic agent for allergic inflammatory diseases through its suppression of the Th2-mediated allergic response. PMID:24348718

  18. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses. PMID:26070163

  19. Investigation of simultaneous biosorption of copper(II) and chromium(VI) on dried Chlorella vulgaris from binary metal mixtures: Application of multicomponent adsorption isotherms

    SciTech Connect

    Aksu, Z.; Acikel, U.; Kutsal, T.

    1999-02-01

    Although the biosorption of single metal ions to various kinds of microorganisms has been extensively studied and the adsorption isotherms have been developed for only the single metal ion situation, very little attention has been given to the bioremoval and expression of adsorption isotherms of multimetal ions systems. In this study the simultaneous biosorption of copper(II) and chromium(VI) to Chlorella vulgaris from a binary metal mixture was studied and compared with the single metal ion situation in a batch stirred system. The effects of pH and single- and dual-metal ion concentrations on the equilibrium uptakes were investigated. In previous studies the optimum biosorption pH had been determined as 4.0 for copper(II) and as 2.0 for chromium(VI). Multimetal ion biosorption studies were performed at these two pH values. It was observed that the equilibrium uptakes of copper(II) or chromium(VI) ions were changed due to the biosorption pH and the presence of other metal ions. Adsorption isotherms were developed for both single- and dual-metal ions systems at these two pH values, and expressed by the mono- and multicomponent Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. Model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. It was seen that the adsorption equilibrium data fitted very well to the competitive Freundlich model in the concentration ranges studied.

  20. Cerebrolysin, a mixture of neurotrophic factors induces marked neuroprotection in spinal cord injury following intoxication of engineered nanoparticles from metals.

    PubMed

    Menon, Preeti Kumaran; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Sharma, Aruna; Mössler, Herbert; Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2012-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the world's most disastrous disease for which there is no effective treatment till today. Several studies suggest that nanoparticles could adversely influence the pathology of SCI and thereby alter the efficacy of many neuroprotective agents. Thus, there is an urgent need to find suitable therapeutic agents that could minimize cord pathology following trauma upon nanoparticle intoxication. Our laboratory has been engaged for the last 7 years in finding suitable therapeutic strategies that could equally reduce cord pathology in normal and in nanoparticle-treated animal models of SCI. We observed that engineered nanoparticles from metals e.g., aluminum (Al), silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) (50-60 nm) when administered in rats daily for 7 days (50 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in exacerbation of cord pathology after trauma that correlated well with breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) to serum proteins. The entry of plasma proteins into the cord leads to edema formation and neuronal damage. Thus, future drugs should be designed in such a way to be effective even when the SCI is influenced by nanoparticles. Previous research suggests that a suitable combination of neurotrophic factors could induce marked neuroprotection in SCI in normal animals. Thus, we examined the effects of a new drug; cerebrolysin that is a mixture of different neurotrophic factors e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and other peptide fragments to treat normal or nanoparticle-treated rats after SCI. Our observations showed that cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, i.v.) before SCI resulted in good neuroprotection in normal animals, whereas nanoparticle-treated rats required a higher dose of the drug (5.0 ml/kg, i.v.) to induce comparable neuroprotection in the cord after SCI. Cerebrolysin also reduced spinal cord water content, leakage of plasma proteins

  1. Modelling the response of a vibrating-element density meter in a two-phase mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billingham, John

    1997-06-01

    A vibrating-element density meter is a mechanical oscillator with known properties, for example a tuning fork or a simple rod, driven to vibrate at a known frequency. The oscillator is immersed in a fluid and the resonant frequency measured. The density of the fluid can then be inferred. We consider an idealized meter immersed in two-phase flows of various types, and investigate whether a simple single-phase interpretation allows us to deduce the density of the mixture. We find that, when the density contrast between the two fluids is not great, the simple interpretation gives good results, for example in oil/water flows. However, when the density contrast is significant, for example in gas/liquid flows, the simple interpretation is highly inaccurate.

  2. Material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of a coal-oil mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.; Kohl, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44 one hour cycles. The alloys tested were the nickel base superalloys, IN-100, U-700 and IN-792, and the cobalt base superalloy, Mar-M509. The deposits on the specimens were analyzed and the extent of corrosion/erosion was measured. The chemical compositions of the deposits were compared with the predictions from an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. The experimental results were in very good agreement with the predictions.

  3. Optical Response of Metal Nanoantennas to Femtosecond Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sushmita; Heberle, Albert

    2007-03-01

    Nanoscale metal antennas are promising devices for focusing light down to dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of light. This focusing can lead to strong optical enhancement of the response of single molecules or quantum dots placed in the antenna gap, as well as strong nonlinearities. The optical response of such antenna, however, is not well understood yet. Here, we will present results of our investigations of the linear and nonlinear optical response of silver nanoscale bowtie antennas to excitation with near-infrared pulses from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. The antennas were fabricated with electron beam lithography and a lift-of process on glass substrates and semiconductor materials. They have lengths of a few hundred nanometers and gaps between 10 and 100 nanometers. We will discuss polarization dependence of the excitation sensitivity, second harmonic generation and other nonlinear effects. References: [1] P. Muhlschlegel et al., Science ,1607(2005). [2] J.N. Farahani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,017402(2005).

  4. In vitro expression of hard metal dust (WC-Co)--responsive genes in human peripheral blood mononucleated cells.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, Noömi; Lison, Dominique; Van Hummelen, Paul; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2008-03-01

    Hard metals consist of tungsten carbide (WC) and metallic cobalt (Co) particles and are important industrial materials produced for their extreme hardness and high wear resistance properties. While occupational exposure to metallic Co alone is apparently not associated with an increased risk of cancer, the WC-Co particle mixture was shown to be carcinogenic in exposed workers. The in vitro mutagenic/apoptogenic potential of WC-Co in human peripheral blood mononucleated cells was previously demonstrated by us. This study aimed at obtaining a broader view of the pathways responsible for WC-Co induced carcinogenicity, and in particular genotoxicity and apoptosis. We analyzed the profile of gene expression induced in vitro by WC-Co versus control (24 h treatment) in human PBMC and monocytes using microarrays. The most significantly up-regulated pathways for WC-Co treated PBMC were apoptosis and stress/defense response; the most down-regulated was immune response. For WC-Co treated monocytes the most significantly up- and down-regulated pathways were nucleosome/chromatin assembly and immune response respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR data for a selection of the most strongly modulated genes (HMOX1, HSPA1A, HSPA1L, BNIP3, BNIP3L, ADORA2B, MT3, PLA2G7, TNFAIP6), and some additionally chosen apoptosis related genes (BCL2, BAX, FAS, FASL, TNFalpha), confirmed the microarray data after WC-Co exposure and demonstrated limited differences between the Co-containing compounds. Overall, this study provides the first analysis of gene expression induced by the WC-Co mixture showing a large profile of gene modulation and giving a preliminary indication for a hypoxia mimicking environment induced by WC-Co exposure. PMID:18078969

  5. In vitro expression of hard metal dust (WC-Co) - responsive genes in human peripheral blood mononucleated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lombaert, Nooemi Lison, Dominique; Van Hummelen, Paul; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2008-03-01

    Hard metals consist of tungsten carbide (WC) and metallic cobalt (Co) particles and are important industrial materials produced for their extreme hardness and high wear resistance properties. While occupational exposure to metallic Co alone is apparently not associated with an increased risk of cancer, the WC-Co particle mixture was shown to be carcinogenic in exposed workers. The in vitro mutagenic/apoptogenic potential of WC-Co in human peripheral blood mononucleated cells was previously demonstrated by us. This study aimed at obtaining a broader view of the pathways responsible for WC-Co induced carcinogenicity, and in particular genotoxicity and apoptosis. We analyzed the profile of gene expression induced in vitro by WC-Co versus control (24 h treatment) in human PBMC and monocytes using microarrays. The most significantly up-regulated pathways for WC-Co treated PBMC were apoptosis and stress/defense response; the most down-regulated was immune response. For WC-Co treated monocytes the most significantly up- and down-regulated pathways were nucleosome/chromatin assembly and immune response respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR data for a selection of the most strongly modulated genes (HMOX1, HSPA1A, HSPA1L, BNIP3, BNIP3L, ADORA2B, MT3, PLA2G7, TNFAIP6), and some additionally chosen apoptosis related genes (BCL2, BAX, FAS, FASL, TNF{alpha}), confirmed the microarray data after WC-Co exposure and demonstrated limited differences between the Co-containing compounds. Overall, this study provides the first analysis of gene expression induced by the WC-Co mixture showing a large profile of gene modulation and giving a preliminary indication for a hypoxia mimicking environment induced by WC-Co exposure.

  6. Macromolecular Response of Individual Algal Cells to Nutrient and Atrazine Mixtures within Biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollutant effects on biofilm physiology are difficult to assess due to differential susceptibility of species and difficulty separating individual species for analysis. Also,measuring whole assemblage responses such as metabolism can mask species-specific responses, as some species may decrease and ...

  7. Modeling the Mixture of IRT and Pattern Responses by a Modified HYBRID Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Everson, Howard T.

    This study demonstrates the utility of a HYBRID psychometric model, which incorporates both item response theoretic and latent class models, for detecting test speededness. The model isolates where in a sequence of test items examinee response patterns shift from one providing reasonable estimates of ability to those best characterized by a random…

  8. Plasmonic response in nanoporous metal: dependence on network topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galí, Marc A.; Tai, Matthew C.; Arnold, Matthew D.; Cortie, Michael B.; Gentle, Angus R.; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2015-12-01

    The optical and electrical responses of open, nanoscale, metal networks are of interest in a variety of technologies including transparent conducting electrodes, charge storage, and surfaces with controlled spectral selectivity. The properties of such nanoporous structures depend on the shape and extent of individual voids and the associated hyper-dimensional connectivity and density of the metal filaments. Unfortunately, a quantitative understanding of this dependence is at present only poorly developed. Here we address this problem using numerical simulations applied to a systematically designed series of prototypical sponges. The sponges are produced by a Monte Carlo simulation of the dealloying of Ag-Al alloys containing from 60% to 85% Al. The result is a series of Ag sponges of realistic morphology. The optical properties of the sponges are then calculated by the discrete dipole approximation and the results used to construct an 'effective medium' model for each sponge. We show how the resulting effective medium can be correlated with the associated morphological characteristics of each target and how the optical properties are primarily controlled by the density of the sponge and its state of percolation.

  9. Dynamic Control of Optical Response in Layered Metal Chalcogenide Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Tom, Kyle; Wang, Xi; Huang, Chunming; Yuan, Hongtao; Ding, Hong; Ko, Changhyun; Suh, Joonki; Pan, Lawrence; Persson, Kristin A; Yao, Jie

    2016-01-13

    Tunable optical transitions in ultrathin layered 2-dimensional (2D) materials unveil the electronic structures of materials and provide exciting prospects for potential applications in optics and photonics. Here, we present our realization of dynamic optical modulation of layered metal chalcogenide nanoplates using ionic liquid (IL) gating over a wide spectral range. The IL gating significantly increased the tuning range of the Fermi level and, as a result, substantially altered the optical transitions in the nanoplates. Using heavily n-doped Bi2Se3 nanoplates, we substantially modulated the light transmission through the ultrathin layer. A tunable, high-transmission spectral window in the visible to near-infrared region has been observed due to simultaneous shifts of both the plasma edge and absorption edge of the material. On the other hand, optical response of multilayer MoSe2 flakes gated by IL has shown enhanced transmission in both positive and negative biases, which is consistent with their ambipolar electrical behavior. The electrically controlled optical property tuning in metal chalcogenide material systems provides new opportunities for potential applications, such as wide spectral range optical modulators, optical filters, and electrically controlled smart windows with extremely low material consumption. PMID:26599063

  10. Inelastic response of metal matrix composites under biaxial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirzadeh, F.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1990-01-01

    Elements of the analytical/experimental program to characterize the response of silicon carbide titanium (SCS-6/Ti-15-3) composite tubes under biaxial loading are outlined. The analytical program comprises prediction of initial yielding and subsequent inelastic response of unidirectional and angle-ply silicon carbide titanium tubes using a combined micromechanics approach and laminate analysis. The micromechanics approach is based on the method of cells model and has the capability of generating the effective thermomechanical response of metal matrix composites in the linear and inelastic region in the presence of temperature and time-dependent properties of the individual constituents and imperfect bonding on the initial yield surfaces and inelastic response of (0) and (+ or - 45)sub s SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates loaded by different combinations of stresses. The generated analytical predictions will be compared with the experimental results. The experimental program comprises generation of initial yield surfaces, subsequent stress-strain curves and determination of failure loads of the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 tubes under selected loading conditions. The results of the analytical investigation are employed to define the actual loading paths for the experimental program. A brief overview of the experimental methodology is given. This includes the test capabilities of the Composite Mechanics Laboratory at the University of Virginia, the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composite tubes secured from McDonnell Douglas Corporation, a text fixture specifically developed for combined axial-torsional loading, and the MTS combined axial-torsion loader that will be employed in the actual testing.