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Sample records for metal shaping processes

  1. Research on the processing experiments of laser metal deposition shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Weijun; Shang, Xiaofeng

    2007-04-01

    Laser additive direct deposition of metals is a new rapid manufacturing technology, which combines with computer-aided design (CAD), laser cladding and rapid prototyping. The advanced technology can build fully dense metal components directly from CAD files with neither mould nor tool. Based on the theory of this technology, a promising rapid manufacturing system called "Laser Metal Deposition Shaping (LMDS)" has been constructed and developed successfully by Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Automation. Through the LMDS system, comprehensive experiments are carried out with nickel-based superalloy to systematically investigate the influences of the processing parameters on forming characteristics. By adjusting to the optimal processing parameters, fully dense and near-net-shaped metallic parts can be directly obtained through melting coaxially fed powder with a laser. Moreover, the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-formed samples are tested and analyzed synthetically. As a result, significant processing flexibility with the LMDS system over conventional processing capabilities is recognized, with potentially lower production cost, higher quality components, and shorter lead-time.

  2. Near-net-shape processing of metal-ceramic composites by reactive metal penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, W.G.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Ellerby, D.T.; Loehman, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    Metal-ceramic composites were made to near-net shape by reacting phase-pure mullite and mullite-glass preforms with molten Al using a reactive metal penetration process. Conversion of the two ceramic preforms to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al composites was accompanied by a 0.32% volume expansion and a 1.42% volume shrinkage, respectively. Molar volume and density calculations made assuming a net-shape reaction estimate {approximately}17 and {approximately}27 vol% Al to be present in the two composites after reaction. Results from quantitative stereology measurements used to quantify the concentration of metal in the reactively formed composites validate the calculations.

  3. Thermal analysis and evolution of shape loss phenomena during polymer burnout in powder metal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enneti, Ravi Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Powder metallurgy technology involves manufacturing of net shape or near net shape components starting from metal powders. Polymers are used to provide lubrication during shaping and handling strength to the shaped component. After shaping, the polymers are removed from the shaped components by providing thermal energy to burnout the polymers. Polymer burnout is one of the most critical step in powder metal processing. Improper design of the polymer burnout cycle will result in formation of defects, shape loss, or carbon contamination of the components. The effect of metal particles on polymer burnout and shape loss were addressed in the present research. The study addressing the effect of metal powders on polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that metal powders act to catalyze polymer burnout. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on pure polymer, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and on admixed powders of 316L stainless steel and 1 wt. % EVA were carried out to verify the hypothesis. The effect of metal powders additions was studied by monitoring the onset temperature for polymer degradation and the temperature at which maximum rate of weight loss occurred from the TGA data. The catalytic behavior of the powders was verified by varying the particle size and shape of the 316L stainless powder. The addition of metal particles lowered the polymer burnout temperatures. The onset temperature for burnout was found to be sensitive to the surface area of the metal particle as well as the polymer distribution. Powders with low surface area and uniform distribution of polymer showed a lower burnout temperature. The evolution of shape loss during polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that shape loss occurs during the softening of the polymer and depends on the sequence of chemical bonding in the polymer during burnout. In situ observation of shape loss was carried out on thin beams compacted from admixed powders of 316L stainless steel and 1 wt. % ethylene vinyl acetate

  4. Development of a method for fabricating metallic matrix composite shapes by a continuous mechanical process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divecha, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts made to develop processes capable of producing metal composites in structural shapes and sizes suitable for space applications are described. The processes must be continuous and promise to lower fabrication costs. Special attention was given to the aluminum boride (Al/b) composite system. Results show that despite adequate temperature control, the consolidation characteristics did not improve as expected. Inadequate binder removal was identified as the cause responsible. An Al/c (aluminum-graphite) composite was also examined.

  5. Processing and Behavior of Fe-Based Metallic Glass Components via Laser-Engineered Net Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Zhou, Y.; Smugeresky, J. E.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2009-05-01

    In this article, the laser-engineered net shaping (LENS) process is implemented to fabricate net-shaped Fe-based Fe-B-Cr-C-Mn-Mo-W-Zr metallic glass (MG) components. The glass-forming ability (GFA), glass transition, crystallization behavior, and mechanical properties of the glassy alloy are analyzed to provide fundamental insights into the underlying physical mechanisms. The microstructures of various LENS-processed component geometries are characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the as-processed microstructure consists of nanocrystalline α-Fe particles embedded in an amorphous matrix. An amorphous microstructure is observed in deposited layers that are located near the substrate. From a microstructure standpoint, the fraction of crystalline phases increases with the increasing number of deposited layers, effectively resulting in the formation of a functionally graded microstructure with in-situ-precipitated particles in an MG matrix. The microhardness of LENS-processed Fe-based MG components has a high value of 9.52 GPa.

  6. Submicron, unbacked, shaped metal foils

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed to produce unbacked, shaped metal foils in sub-micron thicknesses. This process utilizes a temporary substrate consisting of a water-soluble polymer film as a base for the electron-beam deposition of the metal layer. After formation of the metal foil, the polymer is removed by immersion of the assembly in water. Unbacked metal-foil cylinders as thin as 0.17 ..mu..m with extremely smooth, wrinkle-free surfaces have been produced by this technique. Polyvinyl alcohol was an excellent substrate. Aluminum foils were produced.

  7. Modeling of Electromagnetic Field and Liquid Metal Pool Shape in an Electroslag Remelting Process with Two Series-Connected Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baokuan; Wang, Bo; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-06-01

    A three-dimensional finite-element model has been developed to understand the electromagnetic field and liquid metal pool shape in an electroslag remelting (ESR) process with two series-connected electrodes. The magnetic vector potential is introduced into the Maxwell's equations, and the nodal-based method is used to solve a three-dimensional harmonic electromagnetic field. The heat transfer of the solidifying processes of ingot is modeled by a source-based enthalpy method, and the Joule heating is included in an inner source. The results show the main part of the current flows through the slag cap and a little enters into ingot in a two-series-connected electrode ESR system. As the interaction of self-induced and mutual-induced of two electrodes occurs, the skin effect is significantly suppressed by the neighbor effect. A symmetrical pattern of magnetic flux density in a two-series-connected electrode ESR system is displayed. The magnetic flux density between two electrodes is reinforced and reduced at the outside of two electrodes. The maximum Joule heat power density is located at the interface of slag and electrodes, and it decreases with an increase of the electrode immersion depth. The averaged Joule heat power density increases when slag cap thickness is reduced. With the increase of ingot height, the liquid metal pool shape changes from arc shaped to "V" shaped. When the ingot height is more than the diameter in the ESR processes, the liquid metal pool shape is constant.

  8. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  9. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D.; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals. PMID:26853460

  10. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D.; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L.

    2016-02-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals.

  11. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L

    2016-01-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals. PMID:26853460

  12. PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anicetti, R.J.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

  13. Shaping process makes fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.; Krambeck, F.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Mobil Olefin to Gasoline and Distillate (MOGD) process is described in which light olefinic compunds can be converted to high quality gasoline and distillate. This process, now ready for commercialization is based on a unique synthetic zeolite catalyst, the shape of which selectively oligomerizes light olefins to higher molecular weight iso-olefins. The highly flexible process can be designed to produce distillate/gasoline ratios of 0/100 to 90/10 for a commercial plant, depending on market requirements. MOGD is applicable to a wide range of feed streams ranging from ethylene to 400 degrees F end point olefinic naphtha. The process has been tested using commercially produced catalyst in refinery-scale equipment.

  14. Developmental Differences in Shape Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sera, Maria D.; Gordon Millett, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that shape similarity plays a major role in object recognition, identification and categorization. However, little is known about shape processing and its development. Across four experiments, we addressed two related questions. First, what makes objects similar in shape? Second, how does the processing of shape…

  15. Microstructural Characterization of a Polycrystalline Nickel-Based Superalloy Processed via Tungsten-Intert-Gas-Shaped Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel; Bache, Martin R.; Whittaker, Mark T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent trials have produced tungsten-inert-gas (TIG)-welded structures of a suitable scale to allow an evaluation of the technique as an economic and commercial process for the manufacture of complex aeroengine components. The employment of TIG welding is shown to have specific advantages over alternative techniques based on metal inert gas (MIG) systems. Investigations using the nickel-based superalloy 718 have shown that TIG induces a smaller weld pool with less compositional segregation. In addition, because the TIG process involves a pulsed power source, a faster cooling rate is achieved, although this rate, in turn, compromises the deposition rate. The microstructures produced by the two techniques differ significantly, with TIG showing an absence of the detrimental delta and Laves phases typically produced by extended periods at a high temperature using MIG. Instead, an anisotropic dendritic microstructure was evident with a preferred orientation relative to the axis of epitaxy. Niobium was segregated to the interdendritic regions. A fine-scale porosity was evident within the microstructure with a maximum diameter of approximately 5 μm. This porosity often was found in clusters and usually was associated with the interdendritic regions. Subsequent postdeposition heat treatment was shown to have no effect on preexisting porosity and to have a minimal effect on the microstructure.

  16. Laser engineered net shaping for direct fabrication of metal components

    SciTech Connect

    Dimos, D.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1997-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new technology to fabricate three-dimensional metallic components directly from CAD solid models. This process, called Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}), exhibits enormous potential to revolutionize the way in which metal parts, such as complex prototypes, tooling, and small lot production parts, are produced. To perform the process, metal powder is injected into a molten pool created by a focused, high powered laser beam. Simultaneously, the substrate on which the deposition is occurring is scanned under the beam/powder interaction zone to fabricate the desired cross-sectional geometry. Consecutive layers are sequentially deposited, thereby producing a three-dimensional metal component.

  17. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    SciTech Connect

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  18. Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Froes, Francis H.; Eranezhuth, Baburaj G.; Prisbrey, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

  19. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, Nancy N.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  20. Actinide metal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  1. Actinide metal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1991-04-05

    This invention is comprised of a process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  2. Near Net Shape production of metal components using LENS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlienger, E.; Dimos, D.; Griffith, M.; Michael, J.; Oliver, M.; Romero, T.; Smugeresky, J.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid Prototyping and Near Net Shape manufacturing technologies are the subject of considerable attention and development efforts. At Sandia National Laboratories, one such effort is LENS (Laser Engineered Net Shaping). The LENS process utilizes a stream of powder and a focused Nd YAG laser to build near net shape fully dense metal parts. In this process, a 3-D solid model is sliced, then an X-Y table is rastered under the beam to build each slice. The laser 1 powder head is incremented upward with each slice and the deposition process is controlled via shuttering of the laser. At present, this process is capable of producing fully dense metal parts of iron, nickel and titanium alloys including tool steels and aluminides. Tungsten components have also been produced. A unique aspect of this process is the ability to produce components wherein the composition varies at differing locations in the part. Such compositional variations may be accomplished in either a stepped or graded fashion. In this paper, the details of the process will be described. The deposition mechanism will be characterized and microstructures and their associated properties will be discussed. Examples of parts which have been produced will be shown and issues regarding dimensional control and surface finish will be addressed.

  3. Development of metallization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    A non lead frit paste is evaluated. A two step process is discussed where the bulk of the metallization is Mo/Sn but a small ohmic pad is silver. A new matrix of paste formulations is developed. A variety of tests are performed on paste samples to determine electrical, thermal and structural properties.

  4. Development of metallization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    Solar cells were produced using a Mo/Sn/TiH screen printed paste with a lead/borosilicate frit that are electrically comparable to control silver cells. The process is currently unsuccessful because the soldering of interconnects to these cells has proved difficult. Future work will investigate using CO instead of H2 as the reducing gas and putting an ITO coating on the cell prior to metallization.

  5. Development of metallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-04-01

    Solar cells were produced using a Mo/Sn/TiH screen printed paste with a lead/borosilicate frit that are electrically comparable to control silver cells. The process is currently unsuccessful because the soldering of interconnects to these cells has proved difficult. Future work will investigate using CO instead of H2 as the reducing gas and putting an ITO coating on the cell prior to metallization.

  6. T-Shaped Emitter Metal Structures for HBTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, King Man; Samoska, Lorene; Velebir, James; Muller, Richard; Echternach, Pierre; Siegel, Peter; Smith, Peter; Martin, Suzanne; Malik, Roger; Rodwell, Mark; Urteaga, Miguel; Paidi, Vamsi; Griffith, Zack

    2006-01-01

    Metal emitter structures in a class of developmental InP-based high-speed heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have been redesigned to have T-shaped cross sections. T-cross-section metal features have been widely used in Schottky diodes and high-electron-mobility transistors, but not in HBTs. As explained, the purpose served by the present T cross-sectional shapes is to increase fabrication yields beyond those achievable with the prior cross-sectional shapes.

  7. Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have influenced…

  8. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Thomas S.; Whitlow, Graham A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  9. Shape-Controlled Metal-Metal and Metal-Polymer Janus Structures by Thermoplastic Embossing.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Molla; Kahler, Niloofar; Kumar, Golden

    2016-05-01

    We report the fabrication of metal-metal and metal-polymer Janus structures by embossing of thermoplastic metallic glasses and polymers. Hybrid structures with controllable shapes and interfaces are synthesized by template-assisted embossing. Different manufacturing strategies such as co-embossing and additive embossing are demonstrated for joining the materials with diverse compositions and functionalities. Structures with distinct combinations of properties such as hydrophobic-hydrophilic, opaque-transparent, insulator-conductor, and nonmagnetic-ferromagnetic are produced using this approach. These anisotropic properties are further utilized for selective functionalization of Janus structures. PMID:27064306

  10. Metallic glass nanostructures of tunable shape and composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Jingbei; Sohn, Sungwoo; Li, Yanglin; Cha, Judy J; Schroers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Metals of hybrid nano-/microstructures are of broad technological and fundamental interests. Manipulation of shape and composition on the nanoscale, however, is challenging, especially for multicomponent alloys such as metallic glasses. Although top-down approaches have demonstrated nanomoulding, they are limited to very few alloy systems. Here we report a facile method to synthesize metallic glass nanoarchitectures that can be applied to a broad range of glass-forming alloys. This strategy, using multitarget carousel oblique angle deposition, offers the opportunity to achieve control over size, shape and composition of complex alloys at the nanoscale. As a consequence, nanostructures of programmable three-dimensional shapes and tunable compositions are realized on wafer scale for metallic glasses including the marginal glass formers. Realizing nanostructures in a wide compositional range allows chemistry optimization for technological usage of metallic glass nanostructures, and also enables the fundamental study on size, composition and fabrication dependences of metallic glass properties. PMID:25901951

  11. Metallic glass nanostructures of tunable shape and composition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Jingbei; Sohn, Sungwoo; Li, Yanglin; Cha, Judy J.; Schroers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Metals of hybrid nano-/microstructures are of broad technological and fundamental interests. Manipulation of shape and composition on the nanoscale, however, is challenging, especially for multicomponent alloys such as metallic glasses. Although top–down approaches have demonstrated nanomoulding, they are limited to very few alloy systems. Here we report a facile method to synthesize metallic glass nanoarchitectures that can be applied to a broad range of glass-forming alloys. This strategy, using multitarget carousel oblique angle deposition, offers the opportunity to achieve control over size, shape and composition of complex alloys at the nanoscale. As a consequence, nanostructures of programmable three-dimensional shapes and tunable compositions are realized on wafer scale for metallic glasses including the marginal glass formers. Realizing nanostructures in a wide compositional range allows chemistry optimization for technological usage of metallic glass nanostructures, and also enables the fundamental study on size, composition and fabrication dependences of metallic glass properties. PMID:25901951

  12. Solidification processing of metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, A.; Cornie, J.A.; Flemings, M.C.

    1988-02-01

    Infiltration of fibers with molten metal and metal/reinforcement slurry casting have been developed for the net-shape solidification processing of MMCs, the largest portion of whose production costs are associated with processing. The low viscosity of liquid metals renders the fabrication of MMCs by casting much easier than that of polymer matrix composites. Attention is given to the methods developed to date to deal with problems that arise from fiber/matrix reactivity and porosity due to poor infiltration. 219 references.

  13. Near net shape processing: A necessity for advanced materials applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality discrete parts are the backbones for successful operation of equipment used in transportation, communication, construction, manufacturing, and appliances. Traditional shapemaking for discrete parts is carried out predominantly by machining, or removing unwanted material to produce the desired shape. As the cost and complexity of modern materials escalates, coupled with the expense and environmental hazards associated with handling of scrap, it is increasingly important to develop near net shape processes for these materials. Such processes involve casting of liquid materials, consolidation of powder materials, or deformation processing of simple solid shapes into the desired shape. Frequently, several of these operations may be used in sequence to produce a finished part. The processes for near net shape forming may be applied to any type of material, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and their composites. The ability to produce shapes is the key to implementation of laboratory developments in materials science into real world applications. This seminar presents an overview of near net shapemaking processes, some application examples, current developments, and future research opportunities.

  14. Shape memory in nanostructured metallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guda Vishnu, Karthik

    Materials with nanoscale dimensions show mechanical and structural properties different to those at the macro scale and engineering their nanostructure opens up potential avenues for designing materials tailored for a specific application. This work is focused on shape memory materials, an important class of active materials with wide variety of applications in medical, aerospace and automobile industries, due to their two important properties of super-elasticity and shape memory. These unique properties originate from a solid-solid transformation called martensite transformation and the main objectives of this research are to i) study the atomic mechanisms of the martensite transformation, ii) study the effect of nano-structure on shape memory behavior and iii) computationally explore avenues through which their performance is optimized. A combination of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is used to achieve this. This approach gives an atomic level description and the effects of size, surfaces and interfaces are explicitly described. Detailed analysis of the atomic mechanisms of the martensite transformation in NiTi using DFT revealed a new phase transformation (B19'-B19'') that sheds light on why the theoretically predicted ground state (BCO) is not observed experimentally and that the experimentally observed martensite phase (B19') can be stabilized by internal stresses. This finding is very important as the theoretically predicted ground state does not allow for shape memory in nanoscale NiTi samples. The size effects caused by the presence of free surfaces and the role of nanostructure in martensite transformation have been investigated in thin NiTi slabs. Surface energies of B2 phase (austenite), B19 (orthorhombic), B19' (martensite) and the body centered orthorhombic phase (BCO) are calculated using DFT. (110)B2 surfaces with in-plane atomic displacements stabilize the austenite phase with respect to B19' and BCO, thus

  15. Magnetic Shaping of Molten Metal Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shercliff, J. A.

    1981-04-01

    In continuous casting the vertically falling liquid column may be shaped by externally applied, horizontal, high-frequency magnetic fields. The free-boundary problem with allowance for surface tension is solved in a two-dimensional approximation by combined complex-variable and numerical methods in the cases where the far field is either uniform or of quadrupole form, or where the field is produced by four vertical conductors centred on the column. Stirring of the fluid is ignored.

  16. Shape Memory as a Process: Optimizing Polymer Design for Shape Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaia, Richard; Koerner, Hilmar; Lee, Kyungmin; Strong, Robert; Smith, Mattew; Wang, Huabin; White, Tim; Tan, Loon-Seng

    2012-02-01

    Shape memory is a process that enables the reversible storage and recovery of mechanical energy through a change in shape. Polymers provide a unique alternative to kinematic designs and other materials (e.g. metallic alloys) for applications requiring large deformation and novel control options. The effect control of storage and relaxation of strain energy associated with chain deformation depends on the nonlinear visco-elasitc behavior and glassy dynamics of the polymer network. Considering the molecular understanding of rubbery elasticity, chain entanglements in concentrated polymer liquids, affine deformation of networks, and glass fragility, heuristic guidelines can be formulated to optimize the molecular design of a polymer for shape memory. These are applied to the development of a polymer system for shape memory processes at high-temperature (200^oC). The low-crosslink density polyimide exhibits very rapid shape recovery, excellent fixity, high creep resistance, and good cyclability. Furthermore, the molecular design affords a very narrow temperature range for programming and triggering shape change that can also be accessed by photo-isomerization of the cross-link nodes.

  17. Shape-Controlled Metal Nanocrystals for Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Xia, Younan

    2016-06-01

    The ability to control the shape of metal nanocrystals allows us to not only maneuver their physicochemical properties but also optimize their activity in a variety of applications. Heterogeneous catalysis, in particular, would benefit tremendously from the availability of metal nanocrystals with controlled shapes and well-defined facets or surface structures. The immediate benefits may include significant enhancements in catalytic activity and/or selectivity along with reductions in the materials cost. We provide a brief account of recent progress in the development of metal nanocrystals with controlled shapes and thereby enhanced catalytic performance for several reactions, including formic acid oxidation, oxygen reduction, and hydrogenation. In addition to monometallic nanocrystals, we also cover a bimetallic system, in which the two metals are formulated as alloyed, core-shell, or core-frame structures. We hope this article will provide further impetus for the development of next-generation heterogeneous catalysts essential to a broad range of applications. PMID:27023659

  18. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of metal matrix composites is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in a three by three unit cell array of a SiC/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five fiber shapes that include a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of stresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis using the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes. In general, fiber dominated properties are not affected by fiber geometry and matrix dominated properties are only moderately affected.

  19. Comments on comet shapes and aggregation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    1989-01-01

    An important question for a comet mission is whether comet nuclei preserve information clarifying aggregation processes of planetary matter. New observational evidence shows that Trojan asteroids, as a group, display a higher fraction of highly-elongated objects than the belt. More recently evidence has accumulated that comet nuclei, as a group, also display highly-elongated shapes at macro-scale. This evidence comes from the several comets whose nuclear lightcurves or shapes have been well studied. Trojans and comet nuclei share other properties. Both groups have extremely low albedos and reddish-to neutral-black colors typical of asteroids of spectral class D, P, and C. Both groups may have had relatively low collision frequencies. An important problem to resolve with spacecraft imaging is whether these elongated shapes are primordial, or due to evolution of the objects. Two hypotheses that might be tested by a combination of global-scale and close-up imaging from various directions are: (1) The irregular shapes are primordial and related to the fact that these bodies have had lower collision frequencies than belt asteroids; or (2) The irregular shapes may be due to volatile loss.

  20. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of a SiC/Ti-15 metal matrix composite is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five different fiber shapes: a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of microstresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis for the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes and assess their potential benefits. No clear benefits result from different fiber shapes though there are some increases/decreases in isolated properties.

  1. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  2. Metallic parts fabrication using the SIS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojdeh, Mehdi

    Since early 1980s, quite a few techniques of Rapid Prototyping (RP), also known as Layered Manufacturing, have been developed. By building three-dimensional parts in a layer-by-layer additive manner, these techniques allow freeform fabrication of parts of complex geometry. Despite recent advances in fabrication of polymer parts, most of the existing rapid prototyping processes are still not capable of fabrication of accurate metallic parts with acceptable mechanical properties. Insufficient dimensional accuracy, limited number of materials, proper mechanical properties, required post machining and lack of repeatability between builds have greatly limited the market penetration of these techniques. This dissertation presents an innovative layered manufacturing technique for fabrication of dense metallic parts called Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS), developed at the University of Southern California. The SIS-Metal technology adapts RP capabilities and extends them to the field of fabrication of metallic parts for a variety of applications such as tooling and low volume production. Using this process, a metallic part, with varying 3 dimensional geometries, can be automatically constructed from a wide range of materials. SIS-Metal is the only RP process which is suitable for fabrication of dense, complex shaped, accurate objects using a variety of materials. In the SIS-Metal process a metallic part is built layer by layer by deposition for each layer of an inhibitor material which defines the corresponding layer boundary and then filling the voids of the created geometry with metal powder; and compacting the layer formed to reach a high powder density. The resulting green part is then sintered in a furnace to yield the final functional part. In this research different inhibition techniques were explored and a series of single and multi layer parts was fabricated using the most promising inhibition technique, namely, macro-mechanical inhibition. Dimensional

  3. NOVEL VAPOR-DEPOSITED LUBRICANTS FOR METAL-FORMING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a preliminary laboratory study of the feasibility of using vapor-phase lubrication to lubricate industrial metal forging dies. (NOTE: the forging and shaping of metal parts is one of many metal fabricating processes that may generate volatile organic c...

  4. Metal nanoparticle catalysts beginning to shape-up.

    PubMed

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz

    2013-08-20

    The field of heterogeneous catalysis has received a remarkable amount of interest from scientific and industrial perspectives because of its enormous impact on the world's economy: more than 90% of chemical manufacturing processes use catalysts. Catalysts are also essential in converting hazardous waste into less harmful products (car exhaust) and in generating power (fuel cells). Yet in all applications, it remains a challenge to design long lasting, highly active, selective, and environmentally friendly catalytic materials and processes, ideally based on Earth-abundant elements. In addition, the field needs more satisfactory experimental and theoretical approaches to minimize trial and error experiments in catalyst development. Nanocatalysis is one area that is developing rapidly. Researchers have reported striking novel catalytic properties, including greatly enhanced reactivities and selectivities, for nanocatalysts compared to their bulk counterparts. Fully harnessing the power of nanocatalysts requires detailed understanding of the origin of their enhanced performance at the atomic level, which in turn requires fundamental knowledge of the geometric and electronic structures of these complex systems. Numerous studies report on the properties that affect the catalytic performance of metal naoparticles (NPs) such as their size, interaction with their support, and their oxidation state. Much less research elucidates the role played by the NP shape. Complicating the analysis is that the preceding parameters are not independent, since NP size and support will affect which NP shapes are most stable. In addition, we must consider the dynamic nature of NP catalysts and their response to the environment, since the working state of a NP catalyst might not be the state in which the catalyst was prepared, but rather a structural and/or chemical isomer that responded to the particular reaction conditions. In order to address the complexity of real-world catalysts

  5. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  6. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  7. Processes for metal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowersox, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

  8. Shape effects on nanoparticle engulfment for metal matrix nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsoy, Istemi Baris; Li, Gang; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining a uniform dispersion of the nanoparticles and their structural integrity in metal matrix is a prominent obstacle to use the intrinsic properties of metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) to the full extent. In this study, a potential way to overcome the scientific and technical barrier of nanoparticle dispersion in high performance lightweight MMNCs is presented. The goal is to identify the shape and size of Al2O3 nanoparticle for its optimal dispersion in Al matrix. Critical velocity of solidification is calculated numerically for spherical, cylindrical and disk-shaped nanoparticles using an analytical model which incorporates drag force, intermolecular force and inertia effect. The results show that it is possible to reduce the critical solidification velocity for nanoparticle capture by 6 times with proper shape modification.

  9. METAL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1958-08-12

    A process ts described for obtaining a closely bonded coating of steel or iron on uranium. The process consists of providing, between the steel and uramium. a layer of silver. amd then pressure rolling tbe assembly at about 600 deg C until a reduction of from l0 to 50% has been obtained.

  10. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  11. Processing of bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Jan

    2010-04-12

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) formers are multicomponent alloys that vitrify with remarkable ease during solidification. Technological interest in these materials has been generated by their unique properties, which often surpass those of conventional structural materials. The metastable nature of BMGs, however, has imposed a barrier to broad commercial adoption, particularly where the processing requirements of these alloys conflict with conventional metal processing methods. Research on the crystallization of BMG formers has uncovered novel thermoplastic forming (TPF)-based processing opportunities. Unique among metal processing methods, TPF utilizes the dramatic softening exhibited by a BMG as it approaches its glass-transition temperature and decouples the rapid cooling required to form a glass from the forming step. This article reviews crystallization processes in BMG former and summarizes and compares TPF-based processing methods. Finally, an assessment of scientific and technological advancements required for broader commercial utilization of BMGs will be made. PMID:20496386

  12. METAL RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Werner, L.B.; Hill, O.F.

    1957-12-01

    A process is presented for the separation of plutonium from the niobium oxide which is frequently used as a carrier precipitate to separate the plutonium from solutions of dissolved fuel elements. The niobium oxide, plutonium bearing precipitate is treated with hydrogen fluoride converting the niobium to the volatile pentafluoride, while the plutonium is changed into the substantially non- volatile plutonium tetrafluoride. After the niobium has been removed, the plutonium tetrafluoride is reacted with elemental fluorine, converting it to a higher plutonium fluoride and this may in turn be volitilized away from any residual impurities.

  13. The frequency selectivity of double H-shaped metallic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Guozhong

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design and numerical simulation of the double H-shaped metallic periodic structure based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) method in terahertz frequency range. The double H-shaped structure unit cell consists of two H structures overlapped in the same plane. Numerical simulation results show that the double H-shaped structure results in a distinct and strong transmission trap in 0.2~3.0THz range. The position and the full wave at half maximum (FWHM) of transmission trap are changed with different structure size. The surface current distribution of structure is numerical simulated, which clarifies the frequency selection mechanism of the transmission spectra.

  14. Temporal pulse shaping for smoothing of printed metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Yuval; Zenou, Michael; Dolev, Omer; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    The surfaces of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) printed metal structures show typical roughness characteristic of the metal droplet size (3 to 10 μm). Submicron voids are often observed in the bulk of such printed metal structures with consequences on the mechanical strength, chemical resistivity, and electrical conductivity. We present the results of our efforts to reduce surface roughness and bulk voids by controlled laser melting. We have used temporally shaped pulses from a fiber laser tunable in the range from 1 to 600 ns in order to improve the quality of LIFT printed copper and aluminum structures. For the best case shown, roughness was improved from RRMS=0.8 μm to RRMS=0.2 μm and the relative percentage of the voids was reduced from 7.3% to 0.9%.

  15. Process for Producing Metal Compounds From Graphite Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for providing elemental metals or metal oxides distributed on a carbon substrate or self-supported utilizing graphite oxide as a precursor. The graphite oxide is exposed to one or more metal chlorides to form an intermediary product comprising carbon, metal, chloride, and oxygen. This intermediary product can be fiber processed by direct exposure to carbonate solutions to form a second intermediary product comprising carbon. metal carbonate. and oxygen. Either intermediary product may be further processed: a) in air to produce metal oxide b) in an inert environment to produce metal oxide on carbon substrate; c) in a reducing environment to produce elemental metal distributed on carbon substrate. The product generally takes the shape of the carbon precursor.

  16. Process for Producing Metal Compounds from Graphite Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for providing elemental metals or metal oxides distributed on a carbon substrate or self-supported utilizing graphite oxide as a precursor. The graphite oxide is exposed to one or more metal chlorides to form an intermediary product comprising carbon. metal. chloride. and oxygen This intermediary product can be flier processed by direct exposure to carbonate solutions to form a second intermediary product comprising carbon. metal carbonate. and oxygen. Either intermediary product may be further processed: a) in air to produce metal oxide: b) in an inert environment to produce metal oxide on carbon substrate: c) in a reducing environment. to produce elemental metal distributed on carbon substrate. The product generally takes the shape of the carbon precursor.

  17. Process for producing metal compounds from graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for providing elemental metals or metal oxides distributed on a carbon substrate or self-supported utilizing graphite oxide as a precursor. The graphite oxide is exposed to one or more metal chlorides to form an intermediary product comprising carbon, metal, chloride, and oxygen This intermediary product can be flier processed by direct exposure to carbonate solutions to form a second intermediary product comprising carbon, metal carbonate, and oxygen. Either intermediary product may be further processed: a) in air to produce metal oxide; b) in an inert environment to produce metal oxide on carbon substrate; c) in a reducing environment to produce elemental metal distributed on carbon substrate. The product generally takes the shape of the carbon precursor.

  18. Near net shape processing for solar thermal propulsion hardware using directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.O.; Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.

    1998-12-01

    Directed light fabrication (DLF) is a direct metal deposition process that fuses gas delivered powder, in the focal zone of a high powered laser beam to form fully fused near net shaped components. The near net shape processing of rhenium, tungsten, iridium and other high temperature materials may offer significant cost savings compared with conventional processing. This paper describes a 3D parametric solid model, integrated with a manufacturing model, and creating a control field which runs on the DLF machine directly depositing a fully dense, solid metal, near net shaped, nozzle component. Examples of DLF deposited rhenium, iridium and tantalum, from previous work, show a continuously solidified microstructure in rod and tube shapes. Entrapped porosity indicates the required direction for continued process development. These combined results demonstrate the potential for a new method to fabricate complex near net shaped components using materials of interest to the space and aerospace industries.

  19. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  20. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  1. Application of nondiffracting Bessel beams for shaping of surface metal microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drampyan, Rafael; Leonov, Nikita; Vartanyan, Tigran

    2016-08-01

    A novel method of laser-controlled shaping of metal microstructures based on the processes of metal atoms adsorption on the surface of crystalline substrate and simultaneous control of photostimulated desorption of atoms by spatially modulated nondiffracting laser beam illumination is presented. The experiments were performed for sodium atoms deposition to the sapphire substrate, which was illuminated by Bessel beam at 532 nm wavelength and 2 W/cm2 intensity. Experiments showed that the optical pattern was well reproduced in the sodium deposits thus creating the annularly microstructured metal film with few tens nanometre thickness.

  2. Metal rolling - Asymmetrical rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    The development of theory and practice related to the asymmetric longitudinal rolling process is based on the general theory of metalworking by pressure and symmetric rolling theory, to which a large number of scientists brought their contribution. The rolling of metal materials was a serious problem throughout history, either economically or technically, because the plating technologies enabled the consumption of raw materials (scarce and expensive) to be reduced, while improving the mechanical properties. Knowing the force parameters related to asymmetric rolling leads to the optimization of energy and raw material consumption. This paper presents data on symmetric rolling process, in order to comparatively highlight the particularities of the asymmetric process.

  3. Ultrafine Metal-Organic Right Square Prism Shaped Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Otake, Ken-Ichi; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-05-23

    We report the structural design and control of electronic states of a new series of ultrafine metal-organic right square prism-shaped nanowires. These nanowires have a very small inner diameter of about 2.0 Å, which is larger than hydrogen and similar to xenon atomic diameters. The electronic states of nanowires can be widely controlled by substitution of structural components. Moreover, the platinum homometallic nanowire shows a 100 times higher proton conductivity than a palladium/platinum heterometallic one depending on the electronic states. PMID:27080935

  4. Curled actuated shapes of ionic polymer metal composites strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardinocchi, Paola; Pezzulla, Matteo

    2013-06-01

    The curled actuated shapes of ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are described within a nonlinear physics-based model of IPMC actuators. A key characteristic of the model is the refined, even if black box based, modeling of the relative permittivity of the IPMCs which strongly influences the actuation performances of the IPMC, when voltages higher than 1 V are involved. A varying-along-the-thickness relative permittivity is proposed to take into account the highly heterogeneous layers resulting from electrode deposition, where a charge redistribution occurs. Moreover, the presence of the metal electrodes has been considered as hampering the IPMCs' bending deformations, so reducing the actuation performances of the IPMC. A series of numerical tests have been planned and discussed to show the characteristics of the model; in particular, the model is shown to be strong enough to catch the not monotonic behavior of IPMCs, when back relaxation is manifested.

  5. PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, C.H. Jr.; Reynolds, F.L.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented for producing oxygen-free uranium metal comprising contacting iodine vapor with crude uranium in a reaction zone maintained at 400 to 800 C to produce a vaporous mixture of UI/sub 4/ and iodine. Also disposed within the maction zone is a tungsten filament which is heated to about 1600 C. The UI/sub 4/, upon contacting the hot filament, is decomposed to molten uranium substantially free of oxygen.

  6. Laser induced forward transfer of metals by temporally shaped femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Klini, A; Loukakos, P A; Gray, D; Manousaki, A; Fotakis, C

    2008-07-21

    Temporally shaped, femtosecond laser pulses have been used for controlling the size and the morphology of micron-sized metallic structures obtained by using the Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique. We report the effect of pulse shaping on the size and morphology of the deposited structures of Au, Zn, Cr on a function of the pulse separation time ??t (from 0 to 10 ps) of double pulses of variable intensities generated by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The observed differences in size and morphology are correlated with the outcome of pump-probe experiments for the study of electron-phonon scattering dynamics and subsequent energy transfer processes to the bulk in the different metals employed. We propose that in metals with weak electron-lattice coupling, the electron ballistic motion and the resulting fast electron scattering at the film surface, as well as the internal electron thermalization process are crucial to the morphology and size of the transferred material. Therefore, temporal shaping within the corresponding time scales of these processes may be used for tailoring the features of the metallic structures obtained by LIFT. PMID:18648449

  7. A shape-based account for holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Faces are processed holistically, so selective attention to 1 face part without any influence of the others often fails. In this study, 3 experiments investigated what type of facial information (shape or surface) underlies holistic face processing and whether generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires extensive discrimination experience. Results show that facial shape information alone is sufficient to elicit the composite face effect (CFE), 1 of the most convincing demonstrations of holistic processing, whereas facial surface information is unnecessary (Experiment 1). The CFE is eliminated when faces differ only in surface but not shape information, suggesting that variation of facial shape information is necessary to observe holistic face processing (Experiment 2). Removing 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape information also eliminates the CFE, indicating the necessity of 3D shape information for holistic face processing (Experiment 3). Moreover, participants show similar holistic processing for faces with and without extensive discrimination experience (i.e., own- and other-race faces), suggesting that generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires facial shape information, but does not necessarily require further individuation experience. These results provide compelling evidence that facial shape information underlies holistic face processing. This shape-based account not only offers a consistent explanation for previous studies of holistic face processing, but also suggests a new ground-in addition to expertise-for the generalization of holistic processing to different types of faces and to nonface objects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26371495

  8. Compacted carbonaceous shapes and process for making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Du Broff, W.; Craig, G.H.; Veslocki, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    Compacted carbonaceous shapes are produced by mixing a particulate carbonaceous material with a binder, forming green shapes from the mixture, and heating the green shapes by induction heating or microwave heating or a combination thereof. The process is particularly adapted for making formcoke.

  9. Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS(TM)): A Tool for Direct Fabrication of Metal Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.; Ensz, M.; Greene, D.; Griffith, M.; Harwell, L.; Reckaway, D.; Romero, T.; Schlienger, E.; Smugeresky, J.

    1998-11-05

    For many years, Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in the development and application of rapid prototyping and dmect fabrication technologies to build prototype parts and patterns for investment casting. Sandia is currently developing a process called Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS~) to fabricate filly dense metal parts dwectly from computer-aided design (CAD) solid models. The process is similar to traditional laser-initiated rapid prototyping technologies such as stereolithography and selective laser sintering in that layer additive techniques are used to fabricate physical parts directly from CAD data. By using the coordinated delivery of metal particles into a focused laser beam apart is generated. The laser beam creates a molten pool of metal on a substrate into which powder is injected. Concurrently, the substrate on which the deposition is occurring is moved under the beam/powder interaction zone to fabricate the desired cross-sectiwal geometry. Consecutive layers are additively deposited, thereby producing a three-dmensional part. This process exhibits enormous potential to revolutionize the way in which metal parts, such as complex prototypes, tooling, and small-lot production parts, are produced. The result is a comple~ filly dense, near-net-shape part. Parts have been fabricated from 316 stainless steel, nickel-based alloys, H13 tool steel, and titanium. This talk will provide a general overview of the LENS~ process, discuss potential applications, and display as-processed examples of parts.

  10. Near-net-shape manufacturing: Spray-formed metal matrix composites and tooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.

    1994-01-01

    Spray forming is a materials processing technology in which a bulk liquid metal is converted to a spray of fine droplets and deposited onto a substrate or pattern to form a near-net-shape solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is developing a unique spray-forming method, the Controlled Aspiration Process (CAP), to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from two spray-accompanying technical and economic benefits. These programs involved spray forming aluminum strip reinforced with SiC particulate, and the production of tooling, such as injection molds and dies, using low-melting-point metals.

  11. Free form fabrication of metallic components using laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark})

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, M.L.; Keicher, D.M.; Atwood, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    Solid free form fabrication is one of the fastest growing automated manufacturing technologies that has significantly impacted the length of time between initial concept and actual part fabrication. Starting with CAD renditions of new components, several techniques such as stereolithography and selective laser sintering are being used to fabricate highly accurate complex three-dimensional concept models using polymeric materials. Coupled with investment casting techniques, sacrificial polymeric objects are used to minimize costs and time to fabricate tooling used to make complex metal castings. This paper will describe recent developments in a new technology, known as LENS{sup {trademark}} (Laser Engineered Net Shaping), to fabricate metal components directly from CAD solid models and thus further reduce the lead times for metal part fabrication. In a manner analogous to stereolithography or selective sintering, the LENS{sup {trademark}} process builds metal parts line by line and layer by layer. Metal particles are injected into a laser beam, where they are melted and deposited onto a substrate as a miniature weld pool. The trace of the laser beam on the substrate is driven by the definition of CAD models until the desired net-shaped densified metal component is produced.

  12. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) for the repair and modification of NWC metal components.

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Clinton J.; Smugeresky, John E. (Sandia National Labs, Livermore,CA); Gill, David Dennis

    2006-11-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) is a layer additive manufacturing process that creates fully dense metal components using a laser, metal powder, and a computer solid model. This process has previously been utilized in research settings to create metal components and new material alloys. The ''Qualification of LENS for the Repair and Modification of Metal NWC Components'' project team has completed a Technology Investment project to investigate the use of LENS for repair of high rigor components. The team submitted components from four NWC sites for repair or modification using the LENS process. These components were then evaluated for their compatibility to high rigor weapons applications. The repairs included hole filling, replacement of weld lips, addition of step joints, and repair of surface flaws and gouges. The parts were evaluated for mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, weldability, and hydrogen compatibility. This document is a record of the LENS processing of each of these component types and includes process parameters, build strategies, and lessons learned. Through this project, the LENS process was shown to successfully repair or modify metal NWC components.

  13. Metal Matrix Composite LOX Turbopump Housing Via Novel Tool-Less Net-Shape Pressure Infiltration Casting Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.; Jones, Clyde S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the effort by Metal Matrix Cast Composites, Inc. to redesign turbopump housing joints using metal matrix composite material and a toolless net-shape pressure infiltration casting technology. Topics covered include: advantage of metal matrix composites for propulsion components, baseline pump design and analysis, advanced toolless pressure infiltration casting process, subscale pump housing, preform splicing and joining for large components, and fullscale pump housing redesign.

  14. Precision linear shaped charge analyses for severance of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.G.

    1996-08-01

    The Precision Linear Shaped Charge (PLSC) design concept involves the independent fabrication and assembly of the liner (wedge of PLSC), the tamper/confinement, and explosive. The liner is the most important part of a linear shaped charge (LSC) and should be fabricated by a more quality controlled, precise process than the tamper material. Also, this concept allows the liner material to be different from the tamper material. The explosive can be loaded between the liner and tamper as the last step in the assembly process rather than the first step as in conventional LSC designs. PLSC designs have been shown to produce increased jet penetrations in given targets, more reproducible jet penetration, and more efficient explosive cross-section geometries using a minimum amount of explosive. The Linear Explosive Shaped Charge Analysis (LESCA) code developed at Sandia National Laboratories has been used to assist in the design of PLSCs. LESCA predictions for PLSC jet tip velocities, jet-target impact angles, and jet penetration in aluminum and steel targets are compared to measured data. The advantages of PLSC over conventional LSC are presented. As an example problem, the LESCA code was used to analytically develop a conceptual design for a PLSC component to sever a three-inch thick 1018 steel plate at a water depth of 500 feet (15 atmospheres).

  15. PROCESS OF PRODUCING ACTINIDE METALS

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-07-14

    The preparation of actinide metals in workable, coherent form is described. In general, the objects of the invention are achieved by heating a mixture of an oxide and a halide of an actinide metal such as uranium with an alkali metal on alkaline earth metal reducing agent in the presence of iodine.

  16. Competing Classical and Quantum Effects in Shape Relaxation of a Metallic Nanostructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dongmin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Toshishi; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that the quantum size effect (QSE) plays a competing role along side the classical thermodynamic effect in the shape relaxation of a small metallic island. Together, these effects transforms a lead(Pb) island grown on Si(111) substrate from its initially flattop faceted morphology to a peculiar ring-shape island, a process catalysed by the tip electric field of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). We shall show for the first time how QSE affects the relaxation process dynamically. In particular, it leads to a novel strip-flow growth and double-step growth on selective strips of a plateau inside the ring, defined by the substrate steps more than 60?0?3 below. It appears that atoms diffusing on the plateau can clearly (sub i)(deg)sense(sub i)+/- the quantized energy states inside the island and have preferentially attached to regions that further reduces the surface energy as a result of the QSE, limiting its own growth and stabilizing the ring shape. The mechanism proposed here offers a sound explanation for ring shape metal and semiconductor islands observed in other systems as well.

  17. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  18. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  19. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  20. Development of techniques for processing metal-metal oxide systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques for producing model metal-metal oxide systems for the purpose of evaluating the results of processing such systems in the low-gravity environment afforded by a drop tower facility are described. Because of the lack of success in producing suitable materials samples and techniques for processing in the 3.5 seconds available, the program was discontinued.

  1. Lateralization of Object-Shape Information in Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Yaxley, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether perceptual information, specifically the shape of objects, is activated during semantic processing. Subjects judged whether a target word was related to a prime word. Prime-target pairs that were not associated, but whose referents had similar shapes (e.g. LADDER-RAILROAD) yielded longer ''no''…

  2. Metals processing control by counting molten metal droplets

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, Eric; Robertson, Joanna M.; Melgaard, David; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Van Den Avyle, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for controlling metals processing (e.g., ESR) by melting a metal ingot and counting molten metal droplets during melting. An approximate amount of metal in each droplet is determined, and a melt rate is computed therefrom. Impedance of the melting circuit is monitored, such as by calculating by root mean square a voltage and current of the circuit and dividing the calculated current into the calculated voltage. Analysis of the impedance signal is performed to look for a trace characteristic of formation of a molten metal droplet, such as by examining skew rate, curvature, or a higher moment.

  3. Distinct processes shape flashbulb and event memories.

    PubMed

    Tinti, Carla; Schmidt, Susanna; Testa, Silvia; Levine, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, we examined the relation between memory for a consequential and emotional event and memory for the circumstances in which people learned about that event, known as flashbulb memory. We hypothesized that these two types of memory have different determinants and that event memory is not necessarily a direct causal determinant of flashbulb memory. Italian citizens (N = 352) described their memories of Italy's victory in the 2006 Football World Cup Championship after a delay of 18 months. Structural equation modeling showed that flashbulb memory and event memory could be clearly differentiated and were determined by two separate pathways. In the first pathway, importance predicted emotional intensity, which, in turn, predicted the frequency of overt and covert rehearsal. Rehearsal was the only direct determinant of vivid and detailed flashbulb memories. In the second pathway, importance predicted rehearsal by media exposure, which enhanced the accuracy and certainty of event memory. Event memory was also enhanced by prior knowledge. These results have important implications for the debate concerning whether the formation of flashbulb memory and event memory involve different processes and for understanding how flashbulb memory can be simultaneously so vivid and so error-prone. PMID:24217894

  4. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-04-12

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites.

  6. Synthesis and processing of composites by reactive metal penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Tomsia, A.P.

    1995-05-01

    Ceramic-metal composites are being developed because their high stiffness-to weight ratios, good fracture toughness, and variable electrical and thermal properties give them advantages over more conventional materials. However, because ceramic-metal composite components presently are more expensive than monolithic materials, improvements in processing are required to reduce manufacturing costs. Reactive metal penetration is a promising new method for making ceramic- and metal-matrix composites that has the advantage of being inherently a net-shape process. This technique, once fully developed, will provide another capability for manufacturing the advanced ceramic composites that are needed for many light-weight structural and wear applications. The lower densities of these composites lead directly to energy savings in use. Near-net-shape fabrication of composite parts should lead to additional savings because costly and energy intensive grinding and machining operations are significantly reduced, and the waste generated from such finishing operations is minimized. The goals of this research program are: (1) to identify feasible compositional systems for making composites by reactive metal penetration; (2) to understand the mechanism(s) of composite formation by reactive metal penetration; and (3) to learn how to control and optimize reactive metal penetration for economical production of composites and composite coatings.

  7. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.; Gupta, S.; Mcmullin, P. G.; Palaschak, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Laser-assisted processing techniques for producing high-quality solar cell metallization patterns are being investigated, developed, and characterized. The tasks comprising these investigations are outlined.

  8. The eelectrochemical processing of refractory metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1991-07-01

    Electrochemical processing is used extensively in the primary extraction of metals (electrowinning), the purification and recycling of metals (electrorefining), and the formation of metal coatings (electroplating). With respect to the refractory metals, electrochemical processing is conducted almost exclusively in nonaqueous media, predominantly in molten salts. Electrolysis infused salts as well as other nonaqueous media has enormous potential for materials processing. First, because of the special attributes of nonaqueous electrolytes, electrochemical processing in these media has an important role to play in the generation of advanced materials—materials with specialized chemistries or tailored microstructures (electrosynthesis). Second,as environmental quality standards rise beyond the capabilities of classical metals extraction technologies to comply, electrochemical processing may prove to be the only acceptable route from ore to metal.

  9. A Shape-Based Account for Holistic Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Faces are processed holistically, so selective attention to 1 face part without any influence of the others often fails. In this study, 3 experiments investigated what type of facial information (shape or surface) underlies holistic face processing and whether generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires extensive…

  10. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-01

    Laser assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high efficiency solar cells are investigated. The tasks comprising these investigations are summarized. Metal deposition experiments are carried out utilizing laser assisted pyrolysis of a variety of metal bearing polymer films and metalloorganic inks spun onto silicon substrates. Laser decomposition of spun on silver neodecanoate ink yields very promising results. Solar cell comb metallization patterns are written using this technique.

  11. Synthesis and processing of composites by reactive metal penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Tomsia, A.P.; Fahrenholtz, W.G.

    1996-07-01

    Ceramic-metal composites are being developed as engineering materials because of their high stiffness-to-weight ratios, good fracture toughness, and because their electrical and thermal properties can be varied through control of their compositions and microstructures. Wider use of ceramic-metal composites requires improvements in synthesis and processing so that high-performance parts can be produced more economically. Over the past three years reactive metal penetration has been shown to be a promising technique for making ceramic and metal-matrix composites to near-net-shape with control of both composition and microstructure. It appears that reactive metal penetration could be an economical process for manufacturing many of the advanced ceramic composites that are needed for light-weight structural and wear applications for transportation and energy conversion devices. Near-net-shape fabrication of parts has the additional advantage that costly and energy intensive grinding and machining operations are significantly reduced, and the waste generated from such finishing operations is minimized. The goals of this research and development program are: (1) to identify compositions favorable for making composites by reactive metal penetration; (2) to understand the mechanism(s) by which these composites are formed; and (3) to control and optimize the process so that composites and composite coatings can be made economically.

  12. Research on the neural networks used for shaping tubes by the liquid extrusion process

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, L.H.; Li, H.J.; Hou, J.J.; Cui, P.L.

    2000-02-01

    Liquid extrusion, as a new kind of metal forming process for shaping tube and bar products directly from liquid metal, can reduce the intermediate steps and production costs and make the materials doubly strengthened. But it has not been widely used since the process parameters are now selected by experience, which can easily result in a high reject rate. In order to analyze the contributing factors of the process, the artificial neural network method was used in this paper. The network architecture was determined by adopting 125 sets of experimental data of the shaping tubes of AlCuSiMg alloy as samples and, by contrast, one or two hidden layers and the numbers of nodes and other network parameters. The knowledge base for the process parameters of liquid extrusion has been established. The values predicted by the knowledge base are very consistent with the practical ones. The result shows that the introduced method is feasible and effective.

  13. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: The Importance of Size, Shape, Chemical Composition, and Valence State in Determining Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunnick, Katherine

    Nanoparticles, which are defined as a structure with at least one dimension between 1 and 100 nm, have the potential to be used in a variety of consumer products due to their improved functionality compared to similar particles of larger size. Their small size is associated with increased strength, improved catalytic properties, and increased reactivity; however, their size is also associated with increased toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Numerous toxicological studies have been conducted to determine the properties of nanomaterials that increase their toxicity in order to manufacture new nanomaterials with decreased toxicity. Data indicates that size, shape, chemical composition, and valence state of nanomaterials can dramatically alter their toxicity profile. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was to determine how altering the shape, size, and chemical composition of various metal oxide nanoparticles would affect their toxicity. Metal oxides are used in variety of consumer products, from spray-sun screens, to food coloring agents; thus, understanding the toxicity of metal oxides and determining which aspects affect their toxicity may provide safe alternatives nanomaterials for continued use in manufacturing. Tungstate nanoparticles toxicity was assessed in an in vitro model using RAW 264.7 cells. The size, shape, and chemical composition of these nanomaterials were altered and the effect on reactive oxygen species and general cytotoxicity was determined using a variety of techniques. Results demonstrate that shape was important in reactive oxygen species production as wires were able to induce significant reactive oxygen species compared to spheres. Shape, size, and chemical composition did not have much effect on the overall toxicity of these nanoparticles in RAW 264.7 cells over a 72 hour time course, implicating that the base material of the nanoparticles was not toxic in these cells. To further assess how chemical composition can affect toxicity

  14. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Sisson, Warren G.; Brunson, Ronald R.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity.

  15. Thermal softening of metallic shaped-charge jets formed by the collapse of shaped-charge liners in the presence of a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibility of increasing the ultimate stretching and penetration capability of metallic shaped-charge jets in the presence of an axial magnetic field in the shaped-charge liner due to heating and thermal softening of the jet material as a result of a sharp increase in the magnetic-field induction in the jet formation region upon liner collapse. This process is studied by numerical simulation in a quasi-two-dimensional formulation taking into account the inertial stretching of the conductive rigid-plastic rod in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field in it.

  16. Metals Processing Laboratory User Center (MPLUS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.

    1997-04-01

    The Metals Processing Laboratory User (MPLUS) Center was officially designated as a DOE User Facility in February, 1996. It`s primary purpose is to assist researchers in key U.S. industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency and enhancing U.S. competitiveness in the world market. The MPLUS Center provides users the unique opportunity to address technology-related issues to solve metals-processing problems from a fully integrated approach. DOE facilitates the process and catalyzes industrial interactions that enables technical synergy and financial leveraging to take place between the industrial sector identifying and prioritizing their technological needs, and MPLUS, which provides access to the technical expertise and specialized facilities to address these needs. MPLUS is designed to provide U.S. industries with access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals-processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals-processing technologies. As originated, MPLUS includes the following four primary user centers: Metals Processing, Metals Joining, Metals Characterization, and Metals Process Modeling. These centers are devoted to assisting U.S. industries in adjusting to rapid changes in the marketplace and in improving products and processes. This approach optimizes the complementary strengths of industry and government. Tremendous industrial response, has resulted in MPLUS expanding to meet the ever-growing technical needs and requests initiated by U.S. industry.

  17. Process for making silver metal filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1998-04-01

    This invention relates to a process for making filaments of metal compounds and more particularly to a process for making silver metal filaments. The United States Government has rights to this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC05-8421400 with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. awarded by the US Department of Energy.

  18. Heavy metal speciation in the composting process.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Gillian M; Song, Qi Jun

    2002-04-01

    Composting is one of the more efficient and environment friendly methods of solid waste disposal and has many advantages when compared with landfill disposal on which the UK and Ireland are currently heavily dependent. Composting is a very complicated process involving intensive microbial activity and the detailed mechanisms of the process have yet to be fully understood. Metal speciation information can provide an insight into the metal-microbial interaction and would help in the evaluation of the quality of compost. This would facilitate the exploitation of composts in remediation of heavy metal contaminated land. In this work a systematic approach to metal speciation in compost has been taken by applying the three-step method for operationally defined metal speciation of soils and sediments, developed by the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme to monitor the change in metal speciation with time (up to 106 days) for four different waste composting processes. The results have shown that in general metals become less available for the first extraction step as the composting process proceeds. This implies that composting tends to redistribute the metals from more labile forms to more fixed forms which may explain why the application of composts could be useful for with heavy metal contaminated land. There are exceptions to this trend and in some cases, certain metals appear to behave differently depending on the source of the compost. PMID:11993774

  19. METAL PARTITIONING IN COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes ongoing research efforts at the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency examining [high temperature] metal behavior within combustion environments. The partitioning of non-volatile (Cr and Ni), semi-volatil...

  20. Manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V Components by Shaped Metal Deposition: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baufeld, Bernd; van der Biest, Omer; Gault, Rosemary; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-12-01

    The urge in aeronautics to reduce cost and time to flight of components without compromising safety and performance stimulates the investigation of novel manufacturing routes. Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD) is an innovative time-compression technology, which creates near-net shaped components layer by layer by weld deposition. Especially for Ti alloys, which are difficult to shape by traditional methods such as forging, machining and casting and for which the loss of material during the shaping process is also very expensive, SMD promises great advantages. Applying preliminary SMD parameter, four different tubular components with a square cross section and wall thicknesses of about 9 mm were built. The microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V components consists of large prior β grains, elongated along the temperature gradient during welding, which transform into a lamellar α/β substructure at room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength was between 880 and 1054 MPa. The strain at failure was between 3.0 and 11.3 % for tensile testing parallel to the deposition plane and between 9.1 and 16.4 % perpendicular to the deposition plane. The micro-hardness (3.1 - 3.4 GPa), the Young's modulus (117 - 121 GPa) and the oxygen and nitrogen content are comparable to cast Ti-6Al-4V material.

  1. Online processing of shape information for control of grasping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongting; Saunders, Jeffrey A

    2015-11-01

    When picking up objects, we tend to grasp at contact points that minimize slippage and torsion, which depend on the particular shape. Normally, grasp points could be planned before initiating movement. We tested whether grasp points can be determined during online control. Subjects reached to grasp virtual planar objects with varied shapes. On some trials, the object was changed during movement, either rotated by 45° or replaced with a different object. In all conditions, grasp axes were well adapted to the target shape, passing near the center of mass with low force closure angles. On perturbed trials, corrective adjustments were detectable within 320 ms and were toward the same grasp axes observed on unperturbed trials. Perturbations had little effect on either kinematics or the optimality of final grasp points. Our results demonstrate that the visuomotor system is capable of online processing of shape information to determine appropriate contact points for grasping. PMID:26195167

  2. Process Simulation of Gas Metal Arc Welding Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-06

    ARCWELDER is a Windows-based application that simulates gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of steel and aluminum. The software simulates the welding process in an accurate and efficient manner, provides menu items for process parameter selection, and includes a graphical user interface with the option to animate the process. The user enters the base and electrode material, open circuit voltage, wire diameter, wire feed speed, welding speed, and standoff distance. The program computes the size andmore » shape of a square-groove or V-groove weld in the flat position. The program also computes the current, arc voltage, arc length, electrode extension, transfer of droplets, heat input, filler metal deposition, base metal dilution, and centerline cooling rate, in English or SI units. The simulation may be used to select welding parameters that lead to desired operation conditions.« less

  3. Solid State Pathways to Complex Shape Evolution and Tunable Porosity during Metallic Crystal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Carlos Díaz; Carriedo, Gabino A.; Valenzuela, María L.; Zúñiga, Luis; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Growing complex metallic crystals, supported high index facet nanocrystal composites and tunable porosity metals, and exploiting factors that influence shape and morphology is crucial in many exciting developments in chemistry, catalysis, biotechnology and nanoscience. Assembly, organization and ordered crystallization of nanostructures into complex shapes requires understanding of the building blocks and their association, and this relationship can define the many physical properties of crystals and their assemblies. Understanding crystal evolution pathways is required for controlled deposition onto surfaces. Here, complex metallic crystals on the nano- and microscale, carbon supported nanoparticles, and spinodal porous noble metals with defined inter-feature distances in 3D, are accomplished in the solid-state for Au, Ag, Pd, and Re. Bottom-up growth and positioning is possible through competitive coarsening of mobile nanoparticles and their site-specific crystallization in a nucleation-dewetted matrix. Shape evolution, density and growth mechanism of complex metallic crystals and porous metals can be imaged during growth. PMID:24026532

  4. ELECTROLYTIC PROCESS FOR PRODUCING METALS

    DOEpatents

    Kopelman, B.; Holden, R.B.

    1961-06-01

    A method is described for reducing beryllium halides to beryllium. The beryllfum halide fs placed in an eutectic mixture of alkali halides and alkaline earth halides. The constituents of this eutectic bath are so chosen that it has a melting point less than the boiling point of mercury, which acts as a cathode for the system. The beryllium metal is then deposited in the mercury upon electrolysis.

  5. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-08-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  6. LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to test the leaching of Mineral processing Waste (MPW) contaminated with heavy metals using scientifically defendable leaching tests other than TCLP. Past experience and literature have shown that TCLP underestiates the levels of metals such as oxoa...

  7. LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to test the leaching of Mineral Processing Waste (MPW) contaminated with heavy metals using scientifically defendable leaching tests other than TCLP. Past experience and literature have shown that TCLP underestimates the levels of metals such as oxo...

  8. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  9. METAL CAPTURE BY SORBENTS IN COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of an investigation of the use of sorbents to control trace metal emissions from combustion processes and an exploration of the underlying mechanisms. mphasis was on mechanisms in which the metal vapor was reactively scavenged by simple commercial sorben...

  10. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high efficiency solar cells are examined. Two basic techniques for metal deposition are investigated; (1) photochemical decomposition of liquid or gas phase organometallic compounds utilizing either a focused, CW ultraviolet laser (System 1) or a mask and ultraviolet flood illumination, such as that provided by a repetitively pulsed, defocused excimer laser (System 2), for pattern definition, and (2) thermal deposition of metals from organometallic solutions or vapors utilizing a focused, CW laser beam as a local heat source to draw the metallization pattern.

  11. Transformational Learning in Botswana: How Culture Shapes the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Ntseane, Gabo

    2008-01-01

    Transformational learning as presented by Jack Mezirow has been critiqued for its Western, rational, and cognitive orientation. This qualitative study was conducted in the African nation of Botswana and examines how that culture shaped the process. In-depth interviews were held with 12 adults who acknowledged having an experience that had…

  12. Influences on particle shape in underwater pelletizing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kast, O. E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Musialek, M. E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Geiger, K. E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C. E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-05-15

    Underwater pelletizing has gained high importance within the last years among the different pelletizing technologies, due to its advantages in terms of throughput, automation, pellet quality and applicability to a large variety of thermoplastics. The resulting shape and quality of pellets, however, differ widely, depending on material characteristics and effects not fully understood yet. In an experimental set-up, pellets of different volumes and shapes were produced and the medium pellet mass, the pellet surface and the bulk density were analyzed in order to identify the influence of material properties and process parameters. Additionally, the shaping kinetics at the die opening were watched with a specially developed camera system. It was found that rheological material properties correlate with process parameters and resulting particle form in a complex way. Higher cutting speeds were shown to have a deforming influence on the pellets, leading to less spherical s and lower bulk densities. More viscous materials, however, showed a better resistance against this. Generally, the viscous properties of polypropylene proofed to be dominant over the elastic ones in regard to their influence on pellet shape. It was also shown that the shapes filmed at the die opening and the actual form of the pellets after a cooling track do not always correlate, indicating a significant influence of thermodynamic properties during the cooling.

  13. Nanoforging – Innovation in three-dimensional processing and shaping of nanoscaled structures

    PubMed Central

    Rösler, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: This paper describes the shaping of freestanding objects out of metallic structures in the nano- and submicron size. The technique used, called nanoforging, is very similar to the macroscopic forging process. Results: With spring actuated tools produced by focused ion beam milling, controlled forging is demonstrated. With only three steps, a conical bar stock is transformed to a flat- and semicircular bent bar stock. Conclusion: Compared with other forming techniques in the reduced scale, nanoforging represents a beneficial approach in forming freestanding metallic structures, due to its simplicity, and supplements other forming techniques. PMID:25161840

  14. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  15. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described.

  16. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark}) process: Optimization of surface finish and microstructural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Smugeresky, J.E.; Keicher, D.M.; Romero, J.A.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.

    1997-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) has revolutionized the approach to fabricating geometrically complex hardware from a CAD solid model. The various RP techniques allow component designers to directly fabricate conceptual models in plastics and polymer coated metals; however, each of the techniques requires additional processes, e.g. investment casting, to allow the fabrication of functional metallic hardware. This limitation has provided the impetus for further development of solid freeform fabrication technologies which enable fabrication of functional metallic hardware directly from the CAD solid model. The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) process holds promise in satisfying this need. This newly emerging technology possesses the capability to fabricate fully dense components with good dimensional accuracy and with unique materials properties. Relatively complex geometrical shapes have been fabricated using this technology. In continuing to develop the LENS{trademark} process, further advancements are required. The functional dependence of the component surface finish and microstructural characteristics on process parameters including power size and size distribution are being evaluated. A set of statistically designed experiments is being used to sort through the various process parameters and identify significant process variables for improving surface finish and achieving optimum material microstructural properties.

  17. Processing and properties of advanced metallic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, Alan Harold

    Since the development of the first aluminum foams in the middle of the 20th century [178], great advances have been made in the processing and fundamental understanding of metallic foams. As a result of these advances, metallic foams are now penetrating a number of applications where their unique suite of properties makes them superior to solid materials, such as lightweight structures, packaging and impact protection, and filtration and catalysis [3]. The purpose of this work is to extend the use of metallic foams in such applications by expanding their processing to include more sophisticated base alloys and architectures. The first four chapters discuss replacement of conventional crystalline metal foams with ones made from high-strength, low-melting amorphous metals, a substitution that offers potential for achieving mechanical properties superior to those of the best crystalline metal foams, without sacrificing the simplicity of processing methods made for low-melting crystalline alloys. Three different amorphous metal foams are developed in these chapters, and their structures and properties characterized. It is shown for the first time that amorphous metal foams, due to stabilization of shear bands during bending of their small strut-like features, are capable of compressive ductility comparable to that of ductile crystalline metal foams. A two-fold improvement in mechanical energy absorption relative to crystalline aluminum foams is shown experimentally to result from this stabilization. The last two chapters discuss modifications in foam processing that are designed to introduce controllable and continuous gradients in local foam density, which should improve mass efficiency by mimicking the optimized structures found in natural cellular materials [64], as well as facilitate the bonding and joining of foams with solid materials in higher-order structures. Two new processing methods are developed, one based on replication of nonuniformly-compressed polymer

  18. Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal

    DOEpatents

    Ganguli, Partha S.

    1984-01-01

    Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

  19. Synthesis and processing of composites by reactive metal penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Tomsia, A.P.

    1997-04-01

    Achieving better performance in commercial products and processes often is dependent on availability of new and improved materials. Ceramic-metal composites have advantages over more conventional materials because of their high stiffness-to-weight ratios, good fracture toughness, and because their electrical and thermal properties can be varied through control of their compositions and microstructures. However, ceramic composites will be more widely used only when their costs are competitive with other materials and when designers have more confidence in their reliability. Over the past four years reactive metal penetration has been shown to be a promising technique for making ceramic and metal-matrix composites to near-net-shape with control of both composition and microstructure. It appears that, with sufficient development, reactive metal penetration could be an economical process for manufacturing many of the advanced ceramic composites that are needed for light-weight structural and wear applications for transportation and energy conversion devices. Near-net-shape fabrication of parts is a significant advantage because costly and energy intensive grinding and machining operations are substantially reduced, and the waste generated from such finishing operations is minimized. The most promising compositions to date consist of Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; thus, these composites should be of particular interest to the aluminum industry. The goals of this ceramic-metal composite research and development program are: (1) to identify compositions favorable for making composites by reactive metal penetration; (2) to understand the mechanism(s) by which these composites are formed; (3) to control and optimize the process so that composites and composite coatings can be made economically; and (4) to apply R&D results to problems of interest to the aluminum industry.

  20. Process for bonding elastomers to metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, George E. (Inventor); Kelley, Henry L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for bonding elastomeric material to a metal part includes coating a heat curable adhesive on the surfaces of the metal part to be bonded. The metal part is placed in a mold, a bottom plate and an upper transfer pot of a transfer molding machine is preheated to a predetermined cure temperature. A predetermined quantity of uncured elastomeric material is loaded into the transfer pot. The mold containing the adhesive coated metal part is clamped to the bottom plate, and almost contemporaneously, the uncured elastomeric material is pressed into the mold while maintaining heat and pressure in the mold for a time sufficient to vulcanize and thereby cure the elastomeric material simultaneously with the adhesive, whereby contacting surfaces of the metal part are strongly bonded to the vulcanized elastomeric material.

  1. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Metal Nanocrystals: Simple Chemistry Meets Complex Physics?

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Younan; Xiong, Yujie; Lim, Byungkwon; Skrabalak, Sara E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystals are fundamental to modern science and technology. Mastery over the shape of a nanocrystal enables control of its properties and enhancement of its usefulness for a given application. The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive review of current research activities that center on the shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals. We begin with a brief introduction to nucleation and growth within the context of metal nanocrystal synthesis, followed by a discussion of the possible shapes that a metal nanocrystal might take under different conditions. We then focus on a variety of experimental parameters that have been explored to manipulate the nucleation and growth of metal nanocrystals in solution-phase syntheses in an effort to generate specific shapes. We then elaborate on these approaches by selecting examples in which there is already reasonable understanding for the observed shape control or at least the protocols have proven to be reproducible and controllable. Toward the end of this article, we highlight a number of applications that have been enabled and/or enhanced by the shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals. We conclude this article with personal perspectives on the directions toward which future research in this field might take. PMID:19053095

  2. Investigation of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Matrix Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    2002-01-01

    prior set of operating conditions. Weld quality was evaluated using radiography and standard metallography techniques. Another aspect of the MMCs centered around the use of the laser engineered net shaping (LENS) processing of selected Narloy-Z composites. Such an approach has been earlier studied for fabrication of stainless steels. In the present study, attempts were made to fabricate straight cylindrical specimens using LENS process of Narloy-Z and Narloy-Z with 20 vol. % Al2O3 MMCs using the direct metal deposition Optomec LENS-750 system.

  3. Recent Advances in Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles by Radiolysis Route.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Alam; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A; Larki, Farhad; Menon, P Susthitha; Islam, Md Shabiul; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2016-12-01

    This paper focuses on the recent advances on radiolysis-assisted shape-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanostructures. The techniques and protocols for producing desirable shapes of noble metal nanoparticles are discussed through introducing the critical parameters which can influence the nucleation and growth mechanisms. Nucleation rate plays a vital role on the crystallinity of seeds while growth rate of different seeds' facets determines the final shape of resultant nanoparticles. Nucleation and growth rate both can be altered with factors such as absorbed dose, capping agents, and experimental environment condition to control the final shape. Remarkable physical and chemical properties of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles by controlled morphology have been systematically evaluated to fully explore their applications. PMID:27283051

  4. Recent Advances in Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles by Radiolysis Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedini, Alam; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.; Larki, Farhad; Menon, P. Susthitha; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the recent advances on radiolysis-assisted shape-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanostructures. The techniques and protocols for producing desirable shapes of noble metal nanoparticles are discussed through introducing the critical parameters which can influence the nucleation and growth mechanisms. Nucleation rate plays a vital role on the crystallinity of seeds while growth rate of different seeds' facets determines the final shape of resultant nanoparticles. Nucleation and growth rate both can be altered with factors such as absorbed dose, capping agents, and experimental environment condition to control the final shape. Remarkable physical and chemical properties of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles by controlled morphology have been systematically evaluated to fully explore their applications.

  5. On the Shape of Liquid Metal Droplets in Electromagnetic Levitation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, E.; Sauerland, S.; Szekely, J.; Egry, I.

    1993-01-01

    We present calculations and measurements on the shape of liquid metal droplets in electromagnetic levitation experiments. A normal stress balance model was developed to predict the shapes of liquid metal droplets that will be obtained in a microgravity experiment to measure the viscosity and surface tension of undercooled metals. This model was tested by calculating the droplet shapes in containerless experiments conducted to determine the surface tension of liquid metals. Inconsistencies associated with the results of a previous paper are elucidated. The computational results of the mathematical model are compared with the results of ground-based experiments for two different metals. The importance of the ratio of electromagnetic skin depth-to-droplet radius to the accuracy of the mathematical model is discussed. A planned alternate approach to modeling the shape by consideration of the entire droplet rather than only the surface is presented. As an example of an application. the influence of the shape on the splitting of the surface oscillation modes of levitated liquid metal droplets is discussed.

  6. Shaped ceramics with tunable magnetic properties from metal-containing polymers

    PubMed

    MacLachlan; Ginzburg; Coombs; Coyle; Raju; Greedan; Ozin; Manners

    2000-02-25

    A shaped, magnetic ceramic was obtained from a metal-containing polymer network, which was synthesized by thermal polymerization of a metal-containing organosilicon monomer. Pyrolysis of a cylinder, shape, or film of the metal-containing polymer precursor produced a low-density magnetic ceramic replica in high yield. The magnetic properties of the shaped ceramic could be tuned between a superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic state by controlling the pyrolysis conditions, with the particular state dependent on the size of iron nanoclusters homogeneously dispersed throughout the carbosilane-graphitic-silicon nitride matrix. These results indicate that cross-linked metal-containing polymers may be useful precursors to ceramic monoliths with tailorable magnetic properties. PMID:10688788

  7. Shaped Ceramics with Tunable Magnetic Properties from Metal-Containing Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLachlan, Mark J.; Ginzburg, Madlen; Coombs, Neil; Coyle, Thomas W.; Raju, Nandyala P.; Greedan, John E.; Ozin, Geoffrey A.; Manners, Ian

    2000-02-01

    A shaped, magnetic ceramic was obtained from a metal-containing polymer network, which was synthesized by thermal polymerization of a metal-containing organosilicon monomer. Pyrolysis of a cylinder, shape, or film of the metal-containing polymer precursor produced a low-density magnetic ceramic replica in high yield. The magnetic properties of the shaped ceramic could be tuned between a superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic state by controlling the pyrolysis conditions, with the particular state dependent on the size of iron nanoclusters homogeneously dispersed throughout the carbosilane-graphitic-silicon nitride matrix. These results indicate that cross-linked metal-containing polymers may be useful precursors to ceramic monoliths with tailorable magnetic properties.

  8. Net shape complex preforms for liquid composite molding processes

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, D.T.

    1995-10-01

    The author will present information, slides and a video showing breakthroughs in the critical steps necessary to automate the manufacture of net shape complex reinforcement preforms in high volumes. Complex preforms can now be ultrasonically cut to net shapes, prior to the liquid composite molding process (LCM, RTM, SRIM, etc.), via CNC type controlled multiaxis machinery. In high volume applications, it is not cost effective to do this after molding the composite. The CompForm process provides methodology for the production of complex preforms. Complex preforms are engineered with laminate schedules that provide anisotropic properties in the structural composite article. Complex preforms typically have non homogeneous wall sections, use engineering materials located strategically for maximum performance, and include core materials, fasteners and inserts in the preform.

  9. Epoxy composite processing in a microwave part-shaped cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Shidaker, T.A.; Hawley, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    A microwave part-shaped applicator was designed to be competitive with conventional liquid composite molding processes. Three glass-reinforced diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy composites with a diaminodiphenyl sulfone curative are processed in the part-shaped cavity by microwave heating, conventional heating, and hybrid heating where both microwave and conduction heating are employed. Hybrid heating provided superior heating uniformity due to complementary heat transfer mechanisms: an outward flux of thermal energy from microwave heating combined with an inward flux of energy associated with conventional heating. Because of the penetrating nature of microwave energy, the time required to attain the cure temperature in the composite center was reduced by more than 85% using microwave and hybrid heating methods.

  10. Controlled Rejuvenation of Amorphous Metals with Thermal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Wakeda, Masato; Saida, Junji; Li, Ju; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    Rejuvenation is the configurational excitation of amorphous materials and is one of the more promising approaches for improving the deformability of amorphous metals that usually exhibit macroscopic brittle fracture modes. Here, we propose a method to control the level of rejuvenation through systematic thermal processing and clarify the crucial feasibility conditions by means of molecular dynamics simulations of annealing and quenching. We also experimentally demonstrate rejuvenation level control in Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass. Our local heat-treatment recipe (rising temperature above 1.1Tg, followed by a temperature quench rate exceeding the previous) opens avenue to modifying the glass properties after it has been cast and processed into near component shape, where a higher local cooling rate may be afforded by for example transient laser heating, adding spatial control and great flexibility to the processing. PMID:26010470

  11. Process for removing metals from water

    DOEpatents

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  12. Process for removing metals from water

    DOEpatents

    Napier, John M.; Hancher, Charles M.; Hackett, Gail D.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  13. PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES

    DOEpatents

    Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

    1957-10-01

    This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

  14. Solidification in direct metal deposition by LENS processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, William; Griffith, Michelle

    2001-09-01

    Thermal imaging and metallographic analysis were used to study Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) processing of 316 stainless steel and H13 tool steel. The cooling rates at the solid-liquid interface were measured over a range of conduction conditions. The length scale of the molten zone controls cooling rates during solidification in direct metal deposition. In LENS processing, the molten zone ranges from 0.5 mm in length to 1.5 mm, resulting in cooling rates at the solid-liquid interface ranging from 200 6,000 Ks-1.

  15. Microstructure-controllable Laser Additive Manufacturing Process for Metal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Chin; Chuang, Chuan-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Chih; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Lin, De-Yau; Liu, Sung-Ho; Tseng, Wen-Peng; Horng, Ji-Bin

    Controlling the cooling rate of alloy during solidification is the most commonly used method for varying the material microstructure. However, the cooling rate of selective laser melting (SLM) production is constrained by the optimal parameter settings for a dense product. This study proposes a method for forming metal products via the SLM process with electromagnetic vibrations. The electromagnetic vibrations change the solidification process for a given set of SLM parameters, allowing the microstructure to be varied via magnetic flux density. This proposed method can be used for creating microstructure-controllable bio-implant products with complex shapes.

  16. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  17. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Ginley, David S.

    1994-01-01

    An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

  18. Effect of Pin Tool Shape on Metal Flow During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, J. C.; Coronado, E.; Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Murr, L. M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that metal moves behind the rotating Friction Stir Pin Tool in two separate currents or streams. One current, mostly on the advancing side, enters a zone of material that rotates with the pin tool for one or more revolutions and eventually is abandoned behind the pin tool in crescent-shaped pieces. The other current, largely on the retreating side of the pin tool is moved by a wiping process to the back of the pin tool and fills in between the pieces of the rotational zone that have been shed by the rotational zone. This process was studied by using a faying surface copper trace to clarify the metal flow. Welds were made with pin tools having various thread pitches. Decreasing the thread pitch causes the large scale top-to-bottorn flow to break up into multiple vortices along the pin and an unthreaded pin tool provides insufficient vertical motion for there to be a stable rotational zone and flow of material via the rotational zone is not possible leading to porosity on the advancing side of the weld.

  19. New process hydrotreats metal-rich feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Langhout, W.C.V.Z.; Ouwerkerk, C.; Pronk, K.M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. has developed a hydroprocessing procedure suitable for heavy residual feeds with metal contents of up to about 100 ppm, and Shell plans to introduce soon a process which will enable the catalytic hydrotreating of even the heaviest metal-rich feedstocks. This new process will be studied in an experimental unit expected to be on stream by the end of 1981 at a Venezuelan refinery. Also discussed are the catalytic hydroprocessing of residual material, including the roles of hydrodemetallization, h

  20. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  1. Shape-controlled continuous synthesis of metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Victor; Smith, Christopher D.; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2016-03-01

    A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a thickness of 1.5 nm; and Pt nanocubes with a 5.6 nm edge length, all in a synthesis time as low as 150 s.A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a

  2. Solidification Interface Shape and Location During Processing in High Gradient Furnace with Quench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Keith A.

    1996-01-01

    High Gradient Furnace with Quench (HGFQ) is being developed to facilitate metals processing experiments aboard the International Space Station. The sample is centered in an annular furnace and is held fixed during processing. The furnace itself is made to translate over the sample. Once in process, heat will flow through the sample from the Heater Zone to the Chill Zone. If operating conditions are correct, the solidification interface will stand in the gradient zone. Objectives of the HGFQ process are to provide a high gradient for the solidification with the solidification interface properly positioned in the gradient zone. At the recent RDR for HGFQ, one of the panelists raised the question about the suitability of HGFQ for potential future PIs. Specifically, it was stated by the design team at RDR that the present HGFQ design would provide a radius of curvature of the solidification interface of at least one sample diameter. The RDR panel argued that this was too small, and that most investigators would need a radius of curvature larger than this. The requirements established by the current PIs are shown. These requirements do not contain any specification about the interface shape. However, these requirements do define the envelope of operational parameters for HGFQ. The objectives of the present investigation are to 1) determine a suitable means of quantifying the interface shape, and 2) investigate the interface shape and how it is affected by processing parameters. The processing parameters to be considered are 1) sample material, 2) sample diameter, and 3) gradient zone length.

  3. Process for production of a metal hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  4. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  5. Shape-controlled continuous synthesis of metal nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Victor; Smith, Christopher D; Jensen, Klavs F

    2016-04-14

    A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a thickness of 1.5 nm; and Pt nanocubes with a 5.6 nm edge length, all in a synthesis time as low as 150 s. PMID:26927867

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forging Process to Reproduce a 3D Aluminium Foam Complex Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Umbrello, Domenico; Shivpuri, Rajiv

    2007-05-17

    Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forging Process to Reproduce a 3D Aluminium Foam Complex Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Umbrello, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D®) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load.

  8. Novel Processing of 81-mm Cu Shaped Charge Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A; Korzekwa, D

    2002-01-16

    A seven-step procedure was developed for producing shaped charge liner blanks by back extrusion at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Starting with a 38.1-mm diameter, 101.6-mm long cylinder at 77K, three forging steps with a flat-top die are required to produce the solid cone while maintaining low temperature. The solid cone is forged in four individual back extrusions at 77K to produce the rough liner blank. This procedure is capable of being run in batch processes to improve the time efficiency.

  9. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Sisson, W.G.; Brunson, R.R.

    1997-02-18

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity. 3 figs.

  10. Investigation of nickel-silicon metallization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, M.

    1983-01-01

    The metallization of silicon solar cells passivated with silicon nitride coating was investigated by using commercial Ni pastes #5517 from Thick Film Systems, #7028-5 from Cermalloy, experimental formulation # X-A by Sollos, Inc. and evaporated Ti-Ni film. Comparative and reference tests were done with the Dupont Ag paste #7095 and with a mixture of Ni paste #5517 with Ag paste #7095 in the respective ratio of 9 to 1 by weight. The evaluation criteria for the metallization was the mechanical bond strength of the contact, solderability, copper plating ability and electrical characteristics in terms of Voc, Isc values and shape of the V-I curve. The results revealed that the Dupont Ag paste #7095 mt all required criteria, while the quality of the cells metalized with the commercial Ni paste #5517 from Thick Film Systems, #7028-5 from Cermalloy as well as the experimental paste # X-A from Sollos, Inc. was below the acceptable standards. A significant improvement was obtained with the mixture of Ni paste #5517 from Thick Film Systems with 10% addition of Dupont paste # 7095.

  11. Morphing Metal and Elastomer Bicontinuous Foams for Reversible Stiffness, Shape Memory, and Self-Healing Soft Machines.

    PubMed

    Van Meerbeek, Ilse M; Mac Murray, Benjamin C; Kim, Jae Woo; Robinson, Sanlin S; Zou, Perry X; Silberstein, Meredith N; Shepherd, Robert F

    2016-04-13

    A metal-elastomer-foam composite that varies in stiffness, that can change shape and store shape memory, that self-heals, and that welds into monolithic structures from smaller components is presented. PMID:26872152

  12. Process for Descaling and Decontaminating Metals

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R. D.

    1961-04-25

    The oxide scale on the surface of stainless steels and similar metals is removed by contacting the metal under an inert atmosphere with a dilute H/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ solution containing CrSO/sub 4/. The removed oxide scale is either dissolved or disintegrated into a slurry by the solution. Preferred reagent concentrations are 0.3 to 0.5 M CrSO/sub 4/ and 0.5 to 0.6 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The process is particularly applicable to decontamination of aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor systems. (AEC)

  13. Sensing the gas metal arc welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Smartt, H. B.; Watkins, A. D.; Larsen, E. D.; Taylor, P. L.; Waddoups, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-by-pass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

  14. Near-Net-Shape Processing of Sintered Fibrous Ceramics Achieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Paul W.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of sintered fibrous ceramic (SFC) materials have been developed over the last 50 years as thermal barrier materials for reentry applications. SFC materials typically exhibit very low thermal conductivities combined with low densities and good thermal stability up to 2500 F. These materials have flown successfully on the space shuttle orbiters since the 1960's. More recently, the McDonnell Douglas Corporation successfully used SFC tiles as a heat shield on the underside of its DC X test vehicle. For both of these applications, tiles are machined from blocks of a specific type of SFC called an alumina-enhanced thermal barrier (AETB). The sizes of these blocks have been limited by the manufacturing process. In addition, as much as 80 to 90 percent of the material can be lost during the machining of tiles with significant amounts of curvature. To address these problems, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field entered a cooperative contract with the Boeing Company to develop a vacuum-assisted forming process that can produce large (approximately 4 square feet), severely contoured panels of AETB while saving costs in comparison to the conventional cast-and-machine billet process. For shuttle use, AETB is slurry cast, drained, and fired to form square billets conforming to the shape of the filtration box. The billets are then cut into tiles of the appropriate size for thermally protecting the space shuttle. Processing techniques have limited the maximum size of AETB billets to 21.5 square inches by 6.5-in. thick, but the space shuttles use discrete heat shield tiles no more than 8 to 12 square inches. However, in other applications, large, complex shapes are needed, and the tiling approach is undesirable. For such applications, vacuum-assisted forming can produce large parts with complex shapes while reducing machining waste and eliminating cemented joints between bonded billets. Because it allows contoured shapes to be formed, material utilization is

  15. Effects of d-band shape on the surface reactivity of transition-metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hongliang; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Voss, Johannes; Nørskov, Jens K.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The d-band shape of a metal site, governed by the local geometry and composition of materials, plays an important role in determining trends of the surface reactivity of transition-metal alloys. We discuss this phenomenon using the chemisorption of various adsorbates such as C, N, O, and their hydrogenated species on Pd bimetallic alloys as an example. For many alloys, the d-band center, even with consideration of the d-band width and sp electrons, can not describe variations in reactivity from one surface to another. We investigate the effect of the d-band shape, represented by higher moments of the d band, on the local electronic structure of adsorbates, e.g., energy and filling of adsorbate-metal antibonding states. The upper d-band edge ɛu, defined as the highest peak position of the Hilbert transform of the density of states projected onto d orbitals of an active metal site, is identified as an electronic descriptor for the surface reactivity of transition metals and their alloys, regardless of variations in the d-band shape. The utilization of the upper d-band edge with scaling relations enables a considerable reduction of the parameter space in search of improved alloy catalysts and further extends our understanding of the relationship between the electronic structure and chemical reactivity of metal surfaces.

  16. Free form fabrication using the laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark}) process

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, D.M.; Romero, J.A.; Atwood, C.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Jeantette, F.P.; Harwell, L.D.; Greene, D.L.; Smugeresky, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a technology called Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{trademark}). This process allows complex 3-dimensional solid metallic objects to be directly fabricated for a CAD solid model. Experiments performed demonstrate that complex alloys such as Inconel{trademark} 625 and ANSI stainless steel alloy 316 can be used in the LENS{trademark} process to produce solid metallic-shapes. In fact, the fabricated structures exhibit grain growth across the deposition layer boundaries. Mechanical testing data of deposited 316 stainless steel material indicates that the deposited material strength and elongation are greater than that reported for annealed 316 stainless steel. Electron microprobe analysis of the deposited Inconel{trademark} 625 material shows no compositional degradation of the 625 alloy and that 100% dense structures can be obtained using this technique. High speed imaging used to acquire process data during experimentation shows that the powder particle size range can significantly affect the stability, and subsequently, the performance of the powder deposition process. Finally, dimensional studies suggest that dimensional accuracy to {+-} 0.002 inches (in the horizontal direction) can be maintained.

  17. Process for making silver metal filaments

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1997-01-01

    A process for making silver metal particles from silver salt particles having the same morphology. Precursor silver salt particles selected from the group consisting of silver acetate and silver sulfide having a selected morphology are contained in a reactor vessel having means for supporting the particles in an air suspension to prevent the agglomeration of the particles. Air is flowed through the reactor vessel at a flow rate sufficient to suspend the particles in the reactor vessel. The suspended precursor silver salt particles are heated to a processing temperature and at a heating rate below which the physical deterioration of the suspended precursor silver salt particles takes place. The suspended precursor silver salt particles are maintained at the processing temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the particles into silver metal particles having the same morphology as the precursor silver salt particles.

  18. Process for making silver metal filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1997-05-06

    A process is disclosed for making silver metal particles from silver salt particles having the same morphology. Precursor silver salt particles selected from the group consisting of silver acetate and silver sulfide having a selected morphology are contained in a reactor vessel having means for supporting the particles in an air suspension to prevent the agglomeration of the particles. Air is flowed through the reactor vessel at a flow rate sufficient to suspend the particles in the reactor vessel. The suspended precursor silver salt particles are heated to a processing temperature and at a heating rate below which the physical deterioration of the suspended precursor silver salt particles takes place. The suspended precursor silver salt particles are maintained at the processing temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the particles into silver metal particles having the same morphology as the precursor silver salt particles. 1 fig.

  19. Intelligent processing for metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, D. G.; Russell, E. S.; Wei, D. Y.; Pang, Y.

    Intelligent processing of materials (IPM) is a powerful processing concept which requires integration of process knowledge, analytical models, process sensors, and expert system based control technology. An IPM system to manufacture metal matrix composites (MMC) using inductively coupled plasma deposition is under development. Process knowledge is contained in a reduced-order process simulator, consisting of thermal, fluid flow, solid mechanics, and material kinetics models. A working deposit thermal model has been developed, while the solid mechanics and material kinetics models are under development. Future directions for IPM development are discussed, including integration with related MMC processing operations, and establishment of a control system in which expert system based control is used to replicate operator decision-making.

  20. Effects of substrate preheating on the thin-wall part built by laser metal deposition shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Weijun; Long, Risheng

    2014-10-01

    Laser metal deposition shaping (LMDS) is a state-of-the-art technology that combines rapid prototyping and laser processing. There are many factors affecting the quality, precision, microstructure and performance of the LMDS-deposited parts. Among these factors, substrate preheating is a significant one because it can change the heat history of the LMDS process. Preheating is generally adopted to reduce the residual stresses and the risk of thermal distortion and cracking. However, it changes the heat transfer conditions and affects the final microstructure and properties. In this work a numerical simulation model was established to analyze the heat transfer characteristics between deposited material and substrate, the influence rules of substrate preheating on the thermal behavior during LMDS, and the distribution characters of temperature and stress field. And then, the experimental methods were used to evaluate the effects of substrate preheating on the surface quality, microstructure, composition, hardness distribution, and mechanical properties of as-built thin-wall parts. The experimental results primarily agree with the theoretical analysis and numerical model, which indicates that in terms of the varied thermo-mechanical coupled field, the investigated microstructure and properties of formed components depend considerably on the initial temperature of the substrate, so the LMDS process can be effectively adjusted and controlled by means of substrate preheating.

  1. Solidification front shape of the molten metal in a thermally thin cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsun, I. M.

    2013-02-01

    Reported data are reviewed briefly. When a molten metal is extruded to produce a wire directly from the melt, a capillary stream 0.2-3 mm in diameter is directed into a cooling medium so that external heat exchange ensures faster solidification of the metal as compared to capillary disintegration of the stream into drops. The following two assumptions regarding the shape of the solidification front exist: a planar solidification front normal to the axis and a curved axisymmetric front surface. Both assumptions are considered. The assumption of a curved axisymmetric solidification front surface of the molten metal in a cylinder is shown to be more realistic.

  2. Theoretical characteristics of optical polarizing films using oblique metal island films with distributed island shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Kazutaka; Kakinuma, Yu

    2008-02-01

    An oblique metal island (OMI) film is composed of prolate metal nanoclusters inclining to one side. The OMI film has large optical anisotropy as the resonance wavelengths for the polarization along the shorter and longer axes of the prolate metal nanoclusters are different from each other. Therefore, the multiplayer of the OMI layers and thin glass layer could be used as an optical polarizing film. In previous works, we have investigated the optical polarizing films using ideal OMI films with uniform aspect ratio of islands for simplification. However, in the OMI films fabricated by using a conventional vacuum evaporation system, the aspect ratio is not uniform. In this paper, we describe the optical polarizing film using the OMI films with distributed island shape. We have calculated the optical characteristics of the OMI films with distributed island shape by assuming that the distribution of aspect ratio of islands is expressed by use of the log-normal function. As the variance of aspect ratio is large, the resonance characteristics become broad. Therefore, it seems that the OMI films with distributed island shape are useful for the wideband optical polarizing films for visible region. By using the OMI films with distributed island shape, we have designed wideband optical polarizing films for 400 - 500 nm by using aluminum and for 620 - 760 nm by using silver as metals. The extinction ratios of designed optical polarizing films are greater than 20 dB.

  3. Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  4. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  5. PROCESS OF ELECTROPLATING METALS WITH ALUMINUM

    DOEpatents

    Schickner, W.C.

    1960-04-26

    A process of electroplating aluminum on metals from a nonaqueous bath and a novel method of pretreating or conditioning the metal prior to electrodeposition of the aluminum are given. The process of this invention, as applied by way of example to the plating of uranium, comprises the steps of plating the uranium with the barrier inetal, immersing the barrier-coated uranium in fatty acid, and electrolyzing a water-free diethyl ether solution of aluminum chloride and lithium hydride while making the uranium the cathode until an aluminum deposit of the desired thickness has been formed. According to another preferred embodiment the barrier-coated uranium is immersed in an isopropyl alcohol solution of sterato chromic chloride prior to the fatty acid treatment of this invention.

  6. Well-faceted noble-metal nanocrystals with nonconvex polyhedral shapes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiaoli; Jia, Yanyan; Xie, Shuifen; Xie, Zhaoxiong

    2016-06-01

    Precise engineering of noble-metal nanocrystals (NCs) is not only an important fundamental research topic, but also has great realistic significance in improving their performances required by the poor reserve and high cost of noble metals. Well-faceted noble-metal NCs with nonconvex polyhedral shapes could be promising candidates to optimize their performance and thus minimize their usage, as they may integrate a well-defined surface structure and a large surface area together, enabling them to have outstanding performance and high efficiency of atomic utilization. Moreover, undesirable aggregation and ripening phenomena could be avoided. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the unique characteristics and corresponding models of well-faceted nonconvex polyhedral noble-metal NCs by classifying the cases into four distinct types, namely the concave polyhedral structure, excavated polyhedral structure, branched structure and nanocage structure, respectively. Due to the complexity of nonconvex morphologies and the thermodynamic antipathy for the growth of nonconvex shaped NCs, we firstly demonstrate the structure characterization and synthetic methodology in detail. Subsequently, typical applications in electrocatalysis and plasmonic fields are presented to demonstrate the unique surface and morphological effects generated from the well-faceted nonconvex NCs. To promote further development in this field, the perspectives and challenges concerning well-faceted noble-metal NCs with nonconvex shapes are put forward in the end. PMID:27086861

  7. DNA Shape versus Sequence Variations in the Protein Binding Process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanying; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2016-02-01

    The binding process of a protein with a DNA involves three stages: approach, encounter, and association. It has been known that the complexation of protein and DNA involves mutual conformational changes, especially for a specific sequence association. However, it is still unclear how the conformation and the information in the DNA sequences affects the binding process. What is the extent to which the DNA structure adopted in the complex is induced by protein binding, or is instead intrinsic to the DNA sequence? In this study, we used the multiscale simulation method to explore the binding process of a protein with DNA in terms of DNA sequence, conformation, and interactions. We found that in the approach stage the protein can bind both the major and minor groove of the DNA, but uses different features to locate the binding site. The intrinsic conformational properties of the DNA play a significant role in this binding stage. By comparing the specific DNA with the nonspecific in unbound, intermediate, and associated states, we found that for a specific DNA sequence, ∼40% of the bending in the association forms is intrinsic and that ∼60% is induced by the protein. The protein does not induce appreciable bending of nonspecific DNA. In addition, we proposed that the DNA shape variations induced by protein binding are required in the early stage of the binding process, so that the protein is able to approach, encounter, and form an intermediate at the correct site on DNA. PMID:26840719

  8. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOEpatents

    Froes, Francis H.; Eranezhuth, Baburaj G.; Senkov, Oleg N.

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  9. Near-Net-Shape Production of Hollow Titanium Alloy Components via Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Oxide Precursors in Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Di; Xiao, Wei; Chen, George Z.

    2013-04-01

    Metal oxide precursors (ca. 90 wt pct Ti, 6 wt pct Al, and 4 wt pct V) were prepared with a hollow structure in various shapes such as a sphere, miniature golf club head, and cup using a one-step solid slip-casting process. The precursors were then electro-deoxidized in molten calcium chloride [3.2 V, 1173 K (900 °C)] against a graphite anode. After 24 hours of electrolysis, the near-net-shape Ti-6Al-4V product maintained its original shape with controlled shrinkage. Oxygen contents in the Ti-6Al-4V components were typically below 2000 ppm. The maximum compressive stress and modulus of electrolytic products obtained in this work were approximately 243 MPa and 14 GPa, respectively, matching with the requirement for medical implants. Further research directions are discussed for mechanical improvement of the products via densification during or after electrolysis. This simple, fast, and energy-efficient near-net-shape manufacturing method could allow titanium alloy components with desired geometries to be prepared directly from a mixture of metal oxides, promising an innovative technology for the low-cost production of titanium alloy components.

  10. Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design

  11. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  12. Using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) process to produce complex components from a CAD solid model

    SciTech Connect

    Smugeresky, J.E.; Keicher, D.M.; Romero, J.A.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) process, currently under development, has demonstrated the capability to produce near-net shape, fully dense metallic parts with reasonably complex geometrical features directly from a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) solid model. Using a highly localized laser beam, metal powders are used to produce very fine grain high strength structures. Results to date show that excellent mechanical properties can be achieved in alloys such as 316 stainless steel and Inconel 625. Significant increases in yield strength have been achieved with no loss in ductility. The current approach lends itself to produce components with a dimensional accuracy of {+-} 0.002 inches in the deposition plane and {+-} 0.015 inches in the growth direction. These results suggest that the LENS{trademark} process will provide a viable means for direct fabrication of metallic hardware.

  13. Investigation of Solidification in the Laser Engineered Net shaping (LENS) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ensz, Mark; Griffith, Michelle; Hofmeister, William; Philliber, Joel A.; Smugeresky, John; Wert, Melissa

    1999-06-18

    The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSm) process is a laser assisted, direct metal manufacturing process under development at Sandia National Laboratories. The process incorporates features from stereo lithography and laser surfacing, using CAD file cross-sections to control the forming process. Powder metal particles (less than 150 micrometers) are delivered in a gas stream into the focus of a NdYAG laser to form a molten pool. The part is then driven on an x/y stage to generate a three-dimensional part by layer wise, additive processing. In an effort to understand the thermal behavior of the LENS process, in-situ high-speed thermal imaging has been coupled with microstructural analysis and finite element modeling. Cooling of the melt is accomplished primarily by conduction of heat through the part and substrate, and depending on the substrate temperature and laser input energy, cooling rates can be varied from 10² to 10³ K s-l. This flexibility allows control of the microstructure and properties in the part. The experiments reported herein were conducted on 316 stainless steel, using two different particle size distributions with two different average particle sizes. Thermal images of the molten pool were analyzed to determine temperature gradients and cooling rates in the vicinity of the molten pool, and this information was correlated to the microstructure and properties of the part. Some preliminary finite element modeling of the LENS process is also presented.

  14. Investigation of Solidification in the Laser Engineered Net shaping (LENS) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ensz, Mark; Griffith, Michelle; Hofmeister, William; Philliber, Joel A.; Smugeresky, John; Wert, Melissa.

    1999-06-18

    The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSm) process is a laser assisted, direct metal manufacturing process under development at Sandia National Laboratories. The process incorporates features from stereo lithography and laser surfacing, using CAD file cross-sections to control the forming process. Powder metal particles (less than 150 micrometers) are delivered in a gas stream into the focus of a NdYAG laser to form a molten pool. The part is then driven on an x/y stage to generate a three-dimensional part by layer wise, additive processing. In an effort to understand the thermal behavior of the LENS process, in-situ high-speed thermal imaging has been coupled with microstructural analysis and finite element modeling. Cooling of the melt is accomplished primarily by conduction of heat through the part and substrate, and depending on the substrate temperature and laser input energy, cooling rates can be varied from 10 sup2; to 10 sup3; K s-l. This flexibility allows control of the microstructure and properties in the part. The experiments reported herein were conducted on 316 stainless steel, using two different particle size distributions with two different average particle sizes. Thermal images of the molten pool were analyzed to determine temperature gradients and cooling rates in the vicinity of the molten pool, and this information was correlated to the microstructure and properties of the part. Some preliminary finite element modeling of the LENS process is also presented.

  15. Dimensional Stability of Complex Shapes Manufactured by the VARTM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, Pascal; Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process is a cost effective, innovative method that is being considered for manufacture of large aircraft-quality components where high mechanical properties and dimensional tolerance are essential. In the present work, carbon fiber SAERTEX fabric/SI-ZG-5A epoxy resin C-shaped laminates were manufactured by VARTM using different cure cycles followed by the same post-cure cycle. The final part thickness was uniform except at the corner were thinning was observed. The cure cycle selected is shown to significantly affect the part spring-in and a long cycle at 66 C followed by a 178 C post-cure produced a part with negligible spring-in.

  16. Metal containing material processing on coater/developer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Shinichiro; Mizunoura, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Koichi; Hontake, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimura, Satoru; Enomoto, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Challenges of processing metal containing materials need to be addressed in order apply this technology to Behavior of metal containing materials on coater/developer processing including coating process, developer process and tool metal contamination is studied using CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTM Z (Tokyo Electron Limited). Through this work, coating uniformity and coating film defectivity were studied. Metal containing material performance was comparable to conventional materials. Especially, new dispense system (NDS) demonstrated up to 80% reduction in coating defect for metal containing materials. As for processed wafer metal contamination, coated wafer metal contamination achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 3 materials. After develop metal contamination also achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 2 materials. Furthermore, through the metal defect study, metal residues and metal contamination were reduced by developer rinse optimization.

  17. Native language shapes automatic neural processing of speech.

    PubMed

    Intartaglia, Bastien; White-Schwoch, Travis; Meunier, Christine; Roman, Stéphane; Kraus, Nina; Schön, Daniele

    2016-08-01

    The development of the phoneme inventory is driven by the acoustic-phonetic properties of one's native language. Neural representation of speech is known to be shaped by language experience, as indexed by cortical responses, and recent studies suggest that subcortical processing also exhibits this attunement to native language. However, most work to date has focused on the differences between tonal and non-tonal languages that use pitch variations to convey phonemic categories. The aim of this cross-language study is to determine whether subcortical encoding of speech sounds is sensitive to language experience by comparing native speakers of two non-tonal languages (French and English). We hypothesized that neural representations would be more robust and fine-grained for speech sounds that belong to the native phonemic inventory of the listener, and especially for the dimensions that are phonetically relevant to the listener such as high frequency components. We recorded neural responses of American English and French native speakers, listening to natural syllables of both languages. Results showed that, independently of the stimulus, American participants exhibited greater neural representation of the fundamental frequency compared to French participants, consistent with the importance of the fundamental frequency to convey stress patterns in English. Furthermore, participants showed more robust encoding and more precise spectral representations of the first formant when listening to the syllable of their native language as compared to non-native language. These results align with the hypothesis that language experience shapes sensory processing of speech and that this plasticity occurs as a function of what is meaningful to a listener. PMID:27263123

  18. Metal Bromide Controlled Interfacial Aromatization Reaction for Shape-Selective Synthesis of Palladium Nanostructures with Efficient Catalytic Performances.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Soumen; Ray, Chaiti; Roy, Anindita; Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-07-11

    Herein, the effect of diverse metal bromides for the shape evolution of palladium nanostructures (Pd NS) has been demonstrated. Aromaticity-driven reduction of bromopalladate(II) is optimized to reproducibly obtain different Pd NS at the water/organic layer interface. In this soft interfacial strategy, a redox potential driven reaction has been performed, forming the thermodynamically more stable (>10(4) -fold) PdBr4 (2-) precursor from PdCl4 (2-) by adding extra metal bromides. In the process, the reductant, Hantzsch dihydropyridine ester (DHPE), is aromatized. Interestingly, alkali metal bromides devoid of coordination propensity exclusively evolve Pd nanowires (Pd NWs), whereas in the case of transition metal bromides the metal ions engage the 'N' donor of DHPE at the interface, making the redox reaction sluggish. Hence, controlled Pd nanoparticles growth is observed, which evolves Pd broccolis (Pd NBRs) and Pd nanorods (Pd NRs) at the interface in the presence of NiBr2 and CuBr2 , respectively, in the aqueous solution. Thus, the effect of diverse metal bromides in the reaction mixture for tailor-made growth of the various Pd NS is reported. Among the as-synthesized materials, the Pd NWs stand to be superior catalysts and their efficiency is almost 6 and 2.5 times higher than commercial 20 % Pd/C in the electrooxidation of ethanol and Cr(VI) reduction reaction by formic acid, respectively. PMID:27294801

  19. Liquid metals as ultra-stretchable, soft, and shape reconfigurable conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Dickey, Michael D.

    2015-05-01

    Conventional, rigid materials remain the key building blocks of most modern electronic devices, but they are limited in their ability to conform to curvilinear surfaces. It is possible to make electronic components that are flexible and in some cases stretchable by utilizing thin films, engineered geometries, or inherently soft and stretchable materials that maintain their function during deformation. Here, we describe the properties and applications of a micromoldable liquid metal that can form conductive components that are ultra-stretchable, soft, and shape-reconfigurable. This liquid metal is a gallium-based alloy with low viscosity and high conductivity. The metal develops spontaneously a thin, passivating oxide layer on the surface that allows the metal to be molded into non-spherical shapes, including films and wires, and patterned by direct-write techniques or microfluidic injection. Furthermore, unlike mercury, the liquid metal has low toxicity and negligible vapor pressure. This paper discusses the mechanical and electrical properties of the metal in the context of electronics, and discusses how the properties of the oxide layer have been exploited for new patterning techniques that enable soft, stretchable and reconfigurable devices.

  20. Direct selective laser sintering of high performance metals: Machine design, process development and process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suman

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of an advanced manufacturing technology known as Direct Selective Laser Sintering (Direct SLS). Direct SLS is a laser based rapid manufacturing technology that enables production of functional, fully dense, metal and cermet components via the direct, layerwise consolidation of constituent powders. Specifically, this dissertation focuses on a new, hybrid net shape manufacturing technique known as Selective Laser Sintering/Hot Isostatic Pressing (SLS/HIP). The objective of research presented in this dissertation was to establish the fundamental machine technology and processing science to enable direct SLS fabrication of metal components composed of high performance, high temperature metals and alloys. Several processing requirements differentiate direct SLS of metals from SLS of polymers or polymer coated powders. Perhaps the most important distinguishing characteristic is the regime of high temperatures involved in direct SLS of metals. Biasing the temperature of the feedstock powder via radiant preheat prior to and during SLS processing was shown to be beneficial. Preheating the powder significantly influenced the flow and wetting characteristics of the melt. During this work, it was conclusively established that powder cleanliness is of paramount importance for successful layerwise consolidation of metal powders by direct SLS. Sequential trials were conducted to establish optimal bake-out and degas cycles under high vacuum. These cycles agreed well with established practices in the powder metallurgy industry. A study of some of the important transport mechanisms in direct SLS of metals was undertaken to obtain a fundamental understanding of the underlying process physics. This study not only provides an explanation of phenomena observed during SLS processing of a variety of metallic materials but also helps in developing selection schemes for those materials that are most amenable to direct SLS processing. The

  1. Process for recovering metals from solution utilizing metalloprotein affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, D.R.; Vincent, J.B.

    1993-11-29

    The invention relates generally to a process for recovering metals from an aqueous metal-bearing solution and, more particularly, to a process which utilizes metalloproteins immobilized on an insoluble support to remove metal ions such as the main group, transition, lanthanide, and actinide ions from the aqueous metal-ion bearing solution.

  2. Micro-milling process improvement using an agile pulse-shaping fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, David; Cournoyer, Alain; Deladurantaye, Pascal; Briand, Martin; Roy, Vincent; Labranche, Bruno; Levesque, Marc; Taillon, Y.

    2009-06-01

    We demonstrate the usefulness of INO's pulse-shaping fiber laser platform to rapidly develop complex laser micromachining processes. The versatility of such laser sources allows for straightforward control of the emitting energy envelop on the nanosecond timescale to create multi-amplitude level pulses and/or multi-pulse regimes. The pulses are amplified in an amplifier chain in a MOPA configuration that delivers output energy per pulse up to 60 μJ at 1064 nm at a repetition rate of 200 kHz with excellent beam quality (M2 < 1.1) and narrow line widths suitable for efficient frequency conversion. Also, their pulse-on-demand and pulse-to-pulse shape selection capability at high repetition rates makes those agile laser sources suitable for the implementation of high-throughput complex laser processing. Micro-milling experiments were carried out on two metals, aluminum and stainless steel, having very different thermal properties. For aluminum, our results show that the material removal efficiency depends strongly on the pulse shape, especially near the ablation threshold, and can be maximized to develop efficient laser micro-milling processes. But, the material removal efficiency is not always correlated with a good surface quality. However, the roughness of the milled surface can be improved by removing a few layers of material using another type of pulse shape. The agility of INO's fiber laser enables the implementation of a fast laser process including two steps employing different pulse characteristics for maximizing the material removal rate and obtaining a good surface quality at the same time. A comparison of material removal efficiency with stainless steel, well known to be difficult to mill on the micron scale, is also presented.

  3. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Colloidal Metal Nanocrystals: Thermodynamic versus Kinetic Products.

    PubMed

    Xia, Younan; Xia, Xiaohu; Peng, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-07-01

    This Perspective provides a contemporary understanding of the shape evolution of colloidal metal nanocrystals under thermodynamically and kinetically controlled conditions. It has been extremely challenging to investigate this subject in the setting of one-pot synthesis because both the type and number of seeds involved would be changed whenever the experimental conditions are altered, making it essentially impossible to draw conclusions when comparing the outcomes of two syntheses conducted under different conditions. Because of the uncertainty about seeds, most of the mechanistic insights reported in literature for one-pot syntheses of metal nanocrystals with different shapes are either incomplete or ambiguous, and some of them might be misleading or even wrong. Recently, with the use of well-defined seeds for such syntheses, it became possible to separate growth from nucleation and therefore investigate the explicit role(s) played by a specific thermodynamic or kinetic parameter in directing the evolution of colloidal metal nanocrystals into a specific shape. Starting from single-crystal seeds enclosed by a mix of {100}, {111}, and {110} facets, for example, one can obtain colloidal nanocrystals with diversified shapes by adjusting various thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The mechanistic insights learnt from these studies can also be extended to account for the products of conventional one-pot syntheses that involve self-nucleation only. The knowledge can be further applied to many other types of seeds with twin defects or stacking faults, making it an exciting time to design and synthesize colloidal metal nanocrystals with the shapes sought for a variety of fundamental studies and technologically important applications. PMID:26020837

  4. Solid State Processing of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Jurgen

    1998-03-01

    Glasses are generally produced from the undercooled liquid state by rapid quenching methods or quasi-statically at slow cooling by the effective control of heterogeneous nucleation. For metallic systems, the latter method has recently led to the development of multicomponent metallic glasses with large glass forming ability and a wide supercooled liquid region before crystallization. Large-scale bulk samples can now be produced by conventional casting techniques. These materials exhibit advanced engineering properties such as excellent wear behavior, almost theoretical strength and good corrosion resistance, and are highly processable at temperatures above the glass transition temperature. As an alternative to quenching or casting techniques, glass formation can also be achieved by solid state processing without passing through the liquid state. Therefore, mechanical alloying as a special form of solid state reaction technique and subsequent consolidation of the resulting powders above the glass transition temperature can be used to prepare bulk metallic glasses through the powder metallurgy route. This paper surveys results of studies regarding the factors governing glass formation by solid state processing. The thermal stability of mechanically alloyed powders is compared with data for melt quenched samples, showing that basically the same glassy state can be reached approaching it from the liquid or the solid state. Special emphasis is given to the glass forming ranges achievable by the different techniques, and to preparation of nanostructured composite materials based on glassy alloys. The results are discussed with respect to the influence of processing conditions, impurity effects and heterogeneous nucleation of crystalline phases. Examples for consolidated bulk samples from mechanically alloyed powders are presented and compared with data for cast bulk specimens.

  5. Realization of multifunctional shape-memory ferromagnets in all-d-metal Heusler phases

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K. Chen, J. H.; Xi, X. K.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.; Li, Y.; Liu, G. D.; Luo, H. Z.

    2015-07-13

    Heusler ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) normally consist of transition-group d-metals and main-group p-elements. Here, we report the realization of FSMAs in Heusler phases that completely consist of d metals. By introducing the d-metal Ti into NiMn alloys, cubic B2-type Heusler phase is obtained and the martensitic transformation temperature is decreased efficiently. Strong ferromagnetism is established by further doping Co atoms into the B2-type antiferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Ti austenite. Based on the magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformations, collective multifunctional properties are observed in Ni(Co)-Mn-Ti alloys. The d metals not only facilitate the formation of B2-type Heusler phases but also establish strong ferromagnetic coupling and offer the possibility to tune the martensitic transformation.

  6. Arithmetic processing in the brain shaped by cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yiyuan; Zhang, Wutian; Chen, Kewei; Feng, Shigang; Ji, Ye; Shen, Junxian; Reiman, Eric M.; Liu, Yijun

    2006-01-01

    The universal use of Arabic numbers in mathematics raises a question whether these digits are processed the same way in people speaking various languages, such as Chinese and English, which reflect differences in Eastern and Western cultures. Using functional MRI, we demonstrated a differential cortical representation of numbers between native Chinese and English speakers. Contrasting to native English speakers, who largely employ a language process that relies on the left perisylvian cortices for mental calculation such as a simple addition task, native Chinese speakers, instead, engage a visuo-premotor association network for the same task. Whereas in both groups the inferior parietal cortex was activated by a task for numerical quantity comparison, functional MRI connectivity analyses revealed a functional distinction between Chinese and English groups among the brain networks involved in the task. Our results further indicate that the different biological encoding of numbers may be shaped by visual reading experience during language acquisition and other cultural factors such as mathematics learning strategies and education systems, which cannot be explained completely by the differences in languages per se. PMID:16815966

  7. Invariant visual object recognition and shape processing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zoccolan, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Invariant visual object recognition is the ability to recognize visual objects despite the vastly different images that each object can project onto the retina during natural vision, depending on its position and size within the visual field, its orientation relative to the viewer, etc. Achieving invariant recognition represents such a formidable computational challenge that is often assumed to be a unique hallmark of primate vision. Historically, this has limited the invasive investigation of its neuronal underpinnings to monkey studies, in spite of the narrow range of experimental approaches that these animal models allow. Meanwhile, rodents have been largely neglected as models of object vision, because of the widespread belief that they are incapable of advanced visual processing. However, the powerful array of experimental tools that have been developed to dissect neuronal circuits in rodents has made these species very attractive to vision scientists too, promoting a new tide of studies that have started to systematically explore visual functions in rats and mice. Rats, in particular, have been the subjects of several behavioral studies, aimed at assessing how advanced object recognition and shape processing is in this species. Here, I review these recent investigations, as well as earlier studies of rat pattern vision, to provide an historical overview and a critical summary of the status of the knowledge about rat object vision. The picture emerging from this survey is very encouraging with regard to the possibility of using rats as complementary models to monkeys in the study of higher-level vision. PMID:25561421

  8. A Processable Shape Memory Polymer System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Keith; Wierzbicki, Mark A; Nash, Landon D; Landsman, Todd L; Laramy, Christine; Lonnecker, Alexander T; Gibbons, Michael C; Ur, Sarah; Cardinal, Kristen O; Wilson, Thomas S; Wooley, Karen L; Maitland, Duncan J

    2015-06-24

    Polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) with tunable thermomechanical properties and advanced processing capabilities are synthesized, characterized, and implemented in the design of a microactuator medical device prototype. The ability to manipulate glass transition temperature (Tg ) and crosslink density in low-molecular weight aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs is demonstrated using a synthetic approach that employs UV catalyzed thiol-ene "click" reactions to achieve postpolymerization crosslinking. Polyurethanes containing varying C=C functionalization are synthesized, solution blended with polythiol crosslinking agents and photoinitiator and subjected to UV irradiation, and the effects of number of synthetic parameters on crosslink density are reported. Thermomechanical properties are highly tunable, including glass transitions tailorable between 30 and 105 °C and rubbery moduli tailorable between 0.4 and 20 MPa. This new SMP system exhibits high toughness for many formulations, especially in the case of low crosslink density materials, for which toughness exceeds 90 MJ m(-3) at select straining temperatures. To demonstrate the advanced processing capability and synthetic versatility of this new SMP system, a laser-actuated SMP microgripper device for minimally invasive delivery of endovascular devices is fabricated, shown to exhibit an average gripping force of 1.43 ± 0.37 N and successfully deployed in an in vitro experimental setup under simulated physiological conditions. PMID:25925212

  9. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold-rolling material and Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 were selected as typical hot-rolling and cold-rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape-rolling process were developed. These models utilize the upper-bound and the slab methods of analysis, and are capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll-separating force, roll torque and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design (CAD) system is also capable of simulating the actual rolling process and thereby designing roll-pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or similar shape. The predictions from the CAD system were verified with respect to cold rolling of mild steel plates. The system is being applied to cold and hot isothermal rolling of an airfoil shape, and will be verified with respect to laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.

  10. Sol-gel processing of metal sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, Vesha

    Metal sulfides were synthesised via a sol-gel process using various metal alkoxides and hydrogen sulfide in toluene. Colloidal gels were prepared from germanium ethoxide, germanium isopropoxide, zinc tert-butoxide and tungsten (VI) ethoxide, whereas colloidal powder was produced from tungsten (V) dichloride ethoxide. Special precautions were necessary to protect the reaction mixture from water contamination which produced metal oxides. Results indicated that the main source of water is the hydrogen sulfide gas. In addition, synthesis of metal sulfides from a mixture of metal oxide and sulfide was demonstrated by the example of monoclinic germanium disulfide. It was produced by reaction of the sol-gel product with sulfur. Heat treatment of the sol-gel product and sulfur yielded single phase GeSsb2. The sol-gel prepared materials and their heat treated products were characterized by various methods. A chemical kinetics study of the functional groups -OR, -SH and Ssp{2-} was carried out for the sol-gel processing of GeSsb2 from of hydrogen sulfide and two different alkoxides, germanium ethoxide and germanium isopropoxide. The study was performed for different concentrations of precursors at different molar ratios and temperatures. The results indicate that the proposed reaction mechanism was simplified under appropriate reaction conditions. Experimentally determined rate constants of thiolysis and condensations demonstrate that thiolysis is slow and that condensations are fast steps, regardless of the studied reaction conditions. A study of the temperature effect on the reaction rate constant shows that it increases with temperature in accord with both Arrhenius law and transition-state theory. Activation energies, Esba, and activation parameters DeltaSsp{ddagger}, DeltaHsp{ddagger} and DeltaGsp{ddagger}, were determined for thiolysis and condensation reactions. The potentiometric tiration method was used for quantitative determination of germanium sulfide and

  11. Topochemistry of Bowtie- and Star-Shaped Metal Dichalcogenide Nanoisland Formation.

    PubMed

    Artyukhov, Vasilii I; Hu, Zhili; Zhang, Zhuhua; Yakobson, Boris I

    2016-06-01

    A large number of experimental studies over the past few years observed the formation of unusual highly symmetric polycrystalline twinned nanoislands of transition metal dichalcogenides, resembling bowties or stars. Here, we analyze their morphology in terms of equilibrium and growth shapes. We propose a mechanism for these complex shapes' formation via collision of concurrently growing islands and validate the theory with phase-field simulations that demonstrate how highly symmetric structures can actually emerge from arbitrary starting conditions. Finally, we use first-principles calculations to propose an explanation of the predominance of high-symmetry polycrystals with 60° lattice misorientation angles. PMID:27187078

  12. Plasmonic nanofocusing with a metallic pyramid and an integrated C-shaped aperture

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Nathan C.; Johnson, Timothy W.; Nagpal, Prashant; Norris, David J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication and characterization of a near-field plasmonic nanofocusing probe with a hybrid tip-plus-aperture design. By combining template stripping with focused ion beam lithography, a variety of aperture-based near-field probes can be fabricated with high optical performance. In particular, the combination of large transmission through a C-shaped aperture aligned to the sharp apex (<10 nm radius) of a template-stripped metallic pyramid allows the efficient delivery of light—via the C-shaped aperture—while providing a nanometric hotspot determined by the sharpness of the tip itself. PMID:23676841

  13. Microwave and camera sensor fusion for the shape extraction of metallic 3D space objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Scott W.; Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Krishen, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    The vacuum of space presents special problems for optical image sensors. Metallic objects in this environment can produce intense specular reflections and deep shadows. By combining the polarized RCS with an incomplete camera image, it has become possible to better determine the shape of some simple three-dimensional objects. The radar data are used in an iterative procedure that generates successive approximations to the target shape by minimizing the error between computed scattering cross-sections and the observed radar returns. Favorable results have been obtained for simulations and experiments reconstructing plates, ellipsoids, and arbitrary surfaces.

  14. Process Of Bonding A Metal Brush Structure To A Planar Surface Of A Metal Substrate

    DOEpatents

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Wille; Gerald W.

    1999-11-02

    Process for bonding a metal brush structure to a planar surface of a metal substrate in which an array of metal rods are retained and immobilized at their tips by a common retention layer formed of metal, and the brush structure is then joined to a planar surface of a metal substrate via the retention layer.

  15. Hybrid Al + Al3Ni metallic foams synthesized in situ via laser engineered net shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Baolong; Li, Ying; Smugeresky, John E.; Zhou, Yizhang; Baker, Dean; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2011-09-01

    A hybrid, Al + Al3Ni metallic foam was synthesized in situ via laser engineered net shaping (LENS®) of Ni-coated 6061 Al powder in the absence of a foaming agent. During LENS® processing, the Ni coating reacted with the Al matrix, resulting in the simultaneous formation of a fine dispersion of Al3Ni, and a high volume fraction of porosity. As a reinforcement phase, the intermetallic compound formed particles with a size range of 1-5 µm and a volume fraction of 63%, with accompanying 35-300 µm pores with a 60% volume fraction. The microstructure of the as-deposited Al + Al3Ni composite foams was characterized using SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM/HRTEM techniques. The evolution of the microstructure was analyzed on the basis of the thermal field present during deposition, paying particular attention to the thermodynamics of the Al3Ni intermetallic compound formation as well as discussing the mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed porosity. The mechanical behavior of the as-deposited material was characterized using compression and microhardness testing, indicating that the yield strength and hardness are 190 MPa and 320 HV, respectively, which represents an increase of over three times higher than that of annealed Al6061, or similar to heat-treated Al6061 fully dense matrix, and much higher than those of traditional Al alloy foams, and with a low density of 1.64 g/m3.

  16. Parameters in selective laser melting for processing metallic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzynowski, Tomasz; Chlebus, Edward; Kuźnicka, Bogumiła; Reiner, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents results of studies on Selective Laser Melting. SLM is an additive manufacturing technology which may be used to process almost all metallic materials in the form of powder. Types of energy emission sources, mainly fiber lasers and/or Nd:YAG laser with similar characteristics and the wavelength of 1,06 - 1,08 microns, are provided primarily for processing metallic powder materials with high absorption of laser radiation. The paper presents results of selected variable parameters (laser power, scanning time, scanning strategy) and fixed parameters such as the protective atmosphere (argon, nitrogen, helium), temperature, type and shape of the powder material. The thematic scope is very broad, so the work was focused on optimizing the process of selective laser micrometallurgy for producing fully dense parts. The density is closely linked with other two conditions: discontinuity of the microstructure (microcracks) and stability (repeatability) of the process. Materials used for the research were stainless steel 316L (AISI), tool steel H13 (AISI), and titanium alloy Ti6Al7Nb (ISO 5832-11). Studies were performed with a scanning electron microscope, a light microscopes, a confocal microscope and a μCT scanner.

  17. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) for the fabrication of metallic components

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, M.L.; Keicher, D.L.; Romero, J.A.; Atwood, C.L.; Harwell, L.D.; Greene, D.L.; Smugeresky, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    Solid free form fabrication is a fast growing automated manufacturing technology that has reduced the time between initial concept and fabrication. Starting with CAD renditions of new components, techniques such as stereolithography and selective laser sintering are being used to fabricate highly accurate complex 3-D objects using polymers. Together with investment casting, sacrificial polymeric objects are used to minimize cost and time to fabricate tooling used to make complex metal casting. This paper describes recent developments in LENS{trademark} (Laser Engineered Net Shaping) to fabricate the metal components {ital directly} from CAD solid models and thus further reduce the lead time. Like stereolithography or selective sintering, LENS builds metal parts line by line and layer by layer. Metal particles are injected into a laser beam where they are melted and deposited onto a substrate as a miniature weld pool. The trace of the laser beam on the substrate is driven by the definition of CAD models until the desired net-shaped densified metal component is produced.

  18. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing is described. Metallo-organic silver films were spun-on by argon ion laser beam pyrolysis. The metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) film was spun-on an evaporated Ti/Pd film to produce tood adhesion. In a maskless process, the argon ion laser writes the contact pattern. The film is then built up to obtain the required conductivity using conventional silverplating process. The Ti/Pd film in the field is chemically etched using the plated silver film as the mask. The width of the contact pattern is determined by the power of the laser. Widths as thin as 20 microns were obtained using 0.66 W of laser power. Cells fabricated with the 50 micron line widths of 4 ohm-cm floating zone (Fz) silicon-produced efficiencies of 16.6% (no passivation) which were equivalent to the best cells using conventional metallization/lithography and no passivation.

  19. Revealing the spiral arms through radial migration and the shape of the Metallicity Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A.

    2016-08-01

    Recent observations show that the Milky Way's metallicity distribution function (MDF) changes its shape as a function of radius. This new evidence of radial migration within the stellar disc sets additional constraints on Galactic models. By performing controlled test particle simulations in a very detailed, observationally motivated model of the Milky Way, we demonstrate that, in the inner region of the disc, the MDF is shaped by the joint action of the bar and spiral arms, while at outer radii the MDF is mainly shaped by the spiral arms. We show that the spiral arms are able to imprint their signature in the radial migration, shaping the MDF in the outskirts of the Galactic disc with a minimal participation of the bar. Conversely, this work has the potential to characterise some structural and dynamical parameters of the spiral arms based on radial migration and the shape of the MDF. Finally, the resemblance obtained with this approximation to the MDF curves of the Galaxy as seen by APOGEE, show that a fundamental factor influencing their shape is the Galactic potential.

  20. Jingle-bell-shaped ferrite hollow sphere with a noble metal core: Simple synthesis and their magnetic and antibacterial properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li Siheng; Wang Enbo Tian Chungui; Mao Baodong; Kang Zhenhui; Li Qiuyu; Sun Guoying

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, a simple strategy is developed for rational fabrication of a class of jingle-bell-shaped hollow structured nanomaterials marked as Ag(MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn), consisting of ferrite hollow shells and metal nanoparticle cores, using highly uniform colloidal Ag(C) microspheres as template. The final composites were obtained by direct adsorption of metal cations Fe{sup 3+} and M{sup 2+} on the surface of the Ag(C) spheres followed by calcination process to remove the middle carbon shell and transform the metal ions into pure phase ferrites. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometer. The results showed that the composites possess the magnetic property of the ferrite shell and the optical together with antibacterial property of the Ag core. - Graphical abstract: MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn) hollow spheres with a noble metal nanoparticle core were successfully prepared by using colloidal metal(C) core-shell spheres as templates with no need of surface modification. The shell thickness and magnetic properties of the ferrite hollow spheres could be controlled by varying the synthetic parameters.

  1. Plasmonic and Catalytic Properties of Shape-Controlled Metal Nanoparticles and their Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkova, Anna

    This work explores the effect of the shape of metal nanoscale building blocks on the structural, optical, and plasmonic properties of their assemblies, as well as on the catalytic performance and hydrogen interactions of individual nanoparticles with specific shapes. In Chapter 3, I describe the linear self-assembly of bifunctional metal nanoparticles in the presence of monofunctional nanoscale chain stoppers. Chain stoppers with controlled reactivity were synthesized allowing control over the morphology of the self-assembled structures. Analysis of the degree of polymerization of linear nanostructures provided information about self-assembly kinetics, side reactions, and the distribution of species in the reaction. This work facilitated testing of theoretical models developed for molecular polymerization and fabrication of linear nanoparticle assemblies with controllable properties. In Chapter 4, I developed linear solution-based self-assembly of cubic metal nanoparticles, examined the morphology of the nanocube chains and their optical characteristics. In comparison with chains of nanospheres with similar dimensions, compositions, and surface chemistry, predominant face-to-face assembly of nanocubes leads to a larger volume of plasmonic hot spots, uniform electromagnetic field enhancement in the gaps between nanocubes, and a new coupling mode for nanocube chains, associated with Fabry-Perot structure. In Chapter 5, I investigated plasmon-mediated enhancement of the catalysis by palladium-based nanoparticles with different shapes and composition, bearing surface plasmon resonance in visible range. The photocatalytic activity of palladium-based nanoparticles depended more on their shape than internal structure. These findings pave the way for the design of palladium nanocatalysts with enhanced performance acting under visible light illumination. In Chapter 6, I developed a facile scaled-up synthesis of monodisperse palladium nanoparticles with various shapes

  2. Size and shape dependent melting temperature and thermal expansivity of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ghanshyam R.; Thakar, Nilesh A.; Pandya, Tushar C.

    2016-05-01

    Liquid drop model is used to predict the size dependent melting temperature of low dimensional systems. In the present work we have modified liquid drop model for predicting shape and size dependent melting temperature of nanoparticles of Pb and Si. The new modified liquid drop model gives good agreement between calculated and experimental data which demonstrate the validity of the present work. It is found that the particle shape can affect the melting temperature of nanoparticles and this effect on the melting temperature becomes larger with decreasing of particle size. In the present study relationship for size and shape dependent of thermal expansivity is deduced for metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles. The present relationship for thermal expansivity may be used to predict the coefficient of thermal expansion for nanoparticles.

  3. Metallic Recovery and Ferrous Melting Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Luis Trueba

    2004-05-30

    The effects of melting atmosphere and charge material type on the metallic and alloy recovery of ferrous charge materials were investigated in two sets of experiments (Tasks 1 and 2). In addition, thermodynamic studies were performed (Task 3) to determine the suitability of ladle treatment for the production of ductile iron using scrap charge materials high in manganese and sulfur. Task 1--In the first set of experiments, the charge materials investigated were thin steel scrap, thick steel scrap, cast iron scrap, and pig iron in the rusty and clean states. Melting atmospheres in this set of experiments were varied by melting with and without a furnace cover. In this study, it was found that neither covered melting nor melting clean (non-rusty) ferrous charge materials improved the metallic recovery over the recovery experienced with uncovered melting or rusty charge materials. However, the silicon and manganese recoveries were greater with covered melting and clean materials. Silicon and manganese in the molten iron react with oxygen dissolved in the iron from uncovered melting and oxidized iron (surface rust). Silica and manganese silicates are formed which float to the slag decreasing recoveries of silicon and manganese. Cast iron and pig iron had higher metallic recoveries than steel scrap. Carbon recovery was affected by the carbon content of the charge materials, and not by the melting conditions. Irons with higher silicon contents had higher silicon recovery than irons with lower silicon contents. Task 2--In the second set of experiments, briquetted turnings and borings were used to evaluate the effects of briquette cleanliness, carbon additions, and melting atmosphere on metallic and alloy recovery. The melting atmosphere in this set of experiments was varied by melting in air and with an argon atmosphere using the SPAL process. In this set of experiments, carbon additions to the briquettes were found to have the greatest effect on metallic and alloy

  4. Systematic Process Improvement of Sheet Metal Forming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleer, Bart; Stippak, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The design of a forming process of sheet metal forming parts is a complex issue. Many boundary conditions must be fulfilled and many considerations must be made to come to a successful solution. Elimination wrinkles and splits very often need contrary measures. Many times the approach to come to a successful solution is an iterative process which is also dependent on the person who deals with the job. Generally this job has been solved with help of simulation software. AutoForm developed a methodology, systematic process improvement, to systematically approach this job. The systematic process improvement is a standardized way to effectively design forming processes. This systematical approach reduces the number of loops, gives transparency of the different solution statements and makes it easier to pass the work to a colleague. As a result the development of a forming process can be done faster, more reliable and less dependent on individuals. The systematic process improvement will be illustrated on the design of forming process of an automotive part.

  5. Metal-affinity separations: A new dimension in protein processing

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, F.H. )

    1991-02-01

    Rapid growth in the preparative and high-resolution analytical applications of metal-affinity chromatography demonstrate the appeal of metal recognition as a basis for protein separations. Stable, inexpensive chelated metals effectively mimic biospecific interactions, providing selective ligands for protein binding. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of metal-protein recognition that underlie metal-affinity separations. Also discussed are schemes for integrating metal-affinity purifications into the expression and bioprocessing of recombinant proteins. Promising future developments include new metal-affinity processes for analytical and preparative-scale separations and a range of techniques for enhancing the selectivity of metal-affinity separations.

  6. Shape 4.0: 3D Shape Modeling and Processing Using Semantics.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Michela

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, sensor, communication, and computing technologies have advanced rapidly, producing dramatic changes in our daily lives and in a variety of application domains. Emerging technologies are leading us to a gradual, but inescapable integration of our material and digital realities and the advent of cyber-physical worlds. Although attaining visual realism is within the grasp of current 3D modeling approaches, it is less clear whether current modeling techniques will accommodate the needs of human communication and of the applications that we can already envisage in those futuristic worlds. Inspired by the evolution trends of the Web, this article describes the evolution of shape modeling from the Shape 1.0 geometry-only, mesh-based stage to the forthcoming semantics-driven Shape 4.0 era. PMID:26780764

  7. Competing Classical and Quantum Effects in Shape Relaxation of a Metallic Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Rowland H.; Chen, D.; Yamada, T.

    2002-01-01

    Pb islands grown on a silicon substrate transform at room temperature from the initially flattop facet geometry into an unusual ring, shape with a volume-preserving mass transport process catalysed by the tip electrical field of a scanning tunnelling microscope. The formation of such ring shape morphology results from the competing classical and quantum effects in the shape relaxation. The latter also leads to a sequential regrowth on alternating, strips of the same facet defined by the underlying substrate steps, showing for the first time the dynamical impact of the quantum size effect on the stability of a nanostructure.

  8. Process for fabrication of metal oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.; Svensson, S.

    1990-07-17

    This invention is comprised of a method of fabricating metal oxide films from a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of metal oxides, e.g. electro-optically active transition metal oxides, at a high deposition rate. The presence of hydrogen during the plasma reaction enhances the deposition rate of the metal oxide. Various types of metal oxide films can be produced.

  9. Slip casting and extruding shapes of rhenium with metal oxide additives. 1: Feasibility demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, F. A.; Page, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating small rhenium parts with metal oxide additives by means of slip casting and extrusion techniques is described. The metal oxides, ZrO2 and HfO2 were stabilized into the cubic phase with Y2O3. Additions of metal oxide to the rhenium of up to 15 weight percent were used. Tubes of 17 mm diameter with 0.5 mm walls were slip cast by adapting current ceramic oxide techniques. A complete cast double conical nozzle demonstrated the ability to meet shapes and tolerances. Extrusion of meter long tubing lengths of 3.9 mm o.d. x 2.3 mm i.d. final dimension is documented. Sintering schedules are presented to produce better than 95% of theoretical density parts. Finished machining was found possible were requried by electric discharge machining and diamond grinding.

  10. Using the laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process to produce complex components from a CAD solid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keicher, David M.; Smugeresky, John E.; Romero, Joseph A.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Harwell, Lane D.

    1997-03-01

    The laser engineered net shaping (LENSTM) process, currently under development, has demonstrated the capability to produce near-net shape, fully dense metallic parts with reasonably complex geometrical features directly from a CAD solid model. Results to date show that excellent mechanical properties can be achieved in alloys such as 316 stainless steel and Inconel 625. In fact, due to the highly localized nature of the laser heating, a fine grain structure will occur resulting in a significant increase in yield strength at no expense of ductility. The current approach lends itself to produce components with a dimensional accuracy of plus or minus .002 inches in the deposition plane and plus or minus .0.015 inches in the growth direction. These results suggest that this process will provide a viable mens for direct fabrication of metallic hardware directly from the CAD solid model.

  11. Laser Processing of Metals and Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, Senthilraja

    2012-05-01

    A laser offers a unique set of opportunities for precise delivery of high quality coherent energy. This energy can be tailored to alter the properties of material allowing a very flexible adjustment of the interaction that can lead to melting, vaporization, or just surface modification. Nowadays laser systems can be found in nearly all branches of research and industry for numerous applications. Sufficient evidence exists in the literature to suggest that further advancements in the field of laser material processing will rely significantly on the development of new process schemes. As a result they can be applied in various applications starting from fundamental research on systems, materials and processes performed on a scientific and technical basis for the industrial needs. The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid surfaces has extensively been studied for many years, in part, for development of possible applications. In this thesis, I present several applications of laser processing of metals and polymers including polishing niobium surface, producing a superconducting phase niobium nitride and depositing thin films of niobium nitride and organic material (cyclic olefin copolymer). The treated materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution optical microscopy, surface profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Power spectral density (PSD) spectra computed from AFM data gives further insight into the effect of laser melting on the topography of the treated niobium.

  12. Optimization of Forming Processes with Different Sheet Metal Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Luísa C.; Castro, Catarina F.; António, Carlos C.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past decades relatively heavy components made of steel alloys comprise the majority of many manufactured parts due to steel's low cost, high formability and good strength. The desire to produce lightweight parts has led to studies searching for lighter and stronger materials such as aluminum alloys. However, they exhibit lower elastic stiffness than steel resulting in higher elastic strains causing known distortions such as spring-back and so decreasing accuracy of manufactured net-shape components. This paper presents a developed computational method to optimize the design of sheet metal processes using genetic algorithms. An inverse approach is considered so that the final geometry of the bended blank closely follows a prescribed one. The developed computational method couples a finite element forming simulation and an evolutionary algorithm searching the optimal design parameters of the process. The developed method searches the optimal parameters that ensure a perfect net-shape part. Different aluminum alloys candidates for automotive structural applications are considered and the optimal solutions are analyzed.

  13. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering from irregularly shaped, thin, metallic flat plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, Fred B.; Vedeler, Erik; Koch, Melissa B.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an application of the method of moments to calculate the electromagnetic scattering from irregularly shaped, thin, metallic flat plates in free space. In the present technique, an irregularly shaped plate is enclosed by a rectangle on which the surface-current density is then expressed in terms of subdomain functions by dividing the rectangle into subsections. A shape function is introduced to ensure zero current outside the patch. The surface-current density is determined using the electric field integral equation (EFIE) approach in conjunction with the method of moments, and from a knowledge of the surface-current density, the electromagnetic scattering from a plate is calculated. Using this technique, the electromagnetic scattering from a hexagonal plate; an equilateral triangular plate; an equilateral triangular plate with a concentric, equilateral triangular hole and an inverted, equilateral triangular hole; and a diamond-shaped plate is computed and compared with the numerical results obtained by using the Electromagnetic Surface Patch (ESP) code developed by Ohio State University. The numerical results compare favorably with the measurements performed on these shapes in the Langley Experimental Test Range facility.

  14. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  15. Facile 3D Metal Electrode Fabrication for Energy Applications via Inkjet Printing and Shape Memory Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R. C.; Wu, J.; Hau, N. Y.; Chang, Y. H.; Feng, S. P.; Li, D. C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a simple 3D metal electrode fabrication technique via inkjet printing onto a thermally contracting shape memory polymer (SMP) substrate. Inkjet printing allows for the direct patterning of structures from metal nanoparticle bearing liquid inks. After deposition, these inks require thermal curing steps to render a stable conductive film. By printing onto a SMP substrate, the metal nanoparticle ink can be cured and substrate shrunk simultaneously to create 3D metal microstructures, forming a large surface area topology well suited for energy applications. Polystyrene SMP shrinkage was characterized in a laboratory oven from 150-240°C, resulting in a size reduction of 1.97-2.58. Silver nanoparticle ink was patterned into electrodes, shrunk, and the topology characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Zinc-Silver Oxide microbatteries were fabricated to demonstrate the 3D electrodes compared to planar references. Characterization was performed using 10M potassium hydroxide electrolyte solution doped with zinc oxide (57g/L). After a 300s oxidation at 3Vdc, the 3D electrode battery demonstrated a 125% increased capacity over the reference cell. Reference cells degraded with longer oxidations, but the 3D electrodes were fully oxidized for 4 hours, and exhibited a capacity of 5.5mA-hr/cm2 with stable metal performance.

  16. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  17. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, James M.; Trowbridge, Lee D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

  18. Physicochemical processes on the solid metal-molten metal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.N.; Dybkov, V.I.; Natanzon, Y.V.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a method of dissolution by which bimetalspecimens of St3 and 45 steels, 12Kh18N1OT stainless steel with A995 aluminum, ADl and silumin were obtained. Tests showed high mechanical strength of the bimetals and good resistance under thermal shock conditions. The authors further conclude that the method of creation of permanent joints of metals by holding the solid, more refractory metal with a liquid low-melting one is most suitable for the production of cylindrical bimetal blanks since in this case it is easy to agitate the molten metal by rotation of the original blank of the solid metal in it. By simple machining from such a bimetal, it is possible to obtain tubes, butt joints or concentric two- and three-layer sleeves.

  19. Responsive nanoporous metals: recoverable modulations on strength and shape by watering.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing-Long; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2016-08-12

    Many biological materials can readily modulate their mechanical properties and shape by interacting with water in the surrounding environment, which is essential to their high performance in application. In contrast, typical inorganic materials (such as the metals) cannot change their strength and shape without involving thermal/mechanical treatments. By introducing nano-scale porous structure and exploiting a simple physical concept-the water-capillarity in nanopores, here we report that a 'dead' metal can be transformed into a 'smart' material with water-responsive properties. We demonstrate that the apparent strength, volume and shape of nanoporous Au and Au(Pt) can be modulated in situ, dramatically and recoverably, in response to water-dipping and partial-drying. The amplitude of strength-modulation reaches 20 MPa, which is nearly 50% of the yield strength at initial state. This approach also leads to reversible length change up to 1.3% in nanoporous Au and a large reversible bending motion of a bi-layer strip with tip displacement of ∼20 mm, which may be used for actuation. This method is simple and effective, occurring in situ under ambient conditions and requiring no external power, analogous to biological materials. The findings may open up novel applications in many areas such as micro-robotics and bio-medical devices. PMID:27347850

  20. Responsive nanoporous metals: recoverable modulations on strength and shape by watering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xing-Long; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Many biological materials can readily modulate their mechanical properties and shape by interacting with water in the surrounding environment, which is essential to their high performance in application. In contrast, typical inorganic materials (such as the metals) cannot change their strength and shape without involving thermal/mechanical treatments. By introducing nano-scale porous structure and exploiting a simple physical concept—the water-capillarity in nanopores, here we report that a ‘dead’ metal can be transformed into a ‘smart’ material with water-responsive properties. We demonstrate that the apparent strength, volume and shape of nanoporous Au and Au(Pt) can be modulated in situ, dramatically and recoverably, in response to water-dipping and partial-drying. The amplitude of strength-modulation reaches 20 MPa, which is nearly 50% of the yield strength at initial state. This approach also leads to reversible length change up to 1.3% in nanoporous Au and a large reversible bending motion of a bi-layer strip with tip displacement of ∼20 mm, which may be used for actuation. This method is simple and effective, occurring in situ under ambient conditions and requiring no external power, analogous to biological materials. The findings may open up novel applications in many areas such as micro-robotics and bio-medical devices.

  1. Onset of Ultrasonic Oscillation at Impulse Processing of Metal Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaburova, N. A.

    2016-02-01

    Processing of metal melts powerful electromagnetic impulses - a new and effective way to change the structure and properties of metal. Numerous experiments on ferrous and non-ferrous metals have shown that such processing usually allows both increase in strength and ductility. A theoretical explanation is given to the impact mechanism of powerful electromagnetic impulses on ferrous and non-ferrous metal melts. The possibility to convert electromagnetic impulses to sound waves is shown.

  2. Visual and Haptic Shape Processing in the Human Brain: Unisensory Processing, Multisensory Convergence, and Top-Down Influences.

    PubMed

    Lee Masson, Haemy; Bulthé, Jessica; Op de Beeck, Hans P; Wallraven, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Humans are highly adept at multisensory processing of object shape in both vision and touch. Previous studies have mostly focused on where visually perceived object-shape information can be decoded, with haptic shape processing receiving less attention. Here, we investigate visuo-haptic shape processing in the human brain using multivoxel correlation analyses. Importantly, we use tangible, parametrically defined novel objects as stimuli. Two groups of participants first performed either a visual or haptic similarity-judgment task. The resulting perceptual object-shape spaces were highly similar and matched the physical parameter space. In a subsequent fMRI experiment, objects were first compared within the learned modality and then in the other modality in a one-back task. When correlating neural similarity spaces with perceptual spaces, visually perceived shape was decoded well in the occipital lobe along with the ventral pathway, whereas haptically perceived shape information was mainly found in the parietal lobe, including frontal cortex. Interestingly, ventrolateral occipito-temporal cortex decoded shape in both modalities, highlighting this as an area capable of detailed visuo-haptic shape processing. Finally, we found haptic shape representations in early visual cortex (in the absence of visual input), when participants switched from visual to haptic exploration, suggesting top-down involvement of visual imagery on haptic shape processing. PMID:26223258

  3. Induction slag reduction process for purifying metals

    DOEpatents

    Traut, Davis E.; Fisher, II, George T.; Hansen, Dennis A.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous method is provided for purifying and recovering transition metals such as neodymium and zirconium that become reactive at temperatures above about 500.degree. C. that comprises the steps of contacting the metal ore with an appropriate fluorinating agent such as an alkaline earth metal fluosilicate to form a fluometallic compound, and reducing the fluometallic compound with a suitable alkaline earth or alkali metal compound under molten conditions, such as provided in an induction slag metal furnace. The method of the invention is advantageous in that it is simpler and less expensive than methods used previously to recover pure metals, and it may be employed with a wide range of transition metals that were reactive with enclosures used in the prior art methods and were hard to obtain in uncontaminated form.

  4. Process for the enhanced capture of heavy metal emissions

    DOEpatents

    Biswas, Pratim; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2001-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming a sorbent-metal complex. The process includes oxidizing a sorbent precursor and contacting the sorbent precursor with a metallic species. The process further includes chemically reacting the sorbent precursor and the metallic species, thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex. In one particular aspect of the invention, at least a portion of the sorbent precursor is transformed into sorbent particles during the oxidation step. These sorbent particles then are contacted with the metallic species and chemically reacted with the metallic species, thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex. Another aspect of the invention is directed to a process for forming a sorbent metal complex in a combustion system. The process includes introducing a sorbent precursor into a combustion system and subjecting the sorbent precursor to an elevated temperature sufficient to oxidize the sorbent precursor and transform the sorbent precursor into sorbent particles. The process further includes contacting the sorbent particles with a metallic species and exposing the sorbent particles and the metallic species to a complex-forming temperature whereby the metallic species reacts with the sorbent particles thereby forming a sorbent-metal complex under UV irradiation.

  5. Modeling thermomechanical processes in shape memory polymers under finite deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogovoi, A. A.; Stolbova, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    A model taking into account finite deformations is constructed for the behavior of a shape memory polymer which undergoes a transition from the highly elastic to the vitreous state and back during deformation and temperature change. The obtained relations are tested on problems which have experimental support.

  6. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-04-11

    A process is described for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal. 2 figures.

  7. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  8. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to exposure additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  9. Tribological properties of silicon carbide in metal removal process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews material properties of adhesion, friction and wear of single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with metals and alloys involved in a metal removal process such as grinding. The tribological properties in the metal removal processes are divided into properties which remove metal by adhesion between sliding surfaces, and metal removal by silicon carbide sliding against a metal, indenting it, and plowing a series of grooves or furrows. The paper also deals with fracture and deformation characteristics of the silicon carbide surface; the adhesion, friction and metal transfer to silicon carbide is related to the relative chemical activity of the metals. Atomic size and content of alloying elements play a dominant role in controlling adhesion and friction properties of alloys. The friction and abrasive wear decrease as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases.

  10. Process for preparing ceramic-metal composite bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, M.C.

    1993-05-25

    A process for forming an aluminum/ceramic composite is described comprising the non-vapor phase oxidation of molten aluminum achieved by contacting the molten aluminum to a sacrificial ceramic body, wherein the molten aluminum is at a temperature at least 300 degrees above the melting point of aluminum but below the softening point of the ceramic body, wherein the sacrificial ceramic body is a material selected from the group consisting of silica, quartz, sand, wollastonite, mullite, silicate glass, fluorosilicate glass, fluoroborosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass, calcium silicate glass, calcium aluminum silicate glass, calcium aluminum fluorosilicate glass, titanium dioxide, titanium carbide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, zirconium carbide, zirconium nitride, metal sulfides, and mixtures thereof, whereby the sacrificial ceramic body at least partially oxidizes the aluminum to form an aluminum oxide ceramic component, and wherein molten aluminum flows into the aluminum oxide ceramic component, and wherein the sacrificial ceramic body is at least partially reduced, whereby an aluminum/ceramic composite is produced possessing a near net shape relative to the shape of the sacrificial ceramic body.

  11. Mechanical Properties of INCONEL 718 Parts Manufactured by Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baufeld, Bernd

    2012-07-01

    INCONEL 718 parts have been manufactured by shaped metal deposition (SMD), an additive layer manufacturing technique applying wire-based tungsten inert gas welding. This technique is aimed toward mass customization of parts, omitting time- and scrap-intensive, subtractive fabrication routes. SMD results in dense, "near net-shaped" parts without pores, cracks, or fissures. The microstructure of the SMD parts exhibit large, columnar grains with a fine dendritic microstructure. The interdendritic boundaries are decorated by small Laves phase precipitates and by MC carbides. Tensile tests were performed with different strain rates (10-4, 10-3, and 2 × 10-3 1/s), but no dependency on strength or strain at failure was observed. The ultimate tensile strength was 828 ± 8 MPa, the true plastic strain at failure 28 ± 2%, the micro Vickers hardness 266 ± 21 HV200, and the dynamically measured Young's module was 154 ± 1 GPa.

  12. A study of shape optimization on the metallic nanoparticles for thin-film solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The shape of metallic nanoparticles used to enhance the performance of thin-film solar cells is described by Gielis' superformula and optimized by an evolutionary algorithm. As a result, we have found a lens-like nanoparticle capable of improving the short circuit current density to 19.93 mA/cm2. Compared with a two-scale nanospherical configuration recently reported to synthesize the merits of large and small spheres into a single structure, the optimized nanoparticle enables the solar cell to achieve a further 7.75% improvement in the current density and is much more fabrication friendly due to its simple shape and tolerance to geometrical distortions. PMID:24168131

  13. Radially and azimuthally polarized laser induced shape transformation of embedded metallic nanoparticles in glass.

    PubMed

    Tyrk, Mateusz A; Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A; Gillespie, W Allan; Abdolvand, Amin

    2015-09-01

    Radially and azimuthally polarized picosecond (~10 ps) pulsed laser irradiation at 532 nm wavelength led to the permanent reshaping of spherical silver nanoparticles (~30 - 40 nm in diameter) embedded in a thin layer of soda-lime glass. The observed peculiar shape modifications consist of a number of different orientations of nano-ellipsoids in the cross-section of each written line by laser. A Second Harmonic Generation cross-sectional scan method from silver nanoparticles in transmission geometry was adopted for characterization of the samples after laser modification. The presented approach may lead to sophisticated marking of information in metal-glass nanocomposites. PMID:26368440

  14. A Versatile Self-Assembly Strategy for the Synthesis of Shape-Selected Colloidal Noble Metal Nanoparticle Heterodimers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of individual nanoparticles into dimers—so-called heterodimers—is relevant for a broad range of applications, in particular in the vibrant field of nanoplasmonics and nanooptics. In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of material- and shape-selected nanoparticle heterodimers assembled from individual particles via electrostatic interaction. The versatility of the synthetic strategy is shown by assembling combinations of metal particles of different shapes, sizes, and metal compositions like a gold sphere (90 nm) with either a gold cube (35 nm), gold rhombic dodecahedron (50 nm), palladium truncated cube (120 nm), palladium rhombic dodecahedron (110 nm), palladium octahedron (130 nm), or palladium cubes (25 and 70 nm) as well as a silver sphere (90 nm) with palladium cubes (25 and 70 nm). The obtained heterodimer combinations are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta-potential measurements. We describe the optimal experimental conditions to achieve the highest yield of heterodimers compared to other aggregates. The experimental results have been rationalized using theoretical modeling. A proof-of-principle experiment where individual Au–Pd heterodimers are exploited for indirect plasmonic sensing of hydrogen finally illustrates the potential of these structures to probe catalytic processes at the single particle level. PMID:24580549

  15. Analysis of Multi-step Forming of Metallic Bipolar Plate for MCFC Using Various Shapes of Preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Ryu, Seung-Min; Yang, Dong-Yol; Kang, Dong-Woo; Chang, In-Gab; Lee, Tae-Won

    2010-06-01

    The metallic bipolar plates of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) consist of a shielded slot plate and a center plate. Among these, the shielded slot plate (the current collector) supports the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) mechanically. The anode gases and the cathode gases pass through a space between individual slot patterns. The catalysts are located in the upper part of the shielded slot plate. Therefore, triple phase boundaries can be generated, and carbonate ions can act as the mobile charge carrier for the MCFC. Due to these properties, the shielded slot plate should have a sheared corrugated pattern. In order to form a sheared corrugated pattern, a slitting process is required during the first stage of the forming process. However, it is not possible to obtain a high aspect ratio in a sheared corrugated trapezoidal pattern due to the plastic strain concentration on the upper round region of the pattern. Therefore additional forming processes are required to form a high aspect-ratio pattern. For example, the two additional processes such as a "stretching process using a preform" and a "final forming process" can be done subsequent to the first slitting process. Before the final forming process, a stretching process, which forms an intermediate shape (perform), can make the strain distribution more uniform. Hence, various examples of performs were evaluated by using FEM simulation employing simplified boundary conditions. Finally, experiments involving microscopic and macroscopic observations using the proposed shape of a preform were conducted to characterize the formability of the sheared corrugated pattern. It was found that the numerical simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Coupling of metals and biominerals: characterizing the interface between ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Allenstein, Uta; Selle, Susanne; Tadsen, Meike; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas; Zink, Mareike; Mayr, Stefan G

    2015-07-22

    Durable, mechanically robust osseointegration of metal implants poses one of the largest challenges in contemporary orthopedics. The application of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings as mediators for enhanced mechanical coupling to natural bone constitutes a promising approach. Motivated by recent advances in the field of smart metals that might open the venue for alternate therapeutic concepts, we explore their mechanical coupling to sputter-deposited HAp layers in a combined experimental-theoretical study. While experimental delamination tests and comprehensive structural characterization, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, are utilized to establish structure-property relationships, density functional theory based total energy calculations unravel the underlying physics and chemistry of bonding and confirm the experimental findings. Experiments and modeling indicate that sputter-deposited HAp coatings are strongly adherent to the exemplary ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys, Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Pd, with delamination stresses and interface bonding strength exceeding the physiological scales by orders of magnitude. PMID:26110912

  17. Digital pulse-shape processing for CdTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargholtz, Chr.; Fumero, E.; Mårtensson, L.; Wachtmeister, S.

    2001-09-01

    CdTe detectors suffer from low photo-peak efficiency and poor energy resolution. These problems are due to the drift properties of charge carriers in CdTe where particularly the holes have small mobility and trapping time. This is reflected in the amplitude and the shape of the detector output. To improve this situation a digital method is introduced where a sampling ADC is used to make a detailed measurement of the time evolution of the pulse. The measured pulse shape is fitted with a model. For the detector under study a model taking hole trapping into account significantly improves the photo-peak efficiency. The description of the hole component is, however, not fully satisfactory since for pulses with a large hole contribution a broadening of the full-energy peak occurs. Allowing for inhomogeneities in the detector material within the model partially remedies this deficiency.

  18. Craniocerebral injury by penetration of a T-shaped metallic spanner: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Bhatti, Atta-ul-Aleem; Godil, Saniya Siraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Craniocerebral injuries caused by penetration of metallic foreign bodies present a significant challenge to neurosurgeons as an extensive surgery may be required, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Case Description: We describe a unique case of penetrating brain injury (PBI) caused by a T-shaped metallic spanner in an assault victim. The patient presented with profuse bleeding from the scalp and necrotic brain tissue evident at the point of entry of the retained short arm of the spanner. Skull X-ray and head computerized tomography (CT) revealed the short arm of spanner penetrating the left parieto-occipital lobe of the brain, extending up to the contralateral occipital lobe. Safe removal of the retained spanner was achieved with a craniectomy and durotomy. Postoperative CT revealed no residual metallic foreign body, and patient had a good functional and neurological outcome at six months’ follow up. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, the successful surgical treatment of a PBI caused by a similar metallic object has not been reported in scientific literature previously. The case is also unique considering the fact that it was managed within the medical and diagnostic constraints of an East African country. PMID:23493510

  19. Processing of metal and oxygen from lunar deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Constance F.

    1992-01-01

    On the moon, some whole rocks may be ores for abundant elements, such as oxygen, but beneficiation will be important if metallic elements are sought from raw lunar dirt. In the extraction process, a beneficiated metallic ore, such as an oxide, sulfide, carbonate, or silicate mineral, is converted to reduced metal. A variety of plausible processing technologies, which includes recovery of meteoritic iron, and processing of lunar ilmenite, are described in this report.

  20. Process for the production of metal nitride sintered bodies and resultant silicon nitride and aluminum nitride sintered bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yajima, S.; Omori, M.; Hayashi, J.; Kayano, H.; Hamano, M.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the manufacture of metal nitride sintered bodies, in particular, a process in which a mixture of metal nitrite powders is shaped and heated together with a binding agent is described. Of the metal nitrides Si3N4 and AIN were used especially frequently because of their excellent properties at high temperatures. The goal is to produce a process for metal nitride sintered bodies with high strength, high corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, thermal shock resistance, and avoidance of previously known faults.

  1. Process to restore obliterated serial numbers on metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.; Parker, B.; Chisum, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Metal smeared into grooves of serial numbers by grinding or filing can be cleaned out by process called cavitation. Ultrasonic vibrator generates very high frequency vibrations in water which create millions of microscopic bubbles. Cavitation bubbles impact metal surface at thousands of pounds per square inch pressure. Metal particles filling grooves are broken away.

  2. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

  3. Near net shape processing of continuous lengths of superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Danyluk, Steven; McNallan, Michael; Troendly, Robert; Poeppel, Roger; Goretta, Kenneth; Lanagan, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for mechanically forming a ceramic superconductor product. A system for making the ceramic superconductor includes a metallic channel portion having a cross section for receiving a ceramic superconductor powder, a roll to mechanically reduce the channel cross section and included superconductor powder and a cap portion welded to the channel portion using a localized high energy source. The assembled bar is then mechanically reduced to form a tape or wire end product.

  4. Near net shape processing of continuous lengths of superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Danyluk, S.; McNallan, M.; Troendly, R.; Poeppel, R.; Goretta, K.; Lanagan, M.

    1997-08-26

    A system and method for mechanically forming a ceramic superconductor product are disclosed. A system for making the ceramic superconductor includes a metallic channel portion having a cross section for receiving a ceramic superconductor powder, a roll to mechanically reduce the channel cross section and included superconductor powder and a cap portion welded to the channel portion using a localized high energy source. The assembled bar is then mechanically reduced to form a tape or wire end product. 9 figs.

  5. Process for buried metallization in diamond film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Max L.; Ting, Jyh-Ming; Lagounov, Alex; Tang, Chi

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate methods of combining chemical vapor deposition diamond growth techniques with state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition or ion beam enhanced deposition to produce buried metallization of polycrystalline diamond films. The mechanical and electrical integrity of both the insulating and conducting elements following metallization and diamond overgrowth was shown. Both methods were shown to have bonding strength sufficient to withstand tape lift-off, which is regarded to be a good indication of strength needed for die attachment and wire bonding. Diamond overgrowth was also shown, thus enabling buried metallized layers to be created. Electrical resistivity property measurements on metallized layers and between metallization separated by diamond films were shown to be sufficient to allow the use of diamond as an insulating inter-layer material for multi-layer circuit boards.

  6. A Thrombus Generation Model Applied to Aneurysms Treated with Shape Memory Polymer Foam and Metal Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, John; Ortega, Jason; Hartman, Jonathan; Maitland, Duncan

    2015-11-01

    To prevent their rupture, intracranial aneurysms are often treated with endovascular metal coils which fill the aneurysm sac and isolate it from the arterial flow. Despite its widespread use, this method can result in suboptimal outcomes leading to aneurysm recurrence. Recently, shape memory polymer foam has been proposed as an alternative aneurysm filler. In this work, a computational model has been developed to predict thrombus formation in blood in response to such cardiovascular implantable devices. The model couples biofluid and biochemical phenomena present as the blood interacts with a device and stimulates thrombus formation. This model is applied to simulations of both metal coil and shape memory polymer foam treatments within an idealized 2D aneurysm geometry. Using the predicted thrombus responses, the performance of these treatments is evaluated and compared. The results suggest that foam-treated aneurysms may fill more quickly and more completely with thrombus than coil-filled aneurysms, potentially leading to improved long-term aneurysm healing. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. The terminal effects of chisel-shape projectile penetrating into metallic target plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xu; Yao, Xiaohu; Ma, Wei

    2015-09-01

    This work performs the analysis and simulation investigations of penetration behaviors of chisel-shape projectile. In analysis, the projectile is assumed to be a rigid body and the target plate is elastic-plastic material. By introducing the velocity potential function, the velocity field in target is first obtained. Then, the momentum equation is solved for determining the pressure and stress fields in the elastic and plastic regions in target. The variation of the resultant force subjected by the projectiles with the penetration depth is studied. The approximate expressions of penetration depth and the residual velocity with the initial impacting velocity are obtained for the exploration of the penetration mechanisms of the chisel-shape projectile. In numerical simulation, the main attention focuses on the dissipation mechanisms of the kinetic energy of the chisel-shape projectile in penetration process.

  8. Development of a metal hydride electrode waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, J.C.; Martin, D.; Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.

    1999-12-01

    Manufacturing residues of metal hydride electrodes for nickel - metal hydride batteries were chemically processed to recover the metal part and heat treated for the organic part. Chemical recovery yielded Ni-Co alloy after electrolysis of the solution and hydroxides of other metal, mainly rare earths. The organic part, pyrolyzed at 700 C, led to separation between carbon and fluorinated matter. Infrared coupling at the output of the pyrolysis furnace was used to identify the pyrolysis gases.

  9. Metal Matrix Composite LOX Turbopump Housing Via Novel Tool-Less Net-Shape Pressure Infiltration Casting Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.; Gentz, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) offer relatively higher specific strength, specific stiffness, lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and lower density as compared with conventional alloys. These unique properties make them very attractive for aerospace turbomachinery applications where there is ever increasing emphasis to reduce weight and cost, and to increase engine performance. Through a joint effort between NASA and Metal Matrix Cast Composites, Inc., a complex liquid oxygen (LOX) compatible turbopump housing is being redesigned and manufactured from hybrid (particulate and Fibers) Aluminum MMC. To this end, a revolutionary tool-less pressure infiltration casting technology is being perfected. Ceramic preforms for the composite are 3-dimensionally printed using a stereolithography file, acquired from a CAD model. The preforms are then invested into a refractory material and pressure infiltrated with liquid metal. After casting, the refractory material is washed away leaving behind a near net-shape composite part. Benefits of this process include increased composite uniformity, no mold machining, short time from design to part properties matching traditional methods, ability to make previously impossible to manufacture parts and no size limitations with a newly developed joining technology. The results of materials, manufacturing and design optimizations, preform joining, and sub element tests will be presented.

  10. Metal Matrix Composite LOX Turbopump Housing Via Novel Tool-less Net-Shape Pressure Infiltration Casting Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) offer relatively higher specific strength, specific stiffness, lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and lower density as compared with conventional alloys. These unique properties make them very attractive for aerospace turbomachinery applications where there is ever increasing emphasis to reduce weight and cost, and to increase engine performance. Through a joint effort between NASA and Metal Matrix Cast Composites, Inc., a complex liquid oxygen (LOX) compatible turbopump housing is being redesigned and manufactured from hybrid (particulate and fibers) Aluminum MMC. To this end, a revolutionary toolless pressure infiltration casting technology is being perfected. Ceramic preforms for the composite are 3-dimensionally printed using a stereolithography file, acquired from a CAD model. The preforms are then invested into a refractory material and pressure infiltrated with liquid metal. After casting, the refractory material is washed away leaving behind a near net-shape composite part. Benefits of this process include increased composite uniformity, no mold machining, short time from design to part, properties matching traditional methods, ability to make previously impossible to manufacture parts and no size limitations with a newly developed joining technology. The results of materials, manufacturing and design optimizations, preform joining, and sub-element tests will be presented.

  11. Metal Matrix Composite LOX Turbopump Housing Via Novel Tool-Less Net-Shape Pressure Infiltration Casting Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.; Sung, Michael; Zhang, Shi-Yu; Gentz, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) offer relatively higher specific strength, specific stiffness, lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and lower density as compared with conventional alloys. These unique properties make them very attractive for aerospace turbomachinery applications where there is ever increasing emphasis to reduce weight and cost, and to increase engine performance. Through a joint effort between NASA and Metal Matrix Cast Composites, Inc., a complex liquid oxygen (LOX) compatible turbopump housing is being redesigned and manufactured from hybrid (particulate and fibers) Aluminum MMC. To this end, a revolutionary tool-less pressure infiltration casting technology is being perfected. Ceramic preforms for the composite are 3-dimensionally printed using a stereolithography file, acquired from a CAD model. The preforms are then invested into a refractory material and pressure infiltrated with liquid metal. After casting, the refractory material is washed away leaving behind a near net-shape composite part. Benefits of this process include increased composite uniformity, no mold machining, short time from design to part, properties matching traditional methods, ability to make previously impossible to manufacture parts and no size limitations with a newly developed joining technology. The results of materials, manufacturing and design optimizations, preform joining, and sub-element tests will be presented.

  12. Circularly polarized triple band glass shaped monopole patch antenna with metallic reflector for bluetooth & wireless applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangid, K. G.; Choudhary, N.; Jain, P.; Sharma, B. R.; Saini, J. S.; Kulhar, V. S.; Bhatnagar, D.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of strip line fed glass shaped monopole patch antenna having with overall size 30mm × 30 mm × 1.59 mm. In the patch; an eight shaped slot and in the ground plane an eight shaped ring are introduced. A metallic ground plane is also introduced at appropriate location beneath the ground plane. The proposed antenna is simulated by applying CST Microwave Studio simulator. Antenna provides circularly polarized radiations, triple broad impedance bandwidth of 203MHz (2.306GHz to 2.510GHz), 42MHz (2.685GHz to 2.757GHz) & GHz (3.63 GHz to 6.05 GHz), high flat gain (close to 5dBi) and good radiation properties in the desired frequency range. This antenna may be a very useful tool for 2.45GHz Bluetooth communication band as well as for 2.4GHz/5.2 GHz /5.8 GHz WLAN bands & 3.7GHz/5.5 GHz Wi-Max bands.

  13. Shape and surface chemistry effects on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of metallic nanorods and nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Favi, Pelagie Marlene; Valencia, Mariana Morales; Elliott, Paul Robert; Restrepo, Alejandro; Gao, Ming; Huang, Hanchen; Pavon, Juan Jose; Webster, Thomas Jay

    2015-12-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (such as gold and silver) have been intensely studied for wound healing applications due to their ability to be easily functionalized, possess antibacterial properties, and their strong potential for targeted drug release. In this study, rod-shaped silver nanorods (AgNRs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) were fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD), and their cytotoxicity toward human skin fibroblasts were assessed and compared to sphere-shaped silver nanospheres (AgNSs) and gold nanospheres (AuNSs). Results showed that the 39.94 nm AgNSs showed the greatest toxicity with fibroblast cells followed by the 61.06 nm AuNSs, ∼556 nm × 47 nm (11.8:1 aspect ratio) AgNRs, and the ∼534 nm × 65 nm (8.2:1 aspect ratio) AuNRs demonstrated the least amount of toxicity. The calculated IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value for the AgNRs exposed to fibroblasts was greater after 4 days of exposure (387.3 μg mL(-1)) compared to the AgNSs and AuNSs (4.3 and 23.4 μg mL(-1), respectively), indicating that these spherical metallic nanoparticles displayed a greater toxicity to fibroblast cells. The IC50 value could not be measured for the AuNRs due to an incomplete dose response curve. The reduced cell toxicity with the presently developed rod-shaped nanoparticles suggests that they may be promising materials for use in numerous biomedical applications. PMID:26053238

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of a Micromachined Swirl-Shaped Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuator with Electrodes Exhibiting Asymmetric Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Kim-Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a swirl-shaped microfeatured ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator. A novel micromachining process was developed to fabricate an array of IPMC actuators on a glass substrate and to ensure that no shortcircuits occur between the electrodes of the actuator. We demonstrated a microfluidic scheme in which surface tension was used to construct swirl-shaped planar IPMC devices of microfeature size and investigated the flow velocity of Nafion solutions, which formed the backbone polymer of the actuator, within the microchannel. The unique fabrication process yielded top and bottom electrodes that exhibited asymmetric surface resistance. A tool for measuring surface resistance was developed and used to characterize the resistances of the electrodes for the fabricated IPMC device. The actuator, which featured asymmetric electrode resistance, caused a nonzero-bias current when the device was driven using a zero-bias square wave, and we propose a circuit model to describe this phenomenon. Moreover, we discovered and characterized a bending and rotating motion when the IPMC actuator was driven using a square wave. We observed a strain rate of 14.6% and a displacement of 700 μm in the direction perpendicular to the electrode surfaces during 4.5-V actuation. PMID:24824370

  15. Laser Processing of Metal Oxides for Plasmonic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Breckenfeld, Eric; Charipar, Nicholas; Pique, Alberto

    Noble metals such as Au and Ag have been used traditionally for plasmonic devices. However, conventional metals are not suitable for near infrared (IR) plasmonic applications due to their relatively large optical losses at these wavelengths. Metal oxides, on the other hand, have been considered for low loss metallic components in the near IR because they can provide a tunable carrier density by doping. The zero-cross-over permittivity values of these metal oxides, for example, can easily be tuned from 1.0 µm to 3 µm by adjusting doping levels. Optical losses in devices made from these metal oxide materials are generally found to be much lower than those obtained with conventional metals. We have investigated various laser processing techniques for synthesizing several types of metal oxides. First, pulsed laser deposition was used to grow metal oxide thin films such as, Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In2O3 and VO2. Second, a laser sintering technique was used to improve the properties of solution-processed VO2 coatings. Third, a laser printing technique was used to produce metal oxide films. We will present details on the use of laser processing techniques for synthesizing these metal oxides along with their electrical, optical, and structural properties. This work was funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through the Naval Research Laboratory Basic Research Program.

  16. Stabilization and separation of heavy metals in incineration fly ash during the hydrothermal treatment process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuyan; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Jianping; Chen, Dezhen

    2015-12-15

    In the paper, hydrothermal treatment (HT) of MSWI fly ashes was performed to stabilize and separate heavy metals. Influences of pre-treatment, types of ferric and/or ferrous additives, and subsequent heavy metal stabilization procedure by adding phosphate were investigated. The chemical stability of hydrothermal products was examined by solid waste extraction procedure with acetic acid buffer solution. Mineralogical investigation of selected hydrothermal product was carried out by XRD. FEGE SEM- -EDX was used to study the morphology and surface compositions of the ash particles. Experimental results revealed that HT process facilitated heavy metal exposure to leaching solution. FEGE SEM-EDX images revealed that fly ash particles were re-organized during hydrothermal process and that the minerals with special shapes and containing high levels of heavy metals were formed. A mild acid washing treatment with final pH around 6.20 could remove soluble heavy metals. Therefore, it may be a proper pre- or post-treatment method for fly ash particles for the purpose of reducing heavy metal contents. For the purpose of stabilizing heavy metals, the addition of ferric/ferrous salts in the HT process or phosphate stabilization after HT is recommended. The HT process may be applied to realize the environmentally sound management of MSWI fly ash or to recover and utilize MSWI fly ash. PMID:26100935

  17. Process for preparing liquid metal electrical contact device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, R. R.; Berkopec, F. D.; Culp, D. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The parts of an electrical contact device are treated by sputter etching to remove the parent metal oxide. Prior to exposure of the electrodes to any oxygen, a sacrificial metal is sputter deposited on the parts. Preferably this sacrificial metal is one that oxidizes slowly and is readily dissolved by the liquid metal. The sacrificial metal may then be removed from unwanted areas. The remainder of the ring and the probe to be wet by the liquid metal are submerged in the liquid metal or the liquid metal is flushed over these areas, preferably while they are being slightly abraded, unitl all the sacrificial material on these portions is wet by the liquid metal. In doing so the liquid metal dissolves the sacrificial metal and permanently wets the parent metal. Preferred materials used in the process and for the electrodes of electrical contact devices are high purity (99.0%) nickel or AISI type 304 stainless steel for the electrical contact devices, gallium as the liquid metal, and gold as the sacrificial material.

  18. Effect of Individual Layer Shape on the Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Al Alloys Laminated Metal Composite Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zejun; Wu, Xia; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Quanzhong; Liu, Qing

    2014-03-01

    For the dissimilar laminated metal composite sheets (LMCS) fabricated by roll bonding technology, the great differences of mechanical properties between the constituent metals lead to the non-uniform deformation and individual layer necking. The individual layer shape affects the mechanical properties and microstructure of dissimilar LMCS. The Al/Al alloy (1100/7075) LMCS with the same thickness and ratio of dissimilar metals, but different individual layer shapes, have been successfully fabricated by hot accumulative roll bonding in conjunction with cold rolling technology. Some effective methods (such as sheet crown, warp degree, and slant angle) were presented to quantitatively evaluate the individual layer shape and necking of constituent metals. The microstructure and mechanical properties of 1100/7075 LMCS with different individual layer shapes were investigated. The effects of bonding interface on the mechanical properties were obtained based on the assessment of individual layer shapes and necking. The strength and elongation of LMCS decrease with the increase of variation of individual layer shapes and necking when the number of layers keeps constant. The research results offer some theoretical guides and references for adjusting the control measures of compatibility deformation, optimizing the hot roll bonding technologies, and designing the novel high-performance dissimilar LMCS.

  19. The shape of mammalian phylogeny: patterns, processes and scales

    PubMed Central

    Purvis, Andy; Fritz, Susanne A.; Rodríguez, Jesús; Harvey, Paul H.; Grenyer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian phylogeny is far too asymmetric for all contemporaneous lineages to have had equal chances of diversifying. We consider this asymmetry or imbalance from four perspectives. First, we infer a minimal set of ‘regime changes’—points at which net diversification rate has changed—identifying 15 significant radiations and 12 clades that may be ‘downshifts’. We next show that mammalian phylogeny is similar in shape to a large set of published phylogenies of other vertebrate, arthropod and plant groups, suggesting that many clades may diversify under a largely shared set of ‘rules’. Third, we simulate six simple macroevolutionary models, showing that those where speciation slows down as geographical or niche space is filled, produce more realistic phylogenies than do models involving key innovations. Lastly, an analysis of the spatial scaling of imbalance shows that the phylogeny of species within an assemblage, ecoregion or larger area always tends to be more unbalanced than expected from the phylogeny of species at the next more inclusive spatial scale. We conclude with a verbal model of mammalian macroevolution, which emphasizes the importance to diversification of accessing new regions of geographical or niche space. PMID:21807729

  20. CONTINUOUS DISSOLVER EXTRACTOR FOR PROCESSING METAL

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, R.B.; Buckham, J.A.

    1959-02-01

    An apparatus is presented for the continuous dissolution of metal slugs in an aqueous acid and sequential continuous extraction of selected metal values from the acid solution by counter-current contact with an organic solvent. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical tank divided into upper and lower sections. Dissolution of the metal slug takes place in the lower section and the solution so produced is continuously fed to the topmost plate of the upper extraction section. An immiscible organic extractant is continuously passed by a pulsing pump into the lowermost unit of the extraction section. Suitable piping and valving permits of removing the aqueous raffinate solution from the lowermost portion of the extraction section, and simultaneous removal of organic solvent extractant containing the desired product from the uppermost portion of the extraction section.

  1. Processing of X-ray Microcalorimeter Data with Pulse Shape Variation using Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D.; Cecil, T.; Gades, L.; Jacobsen, C.; Madden, T.; Miceli, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method using principal component analysis (PCA) to process x-ray pulses with severe shape variation where traditional optimal filter methods fail. We demonstrate that PCA is able to noise-filter and extract energy information from x-ray pulses despite their different shapes. We apply this method to a dataset from an x-ray thermal kinetic inductance detector which has severe pulse shape variation arising from position-dependent absorption.

  2. Processing of X-ray Microcalorimeter Data with Pulse Shape Variation using Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D.; Cecil, T.; Gades, L.; Jacobsen, C.; Madden, T.; Miceli, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a method using principal component analysis (PCA) to process x-ray pulses with severe shape variation where traditional optimal filter methods fail. We demonstrate that PCA is able to noise-filter and extract energy information from x-ray pulses despite their different shapes. We apply this method to a dataset from an x-ray thermal kinetic inductance detector which has severe pulse shape variation arising from position-dependent absorption.

  3. Net Shaped Component Fabrication of Refractory Metal Alloys using Vacuum Plasma Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; ODell, S.; Gorti, S.; Litchford, R.

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) technique was employed to produce dense and net shaped components of a new tungsten-rhenium (W-Re) refractory metal alloy. The fine grain size obtained using this technique enhanced the mechanical properties of the alloy at elevated temperatures. The alloy development also included incorporation of thermodynamically stable dispersion phases to pin down grain boundaries at elevated temperatures and thereby circumventing the inherent problem of recrystallization of refractory alloys at elevated temperatures. Requirements for such alloys as related to high temperature space propulsion components will be discussed. Grain size distribution as a function of cooling rate and dispersion phase loading will be presented. Mechanical testing and grain growth results as a function of temperature will also be discussed.

  4. Gastrotracheal fistula: treatment with a covered self-expanding Y-shaped metallic stent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yu, Hong; Zhu, Ming-Hui; Li, Quan-Peng; Ge, Xian-Xiu; Nie, Jun-Jie; Miao, Lin

    2015-01-21

    A 67-year-old man had a sev-ere cough and pulmonary infection for 1 wk before seeking evaluation at our hospital. He had undergone esophagectomy with gastric pull-up and radiotherapy for esophageal cancer 3 years previously. After admission to our hospital, gastroscopy and bronchoscopy revealed a fistulous communication between the posterior tracheal wall near the carina and the upper residual stomach. We measured the diameter of the trachea and bronchus and determined the site and size of the fistula using multislice computed tomography and gastroscopy. A covered self-expanding Y-shaped metallic stent was implanted into the trachea and bronchus. Subsequently, the fistula was closed completely. The patient tolerated the stent well and had good palliation of his symptoms. PMID:25624743

  5. Tuning the vibration of a rotor with shape memory alloy metal rubber supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Liu, Baolong; Hong, Jie

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes a novel smart rotor support damper with variable stiffness made with a new multifunctional material - the shape memory alloy metal rubber (SMA-MR). SMA-MR gives high load bearing capability (yield limit up to 100 MPa and stiffness exceeding 1e8 N/m), high damping (loss factor between 0.15 and 0.3) and variable stiffness (variation of 2.6 times between martensite and austenite phases). The SMA-MR has been used to replace a squeeze film damper and combined with an elastic support. The mechanical performance of the smart support damper has been investigated at room and high temperatures on a rotor test rig. The vibration tuning capabilities of the SMA-MR damper have been evaluated through FEM simulations and experimental tests. The study shows the feasibility of using the SMA-MR material for potential applications of active vibration control at different temperatures in rotordynamics systems.

  6. Resonant transmission and mode modulation of acoustic waves in H-shaped metallic gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yu-Qiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Ru-Wen E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com; Qi, Dong-Xiang E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com

    2015-04-15

    In this work, we demonstrate that resonant full transmission of acoustic waves exists in subwavelength H-shaped metallic gratings, and transmission peaks can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the grating geometry. We investigate this phenomenon through both numerical simulations and theoretical calculations based on rigorous-coupled wave analysis. The transmission peaks are originated from Fabry-Perot resonances together with the couplings between the diffractive wave on the surface and the multiple guided modes in the slits. Moreover, the transmission modes can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the cavity geometry, without changing the grating thickness. The mechanism is analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model and verified by both the theoretical calculations and the numerical simulations. This research has potential application in acoustic-device miniaturization over a wide range of wavelengths.

  7. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.; Gorbaty, Martin L.; Tsou, Joe M.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  8. Conical shaped charge pressed powder, metal liner jet characterization and penetration in aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.G.

    1997-05-01

    This work was conducted as part of a Near-wellbore Mechanics program at Sandia National Laboratories. An understanding of the interaction of the perforator jet from an explosive shaped charge with the fluid filled porous sandstone media is of basic importance to the completion of oil wells. Tests were conducted using the five-head Flash X-ray Test Site to measure the jet tip velocities and jet geometry for the OMNI and CAPSULE Conical Shaped Charge (CSC) oil well perforator jets fired into air. These tests were conducted to generate jet velocity and geometry information to be used in validating the CTH hydrocode modeling/simulation development of pressed powder, metal liner jets in air. Ten tests were conducted to determine the CSC jet penetration into 6061-T6 aluminum targets. Five tests were conducted with the OMNI CSC at 0.25, 6.0, and 19 inch standoffs from the target. Five tests were conducted with the CAPSULE CSC at 0.60, 5.0, 10.0, and 19 inch standoffs from the target. These tests were conducted to generate jet penetration into homogeneous target information for use in validating the CTH code modeling/simulation of pressed powder, metal liner jets penetrating aluminum targets. The Flash X-ray radiographs, jet velocities, jet diameters, and jet lengths data for jets fired into air are presented in this report. The jet penetration into aluminum and penetration hole profile data are also presented for the OMNI and CAPSULE perforators. Least Squares fits are presented for the measured jet velocity and jet penetration data.

  9. Development and characterization of multilevel metal interconnection etch process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Kim

    1997-08-01

    A more robust chlorine chemistry based reactive ion etch (RIE) process was developed, characterized and optimized to anisotropically etch the interconnecting metal layers for use in the fabrication of CMOS and BiCMOS IC devices, using the Lam 4600 single wafer etcher. The titanium nitride and titanium silicide buried layer, used in the metal 1 structure, present unique constraints on etch selectivity to the underlying film. The process must clear metal stringers with minimal lateral etching of the aluminum during the tiN/Ti etch and overetch steps. The new optimized process meets all requirements imposed by advanced technologies, such as vertical metal sidewalls, wide process latitude, tight CD control, minimal of TEOS oxide underlayer, less sensitivity to photoresist pattern, excellent reliability and reproducibility, and lower level of polymer (reaction by- product) build-up in reactor chamber which could lead to metal corrosion and cluster defects.

  10. The Fingertip Effect: How Information-Processing Technology Shapes Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    Typical contacts with information-processing technology (IPT) do not significantly reshape thought. Although some suggest that IPT will have a narrowing, dehumanizing influence, the diversification of ITP now underway will allow for more styles of involvement. Because of this diversification, thinking may change as it did in response to literacy…

  11. X-ray line shapes of metals: Exact solutions of a final-state interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarts, Coenraad A.; Dow, John D.

    2005-10-01

    By means of model calculations for an independent-electron metal, we obtain exact line shapes for the photon absorption, emission, and photoemission spectra of core states, including electronic relaxation. In all cases we find an x-ray edge anomaly. For the absorption and emission spectra this anomaly is superposed on a continuum resembling Elliott exciton theory. We display how the spectra evolve from the exciton limit to the free-electron limit as the final-state interaction strength is decreased or the Fermi energy increased. We compare the spectra obtained for different final-state interactions and find that different types of interactions produce different spectral shapes. Away from threshold the absorption and emission profiles show an enhancement of the free-electron result, as predicted by the screened-exciton theory. Our results offer potential explanations for (i) incompatibilities between threshold exponents and exponents extracted from other data, (ii) the occurrence of nearly symmetric x-ray photoemission lines, and (iii) the lack of mirror symmetry of absorption and emission edges.

  12. 3D display and image processing system for metal bellows welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young

    2010-04-01

    Industrial welded metal Bellows is in shape of flexible pipeline. The most common form of bellows is as pairs of washer-shaped discs of thin sheet metal stamped from strip stock. Performing arc welding operation may cause dangerous accidents and bad smells. Furthermore, in the process of welding operation, workers have to observe the object directly through microscope adjusting the vertical and horizontal positions of welding rod tip and the bellows fixed on the jig, respectively. Welding looking through microscope makes workers feel tired. To improve working environment that workers sit in an uncomfortable position and productivity we introduced 3D display and image processing. Main purpose of the system is not only to maximize the efficiency of industrial productivity with accuracy but also to keep the safety standards with the full automation of work by distant remote controlling.

  13. Effect of island shape on dielectrophoretic assembly of metal nanoparticle chains in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Haitao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Liu, Weiyu; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Zhou, Yaopei

    2015-03-01

    The electrical conduction quality of an electric circuit connection formed by dielectrophoretic (DEP)-assembled metal nanoparticle wires between small conductive elements plays a significant role in electronic devices. One of the major challenges for improving the electrical conductance of nanowires is optimizing their geometric morphology. So far, the electrical conduction quality has been enhanced by optimizing the AC frequency and conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions. Herein, the effect of the conductive island shapes on the dynamic process occurring in a DEP assembly of 10 nm gold nanoparticles was investigated in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system. The nanoparticle wires between the microelectrodes were assembled in situ from colloidal suspensions. The wires were grown in a much straighter route by increasing the geometric angle of the conductive-island tip. To validate the experiments, the effects of mutual DEP interactions and electrothermally induced fluid flow on the dynamic behavior of particle motion for different island geometric configurations in the conductive-island-based microelectrode system were determined by numerical simulations. The simulation results are consistent with those of experiments. This indicates that different conductive island shapes change the distribution of DEP force and increase the electrothermally induced fluid flow to different extents in the vicinity, leading to different morphologies of DEP-assembled nanoparticle wires.

  14. PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-04-29

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous acidic solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium and the impurities associated therewith. The separation is effected by adding, to the solution containing hexavalent uranium and plutonium, acetate ions and the ions of an alkali metal and those of a divalent metal and thus forming a complex plutonium acetate salt which is carried by the corresponding complex of uranium, such as sodium magnesium uranyl acetate. The plutonium may be separated from the precipitated salt by taking the same back into solution, reducing the plutonium to a lower valent state on reprecipitating the sodium magnesium uranyl salt, removing the latter, and then carrying the plutonium from ihe solution by means of lanthanum fluoride.

  15. PROCESS OF MAKING SHAPED FUEL FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    O'Leary, W.J.; Fisher, E.A.

    1964-02-11

    A process for making uranium dioxide fuel of great strength, density, and thermal conductivity by mixing it with 0.1 to 1% of a densifier oxide (tin, aluminum, zirconium, ferric, zinc, chromium, molybdenum, titanium, or niobium oxide) and with a plasticizer (0.5 to 3% of bentonite and 0.05 to 2% of methylcellulose, propylene glycol alginate, or ammonium alginate), compacting the mixture obtained, and sintering the bodies in an atmosphere of carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide, with or without hydrogen, or of a nitrogen-hydrogen mixture is described. (AEC)

  16. Tribological properties of silicon carbide in metal removal process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Material properties are considered as they relate to adhesion, friction, and wear of single crystal silicon carbide in contact with metals and alloys that are likely to be involved in a metal removal process such as grinding. Metal removal from adhesion between sliding surfaces in contact and metal removal as a result of the silicon carbide sliding against a metal, indenting into it, and plowing a series of grooves or furrows are discussed. Fracture and deformation characteristics of the silicon carbide surface are also covered. The adhesion, friction, and metal transfer to silicon carbide is related to the relative chemical activity of the metals. The more active the metal, the higher the adhesion and friction, and the greater the metal transfer to silicon carbide. Atomic size and content of alloying elements play a dominant role in controlling adhesion, friction, and abrasive wear properties of alloys. The friction and abrasive wear (metal removal) decrease linearly as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases. They decrease as the solute to solvent atomic radius ratio increases or decreases linearly from unity, and with an increase of solute content. The surface fracture of silicon carbide is due to cleavages of 0001, 10(-1)0, and/or 11(-2)0 planes.

  17. How Many Nucleosynthesis Processes Exist at Low Metallicity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Montes, F.; Arcones, A.

    2014-12-01

    Abundances of low-metallicity stars offer a unique opportunity to understand the contribution and conditions of the different processes that synthesize heavy elements. Many old, metal-poor stars show a robust abundance pattern for elements heavier than Ba, and a less robust pattern between Sr and Ag. Here we probe if two nucleosynthesis processes are sufficient to explain the stellar abundances at low metallicity, and we carry out a site independent approach to separate the contribution from these two processes or components to the total observationally derived abundances. Our approach provides a method to determine the contribution of each process to the production of elements such as Sr, Zr, Ba, and Eu. We explore the observed star-to-star abundance scatter as a function of metallicity that each process leads to. Moreover, we use the deduced abundance pattern of one of the nucleosynthesis components to constrain the astrophysical conditions of neutrino-driven winds from core-collapse supernovae.

  18. HOW MANY NUCLEOSYNTHESIS PROCESSES EXIST AT LOW METALLICITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C. J.; Montes, F.; Arcones, A. E-mail: cjhansen@dark-cosmology.dk E-mail: almudena.arcones@physik.tu-darmstadt.de

    2014-12-20

    Abundances of low-metallicity stars offer a unique opportunity to understand the contribution and conditions of the different processes that synthesize heavy elements. Many old, metal-poor stars show a robust abundance pattern for elements heavier than Ba, and a less robust pattern between Sr and Ag. Here we probe if two nucleosynthesis processes are sufficient to explain the stellar abundances at low metallicity, and we carry out a site independent approach to separate the contribution from these two processes or components to the total observationally derived abundances. Our approach provides a method to determine the contribution of each process to the production of elements such as Sr, Zr, Ba, and Eu. We explore the observed star-to-star abundance scatter as a function of metallicity that each process leads to. Moreover, we use the deduced abundance pattern of one of the nucleosynthesis components to constrain the astrophysical conditions of neutrino-driven winds from core-collapse supernovae.

  19. TRACE METALS AND STATIONARY CONVENTIONAL COMBUSTION PROCESSES: VOLUME 2. BIBLIOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a search of U.S. literature to identify published information about trace metals and Stationary Conventional Combustion Processes (SCCPs). It summarizes what has been published about ambient trace metals in air, water, and soils, and reviews convention...

  20. An Atomistic View on Fundamental Transport Processes on Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Giesen, Margret

    2007-06-14

    In this lecture I present an introduction to the time-resolved observation of atomic transport processes on metal surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy video sequences. The experimental data is analyzed using scaling law concepts known from statistical thermodynamics. I will present studies from metal surfaces in vacuum as well as in electrolyte.

  1. Metal enrichment processes in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, S.

    1986-01-01

    This study discusses metal enrichment in oceanic sediments resulting from remobilization, scavenging, pollution and hydrothermal inputs in the Mississippi River-Gulf of Mexico and Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26/sup 0/N. Suspended particles collected from the Mississippi River during mean water and suspended-sediment discharge have metal concentrations which vary by <5% for Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn and approx.10% for Mn. The massive sediment load carried by the Mississippi River is rapidly deposited on the Mississippi Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. Aluminum and Fe concentrations in Mississippi Delta sediments are similar to those of average Mississippi River suspended matter throughout the delta. In contrast, the Cu/Al ratio in surficial sediments (0-1 cm) decreases from 4.1 x 10/sup -4/ for average suspended matter to 2.7 x 10/sup -4/ about 45 km from the mouth of Southwest Pass. Copper lost from delta sediments can be traced to the deep Gulf of Mexico where concentrations average 50-70 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ compared with 33 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ for Mississippi River suspended matter. The observed increase in offshore sediments in linked to scavenging of Cu by particles. A similar scenario can be presented for Mn.

  2. PROCESSING OF URANIUM-METAL-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-10-01

    A process is given for recovering uranium from neutronbombarded uranium- aluminum alloys. The alloy is dissolved in an aluminum halide--alkali metal halide mixture in which the halide is a mixture of chloride and bromide, the aluminum halide is present in about stoichiometric quantity as to uranium and fission products and the alkali metal halide in a predominant quantity; the uranium- and electropositive fission-products-containing salt phase is separated from the electronegative-containing metal phase; more aluminum halide is added to the salt phase to obtain equimolarity as to the alkali metal halide; adding an excess of aluminum metal whereby uranium metal is formed and alloyed with the excess aluminum; and separating the uranium-aluminum alloy from the fission- productscontaining salt phase. (AEC)

  3. Metal Catalyzed Fusion: Nuclear Active Environment vs. Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2009-03-01

    To achieve radiationless dd fusion and/or other LENR reactions via chemistry: some focus on environment of interior or altered near-surface volume of bulk metal; some on environment inside metal nanocrystals or on their surface; some on the interface between nanometal crystals and ionic crystals; some on a momentum shock-stimulation reaction process. Experiment says there is also a spontaneous reaction process.

  4. Fiber Metal Laminates Made by the VARTM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hales, Stephen J.; Alexa, Joel A.; Weiser, Erik S.; Loos, Alfred; Johnson, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    Fiber metal laminates (FMLs) are multi-component materials utilizing metals, fibers and matrix resins. Tailoring their properties is readily achievable by varying one or more of these components. Established FMLs like GLARE utilize aluminum foils, glass fibers and epoxy matrices and are manufactured using an autoclave. Two new processes for manufacturing FMLs using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) have been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). A description of these processes and the resulting FMLs are presented.

  5. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  6. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication: A Rapid Metal Deposition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley REsearch Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Thus far, this technique has been demonstrated on aluminum and titanium alloys of interest for aerospace structural applications nickel and ferrous based alloys are also planned. Deposits resulting from 2219 aluminum demonstrations have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials ave exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rated in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 cubic inches per our) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  7. Process for the regeneration of metallic catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Katzer, James R.; Windawi, Hassan

    1981-01-01

    A method for the regeneration of metallic hydrogenation catalysts from the class consisting of Ni, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Ru poisoned with sulfur, with or without accompanying carbon deposition, comprising subjecting the catalyst to exposure to oxygen gas in a concentration of about 1-10 ppm. intermixed with an inert gas of the group consisting of He, A, Xe, Kr, N.sub.2 and air substantially free of oxygen to an extent such that the total oxygen molecule throughout is in the range of about 10 to 20 times that of the hydrogen sulfide molecular exposure producing the catalyst poisoning while maintaining the temperature in the range of about 300.degree. to 500.degree. C.

  8. Metal cutting analogy for establishing Friction Stir Welding process parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Sylvester Allen

    A friction stir weld (FSW) is a solid state joining operation whose processing parameters are currently determined by lengthy trial and error methods. To implement FSWing rapidly in various applications will require an approach for predicting process parameters based on the physics of the process. Based on hot working conditions for metals, a kinematic model has been proposed for calculating the shear strain and shear strain rates during the FSW process, validation of the proposed model with direct measuring is difficult however. Since the shear strain and shear strain rates predicted for the FSW process, are similar to those predicted in metal cutting, validation of the FSW algorithms with microstructural studies of metal chips may be possible leading to the ability to predict FSW processing parameters.

  9. Removal of heavy metals by hybrid electrocoagulation and microfiltration processes.

    PubMed

    Keerthi; Vinduja, V; Balasubramanian, N

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on the investigation of the performance of electrocoagulation (EC), followed by the microfiltration process for heavy metal removal in synthetic model waste water containing Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ ions. Effects of initial concentration, current density and pH on metal removal were analysed to optimize the EC process. The optimized EC process was then integrated with dead-end microfiltration (MF) and was found that the hybrid process was capable of 99% removal of heavy metals. The cake layer formed over the membrane by the hybrid process was analysed through scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle size analysis of the sludge formed during EC was done to investigate the fouling caused during the process. PMID:24527655

  10. Process Design by FEM Simulation for Shape Ring Rolling of Large-Sized Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Park, S. S.; Lee, I.; Moon, Y. H.

    2010-06-01

    Ring rolling process is usually used to fabricate large-sized ring, such as, tower flange for wind power electric generator. Many kinds of seamless ring are used in wind power electric generator and manufactured by ring rolling process. In general, final part is machined after forming with shape of plain square section. Since interests for near net shaping of seamless ring have been increased gradually because of green energy, it is necessary to develop the technology for shape ring rolling with respect to the market demands and cost. Therefore, we studied the process and die design for shape ring rolling of large sized ring over 3,500 mm out diameter by experiment and FEM simulation. Ring rolling process is very difficult to solve by FEM method because of equilibrium state and size effect, etc. Moreover, shape ring rolling is more difficult to solve the problem that two plastic deformation zones are different each other, that is main roll and conical roll. Also since conical roll has a shape, deformation velocity field is very much complex and the deformed section passed axial roll is different section and velocity field. The FE simulations are performed to analyze process variables affected in forming of profiled ring. Therefore, the main features of used FE model are: (1) it adopts a transient or unsteady state full ring mesh to model the deformation processes and shape development; (2) the mandrel and conical rolls are modeled using coupled heat-transfer elements; (3) the model involves the full process from blank through perform to final profiled ring. From these calculated results, we have proposed the mechanisms of various tools, such as mandrel and conical roll. The calculated results are compared experimental results. Calculated results can predict the tilting of profiled ring and then process variables to form large sized ring.

  11. Process Design by FEM Simulation for Shape Ring Rolling of Large-Sized Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Park, S. S.; Lee, I.; Moon, Y. H.

    2010-06-15

    Ring rolling process is usually used to fabricate large-sized ring, such as, tower flange for wind power electric generator. Many kinds of seamless ring are used in wind power electric generator and manufactured by ring rolling process. In general, final part is machined after forming with shape of plain square section. Since interests for near net shaping of seamless ring have been increased gradually because of green energy, it is necessary to develop the technology for shape ring rolling with respect to the market demands and cost. Therefore, we studied the process and die design for shape ring rolling of large sized ring over 3,500 mm out diameter by experiment and FEM simulation. Ring rolling process is very difficult to solve by FEM method because of equilibrium state and size effect, etc. Moreover, shape ring rolling is more difficult to solve the problem that two plastic deformation zones are different each other, that is main roll and conical roll. Also since conical roll has a shape, deformation velocity field is very much complex and the deformed section passed axial roll is different section and velocity field. The FE simulations are performed to analyze process variables affected in forming of profiled ring. Therefore, the main features of used FE model are: (1) it adopts a transient or unsteady state full ring mesh to model the deformation processes and shape development; (2) the mandrel and conical rolls are modeled using coupled heat-transfer elements; (3) the model involves the full process from blank through perform to final profiled ring. From these calculated results, we have proposed the mechanisms of various tools, such as mandrel and conical roll. The calculated results are compared experimental results. Calculated results can predict the tilting of profiled ring and then process variables to form large sized ring.

  12. Processing and Characterization of Nickel-Manganese-Gallium Shape-Memory Fibers and Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Peiqi-Paige

    makes polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga metallic foams attractive for magnetic refrigeration. Compared to a polycrystalline bulk material, open-cells Ni-Mn-Ga foams shows a reduction in the temperature span of the phase transition and an increase in the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). Ni-Mn-Ga wires with sub-millimeter diameter, either as individual wires or as part of a 2D/3D wire assemblies, are promising candidates for actuators, sensors, magnetic cooling systems and energy harvesting devices. Here, we report the mechanical behavior of oligocrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga Taylor wires by tensile tests at room temperature. Magnetic-field induced shape recovery is demonstrated at 0°C in a martensitic Ni-Mn-Ga microwire, where a mechanically-produced 120° bend is recovered near fully within a magnetic field produced by permanent magnets. Tubes of the ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga of composition near the Ni2MnGa Heusler phase can be used, alone or combined in structures, in magnetic actuators or magnetic refrigerators. However, fabrication of Ni-Mn-Ga tubes with sub-millimeter diameter by classical cold or hot drawing methods is hampered by the brittleness of the alloy. Here, we demonstrate a new process, where Ni-Mn-Ga tubes are fabricated by interdiffusion of Mn and Ga into drawn, ductile Ni tubes with 500 and 760 micrometers inner and outer diameters.

  13. Plutonium metal vs. oxide determination with the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, S. A.; Bourne, M. M.; Dolan, J. L.; Polack, K.; Lawrence, C.; Flaska, M.; Clarke, S. D.; Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P.

    2014-12-01

    Neutron measurements can be used to distinguish plutonium in metal or oxide form, a capability that is of great interest in nuclear nonproliferation, treaty verification, and other applications. This paper describes measurements performed on well-characterized samples of plutonium oxide and plutonium metal using the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33. Results are compared to those obtained with a same-sized detector cell using the liquid scintillator EJ-309. The same optimized, digital pulse shape discrimination technique is applied to both detectors and the neutron pulse height distributions are compared. Results show that the EJ-299-33 plastics can be successfully used for plutonium measurements, where the gamma ray to neutron detection ratio is much higher than for typical radioactive sources. Results also show that EJ-299-33 detectors can be used to characterize plutonium samples, specifically to discriminate between plutonium metal and oxide.

  14. Ceramic/metal nanocomposites by lyophilization: Processing and HRTEM study

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, C.F.; Agouram, S.; Torrecillas, R.; Moya, J.S.; Lopez-Esteban, S.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cryogenic route has been used to obtain ceramic/metal nanostructured powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The powders present good homogeneity and dispersion of metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metal nanoparticle size distributions are centred in 17-35 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both phases, ceramic and metal, present a high degree of crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good metal/ceramic interfaces due to epitaxial growth, studied by HRTEM. -- Abstract: This work describes a wet-processing route based on spray-freezing and subsequent lyophilization designed to obtain nanostructured ceramic/metal powders. Starting from the ceramic powder and the corresponding metal salt, a water-based suspension is sprayed on liquid nitrogen. The frozen powders are subsequently freeze-dried, calcined and reduced. The material was analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis at all stages. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies showed a uniform distribution of metal nanoparticles on the ceramic grain surfaces, good interfaces and high crystallinity, with an average metal particle size in the nanometric range.

  15. Diagnostics of metal inert gas and metal active gas welding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrlandt, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper gives a review on studies on metal inert gas (MIG) and metal active gas (MAG) welding processes with the focus on diagnostics of the arc, the material transfer, and the temporal process behaviour in welding experiments. Recent findings with respect to an improved understanding of the main mechanisms in the welding arc and the welding process are summarized. This is linked to actual developments in welding arc and welding process modelling where measurements are indispensable for validation. Challenges of forthcoming studies are illustrated by means of methods under development for welding process control as well as remaining open questions with respect to arc-surface interaction and arc power balance.

  16. Patterns of cranial shape diversification during the phylogenetic branching process of New World monkeys (Primates: Platyrrhini).

    PubMed

    Perez, S I; Klaczko, J; Rocatti, G; Dos Reis, S F

    2011-08-01

    One of the central topics in evolutionary biology is understanding the processes responsible for phenotypic diversification related to ecological factors. New World monkeys are an excellent reference system to investigate processes of diversification at macroevolutionary scales. Here, we investigate the cranial shape diversification related to body size and ecology during the phylogenetic branching process of platyrrhines. To investigate this diversification, we used geometric morphometric techniques, a molecular phylogenetic tree, ecological data and phylogenetic comparative methods. Our statistical analyses demonstrated that the phylogenetic branching process is the most important dimension to understand cranial shape variation among extant platyrrhines and suggested that the main shape divergence among the four principal platyrrhine clades probably occurred during the initial branching process. The phylogenetic conservatism, which is the retention of ancestral traits over time within the four principal platyrrhine clades, could be the most important characteristic of platyrrhine cranial shape diversification. Different factors might have driven early shape divergence and posterior relative conservatism, including genetic drift, stabilizing selection, genetic constraints owing to pleiotropy, developmental or functional constraint, lack of genetic variation, among others. Understanding the processes driving the diversification among platyrrhines will probably require further palaeontological, phylogenetic and comparative studies. PMID:21615587

  17. Blow Up Exponents and Deviations from Ideal Taylor Cone Shapes in Ultrathin Liquid Metal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, Theodore G.; Troian, Sandra

    We employ a finite element, moving mesh model to investigate the axisymmetric flow of an ultrathin liquid metal film overlay by a thin vacuum layer confined between two circular disks held at a constant potential difference close to field evaporation values. Within nanoseconds, a small Gaussian protrusion centered about the origin evolves into a sharpened cusp elongated by Maxwell stresses and rounded by capillary stresses. Previous analytic studies and numerical simulations based on marker and cell techniques have uncovered a self-similar regime in time where the opposing stresses and kinetic energy exhibit blow up behavior with a characteristic exponent of - 2/3, and cusp shapes that deviate from the ideal Taylor cone angle. Our simulations consistently yield exponents in the range -3/4 to -4/5, with values that depend sensitively on the choice of blowup time. We also find that deviations from the ideal Taylor cone angle become significant all along the film interface as the Gaussian amplitude increases beyond fractions of a micron. TGA gratefully acknowledges support from a NASA Science and Technology fellowship.

  18. Simulation of a Full Forward Extrusion Process from Metal Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merklein, Marion; Stellin, Tommaso; Engel, Ulf

    2011-05-01

    The interest on mass production of small complex metal components is currently fostered by fields like electronics and micromechanics. A possible approach is seen in a multi-step bulk forming process, limited among scaling problems by handling difficulties between the forming stages. A radical simplification of the positioning of the workpiece is seen in a process in which a metal strip acts both as raw material and support of the workpiece through the different forming stages. Within the study of this method, a full forward extrusion process from metal strip has been simulated with the goal of getting the basic knowledge about the strip behavior and process performance. The influence of the main geometric and tribological features has been evaluated designing a full factorial plan. The role of the radius of curvature of the tool edges and of the factor of friction have become the points of main interest in the optimization of the process.

  19. Structural damage localization by outlier analysis of signal-processed mode shapes - Analytical and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulriksen, M. D.; Damkilde, L.

    2016-02-01

    Contrary to global modal parameters such as eigenfrequencies, mode shapes inherently provide structural information on a local level. Therefore, this particular modal parameter and its derivatives are utilized extensively for damage identification. Typically, more or less advanced mathematical methods are employed to identify damage-induced discontinuities in the spatial mode shape signals, hereby, potentially, facilitating damage detection and/or localization. However, by being based on distinguishing damage-induced discontinuities from other signal irregularities, an intrinsic deficiency in these methods is the high sensitivity towards measurement noise. In the present paper, a damage localization method which, compared to the conventional mode shape-based methods, has greatly enhanced robustness towards measurement noise is proposed. The method is based on signal processing of a spatial mode shape by means of continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) and subsequent application of a generalized discrete Teager-Kaiser energy operator (GDTKEO) to identify damage-induced mode shape discontinuities. In order to evaluate whether the identified discontinuities are in fact damage-induced, outlier analysis is conducted by applying the Mahalanobis metric to major principal scores of the sensor-located bands of the signal-processed mode shape. The method is tested analytically and benchmarked with other mode shape-based damage localization approaches on the basis of a free-vibrating beam and validated experimentally in the context of a residential-sized wind turbine blade subjected to an impulse load.

  20. Studies on the optimization of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, T.W.

    1994-01-04

    A methodology for the production of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites from hyper-eutectic copper-chromium alloys was developed. This methodology was derived from a basic study of the precipitation phenomena in these alloys encompassing evaluation of microstructural, electrical, and mechanical properties. The methodology developed produces material with a superior combination of electrical and mechanical properties compared to those presently available in commercial alloys. New and novel alloying procedures were investigated to extend the range of production methods available for these material. These studies focused on the use of High Pressure Gas Atomization and the development of new containment technologies for the liquid alloy. This allowed the production of alloys with a much more refined starting microstructure and lower contamination than available by other methods. The knowledge gained in the previous studies was used to develop two completely new families of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. These composites are based on immissible alloys with yttrium and magnesium matrices and refractory metal reinforcement. This work extends the physical property range available in deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. Additionally, it also represents new ways to apply these metals in engineering applications.

  1. Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

  2. METAL ATTENUATION PROCESSES AT MINING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide scientists and engineers responsible for assessing remediation technologies with background information on MNA processes at mining-impacted sites. The global magnitude of the acid drainage problem is clear evidence that in most cases...

  3. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.; Padilla, Dennis D.; Wingo, Robert M.; Worl, Laura A.; Johnson, Michael D.

    2003-07-22

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  4. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2006-12-26

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  5. Applications of molten salts in reactive metals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    Pyrochemical processes using molten salts provide a unique opportunity for the extraction and refining of many reactive and valuable metals either directly from the beneficiated ore or from other process effluent that contain reactive metal compounds. This research program is aimed at developing a process for the production and recovery of reactive and valuable metals, such as zinc, tin, lead, bismuth and silver, in a hybrid reactor combining electrolytic production of the calcium reductant and in-situ utilization of this reductant for pyrochemical reduction of the metal compounds, such as halide or oxides. The process is equally suitable for producing other low melting metals, such as cadmium and antimony. The cell is typically operated below 1000C temperature. Attempts have been made to produce silver, lead, bismuth, tin and cerium by calciothermic reduction in a molten salt media. In a separate effort, calcium has been produced by an electrolytic dissociation of lime in a calcium chloride medium. The most important characteristic of the hybrid technology is its ability to produce metals under ``zero-waste`` conditions.

  6. Application of molten salts in pyrochemical processing of reactive metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. . Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy); Averill, W.A. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1992-01-01

    Various mixes of chloride and fluoride salts are used as the media for conducting pyrochemical processes in the production and purification of reactive metals. These processes generate a significant amount of contaminated waste that has to be treated for recycling or disposal. Molten calcium chloride based salt systems have been used in this work to electrolytically regenerate calcium metal from calcium oxide for the in situ reduction of reactive metal oxides. The recovery of calcium is characterized by the process efficiency to overcome back reactions in the electrowinning cell. A thermodynamic analysis, based on fundamental rate theory, has been performed to understand the process parameters controlling the metal deposition, rate, behavior of the ceramic anode-sheath and influence of the back-reactions. It has been observed that the deposition of calcium is dependent on the ionic diffusion through the sheath. It has also been evidenced that the recovered calcium is completely lost through the back-reactions in the absence of a sheath. A practical scenario has also been presented where the electrowon metal can be used in situ as a reductant to reduce another reactive metal oxide.

  7. Control of Metal Arrays Based on Heterometallics Masquerading in Heterochiral Aggregations of Chiral Clothespin-Shaped Complexes.

    PubMed

    Naito, Masaya; Inoue, Ryo; Iida, Masayuki; Kuwajima, Yuuki; Kawamorita, Soichiro; Komiya, Naruyoshi; Naota, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Heterometal arrays in molecular aggregations were obtained by the spontaneous and ultrasound-induced gelation of organic liquids containing the chiral, clothespin-shaped trans-bis(salicylaldiminato) d8 transition-metal complexes 1. Heterometallic mixtures of complexes 1 a (Pd) and 1 b (Pt) underwent strict heterochiral aggregation entirely due to the organic shell structure of the clothespin shape, with no effect of the metal cores. This phenomenon provides an unprecedented means of generating highly controlled heterometallic arrangements such as alternating sequences [(+)-Pd(-)-Pt(+)-Pd(-)-Pt⋅⋅⋅] as well as a variety of single metal-enriched arrays (e.g., [(+)-Pt(-)-Pd(+)-Pd(-)-Pd(+)-Pd(-)-Pd⋅⋅⋅] and [(+)-Pd(-)-Pt(+)-Pt(-)-Pt(+)-Pt(-)-Pt⋅⋅⋅]) upon the introduction of an optically active masquerading unit with a different metal core in the heterochiral single-metal sequence. The present method can be applied to form various new aggregates with optically active Pd and Pt units, to allow 1) tuning of the gelation ultrasound sensitivity based on the different hearing abilities of the metal units; 2) aggregation-induced chirality transfer between heterometallic species; and 3) aggregation-induced chirality enhancement. A mechanistic rationale is proposed for these molecular aggregations based on the molecular structures of the units and the morphologies of the aggregates. PMID:26212577

  8. Deterministic measurement and correction of the pad shape in full-aperture polishing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, D.; Zhang, Q.; Xie, R.; Chen, X.; Zhao, S.; Wang, J.

    2015-11-01

    Full-aperture polishing is a significant process in fabricating large optical flats because it restrains Mid-Spatial Frequency errors and removes material quickly on the whole optic surface. Nevertheless, optical flats fabricated by full-aperture polishing generally fail to meet the stringent requirement of surface figure, which has to be corrected by sub-aperture polishing processes. Surface figure of optical flats in full-aperture polishing processes is primarily dependent on the pressure distribution uniformity which correlates intensively with the lap shape. At present, practical and precise means are urgently desired for measuring and correcting the lap shape, especially the polyurethane pad lap. In the study, we present a novel method for deterministic measurement of the pad shape. The method obtains the height of the pad at spirally distributed locations implemented by the revolution of the pad and translation of the laser displacement sensor. The pad shape in terms of matrixes whose elements representing the heights at the corresponding locations is then calculated by interpolation algorithm based on the obtained data. Further, we propose a method for deterministic correction of the pad shape utilizing a small conditioning tool. The dwell time algorithm and implementation strategy for the dwell time are provided for common full-aperture polishers. These solutions for the deterministic measurement and correction of the pad shape have been validated on a full-aperture polisher with polyurethane pad. The polishing experiments revealed that the optic surface figure was obviously improved.

  9. Characterization of Transport and Solidification in the Metal Recycling Processes

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Ebadian; R. C. Xin; Z. F. Dong

    1997-08-06

    The characterization of the transport and solidification of metal in the melting and casting processes is significant for the optimization of the radioactively contaminated metal recycling and refining processes. . In this research project, the transport process in the melting and solidification of metal was numerically predicted, and the microstructure and radionuclide distribution have been characterized by scanning electron microscope/electron diffractive X-ray (SEWEDX) analysis using cesium chloride (CSC1) as the radionuclide surrogate. In the melting and solidification process, a resistance furnace whose heating and cooling rates are program- controlled in the helium atmosphere was used. The characterization procedures included weighing, melting and solidification, weighing after solidification, sample preparation, and SEM/EDX analysis. This analytical methodology can be used to characterize metal recycling and refining products in order to evaluate the performance of the recycling process. The data obtained provide much valuable information that is necessary for the enhancement of radioactive contaminated metal decontamination and recycling technologies. The numerical method for the prediction of the melting and solidification process can be implemented in the control and monitoring system-of the melting and casting process in radioactive contaminated metal recycling. The use of radionuclide surrogates instead of real radionuclides enables the research to be performed without causing harmfid effects on people or the community. This characterization process has been conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University since October 1995. Tests have been conducted on aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) using cesium chloride (CSCI) as a radionuclide surrogate, and information regarding the radionuclide transfer and distribution in melting and solidification process has been obtained. The numerical simulation of

  10. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  11. Alkali metal ion induced cube shaped mesoporous hematite particles for improved magnetic properties and efficient degradation of water pollutants.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mouni; Naskar, Milan Kanti

    2016-07-27

    Mesoporous cube shaped hematite (α-Fe2O3) particles were prepared using FeCl3 as an Fe(3+) precursor and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (ionic liquid) as a soft template in the presence of different alkali metal (lithium, sodium and potassium) acetates, under hydrothermal conditions at 150 °C/4 h followed by calcination at 350 °C. The formation of the α-Fe2O3 phase in the synthesized samples was confirmed by XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Unlike K(+) ions, intercalation of Li(+) and Na(+) ions occurred in α-Fe2O3 crystal layers as evidenced by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Electron microscopy (FESEM and TEM) images showed the formation of cube-like particles of different sizes in the presence of Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) ions. The mesoporosity of the products was confirmed by N2 adsorption-desorption studies, while their optical properties were analyzed by UV-DRS. Na(+) ion intercalated α-Fe2O3 microcubes showed improved coercivity (5.7 kOe) due to increased strain in crystals, and shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Temperature dependent magnetization of the samples confirmed the existence of Morin temperature in the range of 199-260 K. Catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB), a toxic water pollutant, was studied using the synthesized products via a heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. The degradation products were traced by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The α-Fe2O3 microcubes obtained in the presence of Na(+) ions exhibited a more efficient degradation of MB to non-toxic open chain products. PMID:27406648

  12. The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, William J.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Pannala, Sreekanth; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Here, additive Manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a method of manufacturing that forms parts from powder, wire, or sheets in a process that proceeds layer-by-layer.Many techniques (using many different names) have been developed to accomplish this via melting or solid - state joining. In this review, these techniques for producing metal parts are explored, with a focus on the science of metal AM: processing defects, heat transfer, solidification, solid- state precipitation, mechanical properties, and post-processing metallurgy. The various metal AM techniques are compared, with analysis of the strengths and limitations of each. Few alloys have been developed for commercial production, but recent development efforts are presented as a path for the ongoing development of new materials for AM processes.

  13. The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sames, William J.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Pannala, Sreekanth; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-03-07

    Here, additive Manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a method of manufacturing that forms parts from powder, wire, or sheets in a process that proceeds layer-by-layer.Many techniques (using many different names) have been developed to accomplish this via melting or solid - state joining. In this review, these techniques for producing metal parts are explored, with a focus on the science of metal AM: processing defects, heat transfer, solidification, solid- state precipitation, mechanical properties, and post-processing metallurgy. The various metal AM techniques are compared, with analysis of the strengths and limitations of each. Few alloys have been developedmore » for commercial production, but recent development efforts are presented as a path for the ongoing development of new materials for AM processes.« less

  14. Virtual fuzzy in-process control of Y-shape tube hydroforming with different branch top shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Ken-ichi; Chen, Xu; Kobayashi, Dai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a new counter punch shape was designed and applied to Y-shape hydroforming to obtain a Y-shape tube with uniform wall thickness. The new counter punch shape effect in Y-shape hydroforming using fuzzy control was investigated in finite element simulation. As a result, the wall thickness thinning in the branch top was restrained and the wall thickness thickening in the die shoulder of obtuse angle side was restrained. The results suggested that the wall thickness could be more uniform by using the new counter punch.

  15. Numerical simulation on multi-gripper stretch forming process for sheet metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Li, M. Z.; Peng, H. L.; Gu, S. H.

    2013-05-01

    Multi-gripper stretch forming (MGSF) is a new flexible forming process compared to traditional stretching forming process. Two kinds of MGSF process, back-vertical drawing (BVD) and front-vertical drawing (FVD) are compared in this study. Spherical-curved part is selected as the research object, and the finite numerical modes for BVD and FVD have been established, and the simulation results are carried out by dynamic explicit finite element analysis. The numerical results indicated that the sheet metal can get the shape of the die at a lower strain ratio and the stretch strain distribution was more uniform by the FVD, which can improve the forming quality of the formed parts. In addition, the sheet metal can be formed by FVD under smaller hydraulic cylinder strokes. The results may provide useful guidance on optimizing the MGSF equipment structure.

  16. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  17. Electrochemical processes in recovering metals from ores

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, D.L. ); Bautista, R.G. . Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) is one of the most abundant copper-bearing minerals in the U.S. Oxidative leaching and smelting and refining are the most common methods used for recovering copper from chalcopyrite. One of the problems associated with oxidative leaching is the formation of an elemental sulfur product layer around the unreacted chalcopyrite core. The sulfur coating slows the reaction by inhibiting both the diffusion of the oxidant to the unreacted core, and the diffusion of the copper and iron species to the bulk solution. Another problem with leaching is that the iron and copper are oxidized simultaneously. Both appear in the bulk solution in their most oxidized states. The direct electrodissolution of copper sulfide ore slurries could reduce the number of steps involved in the copper recovery process, possibly leading to significant reductions in energy consumption and operating costs. The potential application of electrodissolution processes in hydrometallurgy has been reviewed. This paper reviews investigations of the electrochemical dissolution of chalcopyrite, digenite (Cu{sub 1.8}S), chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) and covellite (CuS).

  18. Appearances aren't everything: shape classifiers and referential processing in Cantonese.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Cara; Chambers, Craig G

    2011-09-01

    Cantonese shape classifiers encode perceptual information that is characteristic of their associated nouns, although certain nouns are exceptional. For example, the classifier tiu occurs primarily with nouns for long-narrow-flexible objects (e.g., scarves, snakes, and ropes) and also occurs with the noun for a (short, rigid) key. In 3 experiments, we explored how the semantic information encoded in shape classifiers influences language comprehension. When judging the fit between classifiers and depicted objects in an explicit ranking task, Cantonese speakers evaluated classifier-noun pairings solely in terms of grammatical well-formedness and showed no separate sensitivity to the shape features of objects. In an eye-tracking task (Experiment 2), we also found little sensitivity to shape classifier semantics during real-time comprehension. However, in a subsequent experiment in which referent objects lacked the prototypical features for their accompanying classifiers (Experiment 3), an influence of shape semantics was found in participants' incidental fixations to nontarget objects. We conclude that shape classifiers influence referential interpretation primarily through their grammatical constraints, consistent with the agreementlike nature of classifiers in general. The role of shape classifiers' semantics on processing is apparent only in specific circumstances. PMID:21574749

  19. Statistical inference methods for recurrent event processes with shape and size parameters

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MEI-CHENG; HUANG, CHIUNG-YU

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper proposes a unified framework to characterize the rate function of a recurrent event process through shape and size parameters. In contrast to the intensity function, which is the event occurrence rate conditional on the event history, the rate function is the occurrence rate unconditional on the event history, and thus it can be interpreted as a population-averaged count of events in unit time. In this paper, shape and size parameters are introduced and used to characterize the association between the rate function λ(·) and a random variable X. Measures of association between X and λ(·) are defined via shape- and size-based coefficients. Rate-independence of X and λ(·) is studied through tests of shape-independence and size-independence, where the shape-and size-based test statistics can be used separately or in combination. These tests can be applied when X is a covariable possibly correlated with the recurrent event process through λ(·) or, in the one-sample setting, when X is the censoring time at which the observation of N(·) is terminated. The proposed tests are shape- and size-based, so when a null hypothesis is rejected, the test results can serve to distinguish the source of violation. PMID:26412863

  20. Damage localization by statistical evaluation of signal-processed mode shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulriksen, M. D.; Damkilde, L.

    2015-07-01

    Due to their inherent, ability to provide structural information on a local level, mode shapes and t.lieir derivatives are utilized extensively for structural damage identification. Typically, more or less advanced mathematical methods are implemented to identify damage-induced discontinuities in the spatial mode shape signals, hereby potentially facilitating damage detection and/or localization. However, by being based on distinguishing damage-induced discontinuities from other signal irregularities, an intrinsic deficiency in these methods is the high sensitivity towards measurement, noise. The present, article introduces a damage localization method which, compared to the conventional mode shape-based methods, has greatly enhanced robustness towards measurement, noise. The method is based on signal processing of spatial mode shapes by means of continuous wavelet, transformation (CWT) and subsequent, application of a generalized discrete Teager-Kaiser energy operator (GDTKEO) to identify damage-induced mode shape discontinuities. In order to evaluate whether the identified discontinuities are in fact, damage-induced, outlier analysis of principal components of the signal-processed mode shapes is conducted on the basis of T2-statistics. The proposed method is demonstrated in the context, of analytical work with a free-vibrating Euler-Bernoulli beam under noisy conditions.

  1. Advanced method and processing technology for complicated shape airframe part forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miodushevsky, P. V.; Rajevskaya, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Slow deformation modes of forming give considerably higher residual fatigue life of the airframe part. It has experimentally proven that fatigue life of complicated shape integral airframe panels made of high strength aluminum alloys is significantly increased after creep deformation process. To implement the slow deformation mode forming methods, universal automated equipment was developed. Multichannel forming systems provide high accuracy of airframe part shape eliminating residual stresses and spring effect. Forming process multizone control technology was developed and experimentally proved that static/fatigue properties of formed airframe parts are increased.

  2. Extreme Metal Music and Anger Processing.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2015-01-01

    The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18-34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that extreme music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to extreme music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners. PMID:26052277

  3. Extreme Metal Music and Anger Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A.

    2015-01-01

    The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18–34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that extreme music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to extreme music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners. PMID:26052277

  4. Experimental simulation of a liquid-metal heat-transfer fluid flow in a T-shaped mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashinskii, O. N.; Lobanov, P. D.; Kurdyumov, A. S.; Pribaturin, N. A.

    2016-05-01

    The structure of the temperature field in a liquid-metal heat-transfer fluid flowing through a T-shaped mixer is studied experimentally. The experiments are carried out using Rose's alloy as a working fluid. To find the temperature distribution over the wall of a working section, IR thermography is applied. It is shown that the wall temperature distribution in the zone where fluid flows with different temperatures mix is heavily nonuniform. The temperature distribution substantially depends on the ratio between the hot and cold fluid flow rates. The results can be used to verify the thermal hydraulic computational codes for fluid metal flows.

  5. Growth of epitaxial silicon nanowires on a Si substrate by a metal-catalyst-free process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Wakamatsu, Toshiki

    2016-07-01

    The growth of epitaxial Si nanowires by a metal-catalyst-free process has been investigated as an alternative to the more common metal-catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid process. The well-aligned Si nanowires are successfully grown on a (111)-oriented Si substrate without any metal catalysts by a thermal treatment using silicon sulfide as a Si source at approximately 1200 °C. The needle-shaped Si nanowires, which have a core–shell structure that consists of a single-crystalline Si core along the <111> direction consistent with the substrate direction and a surface coating of silicon oxide, are grown by a metal-catalyst-free process. In this process, the silicon sulfide in the liquid phase facilitates the nucleation and nanowire growth. In contrast, oxygen-rich nanowires that consist of crystalline Si at the tip and lumpy silicon oxide on the body are observed in a sample grown at 1300 °C, which disturbs the epitaxial growth of Si nanowires.

  6. Growth of epitaxial silicon nanowires on a Si substrate by a metal-catalyst-free process.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Wakamatsu, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    The growth of epitaxial Si nanowires by a metal-catalyst-free process has been investigated as an alternative to the more common metal-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid process. The well-aligned Si nanowires are successfully grown on a (111)-oriented Si substrate without any metal catalysts by a thermal treatment using silicon sulfide as a Si source at approximately 1200 °C. The needle-shaped Si nanowires, which have a core-shell structure that consists of a single-crystalline Si core along the <111> direction consistent with the substrate direction and a surface coating of silicon oxide, are grown by a metal-catalyst-free process. In this process, the silicon sulfide in the liquid phase facilitates the nucleation and nanowire growth. In contrast, oxygen-rich nanowires that consist of crystalline Si at the tip and lumpy silicon oxide on the body are observed in a sample grown at 1300 °C, which disturbs the epitaxial growth of Si nanowires. PMID:27465800

  7. Growth of epitaxial silicon nanowires on a Si substrate by a metal-catalyst-free process

    PubMed Central

    Ishiyama, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Wakamatsu, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    The growth of epitaxial Si nanowires by a metal-catalyst-free process has been investigated as an alternative to the more common metal-catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid process. The well-aligned Si nanowires are successfully grown on a (111)-oriented Si substrate without any metal catalysts by a thermal treatment using silicon sulfide as a Si source at approximately 1200 °C. The needle-shaped Si nanowires, which have a core–shell structure that consists of a single-crystalline Si core along the <111> direction consistent with the substrate direction and a surface coating of silicon oxide, are grown by a metal-catalyst-free process. In this process, the silicon sulfide in the liquid phase facilitates the nucleation and nanowire growth. In contrast, oxygen-rich nanowires that consist of crystalline Si at the tip and lumpy silicon oxide on the body are observed in a sample grown at 1300 °C, which disturbs the epitaxial growth of Si nanowires. PMID:27465800

  8. Reaction-Forming Method for Producing Near Net-Shape Refractory Metal Carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Palmisiano, Marc N.; Jakubenas, Kevin J.; Baranwal, Rita

    2004-07-20

    A method for reaction forming refractory metal carbides. The method involves the fabrication of a glassy carbon preform by casting an organic, resin-based liquid mixture into a mold and subsequently heat treating it in two steps, which cures and pyrolizes the resin resulting in a porous carbon preform. By varying the amounts of the constituents in the organic, resin-based liquid mixture, control over the density of the carbon preform is obtained. Control of the density and microstructure of the carbon preform allows for determination of the microstructure and properties of the refractory metal carbide material produced. The glassy carbon preform is placed on a bed of refractory metal or refractory metal--silicon alloy. The pieces are heated above the melting point of the metal or alloy. The molten metal wicks inside the porous carbon preform and reacts, forming the refractory metal carbide or refractory metal carbide plus a minor secondary phase.

  9. The Role of Motor Processes in Three-Dimensional Mental Rotation: Shaping Cognitive Processing via Sensorimotor Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, David

    2012-01-01

    An extensive body of literature has explored the involvement of motor processes in mental rotation, yet underlying individual differences are less documented and remain to be fully understood. We propose that sensorimotor experience shapes spatial abilities such as assessed in mental rotation tasks. Elite wrestlers' and non-athletes' mental…

  10. Elemental Metals or Oxides Distributed on a Carbon Substrate or Self-Supported and the Manufacturing Process Using Graphite Oxide as Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Chen (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for providing elemental metals or metal oxides distributed on a carbon substrate or self-supported utilizing graphite oxide as a percursor. The graphite oxide is exposed to one or more metal chlorides to form an intermediary product comprising carbon, metal, chloride, and oxygen. This intermediary product can be further processed by direct exposure to carbonate solutions to form a second intermediary product comprising carbon, metal carbonate, and oxygen. Either intermediary product may be further processed: a) in air to produce metal oxide; b) in an inert environment to produce metal oxide on carbon substrate; c) in a reducing environment to produce elemental metal distributed on carbon substrate. The product generally takes the shape of the carbon precursor.

  11. Elemental Metals or Oxides Distributed on a Carbon Substrate or Self-Supported and the Manufacturing Process Using Graphite Oxide as Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for providing elemental metals or metal oxides distributed on a carbon substrate or self-supported utilizing graphite oxide as a precursor. The graphite oxide is exposed to one or more metal chlorides to form an intermediary product comprising carbon, metal, chloride, and oxygen. This intermediary product can be further processed by direct exposure to carbonate-solutions to form a second intermediary product comprising carbon, metal carbonate, and oxygen. Either intermediary product may be further processed: a) in air to produce metal oxide; b) in an inert environment to produce metal oxide on carbon substrate; c) in a reducing environment to produce elemental metal distributed on carbon substrate. The product generally takes the shape of the carbon precursor.

  12. Structure design and film process optimization for metal-gate stress in 20 nm nMOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuozhen, Fu; Huaxiang, Yin; Xiaolong, Ma; Shumin, Chai; Jianfeng, Gao; Dapeng, Chen

    2013-06-01

    The optimizations to metal gate structure and film process were extensively investigated for great metal-gate stress (MGS) in 20 nm high-k/metal-gate-last (HK/MG-last) nMOS devices. The characteristics of advanced MGS technologies on device performances were studied through a process and device simulation by TCAD tools. The metal gate electrode with different stress values (0 to -6 GPa) was implemented in the device simulation along with other traditional process-induced-strain (PIS) technologies like e-SiC and nitride capping layer. The MGS demonstrated a great enhancing effect on channel carriers transporting in the device as device pitch scaling down. In addition, the novel structure for a tilted gate electrode was proposed and relationships between the tilt angle and channel stress were investigated. Also with a new method of fully stressed replacement metal gate (FSRMG) and using plane-shape-HfO to substitute U-shape-HfO, the effect of MGS was improved. For greater film stress in the metal gate, the process conditions for physical vapor deposition (PVD) TiNx were optimized. The maximum compressive stress of -6.5 GPa TiNx was achieved with thinner film and greater RF power as well as about 6 sccm N ratio.

  13. A fabrication method of unique Nafion® shapes by painting for ionic polymer–metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabia, Sarah; Hwang, Taeseon; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMC) are useful actuators because of their ability to be fabricated in different shapes and move in various ways. However, producing unique or intricate shapes can be difficult based upon the current fabrication techniques. Presented here is a fabrication method of producing the Nafion® membrane or thin film through a painting method. Using an airbrush, a Nafion water dispersion is sprayed onto an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene surface with a stencil of the desired shape. To verify that this method of fabrication produces a Nafion membrane similar to that which is commercially available, a sample that was made using the painting method and Nafion 117 purchased from DuPont™ were tested for various characteristics and compared. The results show promising similarities. The painted Nafion sample was chemically plated with platinum and compared with a traditional IPMC for its displacement and blocking force capabilities. The painted IPMC sample showed comparable results.

  14. Process for making surfactant capped metal oxide nanocrystals, and products produced by the process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Rockenberger, Joerg

    2006-01-10

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of metal oxides which are dispersable in organic solvents. The process comprises decomposing a metal cupferron complex of the formula MXCupX, wherein M is a metal, and Cup is a N-substituted N-Nitroso hydroxylamine, in the presence of a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 150 to about 400.degree. C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction. Also disclosed are compounds made by the process.

  15. Pyrochemical processes for the recovery of weapons grade plutonium either as a metal or as PuO{sub 2} for use in mixed oxide reactor fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenares, C.A.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Bronson, M.C.

    1995-11-03

    The authors have developed two processes for the recovery of weapons grade Pu, as either Pu metal or PuO{sub 2}, that are strictly pyrochemical and do not produce any liquid waste. Large amounts of Pu metal (up to 4 kg.), in various geometric shapes, have been recovered by a hydride/dehydride/casting process (HYDEC) to produce metal ingots of any desired shape. The three processing steps are carried out in a single compact apparatus. The experimental technique and results obtained will be described. The authors have prepared PuO{sub 2} powders from weapons grade Pu by a process that hydrides the Pu metal followed by the oxidation of the hydride (HYDOX process). Experimental details of the best way to carry out this process will be presented, as well as the characterization of both hydride and oxide powders produced.

  16. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    DOEpatents

    Congdon, James W.

    2009-03-17

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  17. In situ remediation process using divalent metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Khandaker, Nadim R.; Krumhansl, James L.; Teter, David M.

    2004-12-14

    An in situ process for treating ambient solid materials (e.g., soils, aquifer solids, sludges) by adding one or more divalent metal cations to the ambient solid material. The added divalent metal cations, such as Cu.sup.2+ or Zn.sup.2+, combine with metal oxide/hydroxides (e.g., ferric oxide/hydroxide or aluminum oxide/hydroxide) already present in the ambient solid material to form an effective sorbent material having a large number of positively-charged surface complexes that binds and immobilizes anionic contaminant species (e.g., arsenic or chromate). Divalent metal cations can be added, for example, by injecting an aqueous solution of CuSO.sub.4 into an aquifer contaminated with arsenic or chromate. Also, sludges can be stabilized against leaching of anionic contaminants through the addition of divalent metal cations. Also, an inexpensive sorbent material can be easily formed by mixing divalent metal cations with soil that has been removed from the ground.

  18. Heavy metal effects on cellular shape changes, cleavage, and larval development of the marine gastropod mollusk, (Ilyanassa obsoleta Say)

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    The spawning areas for many marine invertebrates are in intertidal zones which can be exposed to surface water run-off containing heavy metals. The cellular shape changes and cleavage patterns of Ilyanassa embryos greatly resemble those of bivalve mollusks, such as Mytilus edulis, that occur in the same intertidal areas. Determining the concentrations of heavy metals tolerated by the molluscan embryos inhabiting such clam and mussel beds therefore is of some economic significance. Moreover, such research may providedata on the heavy metal effects on the cytoskeleton. There is increasing evidence that components of the cytoskeleton, directly or indirectly, are targets for toxic agents. Polar lobe formation is a cellular shape change that resembles cytokinesis. It is seen in the fertilized eggs of many marine mollusks. Recent data with inorganic and organic Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists suggest that both polar lobe formation and cytokinesis utilize Ca/sup 2 +/ released from sequestered, intracellular sites. Both of these cellular constrictions are associated with microfilaments and are preceded by activation steps requiring microtubules. The data presented below suggest that several heavy metals affect the microfilament-dependent steps.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Bonding Strength Enhancement Using Metal "Wicking" Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes grown from a surface typically have poor bonding strength at the interface. A process has been developed for adding a metal coat to the surface of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) through a wicking process, which could lead to an enhanced bonding strength at the interface. This process involves merging CNTs with indium as a bump-bonding enhancement. Classical capillary theory would not normally allow materials that do not wet carbon or graphite to be drawn into the spacings by capillary action because the contact angle is greater than 90 degrees. However, capillary action can be induced through JPL's ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and through the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. A reflow and plasma cleaning process has also been developed and demonstrated to remove indium oxide, and to obtain smooth coatings on the CNT bundles.

  20. Capsule-shaped metallic-cavity semiconductor lasers for low-energy on-chip light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, Takuo; Zhang, Baifu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We review our recent studies on capsule-shaped InP/InGaAs metallic-cavity lasers. By introducing an optimal curvature at the metallic sidewalls of conventional rectangular metallic lasers, the electric fields of the resonant mode are pushed effectively into the center of the mesa, which allows dramatic reduction of the plasmonic loss. The validity of the scheme is verified both numerically and experimentally. From three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation and rate-equation analysis, we estimate that the threshold current can be reduced to as low as 60 μA with the effective modal volume of 0.45 μm3. Up to 4-fold increase in Q value is confirmed experimentally for the cavity structure with an optimal curvature.

  1. Effects of Gravity on Processing Heavy Metal Fluoride Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the crystal nucleation of heavy metal fluoride fibers have been studied in preliminary experiments utilizing NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft and a microgravity sounding rocket flight. Commercially produced fibers were heated to the crystallization temperature in normal and reduced gravity. The fibers processed in normal gravity showed complete crystallization while the fibers processed in reduced gravity did not show signs of crystallization.

  2. The transient phase eutectic process for ceramic-metal bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Thomas Richard

    A new method of ceramic-metal bonding using a transient gas-metal eutectic liquid is proposed, confirmed, and investigated using nickel/copper-oxygen/alumina as a model system. A low temperature gas-metal eutectic melt may be made transient (by solidification) through interaction with a more refractory metal component providing a ceramic-metal bond with good wetting, high strength, a broad process window (relative to conventional gas-metal eutectic bonds), high thermal stability, and controlled thermoelastic stress; transport of a more active species to the ceramic interface may further improve adherence. A eutectic between the low-melting component (copper) and a gas (oxygen) forms at the interface between the refractory metal (nickel) and ceramic (alumina). This interfacial liquid wets the surfaces and promotes bonding. Because the entire copper interlayer is melted, the processing window is wider than conventional gas-metal eutectic in terms of temperature, atmosphere, and time. The liquid (Cu-O) dissolves the active, refractory component (Ni) providing transport to the interface where a refractory bond phase (NiAl2O4) forms. Interactions at temperature consume the liquid phase causing isothermal solidification. Diffusional homogenization further increases the solidus temperature of the joint. Multilayer bond structures were produced using both foils and plating. Oxygen additions were investigated using pre-oxidation of each metal and/or oxidation in-situ. The best bonds resulted from foils combining nickel pre-oxidation with a eutectic atmosphere. The oxide layer slows the oxidation kinetics of the nickel which allows eutectic liquid to form providing wetting, reaction, and adherence to the ceramic. The interfacial bond structure consists of a uniform, thin (sub-micron) reaction layer of nickel-aluminate (NiAl2 O4) spinel. Adhesion is comparable to current technologies and can exceed the ceramic strength. Typical peel failure occurs at the metal

  3. Genetic algorithm optimization of the forming process in case of a U-shaped part made from tailor welded blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurelian, Albut

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an optimization method to minimize the springback phenomenon, which generate the main dimensional errors in case of sheet metal forming. The present work deals with numerical simulation related to draw bending and springback of U-shaped part made from tailor welded blanks. The base materials from tailor welded blanks have different springback behaviours, fact that must be taken in consideration in the optimisation process. The Dynaform 5.8.1 software was used to simulate the forming process, in which the blank holder is segmented in two parts in order to apply different holding force for each material. In this research the blank holder forces and the deformation speed take different numerical values. The factorial simulations test plan was made using the Design Experts 7.0 software to cover completely the variation domain. The part obtained after each simulation is analyzed and measured to quantify the errors caused by springback. Parameters as: angle between flange and sidewall, angle between sidewall and part bottom are recorded in a data base. The initial simulations plan together with the obtained results is used to understand the influence of the variable parameters on the springback behaviour of the U-shaped part made from tailor welded blanks. The gained knowledge is used to generate the objective function required by the genetic algorithm optimization method.

  4. Influence of melt motion on the shape of molten zone in the FZ crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadzis, K.; Muiznieks, A.; Rudevics, A.; Riemann, H.; Ludge, A.

    2007-06-01

    In numerical simulations of the floating-zone crystal growth process, the shape of phase boundaries is unknown beforehand and must be obtained as a part of the solution. One of the factors, which may influence the shape of phase boundaries significantly, is convective heat transfer in the molten zone. The present paper offers an analysis based on mathematical modelling of the influence of the melt motion on the shape of phase boundaries by investigating a specific 2" floating zone growth system and compares the modelling results with experiment. A needle-eye inductor is used in the growth system leading to curved boundaries of the molten zone and to strong high-frequency electromagnetic forces in the melt. The influence of the melt motion on the crystallization interface is also estimated analytically. Figs 12, Refs 8.

  5. A Study of Thermo-mechanically Processed High Stiffness NiTiCo Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjeri, R. M.; Norwich, D.; Sczerzenie, F.; Huang, X.; Long, M.; Ehrlinspiel, M.

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates a vacuum induction melted-vacuum arc re-melted (VIM-VAR) and thermo-mechanically processed ternary NiTiCo shape memory alloy. The NiTiCo ingot was hot processed to 6.35-mm-diameter coiled wire. The coiled wire was subsequently cold drawn to a final wire diameter of 0.53 mm, with interpass anneals. The wires were shape set at 450 °C for 3.5 min. After electropolishing, the wires were subjected to microstructural, thermal, and mechanical characterization studies. Microstructural analysis was performed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and bend-free recovery and mechanical testing by uniaxial tensile testing. TEM did not reveal Ni-rich precipitates—either at the grain boundary or in the grain interior. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed a uniform distribution of Ni, Ti, and Co in the sample. The DSC results on the shape set wire showed a single-step transformation between the austenite and the R-phase, in the forward and reverse directions. Cyclic tensile tests of the shape set wire, processed under optimum conditions, showed minimum residual strain and a stable upper plateau stress. Further, the fatigue behavior of NiTi and NiTiCo alloys was studied by rotating beam testing. The results showed that the fatigue properties of NiTiCo, under zero mean strain, are equivalent to that of binary NiTi in the high-cycle and medium-cycle regimes, taking into account the higher stiffness of NiTiCo. The above analyses helped in establishing the processing-structure-property correlation in a VIM-VAR-melted NiTiCo shape memory alloy.

  6. Simulation and control of the technological processes of metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salikhov, Z. G.; Genkin, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Theoretical and applied reports in the field of simulation, prediction, and control of the technological processes of metal forming are reviewed. These reports were presented by researchers from Austria, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, Canada, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, the United States, Thailand, Ukraine, Finland, Czech Republic, and Switzerland in international scientific and technical congress on metal forming "OMD-2014. Fundamental Problems. Innovative Materials and Technologies." The advanced innovative trends in MF investigations, which were presented by well-known scientific teams and Russian and foreign companies, are discussed.

  7. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering and Modelling of Shape Casting Processes - Needs, Benefits, Limitations and Hurdles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M. C.; Sturm, J. C.; Schaefer, W.; Hepp, E.; Gurevich, V.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the industrial needs and potential benefits of ICME for shape castings are described from the point of view of a commercial provider of casting process simulation tools. At the same time, the paper addresses the challenges, limitations, and hurdles regarding the extent to which ICME is or can be adopted on an industrial scale for shape cast components. The discussion is backed by concrete examples illustrating the advantages and limitations of integrating models and simulation in the design chain of cast components, in the design and analysis of the processing route of a casting, as well as over the different length scales through which the structures and corresponding behaviorof the cast material are determined. The biggest impact of the ICME approach will only be apparent when the increased accuracy or level of detail provided by the methodology is truly necessary, because it leads to changes in design decisions for the product or manufacturing process.

  8. Role of Tool-Part Interaction in Consolidation of L-Shaped Laminates during Autoclave Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Gu, Yizhuo; Li, Yanxia; Li, Min; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2012-06-01

    The role of tool-part interaction in the consolidation process of the L-shaped laminate was studied using a finite element model. The tool-part shear actions during processing were modeled by introducing shear layers. The predicted data demonstrate the necessity of considering the slippage between the tools and the laminate in simulations. A parametric study examining the effects of the shear layer properties on the compacting behavior was performed and the results show that improving the slippage ability of the male mold upon the composite part is of advantage to apply the pressure on the corner section of the L-shaped laminate. Moreover, the mechanical properties and the thickness of the shear layer have a significant influence on the modeling of the consolidation process.

  9. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia

    2016-07-01

    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  10. Effect of temper rolling on final shape defects in a V-section roll forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abvabi, Akbar; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter D.; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Roll forming is a continuous process in which a flat strip is shaped to the desired profile by sequential bending in a series of roll stands. Because of the large variety of applications of roll forming in the industry, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is increasingly utilized for roll forming process design. Bending is the dominant deformation mode in roll forming. Sheet materials used in this process are generally temper rolled, roller- or tension- leveled. These processes introduce residual stresses into the material, and recent studies have shown that those affect the material behavior in bending. In this study a numerical model of the temper rolling (skin passing) process was used to determine a residual stress distribution in a dual phase, DP780, steel strip. A 5-stand roll forming process for the forming of a V-section was modeled, and the effect of various thickness reduction levels in the temper rolling process on the final shape defects was analyzed. The results show that a small thickness reduction in the temper rolling process decreases the maximum bow height but the final springback angle increases. It is also shown that reasonable model accuracy can be achieved by including the residual stress information due to temper rolling as initial condition in the numerical modeling of a roll forming process.

  11. Optimization of the preform shape in the three-stage forming process of the shielded slot plate in fuel cell manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Yol; Lee, Chang-Whan; Kang, Dong-Woo; Chang, In-Gab; Lee, Tae-Won

    2013-05-01

    The shielded slot plate, a repeated structure of high sheared protrusions, is a major component of metallic bipolar plates for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). In order to increase the efficiency of the MCFC and long-term operation capability, the sheared protrusion should have a relatively large flat contact area. In addition, defects from the forming process such as local thinning should be minimized. In this work, the preform shape in the three-stage forming process that integrates the slitting process, the preforming process, and the final forming process was optimized to minimize the effective plastic strain. In the simulation of the forming process, the ductile fracture criterion was employed to the user material subroutine VUMAT in ABAQUS/Explicit. Steepest descent method was utilized in the design of the forming process to minimize equivalent plastic strain. High sheared protrusions were manufactured without defects from the three-stage forming process using the optimized preform shape. The minimum thickness of one sheared protrusion was increased by 25% over that of the two-stage forming process. The three-stage forming process using the optimized preform shape enables more uniformly distributed deformation and reduces localized deformation.

  12. Semisolid Metal Processing Techniques for Nondendritic Feedstock Production

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, M. N.; Omar, M. Z.; Salleh, M. S.; Alhawari, K. S.; Kapranos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Semisolid metal (SSM) processing or thixoforming is widely known as a technology that involves the formation of metal alloys between solidus and liquidus temperatures. For the procedure to operate successfully, the microstructure of the starting material must consist of solid near-globular grains surrounded by a liquid matrix and a wide solidus-to-liquidus transition area. Currently, this process is industrially successful, generating a variety of products with high quality parts in various industrial sectors. Throughout the years since its inception, a number of technologies to produce the appropriate globular microstructure have been developed and applied worldwide. The main aim of this paper is to classify the presently available SSM technologies and present a comprehensive review of the potential mechanisms that lead to microstructural alterations during the preparation of feedstock materials for SSM processing. PMID:24194689

  13. Method for conducting electroless metal-plating processes

    DOEpatents

    Petit, George S.; Wright, Ralph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved method for conducting electroless metal-plating processes in a metal tank which is exposed to the plating bath. The invention solves a problem commonly encountered in such processes: how to determine when it is advisable to shutdown the process in order to clean and/or re-passivate the tank. The new method comprises contacting the bath with a current-conducting, non-catalytic probe and, during plating operations, monitoring the gradually changing difference in electropotential between the probe and tank. It has been found that the value of this voltage is indicative of the extent to which nickel-bearing decomposition products accumulate on the tank. By utilizing the voltage to determine when shutdown for cleaning is advisable, the operator can avoid premature shutdown and at the same time avoid prolonging operations to the point that spontaneous decomposition occurs.

  14. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. . Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  15. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  16. Physiological roles of bacillithiol in intracellular metal processing.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Cruz, Zuelay; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2016-02-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an abundantly produced low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiol in many organisms. However, a number of Gram-positive bacteria do not produce GSH, but instead produce bacillithiol (BSH) as one of the major LMW thiols. Similar to GSH, studies have found that BSH has various roles in the cell, including protection against hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite and disulfide stress. BSH also participates in the detoxification of thiol-reactive antibiotics and the electrophilic metabolite methylglyoxal. Recently, a number of studies have highlighted additional roles for BSH in the processing of intracellular metals. Herein, we examine the potential functions of BSH in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters, cytosolic metal buffering and the prevention of metal intoxication. PMID:26259870

  17. Which processes shape stellar population gradients of massive galaxies at large radii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the differential impact of physical mechanisms, mergers (stellar accretion) and internal energetic phenomena, on the evolution of stellar population gradients in massive, present-day galaxies employing a set of high-resolution, cosmological zoom simulations. We demonstrate that negative metallicity and color gradients at large radii (>2Reff) originate from the accretion of metal-poor stellar systems. At larger radii, galaxies become typically more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. However, only strong galactic winds can sufficiently reduce the metallicity content of the accreted stars to realistically steepen the outer metallicity and colour gradients in agreement with present-day observations. In contrast, the gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations (too flat). In the wind model, colour and metallicity gradients are significantly steeper for systems which have accreted stars in minor mergers, while galaxies with major mergers have relatively flat gradients, confirming previous results. This analysis greatly highlights the importance of both energetic processes and merger events for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii. Our results are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming IFU surveys (like MaNGA and Califa), which in turn can help to better constrain still uncertain models for energetic processes in simulations.

  18. Minimal-effort planning of active alignment processes for beam-shaping optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Schranner, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Schlette, Christian; Losch, Daniel; Brecher, Christian; Roßmann, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    In science and industry, the alignment of beam-shaping optics is usually a manual procedure. Many industrial applications utilizing beam-shaping optical systems require more scalable production solutions and therefore effort has been invested in research regarding the automation of optics assembly. In previous works, the authors and other researchers have proven the feasibility of automated alignment of beam-shaping optics such as collimation lenses or homogenization optics. Nevertheless, the planning efforts as well as additional knowledge from the fields of automation and control required for such alignment processes are immense. This paper presents a novel approach of planning active alignment processes of beam-shaping optics with the focus of minimizing the planning efforts for active alignment. The approach utilizes optical simulation and the genetic programming paradigm from computer science for automatically extracting features from a simulated data basis with a high correlation coefficient regarding the individual degrees of freedom of alignment. The strategy is capable of finding active alignment strategies that can be executed by an automated assembly system. The paper presents a tool making the algorithm available to end-users and it discusses the results of planning the active alignment of the well-known assembly of a fast-axis collimator. The paper concludes with an outlook on the transferability to other use cases such as application specific intensity distributions which will benefit from reduced planning efforts.

  19. Ring beam shaping optics fabricated with ultra-precision cutting for YAG laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, Ryoichi; Koga, Toshihiko; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Wakayama, Toshitaka; Otani, Yukitoshi; Fujii, Nobuyuki

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a method for generating ring intensity distribution at a refraction-type lens with an aspheric element was proposed, and the beam shaping optical element was finished using only ultra-precision cutting. The shape of the optical element and its irradiance pattern were determined from numerical calculation based on its geometrical and physical optics. An ultra-precision lathe was employed to fabricate beam shaping optical elements, and acrylic resin was used as the material. The transmittance of an optical element (a rotationally symmetrical body) with an aspheric surface fabricated using a single-crystal diamond tool was over 98%, and its surface roughness was 9.6 nm Ra. The method enabled the formation of a circular melting zone on a piece of stainless steel with a thickness of 300 μm through pulse YAG laser ( λ 1:06 μm) processing such that the average radius was 610 μm and the width was 100-200 μm. Circular processing using a ring beam shaping optical element can be realized by single-pulse beam irradiation without beam scanning.

  20. Research on the Signal Process of a Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing; Fu, Mengyin; Liu, Hong; Fan, Junfang

    2014-01-01

    A bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a kind of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. Its sensitive element is a vibratory-like Chinese traditional bell, using a piezoelectric element on the wall of the vibrator to detect the standing wave's precession to solve the input angular rate. This work mainly studies the circuit system of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. It discusses the process of circuit system design, analysis and experiment, in detail, providing the foundation to develop a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. Since the bell-shaped resonator's curved structure has the characteristics of large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics, this paper analyzes its working and signal detection method, then gives the whole plan of the circuit system, including the drive module, the detection module and the control loop. It also studies every part of the whole system, gives a detailed design and analysis process and proves part of the circuit system using digital simulation. At the end of the article, the test result of the circuit system shows that it can remove the disadvantages of the curved structure having large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics and is more effective at solving the input angular rate. PMID:24633451

  1. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  2. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  4. Processing of complex shapes with single-mode resonant frequency microwave applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, L.A.; Delgado, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    Microwave processing is an alternative to conventional composite processing techniques. Single-mode microwave applicators efficiently couple microwave energy into the composite. The application of the microwave energy is greatly affected by the geometry of the composite. In the single mode microwave applicator, two types of modes are available. These modes are best suited to processing flat planar samples or cylindrical samples with geometries that align with the electric fields. Mode-switching is alternating between different electromagnetic modes with the intelligent selection of the modes to alleviate undesirable temperature profiles. This method has improved the microwave heating profiles of materials with complex shapes that do not align with either type of electric field. Parts with two different complex geometries were fabricated from a vinyl toluene/vinyl ester resin with a continuous glass fiber reinforcement by autoclaving and by microwave techniques. The flexural properties of the microwave processed samples were compared to the flexural properties of autoclaved samples. The trends of the mechanical properties for the complex shapes were consistent with the results of experiments with flat panels. This demonstrated that mode-switching techniques are as applicable for the complex shapes as they are for the simpler flat panel geometry.

  5. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil.

    PubMed

    Grobelak, Anna; Napora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry) and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate) on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue) to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1). A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the food industry and

  6. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil

    PubMed Central

    Grobelak, Anna; Napora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry) and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate) on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue) to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1). A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the food industry and

  7. Different strategies for recovering metals from CARON process residue.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G; Gómez, J M; Hernández, I; Coto, O; Cantero, D

    2011-05-30

    The capacity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DMS 11478 to recover the heavy metals contained in the residue obtained from the CARON process has been evaluated. Different bioreactor configurations were studied: a two-stage batch system and two semi-continuous systems (stirred-tank reactor leaching and column leaching). In the two-stage system, 46.8% Co, 36.0% Mg, 26.3% Mn and 22.3% Ni were solubilised after 6h of contact between the residue and the bacteria-free bioacid. The results obtained with the stirred-tank reactor and the column were similar: 50% of the Mg and Co and 40% of the Mn and Ni were solubilised after thirty one days. The operation in the column reactor allowed the solid-liquid ratio to be increased and the pH to be kept at low values (<1.0). Recirculation of the leachate in the column had a positive effect on metal removal; at sixty five days (optimum time) the solubilisation levels were as follows: 86% Co, 83% Mg, 72% Mn and Ni, 62% Fe and 23% Cr. The results corroborate the feasibility of the systems studied for the leaching of metals from CARON process residue and these methodologies can be considered viable for the recovery of valuable metals. PMID:21466919

  8. A thermolysis approach to simultaneously achieve crystal phase- and shape-control of ternary M-Fe-O metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chich-Neng; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a cubic morphology. On the other hand, the three-step heating procedure in air obtained the spinel-type with a thermodynamic equilibrium octahedral shape exclusively. Either using metal acetates (M(ac)2) or metal acetylacetonates (M(acac)2) as the starting precursors (M = Mn, Co) can be introduced to prepare NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) crystallites with identical experimental parameters, including precursor concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and heating rate. The oleic acid molecule, reaction temperature, and heating rate employed in the synthesis were carefully examined and found acting as determined roles behind the reaction processes. Apart from the previous literature reports as shape-directed and/or stabilizing agents, the oleic acid molecule played an additional phase-tuning role.Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a

  9. Scalable shape-controlled fabrication of curved microstructures using a femtosecond laser wet-etching process.

    PubMed

    Bian, Hao; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Liu, Hewei; Du, Guangqing; Deng, Zefang; Si, Jinhai; Yun, Feng; Hou, Xun

    2013-07-01

    Materials with curvilinear surface microstructures are highly desirable for micro-optical and biomedical devices. However, realization of such devices efficiently remains technically challenging. This paper demonstrates a facile and flexible method to fabricate curvilinear microstructures with controllable shapes and dimensions. The method composes of femtosecond laser exposures and chemical etching process with the hydrofluoric acid solutions. By fixed-point and step-in laser irradiations followed by the chemical treatments, concave microstructures with different profiles such as spherical, conical, bell-like and parabola were fabricated on silica glasses. The convex structures were replicated on polymers by the casting replication process. In this work, we used this technique to fabricate high-quality microlens arrays and high-aspect-ratio microwells which can be used in 3D cell culture. This approach offers several advantages such as high-efficient, scalable shape-controllable and easy manipulations. PMID:23623098

  10. Metal Matrix Composite LOX Turbopump Housing via Novel Tool-less Net-Shape Pressure Infiltration Casting Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Metal matrix composites for propulsion components offer high performance and affordability, resulting in low weight and cost. The following sections in this viewgraph presentation describe the pressure infiltration casting of a metal matrix composite LOX turbopump housing: 1) Baseline Pump Design and Stress Analysis; 2) Tool-less Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting Process; 3) Preform Splicing and Joining for Large Components such as Pump Housing; 4) Fullscale Pump Housing Redesign.

  11. LACBED characterization of dislocations in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys processed by powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P. P.; Ibarra, A.; San Jean, J.; Morniro, J. P.; No, M. L.

    2003-10-01

    Powder metallurgy Cu-AI-Ni shape memory alloys show excellent thermomechanical properties, being the fracture behavior close to the one observed in single crystals. However, the microstructural mechanisms responsible of such behavior are still under study. In this paper we present the characterization of the dislocations present in these alloys by Large Angle Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (LACBED) in two different stages of the elaboration process: after HIP compaction and after hot rolling.

  12. A hermetic sealing process for large irregularly shaped hybrid microcircuit enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahler, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A system for sealing vacuum baked hybrids in a dry inert atmosphere using an overlapping spot resistance weld is described. A unique electrode configuration and fixturing that permits sealing of large and irregularly shaped gold plated Kovar packages to the hermeticity requirements of MIL-STD-883 was discussed. Metallurgical considerations and comparisons to laser sealing were made. Problems encountered during the development and optimization of the process were highlighted. Solutions to plating, fixturing, warpage, weld splatter and cracked bead problems are presented.

  13. Self-Repairing Fatigue Damage in Metallic Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Using Shape Memory Alloy Self-healing (SMASH) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. Clara; Manuel, Michele; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Brinson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This DAA is for the Phase II webinar presentation of the ARMD-funded SMASH technology. A self-repairing aluminum-based composite system has been developed using liquid-assisted healing theory in conjunction with the shape memory effect of wire reinforcements. The metal matrix composite was thermodynamically designed to have a matrix with a relatively even dispersion of low-melting phase, allowing for repair of cracks at a pre-determined temperature. Shape memory alloy wire reinforcements were used within the composite to provide crack closure. Investigators focused the research on fatigue cracks propagating through the matrix in order to optimize and computer model the SMASH technology for aeronautical applications.

  14. THREE CASE STUDIES OF WASTE MINIMIZATION THROUGH USE OF METAL RECOVERY PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal bearing wastestreams containing heavy metals are generated through several industrial processes. tandard pretreatment practices usually involve removal of these metals from the effluent prior to discharge using a variety of techniques, often resulting in production of a slu...

  15. Dynamic near-field nanofocusing by V-shaped metal groove via a femtosecond laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guangqing; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Lu, Yu; Ou, Yan; Yong, Jiale; Hou, Xun

    2016-03-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of plasmonic near-field nanofocusing by a V-shaped groove milled on Au film via a femtosecond laser excitation is theoretically studied based on finite element method. The spatiotemporal evolution of the focused e-fields around the V-groove geometry is obtained. It is revealed that the strong nanofocusing at the V-shaped groove occurs at the moderate electron temperature of 3000 K in the electron-phonon uncoupled state via a femtosecond laser pulse excitation. The phenomenon is explained as the electron thermal dynamics manipulation of plasmon resonances due to femtosecond laser fluence modifications. This study provides basic understanding of ultrafast dynamics of near-field nanofocusing in V-shaped geometry for wide applications in the fields such as super-resolution imaging, SERS, and photothermal therapy.

  16. A Study on the Optimization for Metal Injection Molding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, M. K.; Jang, K. C.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is study the optimization for metal injection molding process by using the design of experiments (DOE) and numerical analysis. In order to determine optimal process parameters, experiment and computerized analysis have been performed for various process conditions. Proper coded and uncoded regression equations and optimization for responses (flow front temperature, part weight, filling time, cycle time, and volumetric shrinkage) achieved from studying and verifying interrelation of the factors. About 70% of whole binder extracted within about 10 minutes and temperature of solvent is higher, the debinding rate is fast. 50° C was the most suitable condition for solvent extraction because of crack occurrence on green body at 55° C. It took about 14.5 hours to perform secondary thermal debinding, which was only about 35% of the entire time taken compared with single thermal debinding process, even if it considers solvent extraction time required. Therefore, the applied method greatly reduces the debinding time. The excellent process capability showed that the PPM total and Z.Bench were 9,946.8 and 2.33 showing good quality rate of around 99.01% and sigma level of 3.83. As a result, the process and optimization have been improved, and the proposed approach could be successfully reflected on the metal injection molding.

  17. 3D numerical simulation of the evolutionary process of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaosi; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Li, Min

    2016-06-01

    A dune constitutive model was coupled with a large eddy simulation (LES) with the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale (SGS) model to accurately describe the evolutionary process of dunes from the macroscopic perspective of morphological dynamics. A 3D numerical simulation of the evolution of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes was then performed. The evolution of the 3D structure of Gaussian-shaped dunes was simulated under the influence of gravity modulation, which was the same with the vertical oscillation of the sand bed to adjust the threshold of sand grain liftoff in wind tunnel experiments under the same wind speed. The influence of gravity modulation intensity on the characteristic scale parameter of the dune was discussed. Results indicated that the crescent shape of the dune was reproduced with the action of gravity during regulation of the saturation of wind-sand flow at specific times. The crescent shape was not dynamically maintained as time passed, and the dunes dwindled until they reached final decomposition because of wind erosion. The height of the dunes decreased over time, and the height-time curve converged as the intensity of modulation increased linearly. The results qualitatively agreed with those obtained from wind tunnel experiments.

  18. A role for membrane shape and information processing in cardiac physiology.

    PubMed

    Knöll, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    While the heart is a dynamic organ and one of its major functions is to provide the organism with sufficient blood supply, the regulatory feedback systems, which allow adaptation to hemodynamic changes, remain not well understood. Our current description of mechanosensation focuses on stretch-sensitive ion channels, cytoskeletal components, structures such as the sarcomeric Z-disc, costameres, caveolae, or the concept of tensegrity, but these models appear incomplete as the remarkable plasticity of the myocardium in response to biomechanical stress and heart rate variations remains unexplained. Signaling activity at membranes depends on their geometric parameters such as surface area and curvature, which links shape to information processing. In the heart, continuous cycles of contraction and relaxation reshape membrane morphology and hence affect cardio-mechanic signaling. This article provides a brief review on current models of mechanosensation and focuses on how signaling, cardiac myocyte dynamics, and membrane shape interact and potentially give rise to a self-organized system that uses shape to sense the extra- and intracellular environment. This novel concept may help to explain how changes in frequency, and thus membrane shape, affect cardiac plasticity. One of the conclusions is that hypertrophy and associated fibrosis, which have been considered as necessary to cope with increased wall stress, can also be seen as part of complex feedback systems which use local membrane inhomogeneity in different cardiac cell types to influence whole organphysiology and which are predicted to fine-tune and thus regulate membrane-mediated signaling. PMID:25129123

  19. r-process enhanched metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, John; Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.

    Abundance observations indicate the presence of rapid-neutron capture (i.e., r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. These observations provide insight into the nature of the earliest generations of stars in the Galaxy - the progenitors of the halo stars - responsible for neutron-capture synthesis of the heavy elements. The large star-to-star scatter observed in the abundances of neutron-capture element/iron ratios at low metallicities - which diminishes with in- creasing metallicity or [Fe/H] - suggests the formation of these heavy elements (presumably from certain types of supernovae) was rare in the early Galaxy. The stellar abundances also indicate a change from the r-process to the slow neutron capture (i.e., s-) process at higher metallicities in the Galaxy and provide insight into Galactic chemical evolution. Finally, the detection of thorium and uranium in halo and globular cluster stars offers an independent age-dating technique that can put lower limits on the age of the Galaxy, and hence the Universe.

  20. [INVITED] Evaluation of process observation features for laser metal welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenner, Felix; Klämpfl, Florian; Nagulin, Konstantin Yu.; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-06-01

    In the present study we show how fast the fluid dynamics change when changing the laser power for different feed rates during laser metal welding. By the use of two high-speed cameras and a data acquisition system we conclude how fast we have to image the process to measure the fluid dynamics with a very high certainty. Our experiments show that not all process features which can be measured during laser welding do represent the process behavior similarly well. Despite the good visibility of the vapor plume the monitoring of its movement is less suitable as an input signal for a closed-loop control. The features measured inside the keyhole show a good correlation with changes of process parameters. Due to its low noise, the area of the keyhole opening is well suited as an input signal for a closed-loop control of the process.

  1. The cuprex metal extraction process: Recovering copper from sulfide ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, R. F.; Diaz, G.; Price, R.; Zunkel, A. D.

    1991-08-01

    The Cuprex™ metal extraction process produces cathode-grade copper using a hydrometallurgical process based on chloride leaching of sulfide ore concentrates. The process incorporates several novel steps to overcome the major problems associated with earlier chloride-based processes, including mild leaching conditions using ferric chloride as leachant and solvent extraction of copper usinga novel reagent. This produces a highly concentrated cupric chloride electrolyte from which cathode-grade copper is electrowon in the Metclor cell. The technical viability and robustness of the core technology have been proven in a series of large-scale pilot trials. More recent work has concentrated on supplementary processes to convert the copper powder product to an article of commerce and to recover valuable by-products. A fully integrated scheme is now being developed with updated cost estimates.

  2. Three-dimensional shape measurement system applied to superficial inspection of non-metallic pipes for the hydrocarbons transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniegas, Javier R.; González, Andrés. L.; Quintero, L. A.; Contreras, Carlos R.; Meneses, Jaime E.

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional shape measurement is a subject that consistently produces high scientific interest and provides information for medical, industrial and investigative applications, among others. In this paper, it is proposed to implement a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction system for applications in superficial inspection of non-metallic pipes for the hydrocarbons transport. The system is formed by a CCD camera, a video-projector and a laptop and it is based on fringe projection technique. System functionality is evidenced by evaluating the quality of three-dimensional reconstructions obtained, which allow observing the failures and defects on the study object surface.

  3. Pulse shape discrimination capability of metal-loaded organic liquid scintillators for a short-baseline reactor neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. R.; Han, B. Y.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, K. K.; Kang, Jeongsoo; Khan, N.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, J. Y.; Siyeon, Kim; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Yeongduk; Ko, Y. J.; Lee, Jaison; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Lee, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Park, Hyeonseo; Park, H. K.; Park, K. S.; Seo, K. M.; Seon, Gwang-Min; Yeo, I. S.; Yeo, K. M.

    2015-05-01

    A new short-baseline (SBL) reactor neutrino experiment is proposed to investigate a reactor anti-neutrino anomaly. A liquid scintillator (LS) is used to detect anti-neutrinos emitted from a Hanaro reactor, and the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) ability of the metal-loaded organic LSs is evaluated on small-scale laboratory samples. PSD can be affected by selecting different base solvents, and several of the LSs used two different organic base solvents, such as linear alkyl benzene and di-isopropylnaphthalene. For the metallic content, gadolinium (Gd) or lithium (6Li) was loaded into a home-made organic LS and into a commercially available liquid scintillation cocktail. A feasibility study was performed for the PSD using several different liquid scintillation cocktails. In this work, the preparation and the PSD characteristics of a promising candidate, which will be used in an above-ground environment, are summarized and presented.

  4. Synthesis and deposition of metal nanoparticles by gas condensation process

    SciTech Connect

    Maicu, Marina Glöß, Daniel; Frach, Peter; Schmittgens, Ralph; Gerlach, Gerald; Hecker, Dominic

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the synthesis of Pt and Ag nanoparticles by means of the inert gas phase condensation of sputtered atomic vapor is presented. The process parameters (power, sputtering time, and gas flow) were varied in order to study the relationship between deposition conditions and properties of the nanoparticles such as their quantity, size, and size distribution. Moreover, the gas phase condensation process can be combined with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition procedure in order to deposit nanocomposite coatings consisting of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a thin film matrix material. Selected examples of application of the generated nanoparticles and nanocomposites are discussed.

  5. Laser-induced metallic nanograined thin films processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tosa, Nicoleta E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Toadere, Florin E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Tosa, Valer E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro

    2013-11-13

    A direct laser writing method for designing metallic nanograined thin films is presented. This method takes advantage of photon conversion within a chemical process localized at the focal point. A computer controlled positioning system allows the control of experimental parameters and spatial resolution of the pattern. Spectroscopic investigations reveal variable attenuation of the optical properties in UV-visible range and a spectral imaging processing algorithm simulated the functionality of these films in visible light. This could be an important step for obtaining neutral density attenuators.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of metal capture during incineration process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Wey, M.Y.; Yan, M.H.

    1997-11-01

    Experimental studies and thermodynamic equilibrium analysis were carried out to investigate the effects of operating conditions and input waste compositions on the adsorption of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) on silica sand during incineration processes. The experiments were performed with a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator, and the evaluated parameters include (1) sand bed temperature (500, 700, and 900 C); and (2) the addition of organic chloride (PVC), inorganic chlorides (NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}), and sulfide (Na{sub 2}S). The experimental and simulating results indicated that the addition of organic chloride (PVC) would increase the formation of volatile metallic chlorides, and decrease the adsorption efficiency of silica sand. On the other hand, the addition of inorganic chlorides (NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}) worked differently, which increased the adsorption efficiency of silica sand. The addition of sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) would increase the adsorption efficiencies of the four metals in silica sand because sulfide inhibited the formation of metallic chlorides. The hexavalent chromium content in the sand bed decreased for the addition of organic chloride (PVC), and increased for the addition of inorganic chlorides (NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}).

  7. TiO{sub 2} nanotube, nanowire, and rhomboid-shaped particle thin films fixed on a titanium metal plate

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yuko; Noda, Iwao; Torikai, Toshio; Watari, Takanori; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Yada, Mitsunori

    2010-01-15

    Titanium dioxide thin films having various nanostructures could be formed by various treatments on sodium titanate nanotube thin films approximately 5 {mu}m thick fixed on titanium metal plates. Using an aqueous solution with a lower hydrochloric acid concentration (0.01 mol/L) and a higher reaction temperature (90 deg. C) than those previously employed, we obtained a hydrogen titanate nanotube thin film fixed onto a titanium metal plate by H{sup +} ion-exchange treatment of the sodium titanate nanotube thin film. Calcination of hydrogen titanate nanotube thin films yielded porous thin films consisting of anatase nanotubes, anatase nanowires, and anatase nanoparticles grown directly from the titanium metal plate. H{sup +} ion-exchange treatment of sodium titanate nanotube thin films at 140 deg. C resulted in porous thin films consisting of rhomboid-shaped anatase nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Titanium dioxide nanotube, nanowire, and rhombic particle thin films could be formed by various treatments on a sodium titanate nanotube thin film fixed on a titanium metal plate.

  8. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  9. Nanoparticle shape evolution and proximity effects during tip-induced electrochemical processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Sangmo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strelcov, Evgheni

    2016-01-08

    The voltage spectroscopies in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques are widely used to investigate the electrochemical processes in nanoscale volumes, which are important for current key applications, such as batteries, fuel cells, catalysts, and memristors. The spectroscopic measurements are commonly performed on a grid of multiple points to yield spatially resolved maps of reversible and irreversible electrochemical functionalities. Hence, the spacing between measurement points is an important parameter to be considered, especially for irreversible electrochemical processes. Here, we report nonlocal electrochemical dynamics in chains of Ag particles fabricated by the SPM tip on a silver ion solid electrolyte. When themore » grid spacing is small compared with the size of the formed Ag particles, anomalous chains of unequally sized particles with double periodicity evolve. This behavior is ascribed to a proximity effect during the tip-induced electrochemical process, specifically, size-dependent silver particle growth following the contact between the particles. In addition, fractal shape evolution of the formed Ag structures indicates that the growth-limiting process changes from Ag+/Ag redox reaction to Ag+-ion diffusion with the increase in the applied voltage and pulse duration. Our study shows that characteristic shapes of the electrochemical products are good indicators for determining the underlying growth-limiting process, and emergence of complex phenomena during spectroscopic mapping of electrochemical functionalities.« less

  10. Shape Memory Effect in Cast Versus Deformation-Processed NiTiNb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Reginald F.; Lanba, Asheesh; Ozbulut, Osman E.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2015-06-01

    The shape memory effect (SME) response of a deformation-processed NiTiNb shape memory alloy is benchmarked against the response of a cast alloy. The insoluble Nb element ternary addition is known to widen the hysteresis with respect to the binary NiTi alloy. Cast microstructures naturally consist of a cellular arrangement of characteristic eutectic microconstituents surrounding primary matrix regions. Deformation processing typically aligns the microconstituents such that the microstructure resembles discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites. Processed alloys are typically characterized for heat-to-recover applications and thus deformed at constant temperature and subsequently heated for SME recovery, and the critical stress levels are expected to facilitate plastic deformation of the microconstituents. The current work employs thermal cycling under constant bias stresses below those critical levels. This comparative study of cast versus deformation-processed NiTiNb alloys contrasts the strain-temperature responses in terms of forward Δ T F = M s - M f and reverse Δ T R = A f - A s temperature intervals, the thermal hysteresis, and the recovery ratio. The results underscore that the deformation-processed microstructure inherently promotes irreversibility and differential forward and reverse transformation pathways.

  11. Nanoparticle Shape Evolution and Proximity Effects During Tip-Induced Electrochemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sang Mo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V; Strelcov, Evgheni

    2016-01-26

    Voltage spectroscopies in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques are widely used to investigate the electrochemical processes in nanoscale volumes, which are important for current key applications, such as batteries, fuel cells, catalysts, and memristors. The spectroscopic measurements are commonly performed on a grid of multiple points to yield spatially resolved maps of reversible and irreversible electrochemical functionalities. Hence, the spacing between measurement points is an important parameter to be considered, especially for irreversible electrochemical processes. Here, we report nonlocal electrochemical dynamics in chains of Ag particles fabricated by the SPM tip on a silver ion solid electrolyte. When the grid spacing is small compared with the size of the formed Ag particles, anomalous chains of unequally sized particles with double periodicity evolve. This behavior is ascribed to a proximity effect during the tip-induced electrochemical process, specifically, size-dependent silver particle growth following the contact between the particles. In addition, fractal shape evolution of the formed Ag structures indicates that the growth-limiting process changes from Ag(+)/Ag redox reaction to Ag(+)-ion diffusion with the increase in the applied voltage and pulse duration. This study shows that characteristic shapes of the electrochemical products are good indicators for determining the underlying growth-limiting process, and emergence of complex phenomena during spectroscopic mapping of electrochemical functionalities. PMID:26743324

  12. Optimisation of Shape Parameters and Process Manufacturing for an Automotive Safety Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildemyn, Eric; Dal Santo, Philippe; Potiron, Alain; Saïdane, Delphine

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, the weight and the cost of automotive vehicles have considerably increased due to the importance devoted to safety systems. It is therefore necessary to reduce the weight and the production cost of components by improving their shape and manufacturing process. This work deals with a numerical approach for optimizing the manufacturing process parameters of a safety belt anchor using a genetic algorithm (NSGA II). This type of component is typically manufactured in three stages: blanking, rounding of the edges by punching and finally, bending with a 90° angle. In this study, only the rounding and the bending will be treated. The numerical model is linked to the genetic algorithm in order to optimize the process parameters. This is implemented by using ABAQUSscript files developed in the Python programming language. The algorithm modifies the script files and restarts the FEM analysis automatically. Lemaitre's damage model is introduced in the material behaviour laws and implemented in the FEM analysis by using a FORTRAN subroutine. The influence of two process parameters (die radius and the rounding punch radius) and five shape parameters were investigated. The objective functions are (i) the material damage state at the end of the forming process, (ii) the stress field and (iii) the maximum Von Mises stress in the folded zone.

  13. Processing dependence of mechanical properties of metallic glass nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Mo; Li, Qi-Kai

    2015-02-16

    Compared to their crystalline counterparts, nanowires made of metallic glass have not only superb properties but also remarkable processing ability. They can be processed easily and cheaply like plastics via a wide range of methods. To date, the underlying mechanisms of how these different processing routes affect the wires' properties as well as the atomic structure remains largely unknown. Here, by using atomistic modeling, we show that different processing methods can greatly influence the mechanical properties. The nanowires made via focused ion beam milling and embossing exhibit higher strength but localized plastic deformation, whereas that made by casting from liquid shows excellent ductility with homogeneous deformation but reduced strength. The different responses are reflected sensitively in the underlying atomic structure and packing density, some of which have been observed experimentally. The presence of the gradient of alloy concentration and surface effect will be discussed.

  14. From Steady-State To Cyclic Metal Forming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Continuous processes often exhibit a high proportion of steady state, and have been modeled with steady-state formulations for thirty years, resulting in very CPU-time efficient computations. On the other hand, incremental forming processes generally remain a challenge for FEM software, because of the local nature of deformation compared with the size of the part to be formed, and of the large number of deformation steps needed. Among them however, certain semi-continuous metal forming processes can be characterized as periodic, or cyclic. In this case, an efficient computational strategy can be derived from the ideas behind the steady-state models. This will be illustrated with the example of pilgering, a seamless tube cold rolling process.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Inclusion Behavior in Liquid Metal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellot, Jean-Pierre; Descotes, Vincent; Jardy, Alain

    2013-09-01

    Thermomechanical performance of metallic alloys is directly related to the metal cleanliness that has always been a challenge for metallurgists. During liquid metal processing, particles can grow or decrease in size either by mass transfer with the liquid phase or by agglomeration/fragmentation mechanisms. As a function of numerical density of inclusions and of the hydrodynamics of the reactor, different numerical modeling approaches are proposed; in the case of an isolated particle, the Lagrangian technique coupled with a dissolution model is applied, whereas in the opposite case of large inclusion phase concentration, the population balance equation must be solved. Three examples of numerical modeling studies achieved at Institut Jean Lamour are discussed. They illustrate the application of the Lagrangian technique (for isolated exogenous inclusion in titanium bath) and the Eulerian technique without or with the aggregation process: for precipitation and growing of inclusions at the solidification front of a Maraging steel, and for endogenous inclusions in the molten steel bath of a gas-stirred ladle, respectively.

  16. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change

  17. Processing and Characterizing Alumina/Aluminum Composites with Tailored Microstructures Formed by Reactive Metal Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, E.; Ellerby, D.; Ewsuk, K.; Fahrenholtz, B.; Loehman, R.

    1999-01-28

    In industry, the need to maximize energy efficiency depends on the availability of suitable advanced materials. Ceramic composites are exemplary materials for many advanced engineering applications because they exhibit good thermal stability, oxidation resistance and enhanced toughness. Presently, ceramic composite fabrication processes are costly, often requiring high temperatures and pressures to achieve reasonable densities. Our research is focused on developing a processing technique, that will allow production of alumina/aluminum composites using relatively low temperatures and without the application of an external force, thus reducing the processing costs. Our composites were formed using Reactive Metal Penetration (RMP), which is a process involving the reaction of molten Al with a dense ceramic preform. The result is a near net shape ceramic/metal composite with interpenetrating phases. The volume fraction of metal in the composites was varied by doping an aluminosilicate ceramic preform with silica. For this study we fabricated composites using pure mullite and mullite doped with 23 and 42 weight percent silica, yielding 18, 25, and 30 volume percent metal in the composites, respectively. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to characterize the homogeneity and scale of the microstructure. The scale of the microstructure varied with preform composition, the reaction temperature and with secondary heat treatments. Four-point bend testing was used to evaluate the influence of microstructure on strength and reliability. During these studies a gradient in the microstructure was observed, which we further characterized using microhardness testing. Alumina/aluminum composites formed by RMP show higher toughness then monolithic alumina and have the potential for improved reliability when compared to monolithic ceramics.

  18. Process for electroless deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the electroless deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electroless plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article upon sufficient contact with the article.

  19. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1979-01-30

    A process for the electrolytic deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article in the presence of an electrode receiving current.

  20. Metal Alloy Compositions And Process Background Of The Invention

    DOEpatents

    Flemings, Merton C.; Martinez-Ayers, Raul A.; de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Yurko, James A.

    2003-11-11

    A skinless metal alloy composition free of entrapped gas and comprising primary solid discrete degenerate dendrites homogeneously dispersed within a secondary phase is formed by a process wherein the metal alloy is heated in a vessel to render it a liquid. The liquid is then rapidly cooled while vigorously agitating it under conditions to avoid entrapment of gas while forming solid nuclei homogeneously distributed in the liquid. Agitation then is ceased when the liquid contains a small fraction solid or the liquid-solid alloy is removed from the source of agitation while cooling is continued to form the primary solid discrete degenerate dendrites in liquid secondary phase. The solid-liquid mixture then can be formed such as by casting.

  1. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.T.

    1994-12-06

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO[sub x] and optionally SO[sub 2] from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe[sup 2+]) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution. 26 figures.

  2. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger T.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO.sub.x and optionally SO.sub.2 from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe.sup.2+) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC' is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution.

  3. Thermochemical Processing of Radioactive Waste Using Powder Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Panteleev, V. I.; Karlina, O. K.; Klimov. V. L.

    2003-02-25

    Problematic radioactive wastes were generated during various activities of both industrial facilities and research institutions usually in relative small amounts. These can be spent ion exchange resins, inorganic absorbents, wastes from research nuclear reactors, irradiated graphite, mixed, organic or chlorine-containing radioactive waste, contaminated soils, un-burnable heavily surface-contaminated materials, etc. Conventional treatment methods encounter serious problems concerning processing efficiency of such waste, e.g. complete destruction of organic molecules and avoiding of possible emissions of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemically hazardous species. Some contaminations cannot be removed from surface using common decontamination methods. Conditioning of ash residues obtained after treatment of solid radioactive waste including ashes received from treating problematic wastes also is a complicated task. Moreover due to relative small volume of specific type radioactive waste the development of target treatment procedures and facilities to conduct technological processes and their deployment could be economically unexpedient and ecologically no justified. Thermochemical processing technologies are used for treating and conditioning problematic radioactive wastes. The thermochemical processing uses powdered metal fuels (PMF) that are specifically formulated for the waste composition and react chemically with the waste components. The composition of the PMF is designed in such a way as to minimize the release of hazardous components and radionuclides in the off gas and to confine the contaminants in the ash residue. The thermochemical procedures allow decomposition of organic matter and capturing hazardous radionuclides and chemical species simultaneously. A significant advantage of thermochemical processing is its autonomy. Thermochemical treatment technologies use the energy of exothermic reactions in the mixture of radioactive or hazardous waste with PMF

  4. Shape, metal abundance, chemistry, and origin of chondrules in the Renazzo (CR) chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, D.S.; Weisberg, M.K.; Hertz, J.; Campbell, A.J.

    2009-03-31

    We used synchrotron X-ray microtomography to image in 3-dimensions (3D) eight whole chondrules in a {approx}1 cm{sup 3} piece of the Renazzo (CR) chondrite at {approx}17 {micro}m per volume element (voxel) edge. We report the first volumetric (3D) measurement of metal/silicate ratios in chondrules and quantify indices of chondrule sphericity. Volumetric metal abundances in whole chondrules range from 1 to 37 volume % in 8 measured chondrules and by inspection in tomography data. We show that metal abundances and metal grain locations in individual chondrules cannot be reliably obtained from single random 2D sections. Samples were physically cut to intersect representative chondrules multiple times and to verify 3D data. Detailed 2D chemical analysis combined with 3D data yield highly variable whole-chondrule Mg/Si ratios with a supra-chondritic mean value, yet the chemically diverse, independently formed chondrules are mutually complementary in preserving chondritic (solar) Fe/Si ratios in the aggregate CR chondrite. These results are consistent with localized chondrule formation and rapid accretion resulting in chondrule + matrix aggregates (meteorite parent bodies) that preserve the bulk chondritic composition of source regions.

  5. Ultralight reactive metal foams produced as structural shapes in space: System design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocks, F. H.; Morrill, J. P.; Feldman, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    This autonomous experiment for foaming metals in space involved: (1) payload support structure; (2) furnace and foaming apparatus; (3) electronic controls; (4) battery power; and (5) metallurgy. Emphasis was laid on a modular design which was easily modifiable and which offered maximum durability, safety, and failure tolerance.

  6. Validation of Two Hydrocodes with a Bi-Metallic Shaped Charge Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraham, Daniel J.

    2012-08-16

    Staggered grid (SGH) and cell-centered (CCH) Lagrangian Hydro are two approaches to modeling high explosives (HE) experiments. HE experiments involve complex flows. For example, the discontinuity in the tangential velocity across a frictionless contact surface. In this work, the SGH and CCH schemes with a contact surface algorithm are used to simulate a bimetallic shaped charge experiment using FLAG. Experiment will be performed at LANL in the coming year and used to validate the SGH and CCH schemes results.

  7. C-shaped specimen plane strain fracture toughness tests. [metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, R. T.; Fisher, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Test equipment, procedures, and data obtained in the evaluation of C-shaped specimens are presented. Observations reported on include: specimen preparation and dimensional measurement; modifications to the standard ASTM E 399 displacement gage, which permit punch mark gage point engagement; and a measurement device for determining the interior and exterior radii of ring segments. Load displacement ratios were determined experimentally which agreed with analytically determined coefficients for three different gage lengths on the inner surfaces of radially-cracked ring segments.

  8. Emerging technologies in extraction and processing of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-04-01

    The growing need to conserve energy and materials and prevent environmental pollution led to an increased demand for better understanding of potential as well as existing processes. In this context, thermodynamic and transport modeling of materials and processes provides a rapid and cost-effective means of conducting and minimizing the complexity of experimental investigations and developing innovative and environmentally friendly metallurgical processes. This presentation concentrates on some fundamentals on new technologies as extractive metallurgy of copper, lead, aluminum, and other nonferrous metals and processing of nanocomposites. The newer routes of copper smelting and modeling of impurities in copper and lead slags and mattes are reviewed. The copper smelting capacity increased by a factor of 10 during the last three decades, the smelting rate increased by a factor of 6, and the process fuel equivalent decreased by a factor of 2. The a priori prediction, with no adjustable parameters, of impurity capacities of S and As in copper slags and S in lead slags, based on the Reddy-Blander model, is reviewed. Excellent agreement between the model-predicted capacities data and laboratory experimental and industrial data was observed. The model is an invaluable tool for optimization of process parameters in the efficient removal of impurities from the nonferrous-metals smelting and refining processes. A new in-situ processing technology for the production of a lightweight alloy matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements such as SiC in aluminum alloy matrix composites by bubbling reactive gas is reviewed. Thermal plasma processing of a nanoscale aluminum alloy matrix with TiC and TiN composites is discussed. The in-situ formed reinforcements are thermodynamically stable, and the composite particles are of uniform size. The optimum process parameters for the production of composite powders by thermal plasma are discussed. A low-temperature aluminum production and

  9. Ultrafast laser beam shaping for material processing at imaging plane by geometric masks using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Zheng; Li, Jiangning; Edwardson, Stuart; Perrie, Walter; Liu, Dun; Dearden, Geoff

    2015-07-01

    We have demonstrated an original ultrafast laser beam shaping technique for material processing using a spatial light modulator (SLM). Complicated and time-consuming diffraction far-field phase hologram calculations based on Fourier transformations are avoided, while simple and direct geometric masks are used to shape the incident beam at diffraction near-field. Various beam intensity shapes, such as square, triangle, ring and star, are obtained and then reconstructed at the imaging plane of an f-theta lens. The size of the shaped beam is approximately 20 μm, which is comparable to the beam waist at the focal plane. A polished stainless steel sample is machined by the shaped beam at the imaging plane. The shape of the ablation footprint well matches the beam shape.

  10. Concept Feasibility Report for Using Co-Extrusion to Bond Metals to Complex Shapes of U-10Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Smith, Mark T.; Soulami, Ayoub; Joshi, Vineet V.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-12-30

    In support of the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy plate fuel for the U.S. high-performance research reactors (USHPRR). This report documents the results of PNNL’s efforts to develop the extrusion process for this concept. The approach to the development of a co-extruded complex-shaped fuel has been described and an extrusion of DU-10Mo was made. The initial findings suggest that given the extrusion forces required for processing U-10Mo, the co-extrusion process can meet the production demands of the USHPRR fuel and may be a viable production method. The development activity is in the early stages and has just begun to identify technical challenges to address details such as dimensional tolerances and shape control. New extrusion dies and roll groove profiles have been developed and will be assessed by extrusion and rolling of U-10Mo during the next fiscal year. Progress on the development and demonstration of the co-extrusion process for flat and shaped fuel is reported in this document

  11. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  12. A two-dimensional thermomechanical simulation of a gas metal arc welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    A low heat input gas metal arc (GMA) weld overlay process is being investigated as a possible means to repair Savannah River nuclear reactor tanks in the event cracks are detected in the reactor walls. Two-dimensional thermomechanical simulations of a GMA welding process were performed using the finite element code ABAQUS to assist in the design of the upcoming weld experiments on helium-charged specimens. The thermal model correlated well with existing test data, i.e., fusion zone depth and thermocouple data. In addition, numerical results revealed that after cool-down the final deformation of the workpiece was qualitatively similar to the shape observed experimentally. Based on these analyses, conservative recommendations were made for the workpiece dimensions, weld pass spacing, and thermomechanical boundary conditions to ensure the experiments would be as representative as possible of welding on the reactor walls. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Network structure dependence on unconstrained isothermal-recovery processes for shape-memory thiol-epoxy "click" systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Alberto; Fernández-Francos, Xavier; De la Flor, Silvia; Serra, Àngels

    2016-07-01

    The shape-memory response (SMR) of "click" thiol-epoxy polymers produced using latent catalysts, with different network structure and thermo-mechanical properties, was tested on unconstrained shape-recovery processes under isothermal conditions. Experiments at several programming temperatures ( T_{prog}) and isothermal-recovery temperatures ( T_{iso}) were carried out, and the shape-memory stability was analyzed through various consecutive shape-memory cycles. The temperature profile during the isothermal-recovery experiments was monitored, and it showed that the shape-recovery process takes place while the sample is becoming thermally stable and before stable isothermal temperature conditions are eventually reached. The shape-recovery process takes place in two different stages regardless of T_{iso}: a slow initial stage until the process is triggered at a temperature strongly related with the beginning of network relaxation, followed by the typical exponential decay of the relaxation processes until completion at a temperature below or very close to Tg. The shape-recovery process is slower in materials with more densely crosslinked and hindered network structures. The shape-recovery time ( t_{sr}) is significantly reduced when the isothermal-recovery temperature T_{iso} increases from below to above Tg because the network relaxation dynamics accelerates. However, the temperature range from the beginning to the end of the recovery process is hardly affected by T_{iso}; at higher T_{iso} it is only slightly shifted to higher temperatures. These results suggest that the shape-recovery process can be controlled by changing the network structure and working at T_{iso} < Tg to maximize the effect of the structure and/or by increasing T_{iso} to minimize the effect but increasing the shape-recovery rate.

  14. Modelling of temperature evolution on metals during laser hardening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yánez, A.; Álvarez, J. C.; López, A. J.; Nicolás, G.; Pérez, J. A.; Ramil, A.; Saavedra, E.

    2002-01-01

    To achieve a precise and controlled laser process, an exhaustive analysis of the thermal behaviour of the material is necessary. In the present paper, a numerical simulation of the laser hardening process has been developed using both analytical solutions and the finite element code ANSYS™ to solve the heat transfer equation inside the treated material. The knowledge of the thermal cycles has enabled suitable processing parameters to be ascertained thus improving surface properties when metallic alloys have been irradiated. A simpler analytical method is also used to determine the mentioned parameters more quickly. This general purpose method has been applied to a specific experimental situation, namely the treatment of cylindrical pieces used in a multistage pump rotary jacket.

  15. Pulse laser processing of metal thin films on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, Gennady M.; Zonov, Ruslan G.; Kaluzhny, Dmitry G.

    2004-04-01

    The possibility of the pulse laser radiation treatment of thin metal films on glass substrates has been studied experimentally. On the glass substrates with sprayed coating the diffraction structures were obtained due to the selective evaporation of metal at the interference of the powerful pulse laser radiation. The experiments were conducted using copper, aluminum films and films from titanium oxides. The thickness of the films on the glass substrates was 0.1 - 0.12 μm. The regimes normally used during the film treatment with a laser beam were as follows: the wavelength was 1.06 μm, the pulse duration was 10 ns, and the enegy density of the beam was 10 mJ/mm2. To obtain an interference pattern on the treated surface the beam of the coherent radiation was preliminary split into two. In dependence on the convergence angle of the interference beams, the diffraction gratings had the lattice spacing in the range of 1 - 6 μm. They were used to produce diffraction lenses. These lenses are a plane device with a ring-shape zone of concentric grating grooves capable to focus a certain part of incident radiation. In dependence on the wavelength, the radiation is collected on the optic axis at different distances from the diffraction lens. This fact makes it possible to use the lens in production of a simple monochromator. The structure of the diffraction gratings obtained has been studied, and their main characteristics and main spheres of their application have been determined.

  16. Rapid damage-free shaping of silicon carbide using reactive atom plasma (RAP) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Yogesh; Chang, Andrew K.; Berrett, John W.; Futtere, Kenneth; Gardopee, George J.; Kelley, Jude; Kyler, Thomas; Lee, Jeonghwa; Lyford, Nick; Proscia, David; Sommer, Phillip R.

    2006-06-01

    Mechanical grinding and shaping of optical materials imparts damage that manifests itself as defects and cracks that can propagate well below the surface of the optic. Mitigation of damage is necessary to preserve the integrity of the optic and relieve residual stress that can be detrimental to its performance. Typically, a sequence of subsequent polishing steps with finer and finer grit sizes is used to remove damage, but the process can be painfully slow especially for hard materials such as silicon carbide and often fails to remove all the damage. Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP TM) processing, a non-contact, atmospheric pressure plasma-based process, has been shown to reveal and mitigate sub-surface damage in optical materials. Twyman stress tests on thin glass and SiC substrates demonstrate RAP's ability to relieve the stress while at the same time improving surface form.

  17. Processing of Refractory Metal Alloys for JOYO Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    RF Luther; ME Petrichek

    2006-02-21

    This is a summary of the refractory metal processing experienced by candidate Prometheus materiats as they were fabricated into specimens destined for testing within the JOYO test reactor, ex-reactor testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), or testing within the NRPCT. The processing is described for each alloy from the point of inception to the point where processing was terminated due to the cancellation of Naval Reactor's involvement in the Prometheus Project. The alloys included three tantalum-base alloys (T-111, Ta-10W, and ASTAR-811C), a niobium-base alloy, (FS-85), and two molybdenum-rhenium alloys, one containing 44.5 w/o rhenium, and the other 47.5 w/o rhenium. Each of these alloys was either a primary candidate or back-up candidate for cladding and structural applications within the space reactor. Their production was intended to serve as a forerunner for large scale production ingots that were to be procured from commercial refractory metal vendors such as Wah Chang.

  18. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  19. Specialized and independent processing of orientation and shape in visual field maps LO1 and LO2.

    PubMed

    Silson, Edward H; McKeefry, Declan J; Rodgers, Jessica; Gouws, Andre D; Hymers, Mark; Morland, Antony B

    2013-03-01

    We identified human visual field maps, LO1 and LO2, in object-selective lateral occipital cortex. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we assessed the functions of these maps in the perception of orientation and shape. TMS of LO1 disrupted orientation, but not shape, discrimination, whereas TMS of LO2 disrupted shape, but not orientation, discrimination. This double dissociation suggests that specialized and independent processing of different visual attributes occurs in LO1 and LO2. PMID:23377127

  20. In situ characterization of metal matrix composites processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, Gareth Torrey

    1999-11-01

    The high temperatures and pressures used for the processing of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) can result in the bending and fracture of fibers, and the development of residual stresses in both the fibers and surrounding metal matrix. These phenomena adversely affect the properties of MMC's. Methods for their nondestructive measurement are therefore needed both to better understand the process induced damage mechanisms and to ensure that composites are not placed into service with unacceptable fiber damage and/or residual stresses. A fiber optic luminescence approach based upon the frequency shift of the R lines emission of doped sapphire fibers was used to determine the residual stresses in both Ti/Al2O3 and Ti/SiC composites. To investigate the significance of the creep relaxation effects, residual stresses were measured for sapphire fibers embedded in Ti-6Al-4V plates that had been cooled at different rates. The compressive stresses in the fiber are consistent with the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of sapphire being less than Ti-6Al-4V. A multiple concentric cylinder model was used to predict the residual stress state. The model results confirmed that the creep relaxation was induced responsible for the lower stress in the slowly cooled samples and suggest that cooling rate is important to control during processing. To test the notion of the use of a sapphire fiber as a 'witness to' the stress state in an MMC, a sapphire fiber was inserted into a Ti-6Al-4V coated SIGMA (SiC) fiber bundle prior to its consolidation. A generalized method of cells (GMC) model was used to develop a relationship between the stress state within the sapphire witness fiber and that of the surrounding Ti-6Al-4V matrix and the SIGMA fibers. Fiber fracture during the hot isostatic processing (HIP) consolidation of titanium matrix composite was measured using an in-situ acoustic emission approach. For process cycles in which pressure was applied prior to

  1. Laser and Surface Processes of NiTi Shape Memory Elements for Micro-actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Previtali, Barbara; Villa, Elena; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-04-01

    In the current microtechnology for actuation field, shape memory alloys (SMA) are considered one of the best candidates for the production of mini/micro devices thanks to their high power-to-weight ratio as function of the actuator weight and hence for their capability of generating high mechanical performance in very limited spaces. In the microscale the most suitable conformation of a SMA actuator is given by a planar wavy formed arrangement, i.e., the snake-like shape, which allows high strokes, considerable forces, and devices with very low sizes. This uncommon and complex geometry becomes more difficult to be realized when the actuator dimensions are scaled down to micrometric values. In this work, micro-snake-like actuators are laser machined using a nanosecond pulsed fiber laser, starting from a 120- μm-thick NiTi sheet. Chemical and electrochemical surface polishes are also investigated for the removal of the thermal damages of the laser process. Calorimetric and thermo-mechanical tests are accomplished to assess the NiTi microdevice performance after each step of the working process. It is shown that laser machining has to be followed by some post-processes in order to obtain a micro-actuator with good thermo-mechanical properties.

  2. Solution processable broadband transparent mixed metal oxide nanofilm optical coatings via substrate diffusion doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Colm; Aureau, Damien; Collins, Gillian; O'Hanlon, Sally; Etcheberry, Arnaud; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-11-01

    Devices composed of transparent materials, particularly those utilizing metal oxides, are of significant interest due to increased demand from industry for higher fidelity transparent thin film transistors, photovoltaics and a myriad of other optoelectronic devices and optics that require more cost-effective and simplified processing techniques for functional oxides and coatings. Here, we report a facile solution processed technique for the formation of a transparent thin film through an inter-diffusion process involving substrate dopant species at a range of low annealing temperatures compatible with processing conditions required by many state-of-the-art devices. The inter-diffusion process facilitates the movement of Si, Na and O species from the substrate into the as-deposited vanadium oxide thin film forming a composite fully transparent V0.0352O0.547Si0.4078Na0.01. Thin film X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy show the crystalline component of the structure to be α-NaVO3 within a glassy matrix. This optical coating exhibits high broadband transparency, exceeding 90-97% absolute transmission across the UV-to-NIR spectral range, while having low roughness and free of surface defects and pinholes. The production of transparent films for advanced optoelectronic devices, optical coatings, and low- or high-k oxides is important for planar or complex shaped optics or surfaces. It provides opportunities for doping metal oxides to ternary, quaternary or other mixed metal oxides on glass, encapsulants or other substrates that facilitate diffusional movement of dopant species.Devices composed of transparent materials, particularly those utilizing metal oxides, are of significant interest due to increased demand from industry for higher fidelity transparent thin film transistors, photovoltaics and a myriad of other optoelectronic devices and optics that require more cost-effective and simplified processing techniques for functional oxides and coatings

  3. Shape memory characteristics of powder metallurgy processed Ti50Ni50 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-wook; Jeon, Kyung-su

    Ti50Ni50 shape memory alloy powders were prepared by inert gas atomization and the powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) to fabricated dense bulk samples. Martensitic transformation temperatures and microstructures of the asatomized powders and the consolidated disks were investigated. DSC and XRD analysis showed that the B2-B19' martensitic transformation occurred in the powders and the disks. The martensitic transformation start temperature (Ms) of the powders was 22.9∘ C. However, the Ms of the SPS disk was 65.9∘ C. It is considered that this increase in transformation temperature is ascribed to the microstructural change during SPS processing.

  4. Attentional modulation of neural processing of shape, color, and velocity in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Corbetta, M.; Miezin, F.M.; Dobmeyer, S.; Shulman, G.L.; Petersen, S.E. )

    1990-06-22

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow of normal subjects, while they were discriminating different attributes (shape, color, and velocity) of the same set of visual stimuli. Psychophysical evidence indicated that the sensitivity for discriminating subtle stimulus changes was higher when subjects focused attention on one attribute than when they divided attention among several attributes. Correspondingly, attention enhanced the activity of different regions of extrastriate visual cortex that appear to be specialized for processing information related to the selected attribute.

  5. Microwave processing of redox ceramic-metal composites

    SciTech Connect

    Di Fiore, R.R.; Clark, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Ceramic-metal composites have been produced through the reduction of copper oxide (CuO) and the oxidation of aluminum in a reducing atmosphere. Fine powders of CuO and Al (<38 {micro}m) were mixed with yttria stabilized zirconia, ball milled and uniaxially pressed into disc samples. Microwave hybrid heating was used to process samples using {beta}-SiC and activated carbon powder as susceptors. Pyrolysis of the carbon provided the reducing atmosphere. The resulting Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y-ZrO{sub 2} composite was analyzed for density, compressive strength and resistivity.

  6. Liner conformality in ionized magnetron sputter metal deposition processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaguchi, S.; Rossnagel, S.M.

    1996-07-01

    The conformality of thin metal films (liners) formed on high-aspect-ratio trench structures in ionized magnetron sputter deposition processes is studied numerically and experimentally. The numerical simulator (SHADE) used to predict the surface topography is based on the shock-tracking method for surface evolution. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimentally observed thin-film topography. It is shown that combination of direct deposition and trench-bottom resputtering results in good conformality of step coverages and the amount of the resputtering needed for the good conformality is almost independent of trench aspect ratios. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  7. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  8. Processing and property evaluation of metal matrix superconducting materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Appajosula S.

    1995-01-01

    Metal - superconductor (YBCO) systems have been prepared and characterized by resistivity, ac susceptibility and dc SQUID magnetic moment measurements. The silver composites showed superconducting transition for all the composites processed and the superconducting transition temperature tends to depend upon the concentration of the silver in the composite. Aluminum composites showed an unusual resistivity results with two transitions around 90 K and 120 K. The superconducting property of silver composites can be explained qualitatively in terms of the proximity theory that has been suggested for the low temperature superconductors.

  9. A numerical simulation of the solidification process of a binary mixture in a V-shaped enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.K. Jr.; DeZego, S.E.; Dong, Z.F.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    A numerical study of the solidification process in a V-shaped sump has been conducted for a binary mixture. This geometry is of particular interest as it simulates the limiting cases of the physical domain of the molten metal in the direct chill (DC) continuous casting process. Solutions were obtained by solving a two-phase set of conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species in a polar coordinate system. The necessary interfacial terms for the two-phase model are discussed. A non-uniform grid, biased at the point discontinuity, was chosen for the calculations to improve the stability of the numerical procedure. The binary mixture studied was a eutectic forming aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) alloy. Two limiting cases of sump angle (8{degree} and 16{degree}) were simulated to gain insight into the influence of geometric effects on the final cast properties. The effects of melt convection and solid movement are also discussed as contributing factors to the segregation patterns. The results of the study showed the angle of the enclosure greatly affected the developing negative segregation bands in the mushy region. Furthermore, the original negative-segregated mushy zone gradually developed into a positively-segregated region throughout the solid area.

  10. Electrohydrostatic analysis of equilibrium shape and stability of stressed conducting fluids: Application to liquid metal ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; Miskovsky, N.M.; Cutler, P.H.; Feuchtwang, T.E.; Kazes, E.

    1987-11-01

    An exact mathematical treatment of the problem of an electrically stressed fluid from zero field to the onset of instability gives rise to the nonlinear electrohydrodynamic equations which, in general, are not amenable to analytic solution. To make the problem more tractable, one considers two limiting regimes, the electrohydrostatic (EHS) and the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) limits. In the EHS case, the fields and the velocities are assumed to be small so that quasistatic equilibrium exists and the fluid surface is essentially at rest. In this paper we consider the electrohydrostatic analysis of the equilibrium shape and stability of the electrically stressed fluids. The current work reintroduces the EHS stability criterion due to Zeleny, as well as a new set of equations and numerical procedure for analyzing the stability of an axially symmetric fluid with an arbitrary shaped surface. These are contrasted with a stability criterion, introduced by Taylor, which it is argued, is only an equilibrium condition and not a proper criterion for analyzing the general stability of electrified fluids. The Taylor and Zeleny criteria are applied to fluid sources modeled as simple coordinate surfaces, such as the cone, the cusp, and the hyperboloid. These results lead to a new physical interpretation of the onset of fluid instability in the EHS limit. A set of partial differential equations is derived, whose solution describes the equilibrium shape of a conducting fluid as a function of the applied electric field. Numerical results are presented for the evolution of the equilibrium shapes of several liquid metals as a function of the applied voltage. Values of the critical or breakdown voltage are obtained from these results and found to be in good agreement with experiment. Finally, the EHS analysis indicates that a realistic and accurate treatment of the onset of instability requires fluid flow in a dynamical model.

  11. Solution processable broadband transparent mixed metal oxide nanofilm optical coatings via substrate diffusion doping.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Colm; Aureau, Damien; Collins, Gillian; O'Hanlon, Sally; Etcheberry, Arnaud; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-12-21

    Devices composed of transparent materials, particularly those utilizing metal oxides, are of significant interest due to increased demand from industry for higher fidelity transparent thin film transistors, photovoltaics and a myriad of other optoelectronic devices and optics that require more cost-effective and simplified processing techniques for functional oxides and coatings. Here, we report a facile solution processed technique for the formation of a transparent thin film through an inter-diffusion process involving substrate dopant species at a range of low annealing temperatures compatible with processing conditions required by many state-of-the-art devices. The inter-diffusion process facilitates the movement of Si, Na and O species from the substrate into the as-deposited vanadium oxide thin film forming a composite fully transparent V0.0352O0.547Si0.4078Na0.01. Thin film X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy show the crystalline component of the structure to be α-NaVO3 within a glassy matrix. This optical coating exhibits high broadband transparency, exceeding 90-97% absolute transmission across the UV-to-NIR spectral range, while having low roughness and free of surface defects and pinholes. The production of transparent films for advanced optoelectronic devices, optical coatings, and low- or high-k oxides is important for planar or complex shaped optics or surfaces. It provides opportunities for doping metal oxides to ternary, quaternary or other mixed metal oxides on glass, encapsulants or other substrates that facilitate diffusional movement of dopant species. PMID:26575987

  12. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  13. Changes in metal nanoparticle shape and size induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, M. C.; Kluth, P.; Giulian, R.; Sprouster, D. J.; Araujo, L. L.; Schnohr, C. S.; Llewellyn, D. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Foran, G. J.; Cookson, D. J.

    2009-03-01

    Changes in the shape and size of Co, Pt and Au nanoparticles induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation (SHII) have been characterized using a combination of transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Elemental nanoparticles of diameters 2-15 nm were first formed in amorphous SiO 2 by ion implantation and thermal annealing and then irradiated at room temperature with 27-185 MeV Au ions as a function of fluence. Spherical nanoparticles below a minimum diameter (4-7 nm) remained spherical under SHII but progressively decreased in size as a result of dissolution into the SiO 2 matrix. Spherical nanoparticles above the minimum diameter threshold were transformed to elongated rods aligned with the ion beamdirection. The nanorod width saturated at an electronic energy deposition dependent value, progressively increasing from 4-6 to 7-10 nm (at 5-18 keV/nm, respectively) while the nanorod length exhibited a broad distribution consistent with that of the unirradiated spherical nanoparticles. The threshold diameter for spherical nanoparticle elongation was comparable to the saturation value of nanorod width. We correlate this saturation value with the diameter of the molten track induced in amorphous SiO 2 by SHII. In summary, changes in nanoparticle shape and size are governed to a large extent by the ion irradiation parameters.

  14. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOEpatents

    Krauter, Paula A. W.; Krauter, Gordon W.

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  15. Predictive modeling of metal-catalyzed polyolefin processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Neeraj Prasad

    2003-10-01

    This dissertation describes the essential modeling components and techniques for building comprehensive polymer process models for metal-catalyzed polyolefin processes. The significance of this work is that it presents a comprehensive approach to polymer process modeling applied to large-scale commercial processes. Most researchers focus only on polymerization mechanisms and reaction kinetics, and neglect physical properties and phase equilibrium. Both physical properties and phase equilibrium play key roles in the accuracy and robustness of a model. This work presents the fundamental principles and practical guidelines used to develop and validate both steady-state and dynamic simulation models for two large-scale commercial processes involving the Ziegler-Natta polymerization to produce high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). It also provides a model for the solution polymerization of ethylene using a metallocene catalyst. Existing modeling efforts do not include physical properties or phase equilibrium in their calculations. These omissions undermine the accuracy and predictive power of the models. The forward chapters of the dissertation discuss the fundamental concepts we consider in polymer process modeling. These include physical and thermodynamic properties, phase equilibrium, and polymerization kinetics. The later chapters provide the modeling applications described above.

  16. Decision Framework for Applying Attenuation Processes to Metals and Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, J.; Goswami, D.; Spreng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Until recently, there has been little regulatory guidance to support attenuation-based remedies for groundwater contaminated with metals and radionuclides. This has contributed to inconsistent application of those remedies and generally discouraged their consideration. The net result is that many sites face intractable closure problems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently issued a three-volume technical guidance set that specifically addresses monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of inorganic contaminants. These new documents provide technical information related to the dominant attenuation mechanisms, as well as methods for characterization and evaluation of specific inorganic contaminants and radionuclides. Attenuation-based remedies for metals and long-lived radionuclides rely primarily on immobilization of contaminants as stable and/or nontoxic species. This stabilization and toxicity reduction can result from natural processes, geochemical gradients, or biogeochemical manipulation. Except for a few radionuclides, the original contaminant remains in the subsurface so that documentation of the sustainability, or permanence, of stabilization and detoxification is crucial to assessing performance. Another challenge in applying the existing and emerging guidance is the need to simultaneously address multiple contaminants at a target site, as is often the case in actual practice. The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) has developed a technical and regulatory guidance to facilitate implementation of the new EPA guidance for MNA of metals and radionuclides. To determine the specific approach of this document, ITRC conducted a web-based survey of state regulators and stakeholders to determine the existing state of knowledge and acceptance regarding the application of attenuation processes as a remedy. The document addresses issues identified in the survey and provides examples of state protocols and stakeholder issues related to the

  17. Detection and Recovery of Palladium, Gold and Cobalt Metals from the Urban Mine Using Novel Sensors/Adsorbents Designated with Nanoscale Wagon-wheel-shaped Pores.

    PubMed

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Sakai, Masaru; Elshehy, Emad; Halada, Kohmei

    2015-01-01

    Developing low-cost, efficient processes for recovering and recycling palladium, gold and cobalt metals from urban mine remains a significant challenge in industrialized countries. Here, the development of optical mesosensors/adsorbents (MSAs) for efficient recognition and selective recovery of Pd(II), Au(III), and Co(II) from urban mine was achieved. A simple, general method for preparing MSAs based on using high-order mesoporous monolithic scaffolds was described. Hierarchical cubic Ia3d wagon-wheel-shaped MSAs were fabricated by anchoring chelating agents (colorants) into three-dimensional pores and micrometric particle surfaces of the mesoporous monolithic scaffolds. Findings show, for the first time, evidence of controlled optical recognition of Pd(II), Au(III), and Co(II) ions and a highly selective system for recovery of Pd(II) ions (up to ~95%) in ores and industrial wastes. Furthermore, the controlled assessment processes described herein involve evaluation of intrinsic properties (e.g., visual signal change, long-term stability, adsorption efficiency, extraordinary sensitivity, selectivity, and reusability); thus, expensive, sophisticated instruments are not required. Results show evidence that MSAs will attract worldwide attention as a promising technological means of recovering and recycling palladium, gold and cobalt metals. PMID:26709467

  18. Monolayer Graphene as Ultimate Chemical Passivation Layer for Arbitrarily Shaped Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter E.; Albrecht, P.; Camino, F.E.; Sutter, P.

    2010-12-01

    Monolayer graphene was grown on polycrystalline Ru thin films on patterned fused silica. The Ru films grow with columnar structure with strongly aligned grains exposing flat (0 0 0 1) surface facets within the 3D geometric patterns and on the adjacent planar silica surface. The monolayer graphene was found to completely and uniformly cover the Ru films on the complex engineered substrates. In addition, we demonstrate that the single atomic layer graphene protects the underlying metal surface against reaction with ambient gases of particular importance for applications such as concave focusing mirrors, non-planar microelectrode arrays, etc.

  19. Effect of power arrangement on the crystal shape during the Kyropoulos sapphire crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Lu, Chung-Wei; Liu, Che-Ming

    2012-08-01

    The Kyropoulos (KY) method is commonly used to grow large sized sapphire single crystals. The shape of the sapphire crystal thus grown is determined by the heater arrangement and the power reduction history in the Kyropoulos furnace. In order to grow high-quality sapphire single crystal, the heater arrangement should allow different power inputs in different sections in order to control the thermal field in the melt during the growth process. In this study, a numerical computation is performed to investigate the effects of the heater arrangement on the thermal and flow transport, the shape of the crystal-melt interface, and the power requirements during the Kyropoulos sapphire crystal growth process in a resistance heated furnace. Four different power ratio arrangements in a three-zone heater are considered. The results show that for the power arrangements considered herein, the temperature gradients along the crystallization front do not exceed 0.05 K/mm, and that, after the growth of the crown, the crystal maintains an almost constant diameter. The remelting phenomenon may occur during growth when the input power of the upper side of the heater is higher than that of the lower side of the heater.

  20. Microstructure evolution in TRIP-aided seamless steel tube during T-shape hydroforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Zicheng; Manabe, Ken-ichi; Li, Yanmei; Misra, R.D.K.

    2014-08-15

    Transformation-induced plasticity aided seamless steel tube comprising of ferrite, bainite, and metastable austenite was processed through forging, piercing, cold-drawing, and two-stage heat treatment. T-shape hydroforming is a classic forming method for experimental research and practical production. The current work studied austenite-to-martensite transformation and microcrack initiation and propagation of the tube during T-shape hydroforming using electron backscattering diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The strain distribution in the bcc-phase and fcc-phase was studied by evaluating changes in the average local misorientation. Compared to the compressive stress, metastable austenite with similar strain surrounding or inside the grains transformed easier under tensile loading conditions. The inclusions were responsible for microcrack initiation. The propagation of the cracks is hindered by martensite/austenite constituent due to transformation induced plasticity effect. The volume fraction of untransformed retained austenite decreased with increase in strain implying transformation-induced plasticity effect. - Highlights: • Hydroformed tubes processed via TRIP concept • EBSD provided estimate of micro local strain. • Retained austenite hinders propagation of microcracks.

  1. Process-interactive nondestructive evaluation for metal-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, P. K.; Shannon, R. E.; Clark, W. G., Jr.; Harrigan, W. C., Jr.

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has been conducted on composite products at various stages of fabrication processes including raw powders, powder mixtures, billets and final product extrusions. Eddy current was found to be effective in identifying matrix powder alloy chemistry and particle size, and in determining the mix ratio of silicon carbide (SiC) reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix alloy powders. Ultrasonic techniques were capable of identifying SiC clusters in large-scale, consolidated powder metallurgy (P/M) metal matrix composite (MMC) billets, while eddy current methods could be used to determine near-surface density variations in the billets. Multiple NDE techniques (eddy current, ultrasonics and resistivity) could be employed to quantify microstructural characteristics of composite extrusions. These results suggest that NDE methods can be integrated into manufacturing processes to provide online, closed-loop control of fabrication parameters.

  2. Modeling the electrical resistivity of deformation processed metal-metal composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Liang; Anderson, Iver; Riedemann, Trevor; Russell, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Deformation processed metal–metal (matrix–reinforcement) composites (DMMCs) are high-strength, high-conductivity in situ composites produced by severe plastic deformation. The electrical resistivity of DMMCs is rarely investigated mechanistically and tends to be slightly higher than the rule-of-mixtures prediction. In this paper, we analyze several possible physical mechanisms (i.e. phonons, interfaces, mutual solution, grain boundaries, dislocations) responsible for the electrical resistivity of DMMC systems and how these mechanisms could be affected by processing conditions (i.e. temperature, deformation processing). As an innovation, we identified and assembled the major scattering mechanisms for specific DMMC systems and modeled their electrical resistivity in combination. From this analysis, it appears that filament coarsening rather than dislocation annihilation is primarily responsible for the resistivity drop observed in these materials after annealing and that grain boundary scattering contributes to the resistivity at least at the same magnitude as does interface scattering.

  3. Parallel, multi-stage processing of colors, faces and shapes in macaque inferior temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Visual-object processing culminates in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. To assess the organization of IT, we measured fMRI responses in alert monkey to achromatic images (faces, fruit, bodies, places) and colored gratings. IT contained multiple color-biased regions, which were typically ventral to face patches and, remarkably, yoked to them, spaced regularly at four locations predicted by known anatomy. Color and face selectivity increased for more anterior regions, indicative of a broad hierarchical arrangement. Responses to non-face shapes were found across IT, but were stronger outside color-biased regions and face patches, consistent with multiple parallel streams. IT also contained multiple coarse eccentricity maps: face patches overlapped central representations; color-biased regions spanned mid-peripheral representations; and place-biased regions overlapped peripheral representations. These results suggest that IT comprises parallel, multi-stage processing networks subject to one organizing principle. PMID:24141314

  4. Possibility of Metal Processing Using Ultrasonic Cavitation Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Ryoji; Fujiwara, Ryuichi; Niita, Tokuo

    2001-05-01

    Utilizing a high-intensity ultrasonic cavitation, a processing experiment was conducted with the aim of performing volumetric flow adjustment of a fuel jet nozzle to be used for a small engine, which cannot be carried out by a method such as machining. At the bottom of the nozzle used for the experiment, which is in the shape of a cup, a nozzle hole with a diameter of 0.15 mm is drilled. In this experiment, we make adjustments in the volumetric flow by grinding and removing the machining burr with the aid of the processing power of ultrasonic cavitation. The processing effect is highly dependent on the ultrasonic cavitation intensity. In the experiment, the processing reservoir was filled with pressurized highly deaerated water to increase the processing force by allowing cavitation with high intensity to be generated. The processing principle is to utilize the effect of a cavitation jet flow passing through the nozzle hole. To restrain the intake of the bubbles into the flow circuits during the pressure reduction cycle of the vibrator, the water flow was discharged into a pressure reduction reservoir. By allowing the horn tip with a diameter of 6 mm at a frequency of 28 kHz to approach the sample, followed by high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation, powerful cavitation was generated. As a result of the evaluation of the processing efficiency made based on the volumetric flow increase and microscopic observation of the nozzle, burrs smaller than 10 μm were almost entirely removed within 15 min of initial irradiation, resulting in a volumetric flow increase of more than 0.4%/min. However, in the case of burrs of more than 10 μm, no force that could remove the burrs was found. It was surprising for the burrs to generate deformation rather than to be removed.

  5. Shapes, Sizes, and Faceting of Nanoscale Metal Particles for Applications in Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, M. B.; Leong, G. J.; Dinh, H. N.; Richards, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the world's dependence on fossil fuels, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are commonly considered as a prime candidate for alternative energy sources. The efficiency of fuel cells is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which is driven by platinum based catalysts. Numerous methods have been developed to synthesize particles which contain more active surfaces by tuning shapes, sizes and facets. Here, we will present a study of a well known wet chemical reduction method targeting specific morphologies and the resulting electrochemical activity. Studying the relationship between Pt facets at the bulk phase single crystal level versus the nanoscale correlates the effects of faceting on activities. Studying the formation of crystals during the course of the synthesis via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) provides mechanistic insight on growth, while electrochemical studies correlate physical properties to performance.

  6. L-shaped metallic antenna for linear polarization conversion in reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchon, Patrick; Lévesque, Quentin; Makhsiyan, Mathilde; Pardo, Fabrice; Jaeck, Julien; Haïdar, Riad; Pelouard, Jean-Luc

    2015-02-01

    The design of metasurfaces able to efficiently control the polarization state of an electromagnetic wave is of importance for various applications. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that plasmonic planar L-shaped antennas can induce a 90° -rotation of the linear polarization of light with a nearly total efficiency in the infrared (3-5 µm). The influence of the in-plane geometry of the nanoantenna is investigated, and it is shown that it can be engineered so that the polarization conversion occurs over a 1 µm-wide spectral band ([3.25-4.25] µm) with a mean polarization conversion efficiency of 95%. These results are experimentally confirmed on two samples with distinctive geometries.

  7. Development of shape memory metal as the actuator of a fail safe mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, V. G.; Johnson, M. R.; Orlosky, S. D.

    1990-01-01

    A small, compact, lightweight device was developed using shape memory alloy (SMA) in wire form to actuate a pin-puller that decouples the flanges of two shafts. When the SMA is heated it contracts producing a useful force and stroke. As it cools, it can be reset (elongated in this case) by applying a relatively small force. Resistive heating is accomplished by running a current through the SMA wire for a controlled length of time. The electronics to drive the device are not elaborate or complicated, consisting of a timed current source. The total available contraction is 3 percent of the length of the wire. This device, the engineering properties of the SMA, and the tests performed to verify the design concept are described.

  8. Negative refractive index of metallic cross-I-shaped pairs: origin and evolution with pair gap width.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y G; Wang, X C; Ong, C K

    2008-07-01

    A structured composite of the negative index of refraction was fabricated by one layer of cross-I-shaped metal pairs. In this structure, the electric and magnetic inclusions were effectively integrated into one small unit. We varied the spacing of the cross pair to control the location of the magnetic resonance mode and their intercoupling with the electric mode. The frequency dependences of permittivity, permeability, and refractive indices with different gap widths of the pairs were systematically discussed by free-space measurement as well as numerical simulation. A spacing window dependent on the geometrical parameters was found in which the real part of the refractive index could have a negative value. The one-layer cross-pair pattern proposed in this work can be extended to three-dimensional structures with well-controlled interlayer coupling that will greatly facilitate the fabrication and measurement of negative-index materials in high frequencies. PMID:18764072

  9. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Innovative Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Diran Apelian

    2012-08-15

    Semi-solid metal (SSM) processing has emerged as an attractive method for near-net-shape manufacturing due to the distinct advantages it holds over conventional near-net-shape forming technologies. These advantages include lower cycle time, increased die life, reduced porosity, reduced solidification shrinkage, improved mechanical properties, etc. SSM processing techniques can not only produce the complex dimensional details (e.g. thin-walled sections) associated with conventional high-pressure die castings, but also can produce high integrity castings currently attainable only with squeeze and low-pressure permanent mold casting processes. There are two primary semi-solid processing routes, (a) thixocasting and (b) rheocasting. In the thixocasting route, one starts from a non-dendritic solid precursor material that is specially prepared by a primary aluminum manufacturer, using continuous casting methods. Upon reheating this material into the mushy (a.k.a. "two-phase") zone, a thixotropic slurry is formed, which becomes the feed for the casting operation. In the rheocasting route (a.k.a. "slurry-on-demand" or "SoD"), one starts from the liquid state, and the thixotropic slurry is formed directly from the melt via careful thermal management of the system; the slurry is subsequently fed into the die cavity. Of these two routes, rheocasting is favored in that there is no premium added to the billet cost, and the scrap recycling issues are alleviated. The CRP (Trade Marked) is a process where the molten metal flows through a reactor prior to casting. The role of the reactor is to ensure that copious nucleation takes place and that the nuclei are well distributed throughout the system prior to entering the casting cavity. The CRP (Trade Marked) has been successfully applied in hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e., 390 alloy) where two liquids of equal or different compositions and temperatures are mixed in the reactor and creating a SSM slurry. The process has been mostly

  10. Modeling and FE Simulation of Quenchable High Strength Steels Sheet Metal Hot Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Bao, Jun; Xing, Zhongwen; Zhang, Dejin; Song, Baoyu; Lei, Chengxi

    2011-08-01

    High strength steel (HSS) sheet metal hot forming process is investigated by means of numerical simulations. With regard to a reliable numerical process design, the knowledge of the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties is essential. In this article, tensile tests are performed to examine the flow stress of the material HSS 22MnB5 at different strains, strain rates, and temperatures. Constitutive model based on phenomenological approach is developed to describe the thermo-mechanical properties of the material 22MnB5 by fitting the experimental data. A 2D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model is developed to simulate the HSS sheet metal hot forming process for U-channel part. The ABAQUS/explicit model is used conduct the hot forming stage simulations, and ABAQUS/implicit model is used for accurately predicting the springback which happens at the end of hot forming stage. Material modeling and FE numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the processing parameters on the hot forming process. The processing parameters have significant influence on the microstructure of U-channel part. The springback after hot forming stage is the main factor impairing the shape precision of hot-formed part. The mechanism of springback is advanced and verified through numerical simulations and tensile loading-unloading tests. Creep strain is found in the tensile loading-unloading test under isothermal condition and has a distinct effect on springback. According to the numerical and experimental results, it can be concluded that springback is mainly caused by different cooling rats and the nonhomogengeous shrink of material during hot forming process, the creep strain is the main factor influencing the amount of the springback.

  11. A shape-recovery polymer coating for the corrosion protection of metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Alexander; van den Berg, Otto; Van Damme, Jonas; Verheyen, Karen; Bauters, Erwin; De Graeve, Iris; Du Prez, Filip E; Terryn, Herman

    2015-01-14

    Self-healing polymer coatings are a type of smart material aimed for advanced corrosion protection of metals. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of two new UV-cure self-healing coatings based on acrylated polycaprolactone polyurethanes. On a macroscopic scale, the cured films all show outstanding mechanical properties, combining relatively high Young's modulus of up to 270 MPa with a strain at break above 350%. After thermal activation the strained films recover up to 97% of their original length. Optical and electron microscopy reveals the self-healing properties of these coatings on hot dip galvanized steel with scratches and microindentations. The temperature-induced closing of such defects restores the corrosion protection and barrier properties of the coating as shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning vibrating electrode technique. Therefore, such coatings are a complementary option for encapsulation-based autonomous corrosion protection systems. PMID:25517028

  12. Effects of process parameters in plastic, metal, and ceramic injection molding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shi W.; Ahn, Seokyoung; Whang, Chul Jin; Park, Seong Jin; Atre, Sundar V.; Kim, Jookwon; German, Randall M.

    2011-09-01

    Plastic injection molding has been widely used in the past and is a dominant forming approach today. As the customer demands require materials with better engineering properties that were not feasible with polymers, powder injection molding with metal and ceramic powders has received considerable attention in recent decades. To better understand the differences in the plastic injection molding, metal injection molding, and ceramic injection molding, the effects of the core process parameters on the process performances has been studied using the state-of-the-art computer-aided engineering (CAE) design tool, PIMSolver® The design of experiments has been conducted using the Taguchi method to obtain the relative contributions of various process parameters onto the successful operations.

  13. Experimental Methods for Investigation of Shape Memory Based Elastocaloric Cooling Processes and Model Validation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marvin; Ullrich, Johannes; Wieczorek, André; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther; Schütze, Andreas; Seelecke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) using elastocaloric cooling processes have the potential to be an environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional vapor compression based cooling process. Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) based alloy systems, especially, show large elastocaloric effects. Furthermore, exhibit large latent heats which is a necessary material property for the development of an efficient solid-state based cooling process. A scientific test rig has been designed to investigate these processes and the elastocaloric effects in SMAs. The realized test rig enables independent control of an SMA's mechanical loading and unloading cycles, as well as conductive heat transfer between SMA cooling elements and a heat source/sink. The test rig is equipped with a comprehensive monitoring system capable of synchronized measurements of mechanical and thermal parameters. In addition to determining the process-dependent mechanical work, the system also enables measurement of thermal caloric aspects of the elastocaloric cooling effect through use of a high-performance infrared camera. This combination is of particular interest, because it allows illustrations of localization and rate effects - both important for efficient heat transfer from the medium to be cooled. The work presented describes an experimental method to identify elastocaloric material properties in different materials and sample geometries. Furthermore, the test rig is used to investigate different cooling process variations. The introduced analysis methods enable a differentiated consideration of material, process and related boundary condition influences on the process efficiency. The comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results (of a thermomechanically coupled finite element model) allows for better understanding of the underlying physics of the elastocaloric effect. In addition, the experimental results, as well as the findings based on the simulation results, are used to improve the

  14. Modeling The Interaction Effects Between Tools And The Work Piece For Metal Forming Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Franzke, Martin; Puchhala, Sreedhar; Dackweiler, Harald

    2007-05-17

    In metal forming processes especially in cold forming, elastic deformation of the tools has a big impact on the final shape of the work-piece. Computation of such processes considering the plastic effects of the work-piece and elastic deformations of the tools at a time in a single FE model complicates to manage the convergence criteria. This situation is even aggravated if the contact situations (between working and support rolls) have to be considered in the simulation, which requires a very fine discretization of the contact zones of both the tool and work piece. This paper presents recently developed concept which meets the above mentioned demands very effectively. Within this concept, the computation of the elastic effects of the tools is separated from the process simulation (which considers elastic-plastic effects of the work-piece). Both simulations are coupled via automatic data interchange, which is bi-directional, because both simulations influence each other. The advantages of this concept include a quite easy to handle contact situations in process simulation, smaller stiffness matrix compared to single model approach and good convergence of the computation. This concept is highly generalized and successfully applied to simulate rolling, drawing, extrusion and forging processes. The above mentioned concept is being implemented into the FE package PEP and LARSTRAN/SHAPE. Rolling experiments are conducted in duo and quarto configuration. Optical three-dimensional digitalizing system was used to measure the deformations within the machine and work-piece profile. These results are used for the validation of FE simulations. This work is being sponsored by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the project ''Interaction effects between processes and structures-SPP1180''.

  15. The role of rapid solidification processing in the fabrication of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced composite processing techniques for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites require the flexibility to meet several widespread objectives. The development of uniquely desired matrix microstructures and uniformly arrayed fiber spacing with sufficient bonding between fiber and matrix to transmit load between them without degradation to the fiber or matrix are the minimum requirements necessary of any fabrication process. For most applications these criteria can be met by fabricating composite monotapes which are then consolidated into composite panels or more complicated components such as fiber reinforced turbine blades. Regardless of the end component, composite monotapes are the building blocks from which near net shape composite structures can be formed. The most common methods for forming composite monotapes are the powder cloth, foil/fiber, plasma spray, and arc spray processes. These practices, however, employ rapid solidification techniques in processing of the composite matrix phase. Consequently, rapid solidification processes play a vital and yet generally overlooked role in composite fabrication. The future potential of rapid solidification processing is discussed.

  16. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  17. Contaminated Metal Components in Dismantling by Hot Cutting Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cesari, Franco G.; Conforti, Gianmario; Rogante, Massimo; Giostri, Angelo

    2006-07-01

    During the preparatory dismantling activities of Caorso's Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), an experimental campaign using plasma and oxyacetylene metal cutting processes has been performed and applied to plates and tubes exposed to the coolant steam of the reactor. The plant (Boiling Water Reactor, 870 MWe) was designed and built in the 70's, and it was fully operating by 1981 to 1986 being shut down after 1987 Italy's poll that abrogated nuclear power based on U235 fission. The campaign concerns no activated materials, even if the analyses have been performed of by use contaminated components under the free release level, not yet taking into account radioactivity. In this paper, the parameters related to inhalable aerosol, solid and volatile residuals production have been, studied during hot processes which applies the same characteristics of the cutting in field for the dismantling programs of Caorso NPP. The technical parameters such as cutting time and cutting rate vs. pipe diameter/thickness/schedule or plate thickness for ferritic alloys and the emissions composition coming from the sectioning are also reported. The results underline the sort of trouble that can emerge in the cutting processes, in particular focusing on the effects comparison between the two cutting processes and the chemical composition of powders captured by filtering the gaseous emission. Some preliminary considerations on methodology to be used during the dismantling have been presented. (authors)

  18. Growth and characterization of V-shaped IrO(2) nanowedges via metal-organic vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, C A; Chen, Y M; Huang, Y S; Tsai, D S; Tiong, K K; Du, C H

    2008-11-19

    We report in detail the synthesis and characterization of V-shaped IrO(2) nanowedges (NWs) with an angle of 110° between the two arms. The NWs were grown on top of rutile (R) phase TiO(2) nanorods (NRs) sitting on a sapphire (SA)(100) substrate via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) by using (C(6)H(7))(C(8)H(12))Ir and titanium-tetraisopropoxide (TTIP, Ti[OCH(CH(3))(2)](4)) as the source reagents. The surface morphology, structural, and spectroscopic properties of the as-deposited nanocrystals (NCs) were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected-area electron diffractometry (SAED). The FESEM images and XRD patterns indicated growth of V-shaped IrO(2)(101) NWs on top of R-TiO(2) NRs. The Raman spectrum showed the nanosize induced redshift and peak broadening of the IrO(2) and rutile phase of TiO(2) signatures with respect to that of the bulk counterparts. TEM and SAED characterizations of IrO(2) NCs showed that the nanowedges were crystalline IrO(2) with a twin plane of (101) and twin direction of [Formula: see text] at the V-junction. The probable mechanisms for the formation of well-aligned IrO(2) NWs are discussed. PMID:21836254

  19. Growth and characterization of V-shaped IrO2 nanowedges via metal-organic vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. A.; Chen, Y. M.; Huang, Y. S.; Tsai, D. S.; Tiong, K. K.; Du, C. H.

    2008-11-01

    We report in detail the synthesis and characterization of V-shaped IrO2 nanowedges (NWs) with an angle of 110° between the two arms. The NWs were grown on top of rutile (R) phase TiO2 nanorods (NRs) sitting on a sapphire (SA)(100) substrate via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) by using (C6H7)(C8H12)Ir and titanium-tetraisopropoxide (TTIP, Ti[OCH(CH3)2]4) as the source reagents. The surface morphology, structural, and spectroscopic properties of the as-deposited nanocrystals (NCs) were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected-area electron diffractometry (SAED). The FESEM images and XRD patterns indicated growth of V-shaped IrO2(101) NWs on top of R-TiO2 NRs. The Raman spectrum showed the nanosize induced redshift and peak broadening of the IrO2 and rutile phase of TiO2 signatures with respect to that of the bulk counterparts. TEM and SAED characterizations of IrO2 NCs showed that the nanowedges were crystalline IrO2 with a twin plane of (101) and twin direction of [\\bar {1} 01] at the V-junction. The probable mechanisms for the formation of well-aligned IrO2 NWs are discussed.

  20. Near net shape forming processes for chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors.

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, Steven John; Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2005-01-01

    Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders are fabricated for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Colloidal processing in water was performed to reduce agglomerates to primary particles, form a high solids loading slurry, and prevent dopant migration. The milled and dispersed powder exhibited a viscoelastic to elastic behavioral transition at a volume loading of 43-46%. The origin of this transition was studied using acoustic spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and oscillatory rheology. The phenomenon occurs due to a volume fraction solids dependent reduction in the zeta potential of the solid phase. It is postulated to result from divalent ion binding within the polyelectrolyte dispersant chain, and was mitigated using a polyethylene glycol plasticizing additive. Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders were processed for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Near net shape casting methods including slip casting and agarose gelcasting were evaluated for effectiveness in achieving a uniform green microstructure achieving density values near the theoretical maximum during sintering. The structure of the green parts was examined by mercury porisimetry. Agarose gelcasting produced green parts with low solids loading values and did not achieve high fired density. Isopressing the agarose cast parts after drying raised the fired density to greater than 95%, but the parts exhibited catastrophic shorting during electrical testing. Slip casting produced high green density parts, which exhibited high fired density values. The electrical characteristics of slip cast parts are comparable with dry pressed powder compacts. Alternative methods for near net shape forming of ceramic dispersions were investigated for use with the chemically prepared ZnO material. Recommendations for further investigation to achieve a viable production process are presented.

  1. Continuous wet-process growth of ZnO nanoarrays for wire-shaped photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tao, Pan; Guo, Wanwan; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan; Qing, Shenglan; Fan, Xing

    2016-09-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays have been grown on metal-plated polymer fiber via a mild wet process in a newly-designed continuous reactor, aiming to provide wire-shaped photoanodes for wearable dye-sensitized solar cells. The growth conditions were systematically optimized with the help of computational flow-field simulation. The flow field in the reactor will not only affect the morphology of the ZnO nanorod⧹nanowire but also affect the pattern distribution of nanoarray on the electrode surface. Unlike the sectional structure from the traditional batch-type reactor, ZnO nanorods with finely-controlled length and uniform morphology could be grown from the continuous reactor. After optimization, the wire-shaped ZnO-type photoanode grown from the continuous reactor exhibited better photovoltaic performance than that from the traditional batch-type reactor. PMID:27289432

  2. Structural characteristics of metal nanoparticles in glass upon irradiation-assisted processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, H.; Dubiel, M.; Graener, H.; Pivin, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation-assisted processing, i.e. ion, electron and laser irradiation, have been applied to fabricate metal/glass nanocomposites. The particle configurations are studied by transmission electron microscopy to get some insight into the rather complex formation mechanisms. Special attention is given to spheroidally shaped particles surrounded by smaller secondary particles observed upon ion beam mixing of silica/silver/silica layer compounds as well as irradiating femtosecond laser pulses on sodium silicate glass containing spherical silver particles. Another unique type of structure are cavities observed in silver particles formed by high fluence ion implantation into silica as well as upon laser pulse irradiation of silver particles in glass. The experimental findings are discussed in terms of irradiation-induced defect formation and radiation-enhanced diffusion.

  3. Detecting Shape of Weld Defect Image on X-ray Film by Image Processing Applied Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kimiya; Suga, Yasuo

    Several types of non-destructive testing methods are used for detecting weld defects. Because the X-ray radiographic testing method is particularly useful in inspecting the inside of a weld metal, it is often used in industry. However, since the number of skilled inspectors for X-ray radiographic testing has been gradually decreasing, recently, several methods to detect weld defects from films automatically have been investigated to improve the quality of the detection results. However, X-ray film images contain much noise, and defect images show very low contrast and various shapes in spite of the same kind of defect. Moreover, boundaries between a defect image and the background are unclear, making it difficult to automate the inspection of X-ray films. If the type of defect image were to be judged by an expert system or a neural network which learns the rules of professional inspectors, the boundaries of the defect image would have to be detected in a manner similar to recognition by a human's (or an inspector's) sense of vision. Therefore, in this study, a new image processing method applied genetic algorithms that were a method of optimization, was constructed and applied to the detection of defect boundaries in detail.

  4. Determination of the clean 4 f peak shape in XPS for plutonium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrall, P.; Roussel, P.; Jolly, L.; Brevet, A.; Delaunay, F.

    2009-03-01

    Many of the interesting properties observed with plutonium are ascribed to the influence of 5 f electrons, and to the degree of localisation observed within these electrons. Indeed, changes in 5 f localisation are sensitively reflected in the final states observed in core-level photoemission measurements. However, when analysing the 4 f manifold of elemental plutonium, it is essential to obtain spectra without the influence of oxidation, which can easily be misinterpreted as 5 f localisation. The ideal method to extract elemental plutonium 4 f spectra is to remove any influence of oxidation from the 'clean' plutonium data by careful measurement of the oxygen 1 s region, and the subsequent subtraction of the unwanted oxide features. However, in order to achieve this objective it is essential to determine the relative sensitivity factor (RSF) for plutonium 4 f and the precise shape of the 4 f features from plutonium sesqui-oxide. In this paper, we report an experimental determination of the RSF for the plutonium 4 f manifold using experimental data captured from two different Vacuum Generators spectrometers; an ESCALAB Mk II and an ESCALAB 220i.

  5. Ultrafast laser spatial beam shaping based on Zernike polynomials for surface processing.

    PubMed

    Houzet, J; Faure, N; Larochette, M; Brulez, A-C; Benayoun, S; Mauclair, C

    2016-03-21

    In femtosecond laser machining, spatial beam shaping can be achieved with wavefront modulators. The wavefront modulator displays a pre-calculated phase mask that modulates the laser wavefront to generate a target intensity distribution in the processing plane. Due to the non-perfect optical response of wavefront modulators, the experimental distribution may significantly differ from the target, especially for continuous shapes. We propose an alternative phase mask calculation method that can be adapted to the phase modulator optical performance. From an adjustable number of Zernike polynomials according to this performance, a least square fitting algorithm numerically determines their coefficients to obtain the desired wavefront modulation. We illustrate the technique with an optically addressed liquid-crystal light valve to produce continuous intensity distributions matching a desired ablation profile, without the need of a wavefront sensor. The projection of the experimental laser distribution shows a 5% RMS error compared to the calculated one. Ablation of steel is achieved following user-defined micro-dimples and micro-grooves targets on mold surfaces. The profiles of the microgrooves and the injected polycarbonate closely match the target (RMS below 4%). PMID:27136844

  6. Standard for metal/nonmetal mining and metal mineral processing facilities. 2004 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This standard addresses the protection of diesel-powered equipment and the storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids at these specialized sites. The 2004 edition consolidates requirements from NFPA 122 and 121 : Standard on Fire Protection for Self-Propelled and Mobile Surface Mining Equipment. Major changes include a new chapter on fire protection of surface metal mineral processing plants. The Standard is also revised to emphasize the use of a fire risk assessment when determining fire protection criteria. Chapter headings are: Administration; Referenced publications; Definitions; General; Fire risk assessment and risk reduction; Fire detection and suppression equipment; Fire protection for diesel-powered equipment in underground mines; Transfer of flammable or combustible liquids in underground mines; Flammable liquid storage in underground mines; Combustible liquid storage in underground mines; Fire suppression for flammable or combustible liquid storage areas in underground mines; Fire protection of surface mobile and self-propelled equipment; and Fire protection of surface metal mineral processing plants. 3 annexes.

  7. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hedwig, Berthold G.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song. PMID:26941647

  8. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hedwig, Berthold G

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song. PMID:26941647

  9. Development of a Methodology for Conducting Hall Thruster EMI Tests in Metal Vacuum Chambers of Arbitrary Shape and Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    2000-01-01

    While the closed-drift Hall thruster (CDT) offers significant improvement in performance over conventional chemical rockets and other advanced propulsion systems such as the arcjet, its potential impact on spacecraft communication signals must be carefully assessed before widespread use of this device can take place. To this end, many of the potentially unique issues that are associated with these thrusters center on its plume plasma characteristics and the its interaction with electromagnetic waves. Although a great deal of experiments have been made in characterizing the electromagnetic interference (EMI) potential of these thrusters, the interpretation of the resulting data is difficult because most of these measurements have been made in vacuum chambers with metal walls which reflect radio waves emanating from the thruster. This project developed a means of assessing the impact of metal vacuum chambers of arbitrary size or shape on EMI experiments, thereby allowing for test results to be interpreted properly. Chamber calibration techniques were developed and initially tested at RIAME using their vacuum chamber. Calibration experiments were to have been made at Tank 5 of NASA GRC and the 6 m by 9 m vacuum chamber at the University of Michigan to test the new procedure, however the subcontract to RIAME was cancelled by NASA memorandum on Feb. 26. 1999.

  10. Alteration of leaf shape, improved metal tolerance, and productivity of seed by overexpression of CsHMA3 in Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz, known by such popular names as “gold-of-pleasure” and “false flax,” is an alternative oilseed crop for biofuel production and can be grown in harsh environments. Considerable interest is now being given to the new concept of the development of a fusion plant which can be used as a soil remediation plant for ground contaminated by heavy metals as well as a bioenergy crop. However, knowledge of the transport processes for heavy metals across Camelina plant membranes is still rudimentary. Results Firstly, to investigate whether Camelina HMA (heavy metal P1B-ATPase) genes could be used in such a plant, we analyzed the expression patterns of eight HMA genes in Camelina (taken from the root, leaf, stem, flower, and silique). CsHMA3 genes were expressed in all organs. In addition, CsHMA3 was induced in roots and leaves especially after Pb treatment. Heterogeneous expression of CsHMA3 complemented the Pb- or Zn-sensitive phenotype of Δycf1 or Δzrc1 yeast mutant strains. Subsequently, we cloned and overexpressed CsHMA3 in Camelina. The root growth of transgenic lines was better than that in the wild-type plant under heavy metal stress (for Cd, Pb, and Zn). In particular, the transgenic lines showed enhanced Pb tolerance in a wide range of Pb concentrations. Furthermore, the Pb and Zn content in the shoots of the transgenic lines were higher than those in the wild-type plant. These results suggest that overexpression of CsHMA3 might enhance Pb and Zn tolerance and translocation. Also, the transgenic lines displayed a wider leaf shape compared with the wild-type plant due to an induction of genes related to leaf width growth and showed a greater total seed yield compared to the wild type under heavy metal stress. Conclusions Our data obtained from physiological and functional analyses using CsHMA3 overexpression plants will be useful to develop a multifunctional plant that can improve the productivity of a bioenergy crop and

  11. Optimized process parameters for fabricating metal particles reinforced 5083 Al composite by friction stir processing.

    PubMed

    Bauri, Ranjit; Yadav, Devinder; Shyam Kumar, C N; Janaki Ram, G D

    2015-12-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) exhibit improved strength but suffer from low ductility. Metal particles reinforcement can be an alternative to retain the ductility in MMCs (Bauri and Yadav, 2010; Thakur and Gupta, 2007) [1,2]. However, processing such composites by conventional routes is difficult. The data presented here relates to friction stir processing (FSP) that was used to process metal particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites. The data is the processing parameters, rotation and traverse speeds, which were optimized to incorporate Ni particles. A wide range of parameters covering tool rotation speeds from 1000 rpm to 1800 rpm and a range of traverse speeds from 6 mm/min to 24 mm/min were explored in order to get a defect free stir zone and uniform distribution of particles. The right combination of rotation and traverse speed was found from these experiments. Both as-received coarse particles (70 μm) and ball-milled finer particles (10 μm) were incorporated in the Al matrix using the optimized parameters. PMID:26566541

  12. Optimized process parameters for fabricating metal particles reinforced 5083 Al composite by friction stir processing

    PubMed Central

    Bauri, Ranjit; Yadav, Devinder; Shyam Kumar, C.N.; Janaki Ram, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) exhibit improved strength but suffer from low ductility. Metal particles reinforcement can be an alternative to retain the ductility in MMCs (Bauri and Yadav, 2010; Thakur and Gupta, 2007) [1,2]. However, processing such composites by conventional routes is difficult. The data presented here relates to friction stir processing (FSP) that was used to process metal particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites. The data is the processing parameters, rotation and traverse speeds, which were optimized to incorporate Ni particles. A wide range of parameters covering tool rotation speeds from 1000 rpm to 1800 rpm and a range of traverse speeds from 6 mm/min to 24 mm/min were explored in order to get a defect free stir zone and uniform distribution of particles. The right combination of rotation and traverse speed was found from these experiments. Both as-received coarse particles (70 μm) and ball-milled finer particles (10 μm) were incorporated in the Al matrix using the optimized parameters. PMID:26566541

  13. Correlations of Melt Pool Geometry and Process Parameters During Laser Metal Deposition by Coaxial Process Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocylok, Sörn; Alexeev, Eugen; Mann, Stefan; Weisheit, Andreas; Wissenbach, Konrad; Kelbassa, Ingomar

    One major demand of today's laser metal deposition (LMD) processes is to achieve a fail-save build-up regarding changing conditions like heat accumulations. Especially for the repair of thin parts like turbine blades is the knowledge about the correlations between melt pool behavior and process parameters like laser power, feed rate and powder mass stream indispensable. The paper will show the process layout with the camera based coaxial monitoring system and the quantitative influence of the process parameters on the melt pool geometry. Therefore the diameter, length and area of the melt pool are measured by a video analytic system at various parameters and compared with the track wide in cross-sections and the laser spot diameter. The influence of changing process conditions on the melt pool is also investigated. On the base of these results an enhanced process of the build-up of a multilayer one track fillet geometry will be presented.

  14. Profiling the Phonological Processes Shaping the Fossilized IL of Adult Learners of English as a Foreign Language: Some Theoretical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Describes the frozen interlanguage (IL) of adult learners of English in a natural setting to profile phonological processes that underlie their output. Also examines the impact on learners' oral behavior and the role played by transfer and developmental processes in such behavior. Analysis yields 10 processes shaping learners' IL that are…

  15. T-shaped emitter metal heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Andy; Samoska, Lorene; Velebir, Jim; Siege, Peter; Rodwell, Mark; Paidi, Vamsi; Griffth, Zach; Urteaga, Miguel; Malik, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development of submillimeter wave transistors at JPL. The goal of the effort is to produce advance-reliable high frequency and high power amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and high-speed mixed-signal circuits for space borne applications. The technology in development to achieve this is based on the Indium Phosphide (InP) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT). The HBT is well suited for high speed, high power and uniform (across wafer) performance, due to the ability to tailor the material structure that electrons traverse through by well-controlled epitaxial growth methods. InP with its compatible lattice matched alloys such as indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and indium aluminium arsenide (InAlAs) provides for high electron velocities and high voltage breakdown capabilities. The epitaxial methods for this material system are fairly mature, however the implementation of high performance and reliable transistors are still under development by many laboratories. Our most recently fabricated, second generation mesa HBTs at JPL have extrapolated current gain cutoff frequency (FJ of 142GHz and power gain cutoff frequency (Fm,) of approximately 160GHz. This represents a 13% and 33% improvement of Ft and F, respectively, compared to the first generation mesa HBTs [l]. Analysis based on the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) device model, RF device characteristics can be significantly improved by reducing base contact resistance and base metal contact width. We will describe our effort towards increasing transistor performance and yield.

  16. Fabrication of Mo pyramidal-shape single atom tips covered by a noble metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Rung-Jiun; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Hsiao-Chi; Fu, Tsu-Yi

    2014-08-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the faceting phenomena has been studied for pure molybdenum (Mo) and Mo tips covered with palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), or iridium (Ir) by field ion microscopy (FIM). For these Mo samples, three {2 1 1} facets were found to expand to {1 1 1} facets and form pyramidal structures after annealing at the temperature of 1100-1300 K. The pyramidal single atom tips (SATs) were formed on Pd-, Pt- and Rh-covered Mo tips. Two types of pyramidal structure, stacked by either 1, 3, 10 or 1, 6, 15 atoms for the top three layers were found. However, no SATs were found on pure Mo and Ir-covered tips. This indicates that noble metal adsorption, which can increase the difference of surface-free-energy anisotropy, indeed benefits the formation of SATs on Mo systems. Additionally, an SAT cannot be obtained for the Ir-covered Mo systems, because Ir is easily alloyed with Mo.

  17. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, Ronald J.; Tierney, John C.; McLean, Leroy L.; Johnson, Lawrence L.; Verbael, David J.

    1995-01-01

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments.

  18. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Verbael, D.J.

    1995-10-17

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  19. Experimental, Statistical and Simulation Study on Spring-back Behavior in Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISMF) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahdati, Alireza; Vahdati, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been paid for the many kinds of flexible production processes. Most concerned one is the incremental sheet metal forming (ISMF) process, which does not require any high capacity press machine and a set of dies with specified shape for the product. ISMF process apparatus requires a traveling tool with simple shape and a holder which holds the sheet stationary at its periphery. In this research, spring-back and its effect on dimensional precision of ISMF process has been studied. The influence of process parameters such as: vertical step size (ν), sheet thickness (t), tool diameter (d), feed rate (f) and spindle speed (n) have been investigated. A series of experimental tests have been implemented for a straight groove bead-shape part made of aluminum sheets (Al 1050-O). In first section, a reliable statistical analysis has been carried out to extract the importance of each parameter. The obtained model permits to select appropriate process parameters to reduce spring-back effectively. In second section, simulation process has been implemented by FEM software. In final, experimental results confirm the results of simulation and comparisons between experimental and simulation results of spring-back have shown good agreement.

  20. Laser shock peening and warm laser shock peening: process modeling and pulse shape influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, Alessandro; Orazi, Leonardo; Cuccolini, Gabriele; Ascari, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    Laser shock peening is a well-known technology able to enhance the fatigue life of mechanical components by means of the introduction of residual stresses on their surface. These stresses are induced by means of the recoil pressure caused by the abrupt expansion, in a confining medium, of a laser-vaporized coating layer. If high power densities are used the recoil pressure can be high enough to induce compressive residual stresses on the target surface and to modify its mechanical properties. These mechanical properties can be predicted if the recoil pressure of the ablating layer is determined. In this paper the influence of the laser pulse shape on the recoil pressure is determined by means of a proper modeling of the whole process and the difference between cold" and warm" laser shock peening is pointed out.

  1. Modeling and Characterization of Damage Processes in Metallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Saether, E.; Smith, S. W.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Yamakov, V. I.; Gupta, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a broad effort that is aimed at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of crack growth and using that understanding as a basis for designing materials and enabling predictions of fracture in materials and structures that have small characteristic dimensions. This area of research, herein referred to as Damage Science, emphasizes the length scale regimes of the nanoscale and the microscale for which analysis and characterization tools are being developed to predict the formation, propagation, and interaction of fundamental damage mechanisms. Examination of nanoscale processes requires atomistic and discrete dislocation plasticity simulations, while microscale processes can be examined using strain gradient plasticity, crystal plasticity and microstructure modeling methods. Concurrent and sequential multiscale modeling methods are being developed to analytically bridge between these length scales. Experimental methods for characterization and quantification of near-crack tip damage are also being developed. This paper focuses on several new methodologies in these areas and their application to understanding damage processes in polycrystalline metals. On-going and potential applications are also discussed.

  2. Process for metallization of a substrate by irradiative curing of a catalyst applied thereto

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ken S.; Morgan, William P.; Zich, John L.

    1999-01-01

    An improved additive process for metallization of substrates is described whereby a catalyst solution is applied to a surface of a substrate. Metallic catalytic clusters can be formed in the catalyst solution on the substrate surface by irradiating the substrate. Electroless plating can then deposit metal onto the portion of the substrate surface having metallic clusters. Additional metallization thickness can be obtained by electrolytically plating the substrate surface after the electroless plating step.

  3. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  4. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  5. Laser-assisted solar-cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-01

    A photolytic metal deposition system using a focused continuous wave ultraviolet laser, a photolytic metal deposition system using a mask and ultraviolet flood illumination, and a pyrolytic metal deposition system using a focused continuous wave laser were studied. Fabrication of solar cells, as well as characterization to determine the effects of transient heat on solar cell junctions were investigated.

  6. Process for the preparation of metal-containing nanostructured films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yunfeng (Inventor); Wang, Donghai (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Metal-containing nanostructured films are prepared by electrodepositing a metal-containing composition within the pores of a mesoporous silica template to form a metal-containing silica nanocomposite. The nanocomposite is annealed to strengthen the deposited metal-containing composition. The silica is then removed from the nanocomposite, e.g., by dissolving the silica in an etching solution to provide a self-supporting metal-containing nanostructured film. The nanostructured films have a nanowire or nanomesh architecture depending on the pore structure of the mesoporous silica template used to prepare the films.

  7. System and process for aluminization of metal-containing substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W

    2015-11-03

    A system and method are detailed for aluminizing surfaces of metallic substrates, parts, and components with a protective alumina layer in-situ. Aluminum (Al) foil sandwiched between the metallic components and a refractory material when heated in an oxidizing gas under a compression load at a selected temperature forms the protective alumina coating on the surface of the metallic components. The alumina coating minimizes evaporation of volatile metals from the metallic substrates, parts, and components in assembled devices during operation at high temperature that can degrade performance.

  8. Emission behavior of sudan red 7B on dogbone-shaped gold nanorods: Aspect ratio dependence of the metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Dewan S.; Sharma, Debdulal; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-stabilized 'dogbone-shaped' gold nanorods of aspect ratio varying from 1 to 6 have been synthesized by seed-mediated growth method in aqueous medium. Then, sudan red 7B, an alien molecular probe has been used as local probe to elucidate aspect ratio dependence of the nanorods on the photophysical properties of the dye molecules. It is seen that the relative intensity decreases exponentially with increasing aspect ratio and has been attributed to decrease in overall surface area for a particular concentration of the nanorods. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching has been ascribed to the electron and energy transfer processes in the gold-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures.

  9. A novel plating process for microencapsulating metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Law, H.H.; Vyas, B.; Zahurak, S.M.; Kammlott, G.W.

    1996-08-01

    One approach to increasing the lifetime of the metal hydride electrode has been the use of conventional electroless plating to produce a coating of copper or nickel on the surface of the metal hydride powders. In this paper, a novel method for microencapsulating the active electrode powders is presented. This new plating technique takes advantage of the reducing power of hydrogen already stored inside the metal hydride to plate a variety of metals onto metal hydride materials. This method greatly simplifies electroless plating for these powders, eliminating the need for stabilizers and additives typically required for conventional electroless plating solutions. Metals that can be electrolessly plated with stored hydrogen have been identified based on thermodynamic considerations. Experimentally, micrometers thick coatings of copper, silver, and nickel have been plated on several metal hydrides.

  10. The Potato Chip Really Does Look Like Elvis! Neural Hallmarks of Conceptual Processing Associated with Finding Novel Shapes Subjectively Meaningful

    PubMed Central

    Federmeier, Kara D.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    Clouds and inkblots often compellingly resemble something else—faces, animals, or other identifiable objects. Here, we investigated illusions of meaning produced by novel visual shapes. Individuals found some shapes meaningful and others meaningless, with considerable variability among individuals in these subjective categorizations. Repetition for shapes endorsed as meaningful produced conceptual priming in a priming test along with concurrent activity reductions in cortical regions associated with conceptual processing of real objects. Subjectively meaningless shapes elicited robust activity in the same brain areas, but activity was not influenced by repetition. Thus, all shapes were conceptually evaluated, but stable conceptual representations supported neural priming for meaningful shapes only. During a recognition memory test, performance was associated with increased frontoparietal activity, regardless of meaningfulness. In contrast, neural conceptual priming effects for meaningful shapes occurred during both priming and recognition testing. These different patterns of brain activation as a function of stimulus repetition, type of memory test, and subjective meaningfulness underscore the distinctive neural bases of conceptual fluency versus episodic memory retrieval. Finding meaning in ambiguous stimuli appears to depend on conceptual evaluation and cortical processing events similar to those typically observed for known objects. To the brain, the vaguely Elvis-like potato chip truly can provide a substitute for the King himself. PMID:22079921

  11. Emergence of tissue mechanics from cellular processes: shaping a fly wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Matthias; Etournay, Raphael; Popovic, Marko; Nandi, Amitabha; Brandl, Holger; Salbreux, Guillaume; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank

    Nowadays, biologistsare able to image biological tissueswith up to 10,000 cells in vivowhere the behavior of each individual cell can be followed in detail.However, how precisely large-scale tissue deformation and stresses emerge from cellular behavior remains elusive. Here, we study this question in the developing wing of the fruit fly. To this end, we first establish a geometrical framework that exactly decomposes tissue deformation into contributions by different kinds of cellular processes. These processes comprise cell shape changes, cell neighbor exchanges, cell divisions, and cell extrusions. As the key idea, we introduce a tiling of the cellular network into triangles. This approach also reveals that tissue deformation can also be created by correlated cellular motion. Based on quantifications using these concepts, we developed a novel continuum mechanical model for the fly wing. In particular, our model includes active anisotropic stresses and a delay in the response of cell rearrangements to material stresses. A different approach to study the emergence of tissue mechanics from cellular behavior are cell-based models. We characterize the properties of a cell-based model for 3D tissues that is a hybrid between single particle models and the so-called vertex models.

  12. Characterization Of An EBL System: The Influence Of Process Parameters On Thickness Resist And Engraving Shapes

    SciTech Connect

    D'Urso, G.; Longo, M.; Ravasio, C.; Maccarini, G.

    2011-01-17

    In LIGA process, the low flexibility due to the use of masks might be overcome using the electron beam of a scansion electron microscope (SEM) instead of the synchrotron radiation. In this way, through the vector control of the beam, it is possible to irradiate a specific path on the resist without using any mask. Anyway, it is important to remark that the Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) can not include all the applications of the X-ray LIGA technique but it could be a valid alternative only for some specific uses. In particular, some limits concerning the impression of high thickness resists are expected. An EBL system based on a SEM was recently implemented by the authors and some tests were carried out to characterize the device performances. Aim of this work is to asses the system performances in terms of maximum impressible thickness resist and shape of the engraved entities. Several tests were carried out by varying the resist thickness and the process parameters.

  13. Evaluation of the surface strength of glass plates shaped by hot slumping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Basso, Stefano; Borsa, Francesco; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta; Ghigo, Mauro; Pareschi, Giovanni; Salmaso, Bianca; Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, Daniele; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; D'Este, Alberto; Dall'Igna, Roberto; Silvestri, Mirko; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, Francesco; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Hot slumping technology is under development by several research groups in the world for the realization of grazing-incidence segmented mirrors for x-ray astronomy, based on thin glass plates shaped over a mold at temperatures above the transformation point. The performed thermal cycle and related operations might have effects on the strength of the glass, with consequences for the structural design of the elemental optical modules and, consequently, on the entire x-ray optic for large astronomical missions such as IXO and ATHENA. The mechanical strength of glass plates after they underwent the slumping process was tested through destructive double-ring tests in the context of a study performed by the Astronomical Observatory of Brera with the collaboration of Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro and BCV Progetti. The entire study was done on more than 200 D263 Schott borosilicate glass specimens of dimensions 100 mm×100 mm and a thickness 0.4 mm, either flat or bent at a radius of curvature of 1000 mm through the pressure-assisted hot slumping process developed by INAF-OAB. The collected experimental data have been compared with nonlinear finite element model analyses and treated with the Weibull statistic to assess the current IXO glass x-ray telescope design, in terms of survival probability, when subjected to static and acoustic loads characteristic of the launch phase. The paper describes the activities performed and presents the obtained results.

  14. Holocene hillslope processes and deposits in two U-shaped mountain valleys in western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laute, K.; Beylich, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    This doctoral research project is integrated in the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) funded SedyMONT-Norway Project within the ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE SedyMONT (Timescales of sediment dynamics, climate and topographic change in mountain landscapes) Programme. Research is carried out within two steep, U-shaped and glacier-connected tributary valleys (Erdalen and Bødalen) on the western side of the Jostedalsbreen ice cap in western Norway. Contemporary denudative processes in both valley systems include rock and boulder falls, avalanches, slush flows, debris flows, creep processes, wash- and chemical denudation and fluvial transport of solutes, suspended sediments and bedload. The main aims of this research project which are approached within a Holocene to contemporary timescale are: (i) to investigate the spatio-temporal variability of Holocene hillslope development, (ii) to analyse more specificly the morphometric influences and geomorphic consequences of the Little Ice Age (LIA) glacier advance on selected hillslope systems within defined headwater areas in both valleys, (iii) to study morphometric and meteorological controls of contemporary denudative slope processes as well as (iv) to quantify the rates of sediment delivery from headwater areas and its changes over time. A process-based approach is applied using a variety of different methods and techniques. Focus is on different temporal (Holocene to contemporary) and spatial (selected hillslope systems, headwater areas and entire valley system) scales. The applied methods include orthophoto- and topographical map interpretation, GIS and DEM computing, geomorphological fieldmapping and hillslope profile surveying complemented by relative dating techniques (lichenometry and dendrochronology), geophysical investigations and terrestrial laser scanning (LIDAR). For monitoring contemporary rates of slope processes a designed monitoring programme (running since 2009) with a wide spectrum of instrumentation; e

  15. Biocompatible polyester macroligands: new subunits for the assembly of star-shaped polymers with luminescent and cleavable metal cores.

    PubMed

    Corbin, P S; Webb, M P; McAlvin, J E; Fraser, C L

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of star-shaped, biocompatible polyesters--polylactides (PLAs), polycaprolactones (PCLs), and various copolymer analogues--with either labile iron(II) tris-bipyridyl or luminescent ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridyl cores is described. These polymers were readily assembled by a convergent, metal-template-assisted approach that entailed the synthesis of bipyridine (bpy) ligands incorporating PLA- and PCL-containing arms and subsequent chelation of the "macroligands" to iron(II) or ruthenium(II). Specifically, the polyester macroligands bpyPLA(2) and bpyPCL(2) were prepared by a stannous octoate catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of DL- or L-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone, using bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine as the initiator. Copolymers bpy(PCL-PLA)(2) and bpy(PLA-PCL)(2) were generated in an analogous manner using bpyPLA(2) and bpyPCL(2) as macroinitiators. Polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and with molecular weights close to values expected based upon monomer/initiator loading were produced. The macroligands were subsequently chelated to iron(II) to afford six-armed, iron-core star polymers, which were characterized by UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Estimated chelation efficiencies for formation of the star polymers (M(n) calcd: 20-240 kDa) were high, as determined by UV-vis spectral analysis. Within the molecular weight range investigated, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the small amounts of metal in the polyester stars and differences in polymer architecture had little effect on the thermal properties of the PLA/PCL materials. However, thin films of the red-violet colored iron-core stars exhibited reversible, thermochromic bleaching. Solutions and films of the polymers also responded (with color loss) to a variety of chemical stimuli (e.g., acid, base, peroxides, ammonia), thus revealing potential for use in diverse sensing applications. Likewise, the polyester

  16. Microstructural Evolution and Functional Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Krooß, Philipp; Vollmer, Malte; Günther, Johannes; Schwarze, Dieter; Biermann, Horst

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy is processed by additive manufacturing for the first time. Microstructural evolution upon processing is strongly affected by thermal gradients and solidification velocity and, thus, by processing parameters and the actual specimen geometry. By single-step solutionizing heat treatment pronounced grain growth is initiated leading to microstructures showing good reversibility. The compressive stress-strain response revealed maximum reversible pseudo-elastic strain of about 7.5 pct. Critical steps toward further optimization of additively manufactured Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are discussed.

  17. Microstructural Evolution and Functional Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Krooß, Philipp; Vollmer, Malte; Günther, Johannes; Schwarze, Dieter; Biermann, Horst

    2016-03-01

    In the current study, a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy is processed by additive manufacturing for the first time. Microstructural evolution upon processing is strongly affected by thermal gradients and solidification velocity and, thus, by processing parameters and the actual specimen geometry. By single-step solutionizing heat treatment pronounced grain growth is initiated leading to microstructures showing good reversibility. The compressive stress-strain response revealed maximum reversible pseudo-elastic strain of about 7.5 pct. Critical steps toward further optimization of additively manufactured Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are discussed.

  18. Promotion of the halide effect in the formation of shaped metal nanocrystals via a hybrid cationic, polymeric stabilizer: Octahedra, cubes, and anisotropic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneed, Brian T.; Golden, Matthew C.; Liu, Yejing; Lee, Hiang K.; Andoni, Ilektra; Young, Allison P.; McMahon, Greg; Erdman, Natasha; Shibata, Masateru; Ling, Xing Yi; Tsung, Chia-Kuang

    2016-06-01

    To promote the effect of halide ions (Cl-, Br-, and I-) in facet-selective growth of {111} and {100} of shaped metal nanocrystals, we utilize PDADMAC, a hybrid cationic, polymeric stabilizer. SERS and synthesis experiments provide evidence supporting that the higher amount of PDADMA+ at surfaces promotes the local adsorption of halides, allowing the creation of Pd cubes, octahedra, and cuboctopods.

  19. Characteristics Of Basaltic Sand: Size, Shape, And Composition As A Function Of Transport Process And Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Needell, Z. A.; Rose, T. R.

    2012-04-01

    Overview: The chemical and physical characteristics of sedimentary material can provide valuable clues about transport processes, distance traveled, and provenance, all of which are aspects of Martian geography that we would like to better understand. For a typical sedimentary deposit on Earth, for example, it has been shown that the ratio of feldspar to quartz can be used to assess the maturity (or transport distance) of a terrestrial deposit, because feldspar is more vulnerable to weathering than quartz. Further, chemical analysis can also be used to determine potential sediment sources, and grain-size sorting can be used to distinguish aeolian sediments (typically well-sorted) from fluvial sediments (poorly sorted in high energy environments). It is also common to use the shapes of individual quartz particles to determine transport process and distance, all of which can help us better understand the history of a sample of sedimentary material and the geological processes that created and emplaced it. These traditional sedimentological concepts are now being applied to our interpretation of Martian surface materials. Sullivan et al. [2008], for example, used grain-size and shape to assess eolian processes and to qualify transport distances of deposits found at the Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater. Stockstill-Cahill et al. [62008 used variations in mineral abundances observed in multispectral data to determine the provenance of dark dunes found in Amazonis Planitia craters. While applying our understanding of terrestrial sedimentary materials to Martian surface materials is intuitively sound and logical, the problem is that most of our current understanding is based on sediments derived from felsic materials (e.g., granite) primarily because that is the composition of most of the landmass on the Earth. However, the Martian surface is composed primarily of mafic material, or basalt, which generates much different sedimentary particles as it weathers. Instead of

  20. Metallic nanoparticle shape and size effects on aluminum oxide-induced enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and quantum dot emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M. Gutha, Rithvik R.; Campbell, Quinn; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-09-28

    We investigate the shape and size effects of gold metallic nanoparticles on the enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and emission of semiconductor quantum dots induced via the simultaneous impact of metal-oxide and plasmonic effects. This enhancement occurs when metallic nanoparticle arrays are separated from the quantum dots by a layered thin film consisting of a high index dielectric material (silicon) and aluminum oxide. Our results show that adding the aluminum oxide layer can increase the degree of polarization of quantum dot emission induced by metallic nanorods by nearly two times, when these nanorods have large aspect ratios. We show when the aspect ratio of these nanorods is reduced to half, the aluminum oxide loses its impact, leading to no improvement in the degree of polarization. These results suggest that a silicon/aluminum oxide layer can significantly enhance exciton-plasmon coupling when quantum dots are in the vicinity of metallic nanoantennas with high aspect ratios.