Science.gov

Sample records for metal-poor halo stars

  1. La and Eu Abundances in Metal-poor Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, Harrison; Burris, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Elements with atomic number greater than Z=26 (the Iron Peak) cannot be formed through fusion in a star's core; the majority of these elements are produced through one of two neutron-capture processes. Early in the history of the Galaxy, the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is believed to be responsible for the production of elements Z=56 and beyond. These elements require at least one generation of stars to have completed their life cycle in order to be synthesized. Therefore, if we observe the heavy metal abundances in what are called Population II stars (metal-poor stars), then we can begin to make inferences about the chemistry of the earliest stars in the Galaxy. To contribute to this picture of the early universe, the Lanthanum and Europium abundances of low-metallicity stars will be measured and trends in these abundances based on comparisons to existing related literature will be sought.

  2. Armchair cartography - A map of the Galactic halo based on observations of local, metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Zhen, Chen

    1990-01-01

    The velocity distribution of metal-poor halo stars in the solar neighborhood is studied to extract data on the global spatial and kinematic properties of the Galactic stellar halo. A global model of the solar neighborhood stars is constructed from observed positions and three-dimensional velocity of local, metal-poor halo stars in terms of a discrete sum of orbits. The characteristics of the reconstructed halo are examined and used to study the evolution of the halo subsystems.

  3. Very Metal-poor Outer-halo Stars with Round Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Lee, Young Sun

    2013-01-01

    The orbital motions of halo stars in the Milky Way reflect the orbital motions of the progenitor systems in which they formed, making it possible to trace the mass-assembly history of the Galaxy. Direct measurement of three-dimensional velocities, based on accurate proper motions and line-of-sight velocities, has revealed that the majority of halo stars in the inner-halo region move in eccentric orbits. However, our understanding of the motions of distant, in situ halo-star samples is still limited, due to the lack of accurate proper motions for these stars. Here we explore a model-independent analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and spatial distribution of a recent sample of 1865 carefully selected halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars within 30 kpc of the Galactic center. We find that the mean rotational velocity of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) BHB stars significantly lags behind that of the relatively more metal-rich ([Fe/H] > -2.0) BHB stars. We also find that the relatively more metal-rich BHB stars are dominated by stars with eccentric orbits, as previously observed for other stellar samples in the inner-halo region. By contrast, the very metal-poor BHB stars are dominated by stars on rounder, lower-eccentricity orbits. Our results indicate that the motion of the progenitor systems of the Milky Way that contributed to the stellar populations found within 30 kpc correlates directly with their metal abundance, which may be related to their physical properties such as gas fractions. These results are consistent with the existence of an inner/outer halo structure for the halo system, as advocated by Carollo et al.

  4. VERY METAL-POOR OUTER-HALO STARS WITH ROUND ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Lee, Young Sun

    2013-01-20

    The orbital motions of halo stars in the Milky Way reflect the orbital motions of the progenitor systems in which they formed, making it possible to trace the mass-assembly history of the Galaxy. Direct measurement of three-dimensional velocities, based on accurate proper motions and line-of-sight velocities, has revealed that the majority of halo stars in the inner-halo region move in eccentric orbits. However, our understanding of the motions of distant, in situ halo-star samples is still limited, due to the lack of accurate proper motions for these stars. Here we explore a model-independent analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and spatial distribution of a recent sample of 1865 carefully selected halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars within 30 kpc of the Galactic center. We find that the mean rotational velocity of the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) BHB stars significantly lags behind that of the relatively more metal-rich ([Fe/H] > -2.0) BHB stars. We also find that the relatively more metal-rich BHB stars are dominated by stars with eccentric orbits, as previously observed for other stellar samples in the inner-halo region. By contrast, the very metal-poor BHB stars are dominated by stars on rounder, lower-eccentricity orbits. Our results indicate that the motion of the progenitor systems of the Milky Way that contributed to the stellar populations found within 30 kpc correlates directly with their metal abundance, which may be related to their physical properties such as gas fractions. These results are consistent with the existence of an inner/outer halo structure for the halo system, as advocated by Carollo et al.

  5. Stellar oxygen abundances. 3: The oxygen abundance of the very metal poor halo star BD -13 deg 3442

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Jeremy R.

    1994-01-01

    A spectrum of the very metal poor ((Fe/H) approximately -3) halo star BD -13 deg 3442 is presented and used to determine this star's oxygen abundance. Our determination makes BD -13 deg 3442 the most metal poor dwarf (though a somewhat evolved one) with an O abundance determination. The O abundance (determined from the 7774 A O I triped) and (O/Fe) ratio is compared to that of two other metal-poor stars. The (O/Fe) ratio of BD -13 deg 3442 is found to be approximately 0.35 dex larger than that of the other two halo stars. Possible implications of this result are discussed.

  6. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor.

    PubMed

    Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D

    2010-03-01

    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. On the basis of the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. Verification of the iron-deficiency, however, and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are necessary to demonstrate that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming its iron abundance of less than 1/4,000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern follows that seen in low-metallicity halo stars, including the alpha-elements. Such chemical similarity indicates that the systems destroyed to form the halo billions of years ago were not fundamentally different from the progenitors of present-day dwarfs, and suggests that the early chemical enrichment of all galaxies may be nearly identical. PMID:20203604

  7. THE CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF STARS IN THE HALO (CASH) PROJECT. II. A SAMPLE OF 14 EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Hollek, Julie K.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Beers, Timothy C.; Kang, Sung-ju; Thom, Christopher E-mail: chris@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: afrebel@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: cthom@stsci.edu

    2011-11-20

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R {approx}15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R {approx}35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from -2.9 to -3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] < -3.7. We find four stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, confirming the trend of increasing [C/Fe] abundance ratios with decreasing metallicity. Two of these objects can be classified as CEMP-no stars, adding to the growing number of these objects at [Fe/H]< - 3. We also find four neutron-capture-enhanced stars in the sample, one of which has [Eu/Fe] of 0.8 with clear r-process signatures. These pilot sample stars are the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}< -3.0) of the brightest stars included in CASH and are used to calibrate a newly developed, automated stellar parameter and abundance determination pipeline. This code will be used for the entire {approx}500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum.

  8. Radial Velocities of Very Metal-Poor Stars as Probes of the Dual Halo Model of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Juric, M.; Carollo, D.; Lee, Y.; An, D.; Aoki, W.; Norris, J. E.; Yong, D.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the distribution of radial velocities (RVs) for a large sample of very metal-poor stars from SDSS/SEGUE (N > 25000 with [Fe/H]< -2.0, of which 900 have [Fe/H] < -3.0), and two smaller recent high-resolution spectroscopic studies of the most metal-poor stars known (N > 300, of which 150 have [Fe/H] < -3.0). The RVs are compared with the expected behavior obtained using the GALFAST code of Juric, under the assumption that the halo of the Milky Way comprises a single population with canonical kinematics (e.g., as described by Chiba & Beers 2000). We find clear evidence that the RVs of these stars are inconsistent with draws from such a model, and that they appear to require at least a two-component halo. This test is, by design, independent of questions related to assignment of estimated stellar distances, or selection criteria related to proper motions, and provides strong support of the dual halo model described by Carollo et al. (2007, 2010).

  9. CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE INNER AND OUTER HALO COMPONENTS OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, Daniela; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Ken C.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Bovy, Jo; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Aoki, Wako E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: kenne257@msu.edu E-mail: sivarani@iiap.res.in

    2012-01-10

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the halo components of the Milky Way are explored, based on accurate determinations of the carbon-to-iron ([C/Fe]) abundance ratios and kinematic quantities for over 30,000 calibration stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using our present criterion that low-metallicity stars exhibiting [C/Fe] ratios ({sup c}arbonicity{sup )} in excess of [C/Fe] =+0.7 are considered CEMP stars, the global frequency of CEMP stars in the halo system for [Fe/H] <-1.5 is 8%, for [Fe/H] <-2.0 it is 12%, and for [Fe/H] <-2.5 it is 20%. We also confirm a significant increase in the level of carbon enrichment with declining metallicity, growing from ([C/Fe]) {approx}+1.0 at [Fe/H] =-1.5 to ([C/Fe]) {approx}+1.7 at [Fe/H] =-2.7. The nature of the carbonicity distribution function (CarDF) changes dramatically with increasing distance above the Galactic plane, |Z|. For |Z| <5 kpc, relatively few CEMP stars are identified. For distances |Z| >5 kpc, the CarDF exhibits a strong tail toward high values, up to [C/Fe] > +3.0. We also find a clear increase in the CEMP frequency with |Z|. For stars with -2.0 < [Fe/H] <-1.5, the frequency grows from 5% at |Z| {approx}2 kpc to 10% at |Z| {approx}10 kpc. For stars with [Fe/H] <-2.0, the frequency grows from 8% at |Z| {approx}2 kpc to 25% at |Z| {approx}10 kpc. For stars with -2.0 < [Fe/H] <-1.5, the mean carbonicity is ([C/Fe]) {approx}+1.0 for 0 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc, with little dependence on |Z|; for [Fe/H] <-2.0, ([C/Fe]) {approx}+1.5, again roughly independent of |Z|. Based on a statistical separation of the halo components in velocity space, we find evidence for a significant contrast in the frequency of CEMP stars between the inner- and outer-halo components-the outer halo possesses roughly twice the fraction of CEMP stars as the inner halo. The carbonicity distribution also differs between the inner-halo and outer-halo components-the inner halo has a greater portion of stars with modest carbon

  10. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: CEMP-s and CEMP-no subclasses in the halo system of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, Daniela; Freeman, Ken; Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Martell, Sarah L. E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: vplacco@gemini.edu E-mail: smartell@aao.gov.au

    2014-06-20

    We explore the kinematics and orbital properties of a sample of 323 very metal-poor stars in the halo system of the Milky Way, selected from the high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up studies of Aoki et al. and Yong et al. The combined sample contains a significant fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars (22% or 29%, depending on whether a strict or relaxed criterion is applied for this definition). Barium abundances (or upper limits) are available for the great majority of the CEMP stars, allowing for their separation into the CEMP-s and CEMP-no subclasses. A new method to assign membership to the inner- and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way is developed, making use of the integrals of motion, and applied to determine the relative fractions of CEMP stars in these two subclasses for each halo component. Although limited by small-number statistics, the data suggest that the inner halo of the Milky Way exhibits a somewhat higher relative number of CEMP-s stars than CEMP-no stars (57% versus 43%), while the outer halo possesses a clearly higher fraction of CEMP-no stars than CEMP-s stars (70% versus 30%). Although larger samples of CEMP stars with known Ba abundances are required, this result suggests that the dominant progenitors of CEMP stars in the two halo components were different; massive stars for the outer halo, and intermediate-mass stars in the case of the inner halo.

  11. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. III. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars - CEMP-s stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Detailed spectroscopic studies of metal-poor halo stars have highlighted the important role of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in understanding the early production and ejection of carbon in the Galaxy and in identifying the progenitors of the CEMP stars among the first stars formed after the Big Bang. Recent work has also classified the CEMP stars by absolute carbon abundance, A(C), into high- and low-C bands, mostly populated by binary and single stars, respectively. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binary systems among the CEMP-s stars, which exhibit strong enhancements of neutron-capture elements associated with the s-process. This allows us to test whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their dramatic carbon excesses. Methods: We have systematically monitored the radial velocities of a sample of 22 CEMP-s stars for several years with ~monthly, high-resolution, low S/N échelle spectra obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at La Palma, Spain. From these spectra, radial velocities with an accuracy of ≈100 m s-1 were determined by cross-correlation with optimised templates. Results: Eighteen of the 22 stars exhibit clear orbital motion, yielding a binary frequency of 82 ± 10%, while four stars appear to be single (18 ± 10%). We thus confirm that the binary frequency of CEMP-s stars is much higher than for normal metal-poor giants, but not 100% as previously claimed. Secure orbits are determined for eleven of the binaries and provisional orbits for six long-period systems (P > 3000 days), and orbital circularisation timescales are discussed. Conclusions: The conventional scenario of local mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch (AGB) binary companion does appear to account for the chemical composition of most CEMP-s stars. However, the excess of C and s-process elements in some single CEMP-s stars was apparently transferred to their

  12. Deep SDSS optical spectroscopy of distant halo stars. III. Chemical analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Alvar, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Beers, T. C.; Lee, Y. S.; Masseron, T.; Schneider, D. P.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: We present the results of an analysis of 107 extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with metallicities lower than [Fe/H] =- 3.0, identified in medium-resolution spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our analysis provides estimates of the stellar effective temperatures and surface gravities, as well as iron, calcium, and magnesium abundances. Methods: We followed the same method as in previous papers of this series. The method is based on comparisons of the observed spectra with synthetic spectra. The abundances of Fe, Ca, and Mg were determined by fitting spectral regions that are dominated by lines of each element. In addition, we present a technique to determine upper limits for elements whose features are not detected in a given spectrum. We also analyzed our sample with the SEGUE stellar parameter pipeline to obtain additional determinations of the atmospheric parameters and iron and alpha-element abundances, which we thend compare with ours. In addition, we used these parameters to infer [C/Fe] ratios. Results: Ca is typically the only element in these spectra with a moderate to low signal-to-noise ratio and medium resolution in this metallicity regime with lines that are sufficiently strong to reliably measure its abundance. Fe and Mg exhibit weaker features that in most cases only provide upper limits. We measured [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] for EMP stars in the SDSS spectra and conclude that most of the stars exhibit the typical enhancement level for α-elements, ~+0.4, although some stars for which only [Fe/H] upper limits could be estimated indicate higher [α/Fe] ratios. We also find that 26% of the stars in our sample can be classified as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and that the frequency of CEMP stars also increases with decreasing metallicity, as has been reported for previous samples. We identify a rare, bright (g = 11.90) EMP star, SDSS J134144.61+474128.6, with [Fe/H] =- 3.27, [C/Fe] = + 0.95, and elevated magnesium ([Mg/Fe] =+ 0

  13. uvby-β photometry of high-velocity and metal-poor stars. XI. Ages of halo and old disk stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, W. J.; Moitinho, A.; Márquez, A.; Parrao, L.; Covarrubias, E.

    2006-01-01

    New uvby-β data are provided for 442 high-velocity and metal-poor stars; 90 of these stars have been observed previously by us, and 352 are new. When combined with our previous two photometric catalogues, the data base is now made up of 1533 high-velocity and metal-poor stars, all with uvby-β photometry and complete kinematic data, such as proper motions and radial velocities taken from the literature. Hipparcos, plus a new photometric calibration for Mv also based on the Hipparcos parallaxes, provide distances for nearly all of these stars; our previous photometric calibrations give values for E(b-y) and [Fe/H]. The [Fe/H], V(rot) diagram allows us to separate these stars into different Galactic stellar population groups, such as old-thin-disk, thick-disk, and halo. The X histogram, where X is our stellar-population discriminator combining V(rot) and [Fe/H], and contour plots for the [Fe/H], V(rot) diagram both indicate two probable components to the thick disk. These population groups and Galactic components are studied in the (b-y)0, Mv diagram, compared to the isochrones of Bergbusch & VandenBerg (2001, ApJ, 556, 322), to derive stellar ages. The two thick-disk groups have the mean characteristics: ([Fe/H], V(rot), Age, σW') ≈ (-0.7 dex, 120 km s-1, 12.5 Gyr, 62.0 km s-1), and ≈(-0.4, 160, 10.0, 45.8). The seven most metal-poor halo groups, -2.31 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.31, show a mean age of 13.0 ± 0.2 (mean error) Gyr, giving a mean difference from the WMAP results for the age of the Universe of 0.7 ± 0.3 Gyr. These results for the ages and components of the thick disk and for the age of the Galactic halo field stars are discussed in terms of various models and ideas for the formation of galaxies and their stellar populations.

  14. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. II. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: CEMP-no stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The detailed composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be very uniform. However, a fraction of 20-70% (increasing with decreasing metallicity) exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of carbon; these are the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. A key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether this non-standard composition reflects that of the stellar natal clouds or is due to local, post-birth mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion; CEMP stars should then all be members of binary systems. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binaries among CEMP stars with and without over-abundances of neutron-capture elements - CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars, respectively - as a test of this local mass-transfer scenario. This paper discusses a sample of 24 CEMP-no stars, while a subsequent paper will consider a similar sample of CEMP-s stars. Methods: High-resolution, low S/N spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over a time span of up to eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Radial velocities of ~100 m s-1 precision were determined by cross-correlation after each observing night, allowing immediate, systematic follow-up of any variable object. Results: Most programme stars exhibit no statistically significant radial-velocity variation over this period and appear to be single, while four are found to be binaries with orbital periods of 300-2000 days and normal eccentricity; the binary frequency for the sample is 17 ± 9%. The single stars mostly belong to the recently identified low-C band, while the binaries have higher absolute carbon abundances. Conclusions: We conclude that the nucleosynthetic process responsible for the strong carbon excess in these ancient stars is unrelated to their binary status; the carbon was imprinted on their natal molecular clouds in the early Galactic interstellar

  15. Explaining the Ba, Y, Sr, and Eu abundance scatter in metal-poor halo stars: constraints to the r-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescutti, G.; Chiappini, C.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Thanks to the heroic observational campaigns carried out in recent years we now have large samples of metal-poor stars for which measurements of detailed abundances exist. In particular, large samples of stars with metallicities -5 < [Fe/H] <-1 and measured abundances of Sr, Ba, Y, and Eu are now available. These data hold important clues on the nature of the contribution of the first stellar generations to the enrichment of our Galaxy. Aims: We aim to explain the scatter in Sr, Ba, Y, and Eu abundance ratio diagrams unveiled by the metal-poor halo stars. Methods: We computed inhomogeneous chemical evolution models for the Galactic halo assuming different scenarios for the r-process site: the electron-capture (EC) supernovae and the magnetorotationally driven (MRD) supernovae scenarios. We also considered models with and without the contribution of fast-rotating massive stars (spinstars) to an early enrichment by the s-process. A detailed comparison with the now large sample of stars with measured abundances of Sr, Ba, Y, Eu, and Fe is provided (both in terms of scatter plots and number distributions for several abundance ratios). Results: The scatter observed in these abundance ratios of the very metal-poor stars (with [Fe/H] <-2.5) can be explained by combining the s-process production in spinstars, and the r-process contribution coming from massive stars. For the r-process we have developed models for both the EC and the MRD scenarios that match the observations. Conclusions: With the present observational and theoretical constraints we cannot distinguish between the EC and the MRD scenarios in the Galactic halo. Independently of the r-process scenarios adopted, the production of elements by an s-process in spinstars is needed to reproduce the spread in abundances of the light neutron capture elements (Sr and Y) over heavy neutron capture elements (Ba and Eu). We provide a way to test our suggestions by means of the distribution of the Ba isotopic

  16. THE BINARY FREQUENCY OF r-PROCESS-ELEMENT-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS: CHEMICAL TAGGING IN THE PRIMITIVE HALO OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Terese; Andersen, Johannes; Nordstroem, Birgitta; Buchhave, Lars A.; Beers, Timothy C. E-mail: ja@astro.ku.dk E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu

    2011-12-10

    A few rare halo giants in the range [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -2.9 {+-} 0.3 exhibit r-process element abundances that vary as a group by factors up to [r/Fe] {approx}80, relative to those of the iron peak and below. Yet, the astrophysical production site of these r-process elements remains unclear. We report initial results from four years of monitoring the radial velocities of 17 r-process-enhanced metal-poor giants to detect and characterize binaries in this sample. We find three (possibly four) spectroscopic binaries with orbital periods and eccentricities that are indistinguishable from those of Population I binaries with giant primaries, and which exhibit no signs that the secondary components have passed through the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution or exploded as supernovae. The other 14 stars in our sample appear to be single-including the prototypical r-process-element-enhanced star CS 22892-052, which is also enhanced in carbon, but not in s-process elements. We conclude that the r-process (and potentially carbon) enhancement of these stars was not a local event due to mass transfer or winds from a binary companion, but was imprinted on the natal molecular clouds of these (single and binary) stars by an external source. These stars are thus spectacular chemical tracers of the inhomogeneous nature of the early Galactic halo system.

  17. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later (post-birth) mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. Methods: High-resolution, low signal-to-noise spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. From these spectra, radial velocities with an accuracy of ~100 m s-1 were determined by cross-correlation against an optimized template. Results: Fourteen of the programme stars exhibit no significant radial-velocity variation over this temporal window, while three are binaries with orbits of typical eccentricity for their periods, resulting in a normal binary frequency of ~18 ± 6% for the sample. Conclusions: Our results confirm our preliminary conclusion from 2011, based on partial data, that the chemical peculiarity of the r-I and r-II stars is not caused by any putative binary companions. Instead, it was imprinted on the natal molecular clouds of these stars by an external, distant source. Models of the ISM in early galaxies

  18. Molybdenum Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. C.

    2012-08-01

    Peterson (2011) has analyzed HST spectra near 2000Å of five metal-poor turnoff stars with mild enhancements of heavy r-process elements. Two stars, HD 94028 and HD 160617, are unique in showing an extreme overabundance of the light trans-ironic element molybdenum (Z = 42), but less extreme enhancements of Zr (Z = 40) and Ru (Z = 44). Of several nucleosynthesis scenarios that can produce nuclei in this mass range in the oldest stars, a high-entropy wind (HEW) acting in a core-collapse supernova seems uniquely capable of a high overproduction confined to a narrow mass range. That this unusual elemental distribution is achieved only under very limited physical conditions suggests that very few individual nucleosynthesis events were responsible for the synthesis of the light trans-ironic elements in these stars, even though both are only moderately metal-poor.

  19. An ancient metal-poor population in M32, and halo satellite accretion in M31, identified by RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajedini, Ata; Yang, S.-C.; Monachesi, A.; Lauer, Tod R.; Trager, S. C.

    2012-09-01

    We present time series photometry of two fields near M32 using archival observations from the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. One field is centred about 2 arcmin from M32, while the other is located 15 arcmin to the south-east of M31. The imaging covers a time baseline sufficient for the identification and characterization of a total number of 1139 RR Lyrae variables of which 821 are ab-type and 318 are c-type. In the field near M32, we find a radial gradient in the density of RR Lyraes relative to the centre of M32. This gradient is consistent with the surface brightness profile of M32, suggesting that a significant number of the RR Lyraes in this region belong to M32. This provides further confirmation that M32 contains an ancient stellar population formed around the same time as the oldest population in M31 and the Milky Way. The RR Lyrae stars in M32 exhibit a mean metal abundance of <[Fe/H]> ≈ -1.42 ± 0.02, which is ≈15 times lower than the metal abundance of the overall M32 stellar population. Moreover, the abundance of RR Lyrae stars normalized to the luminosity of M32 in the field analysed further indicates that the ancient metal-poor population in M32 represents only a very minor component of this galaxy, consistent with the 1-4.5 per cent in mass inferred from the colour-magnitude diagram analysis of Monachesi et al. We also find that the measured reddening of the RR Lyrae stars is consistent with M32 containing little or no dust. In the other field, we find unprecedented evidence for two populations of RR Lyraes in M31 as shown by two distinct sequences among the ab-type variables in the Bailey diagram. When interpreted in terms of metal abundance, one population exhibits a peak at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.3 and the other is at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.9. One possible interpretation of this result is that the more metal-rich population represents the dominant M31 halo, while the metal-poorer group could be a disrupted

  20. The Best and Brightest Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaufman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The chemical abundances of large samples of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be used to investigate metal-free stellar populations, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis as well as the formation and galactic chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its progenitor halos. However, current progress on the study of EMP stars is being limited by their faint apparent magnitudes. We have developed a new, efficient selection that uses only public, all-sky APASS optical, 2MASS near-infrared, and WISE mid-infrared photometry to identify bright metal-poor star candidates through their lack of molecular absorption near 4.6 microns. High-resolution follow up has revealed that 3.8% of our candidates have [Fe/H] < -3.0 and 32.5% have -3.0 < [Fe/H] < -2.0. We are using the Automated Planet Finder, Gemini, and Magellan to follow up all of our metal-poor candidates with V < 12 in both hemispheres with the goal of collecting the most information-rich sample of metal-poor stars ever assembled.

  1. The Best and Brightest Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Casey, Andrew R.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical abundances of large samples of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be used to investigate metal-free stellar populations, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis as well as the formation and galactic chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its progenitor halos. However, current progress on the study of EMP stars is being limited by their faint apparent magnitudes. The acquisition of high signal-to-noise spectra for faint EMP stars requires a major telescope time commitment, making the construction of large samples of EMP star abundances prohibitively expensive. We have developed a new, efficient selection that uses only public, all-sky APASS optical, 2MASS near-infrared, and WISE mid-infrared photometry to identify bright metal-poor star candidates through their lack of molecular absorption near 4.6 microns. We have used our selection to identify 11,916 metal-poor star candidates with V < 14, increasing the number of publicly available candidates by more than a factor of five in this magnitude range. Their bright apparent magnitudes have greatly eased high-resolution follow-up observations that have identified seven previously unknown stars with [Fe/H] <~ -3.0. Our follow-up campaign has revealed that 3.8+1.3-1.1% of our candidates have [Fe/H] <~ -3.0 and 32.5+3.0-2.9% have -3.0 <~ [Fe/H] <~ -2.0. The bulge is the most likely location of any existing Galactic Population III stars, and an infrared-only variant of our selection is well suited to the identification of metal-poor stars in the bulge. Indeed, two of our confirmed metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] <~ -2.7 are within about 2 kpc of the Galactic center. They are among the most metal-poor stars known in the bulge. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  2. The best and brightest metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Casey, Andrew R. E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2014-12-10

    The chemical abundances of large samples of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be used to investigate metal-free stellar populations, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis as well as the formation and galactic chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its progenitor halos. However, current progress on the study of EMP stars is being limited by their faint apparent magnitudes. The acquisition of high signal-to-noise spectra for faint EMP stars requires a major telescope time commitment, making the construction of large samples of EMP star abundances prohibitively expensive. We have developed a new, efficient selection that uses only public, all-sky APASS optical, 2MASS near-infrared, and WISE mid-infrared photometry to identify bright metal-poor star candidates through their lack of molecular absorption near 4.6 microns. We have used our selection to identify 11,916 metal-poor star candidates with V < 14, increasing the number of publicly available candidates by more than a factor of five in this magnitude range. Their bright apparent magnitudes have greatly eased high-resolution follow-up observations that have identified seven previously unknown stars with [Fe/H] ≲ –3.0. Our follow-up campaign has revealed that 3.8{sub −1.1}{sup +1.3}% of our candidates have [Fe/H] ≲ –3.0 and 32.5{sub −2.9}{sup +3.0}% have –3.0 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –2.0. The bulge is the most likely location of any existing Galactic Population III stars, and an infrared-only variant of our selection is well suited to the identification of metal-poor stars in the bulge. Indeed, two of our confirmed metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ≲ –2.7 are within about 2 kpc of the Galactic center. They are among the most metal-poor stars known in the bulge.

  3. Toward ab initio extremely metal poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Extremely metal poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 M⊙ Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely-expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 1051 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 M⊙, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blast wave deposited metals only superficially, in a thin, unresolved layer. The first metal-enriched stars can form at a very low metallicity, of only 2 - 5 × 10-4 Z⊙, and can inherit the parent cloud's highly elliptical, radially extended orbit in the dark matter gravitational potential.

  4. RR Lyrae Stars, Metal-Poor Stars, and the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliam, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    This online book contains the proceedings of a meeting on "RR Lyrae Stars, Metal-Poor Stars, and the Galaxy" held at the Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, California, in January 2011, to honor the 80th year of George W. Preston III. The book comprises the 5th volume of the Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics Series, and contains reviews and research articles on recent developments in the area of RR Lyrae stars, including results from the Kepler space mission. Review and research articles on metal-poor stars and Galactic structure are also included.

  5. Detailed Abundances of Two Very Metal-poor Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2012-12-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[α/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at -3 < [Fe/H] < -2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] Lt -3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] ~ -3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo. Data herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF TWO VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2012-12-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[{alpha}/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at -3 < [Fe/H] < -2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] << -3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] {approx} -3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo.

  7. Chemical abundances of very metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. W.; Zhao, G.

    2005-12-01

    High-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of 32 very metal-poor stars were obtained with the Coudé echelle spectrograph mounted on the 2.16-m telescope at the National Astronomical Observatories (Xinglong, China). Equivalent widths of FeI, FeII, OI, NaI, MgI, AlI, SiI, SiII, KI, CaI, ScII, TiI, VI, CrI, MnI, NiI, CuI and BaII lines were measured. Stellar effective temperatures were determined by colour indices. Stellar surface gravities were calculated from Hipparcos parallaxes and stellar evolutionary tracks. Photospheric abundances of 16 elements were derived by local thermodynamical equilibrium analysis. Stellar space motions (U, V, W) and Galactic orbital parameters were calculated. Based on kinematics, sample stars were separated into dissipative collapse and accretion components of halo population. The global kinematics of the two components were analysed. Element abundances were discussed as functions of metallicities. The results of oxygen and α-elements abundance confirmed the previous works. The [K/Fe] shows a gradual systematic increase toward a lower metallicity, such as in the case of α-elements. The [Ba/Fe] trend suggests that the s-process dominated Ba production at least for the metal-poor stars with [Fe/H]> -2.0.

  8. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. II. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF 190 METAL-POOR STARS INCLUDING 10 NEW STARS WITH [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5 , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 16 elements in 190 metal-poor Galactic halo stars (38 program and 152 literature objects). The sample includes 171 stars with [Fe/H] {<=} -2.5, of which 86 are extremely metal poor, [Fe/H] {<=} -3.0. Our program stars include 10 new objects with [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5. We identify a sample of 'normal' metal-poor stars and measure the trends between [X/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the dispersion about the mean trend for this sample. Using this mean trend, we identify objects that are chemically peculiar relative to 'normal' stars at the same metallicity. These chemically unusual stars include CEMP-no objects, one star with high [Si/Fe], another with high [Ba/Sr], and one with unusually low [X/Fe] for all elements heavier than Na. The Sr and Ba abundances indicate that there may be two nucleosynthetic processes at lowest metallicity that are distinct from the main r-process. Finally, for many elements, we find a significant trend between [X/Fe] versus T {sub eff}, which likely reflects non-LTE and/or three-dimensional effects. Such trends demonstrate that care must be exercised when using abundance measurements in metal-poor stars to constrain chemical evolution and/or nucleosynthesis predictions.

  9. The EMBLA survey - metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Louise M.; Asplund, Martin; Keller, Stefan C.; Casey, Andrew R.; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S.; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.; Owen, Christopher I.; Da Costa, Gary S.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The Extremely Metal-poor BuLge stars with AAOmega survey (EMBLA) successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8 < [Fe/H] < -1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data are consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that found in halo stars of the same metallicity. Two notable differences are the absence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor bulge stars, and the α element abundances exhibit a large intrinsic scatter and include stars which are underabundant in these typically enhanced elements.

  10. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars with s-process Element Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Placco, Vinicius M.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, {log}g=1.25,\\ξ = 2.20 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has {{[C/Fe]}}=1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as a “CEMP-r/s” star. Based on abundance comparisons with asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of thermal pulses the AGB companion underwent, the effect of different AGB star masses on their nucleosynthetic yields, and physics that is not well approximated in 1D stellar models such as proton ingestion episodes and rotation. Based on a set of detailed AGB models, we suggest the abundance signature of HE 0414-0343 to have arisen from a >1.3 M⊙ mass AGB star and a late-time mass transfer that transformed HE 0414-0343 into a CEMP-sC star. We also find that the [Y/Ba] ratio well parametrizes the classification and can thus be used to easily classify any future such stars. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  11. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. I. The Lithium-, s-, and r-enhanced Metal-poor Giant HKII 17435-00532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Frebel, Anna; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rhee, Jaehyon; Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara; Sneden, Christopher; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.

    2008-06-01

    We present the first detailed abundance analysis of the metal-poor giant HKII 17435-00532. This star was observed as part of the University of Texas long-term project Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH). A spectrum was obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with a resolving power of R ~ 15,000. Our analysis reveals that this star may be located on the red giant branch, red horizontal branch, or early asymptotic giant branch. We find that this metal-poor ([Fe/H] = - 2.2) star has an unusually high lithium abundance [log ɛ (Li) = + 2.1], mild carbon ([C/Fe] = + 0.7) and sodium ([Na/Fe] = + 0.6) enhancement, as well as enhancement of both s-process ([Ba/Fe] = + 0.8) and r-process ([Eu/Fe] = + 0.5) material. The high Li abundance can be explained by self-enrichment through extra mixing that connects the convective envelope with the outer regions of the H-burning shell. If so, HKII 17435-00532 is the most metal-poor star in which this short-lived phase of Li enrichment has been observed. The Na and n-capture enrichment can be explained by mass transfer from a companion that passed through the thermally pulsing AGB phase of evolution with only a small initial enrichment of r-process material present in the birth cloud. Despite the current nondetection of radial velocity variations (over ~180 days), it is possible that HKII 17435-00532 is in a long-period or highly inclined binary system, similar to other stars with similar n-capture enrichment patterns. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  12. The EMBLA Survey - Metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Louise M.; Asplund, Martin; Keller, Stefan C.; Casey, Andrew R.; Yong, David; Lind, Karin; Frebel, Anna; Hays, Austin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Bessell, Michael S.; Casagrande, Luca; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.; Owen, Christopher I.; Da Costa, Gary S.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tisserand, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Cosmological models predict the oldest stars in the Galaxy should be found closest to the centre of the potential well, in the bulge. The EMBLA Survey successfully searched for these old, metal-poor stars by making use of the distinctive SkyMapper photometric filters to discover candidate metal-poor stars in the bulge. Their metal-poor nature was then confirmed using the AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. Here we present an abundance analysis of 10 bulge stars with -2.8 <[Fe/H]<- 1.7 from MIKE/Magellan observations, in total determining the abundances of 22 elements. Combining these results with our previous high-resolution data taken as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we have started to put together a picture of the chemical and kinematic nature of the most metal-poor stars in the bulge. The currently available kinematic data is consistent with the stars belonging to the bulge, although more accurate measurements are needed to constrain the stars' orbits. The chemistry of these bulge stars deviates from that found in halo stars of the same metallicity. Two notable differences are the absence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor bulge stars, and the alpha-element abundances exhibit a large intrinsic scatter and include stars which are underabundant in these typically enhanced elements.

  13. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-11-26

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon. PMID:26560034

  14. The Most Metal-poor Stars. II. Chemical Abundances of 190 Metal-poor Stars Including 10 New Stars with [Fe/H] <= -3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Christlieb, N.; Asplund, M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 16 elements in 190 metal-poor Galactic halo stars (38 program and 152 literature objects). The sample includes 171 stars with [Fe/H] <= -2.5, of which 86 are extremely metal poor, [Fe/H] <= -3.0. Our program stars include 10 new objects with [Fe/H] <= -3.5. We identify a sample of "normal" metal-poor stars and measure the trends between [X/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the dispersion about the mean trend for this sample. Using this mean trend, we identify objects that are chemically peculiar relative to "normal" stars at the same metallicity. These chemically unusual stars include CEMP-no objects, one star with high [Si/Fe], another with high [Ba/Sr], and one with unusually low [X/Fe] for all elements heavier than Na. The Sr and Ba abundances indicate that there may be two nucleosynthetic processes at lowest metallicity that are distinct from the main r-process. Finally, for many elements, we find a significant trend between [X/Fe] versus T eff, which likely reflects non-LTE and/or three-dimensional effects. Such trends demonstrate that care must be exercised when using abundance measurements in metal-poor stars to constrain chemical evolution and/or nucleosynthesis predictions. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal 281.D-5015).

  15. Very Metal-poor Stars in the RAVE Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevic, Gal

    2015-08-01

    Metal-poor stars have been the cornerstone of the galactic and stellar archeology for decades. Due to their intact nature they offer a unique insight into the early stages of the galactic evolution and help us understand the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the creation of chemical elements. The number of discovered very metal-poor stars (metallicity [Fe/H] < -2.0) is still relatively low and it drops sharply towards even lower metallicities. Only a handful of known stars have [Fe/H] < -4.0. RAVE spectroscopic survey enabled us to serendipitously discover many new metal-poor stars due to its large sample size and the fact that its wavelength range is centered around the infra-red CaII triplet which has been shown to be a good metallicity estimator for even the most metal-poor stars. The parameter estimation pipeline used on the survey data has trouble with accurately recovering the metallicities (they can be severely overestimated) and other parameters of the metal-poor stars. This is due to the lack of strong features in their spectra and sometimes humble signal-to-noise values. To cope with that we reanalyzed all metal-poor star spectra by measuring the equivalent widths of the CaII triplet lines. We devised a novel method employing Gaussian processes to model the continuum variations and also to account for the shallower and blended spectral lines that would otherwise add to the total equivalent width and lead to unwanted biases. New metallicity values for those stars were calibrated using the high resolution observations of the subset of stars and the available 8-band BVg'r'i'JHKS photometry. All sources of the uncertainty were taken into account which brought the final metallicity uncertainties to ~0.3dex, including for stars with lowest metal abundances. The study enabled us to discover many new very metal poor stars, several of which fall in the extremely metal-poor domain and some of which are possibly ultra metal-poor. For all stars in our sample

  16. Metal-poor stars: The fingerprints of the first stars and the early galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, David K.

    2008-10-01

    sample in aggregate, as well as the abundance ratios of CS 30336-049, with the zero-metallicity supernova type II nucleosynthesis models of Heger & Woosley (2008). From this comparison I show that metal-free progenitor with masses ~ 10 to 20 [Special characters omitted.] can match our abundances very well. In the last part of this dissertation I discuss a future direction in the study of metal-poor stars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and in particular by its extension, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE), has greatly increased the number of metal-poor candidates to date. Through a well calibrated pipeline, accurate stellar parameters can be estimated and make the selection of metal-poor stars even more efficient. Coupled with the powerful capabilities of ESI, I will be able to study the relatively unexplored regions of the outer Halo of the Galaxy to search for signs of Galaxy formation processes and for further insights into the various classes of VMP discussed in this thesis.

  17. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, L. M.; Casey, A. R.; Asplund, M.; Keller, S. C.; Yong, D.; Nataf, D. M.; Poleski, R.; Lind, K.; Kobayashi, C.; Owen, C. I.; Ness, M.; Bessell, M. S.; da Costa, G. S.; Schmidt, B. P.; Tisserand, P.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Mróz, P.

    2015-11-01

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium (‘metals’) have been found in the outer regions (‘halo’) of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions (‘bulges’) of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  18. Abundance analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T.; Hansen, C. J.; Christlieb, N.; Andersen, J.

    2016-01-01

    The outer atmosphere of the first generations of low-mass (M < 0.8 M⊙) stars retain to a great extent the original chemical composition of the interstellar medium (ISM) at the time and place of their birth. The composition of this pristine gas represents the nucleosynthesis of the very first massive stars, that produced and ejected the first heavy elements into the early ISM. Thus a detailed abundance analysis of low-mass, metal-poor stars can help us track these gasses and provide insight into the formation processes that took place in the very early stages of our Galaxy. Preliminary result of a 25-star homogeneously analysed sample of metal- poor candidates from the Hamburg/ESO survey is presented. The main focus is on the most metal-poor stars of the sample; stars with [Fe/H] < -4. The abundance pattern of these ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars is used to extract key information of the earliest ongoing formation processes (ranging from hydrostatic burning to neutron-capture processes).

  19. LITHIUM ABUNDANCES IN CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Masseron, Thomas; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Lucatello, Sara; Karakas, Amanda; Plez, Bertrand; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert E-mail: jaj@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2012-05-20

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are believed to show the chemical imprints of more massive stars (M {approx}> 0.8 M{sub Sun }) that are now extinct. In particular, it is expected that the observed abundance of Li should deviate in these stars from the standard Spite lithium plateau. We study here a sample of 11 metal-poor stars and a double-lined spectroscopic binary with -1.8 < [Fe/H] < -3.3 observed with the Very Large Telescope/UVES spectrograph. Among these 12 metal-poor stars, there are 8 CEMP stars for which we measure or constrain the Li abundance. In contrast to previous arguments, we demonstrate that an appropriate regime of dilution permits the existence of 'Li-Spite plateau and C-rich' stars, whereas some of the 'Li-depleted and C-rich' stars call for an unidentified additional depletion mechanism that cannot be explained by dilution alone. We find evidence that rotation is related to the Li depletion in some CEMP stars. Additionally, we report on a newly recognized double-lined spectroscopic binary star in our sample. For this star, we develop a new technique from which estimates of stellar parameters and luminosity ratios can be derived based on a high-resolution spectrum alone, without the need for input from evolutionary models.

  20. Observing metal-poor stars with X-Shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Sbordone, L.; Monaco, L.; François; , P.

    The extremely metal-poor stars (EMP) hold in their atmospheres the fossil record of the chemical composition of the early phases of the Galactic evolution. The chemical analysis of such objects provides important constraints on these early phases. EMP stars are very rare objects; to dig them out large amounts of data have to be considered. With an automatic procedure, we analysed objects with colours of Turn-Off stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to select a sample of good candidate EMP stars. During the French-Italian GTO of the spectrograph X-Shooter, we observed a sample of these candidates. We could confirm the low metallicity of our sample of stars, and we succeeded in finding a record metal-poor star.

  1. THE RAVE SURVEY: RICH IN VERY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Ruchti, Gregory R.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, Eva; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Siviero, A.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Steinmetz, M.

    2010-11-20

    Very metal-poor stars are of obvious importance for many problems in chemical evolution, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Finding complete samples of such stars which are also bright enough to allow high-precision individual analyses is of considerable interest. We demonstrate here that stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <-2 dex, and down to below -4 dex, can be efficiently identified within the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of bright stars, without requiring additional confirmatory observations. We determine a calibration of the equivalent width of the calcium triplet lines measured from the RAVE spectra onto true [Fe/H], using high spectral resolution data for a subset of the stars. These RAVE iron abundances are accurate enough to obviate the need for confirmatory higher-resolution spectroscopy. Our initial study has identified 631 stars with [Fe/H] {<=}-2, from a RAVE database containing approximately 200,000 stars. This RAVE-based sample is complete for stars with [Fe/H] {approx_lt}-2.5, allowing statistical sample analysis. We identify three stars with [Fe/H] {approx_lt}-4. Of these, one was already known to be 'ultra metal-poor', one is a known carbon-enhanced metal-poor star, but we obtain [Fe/H] = -4.0, rather than the published [Fe/H] = -3.3, and derive [C/Fe] = +0.9, and [N/Fe] = +3.2, and the third is at the limit of our signal-to-noise ratio. RAVE observations are ongoing and should prove to be a rich source of bright, easily studied, very metal-poor stars.

  2. Extremely metal-poor star candidates in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Si-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2013-03-01

    For a sample of metal-poor stars (-3.3 <= [Fe/H] <= -2.2) that have high-resolution spectroscopic abundance determinations, we have measured equivalent widths of the Ca II K, Mg I b and near-infrared Ca II triplet lines using low-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), calculated effective temperatures from (g - z)0 color, deduced stellar surface gravities by fitting stellar isochrones, and determined metallicities based on the aforementioned quantities. Metallicities thus derived from the Ca II K line are in much better agreement with the results determined from high-resolution spectra than the values given in the SDSS Data Release 7. The metallicities derived from the Mg I b lines have a large dispersion owing to the large measurement errors, whereas those deduced from the Ca II triplet lines are too high due to both non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) effects and measurement errors. Abundances after correction for the NLTE effect for the Mg I b lines and Ca II triplet lines are also presented. Following this method, we have identified six candidates of ultra-metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ~ -4.0 from a sample of 166 metal-poor star candidates. One of them, SDSS J102915+172927, was recently confirmed to be an ultra-metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -4.0) star with the lowest metallicity ever measured. Follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy for the other five ultra-metal-poor stars in our sample will therefore be of great interest.

  3. The physics of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancliffe, Richard

    2014-09-01

    A surprising fraction of metal-poor stars turn out to be rich in carbon. Of these, many show enhanced levels of heavy elements, particularly those formed by the slow neutron capture process. The proposed formation scenario for these objects involves mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star in a binary system. I will discuss (some) of the important (and uncertain!) physical processes that we must understand if we wish to learn the origin of these enigmatic, ancient objects.

  4. Very Metal-poor Stars Observed by the RAVE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevič, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) observed ~500,000 southern sky stars between 2003 and 2013 in the infra-red calcium triplet (CaII) spectral region. In this study we extended the analysis of RAVE very metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -2) presented by Fulbright et al. (2010). We employed a novel method for identifying the metal-poor stars and developed a tool for modeling CaII lines where we also modeled the background noise to avoid systematical biases in the equivalent width (EW) measurements. Final metallicity values were derived with a flexible calibration approach using only 2MASS photometric data and EW measurements obtained from the RAVE spectra.

  5. Chemical Abundances of Metal-poor stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim A.; Jablonka, Pascale; Hill, Vanessa; Starkenburg, Else; Lemasle, Bertrand; Shetrone, Matthew; Irwin, Mike; Norris, John; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerry; Salvadori, Stephania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline

    2016-08-01

    Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. The slower star formation efficiency make dwarf galaxies ideal systems for testing nucleosynthetic yields. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, and a higher fraction of carbon-enhanced stars, but we are also finding stars in dwarf galaxies that appear to be iron-rich. These are compared with yields from a variety of supernova predictions.

  6. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF METAL-POOR RR LYRAE STARS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, Raoul; Grebel, Eva K.; Duffau, Sonia; Frebel, Anna; Hansen, Camilla J.; Koch, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    We present for the first time a detailed spectroscopic study of chemical element abundances of metal-poor RR Lyrae stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud (LMC and SMC). Using the MagE echelle spectrograph at the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes, we obtain medium resolution (R {approx} 2000-6000) spectra of six RR Lyrae stars in the LMC and three RR Lyrae stars in the SMC. These stars were chosen because their previously determined photometric metallicities were among the lowest metallicities found for stars belonging to the old populations in the Magellanic Clouds. We find the spectroscopic metallicities of these stars to be as low as [Fe/H]{sub spec} = -2.7 dex, the lowest metallicity yet measured for any star in the Magellanic Clouds. We confirm that for metal-poor stars, the photometric metallicities from the Fourier decomposition of the light curves are systematically too high compared to their spectroscopic counterparts. However, for even more metal-poor stars below [Fe/H]{sub phot} < -2.8 dex this trend is reversed and the spectroscopic metallicities are systematically higher than the photometric estimates. We are able to determine abundance ratios for 10 chemical elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Sr, and Ba), which extend the abundance measurements of chemical elements for RR Lyrae stars in the Clouds beyond [Fe/H] for the first time. For the overall [{alpha}/Fe] ratio, we obtain an overabundance of 0.36 dex, which is in very good agreement with results from metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo as well as from the metal-poor tail in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Comparing the abundances with those of the stars in the Milky Way halo we find that the abundance ratios of stars of both populations are consistent with another. Therefore, we conclude that from a chemical point of view early contributions from Magellanic-type galaxies to the formation of the Galactic halo as claimed in cosmological models are plausible.

  7. Chemistry of the Most Metal-poor Stars in the Bulge and the z ≳ 10 Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Schlaufman, Kevin C.

    2015-08-01

    Metal-poor stars in the Milky Way are local relics of the epoch of the first stars and the first galaxies. However, a low metallicity does not prove that a star formed in this ancient era, as metal-poor stars form over a range of redshift in different environments. Theoretical models of Milky Way formation have shown that at constant metallicity, the oldest stars are those closest to the center of the Galaxy on the most tightly bound orbits. For that reason, the most metal-poor stars in the bulge of the Milky Way provide excellent tracers of the chemistry of the high-redshift universe. We report the dynamics and detailed chemical abundances of three stars in the bulge with [{Fe}/{{H}}]≲ -2.7, two of which are the most metal-poor stars in the bulge in the literature. We find that with the exception of scandium, all three stars follow the abundance trends identified previously for metal-poor halo stars. These three stars have the lowest [Sc ii/Fe] abundances yet seen in α-enhanced giant stars in the Galaxy. Moreover, all three stars are outliers in the otherwise tight [Sc ii/Fe]-[Ti ii/Fe] relation observed among metal-poor halo stars. Theoretical models predict that there is a 30% chance that at least one of these stars formed at z≳ 15, while there is a 70% chance that at least one formed at 10≲ z≲ 15. These observations imply that by z˜ 10, the progenitor galaxies of the Milky Way had both reached [{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -3.0 and established the abundance pattern observed in extremely metal-poor stars. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  8. From C-Enhanced, Metal Poor Stars to AGB Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucatello, S.; Gratton, R.; Beers, T.; Carretta, E.

    The largest to date surveys for metal poor stars (i.e. HK survey Beers et al. 1992 and HES Christlieb et al. 2001) find that as many as ~25% of stars with [Fe/H]≤ -2.5 dex are have [C/Fe]>1 dex (CEMP stars). High resolution studies have revealed that the C-enhancements is accompanied by different abundance patterns, s and/or r-process enrichment, but there are also cases with no ncapture elements overabundance,and with or without extraordinary α elements enhancements. The mechanisms that originate the range of phenomena observed are far from being fully understood.

  9. LITHIUM ABUNDANCES OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR TURNOFF STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Wako; Inoue, Susumu; Barklem, Paul S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Perez, Ana E. GarcIa; Norris, John E.; Carollo, Daniela E-mail: Paul.Barklem@physics.uu.se E-mail: N.Christlieb@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: inoue@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-06-20

    We have determined Li abundances for eleven metal-poor turnoff stars, among which eight have [Fe/H] <-3, based on LTE analyses of high-resolution spectra obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. The Li abundances for four of these eight stars are determined for the first time by this study. Effective temperatures are determined by a profile analysis of H{alpha} and H{beta}. While seven stars have Li abundances as high as the Spite Plateau value, the remaining four objects with [Fe/H] <-3 have A(Li) =log (Li/H)+ 12 {approx}< 2.0, confirming the existence of extremely metal-poor (EMP) turnoff stars having low Li abundances, as reported by previous work. The average of the Li abundances for stars with [Fe/H]<-3 is lower by 0.2 dex than that of the stars with higher metallicity. No clear constraint on the metallicity dependence or scatter of the Li abundances is derived from our measurements for the stars with [Fe/H]<-3. Correlations of the Li abundance with effective temperatures, with abundances of Na, Mg, and Sr, and with the kinematical properties are investigated, but no clear correlation is seen in the EMP star sample.

  10. Binarity in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, Else; Shetrone, Matthew D.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Venn, Kim A.

    2014-06-01

    A substantial fraction of the lowest metallicity stars show very high enhancements in carbon. It is debated whether these enhancements reflect the stars' birth composition, or if their atmospheres were subsequently polluted, most likely by accretion from an asymptotic giant branch binary companion. Here we investigate and compare the binary properties of three carbon-enhanced subclasses: The metal-poor CEMP-s stars that are additionally enhanced in barium; the higher metallicity (sg)CH- and Ba II stars also enhanced in barium; and the metal-poor CEMP-no stars, not enhanced in barium. Through comparison with simulations, we demonstrate that all barium-enhanced populations are best represented by a ˜100 per cent binary fraction with a shorter period distribution of at maximum ˜20 000 d. This result greatly strengthens the hypothesis that a similar binary mass transfer origin is responsible for their chemical patterns. For the CEMP-no group we present new radial velocity data from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for 15 stars to supplement the scarce literature data. Two of these stars show indisputable signatures of binarity. The complete CEMP-no data set is clearly inconsistent with the binary properties of the CEMP-s class, thereby strongly indicating a different physical origin of their carbon enhancements. The CEMP-no binary fraction is still poorly constrained, but the population resembles more the binary properties in the solar neighbourhood.

  11. AN EXTREMELY CARBON-RICH, EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STAR IN THE SEGUE 1 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Frebel, Anna

    2010-10-10

    We report the analysis of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, spectra of an extremely metal-poor, extremely C-rich red giant, Seg 1-7, in Segue 1-described in the literature alternatively as an unusually extended globular cluster or an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. The radial velocity of Seg 1-7 coincides precisely with the systemic velocity of Segue 1, and its chemical abundance signature of [Fe/H] = -3.52, [C/Fe] = +2.3, [N/Fe] = +0.8, [Na/Fe] = +0.53, [Mg/Fe] = +0.94, [Al/Fe] = +0.23, and [Ba/Fe] < -1.0 is similar to that of the rare and enigmatic class of Galactic halo objects designated CEMP-no (carbon-rich, extremely metal-poor with no enhancement (over solar ratios) of heavy neutron-capture elements). This is the first star in a Milky Way 'satellite' that unambiguously lies on the metal-poor, C-rich branch of the Aoki et al. bimodal distribution of field halo stars in the ([C/Fe], [Fe/H])-plane. Available data permit us only to identify Seg 1-7 as a member of an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy or as debris from the Sgr dwarf spheroidal galaxy. In either case, this demonstrates that at extremely low abundance, [Fe/H ] <-3.0, star formation and associated chemical evolution proceeded similarly in the progenitors of both the field halo and satellite systems. By extension, this is consistent with other recent suggestions that the most metal-poor dwarf spheroidal and ultra-faint dwarf satellites were the building blocks of the Galaxy's outer halo.

  12. Probing the outermost halo in a giant galaxy: is it metal-poor and where does it end?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejkuba, Marina

    2012-10-01

    Centaurus A {NGC 5128}, the nearest gE/S0 galaxy is taking up an increasingly important role in stellar population and galaxy evolution studies with the potential to rival the Local Group members. From our previous HST-based studies of its red-giant population, we know that 80% of its halo stars are old {11-13 Gyr}, and relatively metal-rich {[Fe/H] -0.5}. In contrast, new measurements of the outer-halo of NGC 3379 {Leo group}, and of M31 revealed the classically metal-poor component {as the Milky Way halo} at radii beyond R 10 R{eff} where the metal-rich stars disappear. This extremely extended "outermost halo" - which has long been suspected to exist in giant galaxies but has been hard to isolate - may be the evolutionary relic of the first stars formed in the extended dark-matter potential well of the galaxy at its earliest stages. This triggers the question whether such an extended halo also exists around NGC 5128 and what is its composition?We propose to use WFC3 and ACS in parallel to probe the NGC 5128 halo to its outermost detectable limits beyond 15 effective radii, in search for its oldest, most metal-poor stars. Combined with our earlier HST work, which has sampled the metallicity distribution function {MDF} from 10 to 38 kpc {1.5-7 Reff}, we will obtain a complete MDF profile extending from the outer bulge to the farthest limits of the halo. This study will be the first for any gE galaxy, and it will add entirely new constraints to understanding its formation history. We will be able to assess the relative importance of halo stars produced by protogalactic dwarfs at the beginning of hierarchical merging vs. late accretion from dwarf satellites.

  13. Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge: A population potpourri⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of five red giants and two horizontal branch (HB) stars towards the southern edge of the Galactic bulge, at (l, b) ~ (0°,-11°). Based on high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we derived up to 23 chemical element abundances and identify a mixed bag of stars, representing various populations in the central regions of the Galaxy. Although cosmological simulations predict that the inner Galaxy was host to the first stars in the Universe, we see no chemical evidence of the ensuing massive supernova explosions: all of our targets exhibit halo-like, solar [Sc/Fe] ratios, which is in contrast to the low values predicted from Population III nucleosynthesis. One of the targets is a CEMP-s star at [Fe/H] = -2.52 dex, and another target is a moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.53 dex) CH star with strong enrichment in s-process elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe] = 1.35). These individuals provide the first contenders of these classes of stars towards the bulge. Four of the carbon-normal stars exhibit abundance patterns reminiscent of halo star across a metallicity range spanning -2.0 to -2.6 dex, i.e., enhanced α-elements and solar Fe-peak and neutron-capture elements, and the remaining one is a regular metal-rich bulge giant. The position, distance, and radial velocity of one of the metal-poor HB stars coincides with simulations of the old trailing arm of the disrupted Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. While their highly uncertain proper motions prohibit a clear kinematic separation, the stars' chemical abundances and distances suggest that these metal-poor candidates, albeit located towards the bulge, are not of the bulge, but rather inner halo stars on orbits that make them pass through the central regions. Thus, we caution similar claims of detections of metal-poor stars as true habitants of the bulge. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas

  14. Chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, W.; Arimoto, N.; Sadakane, K.; Tolstoy, E.; Battaglia, G.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Irwin, M.; Hill, V.; Francois, P.; Venn, K.; Primas, F.; Helmi, A.; Kaufer, A.; Tafelmeyer, M.; Szeifert, T.; Babusiaux, C.

    2009-08-01

    Context: Individual stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way Galaxy have been studied both photometrically and spectroscopically. Extremely metal-poor stars among them are very valuable because they should record the early enrichment in the Local Group. However, our understanding of these stars is very limited because detailed chemical abundance measurements are needed from high resolution spectroscopy. Aims: To constrain the formation and chemical evolution of dwarf galaxies, metallicity and chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars are investigated. Methods: Chemical abundances of six extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.5) stars in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy are determined based on high resolution spectroscopy (R=40 000) with the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph. Results: (1) The Fe abundances derived from the high resolution spectra are in good agreement with the metallicity estimated from the Ca triplet lines in low resolution spectra. The lack of stars with [Fe/H] ⪉ -3 in Sextans, found by previous estimates from the Ca triplet, is confirmed by our measurements, although we note that high resolution spectroscopy for a larger sample of stars will be necessary to estimate the true fraction of stars with such low metallicity. (2) While one object shows an overabundance of Mg (similar to Galactic halo stars), the Mg/Fe ratios of the remaining five stars are similar to the solar value. This is the first time that low Mg/Fe ratios at such low metallicities have been found in a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. No evidence for over-abundances of Ca and Ti are found in these five stars, though the measurements for these elements are less certain. Possible mechanisms to produce low Mg/Fe ratios, with respect to that of Galactic halo stars, are discussed. (3) Ba is under-abundant in four objects, while the remaining two stars exhibit large and moderate excesses of this element. The abundance distribution of Ba in this galaxy is

  15. Heavy-elements in metal-poor stars: an UV perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Barbuy, B.

    2014-11-01

    The site(s) of the r-process(es) is(are) not completely defined, and several models have been proposed. Observed abundances are the best clues to bring some light to this field, especially the study of the extremely metal-poor (EMP) Galactic halo stars. Many elements can be measured using ground-based facilities already available, but the ultraviolet window also presents a rich opportunity in terms of chemical abundances of heavy elements. In fact, for some elements only the UV transitions are strong enough to be useful. Focusing on the project of the Cassegrain U-Band Brazilian Spectrograph (CUBES), we discuss the science case for heavy elements in metal-poor stars, describing the useful lines of trans-Fe elements present in the UV region. Lines in the far UV are also discussed.

  16. Behavior of sulfur in extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    The LTE abundances of sulfur (S) were explored in the sample of 15 metal-poor stars with the metallicity range of -4<[Fe/H]<-1.5, based on the equivalent widths of the S I(1) 9212 and 9237 Å lines measured on high-resolution spectra, which were observed by the Keck I HIRES. Combining our results and those of Takada-Hidai et al. (2005), we found that the behavior of [S/Fe] against [Fe/H] shows a nearly flat trend in the range of metallicity down to [Fe/H]˜-4.

  17. A Chemical Abundance Analysis of Stars Believed to be Metal Poor Members of the Galactic Stellar Thick Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmerer, Jennifer Ann

    Galactic formation models have long sought to reproduce the observed chemical and kinematical properties of the Milky Way's stellar halo and disk. Recently it is the so-called ``intermediate population'', the stellarthick disk, that is driving advances in our understanding of the formation of spiral galaxies. The thick disk is kinematically more like the thin disk than the halo, for all the thick disk has a velocity dispersion twice that of the thin diskand rotates ~40 km/s more slowly. It is generally accepted that the thick disk's metallicity distribution function peaks at a lower metallicity than the thin disk but at higher metallicity than the halo. The lower bound of the thick disk is still uncertain, as many observational studies have found only a few thick disk candidate. stars or clusters that are more metal poor than [Fe/H]=--1. Beers et al. (2002) have so far proposed the largest sample of metal poor thick disk. candidates, presenting 9 stars at [Fe/H]=-1.2 or lower and 46 more stars at [Fe/H]=-1 or lower, all of which are believed to belong to the thick disk. Beers et al. (2002) present possible thick disk stars as metal poor as [Fe/H]~ -2.5, roughly 1 dex lower than is suggested by current Galactic formation models (Brook et al., 2005). This study is a high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up of 29 of the stars Beers et al. (2002) and Chiba & Beers (2000) identify as potiential metal poor members of the thick disk and an additional 40 stars from the cannonical thick disk, halo, and thin disk. None of the very metal-poor stars identified by Beers et al. (2002) can be confirmed as members of the thick disk and many are not metal poor at all. Only two stars more metal poor than [Fe/H]=--1.2 retain their thick disk membership. These two stars exhibit some of the. chemical characteristics of the cannonical thick disk: high alpha-element abundances and a relatively low s-/r- process element ratio. Also of interest are. six stars with thin disk kinematic

  18. First stars. XIII. Two extremely metal-poor RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Nordström, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Spite, M.; Andersen, J.; Beers, T. C.; Cayrel, R.; Spite, F.; Molaro, P.; Barbuy, B.; Depagne, E.; François, P.; Hill, V.; Plez, B.; Sivarani, T.

    2011-03-01

    Context. The chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars (EMP stars; [Fe/H] < ~ -3) is a unique tracer of early nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. As such stars are rare, we wish to find classes of luminous stars which can be studied at high spectral resolution. Aims: We aim to determine the detailed chemical composition of the two EMP stars CS 30317-056 and CS 22881-039, originally thought to be red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars, and compare it to earlier results for EMP stars as well as to nucleosynthesis yields from various supernova (SN) models. In the analysis, we discovered that our targets are in fact the two most metal-poor RR Lyrae stars known. Methods: Our detailed abundance analysis, taking into account the variability of the stars, is based on VLT/UVES spectra (R ≃ 43 000) and 1D LTE OSMARCS model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. For comparison with SN models we also estimate NLTE corrections for a number of elements. Results: We derive LTE abundances for the 16 elements O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr and Ba, in good agreement with earlier values for EMP dwarf, giant and RHB stars. Li and C are not detected in either star. NLTE abundance corrections are newly calculated for O and Mg and taken from the literature for other elements. The resulting abundance pattern is best matched by model yields for supernova explosions with high energy and/or significant asphericity effects. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, except for Li and C, the surface composition of EMP RR Lyr stars is not significantly affected by mass loss, mixing or diffusion processes; hence, EMP RR Lyr stars should also be useful tracers of the chemical evolution of the early Galactic halo. The observed abundance ratios indicate that these stars were born from an ISM polluted by energetic, massive (25-40 M⊙) and /or aspherical supernovae, but the NLTE corrections for Sc and certain other elements do play a role in the choice of model. Based on

  19. r-process enhanched metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, John; Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.

    Abundance observations indicate the presence of rapid-neutron capture (i.e., r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. These observations provide insight into the nature of the earliest generations of stars in the Galaxy - the progenitors of the halo stars - responsible for neutron-capture synthesis of the heavy elements. The large star-to-star scatter observed in the abundances of neutron-capture element/iron ratios at low metallicities - which diminishes with in- creasing metallicity or [Fe/H] - suggests the formation of these heavy elements (presumably from certain types of supernovae) was rare in the early Galaxy. The stellar abundances also indicate a change from the r-process to the slow neutron capture (i.e., s-) process at higher metallicities in the Galaxy and provide insight into Galactic chemical evolution. Finally, the detection of thorium and uranium in halo and globular cluster stars offers an independent age-dating technique that can put lower limits on the age of the Galaxy, and hence the Universe.

  20. VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC BULGE FOUND BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Perez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Hearty, Fred R.; Cunha, Katia; Shetrone, Matthew; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Zasowski, Gail; Smith, Verne V.; Beers, Timothy C.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Holtzman, Jon; Nidever, David; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Girardi, Leo; and others

    2013-04-10

    Despite its importance for understanding the nature of early stellar generations and for constraining Galactic bulge formation models, at present little is known about the metal-poor stellar content of the central Milky Way. This is a consequence of the great distances involved and intervening dust obscuration, which challenge optical studies. However, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), a wide-area, multifiber, high-resolution spectroscopic survey within Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, is exploring the chemistry of all Galactic stellar populations at infrared wavelengths, with particular emphasis on the disk and the bulge. An automated spectral analysis of data on 2403 giant stars in 12 fields in the bulge obtained during APOGEE commissioning yielded five stars with low metallicity ([Fe/H] {<=} -1.7), including two that are very metal-poor [Fe/H] {approx} -2.1 by bulge standards. Luminosity-based distance estimates place the 5 stars within the outer bulge, where 1246 of the other analyzed stars may reside. A manual reanalysis of the spectra verifies the low metallicities, and finds these stars to be enhanced in the {alpha}-elements O, Mg, and Si without significant {alpha}-pattern differences with other local halo or metal-weak thick-disk stars of similar metallicity, or even with other more metal-rich bulge stars. While neither the kinematics nor chemistry of these stars can yet definitively determine which, if any, are truly bulge members, rather than denizens of other populations co-located with the bulge, the newly identified stars reveal that the chemistry of metal-poor stars in the central Galaxy resembles that of metal-weak thick-disk stars at similar metallicity.

  1. Missing metal-poor stars from the HK and Hamburg/ESO Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy; Placco, Vinicius; Christlieb, Norbert; Rossi, Silvia; Santucci, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    The most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy retain the imprint of chemical evolution processes that took place during the earliest epochs of the Universe, and provide valuable kinematic probes of the hierachical assembly of the Milky Way. We propose to supplement the lists of known very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) stars by obtaining follow-up medium-resolution spectroscopy of candidates selected from the HK and Hamburg/ESO prism surveys. We have prepared a list of several thousand candidates, with 10 < B < 18, and available at essentially all RAs in both hemispheres. We plan to use GMOS-N and GMOS-S to obtain spectra for the fainter candidates; brighter candidates will be acquired with other 4-m class telescopes. These medium-resolution spectra will be used to determine atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, [Fe/H]), as well as estimates of [C/Fe] and [alpha/Fe] and accurate radial velocities, using our well-tested spectroscopic analysis pipeline. This information will enable the identification of many new very metal-poor stars, including representatives of the inner- and outer-halo populations, for which detailed chemodynamical analysis can be carried out. The most interesting stars identified during this project will be selected for later follow-up with the either existing or new high-resolution spectrographs being developed for Gemini-N, Gemini-S, and SOAR.

  2. Searching for dust around hyper metal poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Venn, Kim A.; Divell, Mike; Starkenburg, Else; Puzia, Thomas H.; Côté, Stephanie; Lambert, David L.

    2014-08-20

    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <–5, and other metal-poor stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excesses. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g., a warm debris disk (T ≤ 290 K), or debris disks with inner radii ≤1 AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-asymptotic giant branch spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g., a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 μm is detected at the 2σ level; if the excess is real and associated with this star, it may indicate the presence of (recent) dust-gas winnowing or a binary system.

  3. A Photometric Method for Discovering Extremely Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Adam

    2015-01-01

    I present a new non-parametric machine-learning method for predicting stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) based on photometric colors from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The method is trained using a large sample of ~150k stars with SDSS spectra and atmospheric parameter estimates (Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]) from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g < 18 mag) with 4500 K < Teff < 7000 K and log g > 2, corresponding to the stars for which the SSPP estimates are most reliable, the method is capable of predicting [Fe/H] with a typical scatter of ~0.16 dex. This scatter is smaller than the typical uncertainty associated with [Fe/H] measurements from a low-resolution spectrum. The method is suitable for the discovery of extremely metal poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] < -3), as high purity (P > 50%), but low efficiency (E ~ 10%), samples of EMP star candidates can be generated from the sources with the lowest predicted [Fe/H]. To improve the efficiency of EMP star discovery, an alternative machine-learning model is constructed where the number of non-EMP stars is down-sampled in the training set, and a new regression model is fit. This alternate model improves the efficiency of EMP candidate selection by a factor of ~2. To test the efficacy of the model, I have obtained low-resolution spectra of 56 candidate EMP stars. I measure [Fe/H] for these stars using the well calibrated Ca II K line method, and compare our spectroscopic measurements to those from the machine learning model. Once applied to wide-field surveys, such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, and LSST, the model will identify thousands of previously unknown EMP stars.

  4. Automated Selection of Metal-Poor Stars in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jaehyon

    2000-08-01

    In this thesis I have developed algorithms for the efficient reduction and analysis of a large set of objective-prism data, and for the reliable selection of extremely metal-poor candidate stars in the Galaxy. Automated computer scans of the 308 photographic plates in the HK objective-prism / interference-filter survey of Beers and colleagues have been carried out with the Automatic Plate Measuring (APM) machine in Cambridge, England. Highly automated software tools have been developed in order to identify useful spectra and remove unusable spectra, to locate the positions of the Ca II H (3969 Å) and K (3933 Å) absorption lines, and to construct approximate continua. Equivalent widths of the Ca II H and K lines were then measured directly from these reduced spectra. A subset of 294,039 spectra from 87 of the HK survey plates (located within approximately 30 degrees of the South Galactic Pole) were extracted. Of these, 221,670 (75.4%) proved to be useful for subsequent analysis. I have explored new methodology, making use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analysis approach, in order to select extremely metal-poor star candidates with high efficiency. The ANNs were trained to predict metallicity, [Fe/H], and to classify stars into 6 groups separated by temperature and metal abundance, based on two accurately measured parameters -- the de-reddened broadband (B-V)0 color for known HK survey stars with available photometric information, and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line in an 18 Å band, the K18 index, as measured from follow-up medium-resolution spectroscopy taken during the course of the HK survey. When provided with accurate input data, the trained networks were able to estimate [Fe/H] and to determine the class with high accuracy (with a robust estimated one-sigma scatter of SBI = 0.13 dex, and an overall correction rate of 91%). The ANN approach was then used in order to recover information on the K18 index and (B-V)0 color directly from the APM

  5. Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-10-16

    The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no 'metals' (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon monoxide emission is unreliable as a tracer of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below ten per cent of the solar value, and show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps in these galaxies. The efficiencies are less than a tenth of those found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe. PMID:25318522

  6. Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-10-01

    The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no `metals' (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon monoxide emission is unreliable as a tracer of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below ten per cent of the solar value, and show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps in these galaxies. The efficiencies are less than a tenth of those found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe.

  7. TESTING THE ASTEROSEISMIC MASS SCALE USING METAL-POOR STARS CHARACTERIZED WITH APOGEE AND KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Chaplin, William J.; Shetrone, Matthew; Mosser, Benoît; Hekker, Saskia; Harding, Paul; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Basu, Sarbani; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bedding, Timothy R.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García, Rafael A.; and others

    2014-04-20

    Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scaling relations, combined with asteroseismic parameters from the APOKASC Catalog, produce masses that are systematically higher (<ΔM > =0.17 ± 0.05 M {sub ☉}) than astrophysical expectations. The magnitude of the mass discrepancy is reduced by known theoretical corrections to the measured large frequency separation scaling relationship. Using alternative methods for measuring asteroseismic parameters induces systematic shifts at the 0.04 M {sub ☉} level. We also compare published asteroseismic analyses with scaling relationship masses to examine the impact of using the frequency of maximum power as a constraint. Upcoming APOKASC observations will provide a larger sample of ∼100 metal-poor stars, important for detailed asteroseismic characterization of Galactic stellar populations.

  8. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE MILKY WAY: A SECOND GENERATION FORMED AFTER REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Trenti, Michele; Shull, J. Michael E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.ed

    2010-03-20

    Cosmological simulations of Population III star formation suggest an initial mass function (IMF) biased toward very massive stars (M {approx}> 100 M{sub sun}) formed in minihalos at redshift z {approx}> 20, when the cooling is driven by molecular hydrogen. However, this result conflicts with observations of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Milky Way (MW) halo, whose r-process elemental abundances appear to be incompatible with those expected from very massive Population III progenitors. We propose a new solution to the problem in which the IMF of second-generation stars formed at z {approx}> 10, before reionization, is deficient in sub-solar mass stars, owing to the high cosmic microwave background temperature floor. The observed EMP stars are formed preferentially at z {approx}< 10 in pockets of gas enriched to metallicity Z {approx}> 10{sup -3.5} Z{sub sun} by winds from Population II stars. Our cosmological simulations of dark matter halos like the MW show that current samples of EMP stars can only constrain the IMF of late-time Population III stars, formed at z {approx}< 13 in halos with virial temperature T{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 4} K. This suggests that pair instability supernovae were not produced primarily by this population. To begin probing the IMF of Population III stars formed at higher redshift will require a large survey, with at least 500 and probably several thousand EMP stars of metallicities Z {approx} 10{sup -3.5} Z{sub sun}.

  9. Identifying Bright Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars in the RAVE Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Bright metal-poor stars are of great importance for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up, since their brightness allows for detailed studies of the chemical compositions of their atmospheres, obtainable with short integration times on 4m-8m class telescopes. We have carried out a medium-resolution spectroscopic follow-up survey of very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.0) stars selected from the RAVE catalog.Over the course of four semesters we observed over 1,200 stars with the Gemini North, Gemini South, SOAR, KPNO/Mayall, and ESO/NTT telescopes. These spectra are used to confirm the estimated atmospheric parameters from RAVE, as well as to determine [C/Fe], using our spectroscopic analysis pipeline. This information has already enabled the identification of many new carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including representatives of the inner- and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way, for which high-resolution spectroscopy is in progress from the ground with the Magellan/Clay Telescope and with the South African Large Telescope (SALT). The most interesting stars from the high-resolution follow-up will be observed from space with HST/STIS or COS. In this talk I will present the results of the medium-resolution follow-up, and preliminary results from the high-resolution effort.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  10. Diversity of abundance patterns of neutron-capture elements in very metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Misa; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Aoki, Wako; Wanajo, Shinya

    2014-05-02

    Observations of Very Metal-Poor stars indicate that there are at least two sites to r-process; “weak r-process” and “main r-process”. A question is whether these two are well separated or there exists a variation in the r-process. We present the results of abundance analysis of neutron-capture elements in the two Very Metal-Poor stars HD107752 and HD110184 in the Milky Way halo observed with the Subaru Telescope HDS. The abundance patterns show overabundace at light n-capture elements (e.g. Sr, Y), inferring the element yielding of weak r-process, while heavy neutron-capture elements (e.g. Ba, Eu) are deficient; however, the overabundance of light ones is not as significant as that previously found in stars representing the weak r-process (e.g. HD122563; Honda et al. 2006). Our study show diversity in the abundance patterns from light to heavy neutron-capture elements in VMP stars, suggesting a variation in r-process, which may depend on electron fraction of environment.

  11. A Model for Abundances in Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Y.-Z.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2001-10-01

    A model is presented that seeks to explain quantitatively the stellar abundances of r-process elements and other elements associated with the r-process sites. It is argued that the abundances of all these elements in stars with -3<~[Fe/H]<-1 can be explained by the contributions of three sources. The sources are the first generations of very massive (>~100 Msolar) stars that are formed from big bang debris and are distinct from Type II supernovae (SNe II) and two types of SNe II, the H and L events, which can occur only at [Fe/H]>~-3. The H events are of high frequency and produce dominantly heavy (A>130) r-elements but no Fe (presumably leaving behind black holes). The L events are of low frequency and produce Fe and dominantly light (A<~130) r-elements (essentially none above Ba). By using the observed abundances in two ultra-metal-poor stars and the solar r-abundances, the initial or prompt inventory of elements produced by the first generations of very massive stars and the yields of H and L events can be determined. The abundances of a large number of elements in a star can then be calculated from the model by using only the observed Eu and Fe abundances. To match the model results and the observational data for stars with -3<[Fe/H]<-1 requires that the solar r-abundances for Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba must be significantly increased from the standard values. No such changes appear to be required for all other elements. If the changes in the solar r-abundances for Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba are not permitted, the model fails at -3<[Fe/H]<-1 but still works at [Fe/H]~-3 for these four elements. By using the corrected solar r-abundances for these elements, good agreement is obtained between the model results and data over the range -3<[Fe/H]<-1. No evidence of s-process contributions is found in this region, but all the observational data in this region now show regular increases of Ba/Eu above the standard solar r-process value. Whether the solar r-components of Sr, Y, Zr, and

  12. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Study of Extremely Metal-Poor Star Candidates from the SkyMapper Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Keller, Stefan; Frebel, Anna; Casey, Andrew R.; Asplund, Martin; Bessell, Michael S.; Da Costa, Gary S.; Lind, Karin; Marino, Anna F.; Norris, John E.; Peña, José M.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tisserand, Patrick; Walsh, Jennifer M.; Yong, David; Yu, Qinsi

    2015-07-01

    The SkyMapper Southern Sky Survey is carrying out a search for the most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy. It identifies candidates by way of its unique filter set which allows for estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters. The set includes a narrow filter centered on the Ca ii K 3933 Å line, enabling a robust estimate of stellar metallicity. Promising candidates are then confirmed with spectroscopy. We present the analysis of Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle high-resolution spectroscopy of 122 metal-poor stars found by SkyMapper in the first two years of commissioning observations. Forty-one stars have [{Fe}/{{H}}]≤slant -3.0. Nine have [{Fe}/{{H}}]≤slant -3.5, with three at [{Fe}/{{H}}]∼ -4. A 1D LTE abundance analysis of the elements Li, C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Ba, and Eu shows these stars have [X/Fe] ratios typical of other halo stars. One star with low [X/Fe] values appears to be “Fe-enhanced,” while another star has an extremely large [Sr/Ba] ratio: \\gt 2. Only one other star is known to have a comparable value. Seven stars are “CEMP-no” stars ([{{C}}/{Fe}]\\gt 0.7, [{Ba}/{Fe}]\\lt 0). 21 stars exhibit mild r-process element enhancements (0.3≤slant [{Eu}/{Fe}]\\lt 1.0), while four stars have [{Eu}/{Fe}]≥slant 1.0. These results demonstrate the ability to identify extremely metal-poor stars from SkyMapper photometry, pointing to increased sample sizes and a better characterization of the metal-poor tail of the halo metallicity distribution function in the future. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  13. Improved Yttrium and Zirconium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violante, Renata; Biemont, E.; Cowan, J. J.; Sneden, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present new abundances of the lighter n-capture elements, Yttrium (Z=39) and Zirconium (Z=40) in the very metal poor, r-process rich stars BD+17 3248 and HD 221170. Very accurate abundances were obtained by use of the new transition probabilities for Y II published by Biémont et al. 2011, and Zr II by Malcheva et al. 2006, and by expanding the number of transitions employed for each element. For example, in BD+17 3248, we find log ɛπσιλον=-0.03 +/- 0.03 (σιγμα=0.15, from 23 lines) for Y II. As for Zr II, log ɛπσιλον = 0.65 +/- 0.03 (σɛγμα = 0.1, from 13 lines). The resulting abundance ratio is log ɛπσιλον [Y/Zr] = -0.68 +/- 0.05. The results for HD 221170 are in accord with those of BD+17 3248. The quantity of lines used to form the abundance means has increased significantly since the original studies of these stars, resulting in more trustworthy abundances. These observed abundance ratios are in agreement with an r-process-only value predicted from stellar models, but is under-abundant compared to an empirical model derived from direct analyses of meteoritic material. This ambiguity should stimulate further nucleosynthetic analysis to explain this abundance ratio. We would like to extend our gratitude to NSF grant AST-0908978 and the University of Texas Astronomy Department Rex G. Baker, Jr. Endowment for their financial support in this project.

  14. AGB nucleosynthesis at low metallicity: What can we learn from Carbon- and s-elements-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, C.; Pols, O. R.; Izzard, R. G.; Karakas, A. I.

    2013-02-01

    CEMP-s stars are very metal-poor stars with enhanced abundances of carbon and s-process elements. They form a significant proportion of the very metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo and are mostly observed in binary systems. This suggests that the observed chemical anomalies are due to mass accretion in the past from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. Because CEMP-s stars have hardly evolved since their formation, the study of their observed abundances provides a way to probe our models of AGB nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. To this end we included in our binary evolution model the results of the latest models of AGB nucleosynthesis and we simulated a grid of 100 000 binary stars at metallicity Z = 0.0001 in a wide range of initial masses and separations. We compared our modelled stars with a sample of 60 CEMP-s stars from the SAGA database of metal-poor stars. For each observed CEMP-s star of the sample we found the modelled star that reproduces best the observed abundances. The result of this comparison is that we are able to reproduce simultaneously the observed abundance of the elements affected by AGB nucleosynthesis (e.g. C, Mg, s-elements) for about 60% of the stars in the sample.

  15. Follow-up observations of extremely metal-poor stars identified from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, D. S.; Allende Prieto, C.; González Hernández, J. I.; Carrera, R.; Rebolo, R.; Shetrone, M.; Lambert, D. L.; Fernández-Alvar, E.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way witnessed the early phases of formation of the Galaxy, and have chemical compositions that are close to the pristine mixture from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, polluted by one or few supernovae. Aims: Only two dozen stars with ([Fe/H] < -4) are known, and they show a wide range of abundance patterns. It is therefore important to enlarge this sample. We present the first results of an effort to identify new extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo. Methods: Our targets have been selected from low-resolution spectra obtained as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and followed-up with medium resolution spectroscopy on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope and, in a few cases, at high resolution on the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Stellar parameters and the abundances of magnesium, calcium, iron, and strontium have been inferred from the spectra using classical model atmospheres. We have also derived carbon abundances from the G band. Results: We find consistency between the metallicities estimated from SDSS and those from new data at the level of 0.3 dex. The analysis of medium resolution data obtained with ISIS on the WHT allows us to refine the metallicities and in some cases measure other elemental abundances. Our sample contains 11 new metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -3.0, one of them with an estimated metallicity of [Fe/H] ~ -4.0. We also discuss metallicity discrepancies of some stars in common with previous works in the literature. Only one of these stars is found to be C-enhanced at about [C/Fe] ~ + 1, whereas the other metal-poor stars show C abundances at the level of [C/Fe] ~ + 0.45. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.The reduced spectra as FITS files are only available at

  16. DETECTION OF THE SECOND r-PROCESS PEAK ELEMENT TELLURIUM IN METAL-POOR STARS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E.; Cowan, John J.; Beers, Timothy C.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Sneden, Christopher

    2012-03-15

    Using near-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we detect neutral tellurium in three metal-poor stars enriched by products of r-process nucleosynthesis, BD +17 3248, HD 108317, and HD 128279. Tellurium (Te, Z = 52) is found at the second r-process peak (A Almost-Equal-To 130) associated with the N = 82 neutron shell closure, and it has not been detected previously in Galactic halo stars. The derived tellurium abundances match the scaled solar system r-process distribution within the uncertainties, confirming the predicted second peak r-process residuals. These results suggest that tellurium is predominantly produced in the main component of the r-process, along with the rare earth elements.

  17. NEW HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN FOUR METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Thompson, Ian B.; Lawler, James E.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher

    2012-12-15

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest.

  18. Beryllium and boron in metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of lithium, beryllium, and boron abundances in stars of the Galactic halo and disk plays a major role in our understanding of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic-ray physics, and stellar interiors. 9Be and 10B are believed to originate entirely from spallation reactions in the interstellar medium (ISM) between α-particles and protons and heavy nuclei like carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen (CNO), whereas 11B may have an extra production channel via neutrino-spallation. Beryllium and boron are both observationally challenging, with their main resonant doublets falling respectively at 313 nm and at 250 nm. The advent of 8-10m class telescopes equipped with highly sensitive (in the near-UV/blue) spectrographs has opened up a new era of Be abundance studies. Here, I will review and discuss the most interesting results of recent observational campaigns in terms of formation and evolution of these two light elements.

  19. Abundances of 30 Elements in 23 Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jennifer A.

    2002-03-01

    We report the abundances of 30 elements in 23 metal-poor ([Fe/H]<-1.7) giants. These are based on 7774 equivalent widths and spectral synthesis of 229 additional lines. Hyperfine splitting is taken into account when appropriate. Our choice of model atmospheres has the most influence on the accuracy of our abundances. We consider the effect of different model atmospheres on our results. In addition to the random errors in Teff, logg, and microturbulent velocity, there are several sources of systematic error. These include using Teff determined from Fe I lines rather than colors, ignoring non-LTE effects on the Fe I/Fe II ionization balance, using models with solar [α/Fe] ratios, and using Kurucz models with overshooting. Of these, only the use of models with solar [α/Fe] ratios had a negligible effect. However, while the absolute abundances can change by greater than 0.10 dex, the relative abundances, especially between closely allied atoms such as the rare earth group, often show only small (less than 0.03 dex) changes. We found that some strong lines of Fe I, Mn I, and Cr I consistently gave lower abundances by ~0.2 dex, a number larger than the quoted errors in the gf-values. After considering a model with depth-dependent microturbulent velocity and a model with hotter temperatures in the upper layers, we conclude that the latter did a better job of resolving the problem and agreeing with observational evidence for the structure of stars. The error analysis includes the effects of correlation of Teff, logg, and ξ errors, which is crucial for certain element ratios, such as [Mg/Fe]. The abundances presented here are being analyzed and discussed in a separate series of papers.

  20. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: probes of nucleosynthesis from the first generation of stars in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.

    CEMP-no stars are a subclass of very metal-poor (VMP; [Fe/H] < -2.0) and extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars in the Milky Way (including the most iron-deficient stars known) with no strong enhancements of s-process elements (which might be attributed to mass transfer from a binary companion). In addition to C, these stars exhibit enhancements of N, O, and other light elements such as Na, Mg, Al, and Si, a pattern that may be uniquely produced by the first-generation stars in the early Universe. These stars have also been recently linked to the observed abundance pattern in a high redshift (z = 3.1), EMP damped Lyman-alpha cloud. I discuss the discovery of CEMP-no stars, connections with their progenitors in the outer-halo component of the Galaxy, new surveys that are expanding their numbers, and planned future spectroscopic exploration of these fascinating objects.

  1. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: relics from the dark ages

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Madau, Piero

    2014-08-20

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: the observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high-energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low-energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation, but, as a result, the second stars are born with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the observed distributions of [C/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the fraction of CEMP stars relative to non-CEMP stars as a function of [Fe/H] without any free parameters. We propose that the present lack of chemical evidence for very massive stars (≳ 140 M {sub ☉}) that ended their lives as a highly energetic pair-instability supernova does not imply that such stars were rare or did not exist; the chemical products of these very massive first stars may have been evacuated from their host minihalos and were never incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Finally, our models suggest that the most Fe-poor stars currently known may have seen the enrichment from a small multiple of metal-free stars, and need not have been exclusively enriched by a solitary first star. These calculations also add further support to the possibility that some of the surviving dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are the relics of the first galaxies.

  2. BVRI and UBV Photometry of Metal-Poor and Horizontal-Branch Candidates in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lee, N.; Beers, T. C.; Smith, H. A.; Marsteller, B.; Krugler, J.; Lee, Y.; Wilhelm, R.; Terndrup, D.

    2005-12-01

    We report on UBVRI CCD photometry that has been obtained over the course of the past seven years for a sample of over 1600 metal-poor (MP), field horizontal-branch (FHB), and other A-type candidates selected from two large objective-prism surveys, the HK survey of Beers and collaborators and the Hamburg/ESO stellar survey of Christlieb and colleagues. These stars either have, or soon will have, medium-resolution (1-2 Å) spectroscopy obtained with various 2.5m - 4m class telescopes, including the SOAR 4.1m. These observations are being employed for several purposes. In the case of the FHB/A stars, the UBV photometry is useful for separating out low-gravity stars from the high-gravity ones. The subsample of high-gravity A-type stars includes Blue Metal Poor stars, halo and thick-disk blue stragglers, main-sequence A-type dwarfs, and Am and Ap stars. These observations are also being used to derive photometric distance estimates that will aid studies of high-velocity hydrogen clouds in the Galaxy, as well as to refine Galactic mass measurements. The data for the low-metallicity objects will be used to obtain estimates of temperatures that are required for elemental abundance studies based on future high-resolution spectroscopic observations, as well as to estimate distances for use in kinematic studies. T.C.B. and Y.L. acknowledge partial support from grant AST 04-06784, as well as from grant PHY 02-16783, Physics Frontier Center/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  3. Modelling the observed properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars using binary population synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, C.; Pols, O. R.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Izzard, R. G.; Karakas, A. I.; Beers, T. C.; Lee, Y. S.

    2015-09-01

    The stellar population in the Galactic halo is characterised by a large fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. Most CEMP stars have enhanced abundances of s-process elements (CEMP-s stars), and some of these are also enriched in r-process elements (CEMP-s/r stars). In one formation scenario proposed for CEMP stars, the observed carbon excess is explained by invoking wind mass transfer in the past from a more massive thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) primary star in a binary system.In this work we generate synthetic populations of binary stars at metallicity Z = 0.0001 ([Fe/H] ≈ - 2.3), with the aim of reproducing the observed fraction of CEMP stars in the halo. In addition, we aim to constrain our model of the wind mass-transfer process, in particular the wind-accretion efficiency and angular-momentum loss, and investigate under which conditions our model populations reproduce observed distributions of element abundances.We compare the CEMP fractions determined from our synthetic populations and the abundance distributions of many elements with observations. Several physical parameters of the binary stellar population of the halo are uncertain, in particular the initial mass function, the mass-ratio distribution, the orbital-period distribution, and the binary fraction. We vary the assumptions in our model about these parameters, as well as the wind mass-transfer process, and study the consequent variations of our synthetic CEMP population.The CEMP fractions calculated in our synthetic populations vary between 7% and 17%, a range consistent with the CEMP fractions among very metal-poor stars recently derived from the SDSS/SEGUE data sample. The resulting fractions are more than a factor of three higher than those determined with default assumptions in previous population-synthesis studies, which typically underestimated the observed CEMP fraction. We find that most CEMP stars in our simulations are formed in binary systems with periods

  4. DETECTION OF A DISTINCT METAL-POOR STELLAR HALO IN THE EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.

    2015-02-10

    We present the resolved stellar populations in the inner and outer halo of the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115. Using deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, we analyze stars 2 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We study three fields along the minor axis of this galaxy, 19, 37, and 54 kpc from its center—corresponding to 7, 14, and 21 effective radii (r{sub e} ). Even at these large galactocentric distances, all of the fields are dominated by a relatively enriched population, with the main peak in the metallicity distribution decreasing with radius from [Z/H] ∼ –0.5 to –0.65. The fraction of metal-poor stars ([Z/H] < –0.95) increases from 17% at 16-37 kpc to 28% at ∼54 kpc. We observe a distinct low-metallicity population (peaked at [Z/H] ∼ –1.3 and with total mass 2 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} ∼ 14% of the galaxy's stellar mass) and argue that this represents the detection of an underlying low-metallicity stellar halo. Such halos are generally predicted by galaxy formation theories and have been observed in several late-type galaxies, including the Milky Way and M31. The metallicity and spatial distribution of the stellar halo of NGC 3115 are consistent with the galaxy's globular cluster system, which has a similar low-metallicity population that becomes dominant at these large radii. This finding supports the use of globular clusters as bright chemodynamical tracers of galaxy halos. These data also allow us to make a precise measurement of the magnitude of the TRGB, from which we derive a distance modulus of NGC 3115 of 30.05 ± 0.05 ± 0.10{sub sys} (10.2 ± 0.2 ± 0.5{sub sys} Mpc)

  5. An Astrometric Companion to the Nearby Metal-Poor, Low-Mass Star LHS 1589

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépine, Sébastien; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Skemer, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    We report the discovery of a companion to the high proper motion star LHS 1589, a nearby high-velocity, low-mass subdwarf. The companion (LHS 1589B) is located 0.224''+/-0.004'' to the southwest of the primary (LHS 1589A), and is 0.5 mag fainter than the primary in the Ks band. The pair was resolved with the IRCAL infrared camera at Lick Observatory, operating with the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system. A low-resolution spectrum of the unresolved pair obtained at the MDM observatory shows the source to be consistent with a cool subdwarf of spectral subtype sdK7.5. A photometric distance estimate places the metal-poor system at a distance d=81+/-18 pc from the Sun. We also measure a radial velocity Vrad=67+/-8 km s-1, which, together with the proper motion and estimated distance, suggests that the pair is roaming the inner Galactic halo on a highly eccentric orbit. With a projected orbital separation s=18.1+/-4.8 AU, and a crude estimate of the system's total mass, we estimate the orbital period of the system to be in the range 75 yr metal-poor, low-mass stars. Based on observations performed with the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system at the Lick Observatory, operated by the University of California system. Based on observations conducted at the MDM observatory, operated jointly by the University of Michigan, Dartmouth College, the Ohio State University, Columbia University, and the University of Ohio.

  6. An Elemental Assay of Very, Extremely, and Ultra-metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T.; Hansen, C. J.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, T. C.; Yong, D.; Bessell, M. S.; Frebel, A.; García Pérez, A. E.; Placco, V. M.; Norris, J. E.; Asplund, M.

    2015-07-01

    We present a high-resolution elemental-abundance analysis for a sample of 23 very metal-poor ([Fe/H] < ‑2.0) stars, 12 of which are extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H] < ‑3.0), and 4 of which are ultra-metal-poor ([Fe/H] < ‑4.0). These stars were targeted to explore differences in the abundance ratios for elements that constrain the possible astrophysical sites of element production, including Li, C, N, O, the α-elements, the iron-peak elements, and a number of neutron-capture elements. This sample substantially increases the number of known carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor (NEMP) stars—our program stars include eight that are considered “normal” metal-poor stars, six CEMP-no stars, five CEMP-s stars, two CEMP-r stars, and two CEMP-r/s stars. One of the CEMP-r stars and one of the CEMP-r/s stars are possible NEMP stars. We detect lithium for three of the six CEMP-no stars, all of which are Li depleted with respect to the Spite plateau. The majority of the CEMP stars have [C/N] > 0. The stars with [C/N] < 0 suggest a larger degree of mixing; the few CEMP-no stars that exhibit this signature are only found at [Fe/H] < ‑3.4, a metallicity below which we also find the CEMP-no stars with large enhancements in Na, Mg, and Al. We confirm the existence of two plateaus in the absolute carbon abundances of CEMP stars, as suggested by Spite et al. We also present evidence for a “floor” in the absolute Ba abundances of CEMP-no stars at A(Ba) ∼ ‑2.0. Based on observations made with the European Southern Observatory telescopes.

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: URSA MAJOR II and COMA BERENICES

    SciTech Connect

    Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D.; Geha, Maria; Willman, Beth E-mail: jsimon@ociw.ed E-mail: bwillman@haverford.ed

    2010-01-01

    We present spectra of six metal-poor stars in two of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW), Ursa Major II, and Coma Berenices obtained with the Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES). These observations include the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -3.0) stars not belonging to the MW halo field star population. We obtain abundance measurements and upper limits for 26 elements between carbon and europium. The entire sample of stars spans a range of -3.2 < [Fe/H] < -2.3, and we confirm that each galaxy contains a large intrinsic spread of Fe abundances. A comparison with MW halo stars of similar metallicities reveals substantial agreement between the abundance patterns of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies and the MW halo for the light, alpha, and iron-peak elements (C to Zn). This agreement contrasts with the results of earlier studies of more metal-rich stars (-2.5 approx< [Fe/H] approx< -1.0) in more luminous dwarf spheroidal galaxies, which found significant abundance discrepancies with respect to the MW halo data. The abundances of neutron-capture elements (Sr to Eu) in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies are extremely low, consistent with the most metal-poor halo stars, but not with the typical halo abundance pattern at [Fe/H] approx> -3.0. Not only are our results broadly consistent with a galaxy formation model that predicts that massive dwarf galaxies are the source of the metal-rich component ([Fe/H]> - 2.5) of the MW halo, but they also suggest that the faintest known dwarfs may be the primary contributors to the metal-poor end of the MW halo metallicity distribution.

  8. Possible evidence for metal accretion onto the surfaces of metal-poor main-sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    The entire evolution of the Milky Way, including its mass-assembly and star-formation history, is imprinted onto the chemo-dynamical distribution function of its member stars, f(x, v, [X/H]), in the multi-dimensional phase space spanned by position, velocity, and elemental abundance ratios. In particular, the chemo-dynamical distribution functions for low-mass stars (e.g., G- or K-type dwarfs) are precious tracers of the earliest stages of the Milky Way's formation, since their main-sequence lifetimes approach or exceed the age of the universe. A basic tenet of essentially all previous analyses is that the stellar metallicity, usually parameterized as [Fe/H], is conserved over time for main-sequence stars (at least those that have not been polluted due to mass transfer from binary companions). If this holds true, any correlations between metallicity and kinematics for long-lived main-sequence stars of different masses, effective temperatures, or spectral types must strictly be the same, since they reflect the same mass-assembly and star-formation histories. By analyzing a sample of nearby metal-poor halo and thick-disk stars on the main sequence, taken from Data Release 8 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the median metallicity of G-type dwarfs is systematically higher (by about 0.2 dex) than that of K-type dwarfs having the same median rotational velocity about the Galactic center. If it can be confirmed, this finding may invalidate the long-accepted assumption that the atmospheric metallicities of long-lived stars are conserved over time.

  9. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Heavy Elements in Four Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Thompson, Ian B.

    2012-12-01

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 8111 and

  10. The Most Metal-poor Stars. III. The Metallicity Distribution Function and Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Christlieb, N.; Asplund, M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in a sample that includes 86 stars with [Fe/H] <= -3.0, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, of which some 32 objects lie below [Fe/H] = -3.5. After accounting for the completeness function, the "corrected" MDF does not exhibit the sudden drop at [Fe/H] = -3.6 that was found in recent samples of dwarfs and giants from the Hamburg/ESO survey. Rather, the MDF decreases smoothly down to [Fe/H] = -4.1. Similar results are obtained from the "raw" MDF. We find that the fraction of CEMP objects below [Fe/H] = -3.0 is 23% ± 6% and 32% ± 8% when adopting the Beers & Christlieb and Aoki et al. CEMP definitions, respectively. The former value is in fair agreement with some previous measurements, which adopt the Beers & Christlieb criterion. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal 281.D-5015).

  11. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. III. THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION AND CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR FRACTION , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in a sample that includes 86 stars with [Fe/H] {<=} -3.0, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, of which some 32 objects lie below [Fe/H] = -3.5. After accounting for the completeness function, the 'corrected' MDF does not exhibit the sudden drop at [Fe/H] = -3.6 that was found in recent samples of dwarfs and giants from the Hamburg/ESO survey. Rather, the MDF decreases smoothly down to [Fe/H] = -4.1. Similar results are obtained from the 'raw' MDF. We find that the fraction of CEMP objects below [Fe/H] = -3.0 is 23% {+-} 6% and 32% {+-} 8% when adopting the Beers and Christlieb and Aoki et al. CEMP definitions, respectively. The former value is in fair agreement with some previous measurements, which adopt the Beers and Christlieb criterion.

  12. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS WITH THE SUBARU HIGH DISPERSION SPECTROGRAPH. V. THE Zn-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STAR BS 16920-017

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Satoshi; Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Takada-Hidai, Masahide E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp E-mail: hidai@apus.rh.u-tokai.ac.jp

    2011-04-01

    We report Zn abundances for 18 very metal-poor stars studied in our previous work, covering the metallicity range -3.2< [Fe/H] <-2.5. The [Zn/Fe] values of most stars show an increasing trend with decreasing [Fe/H] in this metallicity range, confirming the results found by previous studies. However, the extremely metal-poor star BS 16920-017([Fe/H] =-3.2) exhibits a significantly high [Zn/Fe] ratio ([Zn/Fe] = +1.0). Comparison of the chemical abundances of this object with HD 4306, which has similar atmospheric parameters to BS 16920-017, clearly demonstrates a deficiency of {alpha} elements and neutron-capture elements in this star, along with enhancements of Mn and Ni, as well as Zn. The association with a hypernova explosion that has been proposed to explain the high Zn abundance ratios found in extremely metal-poor stars is a possible explanation, although further studies are required to fully interpret the abundance pattern of this object.

  13. Lithium Abundances in Extremely Metal-Poor Turn-Off Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, W.; Barklem, P.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, T. C.; Inoue, S.

    2008-05-21

    The Lithium (Li) abundances measured for very metal-poor turn-off (unevolved) stars have been interpreted as the result of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. However, the value is lower by a factor of two or three than the prediction of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis models, adopting the cosmological parameters determined by the measurements of cosmic microwave background radiation with the WMAP satellite. Moreover, the recent measurements for extremely metal-poor stars (objects having iron abundances less than 1/1000th solar) suggest a scatter of the Li abundance, or a possible decreasing trend with decreasing metallicity. In order to further investigate the Li production and destruction processes in the very early universe, we have determined Li abundances for extremely metal-poor stars based on high-resolution spectra for the resonance line of neutral Li. The result of our analysis, combined with previous measurements, indicates that the Li abundances of extremely metal-poor stars are, on average, lower than those of stars with higher metallicity, while the scatter or trend of the Li abundance remains unclear. We discuss possible reasons for the lower Li abundances in extremely metal-poor stars, such as depletion of Li in low-mass unevolved stars, or destruction of Li by the first generations of massive progenitors.

  14. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS AND A HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL EVOLUTION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Komiya, Yutaka

    2011-07-20

    Early phases of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and formation history of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are investigated using hierarchical galaxy formation models. We build a merger tree of the Galaxy according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We follow the chemical evolution along the tree and compare the model results to the metallicity distribution function and abundance ratio distribution of the Milky Way halo. We adopt three different initial mass functions (IMFs). In a previous study, we argued that the typical mass, M{sub md}, of EMP stars should be high, M{sub md} {approx} 10 M{sub sun}, based on studies of binary origin carbon-rich EMP stars. In this study, we show that only the high-mass IMF can explain an observed small number of EMP stars. For relative element abundances, the high-mass IMF and the Salpeter IMF predict similar distributions. We also investigate dependence on nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae (SNe). The theoretical SN yields by Kobayashi et al. and Chieffi and Limongi show reasonable agreement with observations for {alpha}-elements. Our model predicts a significant scatter of element abundances at [Fe/H] < -3. We adopted the stellar yields derived in the work of Francois et al., which produce the best agreement between the observational data and the one-zone chemical evolution model. Their yields well reproduce a trend of the averaged abundances of EMP stars but predict much larger scatter than do the observations. The model with hypernovae predicts Zn abundance, in agreement with the observations, but other models predict lower [Zn/Fe]. Ejecta from the hypernovae with large explosion energy is mixed in large mass and decreases the scatter of the element abundances.

  15. Identification of metal-poor stars using the artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, S.; Goswami, A.; Kunder, A.; Muneer, S.; Selvakumar, G.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Identification of metal-poor stars among field stars is extremely useful for studying the structure and evolution of the Galaxy and of external galaxies. Aims: We search for metal-poor stars using the artificial neural network (ANN) and extend its usage to determine absolute magnitudes. Methods: We have constructed a library of 167 medium-resolution stellar spectra (R ~ 1200) covering the stellar temperature range of 4200 to 8000 K, log g range of 0.5 to 5.0, and [Fe/H] range of -3.0 to +0.3 dex. This empirical spectral library was used to train ANNs, yielding an accuracy of 0.3 dex in [Fe/H] , 200 K in temperature, and 0.3 dex in log g. We found that the independent calibrations of near-solar metallicity stars and metal-poor stars decreases the errors in Teff and log g by nearly a factor of two. Results: We calculated Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] on a consistent scale for a large number of field stars and candidate metal-poor stars. We extended the application of this method to the calibration of absolute magnitudes using nearby stars with well-estimated parallaxes. A better calibration accuracy for MV could be obtained by training separate ANNs for cool, warm, and metal-poor stars. The current accuracy of MV calibration is ±0.3 mag. Conclusions: A list of newly identified metal-poor stars is presented. The MV calibration procedure developed here is reddening-independent and hence may serve as a powerful tool in studying galactic structure.

  16. Clear Evidence for the Presence of Second-generation Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in Metal-poor Galactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Mészáros, Sz.; Monelli, M.; Cassisi, S.; Stetson, P. B.; Zamora, O.; Shetrone, M.; Lucatello, S.

    2015-12-01

    Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are known to host multiple stellar populations: a first generation (FG) with a chemical pattern typical of halo field stars and a second generation (SG) enriched in Na and Al and depleted in O and Mg. Both stellar generations are found at different evolutionary stages (e.g., the main-sequence turnoff, the subgiant branch, and the red giant branch (RGB)). The non detection of SG asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in several metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) GCs suggests that not all SG stars ascend the AGB phase, and that failed AGB stars may be very common in metal-poor GCs. This observation represents a serious problem for stellar evolution and GC formation/evolution theories. We report fourteen SG-AGB stars in four metal-poor GCs (M13, M5, M3, and M2) with different observational properties: horizontal branch (HB) morphology, metallicity, and age. By combining the H-band Al abundances obtained by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey with ground-based optical photometry, we identify SG Al-rich AGB stars in these four GCs and show that Al-rich RGB/AGB GC stars should be Na-rich. Our observations provide strong support for present, standard stellar models, i.e., without including a strong mass-loss efficiency, for low-mass HB stars. In fact, current empirical evidence is in agreement with the predicted distribution of FG and SG stars during the He-burning stages based on these standard stellar models.

  17. High-resolution spectroscopic studies of ultra metal-poor stars found in the LAMOST survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Zhao, Gang; Honda, Satoshi; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-10-01

    We report on the observations of two ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars with [Fe/H] ˜ -4.0, including one new discovery. The two stars are studied in the on-going and quite efficient project to search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with LAMOST and Subaru. Detailed abundances or upper limits of abundances have been derived for 15 elements from Li to Eu based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted in the Subaru Telescope. The abundance patterns of both UMP stars are consistent with the "normal population" among the low-metallicity stars. Both of the two program stars show carbon-enhancement without any excess of heavy neutron-capture elements, indicating that they belong to the subclass of (carbon-enhanced metal-poor) CEMP-no stars, as is the case of most UMP stars previously studied. The [Sr/Ba] ratios of both CEMP-no UMP stars are above [Sr/Ba] ˜ -0.4, suggesting the origin of the carbon-excess is not compatible with the mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch companion where the s-process has operated. Lithium abundance is measured in the newly discovered UMP star LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1, making it the second UMP turnoff star with Li detection. The Li abundance of LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1 is slightly lower than the values obtained for less metal-poor stars with similar temperatures, and provides a unique data point at [Fe/H] ˜ -4.2 to support the "meltdown" of the Li Spite plateau at extremely low metallicity. Comparison with the other two UMP and HMP (hyper metal-poor, with [Fe/H] < -5.0) turnoff stars suggests that the difference in lighter elements such as CNO and Na might cause notable difference in lithium abundances among CEMP-no stars.

  18. Detection of a Distinct Metal-poor Stellar Halo in the Early-type Galaxy NGC 3115†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.

    2015-02-01

    We present the resolved stellar populations in the inner and outer halo of the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115. Using deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, we analyze stars 2 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We study three fields along the minor axis of this galaxy, 19, 37, and 54 kpc from its center—corresponding to 7, 14, and 21 effective radii (re ). Even at these large galactocentric distances, all of the fields are dominated by a relatively enriched population, with the main peak in the metallicity distribution decreasing with radius from [Z/H] ~ -0.5 to -0.65. The fraction of metal-poor stars ([Z/H] < -0.95) increases from 17% at 16-37 kpc to 28% at ~54 kpc. We observe a distinct low-metallicity population (peaked at [Z/H] ~ -1.3 and with total mass 2 × 1010 M ⊙ ~ 14% of the galaxy's stellar mass) and argue that this represents the detection of an underlying low-metallicity stellar halo. Such halos are generally predicted by galaxy formation theories and have been observed in several late-type galaxies, including the Milky Way and M31. The metallicity and spatial distribution of the stellar halo of NGC 3115 are consistent with the galaxy's globular cluster system, which has a similar low-metallicity population that becomes dominant at these large radii. This finding supports the use of globular clusters as bright chemodynamical tracers of galaxy halos. These data also allow us to make a precise measurement of the magnitude of the TRGB, from which we derive a distance modulus of NGC 3115 of 30.05 ± 0.05 ± 0.10sys (10.2 ± 0.2 ± 0.5sys Mpc). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13048.

  19. Observations of Very Metal-Poor Stars in the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, Timothy C.

    2008-05-21

    I report on recent results from observations of stars with metallicities [Fe/H]{<=}-2.0. These include a substantial new sample of objects with high-resolution observations obtained as part of a follow-up of the HK Survey, The Hamburg/ESO Survey, and the ongoing survey SEGUE: Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Perspectives on the next directions are also provided.

  20. Metal-poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope. III. New Extremely and Ultra Metal-poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE and Insights on the Formation of Ultra Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Lee, Young Sun; Jacobson, Heather R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Pena, Jose M.; Chan, Conrad; Heger, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of one extremely metal-poor (EMP; [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -3) and one ultra metal-poor (UMP; [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -4) star selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration survey. These stars were identified as EMP candidates based on their medium-resolution (R ˜ 2000) spectra, and were followed up with high-resolution (R ˜ 35,000) spectroscopy with the Magellan/Clay Telescope. Their derived chemical abundances exhibit good agreement with those of stars with similar metallicities. We also provide new insights on the formation of the UMP stars, based on comparisons with a new set of theoretical models of supernovae (SNe) nucleosynthesis. The models were matched with 20 UMP stars found in the literature, together with one of the program stars (SDSS J1204+1201), with [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-4.34. From fitting their abundances, we find that the SNe progenitors, for stars where carbon and nitrogen are measured, had masses ranging from 20.5 {M}⊙ to 28 {M}⊙ and explosion energies from 0.3 to 0.9× {10}51 {erg}. These results are highly sensitive to the carbon and nitrogen abundance determinations, which is one of the main drivers for a future high-resolution follow-up of UMP candidates. In addition, we are able to reproduce the different CNO abundance patterns found in UMP stars with a single progenitor type by varying its mass and explosion energy. Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. Nucleosynthesis in Low Mass Very Metal Poor AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenelli, A.

    The evolution of a 1.5 M⊙, Z= 10-5 stellar model has been followed starting at the ZAMS up to the thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase. Calculations were done using the LPCODE [1], to which some changes were done. The most important and relevant to this work is the incorporation of a full nuclear network from H to Po, comprising about 525 isotopes and 910 nuclear reactions, appropriate for the computation of the s-process occurring in AGB stars. Convection is treated according to the mixing length theory (λMLT = 1.7) and convective mixing as a diffusive process. Diffusive overshooting is also included according to [2] and the free parameter f adopted is 0.015. Mass loss is given by the Reimers formula, with the parameter η = 1.

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: LEO IV

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joshua D.; McWilliam, Andrew; Thompson, Ian B.; Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N. E-mail: andy@ociw.ed E-mail: afrebel@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-06-10

    We present high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectroscopy of the brightest star in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Leo IV. We measure an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.2, adding to the rapidly growing sample of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars being identified in Milky Way satellite galaxies. The star is enhanced in the {alpha} elements Mg, Ca, and Ti by {approx}0.3 dex, very similar to the typical Milky Way halo abundance pattern. All of the light and iron-peak elements follow the trends established by EMP halo stars, but the neutron-capture elements Ba and Sr are significantly underabundant. These results are quite similar to those found for stars in the ultra-faint dwarfs Ursa Major II, Coma Berenices, Booetes I, and Hercules, suggesting that the chemical evolution of the lowest-luminosity galaxies may be universal. The abundance pattern we observe is consistent with predictions for nucleosynthesis from a Population III supernova explosion. The extremely low metallicity of this star also supports the idea that a significant fraction ({approx}>10%) of the stars in the faintest dwarfs have metallicities below [Fe/H] = -3.0.

  3. Spectroscopic Analysis of Metal-poor Stars from LAMOST: Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Christlieb, Norbert; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Yuan, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hailong; Christlieb, Norbert; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn

    2015-01-10

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.

  5. BOO-1137-AN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STAR IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY BOOeTES I

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2010-03-01

    We present high-resolution (R {approx} 40,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio (20-90) spectra of an extremely metal-poor giant star Boo-1137 in the 'ultra-faint' dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Booetes I, absolute magnitude M{sub V} {approx} -6.3. We derive an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.7, making this the most metal-poor star as yet identified in an ultra-faint dSph. Our derived effective temperature and gravity are consistent with its identification as a red giant in Booetes I. Abundances for a further 15 elements have also been determined. Comparison of the relative abundances, [X/Fe], with those of the extremely metal-poor red giants of the Galactic halo shows that Boo-1137 is 'normal' with respect to C and N, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the iron-peak elements, and the neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, in comparison with the bulk of the Milky Way halo population having [Fe/H] {approx}<-3.0. The alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti are all higher by DELTA[X/Fe] {approx} 0.2 than the average halo values. Monte Carlo analysis indicates that DELTA[alpha/Fe] values this large are expected with a probability {approx}0.02. The elemental abundance pattern in Boo-1137 suggests inhomogeneous chemical evolution, consistent with the wide internal spread in iron abundances we previously reported. The similarity of most of the Boo-1137 relative abundances with respect to halo values, and the fact that the alpha-elements are all offset by a similar small amount from the halo averages, points to the same underlying galaxy-scale stellar initial mass function, but that Boo-1137 likely originated in a star-forming region where the abundances reflect either poor mixing of supernova (SN) ejecta, or poor sampling of the SN progenitor mass range, or both.

  6. Abundance Results from the Las Campanas Observatory and McDonald Observatory High-Resolution Metal-Poor Star Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, G.; Shectman, S.; Thompson, I.; Sneden, C.

    2011-01-01

    We have undertaken a survey to collect high-resolution and high S/N spectra for more than 300 metal-poor stars. The majority of our sample was selected from the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman, and nearly all stars with estimated [Fe/H] < -2.5 have been observed with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Additional metal-poor targets were selected based on their kinematic properties and observed with the Tull spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. Previous abundance analyses based on high-resolution and high S/N spectra have been performed for only about 20% of the sample. While this sample naturally allows us to reconfirm and expand upon previously-detected low metallicity abundance trends and identify new stars with unique abundance signatures, its real power is the ability to probe chemical dispersion in abundance ratios. We exploit this attribute by performing line-by-line differential abundance analyses for many elements in large numbers of stars at a single metallicity and evolutionary state. This allows us to assess the evolution of the cosmic scatter of the chemistry of the ISM at very early times in the halo of the Galaxy. Generous funding has been provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation (grant AST 09-08978 to C.S.).

  7. Super and massive AGB stars - III. Nucleosynthesis in metal-poor and very metal-poor stars - Z = 0.001 and 0.0001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Carolyn L.; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Lau, Herbert H. B.; Lattanzio, John C.; Siess, Lionel; Campbell, Simon W.

    2014-06-01

    We present a new grid of stellar models and nucleosynthetic yields for super-AGB stars with metallicities Z = 0.001 and 0.0001, applicable for use within galactic chemical evolution models. Contrary to more metal-rich stars where hot bottom burning is the main driver of the surface composition, in these lower metallicity models the effect of third dredge-up and corrosive second dredge-up also have a strong impact on the yields. These metal-poor and very metal-poor super-AGB stars create large amounts of 4He, 13C, 14N and 27Al as well as the heavy magnesium isotopes 25Mg and 26Mg. There is a transition in yield trends at metallicity Z ≈ 0.001, below which we find positive yields of 12C, 16O, 15N and 28Si, which is not the case for higher metallicities. We explore the large uncertainties derived from wind prescriptions in super-AGB stars, finding ≈2 orders of magnitude difference in yields of 22Ne, 23Na, 24, 25, 26Mg, 27Al and our s-process proxy isotope g. We find inclusion of variable composition low-temperature molecular opacities is only critical for super-AGB stars of metallicities below Z ≈ 0.001. We analyse our results, and those in the literature, to address the question: Are super-AGB stars the polluters responsible for extreme population in the globular cluster NGC 2808? Our results, as well as those from previous studies, seem unable to satisfactorily match the extreme population in this globular cluster.

  8. Mass-loss predictions for evolved very metal-poor massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muijres, L.; Vink, J. S.; de Koter, A.; Hirschi, R.; Langer, N.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The first couple of stellar generations may have been massive, of order 100 M⊙, and to have played a dominant role in galaxy formation and the chemical enrichment of the early Universe. Some fraction of these objects may have died as pair-instability supernovae or gamma-ray bursts. The winds of these stars may have played an important role in determining these outcomes. As the winds are driven by radiation pressure on spectral lines, their strengths are expected to vary with metallicity. Until now, most mass-loss predictions for metal-poor O-type stars have assumed a scaled-down solar-abundance pattern. However, Population III evolutionary tracks show significant surface enrichment through rotational mixing of CNO-processed material, because even metal-poor stars switch to CNO-burning early on. Aims: We address the question of whether the CNO surface enhanced self-enrichment in the first few generations of stars could impact their mass-loss properties. Methods: We employ Monte Carlo simulations to establish the local line-force and solve for the momentum equation of the stellar outflow, testing whether an outflow can actually be established by assessing the net acceleration at the sonic point of the flow. Stellar evolution models of rotating metal-poor stars are used to specify the surface chemical composition, focussing on the phases of early enrichment. Results: We find that the mass-loss rates of CNO enhanced metal-poor stars are higher than those of non-enriched stars, but they are much lower than those rates where the CNO abundance is included in the total abundance Z. Metal-poor stars hotter than ~50 000 K, in the metallicity range investigated here (with an initial metallicity Z ≲ 10-4) are found to have no wind, as the high-ionization species of the CNO elements have too few strong lines to drive an outflow. We present a heuristic formula that provides mass-loss estimates for CNO-dominated winds in relation to scaled-down solar abundances

  9. Hot, Massive Stars in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy, I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.

    2010-01-01

    The extremely metal-poor galaxy I Zw 18, is the Rosetta Stone for understanding z=7-8 galaxies now being discovered by Hubb|e's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). Using HST/STIS images and recently obtained HST/COS ultraviolet spectra, we derive information about the hot, massive stars in this galaxy including stellar abundances, constraints on the stellar IMF and mass distribution of young clusters containing hot, massive stars.

  10. The Chemical Compositions of Very Metal-poor Stars HD 122563 and HD 140283: A View from the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afşar, Melike; Sneden, Christopher; Frebel, Anna; Kim, Hwihyun; Mace, Gregory N.; Kaplan, Kyle F.; Lee, Hye-In; Oh, Heeyoung; Sok Oh, Jae; Pak, Soojong; Park, Chan; Pavel, Michael D.; Yuk, In-Soo; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-03-01

    From high resolution (R ≃ 45,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 400) spectra gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) in the H and K photometric bands, we have derived elemental abundances of two bright, well-known metal-poor halo stars: the red giant HD 122563 and the subgiant HD 140283. Since these stars have metallicities approaching [Fe/H] = -3, their absorption features are generally very weak. Neutral-species lines of Mg, Si, S and Ca are detectable, as well as those of the light odd-Z elements Na and Al. The derived IR-based abundances agree with those obtained from optical-wavelength spectra. For Mg and Si the abundances from the infrared transitions are improvements to those derived from shorter wavelength data. Many useful OH and CO lines can be detected in the IGRINS HD 122563 spectrum, from which derived O and C abundances are consistent to those obtained from the traditional [O i] and CH features. IGRINS high resolutions H- and K-band spectroscopy offers promising ways to determine more reliable abundances for additional metal-poor stars whose optical features are either not detectable, or too weak, or are based on lines with analytical difficulties.

  11. High-resolution analysis of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with Magellan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Catherine R.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    We report chemical abundances for carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars observed with Magellan/MIKE. The various subclasses of CEMP stars are presented in the context of the astrophysical sites of production of the elements. Of particular importance are the new discoveries and analysis of CEMP-no stars with [Fe/H] < -3.5, which exhibit no neutron-capture-element enhancements. We find that the abundance patterns of the lowest-metallicity stars in the sample reveal new clues regarding the origin(s) of early CNO production in the Universe.

  12. The Most Ancient Stars in the Milky Way's Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Casey, Andrew R.

    2015-08-01

    The earliest phase of the assembly of the Milky Way's stellar halo is encoded in the detailed abundances of its oldest stars. It is tempting to assert that extremely metal-poor stars in the halo are the direct descendants of the first stars. This is not necessarily the case though, as metal-poor stars form over a range of redshift in halos of varying mass and environment. Since halos form from the inside out, the oldest stars at a given metallicity are found near the center of a halo on the most tightly-bound orbits. The oldest stars in the Milky Way are therefore the most metal-poor stars in -- but not necessarily of -- the bulge. We have developed a new selection that uses only public infrared photometry to identify metal-poor star candidates through their lack of molecular absorption near 4.6 microns. A pilot high-resolution follow-up program has verified that our selection is as efficient as previous techniques, yet is capable of finding bright metal-poor stars in areas of high reddening. Our pilot survey has already identified three of the most metal-poor stars known in the bulge. We find that with the exception of scandium, all three stars follow the abundance trends identified previously for metal-poor halo stars. These three stars have the lowest [Sc/Fe] abundances yet seen in alpha-enhanced giant stars in the Galaxy. The only place that a similar abundance pattern has been observed is the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Coma Berenices, which is thought to have an age of 13.9 +/- 0.3 Gyr. Theoretical models predict that there is a 30% chance that at least one of these stars formed at z > 15, while there is a 70% chance that at least one formed at 10 < z < 15. These observations imply that by z ˜ 10, the progenitor galaxies of the Milky Way had both reached [Fe/H] ˜ -3.0 and established the abundance pattern observed in extremely metal-poor stars.

  13. The Extreme Overabundance of Molybdenum in Two Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2011-11-01

    We report determinations of the molybdenum abundances in five mildly to extremely metal-poor turnoff stars using five Mo II lines near 2000 Å. In two of the stars, the abundance of molybdenum is found to be extremely enhanced, as high or higher than the neighboring even-Z elements ruthenium and zirconium. Of the several nucleosynthesis scenarios envisioned for the production of nuclei in this mass range in the oldest stars, a high-entropy wind acting in a core-collapse supernova seems uniquely capable of the twin aspects of a high molybdenum overproduction confined to a narrow mass range. Whatever the details of the nucleosynthesis mechanism, however, this unusual excess suggests that very few individual nucleosynthesis events were responsible for the synthesis of the light trans-Fe heavy elements in these cases, an unexpected result given that both are only moderately metal-poor.

  14. THE EXTREME OVERABUNDANCE OF MOLYBDENUM IN TWO METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2011-11-20

    We report determinations of the molybdenum abundances in five mildly to extremely metal-poor turnoff stars using five Mo II lines near 2000 A. In two of the stars, the abundance of molybdenum is found to be extremely enhanced, as high or higher than the neighboring even-Z elements ruthenium and zirconium. Of the several nucleosynthesis scenarios envisioned for the production of nuclei in this mass range in the oldest stars, a high-entropy wind acting in a core-collapse supernova seems uniquely capable of the twin aspects of a high molybdenum overproduction confined to a narrow mass range. Whatever the details of the nucleosynthesis mechanism, however, this unusual excess suggests that very few individual nucleosynthesis events were responsible for the synthesis of the light trans-Fe heavy elements in these cases, an unexpected result given that both are only moderately metal-poor.

  15. A SEARCH FOR UNRECOGNIZED CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Christlieb, Norbert; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Reimers, Dieter; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2010-03-15

    We have developed a new procedure to search for carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars from the Hamburg/ESO (HES) prism-survey plates. This method employs an extended line index for the CH G band, which we demonstrate to have superior performance when compared to the narrower G-band index formerly employed to estimate G-band strengths for these spectra. Although CEMP stars have been found previously among candidate metal-poor stars selected from the HES, the selection on metallicity undersamples the population of intermediate-metallicity CEMP stars (-2.5 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=} -1.0); such stars are of importance for constraining the onset of the s-process in metal-deficient asymptotic giant branch stars (thought to be associated with the origin of carbon for roughly 80% of CEMP stars). The new candidates also include substantial numbers of warmer carbon-enhanced stars, which were missed in previous HES searches for carbon stars due to selection criteria that emphasized cooler stars. A first subsample, biased toward brighter stars (B< 15.5), has been extracted from the scanned HES plates. After visual inspection (to eliminate spectra compromised by plate defects, overlapping spectra, etc., and to carry out rough spectral classifications), a list of 669 previously unidentified candidate CEMP stars was compiled. Follow-up spectroscopy for a pilot sample of 132 candidates was obtained with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR 4.1 m telescope. Our results show that most of the observed stars lie in the targeted metallicity range, and possess prominent carbon absorption features at 4300 A. The success rate for the identification of new CEMP stars is 43% (13 out of 30) for [Fe/H] < -2.0. For stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5, the ratio increases to 80% (four out of five objects), including one star with [Fe/H] < -3.0.

  16. MOLYBDENUM, RUTHENIUM, AND THE HEAVY r-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN MODERATELY METAL-POOR MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2013-05-01

    The ratios of elemental abundances observed in metal-poor stars of the Galactic halo provide a unique present-day record of the nucleosynthesis products of its earliest stars. While the heaviest elements were synthesized by the r- and s-processes, dominant production mechanisms of light trans-ironic elements were obscure until recently. This work investigates further our 2011 conclusion that the low-entropy regime of a high-entropy wind (HEW) produced molybdenum and ruthenium in two moderately metal-poor turnoff stars that showed extreme overabundances of those elements with respect to iron. Only a few, rare nucleosynthesis events may have been involved. Here we determine abundances for Mo, Ru, and other trans-Fe elements for 28 similar stars by matching spectral calculations to well-exposed near-UV Keck HIRES spectra obtained for beryllium abundances. In each of the 26 turnoff stars with Mo or Ru line detections and no evidence for s-process production (therefore old), we find Mo and Ru to be three to six times overabundant. In contrast, the maximum overabundance is reduced to factors of three and two for the neighboring elements zirconium and palladium. Since the overproduction peaks sharply at Mo and Ru, a low-entropy HEW is confirmed as its origin. The overabundance level of the heavy r-process elements varies significantly, from none to a factor of four, but is uncorrelated with Mo and Ru overabundances. Despite their moderate metallicity, stars in this group trace the products of different nucleosynthetic events: possibly very few events, possibly events whose output depended on environment, metallicity, or time.

  17. OGLE-2009-BLG-076S: THE MOST METAL-POOR DWARF STAR IN THE GALACTIC BULGE

    SciTech Connect

    Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Aden, D.; Simmerer, J.; Johnson, J. A.; Gould, A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Udalski, A.; Han, C. E-mail: sofia@astro.lu.se E-mail: jennifer@astro.lu.se E-mail: gould@astronomy.ohio-state.edu E-mail: udalski@astrouw.edu.pl

    2009-07-10

    Measurements based on a large number of red giant stars suggest a broad metallicity distribution function (MDF) for the Galactic bulge, centered on [Fe/H] {approx} -0.1. However, recently, a new opportunity emerged to utilize temporary flux amplification (by factors of {approx}100 or more) of faint dwarf stars in the Bulge which are gravitationally lensed, making them observable with high-resolution spectrographs during a short observational window. Surprisingly, of the first six stars measured, five have [Fe/H]> + 0.30, suggesting a highly skewed MDF, inconsistent with observations of giant stars. Here we present a detailed elemental abundance analysis of OGLE-2009-BLG-076S, based on a high-resolution spectrum obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope. Our results indicate it is the most metal-poor dwarf star in the Bulge yet observed, with [Fe/H] = -0.76. Our results argue against a strong selection effect disfavoring metal-poor microlensed stars. It is possible that small number statistics is responsible for the giant/dwarf Bulge MDF discrepancy. Should this discrepancy survive when larger numbers of Bulge dwarf stars (soon to be available) are analyzed, it may require modification of our understanding of either Bulge formation models, or the behavior of metal-rich giant stars.

  18. First stars XI. Chemical composition of the extremely metal-poor dwarfs in the binary CS 22876-032

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Hernández, J. I.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Cayrel, R.; Molaro, P.; Hill, V.; François, P.; Plez, B.; Beers, T. C.; Sivarani, T.; Andersen, J.; Barbuy, B.; Depagne, E.; Nordström, B.; Primas, F.

    2008-03-01

    Context: Unevolved metal-poor stars constitute a fossil record of the early Galaxy, and can provide invaluable information on the properties of the first generations of stars. Binary systems also provide direct information on the stellar masses of their member stars. Aims: The purpose of this investigation is a detailed abundance study of the double-lined spectroscopic binary CS 22876-032, which comprises the two most metal-poor dwarfs known. Methods: We used high-resolution, high-S/N ratio spectra from the UVES spectrograph at the ESO VLT telescope. Long-term radial-velocity measurements and broad-band photometry allowed us to determine improved orbital elements and stellar parameters for both components. We used OSMARCS 1D models and the turbospectrum spectral synthesis code to determine the abundances of Li, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. We also used the CO^5BOLD model atmosphere code to compute the 3D abundance corrections, notably for Li and O. Results: We find a metallicity of [Fe/H] ~ -3.6 for both stars, using 1D models with 3D corrections of ~-0.1 dex from averaged 3D models. We determine the oxygen abundance from the near-UV OH bands; the 3D corrections are large, -1 and -1.5 dex for the secondary and primary respectively, and yield [O/Fe] ~ 0.8, close to the high-quality results obtained from the [OI] 630 nm line in metal-poor giants. Other [ α/Fe] ratios are consistent with those measured in other dwarfs and giants with similar [Fe/H], although Ca and Si are somewhat low ([X/Fe] ⪉ 0). Other element ratios follow those of other halo stars. The Li abundance of the primary star is consistent with the Spite plateau, but the secondary shows a lower abundance; 3D corrections are small. Conclusions: The Li abundance in the primary star supports the extension of the Spite Plateau value at the lowest metallicities, without any decrease. The low abundance in the secondary star could be explained by endogenic Li depletion, due to its

  19. Origins of the thick disk of the Milky Way Galaxy as traced by the elemental abundances of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchti, Gregory Randal

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of disks in galaxies in the early universe is very important for understanding the forms of galaxies today. Recent studies of the Milky Way Galaxy, an ideal galaxy for analyzing individual stars within its disk, indicate that the formation of the Galactic disk is very complex. Most of these studies, however, contain very few stars at low metallicities. Metal-poor stars are important, because they are potential survivors of the earliest star formation in the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy. I therefore measured elemental abundances of a statistically significant sample of metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≲ - 1.0) stars in the disk of the Galaxy, chosen from the RAVE survey in order to study the early formation history of the Galactic disk. I report on a sample of 214 red giant branch, 31 red clump/horizontal branch, and 74 dwarf/sub-giant metal-poor thick-disk candidate stars. I found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios are enhanced implying that enrichment proceeded by purely core-collapse supernovae. This requires that star formation in each star forming region had a short duration. The relative lack of scatter in the [alpha/Fe] ratios implies good mixing in the interstellar medium prior to star formation. In addition, the ratios resemble that of the halo, indicating that the halo and thick disk share a similar massive star initial mass function. I further looked for radial or vertical gradients in metallicity or alpha-enhancement for the metal-poor thick disk, never before done for such a sample. I found no radial gradient and a moderate vertical gradient in my derived iron abundance, and only minimal-amplitude gradients in [alpha/Fe]. In addition, I show that the distribution of orbital eccentricities for my metal-poor thick-disk stars requires that the thick disk was formed primarily in situ, with direct accretion being extremely minimal. I conclude that the alpha-enhancement of the metal-poor thick disk, and the lack of obvious radial or

  20. THE ORIGIN OF LOW [α/Fe] RATIOS IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-04-10

    We show that the low ratios of α elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) to Fe recently found for a small fraction of extremely metal-poor stars can be naturally explained with the nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae, i.e., 13-25 M {sub ☉} supernovae, or hypernovae. For the case without carbon enhancement, the ejected iron mass is normal, consistent with observed light curves and spectra of nearby supernovae. On the other hand, the carbon enhancement requires much smaller iron production, and the low [α/Fe] of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars can also be reproduced with 13-25 M {sub ☉} faint supernovae or faint hypernovae. Iron-peak element abundances, in particular Zn abundances, are important to put further constraints on the enrichment sources from galactic archaeology surveys.

  1. The Origin of Low [α/Fe] Ratios in Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-04-01

    We show that the low ratios of α elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) to Fe recently found for a small fraction of extremely metal-poor stars can be naturally explained with the nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae, i.e., 13-25 M ⊙ supernovae, or hypernovae. For the case without carbon enhancement, the ejected iron mass is normal, consistent with observed light curves and spectra of nearby supernovae. On the other hand, the carbon enhancement requires much smaller iron production, and the low [α/Fe] of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars can also be reproduced with 13-25 M ⊙ faint supernovae or faint hypernovae. Iron-peak element abundances, in particular Zn abundances, are important to put further constraints on the enrichment sources from galactic archaeology surveys.

  2. EXPLAINING THE Sr AND Ba SCATTER IN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, W.; Suda, T.; Boyd, R. N.; Kajino, T.; Famiano, M. A. E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp

    2013-03-20

    Compilations of abundances of strontium and barium in extremely metal-poor stars show that an apparent cutoff is observed for [Sr/Ba] at [Fe/H] < -3.6 and large fluctuations for [Fe/H] > -3.6 with a clear upper bound depending on metallicity. We study the factors that place upper limits on the logarithmic ratio [Sr/Ba]. A model is developed in which the collapses of type II supernovae are found to reproduce many of the features seen in the data. This model is consistent with galactic chemical evolution constraints of light-element enrichment in metal-poor stars. Effects of turbulence in an explosive site have also been simulated, and are found to be important in explaining the large scatter observed in the [Sr/Ba] data.

  3. CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN SDSS/SEGUE. I. CARBON ABUNDANCE ESTIMATION AND FREQUENCY OF CEMP STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Masseron, Thomas; Plez, Bertrand; Rockosi, Constance M.; Yanny, Brian; Lucatello, Sara; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Carollo, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its Galactic sub-survey, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N ≥ 15 Å{sup –1} to a precision better than 0.35 dex for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T {sub eff} = [4400, 6700] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], [Fe/H] = [–4.0, +0.5], and [C/Fe] = [–0.25, +3.5]. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] ≥ +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ∼ –2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ∼ –2.4 to [Fe/H] ∼ –3.7. Although the number of stars known with [Fe/H] < –4.0 remains small, the frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars below this value is around 75%. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.5; a roughly constant value. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, presumably due to the difficulty of identifying CEMP stars among warmer turnoff stars with weak CH G-bands. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = –2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3

  4. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in SDSS/SEGUE. I. Carbon Abundance Estimation and Frequency of CEMP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Masseron, Thomas; Plez, Bertrand; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Yanny, Brian; Lucatello, Sara; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its Galactic sub-survey, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N >= 15 Å-1 to a precision better than 0.35 dex for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T eff = [4400, 6700] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], [Fe/H] = [-4.0, +0.5], and [C/Fe] = [-0.25, +3.5]. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] >= +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. Although the number of stars known with [Fe/H] < -4.0 remains small, the frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars below this value is around 75%. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] <= -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] <= -3.5 a roughly constant value. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5, presumably due to the difficulty of identifying CEMP stars among warmer turnoff stars with weak CH G-bands. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] <= -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] <= -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to

  5. DETECTION OF ELEMENTS AT ALL THREE r-PROCESS PEAKS IN THE METAL-POOR STAR HD 160617

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu

    2012-05-01

    We report the first detection of elements at all three r-process peaks in the metal-poor halo star HD 160617. These elements include arsenic and selenium, which have not been detected previously in halo stars, and the elements tellurium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, which have been detected previously. Absorption lines of these elements are found in archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We present up-to-date absolute atomic transition probabilities and complete line component patterns for these elements. Additional archival spectra of this star from several ground-based instruments allow us to derive abundances or upper limits of 45 elements in HD 160617, including 27 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. The average abundances of the elements at the three r-process peaks are similar to the predicted solar system r-process residuals when scaled to the abundances in the rare earth element domain. This result for arsenic and selenium may be surprising in light of predictions that the production of the lightest r-process elements generally should be decoupled from the heavier r-process elements.

  6. Discovery of a strongly r-process enhanced extremely metal-poor star LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi; Zhao, Gang; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of an extremely metal-poor (EMP) giant, LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8, which exhibits a large excess of r-process elements with [Eu/Fe] ˜ +1.16. The star is one of the newly discovered EMP stars identified from the LAMOST low-resolution spectroscopic survey and a high-resolution follow-up observation with the Subaru Telescope. Stellar parameters and elemental abundances have been determined from the Subaru spectrum. Accurate abundances for a total of 23 elements including 11 neutron-capture elements from Sr through Dy have been derived for LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8. The abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 in the range of C through Zn is in line with the “normal” population of EMP halo stars, except that it shows a notable underabundance in carbon. The heavy element abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 is in agreement with other well studied cool r-II metal-poor giants such as CS 22892-052 and CS 31082-001. The abundances of elements in the range from Ba through Dy match the scaled solar r-process pattern well. LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 provides the first detailed measurements of neutron-capture elements among r-II stars at such low metallicity with [Fe/H] ≲ -3.4, and exhibits similar behavior as other r-II stars in the abundance ratio of Zr/Eu as well as Sr/Eu and Ba/Eu.

  7. First high-precision differential abundance analysis of extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge; Yong, David; Ramírez, Ivan; Asplund, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Context. Studies of extremely metal-poor stars indicate that chemical abundance ratios [X/Fe] have a root mean square scatter as low as 0.05 dex (12%). It remains unclear whether this reflects observational uncertainties or intrinsic astrophysical scatter arising from physical conditions in the interstellar medium at early times. Aims: We measure differential chemical abundance ratios in extremely metal-poor stars to investigate the limits of precision and to understand whether cosmic scatter or observational errors are dominant. Methods: We used high-resolution (R ~ 95 000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N = 700 at 5000 Å) HIRES/Keck spectra to determine high-precision differential abundances between two extremely metal-poor stars through a line-by-line differential approach. We determined stellar parameters for the star G64-37 with respect to the standard star G64-12. We performed EW measurements for the two stars for the lines recognized in both stars and performed spectral synthesis to study the carbon abundances. Results: The differential approach allowed us to obtain errors of σ(Teff) = 27 K, σ(log g) = 0.06 dex, σ( [Fe/H] ) = 0.02 dex and σ(vt) = 0.06 km s-1. We estimated relative chemical abundances with a precision as low as σ([X/Fe]) ≈ 0.01 dex. The small uncertainties demonstrate that there are genuine abundance differences larger than the measurement errors. The observed Li difference cannot be explained by the difference in mass because the less massive star has more Li. Conclusions: It is possible to achieve an abundance precision around ≈ 0.01-0.05 dex for extremely metal-poor stars, which opens new windows on the study of the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A67

  8. The Discovery and Analysis of Very Metal-Poor Stars in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert

    2005-09-01

    We discuss the importance of very metal-poor stars to develop an understanding of the nature of the first stars that formed in the Universe and the nucleosynthesis events associated with them, as well as to refine models of galaxy formation, in particular for large spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way. After briefly reviewing the history of the search for very metal-deficient stars in the Galaxy, we summarize ongoing efforts, concentrating on the two large objective-prism surveys that have led to the discovery of the majority of stars with [Fe/H] < 2.0 known at present: the HK survey of Beers and collaborators and the Hamburg/ESO survey of Christlieb and collaborators. We then consider the wealth of information that can be gleaned from high-resolution spectroscopic study of very metal-poor stars. We close with a list of open questions and a discussion of new survey techniques that will expand the sample of recognized very metal-deficient stars in the Galaxy by several orders of magnitude.

  9. Metal-poor stars observed with the Magellan telescope. II. Discovery of four stars with [Fe/H] ≤ –3.5

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Frebel, Anna; Christlieb, Norbert; Lee, Young Sun; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Rossi, Silvia; Santucci, Rafael M.

    2014-01-20

    We report on the discovery of seven low-metallicity stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, six of which are extremely metal-poor (EMP, [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0), with four having [Fe/H] ≤ –3.5. Chemical abundances or upper limits are derived for these stars based on high-resolution (R ∼ 35,000) Magellan/MIKE spectroscopy, and are in general agreement with those of other very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature. Accurate metallicities and abundance patterns for stars in this metallicity range are of particular importance for studies of the shape of the metallicity distribution function of the Milky Way's halo system, in particular for probing the nature of its low-metallicity tail. In addition, taking into account suggested evolutionary mixing effects, we find that six of the program stars (with [Fe/H] ≤ –3.35) possess atmospheres that were likely originally enriched in carbon, relative to iron, during their main-sequence phases. These stars do not exhibit overabundances of their s-process elements, and hence may be, within the error bars, additional examples of the so-called CEMP-no class of objects.

  10. Near-IR Observations Of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars With SOAR/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Catherine R.; Sivarani, T.; Beers, T.; Lee, Y.; Rossi, S.; Placco, V.

    2007-12-01

    We report on medium-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, obtained with SOAR/OSIRIS, of a sample of over 50 Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars selected from the HK survey of Beers and colleagues and the Hamburg/ESO Survey of Christlieb and colleagues. These stars are primarily cool (4000 K < Teff < 5000 K), metal-poor objects with previous optical observations that indicate carbon enhancement [C/Fe] > +1.0. The observations are used, in combination with information available from optical spectra, to derive estimates of the O abundance and 12C/13C ratios from the molecular lines of CO, which are very sensitive to oxygen abundances in such stars. The results are compared with abundances determined from high-resolution observations for a subset of these stars. Based the O abundances from CO lines, we revisit the estimation of C and N abundances from optical observations. The origin of the elemental abundance pattern for CEMP stars with s-process enhancement (CEMP-s stars) is very likely to be mass transfer from (now extinct) AGB companions. However, the [C/N] and 12C/13C ratios of CEMP-s stars are very different from solar-metallicity AGB stars. The [O/Fe] measurements provide additional constraints on the mass of these AGB companions. Another class, the CEMP-no stars (CEMP stars with no n-capture enhancement), could have either been polluted by AGB mass-transfer, winds from massive stars, or early supernovae. The 12C/13C and [O/Fe] abundances are crucial to distinguish their origin, and they are not easily available through optical observations due to the weakness of the [OI] 6300 A lines. TCB, YSL, CK, and TS acknowledge support from grant PHY 02-16783; Physics Frontier Center/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), awarded by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  11. Hot, Massive Stars in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy, I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor galaxy, I Zw 18, is the Rosetta Stone for understanding galaxies in the early universe by providing constraints on the IMF of massive stars, the role of galaxies in reionization of the universe, mixing of newly synthesized material in the ISM, and gamma-ray bursts at low metallicity, and on the earliest generations of stars producing the observed abundance pattern. We describe these constraints as derived from analyses of HST/COS spectra of I Zw 18 including stellar atmosphere analysis and photo-ionization modeling of both the emission and absorption spectra of the nebular material and interstellar medium.

  12. Rotation and Macroturbulence in Metal-Poor Field Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Bruce W.; Gray, David F.; Yong, David; Latham, David W.; Manset, Nadine; Zelman, Rachel; Laird, John B.

    2008-03-01

    We report the results for rotational velocities, Vrot sin i, and macroturbulence dispersions, ζRT, for 12 metal-poor field red giant branch (RGB) stars and 7 metal-poor field red horizontal branch (RHB) stars. The results are based on Fourier transform analyses of absorption line profiles from high-resolution (R ≈ 120,000), high-S/N (≈215 per pixel; ≈345 per resolution element) spectra obtained with the Gecko spectrograph at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The stars were selected from the authors' previous studies of 20 RHB and 116 RGB stars, based primarily on larger-than-average line-broadening values. We find that ζRT values for the metal-poor RGB stars are very similar to those for metal-rich disk giants studied earlier by Gray and his collaborators. Six of the RGB stars have small rotational values, less than 2.0 km s-1, while five show significant rotation/enhanced line broadening, over 3 km s-1. We confirm the rapid rotation rate for RHB star HD 195636, found earlier by Preston. This star's rotation is comparable to that of the fastest known rotating blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars, when allowance is made for differences in radii and moments of inertia. The other six RHB stars have somewhat lower rotation but show a trend to higher values at higher temperatures (lower radii). Comparing our results with those for BHB stars from Kinman et al., we find that the fraction of rapidly rotating RHB stars is somewhat lower than is found among BHB stars. The number of rapidly rotating RHB stars is also smaller than we would have expected from the observed rotation of the RGB stars. We devise two empirical methods to translate our earlier line-broadening results into Vrot sin i for all the RGB and RHB stars they studied. Binning the RGB stars by luminosity, we find that most metal-poor field RGB stars show no detectable sign, on average, of rotation, which is not surprising given the stars' large radii. However, the most luminous stars, with MV

  13. A giant planet around a metal-poor star of extragalactic origin.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Johny; Klement, Rainer J; Henning, Thomas; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rochau, Boyke; Rodmann, Jens; Schulze-Hartung, Tim

    2010-12-17

    Stars in their late stage of evolution, such as horizontal branch stars, are still largely unexplored for planets. We detected a planetary companion around HIP 13044, a very metal-poor star on the red horizontal branch, on the basis of radial velocity observations with a high-resolution spectrograph at the 2.2-meter Max-Planck Gesellschaft-European Southern Observatory telescope. The star's periodic radial velocity variation of P = 16.2 days caused by the planet can be distinguished from the periods of the stellar activity indicators. The minimum mass of the planet is 1.25 times the mass of Jupiter and its orbital semimajor axis is 0.116 astronomical units. Because HIP 13044 belongs to a group of stars that have been accreted from a disrupted satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, the planet most likely has an extragalactic origin. PMID:21097905

  14. TOPoS: chemical study of extremely metal-poor stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Sbordone, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Cayrel, R.; Christlieb, N.; Clark, P.; François, P.; Glover, S.; Klessen, R.; Koch, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Monaco, L.; Plez, B.; Spite, F.; Spite, M.; Steffen, M.; Zaggia, S.

    The extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars hold in their atmospheres the fossil record of the chemical composition of the early phases of the Galactic evolution. The chemical analysis of such objects provides important constraints on these early phases. EMP stars are very rare objects; to dig them out, large amounts of data have to be processed. With an automatic procedure, we analysed objects with colours of Turn-Off stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to select a sample of good candidate EMP stars. In the latest years, we observed a sample of these candidates with X-Shooter and UVES, and we have an ongoing ESO large programme to use these spectrographs to observe EMP stars. I will report here the results on metallicity and Strontium abundance. Based on observations obtained at ESO Paranal Observatory, programme 189.D-0165(A)

  15. The Synthetic-Oversampling Method: Using Photometric Colors to Discover Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] ≤ ‑3.0 dex) provide a unique window into understanding the first generation of stars and early chemical enrichment of the universe. EMP stars are exceptionally rare, however, and the relatively small number of confirmed discoveries limits our ability to exploit these near-field probes of the first ∼500 Myr after the Big Bang. Here, a new method to photometrically estimate [Fe/H] from only broadband photometric colors is presented. I show that the method, which utilizes machine-learning algorithms and a training set of ∼170,000 stars with spectroscopically measured [Fe/H], produces a typical scatter of ∼0.29 dex. This performance is similar to what is achievable via low-resolution spectroscopy, and outperforms other photometric techniques, while also being more general. I further show that a slight alteration to the model, wherein synthetic EMP stars are added to the training set, yields the robust identification of EMP candidates. In particular, this synthetic-oversampling method recovers ∼20% of the EMP stars in the training set, at a precision of ∼0.05. Furthermore, ∼65% of the false positives from the model are very metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] ≤ ‑2.0 dex). The synthetic-oversampling method is biased toward the discovery of warm (∼F-type) stars, a consequence of the targeting bias from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding survey. This EMP selection method represents a significant improvement over alternative broadband optical selection techniques. The models are applied to >12 million stars, with an expected yield of ∼600 new EMP stars, which promises to open new avenues for exploring the early universe.

  16. Determination of Physical Parameter Estimates for Metal-Poor Stars from the HK and HES Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Y.; Placco, V.; Carollo, D.; Christlieb, N.; Fiorenza, S.

    2013-06-01

    Over the past quarter century, well over ten thousand metal-poor star candidates selected during the course of the HK survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman and the Hamburg/ESO survey of Christlieb and collaborators have had medium-resolution (R ~ 2500-3000) spectroscopy obtained, using a host of telescopes and spectrographs. During that time, we have refined the analysis tools at our disposal, and collected broadband photometry for many of these stars. Here we report on an application of the recently refined non-SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (n-SSPP) to obtain estimates of effective temperatures (Teff), surface gravities (log g), and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for many of these stars. In the case of some of the follow-up spectra, the wavelength coverage and S/N ratios also permit the determination of [C/Fe] and [alpha/Fe] ratios. Ongoing detailed analyses of the chemistry and kinematics of these stars will be described.

  17. The s-PROCESS Nucleosynthesis in Massive Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-12-01

    We present the s-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars with a wide range of metallicity, using the recent sets of reaction rates and stellar input physics. The decreasing metallicity makes poisoning effects of primary 16O larger at the late phase of core He burning, at which the s-process occurs actively in solar metallicity stars, and prevents the synthesis of heavy elements from being efficient. However, we find that the s-process proceeds very efficiently via neutron source reaction of 13C(α,n)16O at the end of core H burning phase when the metallicity decreases below Z ~ 10-8. These massive, extremely low metallicity stars may have an important contribution of light s-elements to observed extremely metal-poor stars.

  18. Lithium evolution in metal-poor stars: from Pre-Main Sequence to the Spite Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Molaro, Paolo; Marigo, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Lithium abundance derived in metal-poor main sequence stars is about three times lower than the value of primordial Li predicts by the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis when the baryon density is taken from the CMB or the deuterium measurements. This disagreement is generally referred as the Li problem. We here reconsider the stellar Li evolution from the pre-main sequence to the end of the main sequence phase by introducing the effects of convective overshooting and residual mass accretion. We show that 7Li could be significantly depleted by convective overshooting in the PMS phase and then partially restored in the stellar atmosphere by a tail of matter accretion which follows the Li depletion phase and that could be regulated by EUV photo-evaporation. By considering the conventional nuclear burning and microscopic diffusion along the main sequence we can reproduce the Spite plateau for stars with m0 = 0.62 - 0.80 M⊙ and the Li decline branch for lower mass dwarfs e.g, m0 = 0.57 - 0.60 M⊙ for a wide range of metallicities (Z=0.00001 to Z=0.0005) starting from an initial 7Li abundance A(Li) = 2.72. This environmental Li evolution model offers the possibility to interpret the decreasing of Li abundance in extremely metal-poor stars, the Li disparities in spectroscopic binaries and low Li abundance in planet hosting stars.

  19. Lithium evolution in metal-poor stars: from pre-main sequence to the Spite plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Molaro, Paolo; Marigo, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Lithium abundance derived in metal-poor main-sequence (MS) stars is about three times lower than the value of primordial Li predicted by the standard big bang nucleosynthesis when the baryon density is taken from the cosmic microwave background or the deuterium measurements. This disagreement is generally referred as the lithium problem. We here reconsider the stellar Li evolution from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the end of the MS phase by introducing the effects of convective overshooting (OV) and residual mass accretion. We show that 7Li could be significantly depleted by convective OV in the PMS phase and then partially restored in the stellar atmosphere by a tail of matter accretion which follows the Li-depletion phase and that could be regulated by EUV photoevaporation. By considering the conventional nuclear burning and microscopic diffusion along the MS, we can reproduce the Spite plateau for stars with initial mass m0 = 0.62-0.80 M⊙, and the Li declining branch for lower mass dwarfs, e.g. m0 = 0.57-0.60 M⊙, for a wide range of metallicities (Z = 0.00001 to Z = 0.0005), starting from an initial Li abundance A(Li) = 2.72. This environmental Li evolution model also offers the possibility to interpret the decrease of Li abundance in extremely metal-poor stars, the Li disparities in spectroscopic binaries and the low Li abundance in planet hosting stars.

  20. Abundance profiling of extremely metal-poor stars and supernova properties in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi E-mail: iwamoto.nobuyuki@jaea.go.jp

    2014-04-20

    After the big bang nucleosynthesis, the first heavy element enrichment in the universe was made by a supernova (SN) explosion of a population (Pop) III star (Pop III SN). The abundance ratios of elements produced from Pop III SNe are recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. The observations of the increasing number of EMP stars have made it possible to statistically constrain the explosion properties of Pop III SNe. We present Pop III SN models whose nucleosynthesis yields well reproduce, individually, the abundance patterns of 48 such metal-poor stars as [Fe/H] ≲ – 3.5. We then derive relations between the abundance ratios of EMP stars and certain explosion properties of Pop III SNe: the higher [(C + N)/Fe] and [(C + N)/Mg] ratios correspond to the smaller ejected Fe mass and the larger compact remnant mass, respectively. Using these relations, the distributions of the abundance ratios of EMP stars are converted to those of the explosion properties of Pop III SNe. Such distributions are compared with those of the explosion properties of present day SNe: the distribution of the ejected Fe mass of Pop III SNe has the same peak as that of the present day SNe but shows an extended tail down to ∼10{sup –2}-10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}, and the distribution of the mass of the compact remnant of Pop III SNe is as wide as that of the present-day, stellar-mass black holes. Our results demonstrate the importance of large samples of EMP stars obtained by ongoing and future EMP star surveys and subsequent high-dispersion spectroscopic observations in clarifying the nature of Pop III SNe in the early universe.

  1. Seven new carbon-enhanced metal-poor RR Lyrae stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Catherine R.; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Kuehn, Charles; Beers, Timothy C.; Kinman, T. D.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Reggiani, Henrique; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-05-20

    We report estimated carbon-abundance ratios, [C/Fe], for seven newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) RR Lyrae stars. These are well-studied RRab stars that had previously been selected as CEMP candidates based on low-resolution spectra. For this pilot study, we observed eight of these CEMP RR Lyrae candidates with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the ANU 2.3 m telescope. Prior to this study, only two CEMP RR Lyrae stars had been discovered: TY Gru and SDSS J1707+58. We compare our abundances to new theoretical models of the evolution of low-mass stars in binary systems. These simulations evolve the secondary stars, post accretion from an asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) donor, all the way to the RR Lyrae stage. The abundances of CEMP RR Lyrae stars can be used as direct probes of the nature of the donor star, such as its mass, and the amount of material accreted onto the secondary. We find that the majority of the sample of CEMP RR Lyrae stars is consistent with AGB donor masses of around 1.5-2.0 M {sub ☉} and accretion masses of a few hundredths of a solar mass. Future high-resolution studies of these newly discovered CEMP RR Lyrae stars will help disentangle the effects of the proposed mixing processes that occur in such objects.

  2. The chemical imprint of silicate dust on the most metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Bromm, Volker E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2014-02-20

    We investigate the impact of dust-induced gas fragmentation on the formation of the first low-mass, metal-poor stars (<1 M {sub ☉}) in the early universe. Previous work has shown the existence of a critical dust-to-gas ratio, below which dust thermal cooling cannot cause gas fragmentation. Assuming that the first dust is silicon-based, we compute critical dust-to-gas ratios and associated critical silicon abundances ([Si/H]{sub crit}). At the density and temperature associated with protostellar disks, we find that a standard Milky Way grain size distribution gives [Si/H]{sub crit} = –4.5 ± 0.1, while smaller grain sizes created in a supernova reverse shock give [Si/H]{sub crit} = –5.3 ± 0.1. Other environments are not dense enough to be influenced by dust cooling. We test the silicate dust cooling theory by comparing to silicon abundances observed in the most iron-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -4.0). Several stars have silicon abundances low enough to rule out dust-induced gas fragmentation with a standard grain size distribution. Moreover, two of these stars have such low silicon abundances that even dust with a shocked grain size distribution cannot explain their formation. Adding small amounts of carbon dust does not significantly change these conclusions. Additionally, we find that these stars exhibit either high carbon with low silicon abundances or the reverse. A silicate dust scenario thus suggests that the earliest low-mass star formation in the most metal-poor regime may have proceeded through two distinct cooling pathways: fine-structure line cooling and dust cooling. This naturally explains both the carbon-rich and carbon-normal stars at extremely low [Fe/H].

  3. Abundance anomalies in metal-poor stars from Population III supernova ejecta hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluder, Alan; Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2016-02-01

    We present a simulation of the long-term evolution of a Population III supernova remnant in a cosmological minihalo. Employing passive Lagrangian tracer particles, we investigate how chemical stratification and anisotropy in the explosion can affect the abundances of the first low-mass, metal-enriched stars. We find that reverse shock heating can leave the inner mass shells at entropies too high to cool, leading to carbon enhancement in the recollapsing gas. This hydrodynamic selection effect could explain the observed incidence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars at low metallicity. We further explore how anisotropic ejecta distributions, recently seen in direct numerical simulations of core-collapse explosions, may translate to abundances in metal-poor stars. We find that some of the observed scatter in the Population II abundance ratios can be explained by an incomplete mixing of supernova ejecta, even in the case of only one contributing enrichment event. We demonstrate that the customary hypothesis of fully mixed ejecta clearly fails if post-explosion hydrodynamics prefers the recycling of some nucleosynthetic products over others. Furthermore, to fully exploit the stellar-archaeological programme of constraining the Pop III initial mass function from the observed Pop II abundances, considering these hydrodynamical transport effects is crucial. We discuss applications to the rich chemical structure of ultrafaint dwarf satellite galaxies, to be probed in unprecedented detail with upcoming spectroscopic surveys.

  4. Nucleosynthesis in Gamma-Ray Bursts and Supernovae: Constraints of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, N.

    2012-08-01

    I present nucleosynthesis in explosions with relativistic jets or non- relativistic mildly aspherical components, assuming gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) or supernovae (SNe), and compare the abundance ratios of their yields with those of the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. The explosion with non-relativistic mildly aspherical energy deposition can explain [Mg/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Zn/Fe] but not [Ti/Fe], while the explosion with relativistic jets can explain [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Zn/Fe] but not [Mg/Fe]. This illustrates that the explosion with relativistic jets or non-relativistic mildly aspherical components cannot fully reproduce the EMP stars and implies that the explosion with relativistic jets and non-relativistic mildly aspherical components as in GRB-SNe could explain the abundance ratios of EMP stars simultaneously.

  5. Abundances of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars, aNnew HIRES Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, David K.; Bolte, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Lucatello, S.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of an abundance analysis for a sample of stars with -2>[Fe/H]> -4. The set includes 29 stars, with effective temperature ranging from 4800 K to 6300 K. The data were obtained with the HIRES spectrograph at Keck Observatory. For most objects our wavelength range reaches from about 3100 angstroms to 5800 angstroms. Our spectra allow us to further constrain the abundance scatter at low metallicities for the light elements including carbon and nitrogen, up through the iron group, and for many neutron-capture elements. Most of our objects have come from the Beers et al. HK survey (1992, AJ, 103, 1987) for metal-poor stars, and for many of them this is the first high-resolution study. This research is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under the grant AST-0607770.

  6. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. I. DISCOVERY, DATA, AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Yong, David; Asplund, M.; Murphy, Simon J.; Christlieb, N.; Barklem, P. S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: paul.barklem@physics.uu.se E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of 34 stars in the Hamburg/ESO Survey for metal-poor stars and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that have [Fe/H] {approx}< -3.0. Their median and minimum abundances are [Fe/H] = -3.1 and -4.1, respectively, while 10 stars have [Fe/H] < -3.5. High-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic data-equivalent widths and radial velocities-are presented for these stars, together with an additional four objects previously reported or currently being investigated elsewhere. We have determined the atmospheric parameters, effective temperature (T {sub eff}), and surface gravity (log g), which are critical in the determination of the chemical abundances and the evolutionary status of these stars. Three techniques were used to derive these parameters. Spectrophotometric fits to model atmosphere fluxes were used to derive T {sub eff}, log g, and an estimate of E(B - V); H{alpha}, H{beta}, and H{gamma} profile fitting to model atmosphere results provided the second determination of T {sub eff} and log g; and finally, we used an empirical T {sub eff}-calibrated H{delta} index, for the third, independent T {sub eff} determination. The three values of T {sub eff} are in good agreement, although the profile fitting may yield systematically cooler T {sub eff} values, by {approx}100 K. This collective data set will be analyzed in future papers in the present series to utilize the most metal-poor stars as probes of conditions in the early universe.

  7. Radiative levitation in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with s-process enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrozis, E.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    A significant fraction of all metal-poor stars are carbon-rich. Most of these carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars also show enhancement in elements produced mainly by the s-process (CEMP-s stars), and evidence suggests that the origin of these non-standard abundances can be traced to mass transfer from a binary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion. Thus, observations of CEMP-s stars are commonly used to infer the nucleosynthesis output of low-metallicity AGB stars. A crucial step in this exercise is understanding what happens to the accreted material after mass transfer ceases. Here we present models of the post-mass-transfer evolution of CEMP-s stars considering the physics of thermohaline mixing and atomic diffusion, including radiative levitation. We find that stars with typical CEMP-s star masses, M ≈ 0.85 M⊙, have very shallow convective envelopes (Menv ≲ 10-7 M⊙). Hence, the surface abundance variations arising from the competition between gravitational settling and radiative levitation should be orders of magnitude larger than observed (e.g. [C/Fe] < -1 or [C/Fe] > +4). Lower-mass stars (M ≈ 0.80 M⊙) retain thicker convective envelopes and thus show variations more in line with observations, but are generally too unevolved (log g > 4) when they reach the age of the Universe. We are therefore unable to reproduce the spread in the observed abundances with these models and conclude that some other physical process must largely suppress atomic diffusion in the outer layers of CEMP-s stars. We demonstrate that this could be achieved by some additional (turbulent) mixing process operating at the base of the convective envelope, as found by other authors. Alternatively, mass-loss rates around 10-13 M⊙yr-1 could also negate most of the abundance variations by eroding the surface layers and forcing the base of the convective envelope to move inwards in mass. Since atomic diffusion cannot have a substantial effect on the surface abundances of CEMP

  8. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  9. Three New Planetary Systems Orbiting Metal-Poor Thick Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, William D.; Endl, M.; Brugamyer, E. J.; MacQueen, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    We report the detection of Jovian mass planets orbiting three nearby metal-poor thick disk stars. These discoveries were all made using precise radial velocity measurements from the High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. All of the planets are of Jovian mass or larger, with orbital periods ranging from about a year to over six years. HIP 14342 shows two planetary companions with orbital periods near a 2:1 resonance. The other planets detected orbit HIP 13366 and HIP 109384. All three of these stars are kinematic members of the galactic "thick disk", which is a population of stars with a larger vertical scale height and a larger velocity dispersion that the thin disk to which the Sun belongs. The thick disk stars are of lower total metallicity than the Sun, and are also chemically different than thin disk stars, having the abundances of their alpha-capture elements (e.g. O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Ti) enhanced by 0.2 to 0.4 dex over those of thin disk stars of the same [Fe/H]. The majority of planets found among stars with [Fe/H] < ~-0.2 orbit thick disk stars, even though thin disk stars significantly outnumber thick disk stars in this metallicity range. Thus, the enhanced abundance of the alpha-capture elements, which are also key elements in the chemistry of planet-forming materials, may be responsible for the large fraction of low-metallicity thick-disk stars with planetary companions.

  10. Carbon Abundance Plateaus among Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jinmi; He, Siyu; Placco, Vinicius; Carollo, Daniela; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial fraction of low-metallicity stars in the Milky Way, the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars, exhibit enhancements of their carbon-to-iron relative to the solar value ([C/Fe] > +0.7). They can be divided into several sub-classes, depending on the nature and degree of the observed enhancements of their neutron-capture elements, providing information on their likely progenitors. CEMP-s stars (which exhibit enhanced s-process elements) are thought to be enhanced by mass transfer from an evolved AGB companion, while CEMP-no stars (which exhibit no over-abundances of neutron-capture elements) appear to be associated with explosions of the very first generations of stars. High-resolution spectroscopic analyses are generally required in order to make these sub-classifications.Several recent studies have suggested the existence of bimodality in the distribution of absolute carbon abundances among CEMP stars -- most CEMP-no stars belong to a low-C band ((A(C) ˜ 6.5), while most CEMP-s stars reside on a high-C band (A(C) ˜ 8.25). The number of CEMP stars considered by individual studies is, however, quite small, so we have compiled all available high-resolution spectroscopic data for CEMP stars, in order to further investigate the existence of the claimed carbon bi-modality, and to consider what can be learned about the progenitors of CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars based on the observed distribution of A(C) on the individual plateaus.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  11. Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2008-03-01

    We have derived isotopic fractions of europium (Eu), samarium (Sm), and neodymium (Nd) in two metal-poor giants with differing neutron-capture nucleosynthetic histories. These isotopic fractions were measured from new very high resolution (R~120,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N~160-1000) spectra obtained with the 2dCoudé spectrograph of McDonald Observatory's 2.7 m Smith telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated using recent high-precision laboratory measurements of hyperfine and isotopic subcomponents of several transitions of these elements and matched quantitatively to the observed spectra. We interpret our isotopic fractions by the nucleosynthesis predictions of the stellar model, which models s-process nucleosynthesis in the physical conditions expected in a low-mass, thermally-pulsing star on the AGB, and the classical method, which assumes that s-process nucleosynthesis can be approximated by a steady neutron flux impinging upon Fe-peak seed nuclei. These two approaches predict the relative contributions to the Solar System n-capture abundances from the s- and r-processes and, by extension, the relative contributions of these two process to material in metal-poor stars. Our Eu isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with an r-process origin by the classical method and is consistent with both an r-process and s-process origin by the stellar model. Our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with a predominantly r-process origin by both methods, and our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 196944 is consistent with a pure s-process origin by both methods as well. Our Nd isotopic fractions in both stars are consistent with either r-process and s-process origins by both methods. The Eu and Sm isotopic fraction estimates argue for an r-process origin for the rare-earth elements in HD 175305 and an s-process origin for them in HD 196944, in excellent agreement with previous studies of the elemental abundance distributions in these stars. This study for the

  12. The r-Process in Metal Poor Stars and Black Hole Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R N; Famiano, M A; Meyer, B S; Motizuki, Y; Kajino, T; Roederer, I U

    2011-11-30

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally ascribed to the r-process, as the abundance pattern in many such stars agrees with the inferred Solar r-process abundances. Nonetheless, a significant number of these stars do not share this r-process template. they suggest that many such stars have begun an r-process, but it was prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes, creating a 'truncated r-process,' or 'tr-process'. The observed fraction of tr-process stars is found to be consistent with expectations from the initial mass function (IMF), and they suggest that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare earths. They test the tr-process hypothesis with calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. These produce qualitative agreement with observation when both black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  13. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NINTH MAGNITUDE CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STAR BD+44 Degree-Sign 493

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hiroko; Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Honda, Satoshi; Carollo, Daniela E-mail: beers@noao.edu E-mail: honda@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-08-10

    We present detailed chemical abundances for the bright carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star BD+44 Degree-Sign 493, previously reported on by Ito et al. Our measurements confirm that BD+44 Degree-Sign 493 is an extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H] =-3.8) subgiant star with excesses of carbon and oxygen. No significant excesses are found for nitrogen and neutron-capture elements (the latter of which place it in the CEMP-no class of stars). Other elements that we measure exhibit abundance patterns that are typical for non-CEMP extremely metal-poor stars. No evidence for variations of radial velocity has been found for this star. These results strongly suggest that the carbon enhancement in BD+44 Degree-Sign 493 is unlikely to have been produced by a companion asymptotic giant-branch star and transferred to the presently observed star, nor by pollution of its natal molecular cloud by rapidly-rotating, massive, mega metal-poor ([Fe/H] < - 6.0) stars. A more likely possibility is that this star formed from gas polluted by the elements produced in a ''faint'' supernova, which underwent mixing and fallback, and only ejected small amounts of elements of metals beyond the lighter elements. The Li abundance of BD+44 Degree-Sign 493 (A(Li) = log (Li/H)+12 =1.0) is lower than the Spite plateau value, as found in other metal-poor subgiants. The upper limit on Be abundance (A(Be) = log (Be/H)+12 < - 1.8) is as low as those found for stars with similarly extremely-low metallicity, indicating that the progenitors of carbon- (and oxygen-) enhanced stars are not significant sources of Be, or that Be is depleted in metal-poor subgiants with effective temperatures of {approx}5400 K.

  14. Abundances of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars as constraints on their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Nordström, B.; Hansen, T. T.; Kennedy, C. R.; Placco, V. M.; Beers, T. C.; Andersen, J.; Cescutti, G.; Chiappini, C.

    2016-04-01

    Context. An increasing fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars is found as their iron abundance, [Fe/H], decreases below [Fe/H] =-2.0. The CEMP-s stars have the highest absolute carbon abundances, [C/H], and are thought to owe their enrichment in carbon and the slow neutron-capture (s-process) elements to mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch (AGB) binary companion. The most Fe-poor CEMP stars are normally single, exhibit somewhat lower [C/H] than CEMP-s stars, but show no s-process element enhancement (CEMP-no stars). Abundance determinations of CNO offer clues to their formation sites. Aims: Our aim is to use the medium-resolution spectrograph X-Shooter/VLT to determine stellar parameters and abundances for C, N, Sr, and Ba in several classes of CEMP stars in order to further classify and constrain the astrophysical formation sites of these stars. Methods: Atmospheric parameters for our programme stars were estimated from a combination of V-K photometry, model isochrone fits, and estimates from a modified version of the SDSS/SEGUE spectroscopic pipeline. We then used X-Shooter spectra in conjunction with the 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium spectrum synthesis code MOOG, 1D ATLAS9 atmosphere models to derive stellar abundances, and, where possible, isotopic 12C/13C ratios. Results: Abundances (or limits) of C, N, Sr, and Ba are derived for a sample of 27 faint metal-poor stars for which the X-Shooter spectra have sufficient signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). These moderate resolution, low S/N (~10-40) spectra prove sufficient to perform limited chemical tagging and enable assignment of these stars into the CEMP subclasses (CEMP-s and CEMP-no). According to the derived abundances, 17 of our sample stars are CEMP-s and 3 are CEMP-no, while the remaining 7 are carbon-normal. For four CEMP stars, the subclassification remains uncertain, and two of them may be pulsating AGB stars. Conclusions: The derived stellar abundances trace the formation

  15. The low Sr/Ba ratio on some extremely metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; François, P.; Sbordone, L.

    2014-11-01

    Context. It has been noted that, in classical extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, the abundance ratio of two well-observed neutron-capture elements, Sr and Ba, is always higher than [Sr/Ba] = -0.5, which is the value of the solar r-only process; however, a handful of EMP stars have recently been found with a very low Sr/Ba ratio. Aims: We try to understand the origin of this anomaly by comparing the abundance pattern of the elements in these stars and in the classical EMP stars. Methods: For a rigorous comparison with previous data, four stars with very low Sr/Ba ratios were observed and analyzed in the same way as in the First Stars program: analysis within LTE approximation through 1D (hydrostatic) model atmosphere, providing homogeneous abundances of nine neutron-capture elements. Results: In CS 22950-173, the only turnoff star of the sample, the Sr/Ba ratio is, in fact, found to be higher than the r-only solar ratio, so the star is discarded. The remaining stars (CS 29493-090, CS 30322-023, HE 305-4520) are cool evolved giants. They do not present a clear carbon enrichment, but in evolved giants C is partly burned into N, and owing to their high N abundance, they could still have initially been carbon-rich EMP stars (CEMP). The abundances of Na to Mg present similar anomalies to those in CEMP stars. The abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements in the three stars are strikingly similar to a theoretical s-process pattern. This pattern could at first be attributed to pollution by a nearby AGB, but none of the stars presents a clear variation in the radial velocity indicating the presence of a companion. The stellar parameters seem to exclude any internal pollution in a TP-AGB phase for at least two of these stars. The possibility that the stars are early-AGB stars polluted during the core He flash does not seem compatible with the theory. Based on observations obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (ID 077.D-0299(A) PI

  16. Binary properties of CH and carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.; Van Winckel, H.; Merle, T.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Udry, S.; Masseron, T.; Lenaerts, L.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-02-01

    The HERMES spectrograph installed on the 1.2-m Mercator telescope has been used to monitor the radial velocity of 13 low-metallicity carbon stars, among which seven carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and six CH stars (including HIP 53522, a new member of the family, as revealed by a detailed abundance study). All stars but one show clear evidence for binarity. New orbits are obtained for eight systems. The sample covers an extended range in orbital periods, extending from 3.4 d (for the dwarf carbon star HE 0024-2523) to about 54 yr (for the CH star HD 26, the longest known among barium, CH, and extrinsic S stars). Three systems exhibit low-amplitude velocity variations with periods close to 1 yr superimposed on a long-term trend. In the absence of an accurate photometric monitoring of these systems, it is not clear yet whether these variations are the signature of a very low-mass companion or of regular envelope pulsations. The period - eccentricity (P - e) diagram for the 40 low-metallicity carbon stars with orbits now available shows no difference between CH and CEMP-s stars (the latter corresponding to those CEMP stars enriched in s-process elements, as are CH stars). We suggest that they must be considered as one and the same family and that their different names only stem from historical reasons. Indeed, these two families have as well very similar mass-function distributions, corresponding to companions with masses in the range 0.5-0.7 M⊙, indicative of white-dwarf companions, adopting 0.8-0.9 M⊙ for the primary component. This result confirms that CH and CEMP-s stars obey the same mass-transfer scenario as their higher-metallicity analogues, barium stars. The P - e diagrams of barium, CH, and CEMP-s stars are indeed very similar. They reveal two different groups of systems: one with short orbital periods (P< 1000 d) and mostly circular or almost circular orbits, and another with longer period and eccentric (e> 0.1) orbits. These two groups either

  17. Ultraviolet Spectral Synthesis and Oxygen in Metal-Poor Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. C.

    1999-05-01

    This report outlines the progress and pitfalls of calculating spectra from first principles in the 2300 -- 3400A region for metal-poor solar-type stars, and how they relate to the derivation of abundances of key species such as oxygen and magnesium. This work is part of a NASA-supported effort with Ben Dorman of Goddard Space Flight Center to develop ab initio spectra suitable for galaxy analysis, and also part of a HST-oriented program with Karel Schrijver of Lockheed Martin to characterize the chromospheric activity of the oldest solar-type stars. The first task has been a reanalysis of the basic stellar parameters of temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity for solar-temperature stars ranging from one-fifth to one-three hundredth solar metallicity, demanding agreement in line strengths and profiles of strong lines and weak, in both optical and ultraviolet, and in the ultraviolet flux distribution. These cross-checks are built in to ensure convergence to a unique solution, or to highlight where standard assumptions are breaking down. Once agreement is achieved for the most metal-deficient stars, the line list used for the spectral calculations is re-examined, and somewhat more metal-rich stars are matched. Abundance results for oxygen from various approaches will be described, from the near-UV OH, 6300A [O I], and near-IR O I lines, and from adopting laboratory versus theoretical versus astrophysical atomic and molecular constants.

  18. Line Broadening in Field Metal-Poor Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Bruce W.; Latham, David W.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Laird, John B.

    2008-01-01

    We report 349 radial velocities for 45 metal-poor field red giant branch (RGB) and red horizontal branch (RHB) stars, with time coverage ranging from 1 to 21 years. We have identified one new spectroscopic binary, HD 4306, and one possible such system, HD 184711. We also provide 57 radial velocities for 11 of the 91 stars reported in our previous work. All but one of the 11 stars had been found to have variable radial velocities. New velocities for the long-period spectroscopic binaries BD-1 2582 and HD 108317 have extended the time coverage to 21.7 and 12.5 years, respectively, but in neither case have we yet completed a full orbital period. As was found in the previous study, radial velocity "jitter" is present in many of the most luminous stars. Excluding stars showing spectroscopic binary orbital motion, all 7 of the red giants with estimated MV values more luminous than -2.0 display jitter, as well as 3 of the 14 stars with -2.0 < MV <= -1.4. We have also measured the line broadening in all the new spectra, using synthetic spectra as templates. Comparison with results from high-resolution and higher signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra employed by other workers shows good agreement down to line-broadening levels of 3 km s-1, well below our instrumental resolution of 8.5 km s-1. As the previous work demonstrated, the majority of the most luminous red giants show significant line broadening, as do many of the red horizontal branch stars, and we briefly discuss possible causes. The line broadening appears related to velocity jitter, in that both appear primarily among the highest luminosity red giants.

  19. Modeling Mid-Ultraviolet Spectra. I. Temperatures of Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.

    2001-09-01

    Determining the properties of remote globular clusters and elliptical galaxies using evolutionary population synthesis requires a library of reliable model stellar fluxes. Empirical libraries are limited to spectra of stars in the solar neighborhood, with nearly solar abundances and abundance ratios. We report here a first step toward providing a flux library that includes nonsolar abundances, based on calculations from first principles that are calibrated empirically. Because the mid-ultraviolet spectrum of an old stellar system is dominated by the contribution from its main-sequence turnoff stars, we have started by modeling these. We have calculated mid-ultraviolet spectra for the Sun and nine nearby, near-main-sequence stars spanning metallicities from less than 1/100 solar to greater than solar, encompassing a range of light-element-abundance enhancements. We first determined temperatures of eight of the stars by analyzing optical echelle spectra together with the mid-ultraviolet. Both could be matched at the same time only when models with no convective overshoot were adopted and only when an approximate chromosphere was incorporated near the surface of relatively metal-rich models. Extensive modifications to mid-UV line parameters were also required, notably the manual assignment of approximate identifications for mid-UV lines missing from laboratory line lists. Without recourse to additional missing opacity, these measures suffice to reproduce in detail almost the entire mid-UV spectrum of solar-temperature stars up to 1/10 solar metallicity and the region from 2900 to 3100 Å throughout the entire metallicity range. Ramifications for abundance determinations in individual metal-poor stars and for age-metallicity determinations of old stellar systems are briefly discussed, with emphasis on the predictive power of the calculations. Based on observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope of the Space Telescope Science Institute, under contract with the

  20. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira Mello, C.; Hill, V.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Beers, T. C.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Cayrel, R.; François, P.; Schatz, H.; Wanajo, S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I; +0.3 ≤ [Eu/Fe] ≤ +1.0) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II; [Eu/Fe] > +1.0), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. Aims: The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with -3.4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2.4 classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is (are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. Methods: We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph, using spectra in the wavelength ranges 3400-4500 Å, 6800-8200 Å, and 8700-10 000 Å, with resolving power R ~ 40 000 (blue arm) and R ~ 55 000 (red arm). The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. Results: We have derived abundances of the light elements Li, C, and N, the α-elements Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Al, K, and Sc, the iron-peak elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and the trans-iron elements from the first peak (Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, and Pd), the second peak (Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb), the third peak (Os and Ir, as upper limits), and the actinides (Th) regions. The results are compared with values for these elements for r-II and "normal" very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature, ages based on radioactive chronometry are explored using different models, and a number of conclusions about the r-process and the r-I stars are presented. Hydrodynamical models were used for some elements, and general behaviors for the 3D corrections

  1. Erbium And The r-Process In The Sun And Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    Recent laboratory radiative lifetimes accurate to 5% for 8 even-parity and 72 odd-parity levels of Er II (Stockett et al. 2007, J. Phys. B, in press) were combined with emission branching fractions from Fourier transform spectra to determine accurate absolute transition probabilities for 418 lines of Er II. The lines span the UV to IR wavelength range from 289.2 to 1984.1 nm. Our gf-values have been applied to refine the solar photospheric erbium abundance and to determine erbium abundances in 4 metal-poor giant stars with enhanced r-process abundances (those with [Fe/H] < -2, [Eu/Fe] > +0.5). For the Sun we derive log ɛ(Er) = 0.96 ± 0.02 (σ = 0.06 from 8 lines). This value is in excellent agreement with Lodders' (2003, ApJ, 591, 1220) recommended meteoritic abundance: log ɛ(Er) = 0.95 ± 0.03. Combining the new photospheric Er abundance with our earlier study of Eu (log ɛ(Er) = 0.52 ± 0.01; Lawler et al. 2001, ApJ, 563, 1075) yields log ɛ(Er/Eu) = 0.43 for the Sun. The origin of both Er and Eu are attributed predominantly to production in rapid neutron-capture synthesis (the r-process) in solar-system material, 83% and 97% respectively (Simmerer et al. 2004, ApJ, 617, 1091). We therefore applied the new transition data to the spectra of very metal-poor, r-process rich stars CS 22892-052, BD+17 3248, HD 115444, and HD 221170. Between 14 and 21 Er II features were usable in our abundance analyses in these stars. We derived = 0.43 for the four stars, obviously in excellent agreements with the solar value. This work has been supported by the National Science Foundations through grants AST-0506324 to JEL, AST-0607708 to CS, and AST-0707447 to JJC.

  2. A high-resolution spectral analysis of three carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Norris, John E.; Ryan, Sean G.; Tsangarides, Stelios

    2006-10-01

    We present results of an analysis of high-resolution spectra (R ~ 50000), obtained with the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph, of two carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars selected from the Hamburg/European Southern Observatory prism survey, HE 1305+0007 and HE 1152-0355, and of the classical CH star HD 5223. All these stars have relatively low effective temperatures (4000-4750K) and high carbon abundances, which result in the presence of very strong molecular carbon bands in their spectra. The stellar atmospheric parameters for these stars indicate that they all have surface gravities consistent with a present location on the red giant branch, and metallicities of [Fe/H] = -2.0 (HE 1305+0007, HD 5223) and [Fe/H] = -1.3 (HE 1152-0355). In addition to their large enhancements of carbon ([C/Fe] = +1.8, +1.6 and +0.6, respectively), all three stars exhibit strong enhancements of the s-process elements relative to iron. HE 1305+0007 exhibits a large enhancement of the third-peak s-process element, lead, with [Pb/Fe] = +2.37, as well as a high abundance of the r-process element europium, [Eu/Fe] = +1.97. The second-peak s-process elements, Ba, La, Ce, Nd and Sm, are found to be more enhanced than the first-peak s-process elements Zr, Sr and Y. Thus, HE 1305+0007 joins the growing class of the so-called `Lead stars', and also the class of objects that exhibit the presence of both r- and s-process elements, the CEMP-r/s stars. The large enhancements of neutron-capture (n-capture) elements exhibited by HE 1152-0355 and HD 5223 are more consistent with the abundance patterns generally noticed in CH stars, essentially arising from pure s-process nucleosynthesis. The elemental abundance distributions observed in these stars are discussed in light of existing theories of CH star formation, as well as the suggested formation scenarios of the CEMP-r/s group. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory

  3. New detections of arsenic, selenium, and other heavy elements in two metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Schatz, Hendrik; Beers, Timothy C.; Lawler, James E.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.

    2014-08-10

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 ≤λ ≤ 2360 Å wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We derive abundances of Cu II, Zn II, As I, Se I, Mo II, and Cd II, which have not been detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range –2.8 < [Fe/H] <–0.6, ([As/Fe]) = +0.28 ± 0.14 (σ = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, ([Se/Fe]) = +0.16 ± 0.09 (σ = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 ≤A ≤ 82) may be the point at which a different nucleosynthetic mechanism begins to dominate the quasi-equilibrium α-rich freezeout of the iron peak. ([Cu II/Cu I]) = +0.56 ± 0.23 in HD 108317 and HD 128279, and we infer that lines of Cu I may not be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium in these stars. The [Zn/Fe], [Mo/Fe], [Cd/Fe], and [Os/Fe] ratios are also derived from neutral and ionized species, and each ratio pair agrees within the mutual uncertainties, which range from 0.15 to 0.52 dex.

  4. The history of chemical enrichment and the sites of early nucleosynthesis: CNO abundances of galactic carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Catherine R.

    This dissertation focuses on abundance analyses of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) Galactic halo stars. Different methods for determining carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and also some barium abundances are described. The study of these abundances in such stars serves to investigate the means by which the Universe became enriched in metals. Due to the different kinds of CEMP stars observed in the Milky Way, it can only be assumed that there is certainly more than one method of carbon-enhancement at early times. Complete abundance analyses for as many of these archaeological relics as possible are needed in order to constrain the astrophysical sites of early carbon production. There are three main parts of this dissertation. The first part describes new techniques to determine oxygen abundances from spectra of the near-infrared molecular CO bands. With the near-IR OSIRIS spectrograph on the SOAR 4.1-m telescope, 57 CEMP stars were observed. A wide range of oxygen abundances were estimated, and the results were statistically compared to high-resolution estimates for both carbon-enhanced and carbon-normal metal-poor stars. Abundance patterns of the sample stars were compared to yield predictions for very metal-poor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The majority of the sample exhibit patterns consistent with CEMP stars having s-process-element enhancements, and thus have very likely been polluted by carbon- and oxygen-enhanced material transferred from a metal-poor AGB companion. The second part delineates a new survey effort implemented in order to identify new CEMP stars. For the initial pilot study, a new selection technique was developed based solely on the strength of the CH G band at 4300 A. This technique eliminated previous temperature and metallicity biases present in other CEMP surveys. Observations of the pilot sample were carried out with the Goodman HTS spectrograph on the SOAR 4.1-m telescope. Of the over 120 candidate stars observed, over 35% were found to

  5. [O/Fe] ESTIMATES FOR CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS FROM NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Christlieb, Norbert; Herwig, Falk; Plez, Bertrand E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: sivarani@iiap.res.in E-mail: rossi@astro.iag.usp.br E-mail: fherwig@uvic.ca

    2011-03-15

    We report on oxygen abundances determined from medium-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 57 carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. The majority of our program stars exhibit oxygen-to-iron ratios in the range +0.5< [O/Fe]<+2.0. The [O/Fe] values for this sample are statistically compared to available high-resolution estimates for known CEMP stars as well as to high-resolution estimates for a set of carbon-normal metal-poor stars. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundance patterns for a sub-sample of these stars are compared to yield predictions for very metal-poor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) abundances in the recent literature. We find that the majority of our sample exhibit patterns that are consistent with previously studied CEMP stars having s-process-element enhancements and thus have very likely been polluted by carbon- and oxygen-enhanced material transferred from a metal-poor AGB companion.

  6. High-resolution spectroscopy of extremely metal-poor stars from SDSS/Segue. II. Binary fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Honda, Satoshi E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp E-mail: honda@nhao.jp

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] <−3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  7. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE. II. Binary Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Honda, Satoshi

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] \\lt -3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  8. Abundance analysis of SDSS J134338.67+484426.6; an extremely metal-poor star from the MARVELS pre-survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susmitha Rani, A.; Sivarani, T.; Beers, T. C.; Fleming, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Ge, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis of an extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] <-3.0) star, SDSS J134338.67+484426.6, identified during the course of the Multi-object Apache Point Observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey spectroscopic pre-survey of some 20 000 stars to identify suitable candidates for exoplanet searches. This star, with an apparent magnitude V = 12.14, is the lowest metallicity star found in the pre-survey, and is one of only ˜20 known EMP stars that are this bright or brighter. Our high-resolution spectroscopic analysis shows that this star is a subgiant with [Fe/H] = -3.42, having `normal' carbon and no enhancement of neutron-capture abundances. Strontium is underabundant, [Sr/Fe] = -0.47, but the derived lower limit on [Sr/Ba] indicates that Sr is likely enhanced relative to Ba. This star belongs to the sparsely populated class of α-poor EMP stars that exhibit low ratios of [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] compared to typical halo stars at similar metallicity. The observed variations in radial velocity from several epochs of (low- and high-resolution) spectroscopic follow-up indicate that SDSS J134338.67+484426.6 is a possible long-period binary. We also discuss the abundance trends in EMP stars for r-process elements, and compare with other magnesium-poor stars.

  9. Exploring the origin of lithium, carbon, strontium, and barium with four new ultra metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.; Hansen, C. J.; Christlieb, N. E-mail: cjhansen@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present an elemental abundance analysis for four newly discovered ultra metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO survey, with [Fe/H] ≤ –4. Based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra, we derive abundances for 17 elements in the range from Li to Ba. Three of the four stars exhibit moderate to large overabundances of carbon, but have no enhancements in their neutron-capture elements. The most metal-poor star in the sample, HE 0233–0343 ([Fe/H] = –4.68), is a subgiant with a carbon enhancement of [C/Fe] = +3.5, slightly above the carbon-enhancement plateau suggested by Spite et al. No carbon is detected in the spectrum of the fourth star, but the quality of its spectrum only allows for the determination of an upper limit on the carbon abundance ratio of [C/Fe] < +1.7. We detect lithium in the spectra of two of the carbon-enhanced stars, including HE 0233–0343. Both stars with Li detections are Li-depleted, with respect to the Li plateau for metal-poor dwarfs found by Spite and Spite. This suggests that whatever site(s) produced C either do not completely destroy lithium, or that Li has been astrated by early-generation stars and mixed with primordial Li in the gas that formed the stars observed at present. The derived abundances for the α elements and iron-peak elements of the four stars are similar to those found in previous large samples of extremely and ultra metal-poor stars. Finally, a large spread is found in the abundances of Sr and Ba for these stars, possibly influenced by enrichment from fast rotating stars in the early universe.

  10. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  11. 2MASS J18082002-5104378: The brightest (V = 11.9) ultra metal-poor star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, Jorge; Placco, Vinicius M.; Tucci-Maia, Marcelo; Ramírez, Iván; Li, Ting S.; Perez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Context. The most primitive metal-poor stars are important for studying the conditions of the early galaxy and are also relevant to big bang nucleosynthesis. Aims: Our objective is to find the brightest (V< 14) most metal-poor stars. Methods: Candidates were selected using a new method, which is based on the mismatch between spectral types derived from colors and observed spectral types. They were observed first at low resolution with EFOSC2 at the NTT to obtain an initial set of stellar parameters. The most promising candidate, 2MASS J18082002-5104378 (V = 11.9), was observed at high resolution (R = 50 000) with UVES at the VLT, and a standard abundance analysis was performed. Results: We found that 2MASS J18082002-5104378 is an ultra metal-poor star with stellar parameters Teff = 5440 K, log g = 3.0 dex, vt = 1.5 km s-1, [Fe/H] = -4.1 dex. The star has [C/Fe] < +0.9 in a 1D analysis, or [C/Fe] ≲ +0.5 if 3D effects are considered; its abundance pattern is typical of normal (non-CEMP) ultra metal-poor stars. Interestingly, the star has a binary companion. Conclusions: 2MASS J1808-5104 is the brightest (V = 11.9) metal-poor star of its category, and it could be studied further with even higher S/N spectroscopy to determine additional chemical abundances, thus providing important constraints to the early chemical evolution of our Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT, observing program 293.D-5036) and New Technology Telescope (NTT, observing programs 091.D-0292 and 092.D-0308).

  12. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guochao; Li, Hongjie; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(α , n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor "weak s-process stars" could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr should mainly come from the primary weak s-process. The contributed fractions of the primary weak s-process to the Sr, Y and Zr abundances of ET0097 are about 82 %, 84 % and 58 % respectively, suggesting that the CEMP star ET0097 should have the footprints of the weak s-process. The derived result should be a significant evidence that the weak s-process elements can be produced in metal-poor massive stars.

  13. New Detections of Arsenic, Selenium, and Other Heavy Elements in Two Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Schatz, Hendrik; Lawler, James E.; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I.; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.

    2014-08-01

    We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain new high-quality spectra covering the 1900 <=λ <= 2360 Å wavelength range for two metal-poor stars, HD 108317 and HD 128279. We derive abundances of Cu II, Zn II, As I, Se I, Mo II, and Cd II, which have not been detected previously in either star. Abundances derived for Ge I, Te I, Os II, and Pt I confirm those derived from lines at longer wavelengths. We also derive upper limits from the non-detection of W II, Hg II, Pb II, and Bi I. The mean [As/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and five others in the literature is unchanged over the metallicity range -2.8 < [Fe/H] <-0.6, lang[As/Fe]rang = +0.28 ± 0.14 (σ = 0.36 dex). The mean [Se/Fe] ratio derived from these two stars and six others in the literature is also constant, lang[Se/Fe]rang = +0.16 ± 0.09 (σ = 0.26 dex). The As and Se abundances are enhanced relative to a simple extrapolation of the iron-peak abundances to higher masses, suggesting that this mass region (75 <=A <= 82) may be the point at which a different nucleosynthetic mechanism begins to dominate the quasi-equilibrium α-rich freezeout of the iron peak. lang[Cu II/Cu I]rang = +0.56 ± 0.23 in HD 108317 and HD 128279, and we infer that lines of Cu I may not be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium in these stars. The [Zn/Fe], [Mo/Fe], [Cd/Fe], and [Os/Fe] ratios are also derived from neutral and ionized species, and each ratio pair agrees within the mutual uncertainties, which range from 0.15 to 0.52 dex. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-12268 and GO-12976.

  14. Fe-Group Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937: Abundances and their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived accurate relative abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn in the very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937. For this study we analyzed high resolution, high signal-to-noise HST/STIS and VLT/UVES spectra over a total wavelength range 2300-7000 Å. We employed only recent or newly-applied reliable laboratory transition data for all species. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species were combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. From parallel analyses of solar photospheric spectra we also derived new solar abundances of these elements. This in turn yielded internally-consistent relative HD 84937 abundances with respect to the Sun. For seven of the ten Fe-group elements the HD 84937 abundances were from both neutral and ionized transitions. In all of these cases the neutral and ionized species yield the same abundances within the measurement uncertainties. Therefore standard Saha ionization balance appears to hold in the HD 84937 atmosphere. We derived metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.32 with sample standard deviation of 0.06. Solid evidence is seen for departures from the solar abundance mix in HD 84937, for example [Co/Fe] = +0.14, [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, and <[Sc,Ti,V/Fe]> = +0.31. Combining our Sc, Ti, and V abundances for this star with those from large-sample spectroscopic surveys suggests that these elements are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2. HD 84937 is unusually enriched in Sc, Ti, and V. Our analysis strongly suggests that different types of supernovae with a large scatter of explosion energies and asymmetries contributed to the creation of the Fe-group elements early in the Galaxy's history.This work has been supported in part by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (J.E.L.), by NSF grants AST-1211055 (J.E.L.), AST-1211585 (C.S.), PHY-1430152 (through JINA, J.J.C. and M.P.), EU MIRGCT-2006-046520 (M.P.), and by the ``Lendlet-2014'' Programme of the Hungarian Academy of

  15. A Search for Stars of Very Low Metal Abundance. VI. Detailed Abundances of 313 Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Sneden, Christopher; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D.

    2014-06-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] <=-3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] <=-3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] <=-2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] <=-2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University

  16. Spectroscopic Studies of Very Metal-poor Stars with the Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph. III. Light Neutron-Capture Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi; Beers, Timothy C.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Ando, Hiroyasu; Norris, John E.; Ryan, Sean G.; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Sadakane, Kozo; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2005-10-01

    Elemental abundance measurements have been obtained for a sample of 18 very metal-poor stars using spectra obtained with the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph. Seventeen stars, among which 16 are newly analyzed in the present work, were selected from candidate metal-poor stars identified in the HK survey of Beers and colleagues. The metallicity range covered by our sample is -3.1<~[Fe/H]<~-2.4. The abundances of carbon, α-elements, and iron-peak elements determined for these stars confirm the trends found by previous work. One exception is the large overabundance of Mg, Al, and Sc found in BS 16934-002, a giant with [Fe/H]=-2.8. Interestingly, this is the most metal-rich star (by about 1 dex in [Fe/H]) known with such large overabundances in these elements. Furthermore, BS 16934-002 does not share the large overabundances of carbon that are associated with the two other, otherwise similar, extremely metal-poor stars CS 22949-037 and CS 29498-043. By combining our new results with those of previous studies, we investigate the distribution of neutron-capture elements in very metal-poor stars, focusing on the production of the light neutron-capture elements (e.g., Sr, Y, and Zr). Large scatter is found in the abundance ratios between the light and heavy neutron-capture elements (e.g., Sr/Ba, Y/Eu) for stars with low abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements. Most of these stars have extremely low metallicity ([Fe/H]<~-3). By contrast, the observed scatter in these ratios is much smaller in stars with excesses of heavy neutron-capture elements and with higher metallicity. These results can be naturally explained by assuming that two processes independently enriched the neutron-capture elements in the early Galaxy. One process increases both light and heavy neutron-capture elements and affects stars with [Fe/H]>~-3, while the other process contributes only to the light neutron-capture elements and affects most stars with [Fe/H]>~-3.5. Interestingly, the

  17. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS FROM SDSS/SEGUE. I. ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Honda, Satoshi; Ito, Hiroko; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Frebel, Anna; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.; Carollo, Daniela; Sivarani, Thirupathi E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp E-mail: lee@pa.msu.edu E-mail: hidai@apus.rh.u-tokai.ac.jp E-mail: fujimoto@astro1.sci.hokudai.ac.jp E-mail: sivarani@iiap.res.in

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compositions are determined based on high-resolution spectroscopy for 137 candidate extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its first stellar extension, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). High-resolution spectra with moderate signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios were obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph of the Subaru Telescope. Most of the sample (approximately 80%) are main-sequence turnoff stars, including dwarfs and subgiants. Four cool main-sequence stars, the most metal-deficient such stars known, are included in the remaining sample. Good agreement is found between effective temperatures estimated by the SEGUE stellar parameter pipeline, based on the SDSS/SEGUE medium-resolution spectra, and those estimated from the broadband (V - K){sub 0} and (g - r){sub 0} colors. Our abundance measurements reveal that 70 stars in our sample have [Fe/H] < -3, adding a significant number of EMP stars to the currently known sample. Our analyses determine the abundances of eight elements (C, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Sr, and Ba) in addition to Fe. The fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars ([C/Fe] > +0.7) among the 25 giants in our sample is as high as 36%, while only a lower limit on the fraction (9%) is estimated for turnoff stars. This paper is the first of a series of papers based on these observational results. The following papers in this series will discuss the higher-resolution and higher-S/N observations of a subset of this sample, the metallicity distribution function, binarity, and correlations between the chemical composition and kinematics of extremely metal-poor stars.

  18. Behavior of [S/Fe] in Very Metal-Poor Stars from the S I 1.046 µm Lines Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2012-04-01

    With an aim to establish how the [S/Fe] ratios behave in the very low metallicity regime down to [Fe/H] ˜ -3, we conducted a non-LTE analysis of near-IR S I triplet lines (multiplet 3) at 10455-10459 Å for a dozen very metal-poor stars (-3.2 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -1.9) based on new observational data obtained with IRCS+AO188 of the Subaru Telescope. It turned out that the resulting [S/ Fe] values are only moderately supersolar at [S/Fe] ˜ +0.2-0.5, irrespective of the metallicity. While this ``flat'' tendency is consistent with a trend recently corroborated by Spite et al. (2011, A&A, 528, A9) based on the S I 9212/9228/9237 lines (multiplet 1), it disaffirms the possibility of a conspicuously large [S/Fe] (up to ˜ +0.8) at [Fe/H] ˜ -3 that we once suggested in our first report on the S abundances of disk/halo stars using S I 10455-10459 lines (Takeda & Takada-Hidai 2011, PASJ, 63, S537). Given these new observational facts, we withdraw our previous argument, since we consider that [S/Fe]'s of some most metal-poor objects were overestimated in that paper; the likely cause for this failure is also discussed.

  19. SEARCHES FOR METAL-POOR STARS FROM THE HAMBURG/ESO SURVEY USING THE CH G BAND

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Christlieb, Norbert; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Reimers, Dieter; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2011-12-15

    We describe a new method to search for metal-poor candidates from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES) based on identifying stars with apparently strong CH G-band strengths for their colors. The hypothesis we exploit is that large overabundances of carbon are common among metal-poor stars, as has been found by numerous studies over the past two decades. The selection was made by considering two line indices in the 4300 A region, applied directly to the low-resolution prism spectra. This work also extends a previously published method by adding bright sources to the sample. The spectra of these stars suffer from saturation effects, compromising the index calculations and leading to an undersampling of the brighter candidates. A simple numerical procedure, based on available photometry, was developed to correct the line indices and overcome this limitation. Visual inspection and classification of the spectra from the HES plates yielded a list of 5288 new metal-poor (and by selection, carbon-rich) candidates, which are presently being used as targets for medium-resolution spectroscopic follow-up. Estimates of the stellar atmospheric parameters, as well as carbon abundances, are now available for 117 of the first candidates, based on follow-up medium-resolution spectra obtained with the SOAR 4.1 m and Gemini 8 m telescopes. We demonstrate that our new method improves the metal-poor star fractions found by our pilot study by up to a factor of three in the same magnitude range, as compared with our pilot study based on only one CH G-band index. Our selection scheme obtained roughly a 40% success rate for identification of stars with [Fe/H] <-1.0; the primary contaminant is late-type stars with near-solar abundances and, often, emission line cores that filled in the Ca II K line on the prism spectrum. Because the selection is based on carbon, we greatly increase the numbers of known carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars from the HES with intermediate metallicities -2

  20. Far-ultraviolet energy distributions of the metal-poor A stars HD 109995 and HD 161817

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    Low-resolution IUE spectra at wavelengths between 1300 and 3400 A of the metal-poor stars HD 109995 (A1p) and HD 161817 (A4p) have been compared with model-atmosphere energy distributions computed by Kurucz (1979). Good overall agreement is found. Effective temperatures, metal abundances, and angular diameters could be determined. Assuming an absolute visual magnitude of 0.7, the previously determined gravity log = 3 yields masses of 0.5 solar masses for both stars. It is found that the theoretical UBV colors calculated earlier agree reaonably well with the ones observed for these stars.

  1. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XL. Searching for Neptunes around metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, J. P.; Santos, N. C.; Figueira, P.; Mortier, A.; Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Lo Curto, G.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Melo, C.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Sousa, S. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Udry, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. As a probe of the metallicity of proto-planetary disks, stellar metallicity is an important ingredient for giant planet formation, most likely through its effect on the timescales in which rocky or icy planet cores can form. Giant planets have been found to be more frequent around metal-rich stars, in agreement with predictions based on the core-accretion theory. In the metal-poor regime, however, the frequency of planets, especially low-mass planets, and the way it depends on metallicity are still largely unknown. Aims: As part of a planet search programme focused on metal-poor stars, we study the targets from this survey that were observed with HARPS on more than 75 nights. The main goals are to assess the presence of low-mass planets and provide a first estimate of the frequency of Neptunes and super-Earths around metal-poor stars. Methods: We performed a systematic search for planetary companions, both by analysing the periodograms of the radial-velocities and by comparing, in a statistically meaningful way, models with an increasing number of Keplerians. Results: A first constraint on the frequency of planets in our metal-poor sample is calculated considering the previous detection (in our sample) of a Neptune-sized planet around HD 175607 and one candidate planet (with an orbital period of 68.42 d and minimum mass Mpsini = 11.14 ± 2.47 M⊕) for HD 87838, announced in the present study. This frequency is determined to be close to 13% and is compared with results for solar-metallicity stars. Based on observations collected at ESO facilities under programs 082.C-0212, 085.C-0063, 086.C-0284, and 190.C-0027 (with the HARPS spectrograph at the ESO 3.6-m telescope, La Silla-Paranal Observatory).

  2. Chemical compositions of six metal-poor stars in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Boötes I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, M. N.; Aoki, W.; Arimoto, N.; Okamoto, S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies recently discovered around the Milky Way (MW) contain extremely metal-poor stars, and might represent the building blocks of low-metallicity components of the MW. Among them, the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy is of particular interest because of its exclusively old stellar population. Detailed chemical compositions of individual stars in this galaxy are a key to understanding formation and chemical evolution in the oldest galaxies in the Universe and their roles in building up the MW halo. Aims: Previous studies of the chemical abundances of Boötes I show discrepancies in elemental abundances between different authors, and thus a consistent picture of its chemical enrichment history has not yet been established. In the present work, we independently determine chemical compositions of six red giant stars in Boötes I, some of which overlap with those analyzed in the previous studies. Based on the derived abundances, we re-examine trends and scatters in elemental abundances and make comparisons with MW field halo stars and other dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the MW. Methods: High-resolution spectra of a sample of stars were obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph mounted on the Subaru Telescope. Abundances of 12 elements, including C, Na, α, Fe-peak, and neutron capture elements, were determined for the sample stars. The abundance results were compared to those in field MW halo stars previously obtained using an abundance analysis technique similar to the present study. Results: We confirm the low metallicity of Boo-094 ([Fe/H] = -3.4). Except for this star, the abundance ratios ([X/Fe]) of elements lighter than zinc are generally homogeneous with small scatter around the mean values in the metallicities spanned by the other five stars (-2.7 < [Fe/H] < -1.8). Specifically, all of the sample stars with [Fe/H] > -2.7 show no significant enhancement of carbon. The [Mg/Fe] and [Ca/Fe] ratios are almost constant with a

  3. NEW RARE EARTH ELEMENT ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE SUN AND FIVE r-PROCESS-RICH VERY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.; Ivans, Inese I. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2009-05-15

    We have derived new abundances of the rare earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low-metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally consistent Ba, rare earth, and Hf (56 {<=} Z {<=} 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  4. Metallicity inhomogeneities in local star-forming galaxies as a sign of recent metal-poor gas accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Elmegreen, B. G. E-mail: abml@iac.es E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu E-mail: jma20@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We measure the oxygen metallicity of the ionized gas along the major axis of seven dwarf star-forming galaxies. Two of them, SDSSJ1647+21 and SDSSJ2238+14, show ≅0.5 dex metallicity decrements in inner regions with enhanced star formation activity. This behavior is similar to the metallicity drop observed in a number of local tadpole galaxies by Sánchez Almeida et al., and was interpreted as showing early stages of assembling in disk galaxies, with the star formation sustained by external metal-poor gas accretion. The agreement with tadpoles has several implications. (1) It proves that galaxies other than the local tadpoles present the same unusual metallicity pattern. (2) Our metallicity inhomogeneities were inferred using the direct method, thus discarding systematic errors usually attributed to other methods. (3) Taken together with the tadpole data, our findings suggest a threshold around one-tenth the solar value for the metallicity drops to show up. Although galaxies with clear metallicity drops are rare, the physical mechanism responsible for them may sustain a significant part of the star formation activity in the local universe. We argue that the star formation dependence of the mass-metallicity relationship, as well as other general properties followed by most local disk galaxies, is naturally interpreted as side effects of pristine gas infall. Alternatives to the metal-poor gas accretion are examined as well.

  5. Stellar Dust Production in Chemically Primitive Environments: Infrared Lightcurves and Mass Loss in Extremely Metal-poor AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George

    In their final stage of evolution, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars inject a substantial amount of dust into the surrounding interstellar medium, potentially dominating the total stellar dust budgets of their host galaxies. However, stellar models conflict over whether metal-poor AGB stars can condense enough dust to drive a strong stellar wind, so it is unclear what role AGB stars play in the early Universe compared to other dust sources, e.g., in high-redshift quasars that show evidence for massive dust reservoirs. Empirically, AGB stars that are massive enough to contribute in the early Universe are only well studied in the Milky Way and the nearby Magellanic Clouds; all three environments are relatively metal-rich and thus unlikely to be representative of high-redshift AGB stars. This lack of observations of metal-poor AGB stars motivated the survey of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS), which imaged 50 nearby dwarf galaxies in the infrared and identified 526 dusty "extreme" AGB stars. The DUSTiNGS stars confirm that dust can form at metallicities as low as 0.008 solar, more than an order of magnitude lower than had been previously observed. However, very little is known about the DUSTiNGS stars; among the unknowns are the photospheric chemistries, stellar masses, temperatures, luminosities, pulsation periods and amplitudes, dust-production rates, and even their statuses as bona fide AGB stars. To eliminate these unknowns, we were awarded 56 hours of Priority 1 observing time in Spitzer's cycle 11 to obtain 6 new epochs of imaging for a subset of the DUSTiNGS variables over an 18 month baseline. These will be the first infrared light curves of metal-poor, dust-producing AGB stars, allowing us to study the influence of metallicity on pulsation and dust production. Combined with additional archival data, our cycle-11 Spitzer program will allow estimates of all of the parameters listed above, enabling the first direct comparisons to models of AGB

  6. FORMATION OF CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, S.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Latif, M. A.; Grassi, T.

    2014-08-01

    Recent discoveries of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars like SMSS J031300.36–670839.3 provide increasing observational insights into the formation conditions of the first second-generation stars in the universe, reflecting the chemical conditions after the first supernova explosion. Here, we present the first cosmological simulations with a detailed chemical network including primordial species as well as C, C{sup +}, O, O{sup +}, Si, Si{sup +}, and Si{sup 2+} following the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. The presence of background UV flux delays the collapse from z = 21 to z = 15 and cool the gas down to the cosmic microwave background temperature for a metallicity of Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –3}. This can potentially lead to the formation of lower-mass stars. Overall, we find that the metals have a stronger effect on the collapse than the radiation, yielding a comparable thermal structure for large variations in the radiative background. We further find that radiative backgrounds are not able to delay the collapse for Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –2} or a carbon abundance as in SMSS J031300.36–670839.3.

  7. Structure in the motions of the fastest halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re Fiorentin, P.; Helmi, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Spagna, A.

    2005-08-01

    We analyzed the catalog published by Beers et al. (2000, ApJ, 119, 2866) of 2106 non-kinematically selected metal poor stars in the solar neighborhood, with the goal of quantifying the amount of substructure in the motions of the fastest halo stars. We computed the two-point velocity correlation function for a subsample of halo stars within 1-2 kpc of the Sun, and found statistical evidence of substructure with a similar amplitude to that predicted by high resolution CDM simulations. The signal is due to a small kinematic group whose dynamical properties are compared to the stellar "stream" previously discovered by Helmi et al. (1999). If real, this high velocity moving group would provide further support for the idea that substructures remain as fossils from the formation of the Galaxy as expected in the CDM scenario.

  8. Is HE 0107-5240 A Primordial Star? The Characteristics of Extremely Metal-Poor Carbon-Rich Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Takuma; Aikawa, Masayuki; Machida, Masahiro N.; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.; Iben, Icko, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    We discuss the origin of HE 0107-5240, which, with a metallicity of [Fe/H]=-5.3, is the most iron-poor star yet observed. Its discovery has an important bearing on the question of the observability of first-generation stars in our universe. In common with other stars of very small metallicity (-4<~[Fe/H]<~-2.5), HE 0107-5240 shows a peculiar abundance pattern, including large enhancements of C, N, and O, and a more modest enhancement of Na. The observed abundance pattern can be explained by nucleosynthesis and mass transfer in a first-generation binary star, which, after birth, accretes matter from a primordial cloud mixed with the ejectum of a supernova. We elaborate the binary scenario on the basis of our current understanding of the evolution and nucleosynthesis of extremely metal-poor, low-mass model stars and discuss the possibility of discriminating this scenario from others. In our picture, iron-peak elements arise in surface layers of the component stars by accretion of gas from the polluted primordial cloud, pollution occurring after the birth of the binary. To explain the observed C, N, O, and Na enhancements, as well as the 12C/ 13C ratio, we suppose that the currently observed star, once the secondary in a binary, accreted matter from a chemically evolved companion, which is now a white dwarf. To estimate the abundances in the matter transferred in the binary, we rely on the results of computations of model stars constructed with up-to-date input physics. Nucleosynthesis in a helium-flash-driven convective zone into which hydrogen has been injected is followed, allowing us to explain the origin in the primary of the observed O and Na enrichments and to discuss the abundances of s-process elements. From the observed abundances, we conclude that HE 0107-5240 has evolved from a wide binary (of initial separation ~20 AU) with a primary of initial mass in the range 1.2-3 Msolar. On the assumption that the system now consists of a white dwarf and a red giant

  9. Standard Stars for the High-velocity and Metal-poor project at San Pedro Mártir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, W. J.; Parrao, L.; Contreras, M. E.

    2016-04-01

    The main documentation for the primary and secondary standard stars used in the high-velocity and metal-poor stars project is presented. Observations were taken using the Strömgren-Crawford, uvby-Hβ, 6-channel, spectrophotometric equipment with the H.L. Johnson 1.5-m telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, San Pedro Mártir, between 1987 and 2007. Standard photometric values from the literature are reported for our standard stars, as well as transformed standard values, errors in the instrumental system, the transformation coefficients obtained for the standard system, the transformation errors, and the methods used to obtain such photometric observations and their standard transformations.

  10. A New View of the Dwarf Spheroidal Satellites of the Milky Way From VLT/FLAMES: Where are the Very Metal Poor Stars?

    SciTech Connect

    Helmi, Amina; Irwin, M.J.; Tolstoy, E.; Battaglia, G.; Hill, V.; Jablonka, P.; Venn, K.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Arimoto, N.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; Primas, F.; Sadakane, K.; Szeifert, T.; /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron. /Meudon Observ. /LASTRO Observ. /Victoria U. /Texas U., McDonald Observ. /Tokyo, Astron. Observ. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /European Southern Obs., Chile /European Southern Observ. /Osaka Kyoiku U.

    2006-11-20

    As part of the Dwarf galaxies Abundances and Radial-velocities Team (DART) Programme, we have measured the metallicities of a large sample of stars in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph): Sculptor, Sextans, Fornax and Carina. The low mean metal abundances and the presence of very old stellar populations in these galaxies have supported the view that they are fossils from the early Universe. However, contrary to naive expectations, we find a significant lack of stars with metallicities below [Fe/H] {approx} -3 dex in all four systems. This suggests that the gas that made up the stars in these systems had been uniformly enriched prior to their formation. Furthermore, the metal-poor tail of the dSph metallicity distribution is significantly different from that of the Galactic halo. These findings show that the progenitors of nearby dSph appear to have been fundamentally different from the building blocks of the Milky Way, even at the earliest epochs.

  11. The metallicity distributon function of halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.; Christlieb, N.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past two decades a worldwide effort to obtain medium-resolution spectroscopic confirmation of candidate low-metallicity stars in the halo and thick disk of the Galaxy has produced ~ 8000 1-2 A observations of stars selected from the HK objective prism survey of Beers and colleagues. More recently the Hamburg/ESO prism survey of Christlieb and collaborators has produced a larger and better understood selection of metal-poor candidates that explore a much larger volume of the Galaxy than was available to the HK survey. We summarize the final derived Metallicity Distribution Function (MDF) of the HK survey objects and compare it with that obtained from the first several years of the HES follow-up effort. In particular we investigate whether there is evidence for a change in the nature of the MDF as a function of distance from the Galactic center which could have profound implications for the nature of the formation and evolution of the Milky Way and for galaxy formation in general.

  12. Preliminary determination of the Non-LTE Calcium abundance in a sample of extremely metal-poor stars*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Cayrel, R.; François, P.

    2011-12-01

    The abundance ratios of the elements found in the extremely metal-poor stars (EMP) are a test of the yields predicted by the models of supernovae. For precise comparisons, it is of course preferable to avoid the approximation of LTE. The difference of LTE and NLTE profiles is displayed for three strong lines. The NLTE abundances of Ca are derived from the profiles of about 15 Ca I lines in the EMP giants and about 10 lines in the turnoff stars. The improved abundance trends are consistent with a [Ca/Fe] ratio constant vs. [Fe/H], and with a [Ca/Mg] ratio slightly declining when [Mg/H] increases. Also [Ca/Mg] presents a scatter larger than [Ca/Fe]. As far as the comparison with sulfur (another alpha elment) is concerned we find that [S/Ca] presents a scatter smaller than [S/Mg].

  13. Detection of Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Zinc in the Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Star BD+44 493

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-06-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44°493 ([Fe/H] = ‑3.9) has been proposed as a candidate second-generation star enriched by metals from a single Pop III star. We report the first detections of P and S and the second detection of Zn in any extremely metal-poor carbon-enhanced star, using new spectra of BD+44°493 collected by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive [P/Fe] = ‑0.34 ± 0.21, [S/Fe] = +0.07 ± 0.41, and [Zn/Fe] = ‑0.10 ± 0.24. We increase by 10-fold the number of Si i lines detected in BD+44°493, yielding [Si/Fe] = +0.15 ± 0.22. The [S/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios exclude the hypothesis that the abundance pattern in BD+44°493 results from depletion of refractory elements onto dust grains. Comparison with zero-metallicity supernova (SN) models suggests that the stellar progenitor that enriched BD+44°493 was massive and ejected much less than 0.07 M ⊙ of 56Ni, characteristic of a faint SN. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14231.

  14. The stellar content of the Hamburg/ESO survey. IV. Selection of candidate metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christlieb, N.; Schörck, T.; Frebel, A.; Beers, T. C.; Wisotzki, L.; Reimers, D.

    2008-06-01

    We present the quantitative methods used for selecting candidate metal-poor stars in the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES). The selection is based on the strength of the Ca II K line, B-V colors (both measured directly from the digital HES spectra), as well as J-K colors from the 2 Micron All Sky Survey. The KP index for Ca II K can be measured from the HES spectra with an accuracy of 1.0 Å, and a calibration of the HES B-V colors, using CCD photometry, yields a 1-σ uncertainty of 0.07 mag for stars in the color range 0.3 < B-V < 1.4. These accuracies make it possible to reliably reject stars with [Fe/H] > -2.0 without sacrificing completeness at the lowest metallicities. A test of the selection using 1121 stars of the HK survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman present on HES plates suggests that the completeness at [Fe/H] < -3.5 is close to 100% and that, at the same time, the contamination of the candidate sample with false positives is low: 50% of all stars with [Fe/H] > -2.5 and 97% of all stars with [Fe/H] > -2.0 are rejected. The selection was applied to 379 HES fields, covering a nominal area of 8853 deg2 of the southern high Galactic latitude sky. The candidate sample consists of 20 271 stars in the magnitude range 10 ≲ B ≲ 18. A comparison of the magnitude distribution with that of the HK survey shows that the magnitude limit of the HES sample is about 2 mag fainter. Taking the overlap of the sky areas covered by both surveys into account, it follows that the survey volume for metal-poor stars has been increased by the HES by about a factor of 10 with respect to the HK survey. We have already identified several very rare objects with the HES, including, e.g., the three most heavy-element deficient stars currently known. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (Proposal ID 145.B-0009). Tables A.1 and A.2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or

  15. The dust content of the most metal-poor star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Raffaella; Hunt, Leslie; Valiante, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Although dust content is usually assumed to depend uniquely on metallicity, recent observations of two extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies have suggested that this may not always be true. At a similar oxygen abundance of ˜3 per cent Z⊙, the dust-to-gas and dust-to-stellar mass ratios in SBS 0335-052 and I Zw 18 differ by a factor of 40-70 according to including molecular gas or excluding it. Here, we investigate a possible reason for this dramatic difference through models based on a semi-analytical formulation of chemical evolution including dust. Results suggest that the greater dust mass in SBS 0335-052 is due to the more efficient grain growth allowed by the high density in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), observationally inferred to be almost 20 times higher than in I Zw 18. Our models are able to explain the difference in dust masses, suggesting that efficient dust formation and dust content in galaxies, including those with the highest measured redshifts, depend sensitively on the ISM density, rather than only on metallicity.

  16. The frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars and the origin of carbon in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsteller, Brian Elliott

    In recent large surveys of metal-poor stars, such as the HK survey (Beers et al., 1985, 1992), the Hamburg/ESO survey (HES, Christlieb et al., 2001), and recently the stellar component of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, Stoughton et al., 2002), a curiously large fraction of stars which show enhanced carbon abundances have been observed. In fact, this fraction seems to increase as metallicity decreases. Since these stars, the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars, then play a significant role in the formation and evolution of the earliest stellar generations, and thus all following generations, it is of vital importance to fully understand their true fraction, so that they can be properly understood, and properly accounted for in models of galactic and nucleosynthetic evolution. In order to obtain this quantity, the frequency of carbon enhancement as a function of metallicity, a large quantity of metal-poor stars need to be analyzed to determine these important abundances. For this to occur from these large, pre-existing databases of low to medium resolution spectroscopy, an accurate method of quickly determining the metallicity and carbon abundance for a star is needed. Due to the limited data currently available in some of these extreme regions of parameter space, currently existing methods which rely on calibration samples do not prove sufficient. Thus, a new method, based solely on the physical properties of the stars and the information contained in their spectra, which is both relatively fast and accurate is needed. Here we outline the development of such a technique which generates synthetic spectra using the line index code MOOG, and automatically determines the required abundances. After verifying the validity of this technique using several samples, abundances are then determined for a large, unbiased sample of stars taken from SDSS. From these abundances, the frequency of carbon enhancement is derived. Although a true frequency cannot be determined

  17. Is There Plenty of Metal-poor Stars with Planets in the Galactic Thick Disk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Israelian, G.; Figueira, P.

    2013-04-01

    We performed an uniform spectroscopic analysis of 1111 FGK dwarfs observed as part of the HARPS GTO planet search program. We applied a purely chemical approach, based on [α/Fe] ratio, to distinguish the various stellar components in the Galaxy. Apart from the well known Galactic thick and thin disks, we separated an α-enhanced stellar family at super-solar metallicities. The metal-rich high-α stars have orbits similar to the thin disk stars, but they are similar to thick disk stars in terms of age. Our data indicate that the incidence of stars with planets are greater among the chemically separated “thick” disk stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -0.3 dex than they are among “thin” disk stars in the same [Fe/H] interval. Our results allow us to suppose that a certain chemical composition, and not the Galactic birth place of the stars, is the causative factor for that.

  18. DISCOVERY OF A SUPER-Li-RICH TURNOFF STAR IN THE METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Andreas; Lind, Karin; Michael Rich, R.

    2011-09-10

    We report on the discovery of a super-Li-rich turnoff (TO) star in the old (12 Gyr), metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.1 dex) globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, based on high-resolution MIKE/Magellan spectra. This star shows an unusually high lithium abundance of A(Li){sub NLTE} = 4.03 {+-} 0.06 {+-} 0.14 dex (or, 4.21, accounting for possible contamination from a binary companion) that lies above the canonical Li-plateau by a factor of 100. This is the highest Li enhancement found in a Galactic GC dwarf star to date. We discuss several enhancement mechanisms, but none can unambiguously explain such a high overabundance. The spectrum of the star shows a possible indication of binarity, but its line strengths and chemical element abundance ratios are fully compatible with other TO stars in this GC, seemingly ruling out mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch companion as origin of the high A(Li). A possible cause is an interaction with a red giant that has undergone cool bottom processing.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fe Abundances in metal-poor stars (Sbordone+ 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbordone, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Behara, N. T.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Steffen, M.; Cayrel, R.; Freytag, B.; van't Veer, C.; Molaro, P.; Plez, B.; Sivarani, T.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Beers, T. C.; Christlieb, N.; Francois, P.; Hill, V.

    2010-08-01

    Line-by-line abundances for FeI and FeII lines used to estimate metallicity and gravity for the program stars. The first column lists the star name, then the ion (FeI or FeII) The the wavelength in nm, the loggf, the measured EW (pm) and the derived abundance assuming the four stellar parameter sets used in the article, respectively 3D, BA, ALI and IRFM. (3 data files).

  20. Iron-group Abundances in the Metal-poor Main-Sequence Turnoff Star HD~84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived new, very accurate abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn (Z = 21-30) in the bright main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937 based on high-resolution spectra covering the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. New or recent laboratory transition data for 14 species of seven elements have been used. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species have been combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. The abundances have been determined from both neutral and ionized transitions, which generally are in agreement with each other. We find no substantial departures from the standard LTE Saha ionization balance in this [Fe/H] = -2.32 star. Noteworthy among the abundances are [Co/Fe] = +0.14 and [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, in agreement with past studies of abundance trends in this and other low-metallicity stars, and < [{{Sc,Ti,V/Fe}}]> = +0.31, which has not been noted previously. A detailed examination of scandium, titanium, and vanadium abundances in large-sample spectroscopic surveys reveals that they are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2 HD 84937 lies at the high end of this correlation. These trends constrain the synthesis mechanisms of Fe-group elements. We also examine the Galactic chemical evolution abundance trends of the Fe-group elements, including a new nucleosynthesis model with jet-like explosion effects.

  1. Parameters and Kinematics of Carbon Enhanced Metal Poor (CEMP) Stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirupathi, Sivarani; Beers, T. C.; Lee, Y. S.; Kennedy, C.; Carollo, D.; Masseron, T.; Plez, B.; Norris, J. E.; Bessell, M.; Rossi, S.

    2007-12-01

    Several hundred CEMP stars have been selected from the Christlieb et al (2001, A&A 375, 366) catalog of carbon-rich stars, which is based on the Hamburg/ESO objective prism survey. Medium resolution (R = 2000) optical spectra were obtained for these stars covering a wavelength range of 3800-4800 A. The estimates of Teff, [Fe/H], and [C/Fe] for this sample is already available, based on application of the Rossi et al. (2005, AJ 130, 2804 ), which uses the strength of the CaII K line, the CH G-band, and J-K colors. Here we present an automated method to estimate the full set of atmospheric parameters for these data (including logg) based on synthetic spectra and photometry. For this purpose, we have generated a set of synthetic grids with carbon enhanced atmospheres with the MARCS code (Plez et al. 1992, A&A 256,551; Asplund et al. 1997, A&A 318, 521; Gustafsson et al. 2003, ASP Conf. Ser. 288, 331), which is particularly important for cool CEMP stars (for which the atmospheric structure changes with increasing carbon abundance (Masseron et al. 2006 A&A 455, 1059). More than one hundred stars of our prpogram stars have already been observed at high spectral resolution (R = 20000-25000), during the course of the HERES survey (Barklem et al. 2005, A&A 439,129; Lucatello et al. 2006 ApJ 652, 37L), which allow us to calibrate our methods. Here we describe our new methods for estimation and validation of Teff, logg, [Fe/H], [C/Fe]. We also comment on the possible origin of CEMP stars in this sample based on these derived parameters and on the inferred kinematics. TS, TCB, YSL, and CK acknowledge support from grant PHY 02-16783; Physics Frontier Center/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), awarded by the U.S. National Science Foundation and NSF grant AST 07-07776

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge (Koch+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Preston, G. W.; Thompson, I. B.

    2015-11-01

    The stars studied here were identified in a search for EMP stars in the Galactic bulge (Preston et al. unpublished), near b=-10°, employing the 2.5-m du Pont and 1-m Swope telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory. Observations of seven EMP candidates presented here were taken spread over six nights in July 2007 with a median seeing of 0.95", while individual exposures reached as high as 2" and notably better conditions (~0.6") during several nights. Our chosen set-up included a 0.5" slit, 2x1 binning in spectral and spatial dimensions and resulted in a resolving power of R~45000. An observing log is given in Table 1. (3 data files).

  3. Precise Li abundances in metal-poor stars: depletion in the Spite plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, J.; Casagrande, L.; Ramírez, I.; Asplund, M.

    2010-03-01

    We present Li abundances for 73 stars in the metallicity range -3.5 < [Fe/H] < -1.0 using improved IRFM temperatures (Casagrande et al. 2009) with precise E(B-V) values obtained mostly from interstellar NaI D lines, and high-quality equivalent widths (σEW ~ 3%). At all metallicities we uncover a fine-structure in the Li abundances of Spite plateau stars, which we trace to Li depletion that depends on both metallicity and mass. Models including atomic diffusion and turbulent mixing seem to reproduce the observed Li depletion assuming a primordial Li abundance ALi = 2.64 dex (MARCS models) or 2.72 (Kurucz overshooting models), in good agreement with current predictions (ALi = 2.72) from standard BBN.

  4. DISCOVERY OF MIRA VARIABLE STARS IN THE METAL-POOR SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2012-12-10

    We report the discovery of two Mira variable stars (Miras) toward the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). We performed optical long-term monitoring observations for two red stars in the Sextans dSph. The light curves of both stars in the I{sub c} band show large-amplitude (3.7 and 0.9 mag) and long-period (326 {+-} 15 and 122 {+-} 5 days) variations, suggesting that they are Miras. We combine our own infrared data with previously published data to estimate the mean infrared magnitudes. The distances obtained from the period-luminosity relation of the Miras (75.3{sup +12.8}{sub -10.9} and 79.8{sup +11.5}{sub -9.9} kpc, respectively), together with the radial velocities available, support memberships of the Sextans dSph (90.0 {+-} 10.0 kpc). These are the first Miras found in a stellar system with a metallicity as low as [Fe/H] {approx} -1.9 than any other known system with Miras.

  5. Abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr in Metal-Poor Stars and Implications for Chemical Evolution in the Early Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Y.-Z.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2008-11-01

    We have attributed the elements from Sr through Ag in stars of low metallicities ([ Fe/H ] lesssim - 1.5) to charged-particle reactions (CPRs) in neutrino-driven winds, which are associated with neutron star formation in low-mass and normal supernovae (SNe) from progenitors of ~8-11 M⊙ and ~12-25 M⊙, respectively. Using this rule and attributing all Fe production to normal SNe, we previously developed a phenomenological two-component model, which predicts that [ Sr/Fe ] >= - 0.32 for all metal-poor stars. This is in direct conflict with the high-resolution data now available, which show that there is a great shortfall of Sr relative to Fe in many stars with [ Fe/H ] lesssim - 3. The same conflict also exists for the CPR elements Y and Zr. We show that the data require a stellar source leaving behind black holes and that hypernovae (HNe) from progenitors of ~25-50 M⊙ are the most plausible candidates. If we expand our previous model to include three components (low-mass and normal SNe and HNe), we find that essentially all of the data are very well described by the new model. The HN yield pattern for the low-A elements from Na through Zn (including Fe) is inferred from the stars deficient in Sr, Y, and Zr. We estimate that HNe contributed ~24% of the bulk solar Fe inventory while normal SNe contributed only ~9% (not the usually assumed ~33%). This implies a greatly reduced role of normal SNe in the chemical evolution of the low-A elements.

  6. On 7LI Enrichment by Low-Mass Metal-Poor Red Giant Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Reza, Ramiro; da Silva, Licio; Drake, Natalia A.; Terra, Marco A.

    2000-06-01

    First-ascent red giants with strong and very strong Li lines have just been discovered in globular clusters. Using the stellar internal prompt 7Li enrichment-mass-loss scenario, we explore the possibility of 7Li enrichment in the interstellar matter of the globular cluster M3 produced by these Li-rich giants. We found that enrichment as large as 70% or more compared to the initial 7Li content of M3 can be obtained during the entire life of this cluster. However, because M3 will cross into the Galactic plane several times, the new 7Li will be very probably removed by ram pressure into the disk. Globular clusters appear then as possible new sources of 7Li in the Galactic disk. It is also suggested that the known Na/Al variations in stars of globular clusters could be somehow related to the 7Li variations and that the cool bottom process mixing mechanism acting in the case of 7Li could also play a role in the case of Na and Al surface enrichments.

  7. EXTREME ENHANCEMENTS OF r-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN THE COOL METAL-POOR MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR SDSS J2357-0052

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Honda, Satoshi; Carollo, Daniela E-mail: beers@pa.msu.ed E-mail: carollo@mso.anu.edu.a

    2010-11-10

    We report the discovery of a cool metal-poor, main-sequence star exhibiting large excesses of r-process elements. This star is one of the two newly discovered cool subdwarfs (effective temperatures of 5000 K) with extremely low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -3) identified from follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy of metal-poor candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. SDSS J2357-0052 has [Fe/H] = -3.4 and [Eu/Fe] = +1.9, and exhibits a scaled solar r-process abundance pattern of heavy neutron-capture elements. This is the first example of an extremely metal-poor, main-sequence star showing large excesses of r-process elements; all previous examples of the large r-process-enhancement phenomena have been associated with metal-poor giants. The metallicity of this object is the lowest, and the excess of Eu ([Eu/Fe]) is the highest, among the r-process-enhanced stars found so far. We consider possible scenarios to account for the detection of such a star and discuss techniques to enable searches for similar stars in the future.

  8. THE ORIGINS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY R-PROCESS ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED BY CHEMICAL TAGGING OF METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] ≳ +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  9. Numerical simulations of convection in low-mass metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freytag, Bernd

    Based on detailed 2D numerical radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations of time-dependent compressible convection, we have studied the dynamics and thermal structure of the convective surface layers of stars in the range of effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities between 4300K <= Teff <= 7100K, 2.54 <= log g <= 4.74, and M/H=0.0, -0.5, -1.0, -2.0, respectively. Although our models describe only the shallow, strongly superadiabatic layers at the top of the convective stellar envelope, they provide information about the value of the entropy of the deeper, adiabatically stratified regions. This quantity can be translated into an effective mixing-length parameter alphaMLT for every single RHD model. A fit for all models with the same metallicity results in a function alpha=alphafit(Teff, log g) for each of the four metallicities. With the help of these functions, evolutionary tracks and isochrones with constant and calibrated alpha values have been computed and compared to investigate the significance of the variations in alphafit. The behavior of alphafit in the HRD region corresponding to Turn-Off, Subgiant Branch and base of the Red Giant Branch of globular clusters is of particular interest; a variable alpha may change the color (and even, at a lesser extent, the luminosity) of the Turn-Off and the color difference between Turn-Off and Red Giant Branch, as derived from theoretical isochrones, with respect to the case of constant alpha. This, in turn, might affect absolute and relative age determinations of globular clusters. Instead of the mixing-length parameter of the MLT it is possible to calibrate the free overshoot parameter of the turbulence theory of Canuto &\\ Mazzitelli in an analogous manner. The size of the variations of the free parameter of both theories is compared.

  10. An extremely primitive star in the Galactic halo.

    PubMed

    Caffau, Elisabetta; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; François, Patrick; Sbordone, Luca; Monaco, Lorenzo; Spite, Monique; Spite, François; Ludwig, Hans-G; Cayrel, Roger; Zaggia, Simone; Hammer, François; Randich, Sofia; Molaro, Paolo; Hill, Vanessa

    2011-09-01

    The early Universe had a chemical composition consisting of hydrogen, helium and traces of lithium; almost all other elements were subsequently created in stars and supernovae. The mass fraction of elements more massive than helium, Z, is known as 'metallicity'. A number of very metal-poor stars has been found, some of which have a low iron abundance but are rich in carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. For theoretical reasons and because of an observed absence of stars with Z < 1.5 × 10(-5), it has been suggested that low-mass stars cannot form from the primitive interstellar medium until it has been enriched above a critical value of Z, estimated to lie in the range 1.5 × 10(-8) to 1.5 × 10(-6) (ref. 8), although competing theories claiming the contrary do exist. (We use 'low-mass' here to mean a stellar mass of less than 0.8 solar masses, the stars that survive to the present day.) Here we report the chemical composition of a star in the Galactic halo with a very low Z (≤ 6.9 × 10(-7), which is 4.5 × 10(-5) times that of the Sun) and a chemical pattern typical of classical extremely metal-poor stars--that is, without enrichment of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. This shows that low-mass stars can be formed at very low metallicity, that is, below the critical value of Z. Lithium is not detected, suggesting a low-metallicity extension of the previously observed trend in lithium depletion. Such lithium depletion implies that the stellar material must have experienced temperatures above two million kelvin in its history, given that this is necessary to destroy lithium. PMID:21886158

  11. The Chemical Composition of Halo Stars on Extreme Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex

    1999-04-01

    Presented within is a fine spectroscopic analysis of 11 metal-poor (-2.15<[Fe/H]<-1.00) dwarf stars on orbits that penetrate the outermost regions of the Galactic halo. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Na, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti), Fe-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, and Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y and Ba) were calculated using line strengths measured from high-resolution (R~48,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N~110pixel^-1) echelle spectra acquired with the Keck I 10 m telescope and HIRES spectrograph. Ten of the stars have apogalactica, a proxy for stellar birthplace, which stretch between 25 and 90 kpc; however, these ``outer halo'' stars exhibit strikingly uniform abundances. The average, Fe-normalized abundances-<[Mg/Fe]>=+0.23+/-0.09, <[Si/Fe]>=+0.24+/-0.10, <[Ca/Fe]>=+0.22+/-0.07, <[Ti/Fe]>=+0.20+/-0.08, <[Cr/Fe]>=0.02+/-0.07, <[Ni/Fe]>=-0.09+/-0.07, and <[Ba/Fe]>=+0.01+/-0.12-exhibit little intrinsic scatter; moreover, the evolution of individual ratios (as a function of [Fe/H]) is generally consistent with the predictions of galactic chemical evolution models dominated by the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae. Only <[Y/Fe]>=-0.13+/-0.21 exhibits a dispersion larger than observational uncertainties, which suggests a different nucleosynthesis site for this element. It has been conjectured that stars on high-energy orbits-either those that penetrate the remote halo or ones with extreme retrograde velocities-were once associated with a cannibalized satellite galaxy. Such stars, as shown here, are indistinguishable from metal-poor dwarfs of the inner Galactic halo. The uniformity of the abundances, regardless of kinematic properties, suggests that physically, spatially, and temporally distinct star-forming regions within (or near) the growing Milky Way experienced grossly similar chemical evolution histories. Implications for galaxy formation scenarios are discussed.

  12. Stellar Yields of Rotating First Stars: Yields of Weak Supernovae and Abundances of Carbon-enhanced Hyper Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The three most iron-poor stars known until now are also known to have peculiar enhancements of intermediate mass elements. Under the assumption that these iron-deficient stars reveal the nucleosynthesis result of Pop III stars, we show that a weak supernova model successfully reproduces the observed abundance patterns. Moreover, we show that the initial parameters of the progenitor, such as the initial masses and the rotational property, can be constrained by the model, since the stellar yields result from the nucleosynthesis in the outer region of the star, which is significantly affected by the initial parameters. The initial parameter of Pop III stars is of prime importance for the theoretical study of the early universe. Future observation will increase the number of such carbon enhanced iron-deficient stars, and the same analysis on the stars may give valuable information for the Pop III stars that existed in our universe.

  13. METAL-POOR STARS OBSERVED WITH THE MAGELLAN TELESCOPE. I. CONSTRAINTS ON PROGENITOR MASS AND METALLICITY OF AGB STARS UNDERGOING s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Christlieb, Norbert; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2013-06-20

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE 2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if non-local thermodynamic equilibrium corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE 2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and followed up with medium-resolution (R {approx} 2000) spectroscopy with GEMINI/GMOS. We report here on derived abundances (or limits) for a total of 34 elements in each star, based on high-resolution (R {approx} 30, 000) spectroscopy obtained with Magellan-Clay/MIKE. Our results are compared to predictions from new theoretical asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models of 1.3 M{sub Sun} with [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -2.8, as well as to a set of AGB models of 1.0 to 6.0 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = -2.3. The agreement with the model predictions suggests that the neutron-capture material in HE 2138-3336 originated from mass transfer from a binary companion star that previously went through the AGB phase, whereas for HE 2258-6358, an additional process has to be taken into account to explain its abundance pattern. We find that a narrow range of progenitor masses (1.0 {<=} M(M{sub Sun }) {<=} 1.3) and metallicities (-2.8 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=}-2.5) yield the best agreement with our observed elemental abundance patterns.

  14. Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Upgren, Arthur R.; Adelman, Carol J.

    2011-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introductory Papers: 1. What is the galaxy's halo population?; 2. Theoretical properties of horizontal-branch stars; 3. A review of A-type horizontal-branch stars; Part II. Surveys: 4. A progress report on the Edinburgh-Cape object survey; 5. A 300 square degree survey of young stars at high galactic latitudes; 6. The isolation of a new sample of B stars in the halo; 7. A northern catalog of FHB/A stars; 8. Recent progress on a continuing survey of galactic globular clusters for blue stragglers; 9. UV observations with FAUST and the galactic model; 10. Hot stars at the South Galactic Pole; Part III. Clusters: 11. Population II horizontal branches: a photometric study of globular clusters; 12. The period-shift effect in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters; 13. UV photometry of hot stars in omega centauri; 14. Spectroscopic and UBV observations of blue stars at the NGP; 15. Population I horizontal branches: probing the halo-to-disk transition; Part IV. Stars: 16. Very hot subdwarf O stars; 17. Quantitative spectroscopy of the very hot subluminous O-stars: K646, PG1159-035, and KPD0005+5106; 18. Analyzing the helium-rich hot sdO stars in the Palomar Green Survey; 19. Late type companions of hot sd O stars; 20. Hot stars in globular clusters; 21. Faint blue stars from the Hamburg Schmidt Survey; 22. Stellar winds and the evolution of sdB's to sdO's; 23. Halo stars in the Vilnius photometric system; 24. Horizontal branch stars in the geneva photometric system; 25. Zeeman observations of FHB stars and hot subdwarf stars; 26. What does a FHB star's spectrum look like?; 27. A technique for distinguishing FHB stars from A-type stars; 28. eEemental abundances of halo A and interloper stars; 29. The mass of blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster NGC6397; 30. IUE observations of blue HB stars in the globular clusters M3 and NGC6752; 31. Metallicities and kinematics of the local RR lyraes: lukewarm stars

  15. Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Upgren, Arthur R.; Adelman, Carol J.

    1994-08-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introductory Papers: 1. What is the galaxy's halo population?; 2. Theoretical properties of horizontal-branch stars; 3. A review of A-type horizontal-branch stars; Part II. Surveys: 4. A progress report on the Edinburgh-Cape object survey; 5. A 300 square degree survey of young stars at high galactic latitudes; 6. The isolation of a new sample of B stars in the halo; 7. A northern catalog of FHB/A stars; 8. Recent progress on a continuing survey of galactic globular clusters for blue stragglers; 9. UV observations with FAUST and the galactic model; 10. Hot stars at the South Galactic Pole; Part III. Clusters: 11. Population II horizontal branches: a photometric study of globular clusters; 12. The period-shift effect in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters; 13. UV photometry of hot stars in omega centauri; 14. Spectroscopic and UBV observations of blue stars at the NGP; 15. Population I horizontal branches: probing the halo-to-disk transition; Part IV. Stars: 16. Very hot subdwarf O stars; 17. Quantitative spectroscopy of the very hot subluminous O-stars: K646, PG1159-035, and KPD0005+5106; 18. Analyzing the helium-rich hot sdO stars in the Palomar Green Survey; 19. Late type companions of hot sd O stars; 20. Hot stars in globular clusters; 21. Faint blue stars from the Hamburg Schmidt Survey; 22. Stellar winds and the evolution of sdB's to sdO's; 23. Halo stars in the Vilnius photometric system; 24. Horizontal branch stars in the geneva photometric system; 25. Zeeman observations of FHB stars and hot subdwarf stars; 26. What does a FHB star's spectrum look like?; 27. A technique for distinguishing FHB stars from A-type stars; 28. eEemental abundances of halo A and interloper stars; 29. The mass of blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster NGC6397; 30. IUE observations of blue HB stars in the globular clusters M3 and NGC6752; 31. Metallicities and kinematics of the local RR lyraes: lukewarm stars

  16. Estimation of Carbon Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars. I. Application to the Strong G-Band Stars of Beers, Preston, and Shectman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Silvia; Beers, Timothy C.; Sneden, Chris; Sevastyanenko, Tatiana; Rhee, Jaehyon; Marsteller, Brian

    2005-12-01

    We develop and test a method for the estimation of metallicities ([Fe/H]) and carbon abundance ratios ([C/Fe]) for carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars based on the application of artificial neural networks, regressions, and synthesis models to medium-resolution (1-2 Å) spectra and J-K colors. We calibrate this method by comparison with metallicities and carbon abundance determinations for 118 stars with available high-resolution analyses reported in the recent literature. The neural network and regression approaches make use of a previously defined set of line-strength indices quantifying the strength of the Ca II K line and the CH G band, in conjunction with J-K colors from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog. The use of near-IR colors, as opposed to broadband B-V colors, is required because of the potentially large affect of strong molecular carbon bands on bluer color indices. We also explore the practicality of obtaining estimates of carbon abundances for metal-poor stars from the spectral information alone, i.e., without the additional information provided by photometry, as many future samples of CEMP stars may lack such data. We find that although photometric information is required for the estimation of [Fe/H], it provides little improvement in our derived estimates of [C/Fe], and hence, estimates of carbon-to-iron ratios based solely on line indices appear sufficiently accurate for most purposes. Although we find that the spectral synthesis approach yields the most accurate estimates of [C/Fe], in particular for the stars with the strongest molecular bands, it is only marginally better than is obtained from the line index approaches. Using these methods we are able to reproduce the previously measured [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] determinations with an accuracy of ~0.25 dex for stars in the metallicity interval -5.5<=[Fe/H]<=-1.0 and with 0.2<=(J-K)0<=0.8. At higher metallicity, the Ca II K line begins to saturate, especially for the cool stars in

  17. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) extends to low stellar mass and high SFR. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFRs, with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 decimal exponent (dex) above the redshift (z) approximately equal to 1 stellar mass-SFR relation, and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 decimal exponent (dex) below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 decimal exponent (dex), but significant dispersion remains (0.29 decimal exponent (dex) with 0.16 decimal exponent (dex) due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years that suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 97.3 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas, but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  18. Chemical evolution of the Galactic bulge as traced by microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars. III. Detection of lithium in the metal-poor bulge dwarf MOA-2010-BLG-285S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensby, T.; Asplund, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Feltzing, S.; Meléndez, J.; Dong, S.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Adén, D.; Lucatello, S.; Gal-Yam, A.

    2010-10-01

    Context. To study the evolution of Li in the Galaxy it is necessary to observe dwarf or subgiant stars. These are the only long-lived stars whose present-day atmospheric chemical composition reflects their natal Li abundances according to standard models of stellar evolution. Although Li has been extensively studied in the Galactic disk and halo, to date there has only been one uncertain detection of Li in an unevolved bulge star. Aims: Our aim with this study is to provide the first clear detection of Li in the Galactic bulge, based on an analysis of a dwarf star that has largely retained its initial Li abundance. Methods: We performed a detailed elemental abundance analysis of the bulge dwarf star MOA-2010-BLG-285S using a high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectrum obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the VLT when the object was optically magnified during a gravitational microlensing event (visual magnification A~550 during observation). The Li abundance was determined through synthetic line profile fitting of the 7Li resonance doublet line at 670.8 nm. The results have been corrected for departures from LTE. Results: MOA-2010-BLG-285S is, at [Fe/H] = -1.23, the most metal-poor dwarf star detected so far in the Galactic bulge. Its old age (12.5 Gyr) and enhanced [α/Fe] ratios agree well with stars in the thick disk at similar metallicities. This star represents the first unambiguous detection of Li in a metal-poor dwarf star in the Galactic bulge. We find an NLTE corrected Li abundance of logɛ(Li) = 2.16, which is consistent with values derived for Galactic disk and halo dwarf stars at similar metallicities and temperatures. Conclusions: Our results show that there are no signs of Li enrichment or production in the Galactic bulge during its earliest phases. Observations of Li in other galaxies (ω Cen) and other components of the Galaxy suggest further that the Spite plateau is universal. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern

  19. The Fractions of Inner- and Outer-halo Stars in the Local Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Beers, Timothy C.; Santucci, Rafael M.; Carollo, Daniela; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lee, Young Sun; Rossi, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    We obtain a new determination of the metallicity distribution function (MDF) of stars within ˜5-10 kpc of the Sun, based on recently improved co-adds of ugriz photometry for Stripe 82 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our new estimate uses the methodology developed previously by An et al. to study in situ halo stars, but is based on a factor of two larger sample than available before, with much-improved photometric errors and zero-points. The newly obtained MDF can be divided into multiple populations of halo stars, with peak metallicities at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.4 and -1.9, which we associate with the inner-halo and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way, respectively. We find that the kinematics of these stars (based on proper-motion measurements at high Galactic latitude) supports the proposed dichotomy of the halo, as stars with retrograde motions in the rest frame of the Galaxy are generally more metal-poor than stars with prograde motions, consistent with previous claims. In addition, we generate mock catalogs of stars from a simulated Milk Way halo system, and demonstrate for the first time that the chemically and kinematically distinct properties of the inner- and outer-halo populations are qualitatively in agreement with our observations. The decomposition of the observed MDF and our comparison with the mock catalog results suggest that the outer-halo population contributes on the order of ˜35%-55% of halo stars in the local volume.

  20. Stellar yields of rotating first stars. I. Yields of weak supernovae and abundances of carbon-enhanced hyper-metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2014-10-10

    We perform a stellar evolution simulation of first stars and calculate stellar yields from the first supernovae. The initial masses are taken from 12 to 140 M {sub ☉} to cover the whole range of core-collapse supernova progenitors, and stellar rotation is included, which results in efficient internal mixing. A weak explosion is assumed in supernova yield calculations, thus only outer distributed matter, which is not affected by the explosive nucleosynthesis, is ejected in the models. We show that the initial mass and the rotation affect the explosion yield. All the weak explosion models have abundances of [C/O] larger than unity. Stellar yields from massive progenitors of >40-60 M {sub ☉} show enhancement of Mg and Si. Rotating models yield abundant Na and Al, and Ca is synthesized in nonrotating heavy massive models of >80 M {sub ☉}. We fit the stellar yields to the three most iron-deficient stars and constrain the initial parameters of the mother progenitor stars. The abundance pattern in SMSS 0313–6708 is well explained by 50-80 M {sub ☉} nonrotating models, rotating 30-40 M {sub ☉} models well fit the abundance of HE 0107-5240, and both nonrotating and rotating 15-40 M {sub ☉} models explain HE 1327-2326. The presented analysis will be applicable to other carbon-enhanced hyper-metal-poor stars observed in the future. The abundance analyses will give valuable information about the characteristics of the first stars.

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF KINEMATICALLY SELECTED OUTER HALO STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Lan; Zhao Gang; Ishigaki, Miho; Chiba, Masashi; Aoki, Wako E-mail: zhanglan@bao.ac.c E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.j

    2009-12-01

    Chemical abundances of 26 metal-poor dwarfs and giants are determined from high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra obtained with the Subaru/High Dispersion Spectrograph. The sample is selected so that most of the objects have outer-halo kinematics. Self-consistent atmospheric parameters were determined by an iterative procedure based on spectroscopic analysis. Abundances of 13 elements, including alpha-elements (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), odd-Z light elements (Na, Sc), iron-peak elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba), are determined by two independent data reduction and local thermodynamic equillibrium analysis procedures, confirming the consistency of the stellar parameters and abundances results. We find a decreasing trend of [alpha/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H] for the range of -3.5< [Fe/H] <-1, as found by Stephens and Boesgaard. [Zn/Fe] values of most objects in our sample are slightly lower than the bulk of halo stars previously studied. These results are discussed as possible chemical properties of the outer halo in the Galaxy.

  2. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in SDSS/Segue. II. Comparison of CEMP-star frequencies with binary population-synthesis models

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young Sun; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2014-06-20

    We present a comparison of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) giant and main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars with predictions from binary population-synthesis models involving asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) mass transfer. The giant and MSTO stars are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. We consider two initial mass functions (IMFs)—a Salpeter IMF, and a mass function with a characteristic mass of 10 M {sub ☉}. For giant stars, the comparison indicates a good agreement between the observed CEMP frequencies and the AGB binary model using a Salpeter IMF for [Fe/H] > – 1.5, and a characteristic mass of 10 M {sub ☉} for [Fe/H] < – 2.5. This result suggests that the IMF shifted from high- to low-mass dominated in the early history of the Milky Way, which appears to have occurred at a 'chemical time' between [Fe/H] =–2.5 and [Fe/H] =–1.5. The CEMP frequency for the turnoff stars with [Fe/H] < – 3.0 is much higher than the AGB model prediction from the high-mass IMF, supporting the previous assertion that one or more additional mechanisms, not associated with AGB stars, are required for the production of carbon-rich material below [Fe/H] =–3.0. We also discuss possible effects of first dredge-up and extra mixing in red giants and internal mixing in turnoff stars on the derived CEMP frequencies.

  3. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan; Barmby, Pauline; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Lagadec, Eric; Lennon, Daniel; Marengo, Massimo; McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert; Sloan, G. C.; Van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2015-02-10

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments.

  4. Oxygen Abundances in Low- and High-α Field Halo Stars and the Discovery of Two Field Stars Born in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, I.; Meléndez, J.; Chanamé, J.

    2012-10-01

    Oxygen abundances of 67 dwarf stars in the metallicity range -1.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4 are derived from a non-LTE analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. These stars have precise atmospheric parameters measured by Nissen and Schuster, who find that they separate into three groups based on their kinematics and α-element (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) abundances: thick disk, high-α halo, and low-α halo. We find the oxygen abundance trends of thick-disk and high-α halo stars very similar. The low-α stars show a larger star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe] at a given [Fe/H] and have systematically lower oxygen abundances compared to the other two groups. Thus, we find the behavior of oxygen abundances in these groups of stars similar to that of the α elements. We use previously published oxygen abundance data of disk and very metal-poor halo stars to present an overall view (-2.3 < [Fe/H] < +0.3) of oxygen abundance trends of stars in the solar neighborhood. Two field halo dwarf stars stand out in their O and Na abundances. Both G53-41 and G150-40 have very low oxygen and very high sodium abundances, which are key signatures of the abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster (GC) stars. Therefore, they are likely field halo stars born in GCs. If true, we estimate that at least 3% ± 2% of the local field metal-poor star population was born in GCs.

  5. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN LOW- AND HIGH-{alpha} FIELD HALO STARS AND THE DISCOVERY OF TWO FIELD STARS BORN IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.

    2012-10-01

    Oxygen abundances of 67 dwarf stars in the metallicity range -1.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4 are derived from a non-LTE analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. These stars have precise atmospheric parameters measured by Nissen and Schuster, who find that they separate into three groups based on their kinematics and {alpha}-element (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) abundances: thick disk, high-{alpha} halo, and low-{alpha} halo. We find the oxygen abundance trends of thick-disk and high-{alpha} halo stars very similar. The low-{alpha} stars show a larger star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe] at a given [Fe/H] and have systematically lower oxygen abundances compared to the other two groups. Thus, we find the behavior of oxygen abundances in these groups of stars similar to that of the {alpha} elements. We use previously published oxygen abundance data of disk and very metal-poor halo stars to present an overall view (-2.3 < [Fe/H] < +0.3) of oxygen abundance trends of stars in the solar neighborhood. Two field halo dwarf stars stand out in their O and Na abundances. Both G53-41 and G150-40 have very low oxygen and very high sodium abundances, which are key signatures of the abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster (GC) stars. Therefore, they are likely field halo stars born in GCs. If true, we estimate that at least 3% {+-} 2% of the local field metal-poor star population was born in GCs.

  6. Nine new metal-poor stars on the subgiant and red horizontal branches with high levels of r-process enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Cowan, John J.; Preston, George W.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Sneden, Christopher; Thompson, Ian B.

    2014-12-01

    We report the discovery of nine metal-poor stars with high levels of r-process enhancement (+0.81 ≤ [Eu/Fe] ≤ +1.13), including six subgiants and three stars on the red horizontal branch. We also analyse four previously known r-process-enhanced metal-poor red giants. From this sample of 13 stars, we draw the following conclusions. (1) High levels of r-process enhancement are found in a broad range of stellar evolutionary states, reaffirming that this phenomenon is not associated with a chemical peculiarity of red giant atmospheres. (2) Only 1 of 10 stars observed at multiple epochs shows radial-velocity variations, reaffirming that stars with high levels of r-process enhancement are not preferentially found among binaries. (3) Only 2 of the 13 stars are highly enhanced in C and N, indicating that there is no connection between high levels of r-process enhancement and high levels of C and N. (4) The dispersions in [Sr/Ba] and [Sr/Eu] are larger than the dispersions in [Ba/Eu] and [Yb/Eu], suggesting that the elements below the second r-process peak do not always scale with those in the rare Earth domain, even within the class of highly-r-process-enhanced stars. (5) The light-element (12 ≤ Z ≤ 30) abundances of highly-r-process-enhanced stars are indistinguishable from those with normal levels of r-process material at the limit of our data, 3.5 per cent (0.015 dex) on average. The nucleosynthetic sites responsible for the large r-process enhancements did not produce any detectable light-element abundance signatures distinct from normal core-collapse supernovae.

  7. Coronal Emission from dG Halo Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Harnden, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    The halo dG star HD 114762 was observed with the XMM-Newton satellite on 28-29 June 2004, during orbit 834, and the data were processed using the XMM-Newton Science Analysis System (SAS), version 6.0.0. Somewhat surprisingly, the target was NOT detected during this approx.30 ks exposure, which yielded instead a count rate upper limit of less than 0.0041 cts/s. We computed an X-ray flux upper limit by assuming a Raymond-Smith thermal spectrum of coronal temperature 1 million degrees K, typical of quiet old stars, a hydrogen column density of 2-10$^{19)$ cm$^{-2)$ and sub-solar abundances of 0.2. Our calculated X-ray luminosity upper limit in the 0.25-7.8 keV band is L$_x < 4.95 $\\time$10$^{26)$ erg/s, where we have assumed a stellar distance of 28 pc. This relatively low upper limit has implications for the capability of metal poor stars to host solar-like dynamos, as we will report in a forthcoming paper (now in preparation).

  8. Cool Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigoyan, K. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we report current status of search and study for Faint High Latitude Carbon Stars (FHLCs). Data for more than 1800 spectroscopically confirmed FHLCs are known, which are found thanks to objective prism surveys and photometric selections. More than half of the detected objects belongs to group of dwarf Carbon (dC) stars. Many-sided investigations based on modern astrophysical databases are necessary to study the space distribution of different groups of the FHLC stars and their possible origin in the Halo of our Galaxy. We report about the selection of FHLCs by the spectroscopic surveys: First Byurakan Survey (FBS), Hamburg/ESO Survey (HES), LAMOST Pilot Survey and SDSS, as well as by photometric selection: APM Survey for Cool Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo, SDSS and 2MASS JHK colours.

  9. Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totten, E. J.; Irwin, M. J.

    1996-04-01

    A byproduct of the APM high redshift quasar survey (Irwin et al. 1991) was the discovery of ~ 20 distant (20-100kpc) cool AGB carbon stars (all N-type) at high Galactic latitude. In August we used the INT+IDS to survey the rest of the high latitude SGC sky visible from La Palma and found 10 more similar carbon stars. Before this work there were only a handful of published faint high latitude cool carbon stars known (eg. Margon et al., 1984, Mould et al., 1985) and there has been speculation as to their origin (eg. Sanduleak, 1980, van den Bergh & Lafontaine, 1984). Intermediate age carbon stars (3 -- 7 Gyrs) seem unlikely to have formed in the halo in isolation from other star forming regions so how did they get there ? One possiblity that we are investigating, is that they arise from either the disruption of tidally captured dSph galaxies or are a manifestion of the long sought after optical component of the Magellanic Stream. Lack of proper motion rules out the possibility of them being dwarf carbon stars (eg. Warren et al., 1992); indeed no N-type carbon stars have been found to be dwarf carbon stars. Our optical spectroscopy confirms their carbon star type (they are indistinguishable from cool AGB carbon stars in nearby dwarf galaxies) and hence probable large distances. We are extending our survey to the NGC region, obtaining radial velocities and good S:N fluxed spectra for all the carbon stars. This will enable us to investigate their kinematics, true spatial distribution and hence their origin. Even, in the event that these objects are somehow an integral part of the Galactic halo, then their velocities and large distances will enable direct studies of the velocity ellipsoid and rotation of the outer halo (eg. Green et al., 1994).

  10. METAL-POOR, COOL GAS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z = 2.4 STAR-FORMING GALAXY: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR COLD ACCRETION?

    SciTech Connect

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-10-20

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N{sub H{sup 0}}=10{sup 19.50±0.16} cm{sup -2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log{sub 10}(Z/Z {sub ☉}) = –2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10{sup –3} solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature <20,000 K. Given the striking similarities between this system and the predictions of simulations, we argue that it represents the direct detection of a high-redshift cold-accretion stream. The low-metallicity gas cloud is a single component of an absorption system exhibiting a complex velocity, ionization, and enrichment structure. Two other components have metallicities >0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM.

  11. Improved Co I log(gf) & hfs data and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun & Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

    2016-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 898 lines of the first spectrum of cobalt (Co I) from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with a 1m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high resolution echelle spectrometer are reported. Radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements are combined with the branching fractions to determine accurate log(gf)s for the 898 lines. Selected published hyperfine structure (hfs) constants for levels of neutral Co are used to generate complete hfs component patterns for 195 transitions of Co I. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Co abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log eps(Co) = 4.955 ± 0.007 (sigma = 0.059) based on 82 Co I lines and log eps(Co) = 2.785 ± 0.008 (sigma = 0.065) based on 66 Co I lines respectively. A Saha balance test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is performed using 16 UV lines of Co II, and good agreement is found with the Co I result in this metal-poor ([Fe I /H] = -2.32, [Fe II /H] = -2.32) dwarf star. The resulting value of [Co/Fe] = +0.14 supports a rise of Co/Fe at low metallicity that has been suggested in other studies. These new Co I data are part of a continuing effort to explore the limits of 1D/LTE photospheric models in metal-poor stars and to determine the relative abundance of Fe-group elements at low metallicity. This work is supported in part by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (J.E.L.), by NSF grant AST-1211055 (J.E.L.), and by NSF grant AST-1211585 (C.S.).

  12. More evidence of substructure in the motions of nearby halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re Fiorentin, P.; Helmi, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Spagna, A.

    2004-07-01

    We explore the stellar halo of the Milky Way to search for fossil signatures of past mergers. We use the Beers et al. (2000) catalog of non-kinematically selected metal poor stars in the solar neighborhood to select subsets of halo stars within 1-2 kpc of the Sun. Motivated by the results of high resolution CDM simulations, we look for substructure in the kinematics of the fastest stars. When a two-point velocity correlation function is applied to these subsets, statistical evidence of substructure is found. This appears to be due to a small moving group with dynamical properties similar to the stellar "stream" previously discovered by Helmi et al. (1999).

  13. HST/STIS abundances in the uranium rich metal poor star CS 31082-001: Constraints on the r-Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Spite, M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.; Caffau, E.; Hill, V.; Wanajo, S.; Primas, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Bonifacio, P.; François, P.; Molaro, P.

    2016-01-01

    As a brief revision, the origin of heavy elements and the role of abundances in extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are presented. Heavy element abundances in the EMP uranium-rich star CS 31082-001 based mainly on near-UV spectra from STIS/HST are presented. These results should be useful for a better characterisation of the neutron exposure(s) that produced the r-process elements in this star, as well as a guide for improving nuclear data and astrophysical site modelling, given that the new element abundances not available in previous works (Ge, Mo, Lu, Ta, W, Re, Pt, Au, and Bi) make CS 31082-001 the most completely well studied r-II object, with a total of 37 detections of n-capture elements.

  14. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor star frequencies in the galaxy: corrections for the effect of evolutionary status on carbon abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2014-12-10

    We revisit the observed frequencies of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars as a function of the metallicity in the Galaxy, using data from the literature with available high-resolution spectroscopy. Our analysis excludes stars exhibiting clear overabundances of neutron-capture elements and takes into account the expected depletion of surface carbon abundance that occurs due to CN processing on the upper red giant branch. This allows for the recovery of the initial carbon abundance of these stars, and thus for an accurate assessment of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced stars. The correction procedure we develop is based on stellar-evolution models and depends on the surface gravity, log g, of a given star. Our analysis indicates that for stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.0, 20% exhibit [C/Fe] ≥+0.7. This fraction increases to 43% for [Fe/H] ≤–3.0 and 81% for [Fe/H] ≤–4.0, which is higher than have been previously inferred without taking the carbon abundance correction into account. These CEMP star frequencies provide important inputs for Galactic and stellar chemical evolution models, as they constrain the evolution of carbon at early times and the possible formation channels for the CEMP-no stars. We also have developed a public online tool with which carbon corrections using our procedure can be easily obtained.

  15. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Collet, R.

    2016-08-01

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D hydrodynamic STAGGER model atmospheres, and employ a new model atom that includes new quantum-mechanical neutral hydrogen collisional rate coefficients. With the exception of the red giant HD122563, we find that the 3D non-LTE models achieve Fe I/Fe II excitation and ionization balance as well as not having any trends with equivalent width to within modelling uncertainties of 0.05 dex, all without having to invoke any microturbulent broadening; for HD122563 we predict that the current best parallax-based surface gravity is overestimated by 0.5 dex. Using a 3D non-LTE analysis, we infer iron abundances from the 3D model atmospheres that are roughly 0.1 dex higher than corresponding abundances from 1D MARCS model atmospheres; these differences go in the same direction as the non-LTE effects themselves.We make available grids of departure coefficients, equivalent widths and abundance corrections, calculated on 1D MARCS model atmospheres and horizontally- and temporally-averaged 3D STAGGER model atmospheres.

  16. r-Process Elements in EMP stars: Indicators of Inhomogeneous Early Halo Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Nordström, Birgitta; Thidemann Hansen, Terese

    2015-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) halo stars with [Fe/H] below ~ -3 are considered to be fossil records of conditions in the early halo. In the simplest picture where iron is a proxy for overall metallicity and indirectly for time, EMP stars formed before the oldest and most metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. High-resolution spectroscopy with 8m-class telescopes has shown the detailed abundance pattern of these stars to be surprisingly uniform (e.g. Bonifacio+ 2012) and essentially Solar, apart from the α-enhancement typical of SN II nucleosynthesis. A small fraction (~3%) of EMP stars, however, is strongly enhanced in the heaviest (r-process) neutron-capture elements, highlighting that the periodic system of elements was fully populated already this early.These striking departures from the general chemical homogeneity could be produced by local or distant sources. The former case is simple - mass transfer from a binary companion that evolved to produce a highly neutron-rich environment (one or more NS). Alternatively, the r-process elements were formed in a site at interstellar distance and preferentially seeded into the natal clouds of the present-day EMP-r stars. Our long-term, precise monitoring of the radial velocities of a sample of such stars (Hansen+ 2011) disproved the binary hypothesis, which would in fact also fail to explain the existence of r-process poor stars, such as HD 122653. We thus conclude that the chemical enrichment of the early halo was far more complex, patchy and likely anisotropic than assumed in current models of Galactic chemical evolution: The EMP-r stars are not just peculiarities to be ignored, but indicate that a new level of complexity must be invoked. That r-process elements have not (yet) been observed in high-redshift DLA systems is readily explained by their low abundance relative to the lighter species and the rarity of strong enrichment events.

  17. First stars. XVI. HST/STIS abundances of heavy elements in the uranium-rich metal-poor star CS 31082-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira Mello, C.; Spite, M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.; Caffau, E.; Hill, V.; Wanajo, S.; Primas, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Bonifacio, P.; François, P.; Molaro, P.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The origin and site(s) of the r-process nucleosynthesis is(are) still not known with certainty, but complete, detailed r-element abundances offer our best clues. The few extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with large r-element excesses allow us to study the r-process signatures in great detail, with minimal interference from later stages of Galactic evolution. CS 31082-001 is an outstanding example of the information that can be gathered from these exceptional stars. Aims: Here we aim to complement our previous abundance determinations for third-peak r-process elements with new and improved results for elements of the first and second r-process peaks from near-UV HST/STIS and optical UVES spectra. These results should provide new insight into the nucleosynthesis of the elements beyond iron. Methods: The spectra were analyzed by a consistent approach based on an OSMARCS LTE model atmosphere and the Turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code to derive abundances of heavy elements in CS 31082-001, and using updated oscillator strengths from the recent literature. Synthetic spectra were computed for all lines of the elements of interest to check for proper line intensities and possible blends in these crowded spectra. Our new abundances were combined with the best previous results to provide reliable mean abundances for the first and second-peak r-process elements. Results: We present new abundances for 23 neutron-capture elements, 6 of which - Ge, Mo, Lu, Ta, W, and Re - have not been reported before. This makes CS 31082-001 the most completely studied r-II star, with abundances for a total of 37 neutron-capture elements. We also present the first NLTE+3D abundance of lead in this star, further constraining the nature of the r-process. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) through the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555; and

  18. Improved Co I log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 898 lines of the first spectrum of cobalt (Co i) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak, AZ and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. Published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements are combined with the branching fractions to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 898 lines. Hyperfine structure (hfs) constants for levels of neutral Co in the literature are surveyed and selected values are used to generate complete hfs component patterns for 195 transitions of Co i. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Co abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ɛ(Co) = 4.955 ± 0.007 (σ = 0.059) based on 82 Co i lines and log ɛ(Co) = 2.785 ± 0.008 (σ = 0.065) based on 66 Co i lines, respectively. A Saha or ionization balance test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is performed using 16 UV lines of Co ii, and good agreement is found with the Co i result in this metal-poor ([Fe i/H] = -2.32, [Fe ii/H] = -2.32) dwarf star. The resulting value of [Co/Fe] = +0.14 supports a rise of Co/Fe at low metallicity that has been suggested in other studies.

  19. Uncovering multiple Wolf-Rayet star clusters and the ionized ISM in Mrk 178: the closest metal-poor Wolf-Rayet H II galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrig, C.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Brinchmann, J.; Kunth, D.; García-Benito, R.; Crowther, P. A.; Hernández-Fernández, J.; Durret, F.; Contini, T.; Fernández-Martín, A.; James, B. L.

    2013-07-01

    New integral field spectroscopy (IFS) has been obtained for the nearby metal-poor Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxy Mrk 178 to examine the spatial correlation between its WR stars and the neighbouring ionized interstellar medium (ISM). The strength of the broad WR features and its low metallicity make Mrk 178 an intriguing object. We have detected the blue and red WR bumps in different locations across the field of view (˜300 pc × 230 pc) in Mrk 178. The study of the WR content has been extended, for the first time, beyond its brightest star-forming knot uncovering new WR star clusters. Using Large/Small Magellanic Cloud-template WR stars, we empirically estimate a minimum of ˜20 WR stars within the region sampled. Maps of the spatial distribution of the emission lines and of the physical-chemical properties of the ionized ISM have been created and analysed. Here, we refine the statistical methodology by Pérez-Montero et al. (2011) to probe the presence of variations in the ISM properties. An error-weighted mean of 12+log(O/H) = 7.72 ± 0.01 is taken as the representative oxygen abundance for Mrk 178. A localized N and He enrichment, spatially correlated with WR stars, is suggested by this analysis. Nebular He II λ4686 emission is shown to be spatially extended reaching well beyond the location of the WR stars. This spatial offset between WRs and He II emission can be explained based on the mechanical energy input into the ISM by the WR star winds, and does not rule out WR stars as the He II ionization source. We study systematic aperture effects on the detection and measurement of the WR features, using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra combined with the power of IFS. In this regard, the importance of targeting low metallicity nearby systems is discussed.

  20. The Eating Habits of Milky Way Mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ~ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ~ 108–1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108–109 M⊙),more » and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M⊙) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (<<1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (~2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M⊙ < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (~40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (~20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. In conclusion, we suggest that the MW could be a "transient fossil"; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.« less

  1. The Eating Habits of Milky Way-mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ˜ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ˜ 108-1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108-109 M⊙), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M⊙) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (˜2%-5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M⊙ < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (˜40%-80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (˜20%-60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil” a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  2. The Eating Habits of Milky Way-mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ∼ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ∼ 108–1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108–109 M⊙), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M⊙) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (∼2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < ‑2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M⊙ < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (∼40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (∼20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil” a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  3. The Diverse Origins of Neutron-capture Elements in the Metal-poor Star HD 94028: Possible Detection of Products of i-Process Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = ‑1.62 ± 0.09) star HD 94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s process; e.g., [Pb/Fe] = +0.79 ± 0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r process; e.g., [Eu/Fe] = +0.22 ± 0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe] = +0.97 ± 0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe] = +0.69 ± 0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe] = ‑0.06 ± 0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD 94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process patterns can adequately reproduce the observed abundances, including the super-solar [As/Ge] ratio (+0.99 ± 0.23) and the enhanced [Mo/Fe] and [Ru/Fe] ratios. We can fit these features when including an additional contribution from the intermediate neutron-capture process (i process), which perhaps operated through the ingestion of H in He-burning convective regions in massive stars, super-AGB stars, or low-mass AGB stars. Currently, only the i process appears capable of consistently producing the super-solar [As/Ge] ratios and ratios among neighboring heavy elements found in HD 94028. Other metal-poor stars also show enhanced [As/Ge] ratios, hinting that operation of the i process may have been common in the early Galaxy. These data are associated with Program 072.B-0585(A), PI. Silva. Some data presented in this paper were obtained from the Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The Space Telescope Science Institute

  4. The Diverse Origins of Neutron-capture Elements in the Metal-poor Star HD 94028: Possible Detection of Products of i-Process Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.62 ± 0.09) star HD 94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s process; e.g., [Pb/Fe] = +0.79 ± 0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r process; e.g., [Eu/Fe] = +0.22 ± 0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe] = +0.97 ± 0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe] = +0.69 ± 0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe] = -0.06 ± 0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD 94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process patterns can adequately reproduce the observed abundances, including the super-solar [As/Ge] ratio (+0.99 ± 0.23) and the enhanced [Mo/Fe] and [Ru/Fe] ratios. We can fit these features when including an additional contribution from the intermediate neutron-capture process (i process), which perhaps operated through the ingestion of H in He-burning convective regions in massive stars, super-AGB stars, or low-mass AGB stars. Currently, only the i process appears capable of consistently producing the super-solar [As/Ge] ratios and ratios among neighboring heavy elements found in HD 94028. Other metal-poor stars also show enhanced [As/Ge] ratios, hinting that operation of the i process may have been common in the early Galaxy. These data are associated with Program 072.B-0585(A), PI. Silva. Some data presented in this paper were obtained from the Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The Space Telescope Science Institute is

  5. KELT-6b: A P ~ 7.9 Day Hot Saturn Transiting a Metal-poor Star with a Long-period Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Kielkopf, John F.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Street, Rachel A.; Cargile, Phillip; Mack, Claude E.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Avril, Ryan L.; Mellon, Samuel N.; McLeod, Kim K.; Penny, Matthew T.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mao, Qingqing; Richert, Alexander J. W.; DePoy, Darren L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Pogge, Richard W.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T eff = 6102 ± 43 K, log g_\\star =4.07_{-0.07}^{+0.04}, and [Fe/H] = -0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M sstarf = 1.09 ± 0.04 M ⊙ and radius R_\\star =1.58_{-0.09}^{+0.16} \\,R_\\odot. The planetary companion has mass MP = 0.43 ± 0.05 M Jup, radius R_{P}=1.19_{-0.08}^{+0.13} \\,R_Jup, surface gravity log g_{P}=2.86_{-0.08}^{+0.06}, and density \\rho _{P}=0.31_{-0.08}^{+0.07}\\,g\\,cm^{-3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22_{-0.10}^{+0.12}, which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T c(BJDTDB) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ~4}-7}. KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ~0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images. KELT is a joint project of The Ohio State University, Vanderbilt University, and Lehigh University.

  6. Population studies. XIII. A new analysis of the Bidelman-Macconnell 'weak-metal' stars - confirmation of metal-poor stars in the thick disk of the galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, Timothy C.; Norris, John E.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lee, Young Sun; Rossi, Silvia; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: youngsun@cnu.ac.kr E-mail: daniela.carollo@mq.edu.au

    2014-10-10

    A new set of very high signal-to-noise (S/N > 100/1), medium-resolution (R ∼ 3000) optical spectra have been obtained for 302 of the candidate 'weak-metal' stars selected by Bidelman and MacConnell. We use these data to calibrate the recently developed generalization of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Exploration and Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Stellar Parameter Pipeline, and obtain estimates of the atmospheric parameters (T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H]) for these non-Sloan Digital Sky Survey/SEGUE data; we also obtain estimates of [C/Fe]. The new abundance measurements are shown to be consistent with available high-resolution spectroscopic determinations, and represent a substantial improvement over the accuracies obtained from the previous photometric estimates reported in Paper I of this series. The apparent offset in the photometric abundances of the giants in this sample noted by several authors is confirmed by our new spectroscopy; no such effect is found for the dwarfs. The presence of a metal-weak thick-disk (MWTD) population is clearly supported by these new abundance data. Some 25% of the stars with metallicities –1.8 < [Fe/H] ≤–0.8 exhibit orbital eccentricities e < 0.4, yet are clearly separated from members of the inner-halo population with similar metallicities by their location in a Lindblad energy versus angular momentum diagram. A comparison is made with recent results for a similar-size sample of Radial Velocity Experiment stars from Ruchti et al. We conclude, based on both of these samples, that the MWTD is real, and must be accounted for in discussions of the formation and evolution of the disk system of the Milky Way.

  7. The Abundance Pattern of Two Barium Stars in the Galactic Halo: HD 104340 and HD 206983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira, S.; Pereira, C. B.

    2001-07-01

    We present the abundance pattern of two barium stars in the Galactic halo, HD 104340 and HD 206983, based on high-resolution optical spectra. We also determined the spectroscopic stellar atmospheric parameters, temperature, and microturbulent velocity, as well as stellar surface gravity from a solution of excitation and ionization equilibria of Fe I and Fe II lines under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The abundance analysis reveals HD 104340 to be a metal-poor K giant with [Fe/H]=-1.72 and HD 206983 also a metal-poor K giant with [Fe/H]=-1.43. From a set of Fe I lines, the radial velocity is found to be 263.3+/-0.6 km s-1 and -319.2+/-4.4 km s-1 for HD 104340 and HD 206983, respectively. Their high velocity, low metallicity, and high galactic latitude imply that both stars are members of a Galactic halo population. From our study and by using information from the literature we believe that HD 206983 is another member of a group known as metal-deficient barium stars. We compare the abundance pattern with the abundances of a halo population. We found that the abundances of the iron group, α-elements, manganese, copper, and zinc, as well as sodium and magnesium, of HD 104340 and HD 206983 follow the abundance pattern of a halo population. The heavy element abundance pattern of both stars shows enhancement by a factor of 4-8 with respect to the metal-poor stars with the same metallicity as that analyzed by us. We also discuss the abundances of the s-process elements and compare our results with other objects that display the same degree of enrichment due to neutron capture reactions, binary systems, and AGB stars, through a diagram of metallicity versus neutron exposure given by the [hs/ls] index. Based on the observations made with the 1.52 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under agreement with Observatório Nacional (Brazil).

  8. IMPROVED Ni I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2014-04-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 371 Ni I lines in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrograph are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to previously reported Ni I transition probability measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrograph, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainty over previous measurements. The new Ni I data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ni abundances. Lines covering a wide range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects.

  9. The Evolution of Pristine Gas: Implications for Milky Way Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmento, Richard J.; Scannapieco, Evan; Pan, Liubin

    2016-06-01

    We implement a new subgrid model for turbulent mixing to accurately follow the cosmological evolution of the first stars, the mixing of their supernova ejecta and the impact on the chemical composition of the Galactic Halo. Using the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, we implement a model for the pollution of pristine gas as described in Pan et al. (2013). This allows us to account for the fraction of Z < Zcrit stars formed throughout the simulation volume, even in regions in which the average metallicity is well above Zcrit. Further, as a result of modeling the pristine fraction of gas, we also improve our modeling of the metallicity of the polluted fraction, fpol, of both the gas and stars.Additionally, we track the evolution of the “primordial metals” generated by Pop III supernovae. These metals are taken up by second-generation stars and are likely to lead to unique abundance signatures characteristic of carbon enhanced, metal poor (CEMP) stars. As an illustrative example, we associate primordial metals with abundance ratios used by Keller at al (2014) to explain the source of metals in the star SMSS J031300.36- 670839.3, finding good agreement with the observed [Fe/H], [C/H], [O/H] and [Mg/Ca] ratios in CEMP Milky Way (MW) halo stars.

  10. WASP-37b: A 1.8 M{sub J} EXOPLANET TRANSITING A METAL-POOR STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, E. K.; Faedi, F.; Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D.; Todd, I.; McCormac, J.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cameron, A. Collier; Miller, G. R. M.; Hebb, L.; Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Butters, O. W.; Hebrard, G.; Boisse, I.; Santerne, A.; Street, R. A.; Skillen, I.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Bento, J.

    2011-01-15

    We report on the discovery of WASP-37b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting an m{sub v} = 12.7 G2-type dwarf, with a period of 3.577469 {+-} 0.000011 d, transit epoch T{sub 0} = 2455338.6188 {+-} 0.0006 (HJD; dates throughout the paper are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and a transit duration 0.1304{sup +0.0018}{sub -0.0017} d. The planetary companion has a mass M{sub p} = 1.80 {+-} 0.17 M{sub J} and radius R{sub p} = 1.16{sup +0.07}{sub -0.06} R{sub J}, yielding a mean density of 1.15{sup +0.12}{sub -0.15} {rho}{sub J}. From a spectral analysis, we find that the host star has M{sub *} = 0.925 {+-} 0.120 M{sub sun}, R{sub *} = 1.003 {+-} 0.053 R{sub sun}, T{sub eff} = 5800 {+-} 150 K, and [Fe/H] = -0.40 {+-} 0.12. WASP-37 is therefore one of the lowest metallicity stars to host a transiting planet.

  11. KELT-6b: A P ∼ 7.9 day hot Saturn transiting a metal-poor star with a long-period companion

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; and others

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T {sub eff} = 6102 ± 43 K, log g{sub ⋆}=4.07{sub −0.07}{sup +0.04}, and [Fe/H] = –0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M {sub *} = 1.09 ± 0.04 M {sub ☉} and radius R{sub ⋆}=1.58{sub −0.09}{sup +0.16} R{sub ⊙}. The planetary companion has mass M{sub P} = 0.43 ± 0.05 M {sub Jup}, radius R{sub P}=1.19{sub −0.08}{sup +0.13} R{sub Jup}, surface gravity log g{sub P}=2.86{sub −0.08}{sup +0.06}, and density ρ{sub P}=0.31{sub −0.08}{sup +0.07} g cm{sup −3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22{sub −0.10}{sup +0.12}, which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T {sub c}(BJD{sub TDB}) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ∼4)-7). KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ∼0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images.

  12. On the necessity of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in models of metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, Thomas; Campbell, Simon; Lattanzio, John; Gil-Pons, Pilar

    2014-03-20

    The vital importance of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in low-mass (M ≤ 3 M {sub ☉}) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar models of metallicity Z ≥ 0.001 has recently been demonstrated. Its significance to more metal-poor, intermediate-mass (M ≥ 2.5 M {sub ☉}) models has yet to be investigated. We show that its inclusion in lower-metallicity models ([Fe/H] ≤–2) is essential and that there exists no threshold metallicity below which composition-dependent molecular opacity may be neglected. We find it to be crucial in all intermediate-mass models investigated ([Fe/H] ≤–2 and 2.5 ≤ M/M {sub ☉} ≤ 5), because of the evolution of the surface chemistry, including the orders of magnitude increase in the abundance of molecule-forming species. Its effect on these models mirrors that previously reported for higher-metallicity models—increase in radius, decrease in T {sub eff}, faster mass loss, shorter thermally pulsing AGB lifetime, reduced enrichment in third dredge-up products (by a factor of 3-10), and an increase in the mass limit for hot bottom burning. We show that the evolution of low-metallicity models with composition-dependent low-temperature opacity is relatively independent of initial metal abundance because its contribution to the opacity is far outweighed by changes resulting from dredge-up. Our results imply a significant reduction in the expected number of nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars, which may help explain their observed paucity. We note that these findings are partially a product of the macrophysics adopted in our models, in particular, the Vassiliadis and Wood mass loss rate which is strongly dependent on radius.

  13. Evolution and CNO yields of Z = 10-5 stars and possible effects on carbon-enhanced metal-poor production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Pons, P.; Doherty, C. L.; Lau, H.; Campbell, S. W.; Suda, T.; Guilani, S.; Gutiérrez, J.; Lattanzio, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: Our main goals are to get a deeper insight into the evolution and final fates of intermediate-mass, extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. We also aim to investigate the C, N, and O yields of these stars. Methods: Using the Monash University Stellar Evolution code MONSTAR we computed and analysed the evolution of stars of metallicity Z = 10-5 and masses between 4 and 9 M⊙, from their main sequence until the late thermally pulsing (super) asymptotic giant branch, TP-(S)AGB phase. Results: Our model stars experience a strong C, N, and O envelope enrichment either due to the second dredge-up process, the dredge-out phenomenon, or the third dredge-up early during the TP-(S)AGB phase. Their late evolution is therefore similar to that of higher metallicity objects. When using a standard prescription for the mass loss rates during the TP-(S)AGB phase, the computed stars are able to lose most of their envelopes before their cores reach the Chandrasekhar mass (mCh), so our standard models do not predict the occurrence of SNI1/2 for Z = 10-5 stars. However, we find that the reduction of only one order of magnitude in the mass-loss rates, which are particularly uncertain at this metallicity, would prevent the complete ejection of the envelope, allowing the stars to either explode as an SNI1/2 or become an electron-capture SN. Our calculations stop due to an instability near the base of the convective envelope that hampers further convergence and leaves remnant envelope masses between 0.25 M⊙ for our 4 M⊙ model and 1.5 M⊙ for our 9 M⊙ model. We present two sets of C, N, and O yields derived from our full calculations and computed under two different assumptions, namely, that the instability causes a practically instant loss of the remnant envelope or that the stars recover and proceed with further thermal pulses. Conclusions: Our results have implications for the early chemical evolution of the Universe and might provide another piece for the puzzle of the carbon

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Photometry for the Halo Stars in the Leo Elliptical NGC 3377

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Harris, Gretchen L. H.; Layden, Andrew C.; Stetson, Peter B.

    2007-07-01

    We have used the ACS camera on HST to obtain (V,I) photometry for 57,000 red giant stars in the halo of the Leo elliptical NGC 3377, an intermediate-luminosity elliptical. We use this sample of stars to derive the metallicity distribution function (MDF) for its halo field stars and comment on its chemical evolution history compared with both larger and smaller E galaxies. Our ACS WFC field spans a radial range extending from 4 to 18 kpc projected distance from the center of NGC 3377 and thus covers a significant portion of this galaxy's halo. We find that the MDF is broad, reaching a peak at log(Z/Zsolar)~=-0.6, but containing virtually no stars more metal-poor than log(Z/Zsolar)=-1.5. It may, in addition, have relatively few stars more metal-rich than log(Z/Zsolar)~=-0.3, although interpretation of the high-metallicity end of the MDF is limited by photometric completeness that affects the detection of the reddest, most metal-rich stars. NGC 3377 appears to have an enrichment history intermediate between those of normal dwarf ellipticals and the much larger giants. As yet, we find no clear evidence that the halo of NGC 3377 contains a significant population of ``young'' (<3 Gyr) stars. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 9811. Support for this work was provided in part by NASA through grant HST-GO-09811.01-A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  15. The first Population II stars formed in externally enriched mini-haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Britton D.; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Norman, Michael L.; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2015-09-01

    We present a simulation of the formation of the earliest Population II stars, starting from cosmological initial conditions and ending when metals created in the first supernovae are incorporated into a collapsing gas cloud. This occurs after a supernova blast-wave collides with a nearby mini-halo, inducing further turbulence that efficiently mixes metals into the dense gas in the centre of the halo. The gas that first collapses has been enriched to a metallicity of Z ˜ 2 × 10-5 Z⊙. Due to the extremely low metallicity, collapse proceeds similarly to metal-free gas until dust cooling becomes efficient at high densities, causing the cloud to fragment into a large number of low-mass objects. This external enrichment mechanism provides a plausible origin for the most metal-poor stars observed, such as SMSS J031300.36-670839.3, that appear to have formed out of gas enriched by a single supernova. This mechanism operates on shorter time-scales than the time for low-mass mini-haloes (M ≤ 5 × 105 M⊙) to recover their gas after experiencing a supernova. As such, metal-enriched stars will likely form first via this channel if the conditions are right for it to occur. We identify a number of other externally enriched haloes that may form stars in this manner. These haloes have metallicities as high as 0.01 Z⊙, suggesting that some members of the first generation of metal-enriched stars may be hiding in plain sight in current stellar surveys.

  16. Very Low-Mass Stars with Extremely Low Metallicity in the Milky Way's Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Suda, Takuma; Honda, Satoshi; Lee, Young Sun

    2016-08-01

    Large surveys and follow-up spectroscopic studies in the past few decades have been providing chemical abundance data for a growing number of very metal-poor ([Fe/H] <-2) stars. Most of them are red giants or main-sequence turn-off stars having masses near 0.8 solar masses. Lower mass stars with extremely low metallicity ([Fe/H] <-3) are yet to be explored. Our high-resolution spectroscopic study for very metal-poor stars found with SDSS has identified four cool main-sequence stars with [Fe/H] <-2.5 among 137 objects (Aoki et al. 2013). The effective temperatures of these stars are 4500-5000 K, corresponding to a mass of around 0.5 solar masses. Our standard analysis of the high-resolution spectra based on 1D-LTE model atmospheres has obtained self-consistent chemical abundances for these objects, assuming small values of micro-turbulent velocities compared with giants and turn-off stars. The low temperature of the atmospheres of these objects enables us to measure their detailed chemical abundances. Interestingly, two of the four stars have extreme chemical-abundance patterns: one has the largest excesses of heavy neutron-capture elements associated with the r-process abundance pattern known to date (Aoki et al. 2010), and the other exhibits low abundances of the α-elements and odd-Z elements, suggested to be signatures of the yields of very massive stars (> 100 solar masses; Aoki et al. 2014). Although the sample size is still small, these results indicate the potential of very low-mass stars as probes to study the early stages of the Milky Way's halo formation.

  17. Very Low Mass Stars with Extremely Low Metallicity in the Milky Way's Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Takuma, Suda; Honda, Satoshi; Lee, Young Sun

    2015-08-01

    Large surveys and follow-up spectroscopic studies in the past few decades have been providing chemical abundance data for a growing number of very metal-poor ([Fe/H] <-2) stars. Most of them are red giants or main-sequence turn-off stars having masses near 0.8 solar masses. Lower mass stars with extremely low metallicity ([Fe/H] <-3) have yet to be well explored. Our high-resolution spectroscopic study for very metal-poor stars found with SDSS has identified four cool main-sequence stars with [Fe/H] <-2.5 among 137 objects (Aoki et al. 2013, AJ, 145, 13). The effective temperatures of these stars are 4500--5000 K, corresponding to a mass of around 0.5 solar masses. Our standard analysis of the high-resolution spectra based on 1D-LTE model atmospheres have obtained self-consistent chemical abundances for these objects, assuming small values of micro-turbulent velocities compared with giants and turn-off stars. The low temperature of the atmospheres of these objects enables us to measure their detailed chemical abundances. Interestingly, two of the four stars have extreme chemical abundance patterns: one has the largest excesses of heavy neutron-capture elements associated with the r-process abundance pattern known to date (Aoki et al. 2010, ApJL 723, L201), and the other exhibits low abundances of the alpha-elements and odd-Z elements, suggested to be the signatures of the yields of very massive stars ( >100 solar masses; Aoki et al. 2014, Science 345, 912). Although the sample size is still small, these results indicate the potential of very low-mass stars as probes to study the early stages of the Milky Way's halo formation.

  18. IMPROVED Ti II log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2013-10-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 364 lines of Ti II in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a new echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. The new results are in generally good agreement with previously reported FTS measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrometer, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enables a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability accuracy over previous measurements. The new Ti II data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ti abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. The Ti abundances derived using Ti II for these two stars match those derived using Ti I and support the relative Ti/Fe abundance ratio versus metallicity seen in previous studies.

  19. Post Asymptotic Giant Branch and Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Simon

    2012-01-01

    database. Combined with previously identified halo post-AGB stars, including the results of a sub-sample from the Palomar-Green (PG) survey, the number of observed and predicted populations are compared. The number of observed post-AGB candidates shows a remarkable deficit to expectations. A survey within a subset of the photometric database of SDSS supports the findings of the PG and SDSS spectroscopic surveys. These findings provide strong evidence for a lack of post-AGB stars in the Galactic halo and thick disc. A plausible explanation is that a large fraction of stars in these old, metal-poor populations are evolving via alternative channels. The implications of such a result are far reaching with knock on effects for stellar evolutionary theory, galactic evolution and extragalactic redshift estimates.

  20. New high S/N observations of the (6Li) /(7) Li blend in HD 84937 and two other metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayrel, R.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Vangioni-Flam, E.; Cassé, M.; Audouze, J.

    1999-03-01

    High signal to noise ratio spectra have been obtained with the GECKO spectrograph at CFHT, at a spectral resolution of 100 000, for three metal-poor stars in order to obtain more accurate abundances of the very fragile element (6) Li. For two newly observed stars, BD +42 2667 and BD +36 2165 it appears that the first may have a detectable amount of (6) Li, whereas no (6) Li is found in the second one. The S/N ratio of only a few hundreds obtained for these two faint stars preclude however a firm conclusion. For the third star, the well known object HD84937, a very high S/N of 650 per pixel (over 1000 per resolved spectral element) was obtained, yielding greatly improved accuracy over previous determinations. A value of (6) Li / (7) Li = 0.052 +/- 0.019 (one sigma) is obtained. We also conclude that the no- (6) Li assumption is ruled out at the 95 per cent level, even in the most permissive case, when a variation of all the other free parameters (wavelength zero-point, continuum location, macroturbulent broadening, abundance of (7) Li) is allowed. The possibility that the (6) Li feature is an artifact due to a once suspected binarity of HD 84937 is discussed, with the conclusion that this assumption is ruled out by the extant data on the radial velocity of the object. The (6) Li abundance is compared with recent models of formation of the light elements Li, Be and B. This comparison shows that (6) Li is either undepleted, or only moderately depleted in HD 84937, from its initial value. Under the assumption that the atmospheric depletion of (6) Li and (7) Li in stars is by slow mixing with hot layers (underneath the convective zone), in which these elements can burn, we conclude that the depletion of (7) Li by this mechanism in HD 84937 is less than 0.1 dex. This new upper limit to the efficiency of the depletion of (7) Li by slow mixing burning, in a star located on the Spite plateau, leads to a more secure estimation of the primordial abundance of (7) Li. However

  1. The distribution of stars in space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, G.

    Contents: 1. A didactic ramble. 2. Star counts and galactic structure. 3. Integrated surface-brightness measurements. 4. Specific tracers of galactic structure. 5. The analysis of star-count data. 6. The shape of the metal-poor halo.

  2. Improved V II Log(gf) Values, Hyperfine Structure Constants, and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2014-10-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ɛ(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = -2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  3. Improved V I Log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ɛ(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ɛ(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  4. Improved log(gf) Values for Lines of V I and V II, New Vanadium Abundances in the Sun and the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Feigenson, Thomas; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) and 203 lines of V II are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with new radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for 1039 lines of V I and V II. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for both spectra. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ɛ(V) = 3.96 (σ = 0.04) based on 93 V I lines and log ɛ(V) = 1.89 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines respectively, and yielding log ɛ(V) = 3.95 (σ = 0.05) based on 15 V II lines and log ɛ(V) = 1.87 (σ = 0.07) based on 68 V II lines respectively1-3.1. Wood et al., ApJS 214:18 (2014), 2. Den Hartog et al. ApJS in press (2014), 3. Lawler et al. ApJS submitted (2014). This work is supported by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (JEL), NSF AST-1211055 (EDH & JEL), and NSF AST-1211585 (CS).

  5. IMPROVED V I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu E-mail: tfeigenson@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ε(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ε(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  6. IMPROVED V II log(gf) VALUES, HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS, AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2014-10-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ε(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = –2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  7. The most metal-poor damped Lyα systems: insights into chemical evolution in the very metal-poor regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Nissen, Poul E.

    2011-10-01

    We present a high spectral resolution survey of the most metal-poor damped Lyα absorption systems (DLAs) aimed at probing the nature and nucleosynthesis of the earliest generations of stars. Our survey comprises 22 systems with iron abundance less than 1/100 solar; observations of seven of these are reported here for the first time. Together with recent measures of the abundances of C and O in Galactic metal-poor stars, we reinvestigate the trend of C/O in the very metal-poor (VMP) regime and we compare, for the first time, the O/Fe ratios in the most metal-poor DLAs and in halo stars. We confirm the near-solar values of C/O in DLAs at the lowest metallicities probed, and find that their distribution is in agreement with that seen in Galactic halo stars. We find that the O/Fe ratio in VMP DLAs is essentially constant, and shows very little dispersion, with a mean []=+0.39 ± 0.12, in good agreement with the values measured in Galactic halo stars when the oxygen abundance is measured from the [O I] λ6300 line. We speculate that such good agreement in the observed abundance trends points to a universal origin for these metals. In view of this agreement, we construct the abundance pattern for a typical VMP DLA and compare it to model calculations of Population II and Population III nucleosynthesis to determine the origin of the metals in VMP DLAs. Our results suggest that the most metal-poor DLAs may have been enriched by a generation of metal-free stars; however, given that abundance measurements are currently available for only a few elements, we cannot yet rule out an additional contribution from Population II stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile [VLT programme IDs 67.A-0078(A), 69.A-0613(A), 083.A-0042(A), 085.A-0109(A)], and at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of

  8. Lithium in halo stars from standard stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Demarque, Pierre; Kawaler, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    A grid has been constructed of theoretical evolution sequences of models for low-metallicity stars from the premain-sequence to the giant branch phases. The grid is used to study the history of surface Li abundance during standard stellar evolution. The Li-7 observations of halo stars by Spite and Spite (1982) and subsequent observations are synthesized to separate the halo stars by age. The theory of surface Li abundance is illustrated by following the evolution of a reference halo star model from the contracting fully convective premain sequence to the giant branch phase. The theoretical models are compared with observed Li abundances. The results show that the halo star lithium abundances can be explained in the context of standard stellar evolution theory using completely standard assumptions and physics.

  9. Deep Imaging of Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether the most metal-poor and actively star-forming galaxies in the local universe such as I Zw 18 contain evolved stars. We propose to help settle this issue by obtaining deep ACS/HRC U, narrow-V, I, and H-alpha images of nine nearby {z < 0.01} extremely metal-poor {12 + O/H < 7.65} galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects are only marginally resolved from the ground and appear uniformly blue, strongly motivating HST imaging. The continuum images will establish: 1.} If underlying populations of evolved stars are present, by revealing the objects' colors on scales 10 pc, and 2.} The presence of any faint tidal features, dust lanes, and globular or super star clusters, all of which constrain the objects' evolutionary states. The H-alpha images, in combination with ground-based echelle spectroscopy, will reveal 1.} Whether the objects are producing "superwinds" that are depleting them of their metals; ground-based images of some of them indeed show large halos of ionized gas, and 2.} The correspondence of their nebular and stellar emission on scales of a few parsecs, which is important for understanding the "feedback" process by which supernovae and stellar winds regulate star formation. One of the sample objects, CGCG 269-049, lies only 2 Mpc away, allowing the detection of individual red giant stars in it if any are present. We have recently obtained Spitzer images and spectra of this galaxy to determine its dust content and star formation history, which will complement the proposed HST observations. [NOTE: THIS PROPOSAL WAS REDUCED TO FIVE ORBITS, AND ONLY ONE OF THE ORIGINAL TARGETS, CGCG 269-049, AFTER THE PHASE I REVIEW

  10. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. IV. Oxygen diagnostics in extremely metal-poor red giants with infrared OH lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. This is mainly because only a few spectral lines are available for the abundance diagnostics. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O i] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O i] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~ 0.3-0.4 dex. Aims: We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Our ultimate goal is to clarify whether a realistic treatment of convection with state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres may help to bring the oxygen abundances obtained using the two indicators into closer agreement. Methods: We used high-resolution (R = 50 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 200-600) spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH vibrational-rotational lines located in the spectral range of 1514-1548 and 1595-1632 nm were used to determine oxygen abundances by employing standard 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis methodology. We then corrected the 1D LTE abundances obtained from each individual OH line for the 3D hydrodynamical effects, which was done by applying 3D-1D LTE abundance corrections that were determined using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD and 1D hydrostatic LHD model atmospheres. Results: We find that the influence of convection on the formation of [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of EMP giants

  11. Connecting Galaxies, Halos, and Star Formation Rates Across Cosmic Time

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-06-02

    A simple, observationally-motivated model is presented for understanding how halo masses, galaxy stellar masses, and star formation rates are related, and how these relations evolve with time. The relation between halo mass and galaxy stellar mass is determined by matching the observed spatial abundance of galaxies to the expected spatial abundance of halos at multiple epochs--i.e. more massive galaxies are assigned to more massive halos at each epoch. This 'abundance matching' technique has been shown previously to reproduce the observed luminosity- and scale-dependence of galaxy clustering over a range of epochs. Halos at different epochs are connected by halo mass accretion histories estimated from N-body simulations. The halo-galaxy connection at fixed epochs in conjunction with the connection between halos across time provides a connection between observed galaxies across time. With approximations for the impact of merging and accretion on the growth of galaxies, one can then directly infer the star formation histories of galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass. This model is tuned to match both the observed evolution of the stellar mass function and the normalization of the observed star formation rate--stellar mass relation to z {approx} 1. The data demands, for example, that the star formation rate density is dominated by galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.0-10.5} M{sub {circle_dot}} from 0 < z < 1, and that such galaxies over these epochs reside in halos with M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 11.5-12.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The star formation rate--halo mass relation is approximately Gaussian over the range 0 < z < 1 with a mildly evolving mean and normalization. This model is then used to shed light on a number of issues, including (1) a clarification of 'downsizing', (2) the lack of a sharp characteristic halo mass at which star formation is truncated, and (3) the dominance of star formation over merging to the stellar build-up of galaxies

  12. A New Calibration of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] Estimates for Medium-Resolution Spectra of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, T. C.; Marsteller, B.; Sivarani, T.; Rossi, S.; Plez, B.; Masseron, T.; Lucatello, S.

    2006-12-01

    In recent years it has become clear that a significant fraction (on the order of at least 20%) of Galactic halo stars with [Fe/H] < -2.0 exhibit strong enhancements of carbon, with [C/Fe] > +1.0. The availability of many thousands of medium-resolution spectra from previous (and ongoing) surveys such as the HK survey of Beers and colleagues, and the Hamburg/ESO Survey of Christlieb and collaborators, provide the opportunity to identify and quantify the distribution of [C/Fe] over a wide range of [Fe/H] and stellar evolutionary states. In order to quickly obtain this information, previous attempts have been made to develop a calibration of line index estimates of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] based on the observed strengths of the CaII K line and the CH G-band feature. The methodology developed by Rossi et al. (2005) relied on a sample of some 120 stars with available high-resolution spectroscopic estimates of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe], as well as 2MASS J-K colors, to carry out such a calibration. Unfortunately, the sample of calibration objects did not include numerous stars with effective temperatures (and carbon abundances) over the full range that is required for some applications. Recently the numbers of potential calibration objects has increased dramatically, to over 500 stars, due to the completion of several large high-resolution spectroscopic studies (e.g., Barklem et al. 2005, Cohen et al. 2005, Spite et al. 2005, and Aoki et al. 2006). In addition, new carbon-enhanced model atmospheres from which synthetic spectra and colors can be estimated have become available. We explore the use of these new data and tools and develop a revised calibration that is expected to be superior in many respects to previous attempts.

  13. A Revised Calibration Of [Fe/H] And [C/Fe] Estimates For Medium Resolution Spectra Of Carbon Enhanced Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, T. C.; Marsteller, B.; Sivarani, T.; Rossi, S.; Plez, B.; Masseron, T.; Lucatello, S.

    2007-05-01

    In recent years it has become clear that a significant fraction (on the order of at least 20%) of Galactic halo stars with [Fe/H] < -2.0 exhibit strong enhancements of carbon, with [C/Fe] > +1.0. The availability of many thousands of medium-resolution spectra from previous (and ongoing) surveys such as the HK survey of Beers and colleagues, and the Hamburg/ESO Survey of Christlieb and collaborators, provide the opportunity to identify and quantify the distribution of [C/Fe] over a wide range of [Fe/H] and stellar evolutionary states. In order to quickly obtain this information, previous attempts have been made to develop a calibration of line index estimates of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] based on the observed strengths of the CaII K line and the CH G-band feature. The methodology developed by Rossi et al. (2005) relied on a sample of some 120 stars with available high-resolution spectroscopic estimates of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe], as well as 2MASS J-K colors, to carry out such a calibration. Unfortunately, the sample of calibration objects did not include numerous stars with effective temperatures (and carbon abundances) over the full range that is required for some applications. Recently the numbers of potential calibration objects has increased dramatically, to over 500 stars, due to the completion of several large high-resolution spectroscopic studies (e.g., Barklem et al. 2005, Cohen et al. 2005, Spite et al. 2005, and Aoki et al. 2006). In addition, new carbon-enhanced model atmospheres from which synthetic spectra and colors can be estimated have become available. We explore the use of these new data and tools and develop a revised calibration that is expected to be superior in many respects to previous attempts.

  14. CONNECTING GALAXIES, HALOS, AND STAR FORMATION RATES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2009-05-01

    A simple, observationally motivated model is presented for understanding how halo masses, galaxy stellar masses, and star formation rates are related, and how these relations evolve with time. The relation between halo mass and galaxy stellar mass is determined by matching the observed spatial abundance of galaxies to the expected spatial abundance of halos at multiple epochs, i.e., more massive galaxies are assigned to more massive halos at each epoch. This 'abundance matching' technique has been shown previously to reproduce the observed luminosity and scale dependence of galaxy clustering over a range of epochs. Halos at different epochs are connected by halo mass accretion histories estimated from N-body simulations. The halo-galaxy connection at fixed epochs in conjunction with the connection between halos across time provides a connection between observed galaxies across time. With approximations for the impact of merging and accretion on the growth of galaxies, one can then directly infer the star formation histories of galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass. This model is tuned to match both the observed evolution of the stellar mass function and the normalization of the observed star formation rate (SFR)-stellar mass relation to z {approx} 1. The data demands, for example, that the star formation rate density is dominated by galaxies with M {sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.0-10.5} M {sub sun} from 0 < z < 1, and that such galaxies over these epochs reside in halos with M {sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 11.5-12.5} M {sub sun}. The SFR-halo mass relation is approximately Gaussian over the range 0 < z < 1 with a mildly evolving mean and normalization. This model is then used to shed light on a number of issues, including (1) a clarification of {sup d}ownsizing{sup ,} (2) the lack of a sharp characteristic halo mass at which star formation is truncated, and (3) the dominance of star formation over merging to the stellar buildup of galaxies with M {sub star

  15. DUST-SCATTERED ULTRAVIOLET HALOS AROUND BRIGHT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, Richard Conn

    2011-06-10

    We have discovered ultraviolet (UV) halos extending as far as 5 deg. around four (of six) bright UV stars using data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite. These halos are due to scattering of the starlight from nearby thin, foreground dust clouds. We have placed limits of 0.58 {+-} 0.12 and 0.72 {+-} 0.06 on the phase function asymmetry factor (g) in the FUV (1521 A) and NUV (2320 A) bands, respectively. We suggest that these halos are a common feature around bright stars and may be used to explore the scattering function of interstellar grains at small angles.

  16. The boron-to-beryllium ratio in halo stars - A signature of cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.; Fields, B.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) spallation production of Li, Be, and B in the early Galaxy with particular attention to the uncertainties in the predictions of this model. The observed correlation between the Be abundance and the metallicity in metal-poor Population II stars requires that Be was synthesized in the early Galaxy. We show that the observations and such Population II GCR synthesis of Be are quantitatively consistent with the big bang nucleosynthesis production of Li-7. We find that there is a nearly model independent lower bound to B/Be of about 7 for GCR synthesis. Recent measurements of B/Be about 10 in HD 140283 are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Population II GCR nucleosynthesis. Measurements of the boron abundance in additional metal-poor halo stars is a key diagnostic of the GCR spallation mechanism. We also show that Population II GCR synthesis can produce amounts of Li-6 which may be observed in the hottest halo stars.

  17. IMPROVED log(gf) VALUES FOR LINES OF Ti I AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937 (ACCURATE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES FOR Ti I)

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Guzman, A.; Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: adrianaguzman2014@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2013-04-01

    New atomic transition probability measurements for 948 lines of Ti I are reported. Branching fractions from Fourier transform spectra and from spectra recorded using a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The new Ti I data are applied to re-determine the Ti abundance in the photospheres of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 using many lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential to explore possible non-local thermal equilibrium effects. The variation of relative Ti/Fe abundance with metallicity in metal-poor stars observed in earlier studies is supported in this study.

  18. Lithium abundance in a turnoff halo star on an extreme orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The lithium abundance in turnoff stars of the old population of our Galaxy is remarkably constant in the metallicity interval -2.8 < [Fe/H] < -2.0, defining a plateau. The Li abundance of these turnoff stars is clearly lower than the abundance predicted by the primordial nucleosynthesis in the frame of the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Different scenarios have been proposed for explaining this discrepancy, along with the very low scatter of the lithium abundance around the plateau. Aims: The recently identified very high velocity star, WISE J0725-2351 appears to belong to the old Galactic population, and appears to be an extreme halo star on a bound, retrograde Galactic orbit. In this paper, we study the abundance ratios and, in particular the lithium abundance, in this star. Methods: The available spectra (ESO-Very Large Telescope) are analyzed and the abundances of Li, C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr and Ba are determined. Results: The abundance ratios in WISE J0725-2351 are those typical of old turnoff stars. The lithium abundance in this star is in close agreement with the lithium abundance found in the metal-poor turnoff stars located at moderate distance from the Sun. This high velocity star confirms, in an extreme case, that the very small scatter of the lithium plateau persists independent of the dynamic and kinematic properties of the stars. Based on observations obtained at the ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile Programmes 093.D-0127, PI: S. Geier and 189.B-0925, PI: S. Trager.Table 2 (line by line abundances of the elements) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/A74

  19. VVV SURVEY NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF KNOWN BULGE RR LYRAE STARS: THE DISTANCE TO THE GALACTIC CENTER AND ABSENCE OF A BARRED DISTRIBUTION OF THE METAL-POOR POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.; Catelan, M.; Zoccali, M.; Hempel, M.; Saito, R. K.

    2013-10-20

    We have combined optical and near-infrared data of known RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the bulge in order to study the spatial distribution of its metal-poor component by measuring precise reddening values and distances of 7663 fundamental-mode RRL stars with high-quality photometry. We obtain a distance to the Galactic center of R {sub 0} = 8.33 ± 0.05 ± 0.14 kpc. We find that the spatial distribution of the RRL stars differs from the structures traced by the predominantly metal-rich red clump (RC) stars. Unlike the RC stars, the RRL stars do not trace a strong bar, but have a more spheroidal, centrally concentrated distribution, showing only a slight elongation in its very center. We find a hint of bimodality in the density distribution at high southern latitudes (b < –5°), which needs to be confirmed by extending the areal coverage of the current census. The different spatial distributions of the metal-rich and metal-poor stellar populations suggest that the Milky Way has a composite bulge.

  20. The age of the halo as determined from halo field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Chao; Liu, Ji-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The age of the Galactic halo is a critical parameter that can constrain the origin of the stellar halo. In general, the Galactic stellar halo is believed to be very old. However, different independent measurements and techniques based on various types of stars are required so that the age estimates of the Galactic halo are accurate, robust, and reliable. In this work, we provide a novel approach to determine the age of the halo with turn-off stars. We first carefully select 63 field halo turn-off stars from the literature. Then, we compare them with the GARSTEC model, which takes the process of atomic diffusion into account in the B - V vs. metallicity plane. Finally, we run Monte Carlo simulations to consider the uncertainty of the color index and obtain the age of 10.5 ± 1.5 Gyr. This result is in agreement with previous studies. Future works are needed to collect more turn-off samples with more accurate photometry to reduce the uncertainty of the age.

  1. IDENTIFYING STAR STREAMS IN THE MILKY WAY HALO

    SciTech Connect

    King, Charles III; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-05-01

    We develop statistical methods for identifying star streams in the halo of the Milky Way that exploit observed spatial and radial velocity distributions. Within a great circle, departures of the observed spatial distribution from random provide a measure of the likelihood of a potential star stream. Comparisons between the radial velocity distribution within a great circle and the radial velocity distribution of the entire sample also measure the statistical significance of potential streams. The radial velocities enable construction of a more powerful joint statistical test for identifying star streams in the Milky Way halo. Applying our method to halo stars in the Hypervelocity Star (HVS) survey, we detect the Sagittarius stream at high significance. Great circle counts and comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the Sagittarius stream comprises 10%-17% of the halo stars in the HVS sample. The population of blue stragglers and blue horizontal branch stars varies along the stream and is a potential probe of the distribution of stellar populations in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy prior to disruption.

  2. Exploring the Milky Way halo with SDSS-II SN survey RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lee, Nathan

    , there is less of a clear change as a function of these cuts, although that may be due to metallicity effects on the shape of the horizontal branch. The metallicity groups may be truncated at both the metal-rich and metal-poor end of the histograms because at those metallicities the horizontal branch stars may occur primarily out of the instability strip, removing them from our sample.

  3. Kinematic evidence for an old stellar halo in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    PubMed

    Minniti, Dante; Borissova, Jura; Rejkuba, Marina; Alves, David R; Cook, Kem H; Freeman, Kenneth C

    2003-09-12

    The oldest and most metal-poor Milky Way stars form a kinematically hot halo, which motivates the two major formation scenarios for our galaxy: extended hierarchical accretion and rapid collapse. RR Lyrae stars are excellent tracers of old and metal-poor populations. We measured the kinematics of 43 RR Lyrae stars in the inner regions of the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) galaxy. The velocity dispersion equals 53 +/- 10 kilometers per second, which indicates that a kinematically hot metal-poor old halo also exists in the LMC. This result suggests that our galaxy and smaller late-type galaxies such as the LMC have similar early formation histories. PMID:12970558

  4. METAL-POOR LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN THE RADIAL VELOCITY EXPERIMENT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchti, Gregory R.; Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Grebel, Eva K.; Bienayme, Olivier; Siebert, Arnaud; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Freeman, Ken C.; Gibson, Brad K.; Munari, Ulisse; Navarro, Julio F.; Parker, Quentin A.; Watson, Fred G.; Reid, Warren; Seabroke, George M.; Siviero, Alessandro; Steinmetz, Matthias; Williams, Mary; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2011-12-20

    We report the discovery of eight lithium-rich field giants found in a high-resolution spectroscopic sample of over 700 metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -0.5) selected from the Radial Velocity Experiment survey. The majority of the Li-rich giants in our sample are very metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}< -1.9), and have a Li abundance (in the form of {sup 7}Li), A(Li) = log (n(Li)/n(H)) + 12, between 2.30 and 3.63, well above the typical upper red giant branch (RGB) limit, A(Li) < 0.5, while two stars, with A(Li) {approx} 1.7-1.8, show similar lithium abundances to normal giants at the same gravity. We further included two metal-poor, Li-rich globular cluster giants in our sample, namely the previously discovered M3-IV101 and newly discovered (in this work) M68-A96. This comprises the largest sample of metal-poor Li-rich giants to date. We performed a detailed abundance analysis of all stars, finding that the majority of our sample stars have elemental abundances similar to that of Li-normal halo giants. Although the evolutionary phase of each Li-rich giant cannot be definitively determined, the Li-rich phase is likely connected to extra mixing at the RGB bump or early asymptotic giant branch that triggers cool bottom processing in which the bottom of the outer convective envelope is connected to the H-burning shell in the star. The surface of a star becomes Li-enhanced as {sup 7}Be (which burns to {sup 7}Li) is transported to the stellar surface via the Cameron-Fowler mechanism. We discuss and discriminate among several models for the extra mixing that can cause Li production, given the detailed abundances of the Li-rich giants in our sample.

  5. Chronography of the Milky Way's Halo System with Field Blue Horizontal-Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Santucci, Rafael; Rossi, Siliva; Lee, Young Sun; Denissenkov, Pavel; Tumlinson, Jason; Tissera, Patricia; Lentner, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    In a pioneering effort, Preston et al. (1991, AJ 375, 121) reported that the colors of blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy shift with distance, from regions near the Galactic center to about 12 kpc away, and interpreted this as a correlated variation in the ages of halo stars, from older to younger, spanning a range of a few Gyrs. We have applied this approach to a sample of some 4700 spectroscopically confirmed BHB stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to produce the first "chronographic map" of the halo of the Galaxy.We demonstrate that the mean de-reddened g-r color increases outward in the Galaxy from -0.22 to -0.08 (over a color window spanning [-0.3:0.0]) from regions close to the Galactic center to ~40 kpc, independent of the metallicity of the stars. Models of the expected shift in the color of the field BHB stars based on modern stellar evolutionary codes confirm that this color gradient can be associated with an age difference of roughly 2-2.5 Gyrs, with the oldest stars concentrated in the central ~15 kpc of the Galaxy. Within this centralregion, which we refer to as the Ancient Chronographic Sphere (ACS), the age difference spans a mean color range of about 0.05 mag (~0.8 Gyrs). Interestingly, the ACS extends far enough to include the Solar Neighborhood, suggesting that ancient metal-poor stars should be readily detectable in the vicinity of the Sun. Furthermore, we show that chronographic maps can be used to identify individual substructures, such as the Sagittarius Stream, and overdensities in the direction of Virgo and Monoceros, based on the observed contrast in their mean BHB colors with respect to the foreground/background field population.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  6. Visibility of stars, halos, and rainbows during solar eclipses.

    PubMed

    Können, Gunther P; Hinz, Claudia

    2008-12-01

    The visibility of stars, planets, diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows during the partial and total phases of a solar eclipse is studied. The limiting magnitude during various stages of the partial phase is presented. The sky radiance during totality with respect to noneclipse conditions is revisited and found to be typically 1/4000. The corresponding limiting magnitude is +3.5. At totality, the signal-to-background ratio of diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows has dropped by a factor of 250. It is found that diffraction coronas around the totally eclipsed Sun may nevertheless occur. Analyses of lunar halo observations during twilight indicate that bright halo displays may also persist during totality. Rainbows during totality seem impossible. PMID:19037334

  7. Star Streams in Triaxial Isochrone Potentials with Sub-halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, R. G.

    2015-07-01

    The velocity, position, and action variable evolutions of a tidal stream drawn out of a star cluster in a triaxial isochrone potential, containing a sub-halo population, reproduces many of the orbital effects of more general cosmological halos but allows for the easy calculation of orbital actions. We employ a spherical shell code, which we show accurately reproduces the results of a tree gravity code for a collisionless star cluster. Streams from clusters on high eccentricity orbits, e≳ 0.6, can spread out so much that the amount of material at high enough surface density to stand out on the sky may be only a few percent of the stream’s total mass. Low eccentricity streams remain more spatially coherent, but sub-halos both broaden the stream and displace the centerline with details depending on the orbits allowed within the potential. Overall, the majority of stream particles have changes in their total actions of only 1%-2%, leaving the mean stream relatively undisturbed. A halo with 1% of the mass in sub-halos typically spreads the velocity distribution about a factor of two wider than would be expected for a smooth halo. Strong density variations, “gaps,” along with mean velocity offsets, are clearly detected in low eccentricity streams for even a 0.2% sub-halo mass fraction. Around one hundred velocity measurements per kiloparsec of stream will enable tests for the presence of a local sub-halo density as small as 0.2%-0.5% of the local mass density, with about 1% predicted for 30 kpc orbital radii streams.

  8. The chemical composition of TS 01, the most oxygen-deficient planetary nebula. AGB nucleosynthesis in a metal-poor binary star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasińska, G.; Morisset, C.; Tovmassian, G.; Rauch, T.; Richer, M. G.; Peña, M.; Szczerba, R.; Decressin, T.; Charbonnel, C.; Yungelson, L.; Napiwotzki, R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Jamet, L.

    2010-02-01

    The planetary nebula TS 01 (also called PN G 135.9+55.9 or SBS 1150+599A) with its record-holding low oxygen abundance and its double degenerate close binary core (period 3.9 h) is an exceptional object located in the Galactic halo. We have secured observational data in a complete wavelength range to pin down the abundances of half a dozen elements in the nebula. The abundances are obtained via detailed photoionization modelling which takes into account all the observational constraints (including geometry and aperture effects) using the pseudo-3D photoionization code Cloudy_3D. The spectral energy distribution of the ionizing radiation is taken from appropriate model atmospheres. Incidentally we find from the new observational constraints that both stellar components contribute to the ionization: the “cool” one provides the bulk of hydrogen ionization, while the “hot” one is responsible for the presence of the most highly charged ions, which explains why previous attempts to model the nebula experienced difficulties. The nebular abundances of C, N, O, and Ne are found to be 1/3.5, 1/4.2, 1/70, and 1/11 of the solar value respectively, with uncertainties of a factor 2. Thus the extreme O deficiency of this object is confirmed. The abundances of S and Ar are less than 1/30 of solar. The abundance of He relative to H is 0.089 ± 0.009. Standard models of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis cannot explain the abundance pattern observed in the nebula. To obtain an extreme oxygen deficiency in a star whose progenitor has an initial mass of about 1 M⊙ requires an additional mixing process, which can be induced by stellar rotation and/or by the presence of the close companion. We have computed a stellar model with an initial mass of 1 M⊙, appropriate metallicity, and initial rotation of 100 km s-1, and find that rotation greatly improves the agreement between the predicted and observed abundances. Based on observations obtained at the Canada

  9. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  10. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  11. Carbon Stars in the Satellites and Halo of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamren, Katherine; Beaton, Rachael L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Boyer, Martha L.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Majewski, Steven R.; Howley, Kirsten

    2016-09-01

    We spectroscopically identify a sample of carbon stars in the satellites and halo of M31 using moderate-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo survey. We present the photometric properties of our sample of 41 stars, including their brightness with respect to the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) and their distributions in various color–color spaces. This analysis reveals a bluer population of carbon stars fainter than the TRGB and a redder population of carbon stars brighter than the TRGB. We then apply principal component analysis to determine the sample’s eigenspectra and eigencoefficients. Correlating the eigencoefficients with various observable properties reveals the spectral features that trace effective temperature and metallicity. Putting the spectroscopic and photometric information together, we find the carbon stars in the satellites and halo of M31 to be minimally impacted by dust and internal dynamics. We also find that while there is evidence to suggest that the sub-TRGB stars are extrinsic in origin, it is also possible that they are are particularly faint members of the asymptotic giant branch.

  12. IMPROVED LABORATORY TRANSITION PROBABILITIES FOR Ce II, APPLICATION TO THE CERIUM ABUNDANCES OF THE SUN AND FIVE r-PROCESS-RICH, METAL-POOR STARS, AND RARE EARTH LAB DATA SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.; Ivans, I. I. E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2009-05-15

    Recent radiative lifetime measurements accurate to {+-}5% using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on 43 even-parity and 15 odd-parity levels of Ce II have been combined with new branching fractions measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to determine transition probabilities for 921 lines of Ce II. This improved laboratory data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Ce abundance, log {epsilon} = 1.61 {+-} 0.01 ({sigma} = 0.06 from 45 lines), a value in excellent agreement with the recommended meteoritic abundance, log {epsilon} = 1.61 {+-} 0.02. Revised Ce abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars BD+17{sup 0}3248, CS 22892-052, CS 31082-001, HD 115444, and HD 221170. Between 26 and 40 lines were used for determining the Ce abundance in these five stars, yielding a small statistical uncertainty of {+-}0.01 dex similar to the solar result. The relative abundances in the metal-poor stars of Ce and Eu, a nearly pure r-process element in the Sun, matches r-process-only model predictions for solar system material. This consistent match with small scatter over a wide range of stellar metallicities lends support to these predictions of elemental fractions. A companion paper includes an interpretation of these new precision abundance results for Ce as well as new abundance results and interpretation for Pr, Dy, and Tm.

  13. Resolved Stellar Halos of M87 and NGC 5128

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah A.; Harris, William; Flynn, Chris; Blakeslee, John P.; Valtonen, Mauri

    2015-08-01

    We search halo fields of two giant elliptical galaxies: M87, using HST images at 10 kpc from the center, and NGC 5128 (Cen A), using VIMOS VLT images at 65 kpc from the center and archival HST data from 8 to 38 kpc from the center. We resolve thousands of red-giant-branch stars in these stellar halo fields using V and I filters, and, in addition, measure the metallicity using stellar isochrones. In Cen A, we find that the density of metal-rich and metal-poor halo stars falls off with the same slope in the de Vaucouleurs' law profile, from the inner halo of 8 kpc out to 70 kpc, with no sign of a transition to dominance by metal-poor stars. We also find that the metallicity distribution of the inner stellar halo of M87 is most similar to that of NGC 5128's inner stellar halo.

  14. The abundance of boron in three halo stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Lambert, David L.; Lemke, Michael

    1992-01-01

    B abundances for three halo stars: HD 140283, HD 19445, and HD 201891 are presented. Using recent determinations of the Be abundance in HD 140283, B/Be of 10 +5/-4 is found for this star, and similar ratios are inferred for HD 19445 and HD 201891. This ratio is equal to the minimum value of 10 expected from a synthesis of B and Be by high-energy cosmic-ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium. It is shown that the accompanying synthesis of Li by alpha on alpha fusion reactions is probably a minor contributor to the observed 'primordial' Li of halo stars. The observed constant ratios of B/O and Be/O are expected if the principal channel of synthesis involves cosmic-ray CNO nuclei from the supernovae colliding with interstellar protons.

  15. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.

    1994-01-01

    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in T(sub eff) which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing T(sub eff) which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  16. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.

    1994-10-01

    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in Teff which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing Teff which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  17. Post-AGB Stars in the Halos of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    1999-02-01

    The visually brightest members of Population II are post-AGB (PAGB) stars evolving through spectral types F and A. The aim of this proposal is to find such PAGB stars in the halos of three galaxies that lie just outside the Local Group: Sextans A, NGC 3109, and NGC 5237. The importance of PAGB stars is: (1) they can probe the structure of galactic halos, in the form of test particles much more numerous than planetary nebulae or globular clusters, with which we can look for features such as clumps or tidal streams; (2) the number counts will tell us the theoretically poorly known transition time from AGB to planetary nebula; and (3) we believe that PAGB stars will prove to be a superb new PRIMARY distance indicator, comparable to or better than Cepheids. PAGB stars of types F and A are easily recognized because of their large Balmer jumps. Our uBVI photometric system is optimal for revealing them in galactic halos, due to their unique u-B colors, and the method is extremely efficient in its telescope time requirements. Sextans A and NGC 3109 have Cepheid and TRGB distances, so they are excellent test beds for a confrontation with our proposed Pop II primary standard candles. NGC 5237 has an uncertain distance, which PAGB stars should considerably improve. The 0.9-m telescope will be used (1) to obtain uBVI calibrations of our fields, thus saving the 4-m BTC mosaic for the deep observations; and (2) to complete our survey of Milky Way globular clusters for PAGB stars to used as Galactic calibrators of their luminosities and metallicity dependence.

  18. Post-AGB Stars in the Halos of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    1999-02-01

    The visually brightest members of Population II are post-AGB (PAGB) stars evolving through spectral types F and A. The aim of this proposal is to find such PAGB stars in the halos of Sextans A and B (two galaxies just outside the Local Group) and of NGC 4236 (a nearly edge-on spiral in the M81 Group). The importance of these stars is: (1) they will serve as probes of the structure of galactic halos, in the form of test particles much more numerous than planetary nebulae or globular clusters, with which we can look for features such as clumps or tidal streams; (2) the number counts will tell us the theoretically poorly known transition time from AGB to planetary nebula; and (3) we believe that PAGB stars will prove to be a superb new PRIMARY distance indicator, comparable to or better than Cepheids. PAGB stars of types F and A are easily recognized because of their large Balmer jumps. Our uBVI photometric system is optimal for revealing them in galactic halos, due to their unique u-B colors, and the method is extremely efficient in its telescope time requirements. In Sextans A and B PAGB stars will appear at V~eq22.3, and in NGC 4236 at V~eq24. Sextans A and B have Cepheid and TRGB distances, and NGC 4236 is a Tully-Fisher calibrator, so they are excellent test beds for a confrontation with our proposed Pop II primary standard candles. We will use the 0.9-m telescope for uBVI calibrations of our fields, saving the 4-m for the deep observations.

  19. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC HALO STARS IN VIRGO

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Thomas G.; Mateo, Mario; Martinez-Delgado, David E-mail: mmateo@umich.ed

    2010-11-15

    We present multi-slit radial velocity measurements for 111 stars in the direction of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS). The stars were photometrically selected to be probable main-sequence stars in the Galactic halo. When compared with the radial velocity distribution expected for the halo of the Milky Way, as well as the distribution seen in a control field, we observe a significant excess of negative velocity stars in the field, which can likely be attributed to the presence of a stellar stream. This kinematic excess peaks at a Galactic standard of rest radial velocity of -75 km s{sup -1}. A rough distance estimate suggests that this feature extends from {approx}15 kpc out to, and possibly beyond, the {approx}30 kpc limit of the study. The mean velocity of these stars is incompatible with those of the VSS itself (V{sub gsr} {approx} 130 km s{sup -1}), which we weakly detect, but it is consistent with radial velocity measurements of nearby 2MASS M-giants and SDSS+SEGUE K/M-giants and blue horizontal branch stars that constitute the leading tidal tail of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Some oblate models for the shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo predict that the leading arm of the Sagittarius Stream should pass through this volume, and have highly negative (V{sub gsr} {approx}< -200 km s{sup -1}) radial velocities, as it descends down from the northern Galactic hemisphere toward the Galactic plane. The kinematic feature observed in this study, if it is in fact Sagittarius debris, is not consistent with these predictions, and instead, like other leading stream radial velocity measurements, is consistent with a recently published triaxial halo model, or, if axisymmetry is imposed, favors a prolate shape for the Galactic halo potential. However, a rough distance estimate to the observed kinematic feature places it somewhat closer (D {approx} 15-30 kpc) than the Sagittarius models predict (D {approx} 35-45 kpc).

  20. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE VERY METAL-POOR BLUE COMPACT DWARF I Zw 18 FROM HST/ACS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Annibali, F.; Cignoni, M.; Tosi, M.; Clementini, G.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Fiorentino, G.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.

    2013-12-01

    We have derived the star formation history (SFH) of the blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 through comparison of deep HST/ACS data with synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). A statistical analysis was implemented for the identification of the best-fit SFH and relative uncertainties. We confirm that I Zw 18 is not a truly young galaxy, having started forming stars earlier than ∼1 Gyr ago, and possibly at epochs as old as a Hubble time. In I Zw 18's main body we infer a lower limit of ≈2 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} for the mass locked up in old stars. I Zw 18's main body has been forming stars very actively during the last ∼10 Myr, with an average star formation rate (SFR) as high as ≈1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (or ≈2 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} pc{sup –2}). On the other hand, the secondary body was much less active at these epochs, in agreement with the absence of significant nebular emission. The high current SFR can explain the very blue colors and the high ionized gas content in I Zw 18, resembling primeval galaxies in the early universe. Detailed chemical evolution models are required to quantitatively check whether the SFH from the synthetic CMDs can explain the low measured element abundances, or if galactic winds with loss of metals are needed.

  1. Infrared Halo Frames a Newborn Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    Summary: Observations with the VLT of a star-forming cloud have revealed, for the first time, a ring of infrared light around a nascent star. The images also show the presence of jets that emanate from the young object and collide with the surrounding cloud. ESO PR Photo 26a/03 ESO PR Photo 26a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 974 x 400 pix - 404k [Normal - JPEG: 1947 x 800 pix - 1M] The DC303.8-14.2 globule A small and dark interstellar cloud with the rather cryptic name of DC303.8-14.2 is located in the inner part of the Milky Way galaxy. It is seen in the southern constellation Chamaeleon and consists of dust and gas. Astronomers classify it as a typical example of a "globule". As many other globules, this cloud is also giving birth to a star. Some years ago, observations in the infrared spectral region with the ESA IRAS satellite observatory detected the signature of a nascent star at its centre. Subsequent observations with the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at La Silla (Chile) were carried out by Finnish astronomer Kimmo Lehtinen . He revealed that DC303.8-14.2 is collapsing under its own gravity, a process which will ultimately result in the birth of a new star from the gas and dust in this cloud. Additional SEST observations of the millimetre emission of carbon monoxide (CO) molecules demonstrated a strong outflow from the nascent star. A small part of the gas that falls inward onto the central object is re-injected into the surrounding via this outward-bound "bipolar stream" . The structure of DC303.8-14.2 The left panel in PR Photo 26a/03 shows the DC303.8-14.2 globule as it looks in red light. This image was obtained at wavelength 700 nm and has been reproduced from the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) [1]. It covers a sky region of 20 x 20 arcmin 2 , or about 50% of the area of the full moon. The dust particles in the cloud reflect the light from stars, causing the cloud to appear brighter than the adjacent sky. The brightness distribution over the cloud

  2. The evolution of galaxy star formation activity in massive haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popesso, P.; Biviano, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Wilman, D.; Salvato, M.; Magnelli, B.; Gruppioni, C.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Ziparo, F.; Berta, S.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Lutz, D.; Altieri, B.; Aussel, H.; Cimatti, A.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Nordon, R.; Poglitsch, A.; Xu, C. K.

    2015-02-01

    Context. There is now a large consensus that the current epoch of the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) is dominated by low mass galaxies while the most active phase, between redshifts 1 and 2, is dominated by more massive galaxies, which evolve more quickly. Aims: Massive galaxies tend to inhabit very massive haloes, such as galaxy groups and clusters. We aim to understand whether the observed "galaxy downsizing" could be interpreted as a "halo downsizing", whereas the most massive haloes, and their galaxy populations, evolve more rapidly than the haloes with lower mass. Methods: We studied the contribution to the CSFH of galaxies inhabiting group-sized haloes. This is done through the study of the evolution of the infra-red (IR) luminosity function of group galaxies from redshift 0 to redshift ~1.6. We used a sample of 39 X-ray-selected groups in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), the Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN), and the COSMOS field, where the deepest available mid- and far-IR surveys have been conducted with Spitzer MIPS and with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on board the Herschel satellite. Results: Groups at low redshift lack the brightest, rarest, and most star forming IR-emitting galaxies observed in the field. Their IR-emitting galaxies contribute ≤10% of the comoving volume density of the whole IR galaxy population in the local Universe. At redshift ≳1, the most IR-luminous galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) are mainly located in groups, and this is consistent with a reversal of the star formation rate (SFR) vs. density anti-correlation observed in the nearby Universe. At these redshifts, group galaxies contribute 60-80% of the CSFH, i.e. much more than at lower redshifts. Below z ~ 1, the comoving number and SFR densities of IR-emitting galaxies in groups decline significantly faster than those of all IR-emitting galaxies. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with a "halo downsizing" scenario and highlight the

  3. An Upper Limit for the Deuterium Abundance in the Halo Star HD 140283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Galloway, Robert P.; Kurucz, R. L.; Smith, Verne V.

    1994-12-01

    Because of the possible enhanced deuterium abundance of D/H = 2.5 10(-4) (the ISM D/H = 1.65x10(-5) ) recently reported in quasar absorption spectra, we searched for the D_alpha line at 6561 A in the metal-poor halo star HD 140283 (G2IV, [Fe/H] = -2.6; Teff= 5700K). We observed HD 140283 using the .9m KPNO coude feed and the 2.7m McDonald Observatory telescopes with echelle spectrographs having a resolution Delta lambda = .05 A/pixel with S/N= 200 and Delta lambda = .11 A/pixel with S/N = 600 respectively. We did not detect the D_alpha line and compared our results to model atmosphere calculations for this star. We estimate an upper limit of D/H < 1x10(-5) which is smaller than the primordial or and Early Galactic D/H = 8x10(-5) . Since D is destroyed via reactions with protons at T > 5x10(5) K, the atmospheric deuterium has probably been destroyed during the pre-main sequence convection phase. Because (7) Li, (9) Be, and (11) B have all been detected in this star (Li/H=1.5x10(-10) and B/H=2.9x10(-12) ) and Li is destroyed at T > 2.5x10(6) K, the temperature at the bottom of the pre-main sequence convection zone is 1x10(6) K < T < 2.5x10(6) .K

  4. The superwind mass-loss rate of the metal-poor carbon star LI-LMC 1813 in the LMC cluster KMHK 1603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jacco Th.; Marshall, Jonathan R.; Matsuura, Mikako; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2003-06-01

    LI-LMC 1813 is a dust-enshrouded asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star, located in the small open cluster KMHK 1603 near the rim of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Optical and infrared photometry between 0.5 and 60 μm is obtained to constrain the spectral energy distribution of LI-LMC 1813. Near-infrared spectra unambiguously show it to be a carbon star. Modelling with the radiation transfer code DUSTY yields accurate values for the bolometric luminosity, L= 1.5 × 104 Lsolar, and mass-loss rate, . On the basis of colour-magnitude diagrams, the age of the cluster KMHK 1603 is estimated to be t= 0.9-1.0 Gyr, which implies a zero-age main-sequence mass for LI-LMC 1813 of MZAMS= 2.2 +/- 0.1 Msolar. This makes LI-LMC 1813 arguably the object with the most accurately and reliably determined (circum)stellar parameters amongst all carbon stars in the superwind phase.

  5. Using accurate phase space coordinates of ~100,00 halo field stars to constrain the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valluri, Monica

    2015-08-01

    The current cosmological paradigm predicts that dark matter halos are triaxial overall, but oblate in regions where baryons dominate. However recent measurements of the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo find it to be very triaxial with a shape and orientation that are significantly at odds with theoretical predictions. The ESA’s Gaia satellite will soon map the entire Milky Way giving us six phase-space coordinates, ages and abundances for hundreds of thousands of halo stars. I will report progress on a new code based on the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method and orbital frequency mapping, to determine the global shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo using field stars from Gaia. This technique will simultaneously yield the self-consistent phase-space distribution function of the stellar halo in the inner 20-30kpc region. Detailed analysis of correlations between the chemical abundances, ages and orbits of halo stars in this distribution function will enable us to extract clues to the formation history of the Milky Way that are encoded in orbital properties of halo stars.

  6. The temperatures of very metal-poor subdwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of ages for metal poor globular cluster stars using the relationship between stellar effective temperature and color, in order to transform isochrones from the L, Teff plane to the M(V), color plane is described. Estimates of the effective temperatures of metal-poor field subdwarfs deduced from the ratios of the integrated fluxes to the 12000 A fluxes of the 4 subdwarfs are in good agreement with published results. The stars are fainter than the models in the infrared, but the UV fluxes are in good agreement with model predictions.

  7. HUBBLE'S SEARCH FOR FAINT FIELD STARS IN GALACTIC HALO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Left A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a randomly selected area of sky taken to search for faint red stars that might constitute dark matter in our Milky Way Galaxy. (Dark matter is material of an unknown type that makes up most of the mass of our galaxy). If the dark matter in our Galaxy was made of faint red stars -- as many scientists have previously conjectured -- then about 38 such stars should have been visible in this HST image. The simulated stars (diamond-shaped symbols), based on theoretical calculations, illustrate what scientists would have seen if the dark matter were locked-up in faint red stars. These surprising results rule out dim stars as an explanation for dark matter in our Galaxy. Right The unmodified HST image shows the region is actually so devoid of stars that far more distant background galaxies can easily be seen. The field is in the constellation Eridanus, far outside the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy. This region was chosen to highlight stars in the galactic halo, where dark matter exists, and to avoid the contribution of faint stars in the plane of the Galaxy. Technical Information: The image was constructed from seven exposures totaling almost three hours of searching by HST. The field shown is about 1.5 arc-minutes across. The image was taken in near-infrared light (814 nm) with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, on Feb 8, 1994. This observation is part of the HST parallel observing program. Credit: J Bahcall, Institute for Advance Study, Princeton and NASA

  8. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397. PMID:23903747

  9. POPULATION III STAR FORMATION IN LARGE COSMOLOGICAL VOLUMES. I. HALO TEMPORAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Brian D.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton D.; Turk, Matthew J.; Hahn, Oliver

    2013-08-20

    We present a semi-analytic, computationally inexpensive model to identify halos capable of forming a Population III star in cosmological simulations across a wide range of times and environments. This allows for a much more complete and representative set of Population III star forming halos to be constructed, which will lead to Population III star formation simulations that more accurately reflect the diversity of Population III stars, both in time and halo mass. This model shows that Population III and chemically enriched stars coexist beyond the formation of the first generation of stars in a cosmological simulation until at least z {approx} 10, and likely beyond, though Population III stars form at rates that are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than chemically enriched stars by z = 10. A catalog of more than 40,000 candidate Population III forming halos were identified, with formation times temporally ranging from z = 30 to z = 10, and ranging in mass from 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} to 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. At early times, the environment that Population III stars form in is very similar to that of halos hosting chemically enriched star formation. At later times Population III stars are found to form in low-density regions that are not yet chemically polluted due to a lack of previous star formation in the area. Population III star forming halos become increasingly spatially isolated from one another at later times, and are generally closer to halos hosting chemically enriched star formation than to another halo hosting Population III star formation by z {approx} 10.

  10. Contributions to the Galactic halo from in-situ, kicked-out, and accreted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2016-08-01

    We report chemical abundances for a sample of 66 M giants with high S/N high-resolution spectroscopy in the inner halo of the Milky Way. The program giant stars have radial velocities that vary significantly from those expected for stars moving on uniform circular orbits in the Galactic disk. Thus, based on kinematics, we expect a sample dominated by halo stars. Abundances are derived for α-elements and neutron capture elements. By analyzing the multi-dimensional abundance space, the formation site of the halo giants - in-situ or accreted - can be assessed. Of particular interest are a class of stars that form in-situ, deep in the Milky Way's gravitational potential well, but are ``kicked out'' of the disk into the halo due to a perturbation event. We find: (1) our sample is dominated by accreted stars and (2) tentative evidence of a small kicked-out population in our Milky Way halo sample.

  11. Ghostly Halos in Dwarf Galaxies: a probe of star formation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hoyoung; Ricotti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical simulations to characterize the size, stellar mass, and stellar mass surface density of extended stellar halos in dwarf galaxies as a function of dark matter halo mass. We expect that for galaxies smaller than a critical value, these ghostly halos will not exist because the smaller galactic subunits that build it up, do not form any stars. The detection of ghostly halos around isolated dwarf galaxies is a sensitive test of the efficiency of star formation in the first galaxies and of whether ultra-faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way are fossils of the first galaxies.

  12. THE MOST METAL-POOR DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS: AN INSIGHT INTO DWARF GALAXIES AT HIGH-REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2015-02-10

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a ''knee'' in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] ≅ –2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T {sub gas} ≅ 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe.

  13. Fractional Yields Inferred from Halo and Thick Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.

    2013-12-01

    Linear [Q/H]-[O/H] relations, Q = Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, are inferred from a sample (N=67) of recently studied FGK-type dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood including different populations (Nissen and Schuster 2010, Ramirez et al. 2012), namely LH (N=24, low-α halo), HH (N=25, high-α halo), KD (N=16, thick disk), and OL (N=2, globular cluster outliers). Regression line slope and intercept estimators and related variance estimators are determined. With regard to the straight line, [Q/H]=a_{Q}[O/H]+b_{Q}, sample stars are displayed along a "main sequence", [Q,O] = [a_{Q},b_{Q},Δ b_{Q}], leaving aside the two OL stars, which, in most cases (e.g. Na), lie outside. The unit slope, a_{Q}=1, implies Q is a primary element synthesised via SNII progenitors in the presence of a universal stellar initial mass function (defined as simple primary element). In this respect, Mg, Si, Ti, show hat a_{Q}=1 within ∓2hatσ_ {hat a_{Q}}; Cr, Fe, Ni, within ∓3hatσ_{hat a_{Q}}; Na, Ca, within ∓ rhatσ_{hat a_{Q}}, r>3. The empirical, differential element abundance distributions are inferred from LH, HH, KD, HA = HH + KD subsamples, where related regression lines represent their theoretical counterparts within the framework of simple MCBR (multistage closed box + reservoir) chemical evolution models. Hence, the fractional yields, hat{p}_{Q}/hat{p}_{O}, are determined and (as an example) a comparison is shown with their theoretical counterparts inferred from SNII progenitor nucleosynthesis under the assumption of a power-law stellar initial mass function. The generalized fractional yields, C_{Q}=Z_{Q}/Z_{O}^{a_{Q}}, are determined regardless of the chemical evolution model. The ratio of outflow to star formation rate is compared for different populations in the framework of simple MCBR models. The opposite situation of element abundance variation entirely due to cosmic scatter is also considered under reasonable assumptions. The related differential element abundance

  14. The Lithium-, r- and s-Enhanced Metal-Poor Giant HK-II 17435-00532

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Sneden, Christopher; Frebel, Anna; Shetrone, Matthew; Rhee, Jaehyon; Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara; Beers, Timothy C.; Cowan, John J.

    2008-04-06

    We present the first detailed abundance analysis of the metal-poor giant HK-II 17435-00532. This star was observed as part of the University of Texas Long-Term Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. A spectrum was obtained with the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with a resolving power of R{approx}15000. Our analysis reveals that this star may be located on the red giant branch, red horizontal branch, or early asymptotic giant branch. We find that this metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.2) star has an unusually high lithium abundance (log{epsilon}(Li) = +2.1), mild carbon ([C/Fe] = +0.7) and sodium ([Na/Fe] = +0.6) enhancement, as well as enhancement of both s-process ([Ba/Fe] = +0.8) and r-process ([Eu/Fe] = +0.5) material. The high Li abundance can be explained by self-enrichment through extra mixing mechanisms that connect the convective envelope with the outer regions of the H-burning shell. If so, HK-II 17435-00532 is the most metal-poor starin which this short-lived phase of Li enrichment has been observed. The r- and s-process material was not produced in this star but was either present in the gas from which HK-II 17435-00532 formed or was transferred to it from a more massive binary companion. Despite the current non-detection of radial velocity variations (over a time span of {approx}180 days), it is possible that HK-II 17435-00532 is in a long-period binary system, similar to other stars with both r and s enrichment.

  15. The Abundances of Neutron-capture Species in the Very Metal-poor Globular Cluster M15: A Uniform Analysis of Red Giant Branch and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Kraft, Robert P.; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.; Cowan, John J.; Smith, Graeme H.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.

    2011-06-01

    The globular cluster M15 is unique in its display of star-to-star variations in the neutron-capture elements. Comprehensive abundance surveys have been previously conducted for handfuls of M15 red giant branch (RGB) and red horizontal branch (RHB) stars. No attempt has been made to perform a single, self-consistent analysis of these stars, which exhibit a wide range in atmospheric parameters. In the current effort, a new comparative abundance derivation is presented for three RGB and six RHB members of the cluster. The analysis employs an updated version of the line transfer code MOOG, which now appropriately treats coherent, isotropic scattering. The apparent discrepancy in the previously reported values for the metallicity of M15 RGB and RHB stars is addressed and a resolute disparity of Δ(RHB - RGB) ≈ 0.1 dex in the iron abundance was found. The anti-correlative behavior of the light neutron-capture elements (Sr, Y, Zr) is clearly demonstrated with both Ba and Eu, standard markers of the s- and r-process, respectively. No conclusive detection of Pb was made in the RGB targets. Consequently for the M15 cluster, this suggests that the main component of the s-process has made a negligible contribution to those elements normally dominated by this process in solar system material. Additionally for the M15 sample, a large Eu abundance spread is confirmed, which is comparable to that of the halo field at the same metallicity. These abundance results are considered in the discussion of the chemical inhomogeneity and nucleosynthetic history of M15.

  16. FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James

    2012-09-20

    The size, mass, luminosity, and space density of Ly{alpha} emitting (LAE) galaxies observed at intermediate to high redshift agree with expectations for the properties of galaxies that formed metal-poor halo globular clusters (GCs). The low metallicity of these clusters is the result of their formation in low-mass galaxies. Metal-poor GCs could enter spiral galaxies along with their dwarf galaxy hosts, unlike metal-rich GCs, which form in the spirals themselves. Considering an initial GC mass larger than the current mass to account for multiple stellar populations, and considering the additional clusters that are likely to form with massive clusters, we estimate that each GC with a mass today greater than 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} was likely to have formed among a total stellar mass {approx}> 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, a molecular mass {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, and 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} of older stars, depending on the relative gas fraction. The star formation rate would have been several M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} lasting for {approx}10{sup 7} yr, and the Ly{alpha} luminosity would have been {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Integrating the LAE galaxy luminosity function above this minimum, considering the average escape probability for Ly{alpha} photons (25%), and then dividing by the probability that a dwarf galaxy is observed in the LAE phase (0.4%), we find agreement between the comoving space density of LAEs and the average space density of metal-poor GCs today. The local galaxy WLM, with its early starburst and old GC, could be an LAE remnant that did not get into a galaxy halo because of its remote location.

  17. Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2016-08-01

    In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances originate from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relation. This means that the most metal-poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant branch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute at low metallicities. The intrinsic variation of yields are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as in the Galactic halo. The carbon enhancement of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be best explained by faint supernovae, the low [α/Fe] ratios in some EMP stars naturally arise from low-mass (~ 13 - 15M ⊙) supernovae, and finally, the [α/Fe] knee in dwarf spheroidal galaxies can be produced by subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions.

  18. Population Studies. XIII. A New Analysis of the Bidelman-MacConnell "Weak-metal" Stars—Confirmation of Metal-poor Stars in the Thick Disk of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Norris, John E.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lee, Young Sun; Rossi, Silvia; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    A new set of very high signal-to-noise (S/N > 100/1), medium-resolution (R ~ 3000) optical spectra have been obtained for 302 of the candidate "weak-metal" stars selected by Bidelman & MacConnell. We use these data to calibrate the recently developed generalization of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Exploration and Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Stellar Parameter Pipeline, and obtain estimates of the atmospheric parameters (T eff, log g, and [Fe/H]) for these non-Sloan Digital Sky Survey/SEGUE data; we also obtain estimates of [C/Fe]. The new abundance measurements are shown to be consistent with available high-resolution spectroscopic determinations, and represent a substantial improvement over the accuracies obtained from the previous photometric estimates reported in Paper I of this series. The apparent offset in the photometric abundances of the giants in this sample noted by several authors is confirmed by our new spectroscopy; no such effect is found for the dwarfs. The presence of a metal-weak thick-disk (MWTD) population is clearly supported by these new abundance data. Some 25% of the stars with metallicities -1.8 < [Fe/H] <=-0.8 exhibit orbital eccentricities e < 0.4, yet are clearly separated from members of the inner-halo population with similar metallicities by their location in a Lindblad energy versus angular momentum diagram. A comparison is made with recent results for a similar-size sample of Radial Velocity Experiment stars from Ruchti et al. We conclude, based on both of these samples, that the MWTD is real, and must be accounted for in discussions of the formation and evolution of the disk system of the Milky Way.

  19. The Average Star Formation Histories of Galaxies in Dark Matter Halos from z = 0-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Conroy, Charlie

    2013-06-01

    We present a robust method to constrain average galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), star formation histories (SFHs), and the intracluster light (ICL) as a function of halo mass. Our results are consistent with observed galaxy stellar mass functions, specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and cosmic star formation rates (CSFRs) from z = 0 to z = 8. We consider the effects of a wide range of uncertainties on our results, including those affecting stellar masses, SFRs, and the halo mass function at the heart of our analysis. As they are relevant to our method, we also present new calibrations of the dark matter halo mass function, halo mass accretion histories, and halo-subhalo merger rates out to z = 8. We also provide new compilations of CSFRs and SSFRs; more recent measurements are now consistent with the buildup of the cosmic stellar mass density at all redshifts. Implications of our work include: halos near 1012 M ⊙ are the most efficient at forming stars at all redshifts, the baryon conversion efficiency of massive halos drops markedly after z ~ 2.5 (consistent with theories of cold-mode accretion), the ICL for massive galaxies is expected to be significant out to at least z ~ 1-1.5, and dwarf galaxies at low redshifts have higher stellar mass to halo mass ratios than previous expectations and form later than in most theoretical models. Finally, we provide new fitting formulae for SFHs that are more accurate than the standard declining tau model. Our approach places a wide variety of observations relating to the SFH of galaxies into a self-consistent framework based on the modern understanding of structure formation in ΛCDM. Constraints on the stellar mass-halo mass relationship and SFRs are available for download online.

  20. THE AVERAGE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF GALAXIES IN DARK MATTER HALOS FROM z = 0-8

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Conroy, Charlie

    2013-06-10

    We present a robust method to constrain average galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), star formation histories (SFHs), and the intracluster light (ICL) as a function of halo mass. Our results are consistent with observed galaxy stellar mass functions, specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and cosmic star formation rates (CSFRs) from z = 0 to z = 8. We consider the effects of a wide range of uncertainties on our results, including those affecting stellar masses, SFRs, and the halo mass function at the heart of our analysis. As they are relevant to our method, we also present new calibrations of the dark matter halo mass function, halo mass accretion histories, and halo-subhalo merger rates out to z = 8. We also provide new compilations of CSFRs and SSFRs; more recent measurements are now consistent with the buildup of the cosmic stellar mass density at all redshifts. Implications of our work include: halos near 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} are the most efficient at forming stars at all redshifts, the baryon conversion efficiency of massive halos drops markedly after z {approx} 2.5 (consistent with theories of cold-mode accretion), the ICL for massive galaxies is expected to be significant out to at least z {approx} 1-1.5, and dwarf galaxies at low redshifts have higher stellar mass to halo mass ratios than previous expectations and form later than in most theoretical models. Finally, we provide new fitting formulae for SFHs that are more accurate than the standard declining tau model. Our approach places a wide variety of observations relating to the SFH of galaxies into a self-consistent framework based on the modern understanding of structure formation in {Lambda}CDM. Constraints on the stellar mass-halo mass relationship and SFRs are available for download online.

  1. The Oldest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.

    I review the techniques used to identify the oldest "living" stars in the Universe, concentrating on two large modern surveys: the HK survey of Beers and colleagues and the Hamburg/ESO survey of Christlieb and collaborators. I then consider the knowledge that has been gained recently concerning the the distribution of measured stellar metallicities from these samples, the so-called Metallicity Distribution Function of the halo of the Milky Way. A summary of some of the most exciting results from recent high-resolution spectroscopy of very metal-poor stars identified in these samples is provided. Special attention is given to the nature of r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars, and what they reveal about the operation and possible astrophysical site(s) of the r-process in the early Universe. Finally, I discuss plans for next-generation surveys for extremely metal-poor stars.

  2. [α/Fe] ABUNDANCES OF FOUR OUTER M31 HALO STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Tollerud, Erik J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2014-12-10

    We present alpha element to iron abundance ratios, [α/Fe], for four stars in the outer stellar halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The stars were identified as high-likelihood field halo stars by Gilbert et al. and lie at projected distances between 70 and 140 kpc from M31's center. These are the first alpha abundances measured for a halo star in a galaxy beyond the Milky Way. The stars range in metallicity between [Fe/H] = –2.2 and [Fe/H] = –1.4. The sample's average [α/Fe] ratio is +0.20 ± 0.20. The best-fit average value is elevated above solar, which is consistent with rapid chemical enrichment from Type II supernovae. The mean [α/Fe] ratio of our M31 outer halo sample agrees (within the uncertainties) with that of Milky Way inner/outer halo stars that have a comparable range of [Fe/H].

  3. New cluster members and halo stars of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Colin A.; Martell, Sarah L.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2015-10-01

    NGC 1851 is an intriguing Galactic globular cluster, with multiple stellar evolutionary sequences, light and heavy element abundance variations and indications of a surrounding stellar halo. We present the first results of a spectroscopic study of red giant stars within and outside of the tidal radius of this cluster. Our results identify nine probable new cluster members (inside the tidal radius) with heliocentric radial velocities consistent with that of NGC 1851. We also identify, based on their radial velocities, four probable extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ˜3.1 times the tidal radius, which are supportive of previous findings that NGC 1851 is surrounded by an extended stellar halo. Proper motions were available for 12 of these 13 stars and all are consistent with that of NGC 1851. Apart from the cluster members and cluster halo stars, our observed radial velocity distribution agrees with the expected distribution from a Besançon disc/N-body stellar halo Milky Way model generated by the GALAXIA code, suggesting that no other structures at different radial velocities are present in our field. The metallicities of these stars are estimated using equivalent width measurements of the near-infrared calcium triplet absorption lines and are found, within the limitations of this method, to be consistent with that of NGC 1851. In addition we recover 110 red giant cluster members from previous studies based on their radial velocities and identify three stars with unusually high radial velocities.

  4. CONSTRAINING THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES IN DARK MATTER HALOS. I. CENTRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Lu Zhankui; Van den Bosch, Frank C.; Bonaca, Ana; Li Shijie; Lu Yi; Lu Yu

    2013-06-20

    Using the self-consistent modeling of the conditional stellar mass functions across cosmic time by Yang et al., we make model predictions for the star formation histories (SFHs) of central galaxies in halos of different masses. The model requires the following two key ingredients: (1) mass assembly histories of central and satellite galaxies and (2) local observational constraints of the star formation rates (SFRs) of central galaxies as a function of halo mass. We obtain a universal fitting formula that describes the (median) SFH of central galaxies as a function of halo mass, galaxy stellar mass, and redshift. We use this model to make predictions for various aspects of the SFRs of central galaxies across cosmic time. Our main findings are the following. (1) The specific star formation rate at high z increases rapidly with increasing redshift [{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 2.5}] for halos of a given mass and only slowly with halo mass ({proportional_to}M{sub h}{sup 0.12}) at a given z, in almost perfect agreement with the specific mass accretion rate of dark matter halos. (2) The ratio between the SFR in the main branch progenitor and the final stellar mass of a galaxy peaks roughly at a constant value, {approx}10{sup -9.3} h {sup 2} yr{sup -1}, independent of the halo mass or the final stellar mass of the galaxy. However, the redshift at which the SFR peaks increases rapidly with halo mass. (3) More than half of the stars in the present-day universe were formed in halos with 10{sup 11.1} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} < M{sub h} < 10{sup 12.3} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} in the redshift range 0.4 < z < 1.9. (4) The star formation efficiencies (SFEs) of central galaxies reveal a ''downsizing'' behavior, in that the halo ''quenching'' mass, at which the SFE peaks, shifts from {approx}10{sup 12.5} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} at z {approx}> 3.5 to {approx}10{sup 11.3} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} at z = 0. (5) At redshift z {approx}> 2.5 more than 99% of the stars in the progenitors of massive

  5. Bolometric luminosities and colors for K and M dwarfs and the subluminous stars of the halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstein, Jesse L.

    1989-09-01

    The H-R diagrams of dM, sdK, and sdM proper-motion stars are examined. A method for integrating energy distributions using discrete weights is proposed. The bolometric corrections are assessed at various wavelengths and a method for obtaining luminosities even if a star lacks IR data is presented. The color-luminosity diagrams suggest that high-velocity, low-metallicity stars of the halo are subluminous. It is found that the apparent cutoff in the halo is a bolometric magnitude of about 12 m.

  6. Two New Ultra-Faint Star Clusters in the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwon

    2016-08-01

    Kim 1 & 2 are two new star clusters discovered in the Stromlo Missing Satellite Survey. Kim 1, located at a heliocentric distance of 19.8 +/- 0.9 kpc, features an extremely low total luminosity (M V = 0.3 +/- 0.5 mag) and low star concentration. Together with the large ellipticity (ɛ = 0.42 +/- 0.10) and irregular isophotes, these properties suggest that Kim 1 is an intermediate mass star cluster being stripped by the Galactic tidal field. Kim 2 is a rare ultra-faint outer halo globular cluster located at a heliocentric distance of 104.7 +/- 4.1 kpc. The cluster exhibits evidence of significant mass loss such as extra-tidal stars and mass-segregation. Kim 2 is likely to follow an orbit confined to the peripheral region of the Galactic halo, and/or to have formed in a dwarf galaxy that was later accreted into the Galactic halo.

  7. Constraints on baryonic dark matter in the Galactic halo and Local Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richstone, Douglas; Gould, Andrew; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Flynn, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A four-color method and deep CCD data are used to search for very faint metal-poor stars in the direction of the south Galactic pole. The results make it possible to limit the contribution of ordinary old, metal-poor stars to the dynamical halo of the Galaxy or to the Local Group. The ratio of the mass of the halo to its ordinary starlight must be more than about 2000, unless the halo is very small. For the Local Group, this ratio is greater than about 400. If this local dark matter is baryonic, the process of compact-object formation must produce very few 'impurities' in the form of stars similar to those found in globular clusters. The expected number of unbound stars with MV not greater than 6 within 100 pc of the sun is less than 1 based on the present 90-percent upper limit to the Local Group starlight.

  8. A Search for Coronal Activity Among Two Metal-poor Subdwarfs and One Subgiant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme H.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Günther, Hans Moritz

    2016-08-01

    A search has been made using the XMM-Newton satellite for coronal soft X-ray emission from HD 19445, HD 25329, and HD 140283, three Population II stars in the Galactic halo having metallicities of {{[Fe/H]}}˜ -2. The program stars, consisting of two subdwarfs and one metal-poor subgiant, were pre-selected from ground-based observations to have He i λ10830 absorption lines with an equivalent width (EW) of 30 mÅ or more. If such stars follow a relation between He i EW and soft X-ray flux applicable to Population I dwarf stars, then they would be expected to have X-ray luminosities ˜ 5× {10}-7 times their bolometric luminosity, and as such would yield detectable sources in 20 ks exposures with the XMM-Newton EPIC-PN and MOS cameras. No detections were found in such exposures made with XMM-Newton. Upper limits to soft X-ray emission from the two program stars that have effective temperatures most similar to that of the Sun, namely HD 19445 and HD 140283, are comparable to the level of the quiet Sun. The star HD 25329, a cooler subdwarf, exhibits an upper limit similar to the Sun at maximum activity. These measurements suggest that coronal activity appears to decrease with age among the oldest G dwarfs, but K-M subdwarfs possibly have maintained a solar-like level of activity. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  9. A Search for Coronal Activity Among Two Metal-poor Subdwarfs and One Subgiant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme H.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Günther, Hans Moritz

    2016-08-01

    A search has been made using the XMM-Newton satellite for coronal soft X-ray emission from HD 19445, HD 25329, and HD 140283, three Population II stars in the Galactic halo having metallicities of {{[Fe/H]}}∼ -2. The program stars, consisting of two subdwarfs and one metal-poor subgiant, were pre-selected from ground-based observations to have He i λ10830 absorption lines with an equivalent width (EW) of 30 mÅ or more. If such stars follow a relation between He i EW and soft X-ray flux applicable to Population I dwarf stars, then they would be expected to have X-ray luminosities ∼ 5× {10}-7 times their bolometric luminosity, and as such would yield detectable sources in 20 ks exposures with the XMM-Newton EPIC-PN and MOS cameras. No detections were found in such exposures made with XMM-Newton. Upper limits to soft X-ray emission from the two program stars that have effective temperatures most similar to that of the Sun, namely HD 19445 and HD 140283, are comparable to the level of the quiet Sun. The star HD 25329, a cooler subdwarf, exhibits an upper limit similar to the Sun at maximum activity. These measurements suggest that coronal activity appears to decrease with age among the oldest G dwarfs, but K-M subdwarfs possibly have maintained a solar-like level of activity. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  10. Centaurus A: Stellar Metallicity Transition in the Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah; Flynn, C.; Harris, W. E.; Valtonen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The very earliest stars in giant galaxies - the most metal-poor halo stars and globular clusters - may have formed before the onset of hierarchical merging, within small pregalactic dwarfs that populated the large-scale dark-matter potential well. Today, these relic stars should be found in a sparse and extremely extended “outermost-halo” component. Finding clear traces of this component in other giant galaxies, and deconvolving it from the more obvious and metal-rich spheroid component generated later by mergers, has been extraordinarily difficult. Now, striking new evidence discovered in M 31 and NGC 3379 suggests that the metal-poor outermost halo can be isolated at very large radii, R > 12Reff . We now have a new deep imaging study with ESO VLT of the nearest giant elliptical and merger remnant, Centaurus A, to search for this extended remnant of the galaxy’s earliest history.

  11. Accretion in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex Courtney

    2000-10-01

    The Milky Way disk is enveloped in a diffuse, dynamically-hot collection of stars and star clusters collectively known as the ``stellar halo''. Photometric and chemical analyses suggest that these stars are ancient fossils of the galaxy formation epoch. Yet, little is known about the origin of this trace population. Is this system merely a vestige of the initial burst of star formation within the decoupled proto-Galaxy, or is it the detritus of cannibalized satellite galaxies? In an attempt to unravel the history of the Milky Way's stellar halo, I performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 55 metal-poor stars possessing ``extreme'' kinematic properties. It is thought that stars on orbits that either penetrate the remote halo or exhibit large retrograde velocities could have been associated with assimilated (or ``accreted'') dwarf galaxies. The hallmark of an accreted halo star is presumed to be a deficiency (compared with normal stars) of the α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) with respect to iron, a consequence of sporadic bursts of star formation within the diminutive galaxies. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Li, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba) were calculated using line-strengths measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral observations collected with the Keck I 10-m and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The abundances extracted from the spectra reveal: (1)The vast majority of outer halo stars possess supersolar [α/Fe] > 0.0) ratios. (2)The [α/Fe] ratio appears to decrease with increasing metallicity. (3)The outer halo stars have lower ratios of [α/Fe] than inner halo stars at a given metallicity. (4)At the largest metallicities, there is a large spread in the observed [α/Fe] ratios. (5)[α/Fe] anti-correlates with RAPO. (6)Only one star (BD+80° 245) exhibits the peculiar abundances expected of an assimilated star. The general conclusion extracted from these data is that the

  12. Neutron-capture element and Sc abundances in low- and high-alpha Galactic halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Fishlock, Cherie; Karakas, Amanda

    2015-08-01

    Nissen & Schuster (2010) identified two samples of Galactic halo stars with distinct kinematic and chemical properties. The "high-alpha" population is associated with the dissipative monolithic collapse of a proto-Galactic gas cloud while the "low-alpha" population was likely accreted from dwarf galaxies having experienced slower star formation rates. For a subset of these stars, we measured precise abundances of Sc, Zr, La, Ce, Nd and Eu. We find differences in the abundance ratios of [Sc/Fe], [Zr/Fe], and [La/Zr] between the low- and high-alpha groups. The most intriguing result is that the low-alpha stars appear to have higher [Eu/Fe] ratios than the high-alpha stars, in contrast to the expectation that Eu should follow the alpha elements. These data challenge the hypothesis that the high-alpha stars formed in regions only enriched by massive stars and that the low-alpha received additional enrichment from SNeIa and low-mass AGB stars. This work has three main consequences for galaxy halos: 1. The new Eu data could be explained by different IMFs for the two halo populations; 2. The low [alpha/Fe] ratios in some, and perhaps all, dwarf galaxies may be driven (in part of in whole) by different IMFs rather than SNeIa contributions; 3. These data may provide important new constraints on the origin of Eu.

  13. Is main-sequence galaxy star formation controlled by halo mass accretion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.; Behroozi, Peter; Faber, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    The galaxy stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) is nearly time-independent for z < 4. We therefore construct a time-independent SHMR model for central galaxies, wherein the in situ star formation rate (SFR) is determined by the halo mass accretion rate (MAR), which we call stellar halo accretion rate coevolution (SHARC). We show that the ˜0.3 dex dispersion of the halo MAR matches the observed dispersion of the SFR on the star formation main sequence (MS). In the context of `bathtub'-type models of galaxy formation, SHARC leads to mass-dependent constraints on the relation between SFR and MAR. Despite its simplicity and the simplified treatment of mass growth from mergers, the SHARC model is likely to be a good approximation for central galaxies with M* = 109-1010.5 M⊙ that are on the MS, representing most of the star formation in the Universe. SHARC predictions agree with observed SFRs for galaxies on the MS at low redshifts, agree fairly well at z ˜ 4, but exceed observations at z ≳ 4. Assuming that the interstellar gas mass is constant for each galaxy (the `equilibrium condition' in bathtub models), the SHARC model allows calculation of net mass loading factors for inflowing and outflowing gas. With assumptions about preventive feedback based on simulations, SHARC allows calculation of galaxy metallicity evolution. If galaxy SFRs indeed track halo MARs, especially at low redshifts, that may help explain the success of models linking galaxy properties to haloes (including age-matching) and the similarities between two-halo galaxy conformity and halo mass accretion conformity.

  14. A DIFFERENTIAL CHEMICAL ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew E-mail: andy@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2011-08-15

    We present chemical abundances in three red giants and two turnoff (TO) stars in the metal-poor Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397 based on spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle high-resolution spectrograph on the Magellan 6.5 m Clay telescope. Our results are based on a line-by-line differential abundance analysis relative to the well-studied red giant Arcturus and the Galactic halo field star Hip 66815. At a mean of -2.10 {+-} 0.02 (stat.) {+-}0.07 (sys.), the differential iron abundance is in good agreement with other studies in the literature based on gf-values. As in previous differential works we find a distinct departure from ionization equilibrium in that the abundances of Fe I and Fe II differ by {approx}0.1 dex, with opposite signs for the red giant branch (RGB) and TO stars. The {alpha}-element ratios are enhanced to 0.4 (RGB) and 0.3 dex (TO), respectively, and we also confirm strong variations in the O, Na, and Al/Fe abundance ratios. Accordingly, the light-element abundance patterns in one of the red giants can be attributed to pollution by an early generation of massive Type II supernovae. TO and RGB abundances are not significantly different, with the possible exception of Mg and Ti, which are, however, amplified by the patterns in one TO star additionally belonging to this early generation of GC stars. We discuss interrelations of these light elements as a function of the GC metallicity.

  15. The Hamburg/ESO R-process Enhanced Star survey (HERES). X. HE 2252-4225, one more r-process enhanced and actinide-boost halo star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, L.; Christlieb, N.; Eriksson, K.

    2014-09-01

    dating results in a stellar age of τ = 1.5 ± 1.5 Gyr that is not expected for a very metal-poor halo star. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (Proposal numbers 170.D-0010, and 280.D-5011).Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/569/A43

  16. A giant stream of metal-rich stars in the halo of the galaxy M31.

    PubMed

    Ibata, R; Irwin, M; Lewis, G; Ferguson, A M; Tanvir, N

    2001-07-01

    Recent observations have revealed streams of gas and stars in the halo of the Milky Way that are the debris from interactions between our Galaxy and some of its dwarf companion galaxies; the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy and the Magellanic clouds. Analysis of the material has shown that much of the halo is made up of cannibalized satellite galaxies, and that dark matter is distributed nearly spherically in the Milky Way. It remains unclear, however, whether cannibalized substructures are as common in the haloes of galaxies as predicted by galaxy-formation theory. Here we report the discovery of a giant stream of metal-rich stars within the halo of the nearest large galaxy, M31 (the Andromeda galaxy). The source of this stream could be the dwarf galaxies M32 and NGC205, which are close companions of M31 and which may have lost a substantial number of stars owing to tidal interactions. The results demonstrate that the epoch of galaxy building still continues, albeit at a modest rate, and that tidal streams may be a generic feature of galaxy haloes. PMID:11452300

  17. Attribution of halo merger mass ratio and star formation rate density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungeun; Jo, Jeong-woon; Hwang, Jihe; Youn, Soyoung; Park, Boha

    2016-06-01

    We have used codes for implementing the merger tree algorithm by Cole et al. (2007) and Parkinson et al. (2008) and derived the halo merger mass ratio of protocluster of galaxies across the cosmic time. The authors compare the observed and simulated star formation rates reported by the various groups and derive the star formation rate densities at different red-shifts. This study implies that an investigation of different mass variables should be incorporated into the analysis in order to accurately estimate cumulative star formation rates of galaxies and star formation rate densities as a function of red-shifts.

  18. EXPLORING HALO SUBSTRUCTURE WITH GIANT STARS: SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE LOCAL HALO AS SEEN IN THE GRID GIANT STAR SURVEY INCLUDING EXTENDED TIDAL DEBRIS FROM {omega}CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Damke, Guillermo J.; Patterson, Richard J.; Garcia Perez, Ana E.; Smith, Verne V.; Kunkel, William E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry E-mail: dln5q@virginia.edu E-mail: ricky@virginia.edu E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu E-mail: dmbiz@apo.nmsu.edu

    2012-03-10

    We present the latitude-normalized radial velocity (v{sub b} ) distribution of 3318 subsolar metallicity, V {approx}< 13.5 stars from the Grid Giant Star Survey (GGSS) in southern hemisphere fields. The sample includes giants mostly within {approx}5 kpc from the Galactic disks and halo. The nearby halo is found to (1) exhibit significant kinematical substructure, and (2) be prominently represented by several velocity coherent structures, including a very retrograde 'cloud' of stars at l {approx} 285 Degree-Sign and extended, retrograde 'streams' visible as relatively tight l-v{sub b} sequences. One sequence in the fourth Galactic quadrant lies within the l-v{sub b} space expected to contain tidal debris from the 'star cluster' {omega}Centauri. Not only does {omega}Cen lie precisely in this l-v{sub b} sequence, but the positions and v{sub b} of member stars match those of N-body simulations of tidally disrupting dwarf galaxies on orbits ending with {omega}Cen's current position and space motion. But the ultimate proof that we have very likely found extended parts of the {omega}Cen tidal stream comes from echelle spectroscopy of a subsample of the stars that reveals a very particular chemical abundance signature known to occur only in {omega}Cen. The newly discovered {omega}Cen debris accounts for almost all fourth Galactic quadrant retrograde stars in the southern GGSS, which suggests {omega}Cen is a dominant contributor of retrograde giant stars in the inner Galaxy.

  19. The Most Metal-poor Damped Lyα Systems: An Insight into Dwarf Galaxies at High-redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a "knee" in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] sime -2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T gas ~= 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (VLT program IDs: 60.A-9022(A), 65.O-0063(B), 65.O-0296(A), 67.A-0022(A), 67.A-0078(A), 68.A-0600(A), 68.B-0115(A), 70.A-0425(C), 078.A-0185(A), 080.A-0014(A), 082.A-0544(A), 083.A-0042(A), 083.A-0454(A), 085.A-0109(A), 086.A-0204(A)), and at the

  20. Characterizing stellar halo populations II: The age gradient in blue horizontal-branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Payel; Williams, Angus; Binney, James

    2016-08-01

    The distribution of Milky Way halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars is examined using action-based extended distribution functions (EDFs) that describe the locations of stars in phase space, metallicity, and age. The parameters of the EDFs are fitted using stars observed in the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-II (SEGUE-II) survey that trace the phase-space kinematics and chemistry out to ˜70 kpc. A maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate method and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method are applied, taking into account the selection function in positions, distance, and metallicity for the survey. The best-fit EDF declines with actions less steeply at actions characteristic of the inner halo than at the larger actions characteristic of the outer halo, and older ages are found at smaller actions than at larger actions. In real space, the radial density profile steepens smoothly from -2 at ˜2 kpc to -4 in the outer halo, with an axis ratio ˜0.7 throughout. There is no indication for rotation in the BHBs, although this is highly uncertain. A moderate level of radial anisotropy is detected, with βs varying from isotropic to between ˜0.1 and ˜0.3 in the outer halo depending on latitude. The BHB data are consistent with an age gradient of -0.03 Gyr kpc-1, with some uncertainty in the distribution of the larger ages. These results are consistent with a scenario in which older, larger systems contribute to the inner halo, whilst the outer halo is primarily comprised of younger, smaller systems.

  1. Probable new halo stars toward L = 360 deg, B = +30 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Wayne; MacConnell, D. J.

    1987-12-01

    Eighty-three probable halo giants have been identified in Stock's recently published objective-prism survey of an intermediate galactic latitude field. Approximate radial velocities derived from the objective-prism plates yield a velocity dispersion of 98±8 km sec-1 for these stars.

  2. THE CLUSTERING AND HALO MASSES OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z < 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dolley, Tim; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Palamara, David P.; Beare, Richard; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brodwin, Mark; Kochanek, C. S.; Dey, Arjun; Atlee, David W.

    2014-12-20

    We present clustering measurements and halo masses of star-forming galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. After excluding active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we construct a sample of 22,553 24 μm sources selected from 8.42 deg{sup 2} of the Spitzer MIPS AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey of Boötes. Mid-infrared imaging allows us to observe galaxies with the highest star formation rates (SFRs), less biased by dust obscuration afflicting the optical bands. We find that the galaxies with the highest SFRs have optical colors that are redder than typical blue cloud galaxies, with many residing within the green valley. At z > 0.4 our sample is dominated by luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L {sub TIR} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) and is composed entirely of LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, L {sub TIR} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) at z > 0.6. We observe weak clustering of r {sub 0} ≈ 3-6 h {sup –1} Mpc for almost all of our star-forming samples. We find that the clustering and halo mass depend on L {sub TIR} at all redshifts, where galaxies with higher L {sub TIR} (hence higher SFRs) have stronger clustering. Galaxies with the highest SFRs at each redshift typically reside within dark matter halos of M {sub halo} ≈ 10{sup 12.9} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. This is consistent with a transitional halo mass, above which star formation is largely truncated, although we cannot exclude that ULIRGs reside within higher mass halos. By modeling the clustering evolution of halos, we connect our star-forming galaxy samples to their local descendants. Most star-forming galaxies at z < 1.0 are the progenitors of L ≲ 2.5 L {sub *} blue galaxies in the local universe, but star-forming galaxies with the highest SFRs (L {sub TIR} ≳ 10{sup 11.7} L {sub ☉}) at 0.6 < z < 1.0 are the progenitors of early-type galaxies in denser group environments.

  3. Dual Stellar Halos in Early-type Galaxies and Formation of Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung

    2016-08-01

    M105 in the Leo I Group is a textbook example of a standard elliptical galaxy. It is only one of the few elliptical galaxies for which we can study their stellar halos using the resolved stars. It is an ideal target to study the structure and composition of stellar halos in elliptical galaxies. We present photometry and metallicity of the resolved stars in the inner and outer regions of M105. These provide strong evidence that there are two distinct stellar halos in this galaxy, a metal-poor (blue) halo and a metal-rich (red) halo. Then we compare them with those in other early-type galaxies and use the dual halo mode formation scenario to describe how massive galaxies formed.

  4. Outward Bound with RR Lyrae Stars: Studies of the Outer Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Judith; Sesar, B.; Banholzer, S.

    2014-07-01

    We have isolated a sample of 734 RR Lyrae stars at distances beyond 50 kpc in the Milky Way halo from the Palomar Transient Facility database. We are using these to probe the density distribution in the halo out to about 100 kpc as well as the total mass of the Milky Way galaxy, which is still controversial and is important for near field cosmology. But we are hitting a number of limits in our effort to get further out. TMT coupled with a suitable wide field but deep multi-epoch imaging survey (i.e. LSST) will enable us to probe to the outer edge of our Galaxy.

  5. Nitrogen enhancement in metal-poor dwarfs - From inside or outside?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spite, F.; Spite, M.

    1987-06-01

    The five known metal-poor dwarfs with an enhanced N/Fe ratio have been observed spectroscopically. Two of these dwarfs have no lithium line; the absence of lithium is most probably accounted for by the usual convective destruction. The three other dwrfs have the same lithium abundance as the normal metal-poor dwarfs (Spite, Maillard, and Spite, 1984). This excludes the deep mixing process as the general source of nitrogen enhancement, since lithium is destroyed in deep (hot) layers. Deep mixing had been previously found unlikely in metal-poor dwarfs (Da Costa and Demarque, 1982). The discussion stresses the remarkable uniformity of the lithium abundance in metal-poor dwarfs, and shows that the N-rich contaminating matter has a high N/H ratio. Finally, the Al abundance is not greatly enhanced in these five stars.

  6. Stellar Archaeology: New Science with Old Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The early chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the Universe is vital to our understanding of a host of astrophysical phenomena. Since the most metal-poor Galactic stars are relics from the high-redshift Universe, they probe the chemical and dynamical conditions as the Milky Way began to form, the origin and evolution of the elements, and the physics of nucleosynthesis. They also provide constraints on the nature of the first stars, their associated supernovae and initial mass function, and early star and galaxy formation. I will present exemplary metal-poor stars with which these different topics can be addressed. Those are the most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy ([Fe/H] < -5.0), and metal-poor stars with strong overabundances of heavy elements, in particular uranium and thorium, which can be used to radioactively date the stars to be 13 Gyr old. I will then transition to recent discoveries of metal-poor ([Fe/H] -3.0) stars in the least luminous dwarf satellites orbiting the Milky Way. Their stellar chemical signatures support the concept that small systems, analogous to the surviving dwarf galaxies, were the building blocks of the Milky Way's low-metallicity halo. This opens a new window for studying galaxy formation through stellar chemistry.

  7. PRIMORDIAL r-PROCESS DISPERSION IN METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.

    2011-05-01

    Heavy elements, those produced by neutron-capture reactions, have traditionally shown no star-to-star dispersion in all but a handful of metal-poor globular clusters (GCs). Recent detections of low [Pb/Eu] ratios or upper limits in several metal-poor GCs indicate that the heavy elements in these GCs were produced exclusively by an r-process. Re-examining GC heavy element abundances from the literature, we find unmistakable correlations between the [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] ratios in four metal-poor GCs (M5, M15, M92, and NGC 3201), only two of which were known previously. This indicates that the total r-process abundances vary from star to star (by factors of 2-6) relative to Fe within each GC. We also identify potential dispersion in two other GCs (M3 and M13). Several GCs (M12, M80, and NGC 6752) show no evidence of r-process dispersion. The r-process dispersion is not correlated with the well-known light element dispersion, indicating that it was present in the gas throughout the duration of star formation. The observations available at present suggest that star-to-star r-process dispersion within metal-poor GCs may be a common but not ubiquitous phenomenon that is neither predicted by nor accounted for in current models of GC formation and evolution.

  8. The Origin of the Metal-Poor Common Proper Motion Pair HD 134439/134440: Insights from New Elemental Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; King, Jeremy R.; Boesgaard, Ann M.

    2014-11-01

    The low [α/Fe] ratio in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -1.50) common proper motion pair HD 134439 and HD 134440 has been variously attributed to chemical evolution in an extragalactic environment with an irregular star formation history, planetesimal accretion, and formation in an environment with an unusually high dust-to-gas ratio. We explore these various putative origins using CNO, Be, Ag, and Eu abundances derived from high-resolution near-UV Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. While we confirm a previously suggested correlation between elemental abundance ratios and condensation temperature at the 95% confidence level, these ratios lie within the continuum of values manifested by extant dSph data. We argue that the most plausible origin of our stars' distinctive abundance distribution relative to the Galactic halo field is formation in an environment chemically dominated by products of Type II SN of low progenitor mass; such a progenitor mass bias has been previously suggested as an explanation of low α-element ratios of dSph stars. The proper motion pair's heavy-to-light n-capture element ratio, which is >=0.3-0.5 dex lower than in the Galactic halo field and dSph stars, is discussed in the context of the truncated r-process, phenomenological n-capture production models, and α-rich freezeout in a high neutron excess environment; the latter simultaneously provides an attractive explanation of the difference in [Ca, Ti/O, Mg, Si] ratio in HD 134439/134440 compared to in situ dSph stars.

  9. Highly-Ionized Gas in the Galactic Halo: A FUSE Survey of O 6 Absorption toward 22 Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsargo, J.; Sembach, K. R.; Howk, J. C.; Savage, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of 22 Galactic halo stars are studied to determine the amount of O 6 in the Galactic halo between ~0.3 and ~10 kpc from the Galactic mid-plane. Strong O 6 λ 1031.93 absorption was detected toward 21 stars, and a reliable 3 σ upper limit was obtained toward HD 97991. The weaker member of the O 6 doublet at 1037.62 Å could be studied toward only six stars. The observed columns are reasonably consistent with a patchy exponential O 6 distribution with a mid-plane density of 1.7x10-8 cm-3 and scale height between 2.3 and 4 kpc. We do not see clear signs of strong high-velocity components in O 6 absorption along the Galactic sight lines, which indicates the general absence of high velocity O 6 within 2-5 kpc of the Galactic mid-plane. The correlation between the H 1 and O 6 intermediate velocity absorption is also poor. The O 6 velocity dispersions are much larger than the value of ~18 km/s expected from thermal broadening for gas at T ~ 3x105 K, the temperature at which O 6 is expected to reach its peak abundance in collisional ionization equilibrium. Turbulence, inflow, and outflow must have an effect on the shape of the O 6 profiles. Kinematical comparisons of O 6 with Ar 1 reveal that 9 of 21 sight lines are closely aligned in LSR velocity (|Δ VLSR| <=5 km/s ), while 8 of 21 exhibit significant velocity differences (|Δ VLSR| >= 15 km/s ). This dual behavior may indicate the presence of two different types of O 6-bearing environments toward the Galactic sight lines. Comparison of O 6 with other highly-ionized species suggests that the high ions are produced primarily by cooling hot gas in the Galactic fountain flow, and that turbulent mixing also has a significant contribution. The role of turbulent mixing is most important toward sight lines that sample supernova remnants like Loop I and IV. We are also able to show that the O 6 enhancement toward the Galactic center region that was observed in the FUSE

  10. MAPPING THE GALACTIC HALO WITH BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS FROM THE TWO-DEGREE FIELD QUASAR REDSHIFT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    De Propris, Roberto; Harrison, Craig D.; Mares, Peter J.

    2010-08-20

    We use 666 blue horizontal branch stars from the 2Qz Redshift Survey to map the Galactic halo in four dimensions (position, distance, and velocity). We find that the halo extends to at least 100 kpc in Galactocentric distance, and obeys a single power-law density profile of index {approx}-2.5 in two different directions separated by about 150{sup 0} on the sky. This suggests that the halo is spherical. Our map shows no large kinematically coherent structures (streams, clouds, or plumes) and appears homogeneous. However, we find that at least 20% of the stars in the halo reside in substructures and that these substructures are dynamically young. The velocity dispersion profile of the halo appears to increase toward large radii while the stellar velocity distribution is non-Gaussian beyond 60 kpc. We argue that the outer halo consists of a multitude of low luminosity overlapping tidal streams from recently accreted objects.

  11. Evidence for recent star formation in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.

    1986-09-01

    Observational data for PHL 346 obtained with the 2.5 m Issac Newton telescope on August 1985 are studied. Measured stellar Stromgren colors, hydrogen-line profiles, and helium and metal-line equivalent widths are compared with those predicted by local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere calculations. Effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and helium and metal abundances for the star are derived. A mass of 13 + or - 2 solar masses, a lifetime of 11 x 10 to the 6th yr, a distance from the galactic plane of 8.7 + or - 1.5 kpc, and a velocity in the z direction of +56 + or - 10 km/s are calculated for the star. The data reveal that the star was not ejected from the galactic plane, but that it formed out of galactic fountain gas at about 6 kpc from the disc.

  12. Hot subdwarf stars in the Galactic halo Tracers of prominent events in late stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Stephan; Kupfer, Thomas; Schaffenroth, Veronika; Heber, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Hot subdwarf stars (sdO/Bs) are the stripped cores of red giants located at the bluest extension of the horizontal branch. They constitute the dominant population of UV-bright stars in old stellar environments and are most likely formed by binary interactions. We perform the first systematic, spectroscopic analysis of a sample of those stars in the Galactic halo based on data from SDSS. In the course of this project we discovered 177 close binary candidates. A significant fraction of the sdB binaries turned out to have close substellar companions, which shows that brown dwarfs and planets can significantly influence late stellar evolution. Close hot subdwarf binaries with massive white dwarf companions on the other hand are good candidates for the progenitors of type Ia supernovae. We discovered a hypervelocity star, which not only turned out to be the fastest unbound star known in our Galaxy, but also the surviving companion of such a supernova explosion.

  13. Neutral hydrogen in galaxy haloes at the peak of the cosmic star formation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan; Muratov, Alexander L.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2015-05-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations from the FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) project to make predictions for the covering fractions of neutral hydrogen around galaxies at z = 2-4. These simulations resolve the interstellar medium of galaxies and explicitly implement a comprehensive set of stellar feedback mechanisms. Our simulation sample consists of 16 main haloes covering the mass range Mh ≈ 109-6 × 1012 M⊙ at z = 2, including 12 haloes in the mass range Mh ˜ 1011-1012 M⊙ corresponding to Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). We process our simulations with a ray tracing method to compute the ionization state of the gas. Galactic winds increase the H I covering fractions in galaxy haloes by direct ejection of cool gas from galaxies and through interactions with gas inflowing from the intergalactic medium. Our simulations predict H I covering fractions for Lyman limit systems (LLSs) consistent with measurements around z ˜ 2-2.5 LBGs; these covering fractions are a factor ˜2 higher than our previous calculations without galactic winds. The fractions of H I absorbers arising in inflows and in outflows are on average ˜50 per cent but exhibit significant time variability, ranging from ˜10 to ˜90 per cent. For our most massive haloes, we find a factor ˜3 deficit in the LLS covering fraction relative to what is measured around quasars at z ˜ 2, suggesting that the presence of a quasar may affect the properties of halo gas on ˜100 kpc scales. The predicted covering fractions, which decrease with time, peak at Mh ˜ 1011-1012 M⊙, near the peak of the star formation efficiency in dark matter haloes. In our simulations, star formation and galactic outflows are highly time dependent; H I covering fractions are also time variable but less so because they represent averages over large areas.

  14. STELLAR POPULATION VARIATIONS IN THE MILKY WAY's STELLAR HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Eric F.; Xue Xiangxiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ruhland, Christine; Hogg, David W.

    2010-12-15

    If the stellar halos of disk galaxies are built up from the disruption of dwarf galaxies, models predict highly structured variations in the stellar populations within these halos. We test this prediction by studying the ratio of blue horizontal branch stars (BHB stars; more abundant in old, metal-poor populations) to main-sequence turn-off stars (MSTO stars; a feature of all populations) in the stellar halo of the Milky Way using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We develop and apply an improved technique to select BHB stars using ugr color information alone, yielding a sample of {approx}9000 g < 18 candidates where {approx}70% of them are BHB stars. We map the BHB/MSTO ratio across {approx}1/4 of the sky at the distance resolution permitted by the absolute magnitude distribution of MSTO stars. We find large variations of the BHB/MSTO star ratio in the stellar halo. Previously identified, stream-like halo structures have distinctive BHB/MSTO ratios, indicating different ages/metallicities. Some halo features, e.g., the low-latitude structure, appear to be almost completely devoid of BHB stars, whereas other structures appear to be rich in BHB stars. The Sagittarius tidal stream shows an apparent variation in the BHB/MSTO ratio along its extent, which we interpret in terms of population gradients within the progenitor dwarf galaxy. Our detection of coherent stellar population variations between different stellar halo substructures provides yet more support to cosmologically motivated models for stellar halo growth.

  15. The Century Survey Galactic Halo Project III: A Complete 4300 DEG2 Survey of Blue Horizontal Branch Stars in the Metal-Weak Thick Disk and Inner Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Wilhelm, Ronald; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kurtz, Michael J.

    2008-02-01

    We present a complete spectroscopic survey of 2414 2MASS-selected blue horizontal branch (BHB) candidates selected over 4300 deg2 of the sky. We identify 655 BHB stars in this non-kinematically selected sample. We calculate the luminosity function of field BHB stars, and find evidence for very few hot BHB stars in the field. The BHB stars located at a distance from the Galactic plane |Z| < 4 kpc trace what is clearly a metal-weak thick disk population, with a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.7, a rotation velocity gradient of dvrot/d|Z| = -28 ± 3.4 km s-1 in the region |Z| < 6 kpc, and a density scale height of hZ = 1.26 ± 0.1 kpc. The BHB stars located at 5 < |Z| < 9 kpc are a predominantly inner-halo population, with a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.0 and a mean Galactic rotation of -4 ± 31 km s-1. We infer the density of halo and thick disk BHB stars is 104 ± 37 kpc-3 near the Sun, and the relative normalization of halo to thick-disk BHB stars is 4 ± 1% near the Sun.

  16. Chronography of the Milky Way's Halo System with Field Blue Horizontal-branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santucci, Rafael M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun; Denissenkov, Pavel; Tumlinson, Jason; Tissera, Patricia B.

    2015-11-01

    In a pioneering effort, Preston et al. reported that the colors of blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy shift with distance, from regions near the Galactic center to about 12 kpc away, and interpreted this as a correlated variation in the ages of halo stars, from older to younger, spanning a range of a few Gyrs. We have applied this approach to a sample of some 4700 spectroscopically confirmed BHB stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to produce the first “chronographic map” of the halo of the Galaxy. We demonstrate that the mean de-reddened g - r color, < {(g-r)}0> , increases outward in the Galaxy from -0.22 to -0.08 (over a color window spanning [-0.3: 0.0]) from regions close to the Galactic center to ˜40 kpc, independent of the metallicity of the stars. Models of the expected shift in the color of the field BHB stars based on modern stellar evolutionary codes confirm that this color gradient can be associated with an age difference of roughly 2-2.5 Gyr, with the oldest stars concentrated in the central ˜15 kpc of the Galaxy. Within this central region, the age difference spans a mean color range of about 0.05 mag (˜0.8 Gyr). Furthermore, we show that chronographic maps can be used to identify individual substructures, such as the Sagittarius Stream, and overdensities in the direction of Virgo and Monoceros, based on the observed contrast in their mean BHB colors with respect to the foreground/background field population.

  17. Long GRBs as a tool to investigate star formation in dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Hao, Jing-Meng; Wu, Xue-Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2016-03-01

    First stars can only form in structures that are suitably dense, which can be parametrized by the minimum dark matter halo mass Mmin. Mmin must play an important role in star formation. The connection of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) with the collapse of massive stars has provided a good opportunity for probing star formation in dark matter halos. We place some constraints on Mmin using the latest Swift LGRB data. We conservatively consider that LGRB rate is proportional to the cosmic star formation rate (CSFR) and an additional evolution parametrized as (1 + z) α, where the CSFR model is a function of Mmin. Using the χ2 statistic, the contour constraints on the Mmin-α plane show that at the 1σ confidence level, we have Mmin <1010.5M⊙ from 118 LGRBs with redshift z < 4 and luminosity Liso > 1.8 ×1051 ergs-1. We also find that adding 12 high-z (4 < z < 5) LGRBs (consisting of 104 LGRBs with z < 5 and Liso > 3.1 ×1051 ergs-1) could result in much tighter constraints on Mmin, for which, 107.7M⊙ star formation in dark matter halos.

  18. NGC 1252: a high altitude, metal poor open cluster remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.

    2013-09-01

    If stars form in clusters but most stars belong to the field, understanding the details of the transition from the former to the latter is imperative to explain the observational properties of the field. Aging open clusters are one of the sources of field stars. The disruption rate of open clusters slows down with age but, as an object gets older, the distinction between the remaining cluster or open cluster remnant (OCR) and the surrounding field becomes less and less obvious. As a result, finding good OCR candidates or confirming the OCR nature of some of the best candidates still remain elusive. One of these objects is NGC 1252, a scattered group of about 20 stars in Horologium. Here we use new wide-field photometry in the UBVI passbands, proper motions from the Yale/San Juan SPM 4.0 catalogue and high-resolution spectroscopy concurrently with results from N-body simulations to decipher NGC 1252's enigmatic character. Spectroscopy shows that most of the brightest stars in the studied area are chemically, kinematically and spatially unrelated to each other. However, after analysing proper motions, we find one relevant kinematic group. This sparse object is relatively close (˜1 kpc), metal poor and is probably not only one of the oldest clusters (3 Gyr) within 1.5 kpc from the Sun but also one of the clusters located farthest from the disc, at an altitude of nearly -900 pc. That makes NGC 1252 the first open cluster that can be truly considered a high Galactic altitude OCR: an unusual object that may hint at a star formation event induced on a high Galactic altitude gas cloud. We also conclude that the variable TW Horologii and the blue straggler candidate HD 20286 are unlikely to be part of NGC 1252. NGC 1252 17 is identified as an unrelated, Population II cannonball star moving at about 400 km s-1.

  19. The Milky Way Halo and the First Stars: New Frontiers in Galactic Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Tumlinson, Jason; O'Shea, Brian; Peruta, Carolyn; Carollo, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    We discuss plans for a new joint effort between observers and theorists to understand the formation of the Milky Way halo back to the first epochs of chemical evolution. New models based on high-resolution N-body simulations coupled to simple models of Galactic chemical evolution show that surviving stars from the epoch of the first galaxies remain in the Milky Way today and should bear the nucleosynthetic imprint of the first stars. We investigate the key physical influences on the formation of stars in the first galaxies and how they appear today, including the relationship between cosmic reionization and surviving Milky Way stars. These models also provide a physically motivated picture of the formation of the Milky Ways “outer halo,” which has been identified from recent large samples of stars from SDSS. The next steps are to use these models to guide rigorous gas simulations of Milky Way formation, including its disk, and to gradually build up the fully detailed theoretical “Virtual Galaxy” that is demanded by the coming generation of massive Galactic stellar surveys.

  20. IUE observations of blue halo high luminosity stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.; Franco, M. L.; Stalio, R.

    1981-01-01

    Two high luminosity population II blue stars of high galactic latitude, BD+33 deg 2642 and HD 137569 were observed at high resolution. The stellar spectra show the effect of mass loss in BD+33 deg 2642 and abnormally weak metallic lines in HD 137569. The interstellar lines in the direction of BD+33 deg 2642, which lies at a height z greater than or equal to 6.2 kpc from the galactic plane, are split into two components. No high ionization stages are found at the low velocity component; nor can they be detected in the higher velocity clouds because of mixing with the corresponding stellar/circumstellar lines.

  1. WEAK GALACTIC HALO-DWARF SPHEROIDAL CONNECTION FROM RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorentino, Giuliana; Bono, Giuseppe; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Martínez-Vásquez, Clara E.; Tolstoy, Eline; Salaris, Maurizio; Bernard, Edouard J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role that dwarf galaxies may have played in the formation of the Galactic halo (Halo) using RR Lyrae stars (RRL) as tracers of their ancient stellar component. The comparison is performed using two observables (periods, luminosity amplitudes) that are reddening and distance independent. Fundamental mode RRL in 6 dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) and 11 ultra faint dwarf galaxies (∼1300) show a Gaussian period distribution well peaked around a mean period of (Pab) = 0.610 ± 0.001 days (σ = 0.03). The Halo RRL (∼15,000) are characterized by a broader period distribution. The fundamental mode RRL in all the dSphs apart from Sagittarius are completely lacking in High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) variables, defined as those having P ≲ 0.48 days and A{sub V} ≥ 0.75 mag. Such variables are not uncommon in the Halo and among the globular clusters and massive dwarf irregulars. To further interpret this evidence, we considered 18 globulars covering a broad range in metallicity (–2.3 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.1) and hosting more than 35 RRL each. The metallicity turns out to be the main parameter, since only globulars more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ∼ –1.5 host RRL in the HASP region. This finding suggests that dSphs similar to the surviving ones do not appear to be the major building-blocks of the Halo. Leading physical arguments suggest an extreme upper limit of ∼50% to their contribution. On the other hand, massive dwarfs hosting an old population with a broad metallicity distribution (Large Magellanic Cloud, Sagittarius) may have played a primary role in the formation of the Halo.

  2. THE FRACTION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SECOND-GENERATION STARS IN THE GALACTIC HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Vesperini, Enrico; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; D'Antona, Francesca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2010-08-01

    Many observational studies have revealed the presence of multiple stellar generations in Galactic globular clusters. These studies suggest that second-generation stars make up a significant fraction of the current mass of globular clusters, with the second-generation mass fraction ranging from {approx}50% to 80% in individual clusters. In this Letter, we carry out hydrodynamical simulations to explore the dependence of the mass of second-generation stars on the initial mass and structural parameters and stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the parent cluster. We then use the results of these simulations to estimate the fraction f{sub SG,H} of the mass of the Galactic stellar halo composed of second-generation stars that originated in globular clusters. We study the dependence of f{sub SG,H} on the parameters of the IMF of the Galactic globular cluster system. For a broad range of initial conditions, we find that the fraction of mass of the Galactic stellar halo in second-generation stars is always small, f{sub SG,H} < 4%-6% for a Kroupa-1993 IMF and f{sub SG,H} < 7%-9% for a Kroupa-2001 IMF.

  3. The role of neutron star mergers in the chemical evolution of the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescutti, G.; Romano, D.; Matteucci, F.; Chiappini, C.; Hirschi, R.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The dominant astrophysical production site of the r-process elements has not yet been unambiguously identified. The suggested main r-process sites are core-collapse supernovae and merging neutron stars. Aims: We explore the problem of the production site of Eu. We also use the information present in the observed spread in the Eu abundances in the early Galaxy, and not only its average trend. Moreover, we extend our investigations to other heavy elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Zr) to provide additional constraints on our results. Methods: We adopt a stochastic chemical evolution model that takes inhomogeneous mixing into account. The adopted yields of Eu from merging neutron stars and from core-collapse supernovae are those that are able to explain the average [Eu/Fe]-[Fe/H] trend observed for solar neighbourhood stars, the solar abundance of Eu, and the present-day abundance gradient of Eu along the Galactic disc in the framework of a well-tested homogeneous model for the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. Rb, Sr, Zr, and Ba are produced by both the s- and r-processes. The r-process yields were obtained by scaling the Eu yields described above according to the abundance ratios observed in r-process rich stars. The s-process contribution by spinstars is the same as in our previous papers. Results: Neutron star binaries that merge in less than 10 Myr or neutron star mergers combined with a source of r-process generated by massive stars can explain the spread of [Eu/Fe] in the Galactic halo. The combination of r-process production by neutron star mergers and s-process production by spinstars is able to reproduce the available observational data for Sr, Zr, and Ba. We also show the first predictions for Rb in the Galactic halo. Conclusions: We confirm previous results that either neutron star mergers on a very short timescale or both neutron star mergers and at least a fraction of Type II supernovae have contributed to the synthesis of Eu in the Galaxy. The r

  4. Predicting galaxy star formation rates via the co-evolution of galaxies and haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy of fixed stellar mass is determined by its dark matter halo formation history, e.g. more quiescent galaxies reside in older haloes. We present new Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star-forming galaxy samples to test this simple model. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also find that our model is able to predict: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an ˜r-.15 slope, independent of environment. These accurate predictions are intriguing given that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.

  5. The SEGUE K Giant Survey. III. Quantifying Galactic Halo Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, William; Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Rockosi, Constance; Starkenburg, Else; Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5-125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration project. Using a position-velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (˜33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity.

  6. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal-poor galaxies*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Shi, Yong; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-05-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal-poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z ≲ Z⊙/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f70μm/f160 μm ratios at a given f160 μm/f250 μm ratio; single modified blackbody (MBB) fittings to the SED at λ ≥ 100 μm still reveal higher dust temperatures and lower emissivity indices compared to that of Spirals, while two MBB fittings to the full SED with a fixed emissivity index (β = 2) show that even at 100 μm, about half of the emission comes from warm (50 K) dust, in contrast to the cold (˜20 K) dust component. Our spatially resolved images furthermore reveal that the far-IR colours including f70 μm/f160 μm, f160 μm/f250 μm and f250 μm/f350 μm are all related to the surface densities of young stars as traced by far-UV, 24 μm and star formation rates (SFRs), but not to the stellar mass surface densities. This suggests that the dust emitting at wavelengths from 70 to 350 μm is primarily heated by radiation from young stars.

  7. Exploring Halo Substructure with Giant Stars. I. Survey Description and Calibration of the Photometric Search Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Kunkel, William E.; Patterson, Richard J.

    2000-11-01

    We have begun a survey of the structure of the Milky Way halo, as well as the halos of other Local Group galaxies, as traced by their constituent giant stars. These giant stars are identified via large-area, CCD photometric campaigns. Here we present the basis for our photometric search method, which relies on the gravity sensitivity of the Mg I triplet+MgH features near 5150 Å in F-K stars, and which is sensed by the flux in the intermediate-band DDO51 filter. Our technique is a simplified variant of the combined Washington/DDO51 four-filter technique described by Geisler, which we modify for the specific purpose of efficiently identifying distant giant stars for follow-up spectroscopic study: We show here that for most stars the Washington T1-T2 color is correlated monotonically with the Washington M-T2 color with relatively low scatter; for the purposes of our survey, this correlation obviates the need to image in the T1 filter, as originally proposed by Geisler. To calibrate our (M-T2, M-DDO51) diagram as a means to discriminate field giant stars from nearby dwarfs, we utilize new photometry of the main sequences of the open clusters NGC 3680 and NGC 2477 and the red giant branches of the clusters NGC 3680, Melotte 66, and ω Centauri, supplemented with data on field stars, globular clusters and open clusters by Doug Geisler and collaborators. By combining the data on stars from different clusters, and by taking advantage of the wide abundance spread within ω Centauri, we verify the primary dependence of the M-DDO51 color on luminosity and demonstrate the secondary sensitivity to metallicity among giant stars. Our empirical results are found to be generally consistent with those from analysis of synthetic spectra by Paltoglou & Bell. Finally, we provide conversion formulae from the (M, M-T2) system to the (V, V-I) system, corresponding reddening laws, as well as empirical red giant branch curves from ω Centauri stars for use in deriving photometric

  8. On the relevance of chaos for halo stars in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, N. P.; Gómez, F. A.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.; Cooper, A. P.; O'Shea, B. W.

    2015-11-01

    We show that diffusion due to chaotic mixing in the neighbourhood of the Sun may not be as relevant as previously suggested in erasing phase space signatures of past Galactic accretion events. For this purpose, we analyse solar neighbourhood-like volumes extracted from cosmological simulations that naturally account for chaotic orbital behaviour induced by the strongly triaxial and cuspy shape of the resulting dark matter haloes, among other factors. In the approximation of an analytical static triaxial model, our results show that a large fraction of stellar halo particles in such local volumes have chaos onset times (i.e. the time-scale at which stars commonly associated with chaotic orbits will exhibit their chaotic behaviour) significantly larger than a Hubble time. Furthermore, particles that do present a chaotic behaviour within a Hubble time do not exhibit significant diffusion in phase space.

  9. Lithium in halo stars - Constraining the effects of helium diffusion on globular cluster ages and cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Demarque, Pierre

    1991-01-01

    Stellar evolutionary models with diffusion are used to show that observations of lithium in extreme halo stars provide crucial constraints on the magnitude of the effects of helium diffusion. The flatness of the observed Li-T(eff) relation severely constrains diffusion Li isochrones, which tend to curve downward toward higher T(eff). It is argued that Li observations at the hot edge of the plateau are particularly important in constraining the effects of helium diffusion; yet, they are currently few in number. It is proposed that additional observations are required there, as well as below 5500 K, to define more securely the morphology of the halo Li abundances. Implications for the primordial Li abundance are considered. It is suggested that a conservative upper limit to the initial Li abundance, due to diffusive effects alone, is 2.35.

  10. Chemical Tagging in the SDSS-III/APOGEE Survey: New Identifications of Halo Stars with Globular Cluster Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Lucatello, Sara; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos; García Hernández, D. A.; Beers, Timothy C.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-07-01

    We present new identifications of five red giant stars in the Galactic halo with chemical abundance patterns that indicate they originally formed in globular clusters. Using data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Survey available through Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12, we first identify likely halo giants, and then search those for the well-known chemical tags associated with globular clusters, specifically enrichment in nitrogen and aluminum. We find that 2% of the halo giants in our sample have this chemical signature, in agreement with previous results. Following the interpretation in our previous work on this topic, this would imply that at least 13% of halo stars originally formed in globular clusters. Recent developments in the theoretical understanding of globular cluster formation raise questions about that interpretation, and we concede the possibility that these migrants represent a small fraction of the halo field. There are roughly as many stars with the chemical tags of globular clusters in the halo field as there are in globular clusters, whether or not they are accompanied by a much larger chemically untaggable population of former globular cluster stars.

  11. Lick slit spectra of thirty-eight objective prism quasar candidates and low metallicity halo stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Cohen, Ross D.

    1993-01-01

    Lick Observatory slit spectra of 38 objects which were claimed to have pronounced UV excess and emission lines are presented. Eleven QSOs, four galaxies at z of about 0.1, 22 stars, and one unidentified object with a low S/N spectrum were found. Of 11 objects which Zhan and Chen (1987, 1989) suggested were QSO with z(prism) not greater than 2.8; eight are QSOs. Six of the QSOs show absorption systems, including Q0000+027A with a relatively strong associated C IV absorption system, and Q0008+008 with a damped Ly-alpha system with an H I column density of 10 exp 21/sq cm. The equivalent widths of the Ca II K line, the G band, and the Balmer lines in 10 stars with the best spectra are measured, and metallicities are derived. Seven of them are in the range -2.5 to -1.7, while the others are less metal-poor.

  12. C, N, O abundances in the most metal-poor damped Lyman alpha systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max; Zych, Berkeley J.; Steidel, Charles C.; Chaffee, Fred H.

    2008-04-01

    This study focuses on some of the most metal-poor damped Lyα (DLA) absorbers known in the spectra of high-redshift QSOs, using new and archival observations obtained with ultraviolet-sensitive echelle spectrographs on the Keck and VLT telescopes. The weakness and simple velocity structure of the absorption lines in these systems allow us to measure the abundances of several elements, and in particular those of C, N and O, a group that is difficult to study in DLAs of more typical metallicities. We find that when the oxygen abundance is less than ~1/100 of solar, the C/O ratio in high-redshift DLAs and sub-DLAs matches that of halo stars of similar metallicity and shows higher values than expected from galactic chemical evolution models based on conventional stellar yields. Furthermore, there are indications that at these low metallicities the N/O ratio may also be above simple expectations and may exhibit a minimum value, as proposed by Centurión and her collaborators in 2003. Both results can be interpreted as evidence for enhanced production of C and N by massive stars in the first few episodes of star formation, in our Galaxy and in the distant protogalaxies seen as QSO absorbers. The higher stellar yields implied may have an origin in stellar rotation which promotes mixing in the stars' interiors, as considered in some recent model calculations. We briefly discuss the relevance of these results to current ideas on the origin of metals in the intergalactic medium and the universality of the stellar initial mass function. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based in part on UVES observations made with the European Southern Observatory VLT/Kueyen Telescope at Paranal, Chile, obtained in programme 078.A-0185(A) and from the

  13. The role of massive halos in the star formation history of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popesso, P.; Biviano, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Wilman, D.; Salvato, M.; Magnelli, B.; Gruppioni, C.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Ziparo, F.; Berta, S.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Lutz, D.; Altieri, B.; Aussel, H.; Cimatti, A.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Nordon, R.; Poglitsch, A.; Genel, S.; Xu, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The most striking feature of the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) of the Universe is a dramatic drop in the star formation (SF) activity after z ~ 1. Aims: In this work we investigate whether the very same process of assembly and growth of structures is one of the major drivers of the observed decline in the Universe's SF activity. Methods: We study the contribution to the CSFH of galaxies in halos of different masses. This is done by studying the total SF rate-halo mass-redshift plane from redshift 0 to redshift ~1.6 in a sample of 57 groups and clusters by using the deepest available mid- and far-infrared surveys conducted with Spitzer MIPS and Herschel PACS and SPIRE, on blank (ECDFS, CDFN, and the COSMOS) and cluster fields. Results: Our results show that low mass groups (Mhalo ~ 6 × 1012-6 × 1013 M⊙) provide a 60-80% contribution to the CSFH at z ~ 1. This contribution has declined faster than the CSFH in the past 8 billion years to less than 10% at z < 0.3, where the overall SF activity is sustained by lower mass halos. More massive systems (Mhalo > 6 × 1013 M⊙) provide only a marginal contribution (<10%) at any epoch. A simplified abundance-matching method shows that the large contribution of low mass groups at z ~ 1 is due to a large fraction (>50%) of very massive, highly star-forming main sequence galaxies. Below z ~ 1 a quenching process must take place in massive halos to cause the observed faster suppression of their SF activity. Such a process must be a slow one, though, since most of the models implementing a rapid quenching of the SF activity in accreting satellites significantly underpredict the observed SF level in massive halos at any redshift. This would rule out short time-scale mechanisms such as ram pressure stripping. Instead, starvation or the satellite's transition from cold to hot accretion would provide a quenching timescale of 1 to few Gyr that is more consistent with the observations. Conclusions: Our results

  14. A Continued Search for CEMP RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, H. M.; Kennedy, C. R.; Rossi, S.; Beers, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    Among the stellar populations of the Galactic halo there is a class of stars known as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. These are metal-poor ([Fe/H] < 1.0) stars whose atmospheres exhibit large overabundances of carbon ([C/Fe] ≥ +0.7). The frequency of these stars increases with decreasing metallicity, and so by studying their abundance patterns, one can begin to uncover details of the origins of the elements. There exist a number of different classes of CEMP stars (Beers & Christlieb 2005) with specific abundance characteristics; one of them is the CEMP-s class, which exhibit evidence of s-process element enrichment, widely believed to be resultant of mass transfer from a companion low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star, where the production of carbon and s-process elements occurs. Recent spectroscopic observations of metal-poor RR Lyrae stars have revealed that their typical abundance patterns are consistent with very metal-poor (VMP) and extremely metal-poor (EMP) giants and dwarfs studied in the halo system of the Milky Way. Of particular interest is the recent discovery of a VMP RR Lyrae that has large overabundances of carbon and the s-process elements. In this work, we showed results obtained with WiFeS observations 2.3m Siding Spring Observatory telescope of a set of newly-identified CEMP stars that are known RR Lyr stars. We confirmed theses stars as CEMP stars (Kennedy et. al., in prep) and will, eventually, test their abundances against new stellar evolution simulations of CEMP stars.

  15. The Metallicity Distribution Function of the Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Norris, John E.; Bessell, Michael S.; Wilhelm, Ronald; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Yanny, Brian; Rockosi, Constance; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun

    We report on the distribution of metallicities, [Fe/H], for very metal-poor stars in the halo of the Galaxy. Although the primary information on the nature of the Metallicity Distribution Function (MDF) is obtained from the two major recent surveys for metal-poor stars, the HK survey of Beers and collaborators, and the Hamburg/ESO Survey of Christlieb and collaborators, we also discuss the MDF derived from the publicly available database of stellar spectra and photometry contained in the third data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR-3). Even though the SDSS was not originally planned as a stellar survey, significant numbers of stars have been observed to date - DR-3 contains spectroscopy for over 70,000 stars, at least half of which are suitable for abundance determinations. There are as many very metal-poor ([Fe/H] ) stars in DR-3 as have been obtained from all previous survey efforts combined. We also discuss prospects for significant expansion of the list of metal-poor stars to be obtained from the recently funded extension of the SDSS, which includes the project SEGUE: Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Evolution.

  16. Abundances of D, O, and other species towards the Halo Star HD 93521

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, J. W.; Oliveira, C.; Sembach, K. R.; Savage, B. D.

    2006-06-01

    FUSE spectra of the halo star HD 93521 have been analyzed to determine column densities of D I, O I, N I, Ar I, Fe II, and H2 in the intermediate velocity cloud (IVC) along the line of sight. Combining these results with those from GHRS and ground-based spectra provides a comprehensive inventory of abundances in the IVC. We find a relatively high value for D/H (17.4 ppm), near solar abundances and low depletions for refractory elements, and a very low molecular fraction.

  17. Constraints of the Origin of the Remarkable Lithium Abundance in the Halo Star BD+23 3912

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy R.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Boesgaard, Ann Merchant

    1996-12-01

    The Li abundance of the halo star BD+23 3912 ([Fe/H]=-1.5) lies a factor of 2 - 3 above the Spite plateau. This remarkable difference could reflect either less-than-average stellar Li depletion from a higher primordial Li abundance (as predicted by the Yale rotational stellar evolutionary models), which may have interesting implications for Big Bang nucleosynthesis, or the extraordinary action of Galactic Li production mechanisms. It is also possible that both processes have acted. We use our high resolution, high S/N Keck HIRES spectrum of BD+23 3912 to determine the s-process element abundances and 6Li/7Li ratio in this star. These values serve as signatures for two possible Li production scenarios: the 7Be transport mechanism in AGB stars, and cosmic ray interactions with the ISM. The unremarkable abundances of Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd, and Sm that we derive argue against a significant contribution to this star' S excess Li from AGB production mechanisms carrying an s-process signature. Since halo subgiants like BD+23 3912 are expected to be particularly good 6Li preservers, our conservative upper limit of 6Li/7Li≤0.15 (compared to 0.25-0.50 expected from cosmic ray production) argues against cosmic ray + ISM interactions as the source for the excess Li, unless Li depletion from an even higher abundance has occurred with preferential 6Li depletion. Highly speculative RGB production scenarios also seem unlikely given the normal Na and M abundances we find and the normal C and 0 abundances determined by others. The totality of Li data on halo subgiants argues against possible diffusion scenarios, in which all such stars dredge up Li that diffused during the main sequence. While the high Li abundance in BD+23 3912 is consistent with that expected from Yale rotational models having a lower-than-average initial angular momentum, future observations of -process elements (particularly 11B) produced in supernovae should provide additional constraints on any enrichment

  18. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN NEARBY FGK STARS AND THE GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE LOCAL DISK AND HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Allende Prieto, C.

    2013-02-10

    Atmospheric parameters and oxygen abundances of 825 nearby FGK stars are derived using high-quality spectra and a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. We assign a kinematic probability for the stars to be thin-disk (P {sub 1}), thick-disk (P {sub 2}), and halo (P {sub 3}) members. We confirm previous findings of enhanced [O/Fe] in thick-disk (P {sub 2} > 0.5) relative to thin-disk (P {sub 1} > 0.5) stars with [Fe/H] {approx}< -0.2, as well as a 'knee' that connects the mean [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] trend of thick-disk stars with that of thin-disk members at [Fe/H] {approx}> -0.2. Nevertheless, we find that the kinematic membership criterion fails at separating perfectly the stars in the [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane, even when a very restrictive kinematic separation is employed. Stars with 'intermediate' kinematics (P {sub 1} < 0.7, P {sub 2} < 0.7) do not all populate the region of the [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane intermediate between the mean thin-disk and thick-disk trends, but their distribution is not necessarily bimodal. Halo stars (P {sub 3} > 0.5) show a large star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe]-[Fe/H], but most of it is due to stars with Galactocentric rotational velocity V < -200 km s{sup -1}; halo stars with V > -200 km s{sup -1} follow an [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation with almost no star-to-star scatter. Early mergers with satellite galaxies explain most of our observations, but the significant fraction of disk stars with 'ambiguous' kinematics and abundances suggests that scattering by molecular clouds and radial migration have both played an important role in determining the kinematic and chemical properties of solar neighborhood stars.

  19. Oxygen Abundances in Nearby FGK Stars and the Galactic Chemical Evolution of the Local Disk and Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, I.; Allende Prieto, C.; Lambert, D. L.

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric parameters and oxygen abundances of 825 nearby FGK stars are derived using high-quality spectra and a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. We assign a kinematic probability for the stars to be thin-disk (P 1), thick-disk (P 2), and halo (P 3) members. We confirm previous findings of enhanced [O/Fe] in thick-disk (P 2 > 0.5) relative to thin-disk (P 1 > 0.5) stars with [Fe/H] <~ -0.2, as well as a "knee" that connects the mean [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] trend of thick-disk stars with that of thin-disk members at [Fe/H] >~ -0.2. Nevertheless, we find that the kinematic membership criterion fails at separating perfectly the stars in the [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane, even when a very restrictive kinematic separation is employed. Stars with "intermediate" kinematics (P 1 < 0.7, P 2 < 0.7) do not all populate the region of the [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane intermediate between the mean thin-disk and thick-disk trends, but their distribution is not necessarily bimodal. Halo stars (P 3 > 0.5) show a large star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe]-[Fe/H], but most of it is due to stars with Galactocentric rotational velocity V < -200 km s-1 halo stars with V > -200 km s-1 follow an [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation with almost no star-to-star scatter. Early mergers with satellite galaxies explain most of our observations, but the significant fraction of disk stars with "ambiguous" kinematics and abundances suggests that scattering by molecular clouds and radial migration have both played an important role in determining the kinematic and chemical properties of solar neighborhood stars.

  20. Deep HST/ACS Photometry of an Arc of Young Stars in the Southern Halo of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannajak, Chutipong

    2016-01-01

    We present deep HST/ACS photometry of an arclike, overdense region of stars in the southern halo of M82, located approximately 5 kpc from its disk. This arc feature was originally identified about a decade ago. The early ground-based studies suggested that it contains young stars with ages and metallicities similar to those that formed in the tidal tails between M81, M82, and NGC3077 during their interactions. The arc is clearly presented in the spatial distribution of stars in our field with significantly higher stellar density than the background M82 halo stars. The location of the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) reveals the arc to have a similar distance to M81 and M82, therefore confirming that it belongs to this interacting system. Combining our data with those from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST), we construct a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the arc. A sequence of young stars is clearly presented on its CMD. This young main sequence is not seen in other parts of the M82 halo. Single-metallicity isochrones are used to derive the age of the young stars in the arc. We confirm that these stars exhibit ages consistent with young stars found in the HI bridges between M81, M82 and NGC3077. Furthermore, the mean metallicity of the RGB stars is also derived from their metallicity distribution function and found to be similar to that found in the HI bridges.

  1. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. II. TRACING THE INNER M31 HALO WITH BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Rosenfield, Philip; Bell, Eric F.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Seth, Anil C.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Girardi, Leo E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu E-mail: philrose@astro.washington.edu E-mail: raja@uco.lick.org E-mail: aseth@astro.utah.edu E-mail: lgirardi@pd.astro.it

    2012-11-01

    We attempt to constrain the shape of M31's inner stellar halo by tracing the surface density of blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars at galactocentric distances ranging from 2 kpc to 35 kpc. Our measurements make use of resolved stellar photometry from a section of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey, supplemented by several archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. We find that the ratio of BHB to red giant stars is relatively constant outside of 10 kpc, suggesting that the BHB is as reliable a tracer of the halo population as the red giant branch. In the inner halo, we do not expect BHB stars to be produced by the high-metallicity bulge and disk, making BHB stars a good candidate to be a reliable tracer of the stellar halo to much smaller galactocentric distances. If we assume a power-law profile r {sup -{alpha}} for the two-dimensional (2D) projected surface density BHB distribution, we obtain a high-quality fit with a 2D power-law index of {alpha} = 2.6{sup +0.3} {sub -0.2} outside of 3 kpc, which flattens to {alpha} < 1.2 inside of 3 kpc. This slope is consistent with previous measurements but is anchored to a radial baseline that extends much farther inward. Finally, assuming azimuthal symmetry and a constant mass-to-light ratio, the best-fitting profile yields a total halo stellar mass of 2.1{sup +1.7} {sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M {sub Sun }. These properties are comparable with both simulations of stellar halo formation by satellite disruption alone and simulations that include some in situ formation of halo stars.

  2. LIGHT CURVE TEMPLATES AND GALACTIC DISTRIBUTION OF RR LYRAE STARS FROM SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Grammer, Skyler H.; Morgan, Dylan P.; Becker, Andrew C.; Juric, Mario; De Lee, Nathan; Annis, James; Lampeitl, Hubert; Beers, Timothy C.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Lupton, Robert H.; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Johnston, David E.; Jester, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    We present an improved analysis of halo substructure traced by RR Lyrae stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) stripe 82 region. With the addition of SDSS-II data, a revised selection method based on new ugriz light curve templates results in a sample of 483 RR Lyrae stars that is essentially free of contamination. The main result from our first study persists: the spatial distribution of halo stars at galactocentric distances 5-100 kpc is highly inhomogeneous. At least 20% of halo stars within 30 kpc from the Galactic center can be statistically associated with substructure. We present strong direct evidence, based on both RR Lyrae stars and main-sequence stars, that the halo stellar number density profile significantly steepens beyond a Galactocentric distance of approx30 kpc, and a larger fraction of the stars are associated with substructure. By using a novel method that simultaneously combines data for RR Lyrae and main-sequence stars, and using photometric metallicity estimates for main-sequence stars derived from deep co-added u-band data, we measure the metallicity of the Sagittarius dSph tidal stream (trailing arm) toward R.A. approx2{sup h}-3{sup h} and decl. approx 0{sup 0} to be 0.3 dex higher ([Fe/H] = -1.2) than that of surrounding halo field stars. Together with a similar result for another major halo substructure, the Monoceros stream, these results support theoretical predictions that an early forming, smooth inner halo, is metal-poor compared to high surface brightness material that have been accreted onto a later-forming outer halo. The mean metallicity of stars in the outer halo that are not associated with detectable clumps may still be more metal-poor than the bulk of inner-halo stars, as has been argued from other data sets.

  3. r-Process Elements as Tracers of Enrichment Processes in the Early Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Nordström, Birgitta; Hansen, Terese T.

    2016-08-01

    Significant minorities of extremely metal-poor (EMP) halo stars exhibit dramatic excesses of neutron capture elements. The standard scenario for their origin is mass transfer and dilution in binary systems, but requires them to be binaries. If not, these excesses must have been implanted in them from birth by processes that are not included in current models of SN II chemical enrichment. The binary population of such EMP subgroups is a test of this scenario.

  4. A model atmosphere analysis of the faint early-type halo star PHL 346

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Lennon, D. J.; Brown, P. J. F.; Dufton, P. L.

    1986-08-01

    Stellar equivalent widths and hydrogen line profiles, measured from high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the 2.5 m Issac Newton Telescope, are used in conjunction with model atmosphere calculations to determine the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of the faint, high galactic latitude early-type star PHL 346. The effective temperature (Teff = 22,600 + or - 1000 K) and surface gravity (log g = 3.6 + or - 0.2), as well as the chemical composition, are found to be similar to those of normal OB stars. Therefore, it is concluded that PHL 346 is an ordinary Population I object, at a z distance of 8.7 + or - 1.5 kpc. The relatively small stellar velocity in the z-direction (Vz = +56 + or - 10 km/s) then implies that PHL 346 must have been formed in the halo, possibly from galactic fountain material at a z distance of about 6 kpc.

  5. MODELS FOR METAL-POOR STARS WITH ENHANCED ABUNDANCES OF C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, AND Ti, IN TURN, AT CONSTANT HELIUM AND IRON ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Dotter, Aaron; Bergbusch, Peter A.; Ferguson, Jason W.; Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques; Proffitt, Charles R. E-mail: Aaron.Dotter@gmail.com E-mail: proffitt@stsci.edu E-mail: michaudg@astro.umontreal.ca

    2012-08-10

    Recent work has shown that most globular clusters have at least two chemically distinct components, as well as cluster-to-cluster differences in the mean [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe], and [Si/Fe] ratios at similar [Fe/H] values. In order to investigate the implications of variations in the abundances of these and other metals for H-R diagrams and predicted ages, grids of evolutionary sequences have been computed for scaled solar and enhanced {alpha}-element metal abundances, and for mixtures in which the assumed [m/Fe] value for each of the metals C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ti has been increased, in turn, by 0.4 dex at constant [Fe/H]. These tracks, together with isochrones for ages from Almost-Equal-To 5 to 14 Gyr, have been computed for -3.0 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=}-0.6, with helium abundances Y = 0.25, 0.29, and 0.33 at each [Fe/H] value, using upgraded versions of the Victoria stellar structure program and the Regina interpolation code, respectively. Turnoff luminosity versus age relations from isochrones are found to depend almost entirely on the importance of the CNO cycle, and thereby mainly on the abundance of oxygen. Since C, N, and O, as well as Ne and S, do not contribute significantly to the opacities at low temperatures and densities, variations in their abundances do not impact the predicted T{sub eff} scale of red giants. The latter is a strong function of the abundances of only Mg and Si (and Fe, possibly to a lesser extent) because they are so abundant and because they are strong sources of opacity at low temperatures. For these reasons, Mg and Si also have important effects on the temperatures of main-sequence stars. Due to their low abundances, Na, Ca, and Ti are of little consequence for stellar models. The effects of varying the adopted solar metals mixture and the helium abundance at a fixed [Fe/H] are also briefly discussed.

  6. Overcooled haloes at z ≥ 10: a route to form low-mass first stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown by Shchekinov and Vasiliev (SV06) that HD molecules can be an important cooling agent in high redshift z ≥ 10 haloes if they undergo mergers under specific conditions so suitable shocks are created. Here, we build upon Prieto et al. who studied in detail the merger-generated shocks, and show that the conditions for HD cooling can be studied by combining these results with a suite of dark matter only simulations. We have performed a number of dark matter only simulations from cosmological initial conditions inside boxes with sizes from 1 to 4 Mpc. We look for haloes with at least two progenitors of which at least one has mass M ≥ Mcr(z), where Mcr(z) is the SV06 critical mass for HD overcooling. We find that the fraction of overcooled haloes with mass between Mcr(z) and 100.2Mcr(z), roughly below the atomic cooling limit, can be as high as ˜0.6 at z ≈ 10 depending on the merger mass ratio. This fraction decreases at higher redshift reaching a value ˜0.2 at z ≈ 15. For higher masses, i.e. above 100.2Mcr(z) up to 100.6Mcr(z), above the atomic cooling limit, this fraction rises to values ≳ 0.8 until z ≈ 12.5. As a consequence, a non-negligible fraction of high redshift z ≳ 10 mini-haloes can drop their gas temperature to the cosmic microwave background temperature limit allowing the formation of low-mass stars in primordial environments.

  7. Discovering metal-poor circumstellar OH masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steve; Green, James; van Loon, Jacco; Wood, Peter; Imai, Hiroshi; Groenewegen, Martin; Nanni, Ambra

    2014-10-01

    OH masers are excellent signposts for a variety of phenomenon including winds of highly-evolved stars (1612 MHz). Using the superior angular resolution and sensitivity of the ATCA, high spectral resolution of the CABB backend, and close proximity to the LMC (with half solar metallicity), this observation will allow us to extend an important relation involving the evolution of red giants and supergiants in a lower metallicity (van Loon, 2012). With even fewer detections with clear double-peaked profiles, indicating an expansion velocity of the circumstellar envelope, successful observation is vital for the advancement of our stellar mass-loss models. By refining the metallicity dependence of the mass-loss of highly-evolved red giants and supergiants in their superwind phase, we can better understand the evolution of these stars and their feedback within galaxies.

  8. The structure of star clusters in the outer halo of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanvir, N. R.; Mackey, A. D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Huxor, A.; Read, J. I.; Lewis, G. F.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S.; Ibata, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; McConnachie, A. W.; Martin, N. F.; Davies, M. B.; Bridges, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    We present a structural analysis of halo star clusters in M31 based on deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging. The clusters in our sample span a range in galactocentric projected distance from 13 to 100 kpc and thus reside in rather remote environments. Ten of the clusters are classical globulars, whilst four are from the Huxor et al. population of extended, old clusters. For most clusters, contamination by M31 halo stars is slight, and so the profiles can be mapped reliably to large radial distances from their centres. We find that the extended clusters are well fit by analytic King profiles with ˜20 parsec core radii and ˜100 parsec photometric tidal radii, or by Sérsic profiles of index ˜1 (i.e. approximately exponential). Most of the classical globulars also have large photometric tidal radii in the range 50-100 parsec; however, the King profile is a less good fit in some cases, particularly at small radii. We find 60 per cent of the classical globular clusters exhibit cuspy cores which are reasonably well described by Sérsic profiles of index ˜2-6. Our analysis also reinforces the finding that luminous classical globulars, with half-light radii <10 parsec, are present out to radii of at least 100 kpc in M31, which is in contrast to the situation in the Milky Way where such clusters (other than the unusual object NGC 2419) are absent beyond 40 kpc.

  9. Predicting Galaxy Star Formation Rates via the Co-evolution of Galaxies and Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2014-03-06

    In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy is determined by its dark matter halo formation history, and as such, that more quiescent galaxies reside in older halos. This simple model has been remarkably successful at predicting color-based galaxy statistics at low redshift as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To further test this method with observations, we present new SDSS measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star forming galaxy samples. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also employ a galaxy group finder and show that our model is able to predict: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR-dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an approx r-.15 slope, independent of environment. The accurate prediction for the spatial distribution of satellites is intriguing given the fact that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite, contrary to most galaxy evolution models. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.

  10. CARBON-RICH DUST PRODUCTION IN METAL-POOR GALAXIES IN THE LOCAL GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, G. C.; Matsuura, M.; Lagadec, E.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Kraemer, K. E.; McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Wood, P. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2012-06-20

    We have observed a sample of 19 carbon stars in the Sculptor, Carina, Fornax, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra show significant quantities of dust around the carbon stars in Sculptor, Fornax, and Leo I, but little in Carina. Previous comparisons of carbon stars with similar pulsation properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds revealed no evidence that metallicity affected the production of dust by carbon stars. However, the more metal-poor stars in the current sample appear to be generating less dust. These data extend two known trends to lower metallicities. In more metal-poor samples, the SiC dust emission weakens, while the acetylene absorption strengthens. The bolometric magnitudes and infrared spectral properties of the carbon stars in Fornax are consistent with metallicities more similar to carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds than in the other dwarf spheroidals in our sample. A study of the carbon budget in these stars reinforces previous considerations that the dredge-up of sufficient quantities of carbon from the stellar cores may trigger the final superwind phase, ending a star's lifetime on the asymptotic giant branch.

  11. Characterizing stellar halo populations - I. An extended distribution function for halo K giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Payel; Binney, James

    2016-08-01

    We fit an extended distribution function (EDF) to K giants in the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration survey. These stars are detected to radii ˜80 kpc and span a wide range in [Fe/H]. Our EDF, which depends on [Fe/H] in addition to actions, encodes the entanglement of metallicity with dynamics within the Galaxy's stellar halo. Our maximum-likelihood fit of the EDF to the data allows us to model the survey's selection function. The density profile of the K giants steepens with radius from a slope ˜-2 to ˜-4 at large radii. The halo's axis ratio increases with radius from 0.7 to almost unity. The metal-rich stars are more tightly confined in action space than the metal-poor stars and form a more flattened structure. A weak metallicity gradient ˜-0.001 dex kpc-1, a small gradient in the dispersion in [Fe/H] of ˜0.001 dex kpc-1, and a higher degree of radial anisotropy in metal-richer stars result. Lognormal components with peaks at ˜-1.5 and ˜-2.3 are required to capture the overall metallicity distribution, suggestive of the existence of two populations of K giants. The spherical anisotropy parameter varies between 0.3 in the inner halo to isotropic in the outer halo. If the Sagittarius stream is included, a very similar model is found but with a stronger degree of radial anisotropy throughout.

  12. Characterising stellar halo populations I: An extended distribution function for halo K giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Payel; Binney, James

    2016-05-01

    We fit an Extended Distribution Function (EDF) to K giants in the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) survey. These stars are detected to radii ˜80 kpc and span a wide range in [Fe/H]. Our EDF, which depends on [Fe/H] in addition to actions, encodes the entanglement of metallicity with dynamics within the Galaxy's stellar halo. Our maximum-likelihood fit of the EDF to the data allows us to model the survey's selection function. The density profile of the K giants steepens with radius from a slope ˜-2 to ˜-4 at large radii. The halo's axis ratio increases with radius from 0.7 to almost unity. The metal-rich stars are more tightly confined in action space than the metal-poor stars and form a more flattened structure. A weak metallicity gradient ˜-0.001 dex/kpc, a small gradient in the dispersion in [Fe/H] of ˜0.001 dex/kpc, and a higher degree of radial anistropy in metal-richer stars result. Lognormal components with peaks at ˜-1.5 and ˜-2.3 are required to capture the overall metallicity distribution, suggestive of the existence of two populations of K giants. The spherical anisotropy parameter varies between 0.3 in the inner halo to isotropic in the outer halo. If the Sagittarius stream is included, a very similar model is found but with a stronger degree of radial anisotropy throughout.

  13. Hα Surface Brightness Profiles of Star-Forming Galaxies and Dependence on Halo Mass Using the HAGGIS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Wilman, D.; Erwin, P.; Koppenhöfer, J.; Gutierrez, L.; Beckman, J.; Saglia, R.; Bender, R.

    2014-03-01

    We present the first results from the Hα Galaxy Groups Imaging Survey (HAGGIS), a narrow-band imaging survey of SDSS groups at z < 0.05 conducted using the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the ESO/MPG 2.2-meter telescope and the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the Issac Newton Telescope (INT). In total, we observed 100 galaxy groups with a wide range of halo mass (1012 - 1014 M⊙) in pairs of narrow-band filters selected to get continuum subtracted rest-frame Hα images for each galaxy. The excellent data allows us to detect Hα down to the 10-18 ergs/s/cm2/arcsec2 level. Here, we examine the role played by halo mass and galaxy stellar mass in deciding the overall star formation activity in star forming disks by comparing stacked Hα profiles of galaxies in different halo mass and stellar mass bins. With this preliminary study, we have found that the star-formation activity in star-forming galaxies decreases in larger halos compared to the field galaxies. Using median equivalent width profiles, we can infer how environmental processes affect star-forming galaxies differently at different radii.

  14. Red giants in the outer halo of the elliptical galaxy NGC 5128/Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah A.; Flynn, Chris; Harris, William E.; Valtonen, Mauri

    2015-03-01

    We used VIMOS on VLT to perform V and I band imaging of the outermost halo of NGC 5128/Centaurus A ((m - M)0 = 27.91±0.08), 65 kpc from the galaxy's center and along the major axis. The stellar population has been resolved to I0 ≈ 27 with a 50% completeness limit of I0 = 24.7, well below the tip of the red-giant branch (TRGB), which is seen at I0 ≈ 23.9. The surface density of NGC 5128 halo stars in our fields was sufficiently low that dim, unresolved background galaxies were a major contaminant in the source counts. We isolated a clean sample of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars extending to ≈0.8 mag below the TRGB through conservative magnitude and color cuts, to remove the (predominantly blue) unresolved background galaxies. We derived stellar metallicities from colors of the stars via isochrones and measured the density falloff of the halo as a function of metallicity by combining our observations with HST imaging taken of NGC 5128 halo fields closer to the galaxy center. We found both metal-rich and metal-poor stellar populations and found that the falloff of the two follows the same de Vaucouleurs' law profiles from ≈8 kpc out to ≈70 kpc. The metallicity distribution function (MDF) and the density falloff agree with the results of two recent studies of similar outermost halo fields in NGC 5128. We found no evidence of a "transition" in the radial profile of the halo, in which the metal-rich halo density would drop rapidly, leaving the underlying metal-poor halo to dominate by default out to greater radial extent, as has been seen in the outer halo of two other large galaxies. If NGC 5128 has such a transition, it must lie at larger galactocentric distances.

  15. The Multicolor Lyra Photometric System for Variable Stars and Halo Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Alexey V.; Zakharov, Andrey I.; Prokhorov, Mikhail E.; Nikolaev, Fedor N.; Tuchin, Maxim N.

    2010-02-01

    The space photometric project ``Lyra" is being developed now in Russia. The project purpose is determination of photometric information and coordinates of natural and artificial space objects, from the brightest ones to 16^{m} in visual light. It is supposed to obtain data for about 40-400 million objects from board of the International Space Station, using an astronomical telescope with a diameter of the main mirror of 0.5 m. The observations will be carried out in a scanning mode. Photometry will be obtained in 10 spectral bands. The expected uncertainty for objects of 16^{m} in the V band is 0.01m. The scanning law is that each object will be observed, on average, one hundred times. The Sternberg Astronomical Institute of the Moscow University is the director of experiment and the head scientific organization. The launch of the apparatus into the orbit is planned for 2013. The central wavelengths of the 10 bands of the Lyra photometric system will be at 195, 218, 270, 350, 440, 550, 700, 825, 930 and 1000 nm. It is shown that combinations of various color indices will allow us to determine confidently both effective temperature and metallicity of stars. The presence of a 218-nm band allows to determine confidently interstellar extinction for stars of O-F spectral types. The photometric system will make it possible to separate halo stars from disk stars and to derive physical parameters of their atmospheres. The main results of the experiment should be: i) a spatial model of the Galaxy at distances to 3 kpc from the Sun; ii) specification of physical parameters of stars and models of stellar evolution; iii) discovering a huge number (millions) of variable stars and determining their variability parameters.

  16. Dual Stellar Halos in the Standard Elliptical Galaxy M105 and Formation of Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2015-08-01

    M105 in the Leo I Group is a textbook example of a standard elliptical galaxy. Old red giant stars in the halo of M105 are easily resolved in the HST images so that it is an ideal target to study the structure and composition of stellar halos in elliptical galaxies. It is only one of the few elliptical galaxies for which we can study their stellar halos using the resolved stars. We present photometry of the resolved stars in its inner region at R~4 arcmin, obtained from F606W and F814W images in the Hubble Space Telescope archive. Then we combine this with photometry of the remote outer region at R~12 arcmin studied before. Deep color-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stars in the inner region show a prominent red giant branch (RGB) with a large color range, while those for the outer region show better a narrow blue RGB. We derive the metallicity of the RGB stars using the isochrones. The metallicity distribution function of the RGB stars shows the existence of two distinct subpopulations: a dominant metal-rich population and a much weaker metal-poor population. The peak metallicity of the metal-rich population changes little as galactocentric distance increases, while the fraction of the metal-poor population increases. The radial number density profile of the metal-poor RGB stars is flatter in the outer region than that of the metal-rich RGB stars. These provide strong evidence that there are two distinct stellar halos in this galaxy, blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich) halos, which is consistent with the results based on the study of the globular cluster systems in bright early-type galaxies (Park \\& Lee 2013,ApJ,773, 27). We discuss the implications of these results with regard to the formation of massive early-type galaxies in the dual halo mode formation scenario as well as in the two-phase formation scenario based on similuations.

  17. Artificial neural network to search for metal-poor galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fei; Liu, Yu-Yan; Kong, Xu; Chen, Yang

    2014-02-01

    Aims: To find a fast and reliable method for selecting metal-poor galaxies (MPGs), especially in large surveys and huge databases, an artificial neural network (ANN) method is applied to a sample of star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 9 (DR9) provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (MPA/JHU). Methods: A two-step approach is adopted: (i) The ANN network must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be either MPGs or metal rich galaxies (MRGs), treating the strong emission line flux measurements as input feature vectors in n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission line flux ratios. (ii) After the network is trained on a sample of star-forming galaxies, the remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as either MPGs or MRGs. We consider several random divisions of the data into training and testing sets; for instance, for our sample, a total of 70 percent of the data are involved in training the algorithm, 15 percent are involved in validating the algorithm, and the remaining 15 percent are used for blind testing the resulting classifier. Results: For target selection, we have achieved an acquisition rate for MPGs of 96 percent and 92 percent for an MPGs threshold of 12 + log (O/H) = 8.00 and 12 + log (O/H) = 8.39, respectively. Running the code takes minutes in most cases under the Matlab 2013a software environment. The ANN method can easily be extended to any MPGs target selection task when the physical property of the target can be expressed as a quantitative variable. The code in the paper is available on the web (http://fshi5388.blog.163.com).

  18. THE TERZAN 5 PUZZLE: DISCOVERY OF A THIRD, METAL-POOR COMPONENT

    SciTech Connect

    Origlia, L.; Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.

    2013-12-10

    We report on the discovery of three metal-poor giant stars in Terzan 5, a complex stellar system in the Galactic bulge, known to have two populations at [Fe/H] = –0.25 and +0.3. For these three stars we present new echelle spectra obtained with NIRSPEC at Keck II, which confirm their radial velocity membership and provide an average [Fe/H] = –0.79 dex iron abundance and [α/Fe] = +0.36 dex enhancement. This new population extends the metallicity range of Terzan 5 to 0.5 dex more metal poor, and it has properties consistent with having formed from a gas polluted by core-collapse supernovae.

  19. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    recently.Dwarfs destroyed and accreted early on are typically low-metallicity as would be expected, since metallicity was lower in the early universe. Dwarfs accreted later in the simulation are typically higher metallicity. So host halos with recent accretion events are not only likely to have accreted more stellar mass, but also probably higher-metallicity stars.Though ultra-faint, low-mass dwarfs have lower average metallicities than the larger classical dwarfs, classical dwarfs contribute more of the very metal-poor stars accreted by host halos (40-80%, compared to the 2-5% from ultra-faint dwarfs).Halos that have relatively quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower-mass surviving dwarfs today.A Transient Fossil?This last point has interesting implications for our own galaxy. The Milky Way is generally though to have a quiescent formation history, and yet it contains two high-mass surviving dwarfs: the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The authors suggest that this inconsistency could be resolved if the Milky Way is a transient fossil a halo with a quiescent formation history masked by its recent acquisition of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.The outcomes from this suite of simulations provide important clues for better understanding how our own galaxy and galaxies like ours have formed and evolved.CitationAlis J. Deason et al 2016 ApJ 821 5. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/821/1/5

  20. Absolute proper motions to B approximately 22.5: Evidence for kimematical substructure in halo field stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    1994-01-01

    Radial velocities have been obtained for six of nine stars identified on the basis of similar distances and common, extreme transverse velocities in the proper motion survey of Majewski (1992) as a candidate halo moving group at the north Galactic pole. These radial velocities correspond to velocities perpendicular to the Galactic plane which span the range -48 +/- 21 to -128 +/- 9 km/sec (but a smaller range, -48 +/- 21 to -86 +/- 19 km/sec, when only our own measurements are considered), significantly different than the expected distribution, with mean 0 km/sec, for a random sample of either halo or thick disk stars. The probability of picking such a set of radial velocities at random is less than 1%. Thus the radial velocity data support the hypothesis that these stars constitute part of a halo moving group or star stream at a distance of approximately 4-5 kpc above the Galactic plane. If real, this moving group is evidence for halo phase space substructure which may be the fossil remains of a destroyed globular cluster, Galactic satellite, or Searle & Zinn (1978) 'fragment.'

  1. An Extremely Fast Halo Hot Subdwarf Star in a Wide Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Péter; Ziegerer, Eva; Irrgang, Andreas; Geier, Stephan; Fürst, Felix; Kupfer, Thomas; Heber, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    New spectroscopic observations of the halo hyper-velocity star candidate SDSS J121150.27+143716.2 (V = 17.92 mag) revealed a cool companion to the hot subdwarf primary. The components have a very similar radial velocity and their absolute luminosities are consistent with the same distance, confirming the physical nature of the binary, which is the first double-lined hyper-velocity candidate. Our spectral decomposition of the Keck/ESI spectrum provided an sdB+K3V pair, analogous to many long-period subdwarf binaries observed in the Galactic disk. We found the subdwarf atmospheric parameters: {T}{{eff}}=30\\600+/- 500 K, {log}g=5.57+/- 0.06 cm s-2, and He abundance {log}(n{{He}}/n{{H}})=-3.0+/- 0.2. Oxygen is the most abundant metal in the hot subdwarf atmosphere, and Mg and Na lines are the most prominent spectral features of the cool companion, consistent with a metallicity of [{{Fe}}/{{H}}]=-1.3. The non-detection of radial velocity variations suggest the orbital period to be a few hundred days, in agreement with similar binaries observed in the disk. Using the SDSS-III flux calibrated spectrum we measured the distance to the system d=5.5+/- 0.5 {{kpc}}, which is consistent with ultraviolet, optical, and infrared photometric constraints derived from binary spectral energy distributions. Our kinematic study shows that the Galactic rest-frame velocity of the system is so high that an unbound orbit cannot be ruled out. On the other hand, a bound orbit requires a massive dark matter halo. We conclude that the binary either formed in the halo or was accreted from the tidal debris of a dwarf galaxy by the Milky Way.

  2. An Extremely Fast Halo Hot Subdwarf Star in a Wide Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Péter; Ziegerer, Eva; Irrgang, Andreas; Geier, Stephan; Fürst, Felix; Kupfer, Thomas; Heber, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    New spectroscopic observations of the halo hyper-velocity star candidate SDSS J121150.27+143716.2 (V = 17.92 mag) revealed a cool companion to the hot subdwarf primary. The components have a very similar radial velocity and their absolute luminosities are consistent with the same distance, confirming the physical nature of the binary, which is the first double-lined hyper-velocity candidate. Our spectral decomposition of the Keck/ESI spectrum provided an sdB+K3V pair, analogous to many long-period subdwarf binaries observed in the Galactic disk. We found the subdwarf atmospheric parameters: {T}{{eff}}=30\\600+/- 500 K, {log}g=5.57+/- 0.06 cm s‑2, and He abundance {log}(n{{He}}/n{{H}})=-3.0+/- 0.2. Oxygen is the most abundant metal in the hot subdwarf atmosphere, and Mg and Na lines are the most prominent spectral features of the cool companion, consistent with a metallicity of [{{Fe}}/{{H}}]=-1.3. The non-detection of radial velocity variations suggest the orbital period to be a few hundred days, in agreement with similar binaries observed in the disk. Using the SDSS-III flux calibrated spectrum we measured the distance to the system d=5.5+/- 0.5 {{kpc}}, which is consistent with ultraviolet, optical, and infrared photometric constraints derived from binary spectral energy distributions. Our kinematic study shows that the Galactic rest-frame velocity of the system is so high that an unbound orbit cannot be ruled out. On the other hand, a bound orbit requires a massive dark matter halo. We conclude that the binary either formed in the halo or was accreted from the tidal debris of a dwarf galaxy by the Milky Way.

  3. On the Origin of the High Lithium Abundance in the Halo Star BD+23{\\ }3912

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliyannis, C. P.; King, J. R.; Boesgaard, A. M.

    1996-09-01

    The Li abundance of the halo star BD+23{\\ }3912 ([Fe/H]=-1.5) lies a factor of 2-3 above the Spite plateau. This remarkable difference could reflect either less-than-average stellar Li depletion from a higher primordial Li abundance (as predicted by the Yale rotational stellar evolutionary models), which may have interesting implications for Big Bang nucleosynthesis, or the extraordinary action of Galactic Li production mechanisms (or both). We use our high resolution, high S/N Keck HIRES spectrum of BD+23{\\ }3912 to determine the s-process element abundances and (6) Li/(7) Li ratio in this star. These values serve as signatures for two possible Li production scenarios: {\\ }the (7) Be transport mechanism in AGB stars, and cosmic ray interactions with the ISM. The unremarkable abundances of Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd, and Sm that we derive argue against a significant contribution to this star's excess Li from AGB production mechanisms carrying an s-process signature. Our conservative upper limit of (6) Li/(7) Li{<=}0.15 (compared to 0.25-0.50 expected from cosmic ray production) argues against cosmic ray + ISM interactions as the source for the excess Li, unless Li depletion from an even higher abundance has occurred with preferential (6) Li depletion. Highly speculative RGB production scenarios also seem unlikely given the normal Na and Al abundances we find and the normal C and O abundances determined by others. While the high Li abundance in BD+23{\\ }3912 is consistent with that expected from Yale rotational models having a lower-than-average initial angular momentum, future observations of ν-process elements (particularly (11) B) produced in supernovae should provide additional constraints on any enrichment scenarios seeking to explain the large Li abundance of this interesting star.

  4. Constraints on the Origin of the Remarkable Lithium Abundance of the Halo Star BD+23 3912

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy R.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Boesgaard, Ann M.

    1997-02-01

    The Li abundance of the halo star BD+23 3912 ([Fe/(H)] = -1.5) lies a factor of 2 - 3 above the Spite Plateau. This remarkable difference could reflect either less-than-average stellar Li depletion from a higher primordial Li abundance (as predicted by the Yale rotational stellar evolutionary models) having interesting implications for Big Bang nucleosynthesis, or the extraordinary action of Galactic Li production mechanisms. It is also possible that both mechanisms have acted. We use our high resolution, high S/(N) Keck HIRES spectrum of BD+23 3912 to determine the n-capture abundances and 6Li/(7Li) ratio in this star. These values serve as signatures for two possible Li production scenarios: the 7Be transport mechanism in AGB stars and cosmic ray interactions with the ISM. The unremarkable abundances of Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd, and Sm that we derive argue against a significant contribution to this star's excess Li from AGB production mechanisms carrying an s-process signature. Our conservative upper limit of 6Li/(7Li)<=0.15, compared to 0.25 - 0.50 expected from cosmic ray production, argues against cosmic ray + ISM interactions as the source for the excess Li, unless Li depletion from an even higher abundance has occurred with preferential 6Li depletion. Highly speculative RGB production scenarios also seem unlikely given the normal Na and Al abundances we find and the normal C and O abundances determined by others. While the high Li abundance in BD+23 3912 is consistent with that expected from Yale rotational models having a lower-than-average initial angular momentum, future observations of ν-process elements (particularly 11B) produced in supernovae should provide additional constraints on any enrichment scenarios seeking to explain the large Li abundance of this interesting star.

  5. On the Contribution of Fluorescence to Lyα Halos around Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Dijkstra, Mark

    2016-05-01

    We quantify the contribution of Lyα fluorescence to observed spatially extended Lyα halos around Lyα emitters at redshift z = 3.1. The key physical quantities that describe the fluorescent signal include (i) the distribution of cold gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM); we explore simple analytic models and fitting functions to recent hydrodynamical simulations; and (ii) local variations in the ionizing background due to ionizing sources that cluster around the central galaxy. We account for clustering by boosting the observationally inferred volumetric production rate of ionizing photons, {ɛ }{{LyC}}, by a factor of 1+{ξ }{{LyC}}(r), in which {ξ }{{LyC}}(r) quantifies the clustering of ionizing sources around the central galaxy. We compute {ξ }{{LyC}}(r) by assigning an “effective” bias parameter to the ionizing sources. This novel approach allows us to quantify our ignorance of the population of ionizing sources in a simple parametrized form. We find a maximum enhancement in the local ionizing background in the range 50–200 at r ˜ 10 physical kpc. For spatially uncorrelated ionizing sources and fluorescing clouds we find that fluorescence can contribute up to ˜ 50%–60% of the observed spatially extended Lyα emission. We briefly discuss how future observations can shed light on the nature of Lyα halos around star-forming galaxies.

  6. Population III Stars Around the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Yutaka; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the possibility of observing Population III (Pop III) stars, born of primordial gas. Pop III stars with masses below 0.8 M⊙ should survive to date though are not yet observed, but the existence of stars with low metallicity as [{{Fe}}/{{H}}]\\lt -5 in the Milky Way halo suggests the surface pollution of Pop III stars with accreted metals from the interstellar gas after birth. In this paper, we investigate the runaway of Pop III stars from their host mini-halos, considering the ejection of secondary members from binary systems when their massive primaries explode as supernovae. These stars save them from surface pollution. By computing the star formation and chemical evolution along with the hierarchical structure formation based on the extended Press-Schechter merger trees, we demonstrate that several hundreds to tens of thousands of low-mass Pop III stars escape from the building blocks of the Milky Way. The second and later generations of extremely metal-poor stars also escaped from the mini-halos. We discuss the spatial distributions of these escaped stars by evaluating the distances between the mini-halos in the branches of merger trees under the spherical collapse model of dark matter halos. It is demonstrated that the escaped stars distribute beyond the stellar halo with a density profile close to the dark matter halo, while Pop III stars are slightly more centrally concentrated. 6%-30% of the escaped stars leave the Milky Way and go out into the intergalactic space. Based on the results, we discuss the feasibility of observing the Pop III stars with the pristine surface abundance.

  7. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. II. HALO STRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE TRACED BY RR LYRAE STARS TO 30 kpc

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Morgan, Dylan M.; Becker, Andrew C.; Stuart, J. Scott; Sharma, Sanjib; Palaversa, Lovro; Juric, Mario; Wozniak, Przemyslaw; Oluseyi, Hakeem

    2013-08-01

    We present a sample of {approx}5000 RR Lyrae stars selected from the recalibrated LINEAR data set and detected at heliocentric distances between 5 kpc and 30 kpc over {approx}8000 deg{sup 2} of sky. The coordinates and light curve properties, such as period and Oosterhoff type, are made publicly available. We analyze in detail the light curve properties and Galactic distribution of the subset of {approx}4000 type ab RR Lyrae (RRab) stars, including a search for new halo substructures and the number density distribution as a function of Oosterhoff type. We find evidence for the Oosterhoff dichotomy among field RR Lyrae stars, with the ratio of the type II and I subsamples of about 1:4, but with a weaker separation than for globular cluster stars. The wide sky coverage and depth of this sample allow unique constraints for the number density distribution of halo RRab stars as a function of galactocentric distance: it can be described as an oblate ellipsoid with an axis ratio q = 0.63 and with either a single or a double power law with a power-law index in the range -2 to -3. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the Oosterhoff type II subsample has a steeper number density profile than the Oosterhoff type I subsample. Using the group-finding algorithm EnLink, we detected seven candidate halo groups, only one of which is statistically spurious. Three of these groups are near globular clusters (M53/NGC 5053, M3, M13), and one is near a known halo substructure (Virgo Stellar Stream); the remaining three groups do not seem to be near any known halo substructures or globular clusters and seem to have a higher ratio of Oosterhoff type II to Oosterhoff type I RRab stars than what is found in the halo. The extended morphology and the position (outside the tidal radius) of some of the groups near globular clusters are suggestive of tidal streams possibly originating from globular clusters. Spectroscopic follow-up of detected halo groups is encouraged.

  8. Probing star formation in the dense environments of z ˜ 1 lensing haloes aligned with dusty star-forming galaxies detected with the South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welikala, N.; Béthermin, M.; Guery, D.; Strandet, M.; Aird, K. A.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bothwell, M.; Beelen, A.; Bleem, L. E.; de Breuck, C.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Crawford, T. M.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Everett, W.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Gonzalez, A. H.; González-Nuevo, J.; Greve, T. R.; Gullberg, B.; Hezaveh, Y. D.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Keisler, R.; Lagache, G.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Mocanu, L. M.; Montier, L.; Murphy, E. J.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Omont, A.; Pointecouteau, E.; Puget, J. L.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rotermund, K. M.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spilker, J. S.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiß, A.

    2016-01-01

    We probe star formation in the environments of massive (˜1013 M⊙) dark matter haloes at redshifts of z ˜ 1. This star formation is linked to a submillimetre clustering signal which we detect in maps of the Planck High Frequency Instrument that are stacked at the positions of a sample of high redshift (z > 2) strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) 2500 deg2 survey. The clustering signal has submillimetre colours which are consistent with the mean redshift of the foreground lensing haloes (z ˜ 1). We report a mean excess of star formation rate (SFR) compared to the field, of (2700 ± 700) M⊙ yr-1 from all galaxies contributing to this clustering signal within a radius of 3.5 arcmin from the SPT DSFGs. The magnitude of the Planck excess is in broad agreement with predictions of a current model of the cosmic infrared background. The model predicts that 80 per cent of the excess emission measured by Planck originates from galaxies lying in the neighbouring haloes of the lensing halo. Using Herschel maps of the same fields, we find a clear excess, relative to the field, of individual sources which contribute to the Planck excess. The mean excess SFR compared to the field is measured to be (370 ± 40) M⊙ yr-1 per resolved, clustered source. Our findings suggest that the environments around these massive z ˜ 1 lensing haloes host intense star formation out to about 2 Mpc. The flux enhancement due to clustering should also be considered when measuring flux densities of galaxies in Planck data.

  9. Revisiting the luminosity function of single halo white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, Ruxandra; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G.; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Context. White dwarfs are the fossils left by the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, and have very long evolutionary timescales. This allows us to use them to explore the properties of old populations, like the Galactic halo. Aims: We present a population synthesis study of the luminosity function of halo white dwarfs, aimed at investigating which information can be derived from the currently available observed data. Methods: We employ an up-to-date population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences for metal-poor progenitors as well as an accurate modeling of the observational biases. Results: We find that because the observed sample of halo white dwarfs is restricted to the brightest stars, only the hot branch of the white dwarf luminosity function can be used for these purposes, and that its shape function is almost insensitive to the most relevant inputs, such as the adopted cooling sequences, the initial mass function, the density profile of the stellar spheroid, or the adopted fraction of unresolved binaries. Moreover, since the cutoff of the observed luminosity has not yet been determined only the lower limits to the age of the halo population can be placed. Conclusions: We conclude that the current observed sample of the halo white dwarf population is still too small to obtain definite conclusions about the properties of the stellar halo, and the recently computed white dwarf cooling sequences, which incorporate residual hydrogen burning, should be assessed using metal-poor globular clusters.

  10. A Combined Astrometric and Spectroscopic Study of Metal-Poor Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamati, L.; Sozzetti, A.; Santos, N. C.; Latham, D. W.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we present a study of binary systems in a metal-poor sample of solar type stars. The stars analyzed were rejected from two planet search samples because they were found to be binaries. Using available radial velocity and Hipparcos astrometric data, we apply different methods to find, for every binary system, a possible range of solutions for the mass of the companion and its orbital period. In one case we find that the solution depends on the Hipparcos data used: the old and new reductions give different results. Some candidate low-mass companions are found, including some close to the brown dwarf regime.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The SEGUE K giant survey. III. Galactic halo (Janesh+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, W.; Morrison, H. L.; Ma, Z.; Rockosi, C.; Starkenburg, E.; Xue, X. X.; Rix, H.-W.; Harding, P.; Beers, T. C.; Johnson, J.; Lee, Y. S.; Schneider, D. P.

    2016-03-01

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5-125kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) project. Using a position-velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (~33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity. (2 data files).

  12. The Formation and Evolution of Young Low-mass Stars within Halos with High Concentration of Dark Matter Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanellas, Jordi; Lopes, IlíDio

    2009-11-01

    The formation and evolution of low-mass stars within dense halos of dark matter (DM) leads to evolution scenarios quite different from the classical stellar evolution. As a result of our detailed numerical work, we describe these new scenarios for a range of DM densities on the host halo, for a range of scattering cross sections of the DM particles considered, and for stellar masses from 0.7 to 3 M sun. For the first time, we also computed the evolution of young low-mass stars in their Hayashi track in the pre-main-sequence phase and found that, for high DM densities, these stars stop their gravitational collapse before reaching the main sequence, in agreement with similar studies on first stars. Such stars remain indefinitely in an equilibrium state with lower effective temperatures (|ΔT eff|>103 K for a star of one solar mass), the annihilation of captured DM particles in their core being the only source of energy. In the case of lower DM densities, these protostars continue their collapse and progress through the main-sequence burning hydrogen at a lower rate. A star of 1 M sun will spend a time period greater than the current age of the universe consuming all the hydrogen in its core if it evolves in a halo with DM density ρχ = 109 GeV cm-3. We also show the strong dependence of the effective temperature and luminosity of these stars on the characteristics of the DM particles and how this can be used as an alternative method for DM research.

  13. Is atomic carbon a good tracer of molecular gas in metal-poor galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is widely used as a tracer of molecular hydrogen (H2) in metal-rich galaxies, but is known to become ineffective in low-metallicity dwarf galaxies. Atomic carbon has been suggested as a superior tracer of H2 in these metal-poor systems, but its suitability remains unproven. To help us to assess how well atomic carbon traces H2 at low metallicity, we have performed a series of numerical simulations of turbulent molecular clouds that cover a wide range of different metallicities. Our simulations demonstrate that in star-forming clouds, the conversion factor between [C I] emission and H2 mass, XCI, scales approximately as XCI ∝ Z-1. We recover a similar scaling for the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO, but find that at this point in the evolution of the clouds, XCO is consistently smaller than XCI, by a factor of a few or more. We have also examined how XCI and XCO evolve with time. We find that XCI does not vary strongly with time, demonstrating that atomic carbon remains a good tracer of H2 in metal-poor systems even at times significantly before the onset of star formation. On the other hand, XCO varies very strongly with time in metal-poor clouds, showing that CO does not trace H2 well in starless clouds at low metallicity.

  14. Investigating the earliest epochs of the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, Else; Starkenburg

    2016-08-01

    Resolved stellar spectroscopy can obtain knowledge about chemical enrichment processes back to the earliest times, when the oldest stars were formed. In this contribution I will review the early (chemical) evolution of the Milky Way halo from an observational perspective. In particular, I will discuss our understanding of the origin of the peculiar abundance patterns in various subclasses of extremely metal-poor stars, taking into account new data from our abundance and radial velocity monitoring programs, and their implications for our understanding of the formation and early evolution of both the Milky Way halo and the satellite dwarf galaxies therein. I conclude by presenting the ``Pristine'' survey, a program on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to study this intriguing epoch much more efficiently.

  15. Lightcurves of the Dominant Dust Producers in Metal-poor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Martha; Whitelock, P.; Sonneborn, G.; Sloan, G. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Meixner, M.; McQuinn, K. B. W.; McDonald, I.; Lagadec, E.; Javadi, A.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Gehrz, R. D.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2014-12-01

    DUSTiNGS is a Spitzer Cycle 8 program that has provided the first complete spatially-resolved infrared census of evolved stars in a statistically significant sample of low metallicity, nearby (D<1.5 Mpc) dwarf galaxies. One of the main results of the program to date is the discovery of hundreds of dust-producing AGB stars up to ~1 dex more metal-poor than previously known examples, suggesting that dust forms efficiently at least down to [Fe/H] = -2.2 dex. This discovery not only has implications for our interpretation of the interstellar medium and star formation in nearby, resolved galaxies, but also for our understanding of the dust production and chemical evolution of galaxies in the metal-poor environment of the early Universe. Here, we propose new, multi-epoch IRAC observations of 10 DUSTiNGS galaxies to measure the amplitudes, periods, and dust excesses of the DUSTiNGS AGB stars and thereby gain insight into the basic properties of the underlying dust producing populations. These data will provide a foundation for understanding dust production by AGB stars in chemically un-evolved systems, as well as providing a target list of these enigmatic objects for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) follow-up.

  16. GAS REGULATION OF GALAXIES: THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, THE METALLICITY-MASS-STAR-FORMATION RATE RELATION, AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie; Renzini, Alvio

    2013-08-01

    A very simple physical model of galaxies is one in which the formation of stars is instantaneously regulated by the mass of gas in a reservoir with mass loss scaling with the star-formation rate (SFR). This model links together three different aspects of the evolving galaxy population: (1) the cosmic time evolution of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relative to the growth of halos, (2) the gas-phase metallicities across the galaxy population and over cosmic time, and (3) the ratio of the stellar to dark matter mass of halos. The gas regulator is defined by the gas consumption timescale ({epsilon}{sup -1}) and the mass loading {lambda} of the wind outflow {lambda}{center_dot}SFR. The simplest regulator, in which {epsilon} and {lambda} are constant, sets the sSFR equal to exactly the specific accretion rate of the galaxy; more realistic situations lead to an sSFR that is perturbed from this precise relation. Because the gas consumption timescale is shorter than the timescale on which the system evolves, the metallicity Z is set primarily by the instantaneous operation of the regulator system rather than by the past history of the system. The metallicity of the gas reservoir depends on {epsilon}, {lambda}, and sSFR, and the regulator system therefore naturally produces a Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation if {epsilon} and {lambda} depend on the stellar mass m{sub star}. Furthermore, this relation will be the same at all epochs unless the parameters {epsilon} and {lambda} themselves change with time. A so-called fundamental metallicity relation is naturally produced by these conditions. The overall mass-metallicity relation Z(m{sub star}) directly provides the fraction f{sub star}(m{sub star}) of incoming baryons that are being transformed into stars. The observed Z(m{sub star}) relation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies implies a strong dependence of stellar mass on halo mass that reconciles the different faint-end slopes of the stellar and halo mass

  17. A KECK HIRES DOPPLER SEARCH FOR PLANETS ORBITING METAL-POOR DWARFS. II. ON THE FREQUENCY OF GIANT PLANETS IN THE METAL-POOR REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Sozzetti, Alessandro; Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Boss, Alan P.; Carney, Bruce W.; Laird, John B. E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu E-mail: laird@bgsu.edu

    2009-05-20

    We present an analysis of three years of precision radial velocity (RV) measurements of 160 metal-poor stars observed with HIRES on the Keck 1 telescope. We report on variability and long-term velocity trends for each star in our sample. We identify several long-term, low-amplitude RV variables worthy of followup with direct imaging techniques. We place lower limits on the detectable companion mass as a function of orbital period. Our survey would have detected, with a 99.5% confidence level, over 95% of all companions on low-eccentricity orbits with velocity semiamplitude K {approx}> 100 m s{sup -1}, or M{sub p} sin i {approx}> 3.0 M {sub J}(P/yr){sup (1/3)}, for orbital periods P {approx}< 3 yr. None of the stars in our sample exhibits RV variations compatible with the presence of Jovian planets with periods shorter than the survey duration. The resulting average frequency of gas giants orbiting metal-poor dwarfs with -2.0{approx}<[Fe/H]{approx}<-0.6 is f{sub p} < 0.67% (at the 1{sigma} confidence level). We examine the implications of this null result in the context of the observed correlation between the rate of occurrence of giant planets and the metallicity of their main-sequence solar-type stellar hosts. By combining our data set with the Fischer and Valenti (2005) uniform sample, we confirm that the likelihood of a star to harbor a planet more massive than Jupiter within 2 AU is a steeply rising function of the host's metallicity. However, the data for stars with -1.0{approx}<[Fe/H]{approx}<0.0 are compatible, in a statistical sense, with a constant occurrence rate f{sub p} {approx_equal} 1%. Our results can usefully inform theoretical studies of the process of giant-planet formation across two orders of magnitude in metallicity.

  18. Segue 3: An Old, Extremely Low Luminosity Star Cluster in the Milky Way's Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadely, Ross; Willman, Beth; Geha, Marla; Walsh, Shane; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Jerjen, Helmut; Vargas, Luis C.; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the kinematic and photometric properties of the Segue 3 Milky Way companion using Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and Magellan/IMACS g- and r-band imaging. Using maximum likelihood methods to analyze the photometry, we study the structure and stellar population of Segue 3. We find that the half-light radius of Segue 3 is 26'' ± 5'' (2.1 ± 0.4 pc, for a distance of 17 kpc) and the absolute magnitude is a mere MV = 0.0 ± 0.8 mag, making Segue 3 the least luminous old stellar system known. We find Segue 3 to be consistent with a single stellar population, with an age of 12.0+1.5 - 0.4 Gyr and an [Fe/H] of -1.7+0.07 - 0.27. Line-of-sight velocities from the spectra are combined with the photometry to determine a sample of 32 stars which are likely associated with Segue 3. The member stars within three half-light radii have a velocity dispersion of 1.2 ± 2.6 km s-1. Photometry of the members indicates that the stellar population has a spread in [Fe/H] of <~ 0.3 dex. These facts, together with the small physical size of Segue 3, imply the object is likely an old, faint stellar cluster which contains no significant dark matter. We find tentative evidence for stellar mass loss in Segue 3 through the 11 candidate member stars outside of three half-light radii, as expected from dynamical arguments. Interpretation of the data outside of three half-light radii is complicated by the object's spatial coincidence with a previously known halo substructure, which may enhance contamination of our member sample.

  19. A NEW MILKY WAY HALO STAR CLUSTER IN THE SOUTHERN GALACTIC SKY

    SciTech Connect

    Balbinot, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Da Costa, L.; Maia, M. A. G.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.; Majewski, S. R.; Nidever, D.; Thomas, D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Yanny, B.

    2013-04-20

    We report on the discovery of a new Milky Way (MW) companion stellar system located at ({alpha}{sub J2000,}{delta}{sub J2000}) = (22{sup h}10{sup m}43{sup s}.15, 14 Degree-Sign 56 Prime 58 Double-Prime .8). The discovery was made using the eighth data release of SDSS after applying an automated method to search for overdensities in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey footprint. Follow-up observations were performed using Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope/MegaCam, which reveal that this system is comprised of an old stellar population, located at a distance of 31.9{sup +1.0}{sub -1.6} kpc, with a half-light radius of r{sub h}= 7.24{sup +1.94}{sub -1.29} pc and a concentration parameter of c = log{sub 10}(r{sub t} /r{sub c} ) = 1.55. A systematic isochrone fit to its color-magnitude diagram resulted in log (age yr{sup -1}) = 10.07{sup +0.05}{sub -0.03} and [Fe/H] = -1.58{sup +0.08}{sub -0.13}. These quantities are typical of globular clusters in the MW halo. The newly found object is of low stellar mass, whose observed excess relative to the background is caused by 95 {+-} 6 stars. The direct integration of its background decontaminated luminosity function leads to an absolute magnitude of M{sub V} = -1.21 {+-} 0.66. The resulting surface brightness is {mu}{sub V} = 25.90 mag arcsec{sup -2}. Its position in the M{sub V} versus r{sub h} diagram lies close to AM4 and Koposov 1, which are identified as star clusters. The object is most likely a very faint star cluster-one of the faintest and lowest mass systems yet identified.

  20. Core-Halo Structure of a Chemically Homogeneous Massive Star and Bending of the Zero-Age Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mie; Ueno, Munetaka; Kato, Mariko

    1999-08-01

    We have recalculated the interior structure of very massive stars of uniform chemical composition with the OPAL opacity. Very massive stars are found to develop a core-halo structure with an extended radiative-envelope. With the core-halo structure, because a more massive star has a more extended envelope, the track of the upper zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) curves redward in the H-R diagram at > 100 MO (Z=0.02), >70 MO (Z=0.05), and > 15 MO for helium ZAMS (X=0, Z=0.02). Therefore, the effective temperatures of very massive ZAMS stars are rather low: e.g., for a 200 MO star, log T_eff=4.75 (Z=0.004), 4.60 (Z=0.02), 4.46 (Z=0.05), and 4.32 (Z=0.10). The effective temperatures of very luminous stars (> 120 MO ) found in the LMC, the SMC, and the Galaxy are discussed in relation to this metal dependence of a curving upper main-sequence.

  1. Extremely metal-poor gas at a redshift of 7.

    PubMed

    Simcoe, Robert A; Sullivan, Peter W; Cooksey, Kathy L; Kao, Melodie M; Matejek, Michael S; Burgasser, Adam J

    2012-12-01

    In typical astrophysical environments, the abundance of heavy elements ranges from 0.001 to 2 times the solar value. Lower abundances have been seen in selected stars in the Milky Way's halo and in two quasar absorption systems at redshift z = 3 (ref. 4). These are widely interpreted as relics from the early Universe, when all gas possessed a primordial chemistry. Before now there have been no direct abundance measurements from the first billion years after the Big Bang, when the earliest stars began synthesizing elements. Here we report observations of hydrogen and heavy-element absorption in a spectrum of a quasar at z =  7.04, when the Universe was just 772 million years old (5.6 per cent of its present age). We detect a large column of neutral hydrogen but no corresponding metals (defined as elements heavier than helium), limiting the chemical abundance to less than 1/10,000 times the solar level if the gas is in a gravitationally bound proto-galaxy, or to less than 1/1,000 times the solar value if it is diffuse and unbound. If the absorption is truly intergalactic, it would imply that the Universe was neither ionized by starlight nor chemically enriched in this neighbourhood at z ≈ 7. If it is gravitationally bound, the inferred abundance is too low to promote efficient cooling, and the system would be a viable site to form the predicted but as yet unobserved massive population III stars. PMID:23222611

  2. Radiative and Kinetic Feedback by Low-Mass Primordial Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Daniel; Hueckstaedt, Robert M.; McConkie, Thomas O.

    2010-03-01

    Ionizing UV radiation and supernova (SN) flows amidst clustered minihalos at high redshift regulated the rise of the first stellar populations in the universe. Previous studies have addressed the effects of very massive primordial stars on the collapse of nearby halos into new stars, but the absence of the odd-even nucleosynthetic signature of pair-instability SNe in ancient metal-poor stars suggests that Population III stars may have been less than 100 M sun. We extend our earlier survey of local UV feedback on star formation to 25-80 M sun stars and include kinetic feedback by SNe for 25-40 M sun stars. We find radiative feedback to be relatively uniform over this mass range, primarily because the larger fluxes of more massive stars are offset by their shorter lifetimes. Our models demonstrate that prior to the rise of global UV backgrounds, Lyman-Werner (LW) photons from nearby stars cannot prevent halos from forming new stars. These calculations also reveal that violent dynamical instabilities can erupt in the UV radiation front enveloping a primordial halo, but that they ultimately have no effect on the formation of a star. Finally, our simulations suggest that relic H II regions surrounding partially evaporated halos may expel LW backgrounds at lower redshifts, allowing stars to form that were previously suppressed. We provide fits to radiative and kinetic feedback on star formation for use in both semianalytic models and numerical simulations.

  3. A study of rotating globular clusters. The case of the old, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4372

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacharov, N.; Bianchini, P.; Koch, A.; Frank, M. J.; Martin, N. F.; van de Ven, G.; Puzia, T. H.; McDonald, I.; Johnson, C. I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. NGC 4372 is a poorly studied old, very metal-poor globular cluster (GC) located in the inner Milky Way halo. Aims: We present the first in-depth study of the kinematic properties and derive the structural parameters of NGC 4372 based on the fit of a Plummer profile and a rotating, physical model. We explore the link between internal rotation to different cluster properties and together with similar studies of more GCs, we put these in the context of globular cluster formation and evolution. Methods: We present radial velocities for 131 cluster member stars measured from high-resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations. Their membership to the GC is additionally confirmed from precise metallicity estimates. We build a velocity dispersion profile and a systemic rotation curve using this kinematic data set. Additionally, we obtain an elliptical number density profile of NGC 4372 based on optical images using a Markov chain Monte Carlo fitting algorithm. From this, we derive the cluster's half-light radius and ellipticity as rh = 3.44' ± 0.04' and ɛ = 0.08 ± 0.01. Finally, we give a physical interpretation of the observed morphological and kinematic properties of this GC by fitting an axisymmetric, differentially rotating, dynamical model. Results: Our results show that NGC 4372 has an unusually high ratio of rotation amplitude to velocity dispersion (1.2 vs. 4.5 km s-1) for its metallicity. This puts it in line, however, with two other exceptional, very metal-poor GCs: M 15 and NGC 4590. We also find a mild flattening of NGC 4372 in the direction of its rotation. Given its old age, this suggests that the flattening is indeed caused by the systemic rotation rather than tidal interactions with the Galaxy. Additionally, we estimate the dynamical mass of the GC Mdyn = 2.0 ± 0.5 × 105M⊙ based on the dynamical model, which constrains the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 4372 between 1.4 and 2.3 M⊙/L⊙, representative of an old, purely stellar population. Based on

  4. The Century Survey Galactic Halo Project. II. Global Properties and the Luminosity Function of Field Blue Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Wilhelm, Ronald

    2005-09-01

    We discuss a 175 deg2 spectroscopic survey for blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the Galactic halo. We use the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to select BHB candidates, and we find that the 2MASS and SDSS color selection is 38% and 50% efficient, respectively, for BHB stars. Our samples include one likely runaway B7 star 6 kpc below the Galactic plane. The global properties of the BHB samples are consistent with membership in the halo population: the median metallicity is [Fe/H]=-1.7, the velocity dispersion is 108 km s-1, and the mean Galactic rotation of the BHB stars 3 kpc<|z|<15 kpc is -4+/-30 km s-1. We discuss the theoretical basis of the Preston, Shectman, and Beers MV-color relation for BHB stars and conclude that the intrinsic shape of the BHB MV-color relation results from the physics of stars on the horizontal branch. We calculate the luminosity function for the field BHB star samples using the maximum likelihood method of Efstathiou and coworkers, which is unbiased by density variations. The field BHB luminosity function exhibits a steep rise at bright luminosities, a peak between 0.8stars and BHB stars in globular clusters share a common distribution of luminosities, with the exception of globular clusters with extended BHBs.

  5. Structure and Population of the NGC 55 Stellar Halo from A Subaru/Suprime-Cam Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason S.

    2011-09-01

    As part of our survey of galactic stellar halos, we investigate the structure and stellar populations of the northern outer part of the stellar halo in NGC 55, a member galaxy of the Sculptor Group, using deep and wide-field V- and I-band images taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam. Based on the analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams for red giant branch (RGB) stars, we derive a tip of RGB based distance modulus to the galaxy of (m - M)0 = 26.58 ± 0.11(d = 2.1 ± 0.1 Mpc). From the stellar density maps, we detect the asymmetrically disturbed, thick disk structure and two metal-poor overdense substructures in the north region of NGC 55, which may correspond to merger remnants associated with hierarchical formation of NGC 55's halo. In addition, we identify a diffuse metal-poor halo extended out to at least z ~ 16 kpc from the galactic plane. The surface brightness profiles toward the z-direction perpendicular to the galactic plane suggest that the stellar density distribution in the northern outer part of NGC 55 is described by a locally isothermal disk at z <~ 6 kpc and a likely diffuse metal-poor halo with V-band surface brightness of μV >~ 32 mag arcsec-2, where old RGB stars dominate. We derive the metallicity distributions (MDs) of these structures on the basis of the photometric comparison of RGB stars with the theoretical stellar evolutionary models. The MDs of the thick disk structures show the peak and mean metallicity of [Fe/H]peak ~ -1.4 and [Fe/H]mean ~ -1.7, respectively, while the outer substructures show more metal-poor features than the thick disk structure. Combined with the current results with our previous study for M31's halo, we discuss the possible difference in the formation process of stellar halos among different Hubble types. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  6. The Frequency of Field Blue-Straggler Stars in the Thick Disk and Halo System of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santucci, Rafael M.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Beers, Timothy C.; Reggiani, Henrique M.; Lee, Young Sun; Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Carollo, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of a new, large sample of field blue-straggler stars (BSSs) in the thick disk and halo system of the Galaxy, based on stellar spectra obtained during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). Using estimates of stellar atmospheric parameters obtained from application of the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline, we obtain a sample of some 8000 BSSs, which are considered along with a previously selected sample of some 4800 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars. We derive the ratio of BSSs to BHB stars, FBSS/BHB, as a function of Galactocentric distance and distance from the Galactic plane. The maximum value found for FBSS/BHB is ∼ 4.0 in the thick disk (at 3 kpc\\lt |Z|\\lt 4 kpc), declining to on the order of ∼ 1.5-2.0 in the inner-halo region; this ratio continues to decline to ∼1.0 in the outer-halo region. We associate a minority of field BSSs with a likely extragalactic origin; at least 5% of the BSS sample exhibit radial velocities, positions, and distances commensurate with membership in the Sagittarius Stream.

  7. Dark-matter halo mergers as a fertile environment for low-mass Population III star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovino, S.; Latif, M. A.; Grassi, T.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2014-07-01

    While Population III (Pop III) stars are typically thought to be massive, pathways towards lower mass Pop III stars may exist when the cooling of the gas is particularly enhanced. A possible route is enhanced HD cooling during the merging of dark-matter haloes. The mergers can lead to a high ionization degree catalysing the formation of HD molecules and may cool the gas down to the cosmic microwave background temperature. In this paper, we investigate the merging of mini-haloes with masses of a few 105 M⊙ and explore the feasibility of this scenario. We have performed three-dimensional cosmological hydrodynamics calculations with the ENZO code, solving the thermal and chemical evolution of the gas by employing the astrochemistry package KROME. Our results show that the HD abundance is increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the no-merging case and the halo cools down to ˜60 K triggering fragmentation. Based on Jeans estimates, the expected stellar masses are about 10 M⊙. Our findings show that the merging scenario is a potential pathway for the formation of low-mass stars.

  8. The redshift evolution of the distribution of star formation among dark matter halos as seen in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Wang, Lingyu; Doré, Olivier; Lagache, Guilaine; Sargent, Mark; Daddi, Emanuele; Cousin, Morgane; Aussel, Hervé

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed a strong correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of the majority of star-forming galaxies, the so-called star-forming main sequence. An empirical modeling approach (the 2-SFM framework) that distinguishes between the main sequence and rarer starburst galaxies is capable of reproducing most statistical properties of infrared galaxies, such as number counts, luminosity functions, and redshift distributions. In this paper, we extend this approach by establishing a connection between stellar mass and halo mass with the technique of abundance matching. Based on a few simple assumptions and a physically motivated formalism, our model successfully predicts the (cross-)power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB), the cross-correlation between CIB and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing, and the correlation functions of bright, resolved infrared galaxies measured by Herschel, Planck, ACT, and SPT. We use this model to infer the redshift distribution of CIB-anisotropies and of the CIB × CMB lensing signal, as well as the level of correlation between CIB-anisotropies at different wavelengths. We study the link between dark matter halos and star-forming galaxies in the framework of our model. We predict that more than 90% of cosmic star formation activity occurs in halos with masses between 1011.5 and 1013.5 M⊙. If taking subsequent mass growth of halos into account, this implies that the majority of stars were initially (at z > 3) formed in the progenitors of clusters (Mh(z = 0) > 1013.5 M⊙), then in groups (1012.5 < Mh(z = 0) < 1013.5 M⊙) at 0.5 < z < 3, and finally in Milky-Way-like halos (1011.5 < Mh(z = 0) < 1012.5 M⊙) at z < 0.5. At all redshifts, the dominant contribution to the SFR density stems from halos of mass ~1012 M⊙, in which the instantaneous star formation efficiency - defined here as the ratio between SFR and baryonic accretion rate - is maximal (~70%). The strong redshift

  9. Core-halo age gradients and star formation in the Orion Nebula and NGS 2024 young stellar clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Kuhn, Michael A.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze age distributions of two nearby rich stellar clusters, the NGC 2024 (Flame Nebula) and Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) in the Orion molecular cloud complex. Our analysis is based on samples from the MYStIX survey and a new estimator of pre-main sequence (PMS) stellar ages, Age{sub JX} , derived from X-ray and near-infrared photometric data. To overcome the problem of uncertain individual ages and large spreads of age distributions for entire clusters, we compute median ages and their confidence intervals of stellar samples within annular subregions of the clusters. We find core-halo age gradients in both the NGC 2024 cluster and ONC: PMS stars in cluster cores appear younger and thus were formed later than PMS stars in cluster peripheries. These findings are further supported by the spatial gradients in the disk fraction and K-band excess frequency. Our age analysis is based on Age{sub JX} estimates for PMS stars and is independent of any consideration of OB stars. The result has important implications for the formation of young stellar clusters. One basic implication is that clusters form slowly and the apparent age spreads in young stellar clusters, which are often controversial, are (at least in part) real. The result further implies that simple models where clusters form inside-out are incorrect and more complex models are needed. We provide several star formation scenarios that alone or in combination may lead to the observed core-halo age gradients.

  10. The large, oxygen-rich halos of star-forming galaxies are a major reservoir of galactic metals.

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J; Thom, C; Werk, J K; Prochaska, J X; Tripp, T M; Weinberg, D H; Peeples, M S; O'Meara, J M; Oppenheimer, B D; Meiring, J D; Katz, N S; Davé, R; Ford, A B; Sembach, K R

    2011-11-18

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) is fed by galaxy outflows and accretion of intergalactic gas, but its mass, heavy element enrichment, and relation to galaxy properties are poorly constrained by observations. In a survey of the outskirts of 42 galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we detected ubiquitous, large (150-kiloparsec) halos of ionized oxygen surrounding star-forming galaxies; we found much less ionized oxygen around galaxies with little or no star formation. This ionized CGM contains a substantial mass of heavy elements and gas, perhaps far exceeding the reservoirs of gas in the galaxies themselves. Our data indicate that it is a basic component of nearly all star-forming galaxies that is removed or transformed during the quenching of star formation and the transition to passive evolution. PMID:22096191

  11. Future Large-Scale Surveys of 'Interesting' Stars in The Halo and Thick Disk of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.

    The age of slow, methodical, star-by-star, single-slit spectroscopic observations of rare stars in the halo and thick disk of the Milky Way has come to an end. As the result of the labors of numerous astronomers over the past 40 years, spectroscopic data for some 2000 stars with metallicity less than [Fe/H] = -1.5 has been obtained. Under the assumption of a constant flux of astronomers working in this area (and taking 50 major players over the years), the long-term average yield works out to ONE (1!) such star per astronomer per year. The use of new spectroscopic and photometric survey techniques which obtain large sky coverage to faint magnitudes will enable substantially better "return on investment" in the near future. We review the present state of surveys for low metallicity and field horizontal-branch stars in the Galaxy, and describe several new lines of attack which should open the way to a more than one hundred-fold increase in the numbers of interesting stars with available spectroscopic and photometric information. The age of slow, methodical, star-by-star, single-slit spectroscopic observations of rare stars in the halo and thick disk of the Milky Way has come to an end. As the result of the labors of numerous astronomers over the past 40 years, spectroscopic data for some 2000 stars with metallicity less than [Fe/H] = -1.5 has been obtained. Under the assumption of a constant flux of astronomers working in this area (and taking 50 major players over the years), the long-term average yield works out to ONE (1!) such star per astronomer per year. The use of new spectroscopic and photometric survey techniques which obtain large sky coverage to faint magnitudes will enable substantially better "return on investment" in the near future. We review the present state of surveys for low metallicity and field horizontal-branch stars in the Galaxy, and describe several new lines of attack which should open the way to a more than one hundred-fold increase in the

  12. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  13. Production and Recycling of Carbon in the Early Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Thidemann Hansen, Terese; Nordström, Birgitta

    2015-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars - [Fe/H] below ~ -3 - are fossil records of the conditions in the early halo. High-resolution 8m-class spectroscopy has shown that the detailed abundance pattern of EMP giant stars is surprisingly uniform and essentially Solar (e.g. Bonifacio+ 2012), apart from the usual α-enhancement in the halo. In the simplest picture, iron is a proxy for both overall metallicity and time, so the EMP stars should form before the oldest and mo