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Sample records for metallic glass composite

  1. Metallic glass composition

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; Koch, Carl C.

    1986-01-01

    A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  2. Metallic glass nanostructures of tunable shape and composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Jingbei; Sohn, Sungwoo; Li, Yanglin; Cha, Judy J; Schroers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Metals of hybrid nano-/microstructures are of broad technological and fundamental interests. Manipulation of shape and composition on the nanoscale, however, is challenging, especially for multicomponent alloys such as metallic glasses. Although top-down approaches have demonstrated nanomoulding, they are limited to very few alloy systems. Here we report a facile method to synthesize metallic glass nanoarchitectures that can be applied to a broad range of glass-forming alloys. This strategy, using multitarget carousel oblique angle deposition, offers the opportunity to achieve control over size, shape and composition of complex alloys at the nanoscale. As a consequence, nanostructures of programmable three-dimensional shapes and tunable compositions are realized on wafer scale for metallic glasses including the marginal glass formers. Realizing nanostructures in a wide compositional range allows chemistry optimization for technological usage of metallic glass nanostructures, and also enables the fundamental study on size, composition and fabrication dependences of metallic glass properties. PMID:25901951

  3. Metallic glass nanostructures of tunable shape and composition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Jingbei; Sohn, Sungwoo; Li, Yanglin; Cha, Judy J.; Schroers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Metals of hybrid nano-/microstructures are of broad technological and fundamental interests. Manipulation of shape and composition on the nanoscale, however, is challenging, especially for multicomponent alloys such as metallic glasses. Although top–down approaches have demonstrated nanomoulding, they are limited to very few alloy systems. Here we report a facile method to synthesize metallic glass nanoarchitectures that can be applied to a broad range of glass-forming alloys. This strategy, using multitarget carousel oblique angle deposition, offers the opportunity to achieve control over size, shape and composition of complex alloys at the nanoscale. As a consequence, nanostructures of programmable three-dimensional shapes and tunable compositions are realized on wafer scale for metallic glasses including the marginal glass formers. Realizing nanostructures in a wide compositional range allows chemistry optimization for technological usage of metallic glass nanostructures, and also enables the fundamental study on size, composition and fabrication dependences of metallic glass properties. PMID:25901951

  4. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  5. Composition effect on intrinsic plasticity or brittleness in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Yun; Inoue, Akihisa; Chang, Chuntao; Liu, Jian; Shen, Baolong; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The high plasticity of metallic glasses is highly desirable for a wide range of novel engineering applications. However, the physical origin of the ductile/brittle behaviour of metallic glasses with various compositions and thermal histories has not been fully clarified. Here we have found that metallic glasses with compositions at or near intermetallic compounds, in contrast to the ones at or near eutectics, are extremely ductile and also insensitive to annealing-induced embrittlement. We have also proposed a close correlation between the element distribution features and the plasticity of metallic glasses by tracing the evolutions of the element distribution rearrangement and the corresponding potential energy change within the sliding shear band. These novel results provide useful and universal guidelines to search for new ductile metallic glasses at or near the intermetallic compound compositions in a number of glass-forming alloy systems. PMID:25043428

  6. Composition Effect on Intrinsic Plasticity or Brittleness in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan-Yun; Inoue, Akihisa; Chang, Chuntao; Liu, Jian; Shen, Baolong; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The high plasticity of metallic glasses is highly desirable for a wide range of novel engineering applications. However, the physical origin of the ductile/brittle behaviour of metallic glasses with various compositions and thermal histories has not been fully clarified. Here we have found that metallic glasses with compositions at or near intermetallic compounds, in contrast to the ones at or near eutectics, are extremely ductile and also insensitive to annealing-induced embrittlement. We have also proposed a close correlation between the element distribution features and the plasticity of metallic glasses by tracing the evolutions of the element distribution rearrangement and the corresponding potential energy change within the sliding shear band. These novel results provide useful and universal guidelines to search for new ductile metallic glasses at or near the intermetallic compound compositions in a number of glass-forming alloy systems. PMID:25043428

  7. Synthesis and characterization of bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi-Yim, Haein

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix are synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this thesis, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Ceramics such as SiC, WC, or TiC, and metals W or Ta were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. Structure, microstructure and thermal stability of the composites are studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to 30 percent volume fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The thermal stability of the matrix did not deteriorate after adding the particles. In the case of SiC, the matrix becomes even more robust with respect to crystallization. The reactions at the interfaces between the matrix and the different reinforcing materials are investigated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. At the interfaces between the matrix and the WC or SiC particles, ZrC layers formed. W and Si diffused into the matrix, respectively. At the interface between W and the matrix, a thin layer of nanocrystals is observed after cooling the liquid/particulate mixture. The mechanical properties of the composites are studied in compression and tension. Compressive strain to failure increased by over 300% compared to the unreinforced Zr57Nb5Al10Cu15.4 Ni12.6 and the energy to fracture of the tensile samples increased by over 50% adding 15 vol. % W. The effect of silicon on the

  8. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, Paul T.; Fisher, Robert W.; Hosking, Floyd M.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone.

  9. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, P.T.; Fisher, R.W.; Hosking, F.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1996-08-20

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone. 6 figs.

  10. Structure and constitution of glass and steel compound in glass-metal composite

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimova, Olga N.; Morkovin, Andrey V.; Dryuk, Sergey A.; Nikiforov, Pavel A.

    2014-11-14

    The research using methods of optical and scanning electronic microscopy was conducted and it discovered common factors on structures and diffusing zone forming after welding glass C49-1 and steel Ct3sp in technological process of creating new glass-metal composite. Different technological modes of steel surface preliminary oxidation welded with and without glass were investigated. The time of welding was varied from minimum encountering time to the time of stabilizing width of diffusion zone.

  11. Surface Modification of Metallic Glass Composites Through Severe Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sundeep; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Mridha, Sanghita

    2015-03-01

    Refinement of crystalline dendrites in a metallic glass composite, Zr56.2Ti13.8Nb5.0Cu6.9Ni5.6Be12.5, was demonstrated by friction stir processing. The surface hardness of the amorphous matrix as well as the crystalline dendritic phase was found to increase by nearly a factor of two for the processed specimens. Higher hardness for the amorphous matrix was explained by the interaction of shear bands, while that for the crystalline dendrite was explained by grain refinement.

  12. Composition-dependent metallic glass alloys correlate atomic mobility with collective glass surface dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Zhu, Zhi-Guang; Pringle, Brian; Lyding, Joseph; Wang, Wei-Hua; Gruebele, Martin

    2016-06-22

    Glassy metallic alloys are richly tunable model systems for surface glassy dynamics. Here we study the correlation between atomic mobility, and the hopping rate of surface regions (clusters) that rearrange collectively on a minute to hour time scale. Increasing the proportion of low-mobility copper atoms in La-Ni-Al-Cu alloys reduces the cluster hopping rate, thus establishing a microscopic connection between atomic mobility and dynamics of collective rearrangements at a glass surface made from freshly exposed bulk glass. One composition, La60Ni15Al15Cu10, has a surface resistant to re-crystallization after three heating cycles. When thermally cycled, surface clusters grow in size from about 5 glass-forming units to about 8 glass-forming units, evidence of surface aging without crystal formation, although its bulk clearly forms larger crystalline domains. Such kinetically stable glass surfaces may be of use in applications where glassy coatings stable against heating are needed. PMID:27283239

  13. Bulk metallic glass composite with good tensile ductility, high strength and large elastic strain limit

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fu-Fa; Chan, K. C.; Jiang, Song-Shan; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large elastic strain limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large elastic strain limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong strain-hardening capability and large elastic strain limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large elastic strain limit and high strength under tension. These unique elastic mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19′ phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:24931632

  14. Metallic glass composition. [That does not embrittle upon annealing

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.

    1984-09-14

    This patent pertains to a metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon, carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility-enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  15. Dynamic mechanical properties of a Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinshan Cui, Jing; Bai, Jie; Kou, Hongchao; Wang, Jun; Qiao, Jichao

    2015-04-21

    Dynamic mechanical behavior of a Ti{sub 50}Zr{sub 20}Nb{sub 12}Cu{sub 5}Be{sub 13} bulk metallic glass composite was investigated using mechanical spectroscopy in both temperature and frequency domains. Storage modulus G′ and loss modulus G″ are determined by temperature, and three distinct regions corresponding to different states in the bulk metallic glass composite are characterized. Physical parameters, such as atomic mobility and correlation factor χ, are introduced to analyze dynamic mechanical behavior of the bulk metallic glass composite in the framework of quasi-point defects (QPD) model. The experimental results are in good agreement with the prediction of QPD model.

  16. Bulk metallic glasses and their composites: Composition optimization, thermal stability, and microstructural tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Hesham Ezzat

    A design protocol utilizing common elements for bulk metallic glass formation has been employed to develop novel, low cost Fe-, and Ti- based bulk metallic glasses. A critical obstacle that was successfully overcome in this work is the omission of beryllium in these alloys. Beryllium is of vital importance in many bulk metallic glass forming systems, but it is expensive and poses considerable health risks. Bulk metallic glasses in these novel Fe-, and Ti-based systems exhibit extremely high mechanical strength and excellent thermal stability. Devitrification and cooling rate experiments were used to identify crystalline phase formation and assess activation energy for crystallization, as well as to explore and develop ductile BMG composites. To better control microstructure in these BMG composites, a novel processing technique, called semi-solid forging was developed, wherein the alloy melt is heated to above the melt temperature of the glass, but below the melt temperature of the ductile crystalline phase. Such an approach permits the maintenance of a glassy, or nanocrystalline matrix phase, while simultaneously coarsening and homogenizing the ductile, secondary phase. This processing approach leads to enhanced ductility in the alloys, which, to this point, has not been observed using conventional casting methods. The combination of novel, low-cost, alloy compositions with semi-solid forging has been successfully utilized to develop new high strength structural materials with enhanced ductility and toughness. Microstrutural and mechanical properties of these novel, toughened, BMG composites are presented. A comprehensive analysis of the relationship between deformation mechanisms and microstructure reveals that enhanced ductility is predicated on matching fundamental mechanical and microstructural length scales in a Ti-Ni-Si-Mo BMG composite. Under optimized microstructural conditions, a maximum compressive strength exceeding 2400 MPa with ˜ 30% total strain to

  17. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses. PMID:27067824

  18. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Georgarakis, K; Nakayama, K S; Li, Y; Tsarkov, A A; Xie, G; Dudina, D; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Yavari, A R

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses. PMID:27067824

  19. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses.

  20. In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Choong Paul; Hays, Charles C.; Johnson, William L.

    2004-03-23

    A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

  1. In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Choong Paul; Hays, Charles C.; Johnson, William L.

    2007-07-17

    A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

  2. Compositional landscape for glass formation in metal alloys

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jong Hyun; Demetriou, Marios D.; Floyd, Michael; Hoff, Andrew; Garrett, Glenn R.; Johnson, William L.

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution compositional map of glass-forming ability (GFA) in the Ni–Cr–Nb–P–B system is experimentally determined along various compositional planes. GFA is shown to be a piecewise continuous function formed by intersecting compositional subsurfaces, each associated with a nucleation pathway for a specific crystalline phase. Within each subsurface, GFA varies exponentially with composition, wheres exponential cusps in GFA are observed when crossing from one crystallization pathway to another. The overall GFA is shown to peak at multiple exponential hypercusps that are interconnected by ridges. At these compositions, quenching from the high-temperature melt yields glassy rods with diameters exceeding 1 cm, whereas for compositions far from these cusps the critical rod diameter drops precipitously and levels off to 1 to 2 mm. The compositional landscape of GFA is shown to arise primarily from an interplay between the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystal nucleation, or more precisely, from a competition between driving force for crystallization and liquid fragility. PMID:24927600

  3. Soft magnetic composites manufactured by warm co-extrusion of bulk metallic glass and steel powders

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Francis; Raber, Thomas R.; Zabala, Robert J.; Buresh, Steve J.; Tanico, Brian

    2013-05-07

    Soft magnetic composites of Fe-based bulk metallic glass and low-alloy steel have been manufactured by warm co-extrusion of precursor powders at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region of the glass. Composites were manufactured with amorphous volume fractions of 75%, 67%, and 100%. Full consolidation of the constituent powders was observed with the bulk metallic glass remaining substantially amorphous. The composite electrical resistivity was observed to be anisotropic with a resistivity of 79 {mu}{Omega} cm measured transverse to the extrusion axis in a sample with 75% amorphous volume fraction. A 0-3 connectivity pattern with the low-resistivity steel phase embedded in a 3-dimensionally connected high-resistivity bulk metallic glass phase was observed with scanning electron microscopy. This confirms that the flow characteristics of the bulk metallic glass and the steel powders were comparable during extrusion at these temperatures. The saturation magnetization of 1.3 T was consistent with the volume weighted average of the saturation magnetization of the two phases. A relatively high quasistatic coercivity of 8 Oe was measured and is likely due to slight crystallization of the bulk metallic glass as well as domain wall pinning at prior particle boundaries. Careful control of the thermal environment during the extrusion process is required to minimize glass crystallization and achieve the desired balance of magnetic and electrical properties.

  4. Soft magnetic composites manufactured by warm co-extrusion of bulk metallic glass and steel powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Francis; Raber, Thomas R.; Zabala, Robert J.; Buresh, Steve J.; Tanico, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Soft magnetic composites of Fe-based bulk metallic glass and low-alloy steel have been manufactured by warm co-extrusion of precursor powders at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region of the glass. Composites were manufactured with amorphous volume fractions of 75%, 67%, and 100%. Full consolidation of the constituent powders was observed with the bulk metallic glass remaining substantially amorphous. The composite electrical resistivity was observed to be anisotropic with a resistivity of 79 μΩ cm measured transverse to the extrusion axis in a sample with 75% amorphous volume fraction. A 0-3 connectivity pattern with the low-resistivity steel phase embedded in a 3-dimensionally connected high-resistivity bulk metallic glass phase was observed with scanning electron microscopy. This confirms that the flow characteristics of the bulk metallic glass and the steel powders were comparable during extrusion at these temperatures. The saturation magnetization of 1.3 T was consistent with the volume weighted average of the saturation magnetization of the two phases. A relatively high quasistatic coercivity of 8 Oe was measured and is likely due to slight crystallization of the bulk metallic glass as well as domain wall pinning at prior particle boundaries. Careful control of the thermal environment during the extrusion process is required to minimize glass crystallization and achieve the desired balance of magnetic and electrical properties.

  5. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    SciTech Connect

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Gibson, Mark A.; East, Daniel; Simon, George P.

    2011-11-07

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  6. Fracture toughness and crack-resistance curve behavior in metallic glass-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Suh, Jin-Yo; Kozachkov, Henry; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-05-26

    Nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics methods are used to assess the fracture toughness of bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites; results are compared with similar measurements for other monolithic and composite BMG alloys. Mechanistically, plastic shielding gives rise to characteristic resistance?curve behavior where the fracture resistance increases with crack extension. Specifically, confinement of damage by second?phase dendrites is shown to result in enhancement of the toughness by nearly an order of magnitude relative to unreinforced glass.

  7. Experimental input for the design of metallic glass/crystalline composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Nicholas Willis

    Bulk metallic glasses often exhibit exceptional strength and large elastic strains, but the structural applications of bulk metallic glasses are limited by their extremely low tensile ductility. Below the glass transition temperature of the alloy, plastic deformation occurs primarily in narrow shear bands, which propagate unimpeded through the monolithic glass structure, resulting in catastrophic failure under tensile loading. A number of studies have added crystalline reinforcements to the glassy matrix in an effort to block shear band propagation and increase ductility. The reinforcements in these bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMC's) can be added as ex situ particles or fibers infiltrated by the glass-forming liquid [1], or can be formed in situ, either via devitrification of the glass during post-processing [2] or as a second phase that precipitates from the melt during solidification [3]. The size, distribution, and mechanical properties of the reinforcement phase have significant impact on the ductility of the composite. However, surprisingly little quantitative microstructural information is available for BMGMC's, particularly those formed by precipitation from the melt. In this work, we examine two in situ BMGMC's in which a ductile crystalline phase precipitates during solidification of the melt, resulting in a complex dendritic structure embedded in a continuous glass matrix. A 3D serial sectioning process was used to image the microstructure at regular intervals by removing slices of material using a dual beam focused ion-scanning electron microscope (FIB). Due to the complex nature of the microstructure, measurements of key features were conducted using a 3D measurement method that was developed for this purpose. Experiments were also conducted to provide experimental input for the development and tuning of finite element models. Changes in the elastic modulus of the composite were evaluated over a range of stresses that encompassed the yield

  8. Computation assisted design of favored composition for ternary Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Li, J H; Liu, B X

    2015-06-14

    With the aid of ab initio calculations, a realistic interatomic potential was constructed for the Mg-Cu-Y ternary system under the proposed formalism of smoothed and long-range second-moment approximation of tight-binding. Taking the potential as the starting base, an atomistic computation/simulation route was developed for designing favored and optimized compositions for Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass formation. Simulations revealed that the physical origin of metallic glass formation is the collapse of crystalline lattice when solute concentration exceeds a critical value, thus leading to predict a hexagonal region in the Mg-Cu-Y composition triangle, within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored. It is proposed that the hexagonal region can be defined as the intrinsic glass formation region, or quantitative glass formation ability of the system. Inside the hexagonal region, the driving force for formation of each specific glassy alloy was further calculated and correlated with its forming ability in practice. Calculations pinpointed the optimized stoichiometry in the Mg-Cu-Y system to be Mg64Cu16Y20, at which the formation driving force reaches its maximum, suggesting that metallic glasses designed to have compositions around Mg64Cu16Y20 are most stable or easiest to obtain. The predictions derived directly from the atomistic simulations are supported by experimental observations reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, Honeycutt-Anderson analysis indicated that pentagonal bipyramids (although not aggregating to form icosahedra) dominate in the local structure of the Mg-Cu-Y metallic glasses. A microscopic picture of the medium-range packing can then be described as an extended network of the pentagonal bipyramids, entangled with the fourfold and sixfold disclination lines, jointly fulfilling the space of the metallic glasses. PMID:25981154

  9. Fracture Morphology and Local Deformation Characteristics in the Metallic Glass Matrix Composite Under Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Sun, X. H.; Hao, G. J.; Guo, Z. X.; Zhang, Y.; Lin, J. P.; Sui, M. L.; Qiao, J. W.

    2015-11-01

    Fracture and deformation characteristics of the Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite have been studied by the tensile test and the in situ TEM tension test. Typically, the composite exhibits the high strength and considerable plasticity. Microscopically, it was found that shear deformation zone formed at the crack tip in glass phase, which can bring about quick propagation of shear bands. However, the plastic deformation zone nearby the crack tip in dendrites will postpone or retard the crack extension by dislocations. The attributions of micro-deformations to mechanical properties of composites were discussed.

  10. Low beryllium content Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite with plasticity and work hardenability

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn; Du, J. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn

    2014-01-28

    A modified Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite Zr{sub 47.67}Cu{sub 40}Ti{sub 3.66}Ni{sub 2.66}Be{sub 6} has been produced by increasing the contents of elements of Zr and Cu with higher Poisson ratio and reducing the contents of Ti, Ni, and Be elements with lower Poisson ratio based on famous metallic glass former Vitreloy 1. A compressive yielding strength of 1804 MPa, fracture strength of 1938 MPa and 3.5% plastic strain was obtained for obtained metallic glass composite. Also, work-hardening behavior was observed during compressive experiment which was ascribed to the interaction of the in situ precipitated CuZr phase and shear bands.

  11. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  12. Atomistic modeling to optimize composition and characterize structure of Ni-Zr-Mo metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, M H; Li, S N; Li, Y; Li, J H; Liu, B X

    2015-05-28

    An interatomic potential was constructed for the Ni-Zr-Mo ternary metal system with the newly proposed long-range empirical formulism, which has been verified to be applicable for fcc, hcp and bcc transition metals and their alloys. Applying the constructed potential, molecular dynamics simulations predict a hexagonal composition region within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored. Based on the simulation results, the driving force for amorphous phase formation is derived, and thus an optimized composition is pinpointed to Ni45Zr40Mo15, of which the metallic glass could be most stable or easiest to obtain. Further structural analysis indicates that the dominant interconnected clusters for Ni64Zr36-xMox MGs are 〈0, 0, 12, 0〉, 〈0, 1, 10, 2〉, 〈0, 2, 8, 2〉 and 〈0, 3, 6, 4〉. In addition, it is found that the appropriate addition of Mo content could not only make a more ordered structure with a higher atomic packing density and a lower energy state, but also improve the glass formation ability of Ni-Zr-Mo alloys. Moreover, inherent hierarchical atomic configurations for ternary Ni-Zr-Mo metallic glasses are clarified via the short-range, medium-range and further in the extended scale of the icosahedral network. PMID:25923843

  13. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Li, J H; Liu, J B; Liu, B X

    2015-01-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an amorphization driving force (ADF) for each possible glassy alloy located within the GFR. The calculations predict an optimized sub-region nearby a stoichiometry of Al80Ni5Y15, implying that the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses designed in the sub-region could be the most stable. Interestingly, the atomistic predictions are supported by experimental results observed in the Al-Ni-Y system. In addition, structural origin underlying the stability of the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses is also discussed in terms of a hybrid packing mode in the medium-range scale. PMID:26592568

  14. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Li, J. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, B. X.

    2015-11-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an amorphization driving force (ADF) for each possible glassy alloy located within the GFR. The calculations predict an optimized sub-region nearby a stoichiometry of Al80Ni5Y15, implying that the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses designed in the sub-region could be the most stable. Interestingly, the atomistic predictions are supported by experimental results observed in the Al-Ni-Y system. In addition, structural origin underlying the stability of the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses is also discussed in terms of a hybrid packing mode in the medium-range scale.

  15. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Li, J. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, B. X.

    2015-01-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an amorphization driving force (ADF) for each possible glassy alloy located within the GFR. The calculations predict an optimized sub-region nearby a stoichiometry of Al80Ni5Y15, implying that the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses designed in the sub-region could be the most stable. Interestingly, the atomistic predictions are supported by experimental results observed in the Al-Ni-Y system. In addition, structural origin underlying the stability of the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses is also discussed in terms of a hybrid packing mode in the medium-range scale. PMID:26592568

  16. Microstructure Evolution of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite During Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Li, J. S.; Wang, J.; Kou, H. C.

    2015-02-01

    The deformation behavior of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 bulk metallic glass composite at room temperature was investigated by uniaxial compression tests. The results indicate that the composite exhibits excellent compressive properties at ambient temperature with high fracture strength (about 2425 MPa) and outstanding plasticity (about 23%). All the true stress-strain curves of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 display work-hardening effect with the same tendency which decreases with the increase of the strain. The dendrite morphology almost does not change before yielding, and there are only a few shear bands in the bulk metallic glass composite after yielding. More interestingly, the plastic deformation of dendrites can be observed evidently. Before fracture, the plastic deformation of dendrite becomes more severe, and the dendrite is stretched and more shear bands appear in the composite. Combined with the fracture surface, it can be concluded that the large step shape area, plastic dimple fracture, and shear bands are the evidences of an excellent plasticity in Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 bulk metallic glass composite.

  17. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites: Processing, microstructure, and application as a kinetic energy penetrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandliker, Richard B.

    The development of alloys with high glass forming ability allows fabrication of bulk samples of amorphous metal. This capability makes these materials available for applications which require significant material thickness in all three dimensions. Superior mechanical properties and advantages in processing make metallic glass a choice candidate as a matrix material for composites. This study reports techniques for making composites by melt-infiltration casting using the alloy Zrsb{41.2}Tisb{13.8}Cusb{12.5}Nisb{10.0}Besb{22.5} (VitreloyspTM 1) as a matrix material. Composite rods 5 cm in length and 7 mm in diameter were made and found to have a nearly fully amorphous matrix; there was less than 3 volume percent crystallized matrix material. The samples were reinforced by continuous metal wires, tungsten powder, or silicon carbide particulate preforms. The most easily processed samples were made with uniaxially aligned tungsten and carbon steel continuous wire reinforcement; the majority of the analysis presented is of these samples. The measured porosity was typically less than 3%. The results also indicate necessary guidelines for developing processing techniques for large scale production, new reinforcement materials, and other metallic glass compositions. Analysis of the microstructure of the tungsten wire and steel wire reinforced composites was performed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The most common phase in the crystallized matrix is most likely a Laves phase with the approximate formula Besb{12}Zrsb3TiNiCu. In tungsten-reinforced composites, a crystalline reaction layer 240 nm thick of tungsten nanocrystals in an amorphous matrix formed. In the steel reinforced composites, the reaction layer was primarily composed of a mixed metal carbide, mainly ZrC. One promising application of the metallic glass matrix composite is as a kinetic

  18. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Li, J. S.; Wang, J.; Kou, H. C.

    2015-06-01

    The tensile deformation behavior of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 bulk metallic glass composite at ambient temperature was investigated by uniaxial tensile tests. All stress-strain curves of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 demonstrated work hardening and work softening during deformation. Many shear bands were generated during deformation. In parallel, the dendrite of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 underwent severe plastic deformation. Shear bands turned into microcracks during tensile deformation. By observing the fracture surface, the fractograph showed only a ductile dimple fracture pattern. Therefore, the excellent plasticity of the Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 bulk metallic glass composite was due to the formation of plastic dimple fracture and many shear bands during tensile deformation.

  19. Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites for Optical and Compliant Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Agnes, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms are used widely in engineering applications due to their ability to translate force and movement. They are found in kinematic pairs, gears, cams, linkages, and in flexure mechanisms (also known as compliant mechanisms). Mechanisms and flexures are used widely in spacecraft design, especially in the area of optics, where precise positioning of telescope mirrors requires elastic flexing of elements. A compliant mechanism is generally defined as a flexible mechanism that uses an elastic body deformation to cause a displacement (such as positing a mirror). The mechanisms are usually constructed as a single monolithic piece of material, and contain thin struts to allow for large elastic bending with low input force. This creates the largest problem with developing precise mechanisms; they must be fabricated from a single piece of metal, but are required to have strict accuracy on their dimensions. They are generally required to have high strength, elasticity, and low coefficient of thermal expansion.

  20. Composition mediated serration dynamics in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Qiao, J. W. E-mail: mwchen@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.jp; Wang, B. C.; Xu, B. S.; Tian, H.; Sun, B. A.; Chen, M. W. E-mail: mwchen@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-11-16

    The composition mediated serration dynamics in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is investigated by statistics analyses of the elastic-energy density, and free volumes during shear-banding are beneficial to understand serrated-flow behavior. The amplitude and elastic-energy density display a gradually increasing and then decreasing trend with increasing the content of Zr. It is based on the free-volume theory describing the atomic-level structure of ternary Zr-Cu-Al BMGs. The good agreement between the molecular dynamics simulation and experimental results provides evidence for the variation of free volumes as the elementary mechanism of composition mediated serration dynamics.

  1. Microyielding of Core-Shell Crystal Dendrites in a Bulk-metallic-glass Matrix Composite

    PubMed Central

    Huang, E-Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Lee, Wen-Jay; Scheel, Mario; Chuang, Chih-Pin; Liaw, Peter K.; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Zhang, Yong; Di Michiel, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulk metallic-glass matrix composite. The complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interface, as Maxwell damper, between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path. PMID:24637714

  2. Microyielding of core-shell crystal dendrites in a bulk-metallic-glass matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E. -Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Lee, Wen -Jay; Scheel, Mario; Chuang, Chih -Pin; Liaw, Peter K.; Lo, Yu -Chieh; Zhang, Yong; Di Michiel, Marco

    2014-03-18

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulk metallic-glass matrix composite. As a result, the complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interfaces between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path.

  3. Thermodynamic calculation and interatomic potential to predict the favored composition region for the Cu-Zr-Al metallic glass formation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y Y; Wang, T L; Li, J H; Dai, Y; Liu, B X

    2011-03-01

    For the Cu-Zr-Al system, the glass forming compositions were firstly calculated based on the extended Miedema's model, suggesting that the amorphous phase could be thermodynamically favored over a large composition region. An n-body potential was then constructed under the smoothed and long-range second-moment-approximation of tight-binding formulism. Applying the constructed Cu-Zr-Al potential, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted using solid solution models to compare relative stability of crystalline solid solution versus its disordered counterpart. Simulations reveal that the physical origin of metallic glass formation is crystalline lattice collapsing while solute concentration exceeding the critical value, thus predicting a hexagonal composition region, within which the Cu-Zr-Al ternary metallic glass formation is energetically favored. The molecular dynamics simulations predicted composition region is defined as the quantitative glass-forming-ability or glass-forming-region of the Cu-Zr-Al system. PMID:21229150

  4. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. W.; Chen, G.

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  5. Interatomic potential to predict the favored and optimized compositions for ternary Cu-Zr-Hf metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, S. Y.; Cui, Y. Y.; Dai, Y.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2012-11-15

    Under the framework of smoothed and long range second-moment approximation of tight-binding, a realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Cu-Zr-Hf ternary metal system. Applying the constructed potential, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare the relative stability of crystalline solid solution versus its disordered counterpart over the entire composition triangle of the system (as a function of alloy composition). Simulations not only reveal that the origin of metallic glass formation but also determine, in the composition triangle, a quadrilateral region, within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored. It is proposed to define the energy differences between the crystalline solid solutions and disordered states as the driving force for amorphization and the corresponding calculations pinpoint an optimized composition locating at an composition of Cu{sub 55}Zr{sub 10}Hf{sub 35}, around which the driving force for metallic glass formation reaches its maximum, suggesting that the ternary Cu-Zr-Hf metallic glasses designed to have the compositions around Cu{sub 55}Zr{sub 10}Hf{sub 35} could be more stable than other alloys in the system. Moreover, for the Cu{sub 55}Zr{sub 10}Hf{sub 35} metallic glass, the Voronoi tessellation calculations reveal some interesting features of its atomic configurations and coordination polyhedra distribution.

  6. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs. PMID:26354724

  7. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-09-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.

  8. Joining and Assembly of Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Through Capacitive Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Kozachkov, Henry; Demetriou, Marios D.; Schramm, Joseph P.; Johnson, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a class of amorphous metals defined as having a thickness greater than 1 mm, are being broadly investigated by NASA for use in spacecraft hardware. Their unique properties, attained from their non-crystalline structure, motivate several game-changing aerospace applications. BMGs have low melting temperatures so they can be cheaply and repeatedly cast into complex net shapes, such as mirrors or electronic casings. They are extremely strong and wear-resistant, which motivates their use in gears and bearings. Amorphous metal coatings are hard, corrosion-resistant, and have high reflectivity. BMG composites, reinforced with soft second phases, can be fabricated into energy-absorbing cellular panels for orbital debris shielding. One limitation of BMG materials is their inability to be welded, bonded, brazed, or fastened in a convenient method to form larger structures. Cellular structures (which can be classified as trusses, foams, honeycombs, egg boxes, etc.) are useful for many NASA, commercial, and military aerospace applications, including low-density paneling and shields. Although conventional cellular structures exhibit high specific strength, their porous structures make them challenging to fabricate. In particular, metal cellular structures are extremely difficult to fabricate due to their high processing temperatures. Aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels, for example, are used widely as spacecraft shields due to their low density and ease of fabrication, but suffer from low strength. A desirable metal cellular structure is one with high strength, combined with low density and simple fabrication. The thermoplastic joining process described here allows for the fabrication of monolithic BMG truss-like structures that are 90% porous and have no heat-affected zone, weld, bond, or braze. This is accomplished by welding the nodes of stacked BMG composite panels using a localized capacitor discharge, forming a single monolithic structure

  9. Plasticity-improved Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites containing martensite phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. F.; Wei, B. C.; Wang, Y. R.; Li, W. H.; Cheung, T. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-08-01

    Zr48.5Cu46.5Al5 bulk metallic glass matrix composites with diameters of 3 and 4mm were produced through water-cooled copper mold casting. Micrometer-sized bcc based B2 structured CuZr phase containing martensite plate, together with some densely distributed nanocrystalline Zr2Cu and plate-like Cu10Zr7 compound, was found embedded in a glassy matrix. The microstructure formation strongly depends on the composition and cooling rate. Room temperature compression tests reveal significant strain hardening and plastic strains of 7.7% and 6.4% before failure are obtained for the 3-mm- and 4-mm-diam samples, respectively. The formation of the martensite phase is proposed to contribute to the strain hardening and plastic deformation of the materials.

  10. Ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new zinc-phosphate glass/metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaroufi, A.; Oabi, O.; Lucas, B.

    2016-07-01

    The ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new composites based on zinc-phosphate glass with composition 45 mol%ZnO-55 mol%P2O5, filled with metallic powder of nickel (ZP/Ni) were investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature. A high percolating jump of seven times has been observed in the conductivity behavior from low volume fraction of filler to the higher fractions, indicating an insulator - semiconductor phase transition. The measured conductivity at higher filler volume fraction is about 10-1 S/cm and is frequency independent, while, the obtained conductivity for low filler volume fraction is around 10-8 S/cm and is frequency dependent. Moreover, the elaborated composites are characterized by high dielectric constants in the range of 105 for conductive composites at low frequencies (100 Hz). In addition, the distribution of the relaxation processes was also evaluated. The Debye, Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole and Havriliak-Negami models in electric modulus formalism were used to model the observed relaxation phenomena in ZP/Ni composites. The observed relaxation phenomena are fairly simulated by Davidson-Cole model, and an account of the interpretation of results is given.

  11. Microyielding of core-shell crystal dendrites in a bulk-metallic-glass matrix composite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, E. -Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Lee, Wen -Jay; Scheel, Mario; Chuang, Chih -Pin; Liaw, Peter K.; Lo, Yu -Chieh; Zhang, Yong; Di Michiel, Marco

    2014-03-18

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulkmore » metallic-glass matrix composite. As a result, the complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interfaces between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path.« less

  12. Insights from the Lattice-Strain Evolution on Deformation Mechanisms in Metallic-Glass-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, H. L.; Zheng, L. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, N.; Qiao, J. W.; Wang, G. Y.; Ren, Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-06-01

    In situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and micromechanics-based finite element simulations have been conducted to examine the lattice-strain evolution in metallic-glass-matrix composites (MGMCs) with dendritic crystalline phases dispersed in the metallic-glass matrix. Significant plastic deformation can be observed prior to failure from the macroscopic stress-strain curves in these MGMCs. The entire lattice-strain evolution curves can be divided into elastic-elastic (denoting deformation behavior of matrix and inclusion, respectively), elastic-plastic, and plastic-plastic stages. Characteristics of these three stages are governed by the constitutive laws of the two phases (modeled by free-volume theory and crystal plasticity) and geometric information (crystalline phase morphology and distribution). The load-partitioning mechanisms have been revealed among various crystalline orientations and between the two phases, as determined by slip strain fields in crystalline phase and by strain localizations in matrix. Implications on ductility enhancement of MGMCs are also discussed.

  13. Designing metallic glass matrix composites with high toughness and tensile ductility.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Wiest, Aaron; Duan, Gang; Lind, Mary-Laura; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L

    2008-02-28

    The selection and design of modern high-performance structural engineering materials is driven by optimizing combinations of mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, elasticity and requirements for predictable and graceful (non-catastrophic) failure in service. Highly processable bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new class of engineering materials and have attracted significant technological interest. Although many BMGs exhibit high strength and show substantial fracture toughness, they lack ductility and fail in an apparently brittle manner in unconstrained loading geometries. For instance, some BMGs exhibit significant plastic deformation in compression or bending tests, but all exhibit negligible plasticity (<0.5% strain) in uniaxial tension. To overcome brittle failure in tension, BMG-matrix composites have been introduced. The inhomogeneous microstructure with isolated dendrites in a BMG matrix stabilizes the glass against the catastrophic failure associated with unlimited extension of a shear band and results in enhanced global plasticity and more graceful failure. Tensile strengths of approximately 1 GPa, tensile ductility of approximately 2-3 per cent, and an enhanced mode I fracture toughness of K(1C) approximately 40 MPa m(1/2) were reported. Building on this approach, we have developed 'designed composites' by matching fundamental mechanical and microstructural length scales. Here, we report titanium-zirconium-based BMG composites with room-temperature tensile ductility exceeding 10 per cent, yield strengths of 1.2-1.5 GPa, K(1C) up to approximately 170 MPa m(1/2), and fracture energies for crack propagation as high as G(1C) approximately 340 kJ m(-2). The K(1C) and G(1C) values equal or surpass those achievable in the toughest titanium or steel alloys, placing BMG composites among the toughest known materials. PMID:18305540

  14. Competitive formation of glasses and glass-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhao Ping; Ma, D.; Liu, Chain T; Chang, Y. Austin

    2007-01-01

    By systematically investigating the effect of chemical composition on the competitive formation of glasses in various systems, we attempt to address two long-standing scientific puzzles upon metallic glasses, i.e., (i) which composition is the best for forming glasses and glass-matrix composites and (ii) what determines the easy glass-forming composition range in a given alloy system. Our findings have led to the construction of a qualitative microstructure selection map, which is useful for guiding the design of bulkier metallic glasses and glass-matrix composites. In addition, our analysis demonstrates that the classical kinetic treatment of glass formation is insufficient; to analyze glass formation properly, it is necessary to go beyond simple assumptions of single polymorphic solidification during crystallization.

  15. Micromechanical Modeling the Plastic Deformation of Particle-Reinforced Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunpeng; Shi, Xueping; Qiu, Kun

    2015-08-01

    A micromechanics model was employed to investigate the mechanical performance of particle-reinforced bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites. The roles of shear banding in the tensile deformation are accounted for in characterizing the strength and ductility of ductile particle-filled BMGs. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, shear band was considered to be a micro-crack in the present model. The strain-based Weibull probability distribution function and percolation theory were applied to describe the equivalent micro-crack evolution, which results in the progressive failure of BMG composites. Based on the developed model, the influences of shear bands on the plastic deformation were discussed for various microstructures. The predictions were in fairly good agreement with the experimental data from the literatures, which confirms that the developed analytical model is able to successfully describe the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, strain hardening, and stress softening elongation of composites. The present results will shed some light on optimizing the microstructures in effectively improving the tensile ductility of BMG composites.

  16. Atomic interaction mechanism for designing the interface of W/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z. K.; Fu, H. M.; Sha, P. F.; Zhu, Z. W.; Wang, A. M.; Li, H.; Zhang, H. W.; Zhang, H. F.; Hu, Z. Q.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between active element Zr and W damages the W fibers and the interface and decreases the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength of the W fibers reinforced Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs). From the viewpoint of atomic interaction, the W-Zr interaction can be restrained by adding minor elements that have stronger interaction with W into the alloy. The calculation about atomic interaction energy indicates that Ta and Nb preferred to segregate on the W substrate surface. Sessile drop experiment proves the prediction and corresponding in-situ coating appears at the interface. Besides, the atomic interaction mechanism was proven to be effective in many other systems by the sessile drop technique. Considering the interfacial morphology, Nb was added into the alloy to fabricate W/Zr-based BMGCs. As expected, the Nb addition effectively suppressed the W-Zr reaction and damage to W fibers. Both the compressive and tensile properties are improved obviously. PMID:25758910

  17. Atomic interaction mechanism for designing the interface of W/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. K.; Fu, H. M.; Sha, P. F.; Zhu, Z. W.; Wang, A. M.; Li, H.; Zhang, H. W.; Zhang, H. F.; Hu, Z. Q.

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between active element Zr and W damages the W fibers and the interface and decreases the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength of the W fibers reinforced Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs). From the viewpoint of atomic interaction, the W-Zr interaction can be restrained by adding minor elements that have stronger interaction with W into the alloy. The calculation about atomic interaction energy indicates that Ta and Nb preferred to segregate on the W substrate surface. Sessile drop experiment proves the prediction and corresponding in-situ coating appears at the interface. Besides, the atomic interaction mechanism was proven to be effective in many other systems by the sessile drop technique. Considering the interfacial morphology, Nb was added into the alloy to fabricate W/Zr-based BMGCs. As expected, the Nb addition effectively suppressed the W-Zr reaction and damage to W fibers. Both the compressive and tensile properties are improved obviously.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Low-Velocity Repeated Impacts on Glass Fiber Metal Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, G. R.; Krishna, M.; Narasimha Murthy, H. N.; Sharma, S. C.; Vishnu Mahesh, K. R.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of repeated low-velocity impacts on tensile strength of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) using instrumented drop weight impact tester. FMLs were fabricated layer by layer intercalating three layers of aluminum 6061 and two layers of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy. The FMLs were subjected to repeated low-velocity impacts (<10 m/s) at the same location on the FML. The degradation of mechanical property due to impact(s) was studied using Zwick UTM at distances of 0, 20, 40, and 60 mm from the impact point. Results indicate that ultimate tensile strength, failure strain, and ductility of all specimens initially decrease, and then remain constant with increase in number of impacts. A closer examination of impacted FML by scanning electron microscope indicates that thinning and shear fracture in aluminum layers, as well as delamination, and fiber failure in composites plies were present.

  19. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding. PMID:26932846

  20. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding.

  1. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites.

    PubMed

    Khanolkar, Gauri R; Rauls, Michael B; Kelly, James P; Graeve, Olivia A; Hodge, Andrea M; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding. PMID:26932846

  2. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    R, Lisha; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Anantharaman, M. R.; T, Hysen; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2015-06-24

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  3. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Lisha; T, Hysen; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  4. A Tensile Deformation Model for In-situ Dendrite/Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, J. W.; Zhang, T.; Yang, F. Q.; Liaw, P. K.; Pauly, S.; Xu, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    In-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a composition of Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 exhibit ultimate tensile strength of 1510 MPa and fracture strain of about 7.6%. A tensile deformation model is established, based on the five-stage classification: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (yield platform), (4) plastic-plastic (work hardening), and (5) plastic-plastic (softening) stages, analogous to the tensile behavior of common carbon steels. The constitutive relations strongly elucidate the tensile deformation mechanism. In parallel, the simulation results by a finite-element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the experimental findings and theoretical calculations. The present study gives a mathematical model to clarify the work-hardening behavior of dendrites and softening of the amorphous matrix. Furthermore, the model can be employed to simulate the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite/MGMCs. PMID:24085187

  5. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  6. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  7. Non-Magnetic, Tough, Corrosion- and Wear-Resistant Knives From Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Douglas C.; Potter, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Quality knives are typically fabricated from high-strength steel alloys. Depending on the application, there are different requirements for mechanical and physical properties that cause problems for steel alloys. For example, diver's knives are generally used in salt water, which causes rust in steel knives. Titanium diver's knives are a popular alternative due to their salt water corrosion resistance, but are too soft to maintain a sharp cutting edge. Steel knives are also magnetic, which is undesirable for military applications where the knives are used as a tactical tool for diffusing magnetic mines. Steel is also significantly denser than titanium (8 g/cu cm vs. 4.5 g/cu cm), which results in heavier knives for the same size. Steel is hard and wear-resistant, compared with titanium, and can keep a sharp edge during service. A major drawback of both steel and titanium knives is that they must be ground or machined into the final knife shape from a billet. Since most knives have a mirrored surface and a complex shape, manufacturing them is complex. It would be more desirable if the knife could be cast into a net or near-net shape in a single step. The solution to the deficiencies of titanium, steel, and ceramic knives is to fabricate them using bulk metallic glasses (or composites). These alloys can be cast into net or near-net shaped knives with a combination of properties that exceed both titanium and steel. A commercially viable BMG (bulk metallic glass) or composite knife is one that exhibits one or all of the following properties: It is based on titanium, has a self-sharpening edge, can retain an edge during service, is hard, is non-magnetic, is corrosion-resistant against a variety of corrosive environments, is tough (to allow for prying), can be cast into a net-shape with a mirror finish and a complex shape, has excellent wear resistance, and is low-density. These properties can be achieved in BMG and composites through alloy chemistry and processing. For

  8. Towards an understanding of tensile deformation in Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites with BCC dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziejska, Joanna A.; Kozachkov, Henry; Kranjc, Kelly; Hunter, Allen; Marquis, Emmanuelle; Johnson, William L.; Flores, Katharine M.; Hofmann, Douglas C.

    2016-03-01

    The microstructure and tension ductility of a series of Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite (BMGMC) is investigated by changing content of the β stabilizing element vanadium while holding the volume fraction of dendritic phase constant. The ability to change only one variable in these novel composites has previously been difficult, leading to uninvestigated areas regarding how composition affects properties. It is shown that the tension ductility can range from near zero percent to over ten percent simply by changing the amount of vanadium in the dendritic phase. This approach may prove useful for the future development of these alloys, which have largely been developed experimentally using trial and error.

  9. Compositional origin of unusual β-relaxation properties in La-Ni-Al metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z. G.; Li, Y. Z.; Wang, Z.; Gao, X. Q.; Wen, P.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.; Ngai, K. L.

    2014-08-28

    The β-relaxation of metallic glasses (MGs) bears nontrivial connections to their microscopic and macroscopic properties. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of the β-relaxation, we studied by dynamical mechanical measurements the change of its properties on varying the composition of La{sub 60}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 25} in various ways. The properties of the β-relaxation turn out to be very sensitive to the composition. It is found that the isochronal loss peak temperature of β-relaxation, T{sub β,peak}, is effectively determined by the total (La + Ni) content. When Cu is added into the alloy to replace either La, Ni, or Al, the T{sub β,peak} increases with decrease of the (La + Ni) content. The trend is in accordance with data of binary and ternary MGs formed from La, Ni, Al, and Cu. Binary La-Ni MGs have pronounced β-relaxation loss peaks, well separated from the α-relaxation. In contrast, the β-relaxation is not resolved in La-Al and La-Cu MGs, showing up as an excess wing. For the ternary La-Ni-Al MGs, increase of La or Ni content is crucial to lower the T{sub β,peak}. Keeping the Al content fixed, increase of La content lowers the T{sub β,peak} further, indicating the more important role La plays in lowering T{sub β,peak} than Ni. The observed effects on changing the composition of La{sub 60}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 25} lead to the conclusion that the properties of the β-relaxation are mainly determined by the interaction between the largest solvent element, La, and the smallest element, Ni. From our data, it is further deduced that La and Ni have high mobility in the MGs, and this explains why the β-relaxation in this La-based MGs is prominent and well resolved from the α-relaxation as opposed to Pd- and Zr-based MGs where the solvent and largest atoms, Pd and Zr, are the least mobile.

  10. Synthesis Of Noble Metal Nanoparticle Composite Glasses Using Low Energy Ion Beam Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Ranjana S.; Kothari, D. C.; Mahadkar, A. G.; Kulkarni, N. A.; Kanjilal, D.; Kumar, P.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon coated thin films of Cu or Au on fused silica glasses have been irradiated using 100 keV Ar{sup +} ions at different fluences ranging from 1x10{sup 13} to 1x10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2}. In this article, we explore a route to form noble metal nanoparticles in amorphous glass matrices without post irradiation annealing using low energy ion beam mixing where nuclear energy loss process is dominant. Optical and structural properties were studied using UV-Vis-NIR absorbance spectroscopy and Glancing angle X-ray Diffraction (GXRD). Results showed that Cu and Au nanoparticles are formed at higher fluence of 1x10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} used in this work without annealing. The diameters of metal nanoparticles obtained from UV-Vis NIR and GXRD are in agreement.

  11. Combinatorial development of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiyan; Liu, Yanhui; Li, Yanglin; Liu, Ze; Sohn, Sungwoo; Walker, Fred J; Schroers, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The identification of multicomponent alloys out of a vast compositional space is a daunting task, especially for bulk metallic glasses composed of three or more elements. Despite an increasing theoretical understanding of glass formation, bulk metallic glasses are predominantly developed through a sequential and time-consuming trial-and-error approach. Even for binary systems, accurate quantum mechanical approaches are still many orders of magnitude away from being able to simulate the relatively slow kinetics of glass formation. Here, we present a high-throughput strategy where ∼3,000 alloy compositions are fabricated simultaneously and characterized for thermoplastic formability through parallel blow forming. Using this approach, we identified the composition with the highest thermoplastic formability in the glass-forming system Mg-Cu-Y. The method provides a versatile toolbox for unveiling complex correlations of material properties and glass formation, and should facilitate a drastic increase in the discovery rate of metallic glasses. PMID:24728462

  12. Combinatorial development of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shiyan; Liu, Yanhui; Li, Yanglin; Liu, Ze; Sohn, Sungwoo; Walker, Fred J.; Schroers, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The identification of multicomponent alloys out of a vast compositional space is a daunting task, especially for bulk metallic glasses composed of three or more elements. Despite an increasing theoretical understanding of glass formation, bulk metallic glasses are predominantly developed through a sequential and time-consuming trial-and-error approach. Even for binary systems, accurate quantum mechanical approaches are still many orders of magnitude away from being able to simulate the relatively slow kinetics of glass formation. Here, we present a high-throughput strategy where ˜3,000 alloy compositions are fabricated simultaneously and characterized for thermoplastic formability through parallel blow forming. Using this approach, we identified the composition with the highest thermoplastic formability in the glass-forming system Mg-Cu-Y. The method provides a versatile toolbox for unveiling complex correlations of material properties and glass formation, and should facilitate a drastic increase in the discovery rate of metallic glasses.

  13. Multi-scale Characterisation of the 3D Microstructure of a Thermally-Shocked Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Bodey, Andrew J; Sui, Tan; Kockelmann, Winfried; Rau, Christoph; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Mi, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) are a new class of metal alloys which have significantly increased ductility and impact toughness, resulting from the ductile crystalline phases distributed uniformly within the amorphous matrix. However, the 3D structures and their morphologies of such composite at nano and micrometre scale have never been reported before. We have used high density electric currents to thermally shock a Zr-Ti based BMGMC to different temperatures, and used X-ray microtomography, FIB-SEM nanotomography and neutron diffraction to reveal the morphologies, compositions, volume fractions and thermal stabilities of the nano and microstructures. Understanding of these is essential for optimizing the design of BMGMCs and developing viable manufacturing methods. PMID:26725519

  14. Multi-scale Characterisation of the 3D Microstructure of a Thermally-Shocked Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Bodey, Andrew J.; Sui, Tan; Kockelmann, Winfried; Rau, Christoph; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Mi, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) are a new class of metal alloys which have significantly increased ductility and impact toughness, resulting from the ductile crystalline phases distributed uniformly within the amorphous matrix. However, the 3D structures and their morphologies of such composite at nano and micrometre scale have never been reported before. We have used high density electric currents to thermally shock a Zr-Ti based BMGMC to different temperatures, and used X-ray microtomography, FIB-SEM nanotomography and neutron diffraction to reveal the morphologies, compositions, volume fractions and thermal stabilities of the nano and microstructures. Understanding of these is essential for optimizing the design of BMGMCs and developing viable manufacturing methods. PMID:26725519

  15. Effect of strain rates on deformation behaviors of an in situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Chu, M. Y.; Wang, Y. S.; Yang, H. J.; Qiao, J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Quasi-static and dynamic deformation behaviors of an in situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composite: Ti56Zr18V10Cu4Be12 were investigated. Upon quasi-static compression, the composite exhibits distinguished work hardening, accompanied by the ultimate strength of 1290 MPa and the plasticity of 20 %. The improved plasticity is attributed to the multiplication of shear bands within the glass matrix and pileups of dislocations within the dendrites. Upon dynamic compression, the stable plastic flow prevails and the yielding stress increases with the strain rate. The macroscopic plasticity decreases considerably, since the shear bands cannot be effectively hindered by dendrites with deteriorated toughness. The dendrite-dominated mechanism results in the positive strain-rate sensitivity, and the Cowper-Symonds model is employed to depict the strain-rate dependency of yielding strength.

  16. Modeling the glass forming ability of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheney, Justin Lee

    A design protocol for the discovery of novel metallic glass compositions has been developed using a multi-model approach. By using a series of modeling criteria, all aspects of vitrification in metals can be simultaneously analyzed, and optimum compositions for metallic glass formation can be accurately determined. The modeling tools used focus on three aspects common among good glass forming alloy: compositional proximity to a deep eutectic, development of strong chemical interactions in the liquid state, and an ordered local topology in the amorphous state. It was shown that metallic glasses have the tendency to form two separate local topologies, that based on solvent-solute clustering, and that based on solute-solute clustering. A chemical short range order parameter model was used to evaluate constituent element interactions, and distinguish between these two structure types. In solvent-solute clusters, metallic glass design involves maximizing the packing density in the cluster structure; in the solute-solute cluster case, metallic glass design requires maximizing the elastic strain as a function of the solute composition. A quantification method, termed the alpha parameter, was developed to determine the depth of a eutectic, and rank alloy compositions among a large multi-dimensional composition space. This modeling approach was shown to accurately predict the wide range of metallic glass types represented in the literature. Furthermore, novel metallic glass compositions were developed according to this model. These novel compositions are among the most cost-effective bulk metallic glasses, which belong to three distinct alloy systems, Fe-Cr-Mo-C-B-W, Fe-Nb-Cr-B, and Ti-Ni-Cu-Si-Sn.

  17. Composition-dependent stability of the medium-range order responsible for metallic glass formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ji, Min; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Yang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Kramer, M. J.; Napolitano, Ralph E.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-09-18

    The competition between the characteristic medium-range order corresponding to amorphous alloys and that in ordered crystalline phases is central to phase selection and morphology evolution under various processing conditions. We examine the stability of a model glass system, Cu–Zr, by comparing the energetics of various medium-range structural motifs over a wide range of compositions using first-principles calculations. Furthermore, we focus specifically on motifs that represent possible building blocks for competing glassy and crystalline phases, and we employ a genetic algorithm to efficiently identify the energetically favored decorations of each motif for specific compositions. These results show that a Bergman-type motif with crystallization-resisting icosahedral symmetry is energetically most favorable in the composition range 0.63 < xCu < 0.68, and is the underlying motif for one of the three optimal glass-forming ranges observed experimentally for this binary system (Li et al., 2008). This work establishes an energy-based methodology to evaluate specific medium-range structural motifs which compete with stable crystalline nuclei in deeply undercooled liquids.

  18. Composition-dependent stability of the medium-range order responsible for metallic glass formation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Feng; Ji, Min; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Yang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Kramer, M. J.; Napolitano, Ralph E.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-09-18

    The competition between the characteristic medium-range order corresponding to amorphous alloys and that in ordered crystalline phases is central to phase selection and morphology evolution under various processing conditions. We examine the stability of a model glass system, Cu–Zr, by comparing the energetics of various medium-range structural motifs over a wide range of compositions using first-principles calculations. Furthermore, we focus specifically on motifs that represent possible building blocks for competing glassy and crystalline phases, and we employ a genetic algorithm to efficiently identify the energetically favored decorations of each motif for specific compositions. These results show that a Bergman-type motifmore » with crystallization-resisting icosahedral symmetry is energetically most favorable in the composition range 0.63 < xCu < 0.68, and is the underlying motif for one of the three optimal glass-forming ranges observed experimentally for this binary system (Li et al., 2008). This work establishes an energy-based methodology to evaluate specific medium-range structural motifs which compete with stable crystalline nuclei in deeply undercooled liquids.« less

  19. The corrosion behavior of in-situ Zr-based metallic glass matrix composites in different corrosive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. F.; Qiao, J. W.; Yang, H. J.; Wang, Y. S.; Liaw, P. K.; Lan, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    The corrosion behavior of Zr58.5Ti14.3Nb5.2Cu6.1Ni4.9Be11.0 metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) in different corrosive media, including 1 M NaCl, 1 M HCl, 0.5 M H2SO4, and 1 M NaOH solutions, was studied. The electrochemical characteristics of the composites were investigated by potentiodynamic-polarization measurements. The results show that the corrosion resistance in NaOH solution is the poorest in terms of the corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current density (icorr). For comparison, the chemical immersion tests were conducted. The corroded surface morphologies after electrochemical and immersion measurements both show that the amorphous matrix and crystalline dendrites exhibit different corrosion behaviors. The possible interpretation of the observed morphology evolution was proposed. The effect of a very base metallic element of beryllium on the corrosion dynamic process has been emphasized.

  20. Metallic Glass Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A sample of advanced metallic glass alloy cools down during an experiment with the TEMPUS furnace on STS-94, July 7, 1997, MET:5/23:35 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample glowing, then fading to black as scientists began the process of preserving the liquid state, but lowering the temperature below the normal solidification temperature of the alloy. This process is known as undercooling. (10 second clip covering approximately 50 seconds.) TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (354KB JPEG, 2700 x 2038 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300189.html.

  1. Tensile deformation mechanisms of an in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite at cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Bai, J; Li, J S; Qiao, J W; Wang, J; Feng, R; Kou, H C; Liaw, P K

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable tensile ductility was first obtained in an in-situ Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite at cryogenic temperature (77 K). The novel cryogenic tensile plasticity is related to the effective accommodation of ductile body-centered cubic dendrites at 77 K, characteristic of the prevailing slip bands and dislocations, as well as lattice disorder, which can effectively hinder the propagation of critical shear bands. The greatly increased yield strength of dendrites contributes to the high yield strength of composite at 77 K. A trend of stronger softening is observed at low temperature, and a criterion is proposed to understand the softening behavior. The current research could also provide a guidance to the promising cryogenic application of these new advanced BMG composites. PMID:27576728

  2. Tensile deformation mechanisms of an in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite at cryogenic temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bai, J.; Li, J. S.; Qiao, J. W.; Wang, J.; Feng, R.; Kou, H. C.; Liaw, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable tensile ductility was first obtained in an in-situ Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite at cryogenic temperature (77 K). The novel cryogenic tensile plasticity is related to the effective accommodation of ductile body-centered cubic dendrites at 77 K, characteristic of the prevailing slip bands and dislocations, as well as lattice disorder, which can effectively hinder the propagation of critical shear bands. The greatly increased yield strength of dendrites contributes to the high yield strength of composite at 77 K. A trend of stronger softening is observed at low temperature, and a criterion is proposed to understand the softening behavior. The current research could also provide a guidance to the promising cryogenic application of these new advanced BMG composites. PMID:27576728

  3. Towards an understanding of tensile deformation in Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites with BCC dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejska, Joanna A; Kozachkov, Henry; Kranjc, Kelly; Hunter, Allen; Marquis, Emmanuelle; Johnson, William L; Flores, Katharine M; Hofmann, Douglas C

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and tension ductility of a series of Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite (BMGMC) is investigated by changing content of the β stabilizing element vanadium while holding the volume fraction of dendritic phase constant. The ability to change only one variable in these novel composites has previously been difficult, leading to uninvestigated areas regarding how composition affects properties. It is shown that the tension ductility can range from near zero percent to over ten percent simply by changing the amount of vanadium in the dendritic phase. This approach may prove useful for the future development of these alloys, which have largely been developed experimentally using trial and error. PMID:26932509

  4. Towards an understanding of tensile deformation in Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites with BCC dendrites.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejska, Joanna A; Kozachkov, Henry; Kranjc, Kelly; Hunter, Allen; Marquis, Emmanuelle; Johnson, William L; Flores, Katharine M; Hofmann, Douglas C

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and tension ductility of a series of Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite (BMGMC) is investigated by changing content of the β stabilizing element vanadium while holding the volume fraction of dendritic phase constant. The ability to change only one variable in these novel composites has previously been difficult, leading to uninvestigated areas regarding how composition affects properties. It is shown that the tension ductility can range from near zero percent to over ten percent simply by changing the amount of vanadium in the dendritic phase. This approach may prove useful for the future development of these alloys, which have largely been developed experimentally using trial and error. PMID:26932509

  5. Ni-Nb-Sn Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites Fabricated by Microwave-Induced Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoqiang; Li, Song; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Cao, Ziping; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-07-01

    Using a gas-atomized Ni59.35Nb34.45Sn6.2 metallic glassy alloy powder blended with Sn powder of various contents, Ni-Nb-Sn bulk metallic glassy matrix composites were fabricated by a microwave (MW)-induced sintering process in a single-mode 2.45 GHz MW applicator in a separated magnetic field. The Ni59.35Nb34.45Sn6.2 glassy alloy powder and its mixed powders containing Sn particles could be heated well in the magnetic field. The addition of Sn particles promoted densification of the sintered Ni59.35Nb34.45Sn6.2 metallic glassy powder. Bulk samples without crystallization of the glassy matrix and with good bonding state among the particles were achieved at a sintering temperature of 833 K.

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-Based In Situ Dendrite-Reinforced Metallic Glass Matrix Composites in Various Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Tian, H. F.; Lan, A. D.; Zhou, H. F.; Wang, B. C.; Yang, H. J.; Qiao, J. W.

    2015-06-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 in situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization experiments and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in acidic, salty, and alkaline solutions. Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 in situ dendrite-reinforced MGMCs have an impressive corrosion resistance in strong acidic environment, while their performance was not so great in strong alkaline environment. Further immersion test in same solutions revealed similar chemical corrosion behaviors. XRD and SEM examinations were conducted to check the structure and surface modification of the material during the corrosion process. EDS test indicated that the amorphous matrices, which show excellent corrosion resistance, have a considerable composition variation from its crystalline dendrites counterpart.

  7. Two-phase quasi-equilibrium in β-type Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Pauly, S.; Tang, M. Q.; Eckert, J.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of cast Ti/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) containing β-Ti still remains ambiguous. This is why to date the strategies and alloys suitable for producing such BMGCs with precisely controllable volume fractions and crystallite sizes are still rather limited. In this work, a Ti-based BMGC containing β-Ti was developed in the Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Be system. The glassy matrix of this BMGC possesses an exceptional glass-forming ability and as a consequence, the volume fractions as well as the composition of the β-Ti dendrites remain constant over a wide range of cooling rates. This finding can be explained in terms of a two-phase quasi-equilibrium between the supercooled liquid and β-Ti, which the system attains on cooling. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium allows predicting the crystalline and glassy volume fractions by means of the lever rule and we succeeded in reproducing these values by slight variations in the alloy composition at a fixed cooling rate. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium could be of critical importance for understanding and designing the microstructures of BMGCs containing the β-phase. Its implications on the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase are elaborated.

  8. Two-phase quasi-equilibrium in β-type Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Pauly, S.; Tang, M. Q.; Eckert, J.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of cast Ti/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) containing β-Ti still remains ambiguous. This is why to date the strategies and alloys suitable for producing such BMGCs with precisely controllable volume fractions and crystallite sizes are still rather limited. In this work, a Ti-based BMGC containing β-Ti was developed in the Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Be system. The glassy matrix of this BMGC possesses an exceptional glass-forming ability and as a consequence, the volume fractions as well as the composition of the β-Ti dendrites remain constant over a wide range of cooling rates. This finding can be explained in terms of a two-phase quasi-equilibrium between the supercooled liquid and β-Ti, which the system attains on cooling. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium allows predicting the crystalline and glassy volume fractions by means of the lever rule and we succeeded in reproducing these values by slight variations in the alloy composition at a fixed cooling rate. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium could be of critical importance for understanding and designing the microstructures of BMGCs containing the β-phase. Its implications on the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase are elaborated. PMID:26754315

  9. Two-phase quasi-equilibrium in β-type Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Pauly, S; Tang, M Q; Eckert, J; Zhang, H F

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of cast Ti/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) containing β-Ti still remains ambiguous. This is why to date the strategies and alloys suitable for producing such BMGCs with precisely controllable volume fractions and crystallite sizes are still rather limited. In this work, a Ti-based BMGC containing β-Ti was developed in the Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Be system. The glassy matrix of this BMGC possesses an exceptional glass-forming ability and as a consequence, the volume fractions as well as the composition of the β-Ti dendrites remain constant over a wide range of cooling rates. This finding can be explained in terms of a two-phase quasi-equilibrium between the supercooled liquid and β-Ti, which the system attains on cooling. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium allows predicting the crystalline and glassy volume fractions by means of the lever rule and we succeeded in reproducing these values by slight variations in the alloy composition at a fixed cooling rate. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium could be of critical importance for understanding and designing the microstructures of BMGCs containing the β-phase. Its implications on the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase are elaborated. PMID:26754315

  10. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, L.; Li, W.H.; Fang, S.S.; Wei, B.C.; Dong, Y.D.

    2006-01-15

    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni{sub 62}Nb{sub 38} alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter {gamma}* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  11. Microscopic origin of slow dynamics at the good glass forming composition range in Zr1-xCux metallic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, S. G.; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2010-03-01

    We have studied the structure and dynamics of a series of Zr1-xCux metallic liquids at temperatures of 1500 and 1300 K. We found that as the Cu composition increases, the Zr-Zr order undergoes considerable transition, which can be attributed to the different size of Zr and Cu atoms. The diffusivities of both Cu and Zr atoms become lower at the composition range corresponding to good glass forming region, i.e., 0.50≤x≤0.70. We found that the lower diffusivities for the intermediate composition range are correlated with the concentration of some specific clusters, including icosahedra, which can be screened out automatically and unbiasedly by using direct atomic dynamics analysis. Our analysis for the dynamic properties of high temperature liquids of ZrCu metallic alloys shows that the icosahedral clusters together with some other pentagon-rich Voronoi clusters are responsible for slowing dynamics. Cluster lifetime analysis indicates that the slow clusters mobility could be originated in their energy.

  12. Electronic structure of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Oelhafen, P.; Lapka, R.; Gubler, U.; Krieg, J.; DasGupta, A.; Guentherodt, H.J.; Mizoguchi, T.; Hague, C.; Kuebler, J.; Nagel, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is organized in six sections and deals with (1) the glassy transition metal alloys, their d-band structure, the d-band shifts on alloying and their relation to the alloy heat of formation (..delta..H) and the glass forming ability, (2) the glass to crystal phase transition viewed by valence band spectroscopy, (3) band structure calculations, (4) metallic glasses prepared by laser glazing, (5) glassy normal metal alloys, and (6) glassy hydrides.

  13. Metastable metallic hydrogen glass

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W J

    2001-02-06

    The quest for metallic hydrogen has been going on for over one hundred years. Before hydrogen was first condensed into a liquid in 1898, it was commonly thought that condensed hydrogen would be a metal, like the monatomic alkali metals below hydrogen in the first column of the Periodic Table. Instead, condensed hydrogen turned out to be transparent, like the diatomic insulating halogens in the seventh column of the Periodic Table. Wigner and Huntington predicted in 1935 that solid hydrogen at 0 K would undergo a first-order phase transition from a diatomic to a monatomic crystallographically ordered solid at {approx}25 GPa. This first-order transition would be accompanied by an insulator-metal transition. Though searched for extensively, a first-order transition from an ordered diatomic insulator to a monatomic metal is yet to be observed at pressures up to 120 and 340 GPa using x-ray diffraction and visual inspection, respectively. On the other hand, hydrogen reaches the minimum electrical conductivity of a metal at 140 GPa, 0.6 g/cm{sup 3}, and 3000 K. These conditions were achieved using a shock wave reverberating between two stiff sapphire anvils. The shock wave was generated with a two-stage light-gas gun. This temperature exceeds the calculated melting temperature at 140 GPa by a factor of {approx}2, indicating that this metal is in the disordered fluid phase. The disorder permits hydrogen to become metallic via a Mott transition in the liquid at a much smaller pressure than in the solid, which has an electronic bandgap to the highest pressures reached to date. Thus, by using the finite temperature achieved with shock compression to achieve a disordered melt, metallic hydrogen can be achieved at a much lower pressure in a fluid than in a solid. It is not known how, nor even whether, metallic hydrogen can be quenched from a fluid at high pressures to a disordered solid metallic glass at ambient pressure and temperature. Because metallization occurs by simply

  14. Effect of geometrical constraint condition on the formation of nanoscale twins in the Ni-based metallic glass composite

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M H; Kim, B S; Kim, D H; Ott, R T; Sansoz, F; Eckert, J

    2014-04-25

    We investigated the effect of geometrically constrained stress-strain conditions on the formation of nanotwins in alpha-brass phase reinforced Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass (MG) matrix deformed under macroscopic uniaxial compression. The specific geometrically constrained conditions in the samples lead to a deviation from a simple uniaxial state to a multi-axial stress state, for which nanocrystallization in the MG matrix together with nanoscale twinning of the brass reinforcement is observed in localized regions during plastic flow. The nanocrystals in the MG matrix and the appearance of the twinned structure in the reinforcements indicate that the strain energy is highly confined and the local stress reaches a very high level upon yielding. Both the effective distribution of reinforcements on the strain enhancement of composite and the effects of the complicated stress states on the development of nanotwins in the second-phase brass particles are discussed.

  15. Effect of geometrical constraint condition on the formation of nanoscale twins in the Ni-based metallic glass composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Kim, B. S.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Sansoz, F.; Eckert, J.

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of geometrically constrained stress-strain conditions on the formation of nanotwins in α-brass phase reinforced Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass (MG) matrix deformed under macroscopic uniaxial compression. The specific geometrically constrained conditions in the samples lead to a deviation from a simple uniaxial state to a multi-axial stress state, for which nanocrystallization in the MG matrix together with nanoscale twinning of the brass reinforcement is observed in localized regions during plastic flow. The nanocrystals in the MG matrix and the appearance of the twinned structure in the reinforcements indicate that the strain energy is highly confined and the local stress reaches a very high level upon yielding. Both the effective distribution of reinforcements on the strain enhancement of composite and the effects of the complicated stress states on the development of nanotwins in the second-phase brass particles are discussed.

  16. Metallic glass velocity sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.L.; Butler, S.C.; Massa, D.P.; Cavanagh, G.H.

    1996-04-01

    A metallic glass accelerometer has been developed for use as an underwater sound velocity sensor. The device uses the metallic glass material Metglas 2605SC which has been processed to achieve a virgin coupling coefficient of 0.96. The mechanical to electrical conversion is based on the detection of the change in the inductance of the device as a result of bending motion. The detection method uses a carrier frequency signal which is amplitude modulated by the received signal. This scheme was originally described by Wun-Fogle, Savage and Clark [{open_quote}{open_quote}Sensitive wide frequency range magnetostrictive strain gauge,{close_quote}{close_quote} Sensors and Actuators, 1{underscore}2{underscore}, 323{endash}331 (1987)]. The bender is in the form of a three layered laminate with a closed magnetic path window frame structure. The theory of operation along with measured and calculated results are presented for a prototype element with approximate dimensions 1.5{times}1.0{times}0.1 inches. Calculated and measured results agree for a reduced effective coupling coefficient of 0.72 and operation with a carrier field intensity of 0.87 Oe and carrier frequency of 20 kHz. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Iodine confinement into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-low temperature sintering glasses to form novel glass composite material (GCM) alternative waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Sava, Dorina Florentina

    2010-11-01

    The safe handling of reprocessed fuel addresses several scientific goals, especially when considering the capture and long-term storage of volatile radionuclides that are necessary during this process. Despite not being a major component of the off-gas, radioiodine (I{sub 2}) is particularly challenging, because it is a highly mobile gas and {sup 129}I is a long-lived radionuclide (1.57 x 10{sup 7} years). Therefore, its capture and sequestration is of great interest on a societal level. Herein, we explore novel routes toward the effective capture and storage of iodine. In particular, we report on the novel use of a new class of porous solid-state functional materials (metal-organic frameworks, MOFs), as high-capacity adsorbents of molecular iodine. We further describe the formation of novel glass-composite material (GCM) waste forms from the mixing and sintering of the I{sub 2}-containing MOFs with Bi-Zn-O low-temperature sintering glasses and silver metal flakes. Our findings indicate that, upon sintering, a uniform monolith is formed, with no evidence of iodine loss; iodine is sequestered during the heating process by the in situ formation of AgI. Detailed materials characterization analysis is presented for the GCMs. This includes powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), thermal analysis (thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)), and chemical durability tests including aqueous leach studies (product consistency test (PCT)), with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of the PCT leachate.

  18. Designing tensile ductility in metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Sarac, Baran; Schroers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of a second phase in metallic glass heterostructures to improve mechanical properties varies widely. Unfortunately, methods to fabricate such heterostructures like foams and composites do not allow controlled variation of structural features. Here we report a novel strategy, which allows us to vary heterostructural features independently, thereby enabling a systematic and quantitative study. Our approach reveals the optimal microstructural architecture for metallic glass heterostructures to achieve tensile ductility. Critical design aspect is a soft second phase, which is most effective when spacing between the second phase assumes the critical crack length of the metallic glass. This spacing should coincide with the second phase’s size, and beyond, the specific second phase morphology of the heterostructure is crucial. These toughening strategies are only effective in samples that are large compared with the spacing of the second phase. The identified design aspects provide guidance in designing tensile ductility into metallic glasses. PMID:23863967

  19. Designing tensile ductility in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Baran; Schroers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of a second phase in metallic glass heterostructures to improve mechanical properties varies widely. Unfortunately, methods to fabricate such heterostructures like foams and composites do not allow controlled variation of structural features. Here we report a novel strategy, which allows us to vary heterostructural features independently, thereby enabling a systematic and quantitative study. Our approach reveals the optimal microstructural architecture for metallic glass heterostructures to achieve tensile ductility. Critical design aspect is a soft second phase, which is most effective when spacing between the second phase assumes the critical crack length of the metallic glass. This spacing should coincide with the second phase's size, and beyond, the specific second phase morphology of the heterostructure is crucial. These toughening strategies are only effective in samples that are large compared with the spacing of the second phase. The identified design aspects provide guidance in designing tensile ductility into metallic glasses. PMID:23863967

  20. Critical Crystallization for Embrittlement in Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Ketkaew, Jittisa; Liu, Ze; Chen, Wen; Schroers, Jan

    2015-12-31

    We studied the effect of crystallization on the embrittlement of bulk metallic glasses. Specifically, we measured fracture toughness for Zr(44)Ti(11)Cu(10)Ni(10)Be(25) and Pd(43)Cu(27)Ni(10)P(20) after annealing at various times to introduce controlled volume fraction of crystallization. We found that crystallization of up to ∼6% by volume does not measurably affect fracture toughness. When exceeding ∼6%, a dramatic drop in fracture toughness occurs; an additional 1% of crystallization reduces fracture toughness by 50%. Such a dramatic transition can be explained by the interaction among the crystals' stress fields in the amorphous matrix that becomes effective at ∼7% crystallinity. Our findings of a critical crystallization for embrittlement of metallic glasses help in designing tough metallic glasses and their composites, as well as defining processing protocols for the unique thermoplastic forming of metallic glasses to avoid embrittlement. PMID:26765004

  1. Critical Crystallization for Embrittlement in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketkaew, Jittisa; Liu, Ze; Chen, Wen; Schroers, Jan

    2015-12-01

    We studied the effect of crystallization on the embrittlement of bulk metallic glasses. Specifically, we measured fracture toughness for Zr44Ti11Cu10Ni10Be25 and Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 after annealing at various times to introduce controlled volume fraction of crystallization. We found that crystallization of up to ˜6 % by volume does not measurably affect fracture toughness. When exceeding ˜6 % , a dramatic drop in fracture toughness occurs; an additional 1% of crystallization reduces fracture toughness by 50%. Such a dramatic transition can be explained by the interaction among the crystals' stress fields in the amorphous matrix that becomes effective at ˜7 % crystallinity. Our findings of a critical crystallization for embrittlement of metallic glasses help in designing tough metallic glasses and their composites, as well as defining processing protocols for the unique thermoplastic forming of metallic glasses to avoid embrittlement.

  2. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts

    PubMed Central

    Ranjkesh, Bahram; Lovschall, Henrik; Erfanparast, Leila; Jafarabadi, Mohammad A; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the survival of composite resin restorations retained by glass fiber posts or reversed-orientated (upside-down) metal posts in severely decayed primary anterior teeth after 6, 12, and 18 months. Materials and methods: A total of forty-four 3- to 5-year-old children with bilateral severely decayed primary maxillary canines were included. Patients were treated under general anesthesia. After pulpectomy, an intracanal post was seated in the primary maxillary canine on each side: either a glass fiber post or a metallic post in reversed orientation and teeth restored with light-cured composite. Survival rate of each technique was evaluated at predetermined follow-ups and data were analyzed with McNemar’s test (α = 0.05). Results: The difference in survival of restorations retained by two types of posts was not statistically significant in clinical and radiographical evaluations after 6, 12, and 18 months. The survival rate of reversed-orientated metal and glass fiber posts after 18 months was 81.1 and 67.6% respectively (p = 0.14). Conclusion: Reversed-orientated metal post did not show lower clinical survival compared with glass fiber posts in 18-month follow-up. Hence, reversed-orientated metal post can be considered as a potential method to obtain retention for composite restorations in severely decayed primary anterior teeth. How to cite this article: Vafaei A, Ranjkesh B, L0vschall H, Erfanparast L, Jafarabadi MA, Oskouei SG, Isidor F. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):109-113. PMID:27365929

  3. Critical fictive temperature for plasticity in metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Golden; Neibecker, Pascal; Liu, Yan Hui; Schroers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A long-sought goal in metallic glasses is to impart ductility without conceding their strength and elastic limit. The rational design of tough metallic glasses, however, remains challenging because of the inability of existing theories to capture the correlation between plasticity, composition and processing for a wide range of glass-forming alloys. Here we propose a phenomenological criterion based on a critical fictive temperature, Tfc, which can rationalize the effect of composition, cooling rate and annealing on room-temperature plasticity of metallic glasses. Such criterion helps in understanding the widespread mechanical behaviour of metallic glasses and reveals alloy-specific preparation conditions to circumvent brittleness. PMID:23443564

  4. Critical fictive temperature for plasticity in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Golden; Neibecker, Pascal; Liu, Yan Hui; Schroers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A long-sought goal in metallic glasses is to impart ductility without conceding their strength and elastic limit. The rational design of tough metallic glasses, however, remains challenging because of the inability of existing theories to capture the correlation between plasticity, composition and processing for a wide range of glass-forming alloys. Here we propose a phenomenological criterion based on a critical fictive temperature, T(fc), which can rationalize the effect of composition, cooling rate and annealing on room-temperature plasticity of metallic glasses. Such criterion helps in understanding the widespread mechanical behaviour of metallic glasses and reveals alloy-specific preparation conditions to circumvent brittleness. PMID:23443564

  5. Effects of chemical composition and test conditions on the dynamic tensile response of Zr-based metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Laws, K. J.; Trujillo, C. P.; Brown, A. D.; Cerreta, E. K.; Hazell, P. J.; Quadir, M. Z.; Ferry, M.; Escobedo, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of impact velocity and temperature on the dynamic mechanical behavior of two bulk metallic glasses (BMG) with slightly different elemental compositions (Zr55Cu30Ni5Al30 and Zr46Cu38Ag8Al38) have been investigated. Bullet-shaped samples were accelerated by a gas gun to speeds in the 400 ~ 600m/s range and tested at room temperature and 250 °C. The specimens impacted a steel extrusion die which subjected them to high strains at high strain-rates. The extruded samples were subsequently soft recovered by using low density foams. The deformed specimens were examined by optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and hardness measurements. The characterization results aided to assess the effect of chemical composition on the microstructural evolution, i.e. phase changes or crystallization, which might influence the ductility on the nominally brittle amorphous BMGs. The most significant results from this study will be presented. School of Engineering and Information Technology, UNSW Canberra.

  6. Thermoplastic Joining and Assembly of Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Through Capacitive Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Roberts, Scott N. (Inventor); Kozachkov, Henry (Inventor); Demetriou, Marios D. (Inventor); Schramm, Joseph P. (Inventor); Johnson, William L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for joining BMG Composites are disclosed. Specifically, the joining of BMG Composites is implemented so as to preserve the amorphicity of their matrix phase and the microstructure of their particulate phase. Implementation of the joining method with respect to the construction of modular cellular structures that comprise BMG Composites is also discussed.

  7. Designing novel bulk metallic glass composites with a high aluminum content

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z. P.; Gao, J. E.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.; Liu, X. J.; Lu, Z. P.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing challenge for forming Al-based BMGs and their matrix composites with a critical size larger than 1 mm have not been answered over the past three decades. In this paper, we reported formation of a series of BMG matrix composites which contain a high Al content up to 55 at.%. These composites can be cast at extraordinarily low cooling rates, compatible with maximum rod diameters of over a centimetre in copper mold casting. Our results indicate that proper additions of transition element Fe which have a positive heat of mixing with the main constituents La and Ce can appreciably improve the formability of the BMG matrix composites by suppressing the precipitation of Al(La,Ce) phase resulted from occurrence of the phase separation. However, the optimum content of Fe addition is strongly dependant on the total amount of the Al content in the Al-(CoCu)-(La,Ce) alloys. PMID:24284800

  8. The Magnetic Properties of Metal-Alloy Glass Composites Prepared by Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Julian Fernandez, Cesar de; Mattei, Giovanni; Sada, Cinzia; Maurizio, Chiara; Padovani, Sara; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Sangregorio, Claudio; Gatteschi, Dante

    2003-08-26

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co-Ni, Co-Fe and Ni-Cu alloy nanoparticles formed in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation are presented. These nanoparticles show crystal structure similar to the corresponding bulk alloys. In the Co-Ni and Co-Fe, magnetization saturation and coercive field depend on the the alloy composition, crystal structure and size effects. Ferromagnetic resonance studies show that collective magnetic processes are present and these are determined by the film-like morphology of the implanted region. The temperature dependence of the magnetization of the NixCu100-x samples indicates that their Curie Temperatures are larger than the corresponding bulk ones. This feature is discussed considering the composition of the nanoparticles and the size effects.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2009-06-24

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

  10. A structural model for metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracle, Daniel B.

    2004-10-01

    Despite the intense interest in metallic glasses for a variety of engineering applications, many details of their structure remain a mystery. Here, we present the first compelling atomic structural model for metallic glasses. This structural model is based on a new sphere-packing scheme-the dense packing of atomic clusters. Random positioning of solvent atoms and medium-range atomic order of solute atoms are combined to reproduce diffraction data successfully over radial distances up to ~1 nm. Although metallic glasses can have any number of chemically distinct solute species, this model shows that they contain no more than three topologically distinct solutes and that these solutes have specific and predictable sizes relative to the solvent atoms. Finally, this model includes defects that provide richness to the structural description of metallic glasses. The model accurately predicts the number of solute atoms in the first coordination shell of a typical solvent atom, and provides a remarkable ability to predict metallic-glass compositions accurately for a wide range of simple and complex alloys.

  11. Energy harvesting device based on a metallic glass/PVDF magnetoelectric laminated composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, A.; Gutiérrez, J.; Reis, S.; Sousa, D.; Silva, M.; Martins, P.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Barandiarán, J. M.; Shishkin, D. A.; Potapov, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    A flexible, low-cost energy-harvesting device based on the magnetoelectric (ME) effect was designed using Fe64Co17Si7B12 as amorphous magnetostrictive ribbons and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the piezoelectric element. A 3 cm-long sandwich-type laminated composite was fabricated by gluing the ribbons to the PVDF with an epoxy resin. A voltage multiplier circuit was designed to produce enough voltage to charge a battery. The power output and power density obtained were 6.4 μW and 1.5 mW cm-3, respectively, at optimum load resistance and measured at the magnetomechanical resonance of the laminate. The effect of the length of the ME laminate on power output was also studied: the power output exhibited decays proportionally with the length of the ME laminate. Nevertheless, good performance was obtained for a 0.5 cm-long device working at 337 KHz within the low radio frequency (LRF) range.

  12. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, Gene H.; Roche, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na.sub.2 O, ZrO.sub.2, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and SiO.sub.2 in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2.times.10.sup.-3 (ohm-cm).sup.-1 at 300.degree. C. and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500.degree. C.

  13. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-08

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

  14. Solid State Processing of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Jurgen

    1998-03-01

    Glasses are generally produced from the undercooled liquid state by rapid quenching methods or quasi-statically at slow cooling by the effective control of heterogeneous nucleation. For metallic systems, the latter method has recently led to the development of multicomponent metallic glasses with large glass forming ability and a wide supercooled liquid region before crystallization. Large-scale bulk samples can now be produced by conventional casting techniques. These materials exhibit advanced engineering properties such as excellent wear behavior, almost theoretical strength and good corrosion resistance, and are highly processable at temperatures above the glass transition temperature. As an alternative to quenching or casting techniques, glass formation can also be achieved by solid state processing without passing through the liquid state. Therefore, mechanical alloying as a special form of solid state reaction technique and subsequent consolidation of the resulting powders above the glass transition temperature can be used to prepare bulk metallic glasses through the powder metallurgy route. This paper surveys results of studies regarding the factors governing glass formation by solid state processing. The thermal stability of mechanically alloyed powders is compared with data for melt quenched samples, showing that basically the same glassy state can be reached approaching it from the liquid or the solid state. Special emphasis is given to the glass forming ranges achievable by the different techniques, and to preparation of nanostructured composite materials based on glassy alloys. The results are discussed with respect to the influence of processing conditions, impurity effects and heterogeneous nucleation of crystalline phases. Examples for consolidated bulk samples from mechanically alloyed powders are presented and compared with data for cast bulk specimens.

  15. Processing of bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Jan

    2010-04-12

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) formers are multicomponent alloys that vitrify with remarkable ease during solidification. Technological interest in these materials has been generated by their unique properties, which often surpass those of conventional structural materials. The metastable nature of BMGs, however, has imposed a barrier to broad commercial adoption, particularly where the processing requirements of these alloys conflict with conventional metal processing methods. Research on the crystallization of BMG formers has uncovered novel thermoplastic forming (TPF)-based processing opportunities. Unique among metal processing methods, TPF utilizes the dramatic softening exhibited by a BMG as it approaches its glass-transition temperature and decouples the rapid cooling required to form a glass from the forming step. This article reviews crystallization processes in BMG former and summarizes and compares TPF-based processing methods. Finally, an assessment of scientific and technological advancements required for broader commercial utilization of BMGs will be made. PMID:20496386

  16. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-04-24

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  17. Graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Bacon, J. F.; Dicus, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composite system is described. Although this composite is not yet a mature material, it possesses low density, attractive mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, and good environmental stability. Properties are reported for a borosilicate glass matrix unidirectionally reinforced with 60 volume percent HMS graphite fiber. The flexural strength and fatigue characteristics at room and elevated temperature, resistance to thermal cycling and continuous high temperature oxidation, and thermal expansion characteristics of the composite are reported. The properties of this new composite are compared to those of advanced resin and metal matrix composites showing that graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are attractive for aerospace applications.

  18. Composite metal membrane

    DOEpatents

    Peachey, Nathaniel M.; Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.; Birdsell, Stephan A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  19. Composite metal membrane

    DOEpatents

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  20. METAL COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1959-02-01

    Alloys of uranium which are strong, hard, and machinable are presented, These alloys of uranium contain bctween 0.1 to 5.0% by weight of at least one noble metal such as rhodium, palladium, and gold. The alloys may be heat treated to obtain a product with iniproved tensile and compression strengths,

  1. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    High levels of mechanical performance in tension, flexure, fatigue, and creep loading situations of graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are discussed. At test temperatures of up to 813 K it was found that the major limiting factor was the oxidative instability of the reinforcing graphite fibers. Particular points to note include the following: (1) a wide variety of graphite fibers were found to be comparable with the glass matrix composite fabrication process; (2) choice of fiber, to a large extent, controlled resultant composite performance; (3) composite fatigue performance was found to be excellent at both 300 K and 703 K; (4) composite creep and stress rupture at temperatures of up to 813 K was limited by the oxidative stability of the fiber; (5) exceptionally low values of composite thermal expansion coefficient were attributable to the dimensional stability of both matrix and fiber; and (6) component fabricability was demonstrated through the hot pressing of hot sections and brazing using glass and metal joining phases.

  2. Magnetic antenna using metallic glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, Michael D. (Inventor); Farrell, William M. (Inventor); Houser, Jeffrey G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A lightweight search-coil antenna or sensor assembly for detecting magnetic fields and including a multi-turn electromagnetic induction coil wound on a spool type coil form through which is inserted an elongated coil loading member comprised of metallic glass material wrapped around a dielectric rod. The dielectric rod consists of a plastic or a wooden dowel having a length which is relatively larger than its thickness so as to provide a large length-to-diameter ratio. A tri-axial configuration includes a housing in which is located three substantially identical mutually orthogonal electromagnetic induction coil assemblies of the type described above wherein each of the assemblies include an electromagnetic coil wound on a dielectric spool with an elongated metallic glass coil loading member projecting therethrough.

  3. Amorphous metal composites

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Martin A.; Lupinski, John H.

    1984-01-01

    An improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

  4. The Soret effect in bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Chain T; George, Easo P; Wang, Xianzhen

    2007-01-01

    Compositional inhomogeneity induced by the Soret effect was studied in two Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG): Zr50Cu50 and Zr50Cu40Al10 (at.%), and one Cu-based BMG: Cu60Zr30Ti10 (at.%), all of which were prepared by rapid solidification. The concentration of Cu increases from the surface to the interior, while the concentrations of Zr, Ti and Al decrease. The magnitude of the Soret effect is found to be highly dependant on sample size and interactions between the diffusing atoms in bulk metallic glasses. For the Zr50Cu50 alloy, a large sample size favors the Soret effect, because of the longer diffusion time it affords compared to a small sample. Further, the additions of Al and Ti in the Zr-Cu BMGs reduce the magnitude of the Soret effect by the formation of short-range order and/or inter-atomic clusters.

  5. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  6. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Michael D.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    1987-11-10

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  7. Metal etching composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otousa, Joseph E. (Inventor); Thomas, Clark S. (Inventor); Foster, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a chemical etching composition for etching metals or metallic alloys. The composition includes a solution of hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ethylene glycol, and an oxidizing agent. The etching composition is particularly useful for etching metal surfaces in preparation for subsequent fluorescent penetrant inspection.

  8. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-08-08

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au{sub 49}Ag{sub 5.5}Pd{sub 2.3}Cu{sub 26.9}Si{sub 16.3} has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is {approx}350 Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry.

  9. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-08-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644K, a glass transition temperature of 401K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ˜350Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry.

  10. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. Z.; Gu, X. W.; An, Q.; Goddard, W. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  11. Fractal atomic-level percolation in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, David Z; Shi, Crystal Y; An, Qi; Zeng, Qiaoshi; Mao, Wendy L; Goddard, William A; Greer, Julia R

    2015-09-18

    Metallic glasses are metallic alloys that exhibit exotic material properties. They may have fractal structures at the atomic level, but a physical mechanism for their organization without ordering has not been identified. We demonstrated a crossover between fractal short-range (<2 atomic diameters) and homogeneous long-range structures using in situ x-ray diffraction, tomography, and molecular dynamics simulations. A specific class of fractal, the percolation cluster, explains the structural details for several metallic-glass compositions. We postulate that atoms percolate in the liquid phase and that the percolating cluster becomes rigid at the glass transition temperature. PMID:26383945

  12. Chemical segregation in metallic glass nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Mo; Li, Qi-Kai

    2014-11-21

    Nanowires made of metallic glass have been actively pursued recently due to the superb and unique properties over those of the crystalline materials. The amorphous nanowires are synthesized either at high temperature or via mechanical disruption using focused ion beam. These processes have potential to cause significant changes in structure and chemical concentration, as well as formation of defect or imperfection, but little is known to date about the possibilities and mechanisms. Here, we report chemical segregation to surfaces and its mechanisms in metallic glass nanowires made of binary Cu and Zr elements from molecular dynamics simulation. Strong concentration deviation are found in the nanowires under the conditions similar to these in experiment via focused ion beam processing, hot imprinting, and casting by rapid cooling from liquid state. Our analysis indicates that non-uniform internal stress distribution is a major cause for the chemical segregation, especially at low temperatures. Extension is discussed for this observation to multicomponent metallic glass nanowires as well as the potential applications and side effects of the composition modulation. The finding also points to the possibility of the mechanical-chemical process that may occur in different settings such as fracture, cavitation, and foams where strong internal stress is present in small length scales.

  13. Reactive cluster model of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Travis E.; Miorelli, Jonathan; Eberhart, Mark E.

    2014-02-28

    Though discovered more than a half century ago metallic glasses remain a scientific enigma. Unlike crystalline metals, characterized by short, medium, and long-range order, in metallic glasses short and medium-range order persist, though long-range order is absent. This fact has prompted research to develop structural descriptions of metallic glasses. Among these are cluster-based models that attribute amorphous structure to the existence of clusters that are incommensurate with crystalline periodicity. Not addressed, however, are the chemical factors stabilizing these clusters and promoting their interconnections. We have found that glass formers are characterized by a rich cluster chemistry that above the glass transformation temperature promotes exchange as well as static and vibronic sharing of atoms between clusters. The vibronic mechanism induces correlated motions between neighboring clusters and we hypothesize that the distance over which these motions are correlated mediates metallic glass stability and influences critical cooling rates.

  14. Understanding the deformation mechanism of individual phases of a ZrTi-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite using in situ diffraction and imaging methods

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongjiang E-mail: yjhuang@hit.edu.cn; Khong, J. C.; Mi, J. E-mail: yjhuang@hit.edu.cn; Connolley, Thomas

    2014-01-20

    The plasticity of a ZrTi-based bulk metallic glass composite consisting of glassy matrix and crystalline dendritic phase was studied in-situ under identical tensile loading conditions using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A generic procedure was developed to separate the diffraction information of the crystalline phases away from that of the matrix and to precisely calculate the microscopic strains of the two phases at different macroscopic load steps. In this way, the time-evolved quantitative links between shear bands nucleation/propagation and the corresponding microscopic stress fields around them are established, providing more quantitative understanding on (1) how the shear bands are driven by the local stress field, and (2) the critical stresses required for the shear bands to nucleate in the crystalline phase, propagate through the crystalline/matrix interface, and finally into the matrix.

  15. Boron Nitride Nanotubes-Reinforced Glass Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam; Hurst, Janet B.; Choi, Sung R.

    2005-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes of significant lengths were synthesized by reaction of boron with nitrogen. Barium calcium aluminosilicate glass composites reinforced with 4 weight percent of BN nanotubes were fabricated by hot pressing. Ambient-temperature flexure strength and fracture toughness of the glass-BN nanotube composites were determined. The strength and fracture toughness of the composite were higher by as much as 90 and 35 percent, respectively, than those of the unreinforced glass. Microscopic examination of the composite fracture surfaces showed pullout of the BN nanotubes. The preliminary results on the processing and improvement in mechanical properties of BN nanotube reinforced glass matrix composites are being reported here for the first time.

  16. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr48Cu48 - x Al4M x (M ≡ Fe or Co, x = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr48Cu48Al4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Co0.5 and 6.2% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Fe0.5) is considerably larger than for Zr48Cu48Al4 or the alloys with x = 1. Slight variations in the Young’s modulus (around 5-10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite-martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr-Cu-Al-(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications.

  17. Combinatorial Strategies for the Development of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shiyan

    The systematic identification of multi-component alloys out of the vast composition space is still a daunting task, especially in the development of bulk metallic glasses that are typically based on three or more elements. In order to address this challenge, combinatorial approaches have been proposed. However, previous attempts have not successfully coupled the synthesis of combinatorial libraries with high-throughput characterization methods. The goal of my dissertation is to develop efficient high-throughput characterization methods, optimized to identify glass formers systematically. Here, two innovative approaches have been invented. One is to measure the nucleation temperature in parallel for up-to 800 compositions. The composition with the lowest nucleation temperature has a reasonable agreement with the best-known glass forming composition. In addition, the thermoplastic formability of a metallic glass forming system is determined through blow molding a compositional library. Our results reveal that the composition with the largest thermoplastic deformation correlates well with the best-known formability composition. I have demonstrated both methods as powerful tools to develop new bulk metallic glasses.

  18. Prominent β-relaxations in yttrium based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Lu, Z.; Zhu, Z. G.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-01-19

    Most metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit weak slow β-relaxation. We report the prominent β-relaxation in YNiAl metallic glass with a wide composition range. Compared with other MGs, the MGs show a pronounced β-relaxation peak and high β-relaxation peak temperature, and the β-relaxation behavior varies significantly with the changes of the constituent elements, which is attributed to the fluctuations of chemical interactions between the components. We demonstrate the correlation between the β-relaxation and the activation of flow units for mechanical behaviors of the MG and show that the MG is model system for studying some controversial issues in glasses.

  19. Mechanical failure and glass transition in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The current majority view on the phenomenon of mechanical failure in metallic glasses appears to be that it is caused by the activity of some structural defects, such as free-volumes or shear transformation zones, and the concentration of such defects is small, only of the order of 1%. However, the recent results compel us to revise this view. Through molecular dynamics simulation it has been shown that mechanical failure is the stress-induced glass transition. According to our theory the concentration of the liquid-like sites (defects) is well over 20% at the glass transition. We suggest that the defect concentration in metallic glasses is actually very high, and percolation of such defects causes atomic avalanche and mechanical failure. In this article we discuss the glass transition, mechanical failure and viscosity from such a point of view.

  20. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughenbaugh, Katherine; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS), calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS), a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  1. Unusual fast secondary relaxation in metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Zhang, S.T.; Yang, Y.; Dong, Y.D.; Liu, C.T.; Lu, J.

    2015-01-01

    The relaxation spectrum of glassy solids has long been used to probe their dynamic structural features and the fundamental deformation mechanisms. Structurally complicated glasses, such as molecular glasses, often exhibit multiple relaxation processes. By comparison, metallic glasses have a simple atomic structure with dense atomic packing, and their relaxation spectra were commonly found to be simpler than those of molecular glasses. Here we show the compelling evidence obtained across a wide range of temperatures and frequencies from a La-based metallic glass, which clearly shows two peaks of secondary relaxations (fast versus slow) in addition to the primary relaxation peak. The discovery of the unusual fast secondary relaxation unveils the complicated relaxation dynamics in metallic glasses and, more importantly, provides us the clues which help decode the structural features serving as the ‘trigger' of inelasticity on mechanical agitations. PMID:26204999

  2. Atomic Dynamics in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, Takeshi; Levashov, Valentin A; Aga, Rachel S; Morris, James R

    2007-01-01

    How atoms move in metallic glasses and liquids is an important question in discussing atomic transport, glass formation, structural relaxation and other properties of metallic glasses. While the concept of free-volume has long been used in describing atomic transport, computer simulations and isotope measurements have shown that atomic transport occurs by a much more collective process than assumed in the free-volume theory. We introduce a new approach to describe the atomic dynamics in metallic glasses, in terms of local energy landscapes related to fluctuations in the topology of atomic connectivity. This approach may form the basis for a new paradigm for discussing the structure-properties relationship in metallic glasses.

  3. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION KT07-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-12

    This report is the third in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility is also considered in the study. The KT07-series glasses were selected to evaluate any potential impacts of noble metals on their properties and performance. The glasses characterized thus far for the SCIX study have not included noble metals since they are not typically tracked in sludge batch composition projections. However, noble metals can act as nucleation sites in glass melts, leading to enhanced crystallization. This crystallization can potentially influence the properties and performance of the glass, such as chemical durability, viscosity, and liquidus temperature. The noble metals Ag, Pd, Rh, and Ru were added to the KT07-series glasses in concentrations based on recent measurements of Sludge Batch 6, which was considered to contain a high concentration of noble metals. The KT04-series glasses were used as the baseline compositions. After fabrication, the glasses were characterized to determine their homogeneity, chemical composition, durability, and viscosity. Liquidus temperature measurements are also underway but were not complete at the time of this report. The liquidus temperature results for the KT07-series glasses, along with several of the earlier glasses in the SCIX study, will be documented separately. All of the KT07-series glasses, both quenched and slowly cooled, were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. Chemical composition measurements showed that all of the glasses met their targeted compositions. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all of the glasses had chemical durabilities that were far better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass

  4. Chemical behaviour of metallic inclusions in glass melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, Dörte; Zangenberg, Frauke; Müller, Thomas E.

    2007-05-01

    Inclusions of all kinds cannot be accepted in glass articles. Most of them are non-metallic stones, silicon spheres, cords, bubbles, and sometimes metallic inclusions. Identification of every appearance is not possible, since body structure and chemical composition do not compare. Laboratory experiments regarding the behaviour of the metals copper, brass and iron and their dissolution mechanisms in glass melts at technological relevant temperatures were analysed. Besides partial oxidation processes, sulphidic species were found. The experiments have been compared with thermodynamic calculations of several reaction mechanisms.

  5. Glass ceramic-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-19

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65 to 80% SiO/sub 2/, 8 to 16% Li/sub 2/O, 2 to 8% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 1 to 8% K/sub 2/O, 1 to 5% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and 1.5 to 7% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to caus growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  6. Interfacial analysis of the ex-situ reinforced phase of a laser spot welded Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huei-Sen; Chen, Hou-Guang; Jang, Jason Shian-Ching; Lin, Dong-Yih; Gu, Jhen-Wang

    2013-12-15

    To study the interfacial reaction of the ex-situ reinforced phase (Ta) of a Zr-based ((Zr{sub 48}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}Ag{sub 8})Si{sub 0.75} + Ta{sub 5}) bulk metallic glass composite after laser spot welding, the interfacial regions of the reinforced phases located at specific zones in the welds including the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were investigated. Specimen preparation from the specific zones for transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed using the focused ion beam technique. The test results showed that the reinforced phases in the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were all covered by an interfacial layer. From microstructure analysis, and referring to the phase diagram, it was clear that the thin layers are an intermetallic compound ZrCu phase. However, due to their different formation processes, those layers show the different morphologies or thicknesses. - Highlights: • An ex-situ Zr-based BMG composite was laser spot welded. • The interfacial regions of the RPs located at PM, WFZ and HAZ were investigated. • The RPs in the PM, WFZ and HAZ were all covered by a ZrCu interfacial layer. • Due to different formation processes, those layers show the different morphology.

  7. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of research for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are presented. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a glass matrix.

  8. 'Work-Hardenable' Ductile Bulk Metallic Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Jayanta; Eckert, Juergen; Tang Meibo; Wang Weihua; Kim, Ki Buem; Baier, Falko; Theissmann, Ralf

    2005-05-27

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (<1%) at room temperature. We present a new class of bulk metallic glass, which exhibits high strength of up to 2265 MPa together with extensive 'work hardening' and large ductility of 18%. Significant increase in the flow stress was observed during deformation. The 'work-hardening' capability and ductility of this class of metallic glass is attributed to a unique structure correlated with atomic-scale inhomogeneity, leading to an inherent capability of extensive shear band formation, interactions, and multiplication of shear bands.

  9. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  10. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  11. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-02-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  12. Porosity in metal-organic framework glasses.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A W; Jelfs, K E; Konstas, K; Doherty, C M; Hill, A J; Cheetham, A K; Bennett, T D

    2016-03-01

    The porosity of a glass formed by melt-quenching a metal-organic framework, has been characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results reveal porosity intermediate between the related open and dense crystalline frameworks ZIF-4 and ZIF-zni. A structural model for the glass was constructed using an amorphous polymerization algorithm, providing additional insight into the gas-inaccessible nature of porosity and the possible applications of hybrid glasses. PMID:26800518

  13. Major element composition of Luna 20 glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ten per cent of the 50 to 150-micron size fraction of Luna 20 soil is glass. A random suite of 270 of these glasses has been analyzed by electron microprobe techniques. The major glass type forms a strong cluster around a mean value corresponding to Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro) with 70% normative feldspar. Minor glass groups have the compositions of mare basalts and of low-K Fra Mauro type basalts. The glass data indicate that Highland basalt is the major rock type in the highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis.

  14. Room temperature homogeneous flow in a bulk metallic glass with low glass transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, K.; Xia, X. X.; Bai, H. Y.; Zhao, D. Q.; Wang, W. H.

    2011-04-01

    We report a high entropy metallic glass of Zn20Ca20Sr20Yb20(Li0.55Mg0.45)20 via composition design that exhibiting remarkable homogeneous deformation without shear banding under stress at room temperature. The glass also shows properties such as low glass transition temperature (323 K) approaching room temperature, low density and high specific strength, good conductivity, polymerlike thermoplastic manufacturability, and ultralow elastic moduli comparable to that of bones. The alloy is thermally and chemically stable.

  15. Room temperature homogeneous flow in a bulk metallic glass with low glass transition temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, K.; Xia, X. X.; Bai, H. Y.; Zhao, D. Q.; Wang, W. H.

    2011-04-04

    We report a high entropy metallic glass of Zn{sub 20}Ca{sub 20}Sr{sub 20}Yb{sub 20}(Li{sub 0.55}Mg{sub 0.45}){sub 20} via composition design that exhibiting remarkable homogeneous deformation without shear banding under stress at room temperature. The glass also shows properties such as low glass transition temperature (323 K) approaching room temperature, low density and high specific strength, good conductivity, polymerlike thermoplastic manufacturability, and ultralow elastic moduli comparable to that of bones. The alloy is thermally and chemically stable.

  16. Ultrahigh stability of atomically thin metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, C. R.; Huang, K. Q.; Zhao, N. J.; Sun, Y. T.; Bai, H. Y.; Gu, L. E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn Zheng, D. N. E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn Wang, W. H. E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn

    2014-07-07

    We report the fabrication and study of thermal stability of atomically thin ZrCu-based metallic glass films. The ultrathin films exhibit striking dynamic properties, ultrahigh thermal stability, and unique crystallization behavior with discrete crystalline nanoparticles sizes. The mechanisms for the remarkable high stability and crystallization behaviors are attributed to the dewetting process of the ultrathin film. We demonstrated a promising avenue for understanding some fundamental issues such as glassy structure, crystallization, deformation, and glass formation through atomic resolution imaging of the two dimensional like metallic glasses.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of particulate reinforced Zr[sub 57]Nb[sub 5]Al[sub 10]Cu[sub 15. 4]Ni[sub 12. 6] bulk metallic glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Choi-Yim, H.; Busch, R.; Johnson, W.L. . W.M. Keck Lab. of Engineering Materials); Koester, U. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1999-06-22

    The Zr[sub 57]Nb[sub 5]Al[sub 10]Cu[sub 15.4]Ni[sub 12.6] bulk metallic glass forming liquid is reinforced with WC, SiC, W, or Ta particles. Structure, microstructure and thermal stability of the composites are studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The metallic glass matrix remains amorphous after adding up to 20 vol.% of particles. The reactions at the interfaces between the matrix and the different reinforcing materials are investigated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron microprobe. The mechanical properties of the composites are studied in compression and tension. The influence of the introduced particles on the thermal stability of the matrix as well as on the mechanical properties is discussed.

  18. Structure of glasses containing transition metal ions. Progress report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    White, W B; Furukawa, T; Tsong, I S.T.; Fox, K; Herman, J S; Houser, C; Nelson, C

    1980-02-01

    New normal coordinate calculations were used to relate the vibrational frequencies of silicate glasses to Si-O force constants. These appear to account for the observed frequency shifts with degree of silica polymerization. Raman spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the structure of sodium borosilicate glasses and of sodium aluminosilicate glasses. Structures of compositionally complex glasses can be understood if spectra are measured on many glasses spaced at small compositional intervals. Optical absorption spectra were used to investigate the structural setting of iron in alkali silicate glasses. Research on the alkali-hydrogen exchange in alkali silicate glasses was completed and additional work on ternary glasses is under way. A series of appendices present completed work on the structural investigations of alkali borosilicate glasses, on the structural setting of transition metal ions in glasses, and on the diffusion of hydrogen in alkali silicate glasses.

  19. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  20. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  1. Low temperature transport properties of Ce-Al metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Q. S.; Rotundu, C. R.; Mao, W. L.; Dai, J. H.; Xiao, Y. M.; Chow, P.; Chen, X. J.; Qin, C. L.; Mao, H.-k.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2011-01-01

    The low temperature transport properties of Ce75- x Al25+ x (x = 0, 10, and 15 at. %) metallic glasses were investigated. Magnetic field and composition tuned magnetoresistances changing from negative to positive values were observed at low temperature. It was suggested that these peculiar phenomena were caused by the tunable competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida interaction in Ce-Al metallic glass with the variation in Ce content and magnetic field. Further magnetization and Ce-2p3d resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy measurements supported this scenario. These Ce-Al metallic glasses could provide an interesting model system for the investigation of 4f electron behaviors in complex condensed matter with tunable transport properties.

  2. Alloy with metallic glass and quasi-crystalline properties

    DOEpatents

    Xing, Li-Qian; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Ramesh, Kaliat T.

    2004-02-17

    An alloy is described that is capable of forming a metallic glass at moderate cooling rates and exhibits large plastic flow at ambient temperature. Preferably, the alloy has a composition of (Zr, Hf).sub.a Ta.sub.b Ti.sub.c Cu.sub.d Ni.sub.e Al.sub.f, where the composition ranges (in atomic percent) are 45.ltoreq.a.ltoreq.70, 3.ltoreq.b.ltoreq.7.5, 0.ltoreq.c.ltoreq.4, 3.ltoreq.b+c.ltoreq.10, 10.ltoreq.d.ltoreq.30, 0.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.20, 10.ltoreq.d+e.ltoreq.35, and 5.ltoreq.f.ltoreq.15. The alloy may be cast into a bulk solid with disordered atomic-scale structure, i.e., a metallic glass, by a variety of techniques including copper mold die casting and planar flow casting. The as-cast amorphous solid has good ductility while retaining all of the characteristic features of known metallic glasses, including a distinct glass transition, a supercooled liquid region, and an absence of long-range atomic order. The alloy may be used to form a composite structure including quasi-crystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. Such a composite quasi-crystalline structure has much higher mechanical strength than a crystalline structure.

  3. Glass matrix composites. I - Graphite fiber reinforced glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Bacon, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program is described in which graphite fibers of Hercules HMS and HTS, Thornel 300, and Celanese DG-12 were used to reinforce, both uniaxially and biaxially, borosilicate pyrex glass. Composite flexural strength distribution, strength as a function of test temperature, fracture toughness and oxidative stability were determined and shown to be primarily a function of fiber type and the quality of fiber-matrix bond formed during composite fabrication. It is demonstrated that the graphite fiber reinforced glass system offers unique possibilities as a high performance structural material.

  4. Hard metal composition

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  5. Hard metal composition

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  6. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  7. Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren; Herling, Darrell R.

    2004-02-01

    Metal matrix composites have found selected application in areas that can cost-effectively capitalize on improvements in specific stiffness, specific strength, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Metal matrix composites comprise a relatively wide range of materials defined by the metal matrix, reinforcement type, and reinforcement geometry. In the area of the matrix, most metallic systems have been explored, including aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, iron, nickel, cobalt, and silver. However, aluminum is by far the most preferred. For reinforcements, the materials are typically ceramics, which provide a very beneficial combination of stiffness, strength, and relatively low density. Candidate reinforcement materials include SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, graphite, and a number of other ceramics. In addition, metallic materials such as tungsten and steel fibers have been considered.

  8. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D.; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals. PMID:26853460

  9. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D.; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L.

    2016-02-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals.

  10. Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

    2008-01-08

    The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.

  11. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L

    2016-01-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals. PMID:26853460

  12. Structural considerations in design of lightweight glass-fiber composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The development of structurally efficient, metal-lined, glass-fiber composite pressure vessels. Both the current state-of-the-art and current problems are discussed along with fracture mechanics considerations for the metal liner. The design concepts used for metal-lined, glass-fiber, composite pressure vessels are described and the structural characteristics of the composite designs are compared with each other and with homogeneous metal pressure vessels. Specific design techniques and available design data are identified. Results of a current program to evaluate flaw growth and fracture characteristics of the metal liners are reviewed and the impact of these results on composite pressure vessel designs is discussed.

  13. GLASS COMPOSITION-TCLP RESPONSE MODEL FOR WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

    2004-01-01

    A first-order property model for normalized Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) release as a function of glass composition was developed using data collected from various studies. The normalized boron release is used to estimate the release of toxic elements based on the observation that the boron release represents the conservative release for those constituents of interest. The current TCLP model has two targeted application areas: (1) delisting of waste-glass product as radioactive (not mixed) waste and (2) designating the glass wastes generated from waste-glass research activities as hazardous or non-hazardous. This paper describes the data collection and model development for TCLP releases and discusses the issues related to the application of the model.

  14. Chemical constraints on fly ash glass compositions

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Brindle; Michael J. McCarthy

    2006-12-15

    The major oxide content and mineralogy of 75 European fly ashes were examined, and the major element composition of the glass phase was obtained for each. Correlation of compositional trends with the glass content of the ash was explored. Alkali content was deduced to have a major influence on glass formation, and this in turn could be related to the probable chemistry of clay minerals in the source coals. Maximal glass content corresponded to high aluminum content in the glass, and this is in accordance with the theoretical mechanism of formation of aluminosilicate glasses, in which network-modifying oxides are required to promote tetrahedral coordination of aluminum in glass chain structures. Iron oxide was found to substitute for alkali oxides where the latter were deficient, and some indications of preferred eutectic compositions were found. The work suggests that the proportion of the glass phase in the ash can be predicted from the coal mineralogy and that the utility of a given ash for processing into geopolymers or zeolites is determined by its source. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Development of magnetic Fe-based metallic glasses without metalloids

    SciTech Connect

    Mastrogiacomo, Giovanni; Kradolfer, Juerg; Loeffler, Joerg F.

    2006-01-15

    The glass-forming ability of Fe-based metallic glasses has a direct relationship with their metalloid content. A good glass-former usually needs a metalloid content of approximately 20 at. %. However, a high metalloid content causes deterioration not only in magnetic properties but also in elasticity and plasticity. Based on destabilization of the solid state we have developed a series of metalloid-free Fe-based metallic glasses of composition (Fe{sub 0.582}Co{sub 0.418}){sub 100-x-y}Cr{sub x}Zr{sub y} (10{<=}x{<=}28 and 8{<=}y{<=}11). Via this destabilization the liquid state is stabilized, which results in a decreasing liquidus temperature. The mechanical and magnetic properties of the metalloid-free Fe-based metallic glass with the highest Fe and Co fractions were analyzed. The alloy of composition (Fe{sub 0.582}Co{sub 0.418}){sub 80}Cr{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} exhibits bending elasticity and plasticity. Magnetization measurements reveal a saturation magnetization of up to 1.1 T and an inverted hysteresis. The origin of this inverted hysteresis presumably lies in the inclination to decompose in a ferromagnetic iron-rich {alpha}{sub 1} phase and an antiferromagnetic chromium-rich {alpha}{sub 2} phase.

  16. Functionalization of metallic glasses through hierarchical patterning.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Molla; Schroers, Jan; Kumar, Golden

    2015-02-11

    Surface engineering over multiple length scales is critical for electronics, photonics, and enabling multifunctionality in synthetic materials. Here, we demonstrate a sequential embossing technique for building multi-tier patterns in metals by controlling the size-dependent thermoplastic forming of metallic glasses. Sub-100 nm to millimeter sized features are sculpted sequentially to allow an exquisite control of surface properties. The process can be integrated with net-shaping to transfer functional patterns on three-dimensional metal parts. PMID:25559737

  17. Melt-Quenched Glasses of Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Thomas D; Yue, Yuanzheng; Li, Peng; Qiao, Ang; Tao, Haizheng; Greaves, Neville G; Richards, Tom; Lampronti, Giulio I; Redfern, Simon A T; Blanc, Frédéric; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Cheetham, Anthony K; Keen, David A

    2016-03-16

    Crystalline solids dominate the field of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with access to the liquid and glass states of matter usually prohibited by relatively low temperatures of thermal decomposition. In this work, we give due consideration to framework chemistry and topology to expand the phenomenon of the melting of 3D MOFs, linking crystal chemistry to framework melting temperature and kinetic fragility of the glass-forming liquids. Here we show that melting temperatures can be lowered by altering the chemistry of the crystalline MOF state, which provides a route to facilitate the melting of other MOFs. The glasses formed upon vitrification are chemically and structurally distinct from the three other existing categories of melt-quenched glasses (inorganic nonmetallic, organic, and metallic), and retain the basic metal-ligand connectivity of crystalline MOFs, which connects their mechanical properties to their starting chemical composition. The transfer of functionality from crystal to glass points toward new routes to tunable, functional hybrid glasses. PMID:26885940

  18. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    DOEpatents

    Cline, C.F.

    1983-10-20

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature regime.

  19. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    DOEpatents

    Cline, Carl F.

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature range.

  20. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  1. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic glass matrix composites for use at 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Minford, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    The fabrication and properties of the graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composite system are described. By reinforcing borosilicate glass with graphite fibers it has been possible to develop a composite whose properties can be compared favorably with resin matrix counterparts. Both high elastic modulus and strength can be obtained and maintained to temperatures of approximately 600 C. In addition, composite dimensional stability is superior to resin or metal matrix systems due to the low thermal expansion behavior of the glass matrix.

  2. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A composite that can be used at temperatures up to 875 K with mechanical properties equal or superior to graphite fiber reinforced epoxy composites is presented. The composite system consist of graphite fiber, uniaxially or biaxially, reinforced borosilicate glass. The mechanical and thermal properties of such a graphite fiber reinforced glass composite are described, and the system is shown to offer promise as a high performance structural material. Specific properties that were measured were: a modified borosilicate glass uniaxially reinforced by Hercules HMS graphite fiber has a three-point flexural strength of 1030 MPa, a four-point flexural strength of 964 MPa, an elastic modulus of 199 GPa and a failure strain of 0.0052. The preparation and properties of similar composites with Hercules HTS, Celanese DG-102, Thornel 300 and Thornel Pitch graphite fibers are also described.

  3. Structural rejuvenation in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tong, Yang; Iwashita, T.; Dmowski, Wojciech; Bei, Hongbin; Yokoyama, Y.; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-01-05

    Using high-energy X-ray diffraction we study structural changes in bulk metallic glasses after uniaxial compressive homogeneous deformation at temperatures slightly below the glass transition. We observe that deformation results in structural disordering corresponding to an increase in the fictive, or effective, temperature. However, the structural disordering saturates after yielding. Lastly, examination of the experimental structure and molecular dynamics simulation suggests that local changes in the atomic connectivity network are the main driving force of the structural rejuvenation.

  4. EFFECTS OF TEST TEMPERATURE ON FLOW OF METALLIC GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. NOURI; Y. LIU; P. WESSELING; J. LEWANDOWSKI

    2006-04-12

    Micro-hardness experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures using a Nikon QM micro-hardness machine on a number of metallic glass (e.g. Zr-, Fe-, Al-) systems. Although high micro-hardness was exhibited at room temperature, significant hardness reductions were exhibited near the glass transition temperature, T{sub g}. The effects of changes in test temperature on the micro-hardness will be reported. The effects of exposure time on the hardness evolution at a given temperature will also be summarized to illustrate some of the differences in behavior of the systems shown. The extreme softening near T{sub g}, characteristic of bulk metallic glass systems, enables the exploration of novel deformation processing. In order to develop deformation processing windows, the evaluation of bulk metallic glass mechanical properties under quasi-static conditions and the determination of flow properties at different temperatures and strain rates are reported. The use of such information to create layered/composite bulk metallic glasses will be summarized.

  5. Strain induced fragility transition in metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai-Bin; Richert, Ranko; Maaß, Robert; Samwer, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Relaxation dynamics are the central topic in glassy physics. Recently, there is an emerging view that mechanical strain plays a similar role as temperature in altering the relaxation dynamics. Here, we report that mechanical strain in a model metallic glass modulates the relaxation dynamics in unexpected ways. We find that a large strain amplitude makes a fragile liquid become stronger, reduces dynamical heterogeneity at the glass transition and broadens the loss spectra asymmetrically, in addition to speeding up the relaxation dynamics. These findings demonstrate the distinctive roles of strain compared with temperature on the relaxation dynamics and indicate that dynamical heterogeneity inherently relates to the fragility of glass-forming materials. PMID:25981888

  6. Thulium-based bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, H. B.; Yu, P.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2008-04-07

    We report the formation and properties of a thulium-based bulk metallic glass (BMG). Compared with other known rare-earth (RE) based BMGs, Tm-based BMGs show features of excellent glass formation ability, considerable higher elastic modulus, smaller Poisson's ratio, high mechanical strength, and intrinsic brittleness. The reasons for the different properties between the Tm-based and other RE-based BMGs are discussed. It is expected that the Tm-based glasses with the unique properties are appropriate candidates for studying some important issues in BMGs.

  7. Crystallization of heavy metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Bruce, Allan J.; Doremus, R. H.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of crystallization of a number of fluorozirconate glasses were studied using isothermal and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The addition of the fluorides LiF, NaF, AlF3, LaF3 to a base glass composition of ZrF4-BaF2 reduced the tendency to crystallize, probably by modifying the viscosity-temperature relation. ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF glass was the most stable against devitrification and perhaps is the best composition for optical fibers with low scattering loss. Some glasses first crystallize out into metastable beta-BaZr2F10 and beta-BaZrF6 phases, which transform into the most stable alpha-phases when heated to higher temperatures. The size of the crystallites was estimated to be about 600 A from X-ray diffraction.

  8. Dimensionally Stable Graphite-Fiber/Glass Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Robert; Bergen, George J.; Studer, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Method of making composites of glass matrices reinforced by graphite fibers provides for control of proportions, orientations, and distributions of fibers in matrices and for fused bonds between fibers and matrices. Enables fabrication of composites of high specific strength and dimensional stability. Method particularly suitable for making low-thermal-expansion platforms for optical instruments.

  9. Predicting Novel Bulk Metallic Glasses via High- Throughput Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perim, E.; Lee, D.; Liu, Y.; Toher, C.; Gong, P.; Li, Y.; Simmons, W. N.; Levy, O.; Vlassak, J.; Schroers, J.; Curtarolo, S.

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are materials which may combine key properties from crystalline metals, such as high hardness, with others typically presented by plastics, such as easy processability. However, the cost of the known BMGs poses a significant obstacle for the development of applications, which has lead to a long search for novel, economically viable, BMGs. The emergence of high-throughput DFT calculations, such as the library provided by the AFLOWLIB consortium, has provided new tools for materials discovery. We have used this data to develop a new glass forming descriptor combining structural factors with thermodynamics in order to quickly screen through a large number of alloy systems in the AFLOWLIB database, identifying the most promising systems and the optimal compositions for glass formation. National Science Foundation (DMR-1436151, DMR-1435820, DMR-1436268).

  10. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOEpatents

    Mattes, Benjamin R.; McBranch, Duncan W.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Love, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  11. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOEpatents

    Mattes, B.R.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.; Koskelo, A.C.; Love, S.P.

    1995-05-30

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites is described. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C{sub 60} in silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these ``guests`` in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C{sub 60}. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C{sub 60} dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C{sub 60} in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  12. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Samuels, W. D.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  13. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Samuels, W.D.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1995-06-06

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  14. GLASS COMPOSITION AND PROCESS OF MAKING

    DOEpatents

    Bishay, A.M.

    1962-09-01

    Glass compositions are described which are suitable for scintillators of thermal-neutron counters. The glass consists of from 70 to 75 mole% of B/sub 2/O/ sub 3/, from 7 to 9 mole% of Ce/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and from 23 to 16 mole% of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ plus Na/sub 2 /O in a mole ratio of 1 to 1.5. The process of making the glass from cerous oxalate, ammonium pentaborate, sodium carbonate, and hydrated alumina in a nonoxidizing atmosphere at 1400-1500 deg C is given. (AEC)

  15. Statistical Mechanics of Metallic Glasses and Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, Takeshi; Levashov, Valentin A; Morris, James R; Haruyama, O.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to formulate the statistical mechanical theory of liquids and glasses, because phonons, which are the basis for the statistical mechanics of lattice dynamics in crystals, are strongly scattered and have a very short lifetime in liquids and glasses. Instead computer simulation and the free-volume theory are most frequently used in explaining experimental results on metallic glasses. However, both of them suffer from serious problems as discussed in this paper. We propose an alternative approach based upon the dynamics of the atomic level stresses. We review recent progress with this approach, and show that it is possible to calculate thermodynamic quantities, including the glass transition temperature and the kinetics of structural relaxation by this approach.

  16. Metallic Glass Cooling Inside The TEMPUS Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A sample of advanced metallic glass alloy cools down during an experiment with the TEMPUS furnace on STS-94, July 7, 1997, MET:5/23:35 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample glowing, then fading to black as scientists began the process of preserving the liquid state, but lowering the temperature below the normal solidification temperature of the alloy. This process is known as undercooling. (10 second clip covering approximately 50 seconds.) TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (1.1MB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300188.html.

  17. Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Baylor, Lewis C.; Whitaker, Michael J.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagant strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping.

  18. Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Livingston, R.R.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-06-10

    A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications is described. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagent strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping. 12 figs.

  19. Producing Metallic Glasses With Acoustic Leviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Feng, I. A.

    1983-01-01

    Acoustic fields support and cool liquid particles. Levitated by sound energy, liquid drop in acoustic standing-wave field surrounded by acousticically-induced jet streams. Streaming gas cools drow below its freezing point in small fraction of second. Allows new amorphous alloys including "metallic glass" to be formed.

  20. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 1170 K (1650 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma spray of Nichrome matrix composite contains dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. Coatings can be applied to bearing journals and bearing bores. Coating was easily machinable and had excellent bond strength on substrate metal.

  1. Glass-to-metal seals comprising relatively high expansion metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirayama, C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A glass suitable for glass-to-metal seals that has a resistance to attack by moisture and a high coefficient of linear thermal expansion is introduced. Linear expansion covers the range from 12 to 14 x 10 to the minus 6 C between room temperature and 500 C. The glass is essentially composed of, by molar percent, about 9% of K2O, about 10% of Na2O, about 70% of SiO2, about 6% Al2O3, and about 5% of MgO.

  2. Glass Stability and Kinetic Analysis of Iron-Metalloid Bulk Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhaweesuk, Charuayporn

    Multicomponent Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with a combination of excellent properties such as good soft magnetic properties, high strength, high hardness, and high corrosion resistance have attracted increasing attention both from a basic science research standpoint and due to their industrial application potential. However, many of the elemental additions which lead to the easiest glass formation are expensive. The identification of alloys composed of abundant and inexpensive elements that still retain excellent properties would promote applications for engineering and industry. In short, the development of the Fe-based BMG without any glass-forming metal elements and with high glass forming ability is desired. This study shows that the thermal stability of the Fe-based alloys can be improved beyond a simple rule of mixtures prediction by utilizing a well-balance multi-metalloid approach. The kinetics aspect of glass-forming ability is studied experimentally for Fe-B-Si-P alloys. The systematic variation in alloy composition gives access to differences in phase selection and the final dimensions of glass formation. Two alloys, representing the best glass-forming composition and the poorest glass-forming composition, were studied in terms of their stability to crystallization, solidification microstructure evolution and thermal history. The utility of the wedge-casting technique is developed to examine bulk glass-forming alloys by combining multiple temperature profiles of the quenching melt with a measurement-based kinetic analysis of the phase selection competition and critical cooling rate conditions. Based upon direct thermal measurement, microstructural analysis and kinetic modeling, it was found that both representative alloys show a board spectrum of solidification microstructures which include a critical cooling rate range. The kinetic competition in the formation of certain phases can enhance or detract from the final dimension of bulk glass

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    DOEpatents

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  4. Structural considerations in design of lightweight glass-fiber composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The design concepts used for metal-lined glass-fiber composite pressure vessels are described, comparing the structural characteristics of the composite designs with each other and with homogeneous metal pressure vessels. Specific design techniques and available design data are identified. The discussion centers around two distinctly different design concepts, which provide the basis for defining metal lined composite vessels as either (1) thin-metal lined, or (2) glass fiber reinforced (GFR). Both concepts are described and associated development problems are identified and discussed. Relevant fabrication and testing experience from a series of NASA-Lewis Research Center development efforts is presented.

  5. Designing biocompatible Ti-based metallic glasses for implant applications.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mariana; Gebert, Annett; Ghinea, Andreea Cosmina; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Abdi, Somayeh; Mickel, Christine; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    Ti-based metallic glasses show high potential for implant applications; they overcome in several crucial respects their well-established biocompatible crystalline counterparts, e.g. improved corrosion properties, higher fracture strength and wear resistance, increased elastic strain range and lower Young's modulus. However, some of the elements required for glass formation (e.g. Cu, Ni) are harmful for the human body. We critically reviewed the biological safety and glass forming tendency in Ti of 27 elements. This can be used as a basis for the future designing of novel amorphous Ti-based implant alloys entirely free of harmful additions. In this paper, two first alloys were developed: Ti(75)Zr(10)Si(15) and Ti(60)Nb(15)Zr(10)Si(15). The overheating temperature of the melt before casting can be used as the controlling parameter to produce fully amorphous materials or bcc-Ti-phase reinforced metallic glass nano-composites. The beneficial effect of Nb addition on the glass-formation and amorphous phase stability was assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallization and mechanical behavior of ribbons are influenced by the amount and distribution of the nano-scaled bcc phase existing in the as-cast state. Their electrochemical stability in Ringer's solution at 310 K was found to be significantly better than that of commercial Ti-based biomaterials; no indication for pitting corrosion was recorded. PMID:25427501

  6. Molybdenum sealing glass-ceramic composition

    DOEpatents

    Eagan, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having low hydrogen and helium permeability properties, along with high fracture strength, a thermal coefficient of expansion similar to that of molybdenum, and adaptable for hermetically sealing to molybdenum at temperatures of between about 900.degree. and about 950.degree.C. to form a hermatically sealed insulator body.

  7. Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Li, Wenguang; Bailey, James A.; Gao, Yuan

    2010-08-31

    Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

  8. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Massey, Richard T.

    1986-01-01

    A method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  9. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1985-08-26

    Disclosed is a method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  10. 'Crystal Genes' in Metallic Liquids and Glasses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I; Ott, Ryan T; Kramer, Matthew J; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter systems. PMID:27030071

  11. Delocalized Plastic Flow in Proton-Irradiated Monolithic Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Jaewon; Kim, Sunghwan; Ryu, Seunghwa; Jang, Dongchan

    2016-03-01

    Creating new materials with novel properties through structural modification is the Holy Grail of materials science. The range of targetable structures for amplification of mechanical properties in metallic glasses would include types of atomic short range orders at the smallest scale through compositions or morphologies of phases in composites. Even though the usefulness of the latter approach has been successfully demonstrated in the past decades, the feasibility of the former has been incompletely proved with only marginal property improvements reported within experimentally-accessible atomic-level structural changes. Here, we report the significant enhancement of deformability in Zr-based monolithic metallic glass only through the atomic disordering by proton irradiation without altering any other structural traits. Metallic glass nanopillars that originally failed catastrophically without any notable plasticity become capable of attaining more than 30% uniaxial plastic strain accommodated by homogeneous deformation when irradiated to ~1 displacement per atom (DPA). We discuss the atomistic origin of this improved plasticity in terms of density and spatial distributions of icosahedral short range order influenced by irradiation.

  12. Delocalized Plastic Flow in Proton-Irradiated Monolithic Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jaewon; Kim, Sunghwan; Ryu, Seunghwa; Jang, Dongchan

    2016-01-01

    Creating new materials with novel properties through structural modification is the Holy Grail of materials science. The range of targetable structures for amplification of mechanical properties in metallic glasses would include types of atomic short range orders at the smallest scale through compositions or morphologies of phases in composites. Even though the usefulness of the latter approach has been successfully demonstrated in the past decades, the feasibility of the former has been incompletely proved with only marginal property improvements reported within experimentally-accessible atomic-level structural changes. Here, we report the significant enhancement of deformability in Zr-based monolithic metallic glass only through the atomic disordering by proton irradiation without altering any other structural traits. Metallic glass nanopillars that originally failed catastrophically without any notable plasticity become capable of attaining more than 30% uniaxial plastic strain accommodated by homogeneous deformation when irradiated to ~1 displacement per atom (DPA). We discuss the atomistic origin of this improved plasticity in terms of density and spatial distributions of icosahedral short range order influenced by irradiation. PMID:26988265

  13. Delocalized Plastic Flow in Proton-Irradiated Monolithic Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaewon; Kim, Sunghwan; Ryu, Seunghwa; Jang, Dongchan

    2016-01-01

    Creating new materials with novel properties through structural modification is the Holy Grail of materials science. The range of targetable structures for amplification of mechanical properties in metallic glasses would include types of atomic short range orders at the smallest scale through compositions or morphologies of phases in composites. Even though the usefulness of the latter approach has been successfully demonstrated in the past decades, the feasibility of the former has been incompletely proved with only marginal property improvements reported within experimentally-accessible atomic-level structural changes. Here, we report the significant enhancement of deformability in Zr-based monolithic metallic glass only through the atomic disordering by proton irradiation without altering any other structural traits. Metallic glass nanopillars that originally failed catastrophically without any notable plasticity become capable of attaining more than 30% uniaxial plastic strain accommodated by homogeneous deformation when irradiated to ~1 displacement per atom (DPA). We discuss the atomistic origin of this improved plasticity in terms of density and spatial distributions of icosahedral short range order influenced by irradiation. PMID:26988265

  14. Foamed Bulk Metallic Glass (Foam) Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This soldering iron has an evacuated copper capsule at the tip that contains a pellet of Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Prior to flight, researchers sealed a pellet of bulk metallic glass mixed with microscopic gas-generating particles into the copper ampoule under vacuum. Once heated in space, such as in this photograph, the particles generated gas and the BMG becomes a viscous liquid. The released gas made the sample foam within the capsule where each microscopic particle formed a gas-filled pore within the foam. The inset image shows the oxidation of the sample after several minutes of applying heat. Although hidden within the brass sleeve, the sample retained the foam shape when cooled, because the viscosity increased during cooling until it was solid.

  15. Fatigue evaluation of composite-reinforced, integrally stiffened metal panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumesnil, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of composite-reinforced, integrally stiffened metal panels was investigated in combined metal and composite materials subjected to fatigue loading. The systems investigated were aluminum-graphite/epoxy, and aluminum-S glass/epoxy. It was found that the composite material would support the total load at limit stress after the metal had completely failed, and the weight of the composite-metal system would be equal to that of an all metal system which would carry the same total load at limit stress.

  16. Flash Joule heating for ductilization of metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Okulov, I. V.; Soldatov, I. V.; Sarmanova, M. F.; Kaban, I.; Gemming, T.; Edström, K.; Eckert, J.

    2015-01-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) inherit their amorphous structure from the liquid state, which predetermines their ability to withstand high loads approaching the theoretical limit. However, the absence of slip systems makes them very sensitive to the type of loading and extremely brittle in tension. The latter can be improved by precipitation of ductile crystals, which suppress a catastrophic propagation of shear bands in a glassy matrix. Here we report a novel approach to obtain MG-matrix composites with tensile ductility by flash Joule heating applied to Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 (at.%) metallic glass. This homogeneous, volumetric and controllable rapid heat treatment allows achieving uniformly distributed metastable B2 CuZr crystals in the glassy matrix. It results in a significant tensile strain of 6.8±0.5%. Moreover, optimized adjustment of the heat-treatment conditions enables tuning of microstructure to achieve desired mechanical properties. PMID:26219864

  17. Crystallization of Beryllium-Boron Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Wall, M A; Nieh, T G

    2002-02-14

    Prior studies of evaporation and sputter deposition show that the grain size of pure beryllium can be dramatically refined through the incorporation of metal impurities. Recently, the addition of boron at a concentration greater than 11% is shown to serve as a glassy phase former in sputter deposited beryllium. Presently, thermally induced crystallization of the beryllium-boron metallic glass is reported. The samples are characterized during an in-situ anneal treatment with bright field imaging and electron diffraction using transmission electron microscopy. A nanocrystalline structure evolves from the annealed amorphous phase and the crystallization temperature is affected by the boron concentration.

  18. Superconducting state parameters of binary metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya

    2008-06-01

    Ashcroft's empty core (EMC) model potential is used to study the superconducting state parameters (SSPs) viz. electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature T C, isotope effect exponent αand effective interaction strength N O V of some binary metallic glasses based on the superconducting (S), conditional superconducting (S') and non-superconducting (NS) elements of the periodic table. Five local field correction functions proposed by Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F) and Sarkar et al. (S) are used for the first time with EMC potential in the present investigation to study the screening influence on the aforesaid properties. The T C obtained from the H-local field correction function are in excellent agreement with available theoretical or experimental data. In the present computation, the use of the pseudo-alloy-atom model (PAA) was proposed and found successful. Present work results are in qualitative agreement with such earlier reported experimental values which confirm the superconducting phase in all metallic glasses. A strong dependency of the SSPs of the metallic glasses on the valence `Z' is identified.

  19. Superconducting state parameters of binary metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2008-06-01

    Ashcroft’s empty core (EMC) model potential is used to study the superconducting state parameters (SSPs) viz. electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature T C , isotope effect exponent αand effective interaction strength N O V of some binary metallic glasses based on the superconducting (S), conditional superconducting (S’) and non-superconducting (NS) elements of the periodic table. Five local field correction functions proposed by Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F) and Sarkar et al. (S) are used for the first time with EMC potential in the present investigation to study the screening influence on the aforesaid properties. The T C obtained from the H-local field correction function are in excellent agreement with available theoretical or experimental data. In the present computation, the use of the pseudo-alloy-atom model (PAA) was proposed and found successful. Present work results are in qualitative agreement with such earlier reported experimental values which confirm the superconducting phase in all metallic glasses. A strong dependency of the SSPs of the metallic glasses on the valence ‘Z’ is identified.

  20. Natural Fiber or Glass Reinforced Polypropylene Composites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, W.; Di Landro, L.; Casiraghi, A.; Pagano, M. R.

    2008-08-01

    Problems related to the recycle of conventional composite materials are becoming always more relevant for many industrial fields. Natural fiber composites (NFC) have recently gained much attention due to their low cost, environmental gains (eco-compatibility), easy disposal, reduction in volatile organic emissions, and their potential to compete with glass fiber composites (GFC). Interest in natural fibers is not only based over ecological aspects. NFC have good mechanical performances in relation to their low specific weight and low price. A characterization of mechanical properties, dynamic behavior, and moisture absorption is presented.

  1. NATURAL FIBER OR GLASS REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES?

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzi, W.; Di Landro, L.; Casiraghi, A.; Pagano, M. R.

    2008-08-28

    Problems related to the recycle of conventional composite materials are becoming always more relevant for many industrial fields. Natural fiber composites (NFC) have recently gained much attention due to their low cost, environmental gains (eco-compatibility), easy disposal, reduction in volatile organic emissions, and their potential to compete with glass fiber composites (GFC). Interest in natural fibers is not only based over ecological aspects. NFC have good mechanical performances in relation to their low specific weight and low price. A characterization of mechanical properties, dynamic behavior, and moisture absorption is presented.

  2. Dynamic mechanical behavior and high pressure phase stability of a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass and its composite with tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Morgana

    2008-10-01

    The research involved performing controlled impact experiments on BMG composites consisting of amorphous Zr57Nb5Cu 15:4Ni12:6Al10 (LM106 or Vitreloy106) with crystalline tungsten reinforcement particles. Monolithic LM106 was also examined to aid in the understanding of the composite. The mechanical behavior of the composite was investigated over a range of strain rates (10-3 s -1 to 106 s-1), stress states (compression, compression-shear, tension), and temperatures (RT to 600°C) to determine the dependence of mechanical properties and deformation and failure modes (i.e., homogeneous deformation vs. inhomogeneous shear banding) on these parameters. Mechanical testing in the quasi-static to intermediate strain-rate regimes was performed using an Instron, Drop Weight Tower, and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, respectively. High-strain-rate mechanical properties of the BMG-matrix composite and monolithic BMG were investigated using dynamic compression (reverse Taylor) and dynamic tension (spall) impact experiments performed using a gas gun instrumented with velocity interferometry and high-speed digital photography. These experiments provided information about dynamic strength and deformation modes, and allowed for validation of constitutive models via comparison of experimental and simulated transient deformation profiles and free surface velocity traces. Hugoniot equation of state measurements were performed on the monolithic BMG to investigate the high pressure phase stability of the glass and the possible implications of a high pressure phase transformation on mechanical properties. Specimens were recovered for post-impact microstructural and thermal analysis to gain information about the mechanisms of dynamic deformation and fracture, and to examine for possible shock-induced phase transformations of the amorphous phase. For the composite, mechanical testing revealed positive strain-rate sensitivity of its yield stress and negative strain-rate sensitivity of its

  3. Bulk formation of metallic glasses and amorphous silicon from the melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaepen, F.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures and compositions for producing metallic glasses in bulk at slow cooling rates were investigated. An attempt was made to form the amorphous phase of the tetrahedrally coordinated elements (Si or Ge) by undercooling the melt. The crystal nucleation behavior of pure liquids and glass formers were examined.

  4. Friction behavior of glass and metals in contact with glass in various environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments have been conducted for heat-resistant glass and metals in contact with glass. These experiments were conducted in various environments including vacuum, moist air, dry air, octane, and stearic acid in hexadecane. Glass exhibited a higher friction force in moist air than it did in vacuum when in sliding contact with itself. The metals, aluminum, iron, and gold, all exhibited the same friction coefficient when sliding on glass in vacuum as glass sliding on glass. Gold-to-glass contacts were extremely sensitive to the environment despite the relative chemical inertness of gold.

  5. Polymeric, Metallic, and Other Glasses in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-ceramic glasses are not adequately discussed in introductory chemistry. Such glasses include polycarbonate, which many corrective lenses are made of, amber, enamel, gelatin, hard candy, coal, refrigerated glycerol, and metallic glasses that have been marketed in recent decades. What is usually discussed in elementary texts is siliceous glass,…

  6. Metallic threaded composite fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A metallic threaded composite fastener, particularly suited for high temperature applications, has a body member made of high temperature resistant composite material with a ceramic coating. The body member has a head portion configured to be installed in a countersunk hole and a shank portion which is noncircular and tapered. One part of the shank may be noncircular and the other part tapered, or the two types of surface could be combined into a frustum of a noncircular cone. A split collar member made of high strength, high temperature tolerant metal alloy is split into two halves and the interior of the halves are configured to engage the shank. The exterior of the collar has a circumferential groove which receives a lock ring to secure the collar halves to the shank. In the assembled condition torque may be transmitted from the body to the split collar by the engaged noncircular portions to install and remove the fastener assembly into or from a threaded aperture and shear loads in the collar threads are transferred to the shank tapered portion as a combination of radial compression and axial tension loads. Thus, tension loads may be applied to the fastener shank without damaging the ceramic coating.

  7. Metal Nanoparticle Aerogel Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Ignont, Erica; Snow, Lanee; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have fabricated sol-gels containing gold and silver nanoparticles. Formation of an aerogel produces a blue shift in the surface plasmon resonance as a result of the decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix upon supercritical extraction of the solvent. However, as a result of chemical interface damping this blue shift does not obey effective medium theories. Annealing the samples in a reducing atmosphere at 400 C eliminates this discrepancy and results in narrowing and further blue shifting of the plasmon resonance. Metal particle aggregation also results in a deviation from the predictions of effective medium theories, but can be controlled through careful handling and by avoiding the use of alcohol. By applying effective medium theories to the heterogeneous interlayer surrounding each metal particle, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to inhomogeneous materials characterized by spatially dependent dielectric constants, such as aerogels. We demonstrate that the shift in the surface plasmon wavelength provides the average fractional composition of each component (air and silica) in this inhomogeneous layer, i.e. the porosity of the aerogel or equivalently, for these materials, the catalytic dispersion. Additionally, the kinetics suggest that collective particle interactions in coagulated metal clusters are perturbed during silica gelation resulting in a change in the aggregate geometry.

  8. Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics of competing crystalline phases

    PubMed Central

    Perim, Eric; Lee, Dongwoo; Liu, Yanhui; Toher, Cormac; Gong, Pan; Li, Yanglin; Simmons, W. Neal; Levy, Ohad; Vlassak, Joost J.; Schroers, Jan; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses attract considerable interest due to their unique combination of superb properties and processability. Predicting their formation from known alloy parameters remains the major hindrance to the discovery of new systems. Here, we propose a descriptor based on the heuristics that structural and energetic ‘confusion' obstructs crystalline growth, and demonstrate its validity by experiments on two well-known glass-forming alloy systems. We then develop a robust model for predicting glass formation ability based on the geometrical and energetic features of crystalline phases calculated ab initio in the AFLOW framework. Our findings indicate that the formation of metallic glass phases could be much more common than currently thought, with more than 17% of binary alloy systems potential glass formers. Our approach pinpoints favourable compositions and demonstrates that smart descriptors, based solely on alloy properties available in online repositories, offer the sought-after key for accelerated discovery of metallic glasses. PMID:27480126

  9. Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics of competing crystalline phases.

    PubMed

    Perim, Eric; Lee, Dongwoo; Liu, Yanhui; Toher, Cormac; Gong, Pan; Li, Yanglin; Simmons, W Neal; Levy, Ohad; Vlassak, Joost J; Schroers, Jan; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses attract considerable interest due to their unique combination of superb properties and processability. Predicting their formation from known alloy parameters remains the major hindrance to the discovery of new systems. Here, we propose a descriptor based on the heuristics that structural and energetic 'confusion' obstructs crystalline growth, and demonstrate its validity by experiments on two well-known glass-forming alloy systems. We then develop a robust model for predicting glass formation ability based on the geometrical and energetic features of crystalline phases calculated ab initio in the AFLOW framework. Our findings indicate that the formation of metallic glass phases could be much more common than currently thought, with more than 17% of binary alloy systems potential glass formers. Our approach pinpoints favourable compositions and demonstrates that smart descriptors, based solely on alloy properties available in online repositories, offer the sought-after key for accelerated discovery of metallic glasses. PMID:27480126

  10. Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics of competing crystalline phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perim, Eric; Lee, Dongwoo; Liu, Yanhui; Toher, Cormac; Gong, Pan; Li, Yanglin; Simmons, W. Neal; Levy, Ohad; Vlassak, Joost J.; Schroers, Jan; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Metallic glasses attract considerable interest due to their unique combination of superb properties and processability. Predicting their formation from known alloy parameters remains the major hindrance to the discovery of new systems. Here, we propose a descriptor based on the heuristics that structural and energetic `confusion' obstructs crystalline growth, and demonstrate its validity by experiments on two well-known glass-forming alloy systems. We then develop a robust model for predicting glass formation ability based on the geometrical and energetic features of crystalline phases calculated ab initio in the AFLOW framework. Our findings indicate that the formation of metallic glass phases could be much more common than currently thought, with more than 17% of binary alloy systems potential glass formers. Our approach pinpoints favourable compositions and demonstrates that smart descriptors, based solely on alloy properties available in online repositories, offer the sought-after key for accelerated discovery of metallic glasses.

  11. Glass-ceramic hermetic seals to high thermal expansion metals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1987-04-28

    A process for forming glass-ceramic materials from an alkaline silica-lithia glass composition comprising 60-72 mole-% SiO/sub 2/, 18-27 mole-% Li/sub 2/O, 0-5 mole-% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0-6 mole-% K/sub 2/O, 0-3 mole-% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 0.5-2.5 mole-% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which comprises heating said glass composition at a first temperature within the 950-1050/degree/C range for 5-60 minutes, and then at a devitrification temperature within the 700-900/degree/C range for about 5-300 minutes to obtain a glass-ceramic having a thermal expansion coefficient of up to 210 x 10/sup /minus/7///degree/C. These ceramics form strong, hermetic seals with high expansion metals such as stainless steel alloys. An intermediate nucleation heating step conducted at a temperature within the range of 675-750/degree/C for 10-120 minutes may be employed between the first stage and the devitrification stage. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Dimensionally stable metallic hydride composition

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    A stable, metallic hydride composition and a process for making such a composition. The composition comprises a uniformly blended mixture of a metal hydride, kieselguhr, and a ballast metal, all in the form of particles. The composition is made by subjecting a metal hydride to one or more hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles to disintegrate the hydride particles to less than approximately 100 microns in size. The particles are partly oxidized, then blended with the ballast metal and the kieselguhr to form a uniform mixture. The mixture is compressed into pellets and calcined. Preferably, the mixture includes approximately 10 vol. % or more kieselguhr and approximately 50 vol. % or more ballast. Metal hydrides that can be used in the composition include Zr, Ti, V, Nb, Pd, as well as binary, tertiary, and more complex alloys of La, Al, Cu, Ti, Co, Ni, Fe, Zr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and mixtures and other combinations thereof. Ballast metals include Al, Cu and Ni.

  13. Glass former composition and method for immobilizing nuclear waste using the same

    DOEpatents

    Cadoff, Laurence H.; Smith-Magowan, David B.

    1988-01-01

    An alkoxide glass former composition has silica-containing constituents present as solid particulates of a particle size of 0.1 to 0.7 micrometers in diameter in a liquid carrier phase substantially free of dissolved silica. The glass former slurry is resistant to coagulation and may contain other glass former metal constituents. The immobilization of nuclear waste employs the described glass former by heating the same to reduce the volume, mixing the same with the waste, and melting the resultant mixture to encapsulate the waste in the resultant glass.

  14. Crack evolution in bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Pauly, Simon; Lee, Min Ha; Kim, Do Hyang; Kim, Ki Buem; Sordelet, Daniel J.; Eckert, Juergen

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, the mechanisms underlying plastic deformation of a Ni-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) are explored. Based on the microstructural investigations, a model is proposed how fracture emerges in BMGs. After deformation, the glass is macroscopically more fragile indicating a decrease in the viscosity within the shear bands due to shear softening. These fluctuations of viscosity and therefore Poisson ratio between the deformed and undeformed regions appear to be the initiation sites for nanometer-scale cracks, which are aligned parallel to the applied force. Coalescence of voids is believed to form these small cracks, which eventually interconnect along the interface between the sheared and unsheared regions to form a detrimental defect resulting in fracture.

  15. Intrinsic Instabilities Of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, A. J.; Moynihan, C. T.; Loehr, S. R.; Opalka, S. M.; Mossadegh, R.; Perazzo, N. L.; Bansal, N. P.; Doremus, R. H.; Doremus; Drexhage, M. G.

    1985-06-01

    Heavy metal fluoride glasses (HMFG) are potentially useful as optical components in a wide range of devices. Their utilization has so far been delayed mainly because of insufficient material purity and inadequate processing conditions. However, as the result of numerous research efforts, these problems are gradually diminishing, and it now seems likely that the ultimate limitations for use of HMFG components, at least in those applications in which high optical transparency is not a prerequisite, will be imposed by more intrinsic instabilities of the glasses themselves. These include their strong tendency to crystallize on quenching and subsequent reheating, low mechanical and chemical durability, and the possibility that they will undergo significant physical aging in situ. Experimental data relating to these problems have now been obtained, and their relative importance is assessed in this paper.

  16. Deformation behavior of metallic glass thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. H.; Zhao, F.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, M. W.

    2012-09-01

    We report room-temperature deformation behavior of damage-free metallic glass films characterized by nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy. The glass films with thicknesses ranging from 5 μm down to ˜60 nm plastically deform by shear bands when subjected to both spherical and sharp Berkovich indenters. Importantly, we found that gallium contamination from focus ion beam (FIB) milling significantly suppresses shear band formation, indicating that the absence of shear bands in FIB milled samples may be caused by gallium irradiation damage, rather than sample size effect. Finite element simulation reveals that a high stress gradient at the film/substrate interface promotes the plastic deformation of the thin films but does not give rise to significant strain inhomogeneity.

  17. Novel routes to ceramic and glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, B.; Mohankrishnan, C.K.; Miller, D.J.; Lira, C.T. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a novel fabrication process under development for making glass and ceramic composites. A sol-gel process is used to prepare gels which are subsequently dried in a semibatch supercritical (hypercritical) fluid apparatus. The gels are dried rapidly at temperatures lower than previous supercritical processes have used. The dried ceramics are characterized with mercury and nitrogen porosimetry. The highly-porous matrices are impregnated with organic silicon carbide precursors; the impregnated matrix is pyrolyzed to form the densified ceramic composite. Material properties, including extent of fiber formation, are characterized.

  18. A predictive structural model for bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Laws, K J; Miracle, D B; Ferry, M

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses, but there is still no clear connection between atomic structure and glass-forming ability. Here we give new insights into perhaps the most important question in the field of amorphous metals: how can glass-forming ability be predicted from atomic structure? We give a new approach to modelling metallic glass atomic structures by solving three long-standing problems: we discover a new family of structural defects that discourage glass formation; we impose efficient local packing around all atoms simultaneously; and we enforce structural self-consistency. Fewer than a dozen binary structures satisfy these constraints, but extra degrees of freedom in structures with three or more different atom sizes significantly expand the number of relatively stable, 'bulk' metallic glasses. The present work gives a new approach towards achieving the long-sought goal of a predictive capability for bulk metallic glasses. PMID:26370667

  19. A predictive structural model for bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Laws, K. J.; Miracle, D. B.; Ferry, M.

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses, but there is still no clear connection between atomic structure and glass-forming ability. Here we give new insights into perhaps the most important question in the field of amorphous metals: how can glass-forming ability be predicted from atomic structure? We give a new approach to modelling metallic glass atomic structures by solving three long-standing problems: we discover a new family of structural defects that discourage glass formation; we impose efficient local packing around all atoms simultaneously; and we enforce structural self-consistency. Fewer than a dozen binary structures satisfy these constraints, but extra degrees of freedom in structures with three or more different atom sizes significantly expand the number of relatively stable, ‘bulk' metallic glasses. The present work gives a new approach towards achieving the long-sought goal of a predictive capability for bulk metallic glasses. PMID:26370667

  20. Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Peker, Atakan; Johnson, William L.

    1997-01-01

    At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.a Cu.sub.b (Ni.sub.1-y Co.sub.y).sub.c wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y.cndot.c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b.

  1. Stability of bulk metallic glass structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2003-06-18

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub (80-x)}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  2. The deformation units in metallic glasses revealed by stress-induced localized glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, L. S.; Ma, J.; Ke, H. B.; Bai, H. Y.; Zhao, D. Q.; Wang, W. H.

    2012-06-01

    We report that even in quasi-static cyclic compressions in the apparent elastic regimes of the bulk metallic glasses, the precisely measured stress-strain curve presents a mechanical hysteresis loop, which is commonly perceived to occur only in high-frequency dynamic tests. A phenomenological viscoelastic model is established to explain the hysteresis loop and demonstrate the evolutions of the viscous zones in metallic glasses during the cyclic compression. The declining of the viscosity of the viscous zones to at least 1 × 1012 Pa s when stress applied indicates that stress-induced localized glass to supercooled liquid transition occurs. We show that the deformation units of metallic glasses are evolved from the intrinsic heterogeneous defects in metallic glasses under stress and the evolution is a manifestation of the stress-induced localized glass transition. Our study might provide a new insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of plastic deformation of metallic glasses.

  3. Hard and fragile holmium-based bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Q.; Zhao, D.Q.; Pan, M.X.; Wang, R.J.; Wang, W.H.

    2006-05-01

    A family of holmium-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with high glass-forming ability is obtained. The Ho-based BMGs exhibit much larger elastic moduli and high thermal stability in contrast to other known rare-earth (RE)-based BMGs. In particular, the BMGs show a large value of fragility. It is expected that the hard RE-based glasses with high glass-forming ability and fragile behaviors make them the appropriate candidate for glass transition study.

  4. Thermomechanical Behavior of Molded Metallic Glass Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Magagnosc, Daniel J.; Chen, Wen; Kumar, Golden; Schroers, Jan; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses are disordered materials that offer the unique ability to perform thermoplastic forming operations at low thermal budget while preserving excellent mechanical properties such as high strength, large elastic strain limits, and wear resistance owing to the metallic nature of bonding and lack of internal defects. Interest in molding micro- and nanoscale metallic glass objects is driven by the promise of robust and high performance micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems and miniature energy conversion devices. Yet accurate and efficient processing of these materials hinges on a robust understanding of their thermomechanical behavior. Here, we combine large-scale thermoplastic tensile deformation of collections of Pt-based amorphous nanowires with quantitative thermomechanical studies of individual nanowires in creep-like conditions to demonstrate that superplastic-like flow persists to small length scales. Systematic studies as a function of temperature, strain-rate, and applied stress reveal the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow to be ubiquitous across the investigated length scales. However, we provide evidence that nanoscale specimens sustain greater free volume generation at elevated temperatures resulting in a flow transition at higher strain-rates than their bulk counterparts. Our results provide guidance for the design of thermoplastic processing methods and methods for verifying the flow response at the nanoscale. PMID:26787400

  5. Thermomechanical Behavior of Molded Metallic Glass Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Magagnosc, Daniel J; Chen, Wen; Kumar, Golden; Schroers, Jan; Gianola, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses are disordered materials that offer the unique ability to perform thermoplastic forming operations at low thermal budget while preserving excellent mechanical properties such as high strength, large elastic strain limits, and wear resistance owing to the metallic nature of bonding and lack of internal defects. Interest in molding micro- and nanoscale metallic glass objects is driven by the promise of robust and high performance micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems and miniature energy conversion devices. Yet accurate and efficient processing of these materials hinges on a robust understanding of their thermomechanical behavior. Here, we combine large-scale thermoplastic tensile deformation of collections of Pt-based amorphous nanowires with quantitative thermomechanical studies of individual nanowires in creep-like conditions to demonstrate that superplastic-like flow persists to small length scales. Systematic studies as a function of temperature, strain-rate, and applied stress reveal the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow to be ubiquitous across the investigated length scales. However, we provide evidence that nanoscale specimens sustain greater free volume generation at elevated temperatures resulting in a flow transition at higher strain-rates than their bulk counterparts. Our results provide guidance for the design of thermoplastic processing methods and methods for verifying the flow response at the nanoscale. PMID:26787400

  6. Thermomechanical Behavior of Molded Metallic Glass Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magagnosc, Daniel J.; Chen, Wen; Kumar, Golden; Schroers, Jan; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses are disordered materials that offer the unique ability to perform thermoplastic forming operations at low thermal budget while preserving excellent mechanical properties such as high strength, large elastic strain limits, and wear resistance owing to the metallic nature of bonding and lack of internal defects. Interest in molding micro- and nanoscale metallic glass objects is driven by the promise of robust and high performance micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems and miniature energy conversion devices. Yet accurate and efficient processing of these materials hinges on a robust understanding of their thermomechanical behavior. Here, we combine large-scale thermoplastic tensile deformation of collections of Pt-based amorphous nanowires with quantitative thermomechanical studies of individual nanowires in creep-like conditions to demonstrate that superplastic-like flow persists to small length scales. Systematic studies as a function of temperature, strain-rate, and applied stress reveal the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow to be ubiquitous across the investigated length scales. However, we provide evidence that nanoscale specimens sustain greater free volume generation at elevated temperatures resulting in a flow transition at higher strain-rates than their bulk counterparts. Our results provide guidance for the design of thermoplastic processing methods and methods for verifying the flow response at the nanoscale.

  7. Progress in heavy metal fluoride glasses for infrared fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexhage, M. G.; El-Bayoumi, O. H.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1982-12-01

    The optical and physical characteristics of heavy metal fluoride glasses are reviewed with reference to recent laboratory experiments. In particular, attention is given to comparative optical studies of fluorozirconate and fluorohafnate glasses, refractive index and material dispersion of fluoride glasses, and preliminary results of optical studies of heavy metal fluoride glasses not containing ZrF4 or HfF4. The latter sometimes exhibit extended transparency in the mid-IR relative to that observed in fluorozirconate and fluorohafnate glasses. The effect of the AlF4 content on the optical properties of BaF2/ThF4 glasses is discussed.

  8. Glass Mica Composite Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2005-07-20

    A novel glass-mica composite seal was developed based on the previous concept of ''infiltrated'' mica seals for solid oxide fuel cells. A Ba-Al-Ca silicate sealing glass was mixed with mica flakes to form the glass-mica composite seals. The glass-mica composite seals were tested thermal cycle stability in terms of the high temperature leakage and compressive stresses. Post mortem analyses were used to characterize the fracture and leak path of the glass-mica composite seals.

  9. Effect of Zr on microstructure of metallic glass coatings prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Kuroda, T; Kimura, H; Inoue, A

    2012-06-01

    Metallic glass is one of the most attractive advanced materials, and many researchers have conducted various developmental research works. Metallic glass is expected to be used as a functional material because of its excellent physical and chemical functions such as high strength and high corrosion resistance. However, the application for small size parts has been carried out only in some industrial fields. In order to widen the industrial application fields, a composite material is preferred for the cost performance. In the coating processes of metallic glass with the conventional deposition techniques, there is a difficulty to form thick coatings due to their low deposition rate. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential candidates to produce metallic glass composites. Metallic glass coatings can be applied to the longer parts and therefore the application field can be widened. The gas tunnel plasma spraying is one of the most important technologies for high quality ceramic coating and synthesizing functional materials. As the gas tunnel type plasma jet is superior to the properties of other conventional type plasma jets, this plasma has great possibilities for various applications in thermal processing. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying was used to form the metallic glass coatings on the stainless-steel substrate. The microstructure and surface morphology of the metallic glass coatings were examined using Fe-based metallic glass powder and Zr-based metallic glass powder as coating material. For the mechanical properties the Vickers hardness was measured on the cross section of both the coatings and the difference between the powders was compared. PMID:22905546

  10. Spin-exchange interaction between transition metals and metalloids in soft-ferromagnetic metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Das, Santanu; Choudhary, Kamal; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Choi Yim, Haein; Bandyopadhyay, Asis K; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2016-06-01

    High-performance magnetic materials have immense industrial and scientific importance in wide-ranging electronic, electromechanical, and medical device technologies. Metallic glasses with a fully amorphous structure are particularly suited for advanced soft-magnetic applications. However, fundamental scientific understanding is lacking for the spin-exchange interaction between metal and metalloid atoms, which typically constitute a metallic glass. Using an integrated experimental and molecular dynamics approach, we demonstrate the mechanism of electron interaction between transition metals and metalloids. Spin-exchange interactions were investigated for a Fe-Co metallic glass system of composition [(Co1-x Fe x )0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Cr4. The saturation magnetization increased with higher Fe concentration, but the trend significantly deviated from simple rule of mixtures. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation was used to identify the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic interaction between the transition metals and metalloids. The overlapping band-structure and density of states represent 'Stoner type' magnetization for the amorphous alloys in contrast to 'Heisenberg type' in crystalline iron. The enhancement of magnetization by increasing iron was attributed to the interaction between Fe 3d and B 2p bands, which was further validated by valence-band study. PMID:27143686

  11. Spin-exchange interaction between transition metals and metalloids in soft-ferromagnetic metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Santanu; Choudhary, Kamal; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Choi Yim, Haein; Bandyopadhyay, Asis K.; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2016-06-01

    High-performance magnetic materials have immense industrial and scientific importance in wide-ranging electronic, electromechanical, and medical device technologies. Metallic glasses with a fully amorphous structure are particularly suited for advanced soft-magnetic applications. However, fundamental scientific understanding is lacking for the spin-exchange interaction between metal and metalloid atoms, which typically constitute a metallic glass. Using an integrated experimental and molecular dynamics approach, we demonstrate the mechanism of electron interaction between transition metals and metalloids. Spin-exchange interactions were investigated for a Fe–Co metallic glass system of composition [(Co1‑x Fe x )0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Cr4. The saturation magnetization increased with higher Fe concentration, but the trend significantly deviated from simple rule of mixtures. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation was used to identify the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic interaction between the transition metals and metalloids. The overlapping band-structure and density of states represent ‘Stoner type’ magnetization for the amorphous alloys in contrast to ‘Heisenberg type’ in crystalline iron. The enhancement of magnetization by increasing iron was attributed to the interaction between Fe 3d and B 2p bands, which was further validated by valence-band study.

  12. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences. For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.

  13. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more » For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  14. Preparation, glass forming ability, crystallization and deformation of (zirconium, hafnium)-copper-nickel-aluminum-titanium-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaofeng

    Multicomponent Zr-based bulk metallic glasses are the most promising metallic glass forming systems. They exhibit great glass forming ability and fascinating mechanical properties, and thus are considered as potential structural materials. One potential application is that they could be replacements of the depleted uranium for making kinetic energy armor-piercing projectiles, but the density of existing Zr-based alloys is too low for this application. Based on the chemical and crystallographic similarities between Zr and Hf, we have developed two series of bulk metallic glasses with compositions of (HfxZr1-x) 52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 and (HfxZr1-x) 57Cu20Ni8Al10Ti5 ( x = 0--1) by gradually replacing Zr by Hf. Remarkably increased density and improved mechanical properties have been achieved in these alloys. In these glasses, Hf and Zr play an interchangeable role in determining the short range order. Although the glass forming ability decreases continuously with Hf addition, most of these alloys remain bulk glass-forming. Recently, nanocomposites produced from bulk metallic glasses have attracted wide attention due to improved mechanical properties. However, their crystalline microstructure (the grain size and the crystalline volume fraction) has to be optimized. We have investigated crystallization of (Zr, Hf)-based bulk metallic glasses, including the composition dependence of crystallization paths and crystallization mechanisms. Our results indicate that the formation of high number density nanocomposites from bulk metallic glasses can be attributed to easy nucleation and slowing-down growth processes, while the multistage crystallization behavior makes it more convenient to control the microstructure evolution. Metallic glasses are known to exhibit unique plastic deformation behavior. At low temperature and high stress, plastic flow is localized in narrow shear bands. Macroscopic investigations of shear bands (e.g., chemical etching) suggest that the internal

  15. Bulk metallic glass: the smaller the better.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Golden; Desai, Amish; Schroers, Jan

    2011-01-25

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are strong, highly elastic, and resistant to wear but still find limited utility due to their macroscopic brittle nature, high costs, and difficulty of processing, particularly when complex shapes are desired. These drawbacks can be mitigated when BMGs are used in miniature parts (< 1 cm), an application which takes advantage of BMGs' enhanced plasticity at small length scales as well the insignificant material cost associated with such parts. As an alternative to traditional metal processing techniques, thermoplastic forming (TPF)-based microfabrication methods have been developed which can process some BMGs like plastics. In this article, we discuss the properties and fabrication of BMGs on minuscule length scales to explore their prospective application in small-scale devices. PMID:20922805

  16. Bulk metallic glasses for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroers, Jan; Kumar, Golden; Hodges, Thomas M.; Chan, Stephen; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2009-09-01

    The selection criteria for biomaterials include the material’s properties and biocompatibility, and the ability to fabricate the desired shapes. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are relative newcomers in the field of biomaterials but they exhibit an excellent combination of properties and processing capabilities desired for versatile implant applications. To further evaluate the suitability of BMGs for biomedical applications, we analyzed the biological responses they elicited in vitro and in vivo. The BMGs promoted cell adhesion and growth in vitro and induced improved foreign body responses in vivo suggesting their potential use as biomaterials. Because of the BMGs’ flexible chemistry, atomic structure, and surface topography, they offer a unique opportunity to fabricate complex implants and devices with a desirable biological response from a material with superior properties over currently used metallic biomaterials.

  17. Metal — Insulator Transition-like in Nano-Crystallized Ni-Fe-Zr Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, F.; Obaidat, I. M.; Benkraouda, M.

    2007-08-01

    Ni-Fe-Zr based Metallic glassy ribbons were prepared by melt spinning technique. The compositional and structural integrity of the melt spun ribbons were verified by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM, EDX and DSC. 5 to 7 cm long ribbons of Ni-Fe-Zr based metallic glasses with different compositions were sealed inside quartz ampoules under vacuum. The sealed metallic glassy ribbons were nano-crystallized at 973 K for varying periods of time. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of the nano-crystallized samples had been investigated over the temperature range 25-280 K. The crystallized ribbons at 973 K for periods for less than 4 hours displayed insulating electrical behavior like at low temperatures, while those annealed for more than 4 hours showed metallic behavior like. Nonlinear I-V characteristics were also observed at low temperatures for samples annealed for less than four hours.

  18. Biocompatible Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with high-Zr-content: compositional optimization for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Nengbin; Huang, Lu; Chen, Wenzhe; He, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The present study designs and prepares Ni-free Zr60+xTi2.5Al10Fe12.5-xCu10Ag5 (at.%, x=0, 2.5, 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by copper mold casting for potential biomedical application. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility of the Zr-based BMGs are evaluated by investigating mechanical properties, bio-corrosion behavior, and cellular responses. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high notch toughness. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based BMGs are corrosion resistant in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The bio-corrosion resistance of BMGs is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. Regular cell responses of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells, including cell adhesion and proliferation, are observed on the Zr-Ti-Al-Fe-Cu-Ag BMGs, which reveals their general biosafety. The high-Zr-based BMGs exhibit a higher cell proliferation activity in comparison with that of pure Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility can be used to guide the future design of biocompatible Zr-based BMGs. PMID:25280721

  19. Glass Formation, Chemical Properties and Surface Analysis of Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chunling; Zhao, Weimin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of alloying elements Mo, Nb, Ta and Ni on glass formation and corrosion resistance of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In order to obtain basic knowledge for application to the industry, corrosion resistance of the Cu–Hf–Ti–(Mo, Nb, Ta, Ni) and Cu–Zr–Ag–Al–(Nb) bulk glassy alloy systems in various solutions are reported in this work. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is performed to clarify the surface-related chemical characteristics of the alloy before and after immersion in the solutions; this has lead to a better understanding of the correlation between the surface composition and the corrosion resistance. PMID:21731441

  20. Bulk Formation of Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Silicon from the Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaepen, F.

    1985-01-01

    By using metallic glass compositions with a high relative glass transition temperature, such as Pd40Ni40P20, homogeneous nucleation also becomes negligible. Large (5g) masses of this alloys were obtained using a molten B2O3 flux. Presently, bulk glass formation in iron based glasses is being investigated. It is expected that if an undercooling of about 250K can be achieved in a Ge or Si melt, formation of the amorphous semiconductor phase (rather than the crystal) may be kinetically favored. The volumetric behavior of undercooled liquid Ga droplet dispersion is investigated by dilatometry. A theoretical model (both analytical and numerical) was developed for transient nucleation in glass forming melts. The model, originally designed for isothermal conditions, was extended to continuous quenching. It is being applied to glass formation in various metallic and oxide systems. A further refinement will be the inclusion of diffusion controlled interfacial rearrangements governing the growth of the crystal embryos.

  1. Vitrification and waste glass compositional limits

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1994-08-01

    The most important issue when evaluating the suitability of a waste stream for vitrification is the composition of the waste. Appropriate analytical data are required to ensure that adequate information is available for evaluating and implementing the technology. Although vitrification can be used to immobilize almost any waste stream through dilution of the waste with glass formers, it may be too costly for certain limiting conditions. This report provides guidelines of these limit sand the consequent analytical requirements that are necessary for appropriate qualitative cost estimates.

  2. Nanoscale size effects in crystallization of metallic glass nanorods.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sungwoo; Jung, Yeonwoong; Xie, Yujun; Osuji, Chinedum; Schroers, Jan; Cha, Judy J

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic understanding of crystallization in solids is incomplete due to the lack of appropriate materials and direct experimental tools. Metallic glasses possess simple metallic bonds and slow crystallization kinetics, making them suitable to study crystallization. Here, we investigate crystallization of metallic glass-forming liquids by in-situ heating metallic glass nanorods inside a transmission electron microscope. We unveil that the crystallization kinetics is affected by the nanorod diameter. With decreasing diameters, crystallization temperature decreases initially, exhibiting a minimum at a certain diameter, and then rapidly increases below that. This unusual crystallization kinetics is a consequence of multiple competing factors: increase in apparent viscosity, reduced nucleation probability and enhanced heterogeneous nucleation. The first two are verified by slowed grain growth and scatter in crystallization temperature with decreasing diameters. Our findings provide insight into relevant length scales in crystallization of supercooled metallic glasses, thus offering accurate processing conditions for predictable metallic glass nanomolding. PMID:26323828

  3. Nanoscale size effects in crystallization of metallic glass nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sungwoo; Jung, Yeonwoong; Xie, Yujun; Osuji, Chinedum; Schroers, Jan; Cha, Judy J.

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic understanding of crystallization in solids is incomplete due to the lack of appropriate materials and direct experimental tools. Metallic glasses possess simple metallic bonds and slow crystallization kinetics, making them suitable to study crystallization. Here, we investigate crystallization of metallic glass-forming liquids by in-situ heating metallic glass nanorods inside a transmission electron microscope. We unveil that the crystallization kinetics is affected by the nanorod diameter. With decreasing diameters, crystallization temperature decreases initially, exhibiting a minimum at a certain diameter, and then rapidly increases below that. This unusual crystallization kinetics is a consequence of multiple competing factors: increase in apparent viscosity, reduced nucleation probability and enhanced heterogeneous nucleation. The first two are verified by slowed grain growth and scatter in crystallization temperature with decreasing diameters. Our findings provide insight into relevant length scales in crystallization of supercooled metallic glasses, thus offering accurate processing conditions for predictable metallic glass nanomolding. PMID:26323828

  4. Thermal behaviors of liquid La-based bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D. W.; Wang, X. D. E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn; Lou, H. B.; Cao, Q. P.; Jiang, J. Z. E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn; Wang, L. W.; Zhang, D. X.

    2014-12-14

    Thermal behaviors of liquid La-based bulk metallic glasses have been measured by using the dilatometer with a self-sealed sample cell. It is demonstrated that the strong glass forming liquid not only has the small thermal expansion coefficient but also shows the slow variation rate. Moreover, the strong glass former has relatively dense atomic packing and also small density change in the liquid state. The results suggest that the high glass forming ability of La-based metallic glasses would be closely related to the slow atomic rearrangements in liquid melts.

  5. Fracture toughness of metallic glasses: annealing-induced embrittlement.

    PubMed

    Rycroft, Chris H; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative understanding of the fracture toughness of metallic glasses, including the associated ductile-to-brittle (embrittlement) transitions, is not yet available. Here, we use a simple model of plastic deformation in glasses, coupled to an advanced Eulerian level set formulation for solving complex free-boundary problems, to calculate the fracture toughness of metallic glasses as a function of the degree of structural relaxation corresponding to different annealing times near the glass temperature. Our main result indicates the existence of an elastoplastic crack tip instability for sufficiently relaxed glasses, resulting in a marked drop in the toughness, which we interpret as annealing-induced embrittlement transition similar to experimental observations. PMID:23215386

  6. Thermal behaviors of liquid La-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. W.; Wang, X. D.; Lou, H. B.; Cao, Q. P.; Wang, L. W.; Zhang, D. X.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal behaviors of liquid La-based bulk metallic glasses have been measured by using the dilatometer with a self-sealed sample cell. It is demonstrated that the strong glass forming liquid not only has the small thermal expansion coefficient but also shows the slow variation rate. Moreover, the strong glass former has relatively dense atomic packing and also small density change in the liquid state. The results suggest that the high glass forming ability of La-based metallic glasses would be closely related to the slow atomic rearrangements in liquid melts.

  7. Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.

    2009-04-01

    Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

  8. Hidden topological order and its correlation with glass-forming ability in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. W.; Li, M. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, K. X.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the well-defined long-range periodic order that characterizes crystals, so far the inherent atomic packing mode in glassy solids remains mysterious. Based on molecular dynamics simulations, here we find medium-range atomic packing orders in metallic glasses, which are hidden in the diffraction data in terms of structure factors or pair correlation functions. The analysis of the hidden orders in various metallic glasses indicates that the glassy and crystalline solids share a nontrivial structural homology in short-to-medium range, and the hidden orders are formulated by inheriting partial crystalline orders during glass formation. As the number of chemical components increases, more hidden orders are often developed in a metallic glass and entangled topologically. We use this phenomenon to explain the geometric frustration in glass formation and the glass-forming ability of metallic alloys.

  9. Hidden topological order and its correlation with glass-forming ability in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z W; Li, M Z; Wang, W H; Liu, K X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the well-defined long-range periodic order that characterizes crystals, so far the inherent atomic packing mode in glassy solids remains mysterious. Based on molecular dynamics simulations, here we find medium-range atomic packing orders in metallic glasses, which are hidden in the diffraction data in terms of structure factors or pair correlation functions. The analysis of the hidden orders in various metallic glasses indicates that the glassy and crystalline solids share a nontrivial structural homology in short-to-medium range, and the hidden orders are formulated by inheriting partial crystalline orders during glass formation. As the number of chemical components increases, more hidden orders are often developed in a metallic glass and entangled topologically. We use this phenomenon to explain the geometric frustration in glass formation and the glass-forming ability of metallic alloys. PMID:25580857

  10. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-09-23

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste uranium oxides The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  11. Evaluation of optical glass composition by optimization methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama Krishna, K. S.; Sharma, A.

    1995-09-01

    Optical glass comprises SiO2 and various other oxides that create the basic glass structure network. The Huggins-Sun-Davis (HSD) model, later modified by several authors, explains the influence of glass composition on glass properties, such as refractive index and density. A new technique for calculating the composition of a given glass whose Buchdahl or Schott dispersion coefficients and density are known is described. The well-known damped-least-squares method implementing Lagrange multipliers for boundary constraints on the composition parameters is used to provide a powerful iteration scheme with a high rate of convergence. The method based on the modified HSD model has been tested on several commercial glasses and is found to converge to very realistic composition values. The method can be easily programmed and provides a good tool in graded-index profile computations and in forming new optical glasses.

  12. Glass Fiber Reinforced Metal Pressure Vessel Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Engineering Guide presents curves and general equations for safelife design of lightweight glass fiber reinforced (GFR) metal pressure vessels operating under anticipated Space Shuttle service conditions. The high composite vessel weight efficiency is shown to be relatively insensitive to shape, providing increased flexibility to designers establishing spacecraft configurations. Spheres, oblate speroids, and cylinders constructed of GFR Inconel X-750, 2219-T62 aluminum, and cryoformed 301 stainless steel are covered; design parameters and performance efficiencies for each configuration are compared at ambient and cryogenic temperature for an operating pressure range of 690 to 2760 N/sq cm (1000 to 4000 psi). Design variables are presented as a function of metal shell operating to sizing (proof) stress ratios for use with fracture mechanics data generated under a separate task of this program.

  13. Quantifying the origin of metallic glass formation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, W. L.; Na, J. H.; Demetriou, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The waiting time to form a crystal in a unit volume of homogeneous undercooled liquid exhibits a pronounced minimum τX* at a ‘nose temperature' T* located between the glass transition temperature Tg, and the crystal melting temperature, TL. Turnbull argued that τX* should increase rapidly with the dimensionless ratio trg=Tg/TL. Angell introduced a dimensionless ‘fragility parameter', m, to characterize the fall of atomic mobility with temperature above Tg. Both trg and m are widely thought to play a significant role in determining τX*. Here we survey and assess reported data for TL, Tg, trg, m and τX* for a broad range of metallic glasses with widely varying τX*. By analysing this database, we derive a simple empirical expression for τX*(trg, m) that depends exponentially on trg and m, and two fitting parameters. A statistical analysis shows that knowledge of trg and m alone is therefore sufficient to predict τX* within estimated experimental errors. Surprisingly, the liquid/crystal interfacial free energy does not appear in this expression for τX*. PMID:26786966

  14. Quantifying the origin of metallic glass formation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W L; Na, J H; Demetriou, M D

    2016-01-01

    The waiting time to form a crystal in a unit volume of homogeneous undercooled liquid exhibits a pronounced minimum τX* at a 'nose temperature' T(*) located between the glass transition temperature Tg, and the crystal melting temperature, TL. Turnbull argued that τX* should increase rapidly with the dimensionless ratio trg=Tg/TL. Angell introduced a dimensionless 'fragility parameter', m, to characterize the fall of atomic mobility with temperature above Tg. Both trg and m are widely thought to play a significant role in determining τX*. Here we survey and assess reported data for TL, Tg, trg, m and τX* for a broad range of metallic glasses with widely varying τX*. By analysing this database, we derive a simple empirical expression for τX*(trg, m) that depends exponentially on trg and m, and two fitting parameters. A statistical analysis shows that knowledge of trg and m alone is therefore sufficient to predict τX* within estimated experimental errors. Surprisingly, the liquid/crystal interfacial free energy does not appear in this expression for τX*. PMID:26786966

  15. Quantifying the origin of metallic glass formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Na, J. H.; Demetriou, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The waiting time to form a crystal in a unit volume of homogeneous undercooled liquid exhibits a pronounced minimum τX* at a `nose temperature' T* located between the glass transition temperature Tg, and the crystal melting temperature, TL. Turnbull argued that τX* should increase rapidly with the dimensionless ratio trg=Tg/TL. Angell introduced a dimensionless `fragility parameter', m, to characterize the fall of atomic mobility with temperature above Tg. Both trg and m are widely thought to play a significant role in determining τX*. Here we survey and assess reported data for TL, Tg, trg, m and τX* for a broad range of metallic glasses with widely varying τX*. By analysing this database, we derive a simple empirical expression for τX*(trg, m) that depends exponentially on trg and m, and two fitting parameters. A statistical analysis shows that knowledge of trg and m alone is therefore sufficient to predict τX* within estimated experimental errors. Surprisingly, the liquid/crystal interfacial free energy does not appear in this expression for τX*.

  16. Tunable Tensile Ductility in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Magagnosc, D. J.; Ehrbar, R.; Kumar, G.; He, M. R.; Schroers, J.; Gianola, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread adoption of metallic glasses (MGs) in applications motivated by high strength and elasticity combined with plastic-like processing has been stymied by their lack of tensile ductility. One emerging strategy to couple the attractive properties of MGs with resistance to failure by shear localization is to employ sub-micron sample or feature length scales, although conflicting results shroud an atomistic understanding of the responsible mechanisms in uncertainty. Here, we report in situ deformation experiments of directly moulded Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 MG nanowires, which show tunable tensile ductility. Initially brittle as-moulded nanowires can be coerced to a distinct glassy state upon irradiation with Ga+ ions, leading to tensile ductility and quasi-homogeneous plastic flow. This behaviour is reversible and the glass returns to a brittle state upon subsequent annealing. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for homogenous plastic flow in nano-scaled MGs and strategies for circumventing the poor damage tolerance that has long plagued MGs.

  17. Sliding induced crystallization of metallic glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding friction and wear experiments, electron microscopy, and diffraction studies were conducted with an Fe67Co18B14Si1 ferrous-base metallic glass in sliding contact with aluminum oxide at room temperature in air. The results indicate that the amorphous alloy can be crystallized during the sliding process. Crystallization of the wear surface causes high friction. Plastic flow occurred on the amorphous alloy with sliding, and the flow film of the alloy transferred to the aluminum oxide surface. Two distinct types of wear debris were observed as a result of sliding: an alloy wear debris, and powdery and whiskery oxide debris. Generation of oxide wear debris particles on an alloy can cause transitions in friction behavior.

  18. New Class of Plastic Bulk Metallic Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. Y.; Jiang, Q. K.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Zeng, Y. W.; Jiang, J. Z.; Fu, Z. D.; Zhang, S. L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Hao, X. P.; Wang, B. Y.; Franz, H.; Liu, Y. G.; Xie, H. S.

    2008-02-22

    An intrinsic plastic Cu{sub 45}Zr{sub 46}Al{sub 7}Ti{sub 2} bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and superior compressive plastic strain of up to 32.5% was successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. The superior compressive plastic strain was attributed to a large amount of randomly distributed free volume induced by Ti minor alloying, which results in extensive shear band formation, branching, interaction and self-healing of minor cracks. The mechanism of plasticity presented here suggests that the creation of a large amount of free volume in BMGs by minor alloying or other methods might be a promising new way to enhance the plasticity of BMGs.

  19. Bulk Metallic Glass in Supercooled Liquid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Deng, L.; Tang, N.; Jin, J. S.

    2014-07-01

    Size effect on the flow behavior of Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass in its supercooled liquid state was investigated by compression tests with specimen diameters varying from 1 to 3 mm. It was found that the smaller the specimen, the higher flow stress exhibits. Strain gradient theory considering friction effect is validated to be suitable to rationalize this size effect. The more geometrical-necessary flow sites needed to be created in smaller specimens, the higher stress it may result in. Considering the efficiency of power dissipation and instability condition, processing maps of different specimens were constructed. With the specimen size decreasing, the processing condition corresponding to low temperature or high strain rate becomes disadvantageous to the thermoplastic forming of Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30, which is closely related to the local stress concentration and strain gradient induced by friction.

  20. Metallic Glasses: Gaining Plasticity for Microsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong; Ye, Jianchao; Lu, Jian; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1960s, metallic glasses (MGs) have attracted tremendous research interest in materials science and engineering, given their unique combination of mechanical properties. However, the industrial applications of MGs have been hindered due to their lack of ductility in bulk form at room temperature. In contrast, it was observed that MGs could exhibit excellent plasticity at the small size scale. In this article, we summarize the related experimental findings having been reported so far together with the possible origins of such a size effect in MGs. The enhanced plasticity of MGs in small volumes, together with their high mechanical strengths and remarkable thermoplastic formability, strongly implies that MGs are the promising materials for fabricating the next generation of micro- and nano-devices.

  1. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L. H.; Huang, X.; Ling, Z.

    2015-09-01

    Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones) mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs) at atomic scale.

  2. General 2.5 power law of metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiaoshi; Lin, Yu; Liu, Yijin; Zeng, Zhidan; Shi, Crystal Y; Zhang, Bo; Lou, Hongbo; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Weihua; Sheng, Hongwei; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Mao, Wendy L

    2016-02-16

    Metallic glass (MG) is an important new category of materials, but very few rigorous laws are currently known for defining its "disordered" structure. Recently we found that under compression, the volume (V) of an MG changes precisely to the 2.5 power of its principal diffraction peak position (1/q1). In the present study, we find that this 2.5 power law holds even through the first-order polyamorphic transition of a Ce68Al10Cu20Co2 MG. This transition is, in effect, the equivalent of a continuous "composition" change of 4f-localized "big Ce" to 4f-itinerant "small Ce," indicating the 2.5 power law is general for tuning with composition. The exactness and universality imply that the 2.5 power law may be a general rule defining the structure of MGs. PMID:26831105

  3. Polaronic Transport in Phosphate Glasses Containing Transition Metal Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Mark

    such glasses because the two network formers will tend to separate into different phases, making it difficult to obtain homogenous samples. The PSF system proved easier to study than other systems. The hopping in this system seems to be dominated by the Greaves mid-range mechanism. In addition, in samples containing the same proportion of iron, conductivities were found to not depend noticeably on composition, supporting the use of models focusing on the transition metal ions in calculating conductivity. Despite ostensibly changing the structural and metrical properties of the network, the ratio of the concentration of the network formers only appears to have an effect on the conductivity through changing the inter-atomic distance of iron. The numerical model adds to the evidence for the dominating contribution on the nearest-neighbor ordering of TI ions on the electrical properties of a glass; especially interesting is the reproducibility of the mixed-transition ion effect (MTE) in a numerical model where ensemble averages are taken over possible arrangements. It was also determined that the disorder arising from the spread between two types of traps can lead to a MIT as function of population. Finally, an outline of the notion of invariance in TI glasses is extended from work done by other authors, creating an opportunity for further research.

  4. The formation of silver metal nanoparticles by ion implantation in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vytykacova, S.; Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Spirkova, J.; Mackova, A.; Miksova, R.; Böttger, R.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that glasses containing silver metal nanoparticles are promising photonics materials for the fabrication of all-optical components. The resulting optical properties of the nanocomposite glasses depend on the composition and structure of the glass, as well as on the type of metal ion implanted and the experimental procedures involved. The main aim of this article was to study the influence of the conditions of the ion implantation and the composition of the glass on the formation of metal nanoparticles in such glasses. Four various types of silicate glasses were implanted with Ag+ ions with different energy (330 keV, 1.2 MeV and 1.7 MeV), with the fluence being kept constant (1 × 1016 ions cm-2). The as-implanted samples were annealed at 600 °C for 1 h. The samples were characterised in terms of: the nucleation of metal nanoparticles (linear optical absorption), the migration of silver through the glass matrix during the implantation and post-implantation annealing (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy), and the oxidation state of silver (photoluminescence in the visible region).

  5. PIXE characterization of tissues surrounding metallic prostheses coated with biological glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbotteau, Y.; Irigaray, J. L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Biological glasses can be used as coatings for metallic prostheses in order to prevent corrosion. According to their composition, these glasses have different properties. We studied, in vivo, two glasses referred to as BVA and BVH. They are used as coatings of Ti6Al4V metallic implant. BVA glass disappears after 3 months of implantation and is replaced by bone. Prostheses initially coated by this glass have a larger osseous contact perimeter compared to the uncoated prostheses. This ensures a better anchoring of the implant and limits the micro-motions which cause wear debris. BVH glass keeps a constant composition during implantation and it is used like a layer which isolates metal implant from biological environment. In order to characterize the bony environment surrounding implants, we have used PIXE and RBS methods. This paper shows results of the behavior of bony tissue under micro-beam, the quality tests of new bone which replaces the BVA glass coating and the evaluation of corrosion effects. Titanium release in bony tissues begins when the metal surface of the prosthesis is exposed to biological fluids. After a few months of implantation, the titanium contamination is stabilized and remains localized within the first tens of micrometers of surrounding bone.

  6. Developing and Characterizing Bulk Metallic Glasses for Extreme Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Scott Nolan

    Metallic glasses have typically been treated as a "one size fits all" type of material. Every alloy is considered to have high strength, high hardness, large elastic limits, corrosion resistance, etc. However, similar to traditional crystalline materials, properties are strongly dependent upon the constituent elements, how it was processed, and the conditions under which it will be used. An important distinction which can be made is between metallic glasses and their composites. Charpy impact toughness measurements are performed to determine the effect processing and microstructure have on bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs). Samples are suction cast, machined from commercial plates, and semi-solidly forged (SSF). The SSF specimens have been found to have the highest impact toughness due to the coarsening of the dendrites, which occurs during the semi-solid processing stages. Ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) temperatures are measured for a BMGMC. While at room temperature the BMGMC is highly toughened compared to a fully glassy alloy, it undergoes a DTBT by 250 K. At this point, its impact toughness mirrors that of the constituent glassy matrix. In the following chapter, BMGMCs are shown to have the capability of being capacitively welded to form single, monolithic structures. Shear measurements are performed across welded samples, and, at sufficient weld energies, are found to retain the strength of the parent alloy. Cross-sections are inspected via SEM and no visible crystallization of the matrix occurs. Next, metallic glasses and BMGMCs are formed into sheets and eggbox structures are tested in hypervelocity impacts. Metallic glasses are ideal candidates for protection against micrometeorite orbital debris due to their high hardness and relatively low density. A flat single layer, flat BMG is compared to a BMGMC eggbox and the latter creates a more diffuse projectile cloud after penetration. A three tiered eggbox structure is also tested by firing

  7. Compositional-tailoring of optical properties in IR transparent chalcogenide glasses for precision glass molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, B.; Wachtel, P.; Musgraves, J. D.; Qiao, A.; Anheier, N.; Richardson, K.

    2013-09-01

    The structural and optical properties of AsSe chalcogenide glass, starting with As40Se60, were studied as a function of Ge or Se additions. These elements provide broad glass forming options when combined with the host matrix to allow for compositional tuning of properties. Optimization of glass composition has been shown to produce bulk glasses with a thermoptic coefficient (dn/dT) equal to zero, as well as a composition which could demonstrate a net zero change in index after precision glass molding (PGM). The bulk glass density, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), refractive index, and dn/dT were measured for all bulk compositions, as was the refractive index after PGM. For the bulk glasses examined, both the refractive index (measured at discrete laser wavelengths from 3.4 to10.6 μm) and dn/dT were observed to decrease as the molecular percentage of either Ge or Se is increased. Compared to the starting glass' network, additions of either Ge or Se lead to a deviation from the "optimally constrained" binary glass' average coordination number = 2.4. Additions of Se or Ge serve to decrease or increase the average coordination number (CN) of the glass, respectively, while also changing the network's polarizability. After a representative PGM process, glasses exhibited an "index drop" consistent with that seen for oxide glasses.1 Based on our evaluation, both the Gecontaining and Ge-free tielines show potential for developing unique compositions with either a zero dn/dT for the unmolded, bulk glass, as well as the potential for a glass that demonstrates a net zero "index drop" after molding. Such correlation of glass chemistry, network, physical and optical properties will enable the tailoring of novel compositions suitable for prototyping towards targeted molding behavior and final properties.

  8. Compositional Models of Glass/Melt Properties and their Use for Glass Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-12-18

    Nuclear waste glasses must simultaneously meet a number of criteria related to their processability, product quality, and cost factors. The properties that must be controlled in glass formulation and waste vitrification plant operation tend to vary smoothly with composition allowing for glass property-composition models to be developed and used. Models have been fit to the key glass properties. The properties are transformed so that simple functions of composition (e.g., linear, polynomial, or component ratios) can be used as model forms. The model forms are fit to experimental data designed statistically to efficiently cover the composition space of interest. Examples of these models are found in literature. The glass property-composition models, their uncertainty definitions, property constraints, and optimality criteria are combined to formulate optimal glass compositions, control composition in vitrification plants, and to qualify waste glasses for disposal. An overview of current glass property-composition modeling techniques is summarized in this paper along with an example of how those models are applied to glass formulation and product qualification at the planned Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant.

  9. Compositional Models of Glass/Melt Properties and their Use for Glass Formulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vienna, John D.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-12-18

    Nuclear waste glasses must simultaneously meet a number of criteria related to their processability, product quality, and cost factors. The properties that must be controlled in glass formulation and waste vitrification plant operation tend to vary smoothly with composition allowing for glass property-composition models to be developed and used. Models have been fit to the key glass properties. The properties are transformed so that simple functions of composition (e.g., linear, polynomial, or component ratios) can be used as model forms. The model forms are fit to experimental data designed statistically to efficiently cover the composition space of interest. Examples ofmore » these models are found in literature. The glass property-composition models, their uncertainty definitions, property constraints, and optimality criteria are combined to formulate optimal glass compositions, control composition in vitrification plants, and to qualify waste glasses for disposal. An overview of current glass property-composition modeling techniques is summarized in this paper along with an example of how those models are applied to glass formulation and product qualification at the planned Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant.« less

  10. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  11. Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Peker, A.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-04-08

    At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3} K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM{sub 1{minus}x}Ti{sub x}){sub a} Cu{sub b} (Ni{sub 1{minus}y}Co{sub y}){sub c} wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y{center_dot}c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b. 2 figs.

  12. 2.7 μm emission in heavy metal oxide glasses doped with erbium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragin, Tomasz; Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Jelen, Piotr; Sitarz, Maciej; Dorosz, Dominik

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, heavy metal oxide glasses based on bismuth, germanate and gallium elements doped with Er3+ have been synthesized. Composition of glass matrix has been developed in terms of low phonon energy (724 cm-1), low absorption coefficient in the infrared region (1.2 cm-1), good mechanical and chemical properties. Synthesis of glasses has been performed under a low vacuum condition, which has reduced the OH- ions to 50 ppm. Glasses were doped with (0.25 - 1 mol%) Er2O3 to obtain emission at the wavelength of 2.7 μm (4I11/2 → 4I13/2) under 980 nm laser diode excitation. Obtained results demonstrate that developed heavy metal oxide glass is an attractive material for mid-infrared applications.

  13. Characterization of activation energy for flow in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, Y. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2011-01-15

    The molar volume (V{sub m}) scaled flow activation energy ({Delta}E), namely as the activation energy density {rho}{sub E}={Delta}E/V{sub m}, is proposed to describe the flow of metallic glasses. Based on the energy landscape, both the shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for the {rho}{sub E} of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in metallic glasses. The expression of {rho}{sub E} is determined experimentally to be a simple expression of {rho}{sub E}=(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The energy density perspective depicts a realistic picture for the flow in metallic glasses and is suggestive for understanding the glass transition and deformation in metallic glasses.

  14. Crystal nucleation and glass formation in metallic alloy melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaepen, F.

    1984-01-01

    Homogeneous nucleation, containerless solidification, and bulk formation of metallic glasses are discussed. Homogeneous nucleation is not a limiting factor for metallic glass formation at slow cooling rates if the reduced glass transition temperature is high enough. Such glasses can be made in bulk if heterogeneous nucleants are removed. Containerless processing eleminates potential sources of nucleants, but as drop tube experiments on the Pd-Si alloys show, the free surface may still be a very effective heterogeneous nucleant. Combination of etching and heating in vacuum or fluxing can be effective for cleaning fairly large ingots of nucleants. Reduced gravity processing has a potentially useful role in the fluxing technique, for example to keep large metallic ingots surrounded by a low density, low fluidity flux if this proved difficult under ground conditions. For systems where heterogeneous nucleants in the bulk of the ingot need gravity to segregate to the flux-metal interface, reduced gravity processing may not be appropriate for bulk glass formation.

  15. Quantitative NDE applied to composites and metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.; Parker, F. Raymond; Heath, D. Michele; Welch, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Research at the NASA/Langley Research Center concerning quantitative NDE of composites and metals is reviewed. The relationship between ultrasonics and polymer cure is outlined. NDE models are presented, which can be used to develop measurement technologies for characterizing the curing of a polymer system for composite materials. The models can be used to determine the glass transition temperature, the degree of cure, and the cure rate. The application of the model to control autoclave processing of composite materials is noted. Consideration is given to the use of thermal diffusion models combined with controlled thermal input measurements to determine the thermal diffusivity of materials. Also, a two-dimensional physical model is described that permits delaminations in samples of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors to be detected in thermograms in the presence of cooling effects and uneven heating.

  16. Status of Gr/glass composites technology at UTOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayor, Ramon A.

    1988-01-01

    The TSC (Thermally Stable Composite) refers to a family of graphite reinforced glass matrix composite materials developed by UTOS. This fiber matrix combination exhibits low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), exceptional dimensional stability, high specific strength and stiffness, adequate fracture toughness, and space environment compatibility. The dimensional stability of a TSC mirror structure was experimentally characterized at the Steward Observatory. Preliminary results indicate that TSC is significantly more thermally stable than most current structural composite materials. In addition, the use of lower CTE glass matrix materials, such as 96 percent silica glass, have the potential for producing graphite/glass panels with expansion rates and stability comparable to that of fused silica.

  17. Glass-ceramic composition for hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Jr., Clifford P.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having a high fracture strength adaptable for hermetically sealing to chromium bearing iron or nickel base alloys at temperatures of between about 950.degree. C to about 1100.degree. C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body, comprising from about 55 to about 65 weight percent SiO.sub.2, from about 0 to about 5 weight percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, from about 6 to about 11 weight % Li.sub.2 O, from about 25 to about 32 weight percent BaO, from about 0.5 to about 1.0 weight percent CoO and from about 1.5 to about 3.5 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5.

  18. Formation of monatomic metallic glasses through ultrafast liquid quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Li; Wang, Jiangwei; Sheng, Hongwei; Zhang, Ze; Mao, Scott X.

    2014-08-01

    It has long been conjectured that any metallic liquid can be vitrified into a glassy state provided that the cooling rate is sufficiently high. Experimentally, however, vitrification of single-element metallic liquids is notoriously difficult. True laboratory demonstration of the formation of monatomic metallic glass has been lacking. Here we report an experimental approach to the vitrification of monatomic metallic liquids by achieving an unprecedentedly high liquid-quenching rate of 1014 K s-1. Under such a high cooling rate, melts of pure refractory body-centred cubic (bcc) metals, such as liquid tantalum and vanadium, are successfully vitrified to form metallic glasses suitable for property interrogations. Combining in situ transmission electron microscopy observation and atoms-to-continuum modelling, we investigated the formation condition and thermal stability of the monatomic metallic glasses as obtained. The availability of monatomic metallic glasses, being the simplest glass formers, offers unique possibilities for studying the structure and property relationships of glasses. Our technique also shows great control over the reversible vitrification-crystallization processes, suggesting its potential in micro-electromechanical applications. The ultrahigh cooling rate, approaching the highest liquid-quenching rate attainable in the experiment, makes it possible to explore the fast kinetics and structural behaviour of supercooled metallic liquids within the nanosecond to picosecond regimes.

  19. Formation of monatomic metallic glasses through ultrafast liquid quenching.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Li; Wang, Jiangwei; Sheng, Hongwei; Zhang, Ze; Mao, Scott X

    2014-08-14

    It has long been conjectured that any metallic liquid can be vitrified into a glassy state provided that the cooling rate is sufficiently high. Experimentally, however, vitrification of single-element metallic liquids is notoriously difficult. True laboratory demonstration of the formation of monatomic metallic glass has been lacking. Here we report an experimental approach to the vitrification of monatomic metallic liquids by achieving an unprecedentedly high liquid-quenching rate of 10(14) K s(-1). Under such a high cooling rate, melts of pure refractory body-centred cubic (bcc) metals, such as liquid tantalum and vanadium, are successfully vitrified to form metallic glasses suitable for property interrogations. Combining in situ transmission electron microscopy observation and atoms-to-continuum modelling, we investigated the formation condition and thermal stability of the monatomic metallic glasses as obtained. The availability of monatomic metallic glasses, being the simplest glass formers, offers unique possibilities for studying the structure and property relationships of glasses. Our technique also shows great control over the reversible vitrification-crystallization processes, suggesting its potential in micro-electromechanical applications. The ultrahigh cooling rate, approaching the highest liquid-quenching rate attainable in the experiment, makes it possible to explore the fast kinetics and structural behaviour of supercooled metallic liquids within the nanosecond to picosecond regimes. PMID:25119235

  20. Preparation of high density heavy metal fluoride glasses with extended ultraviolet and infra red ranges, and such high density heavy metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Steven W. (Inventor); Huebsch, Jesse (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A heavy metal fluoride glass composition range (in mol percent) consisting essentially of: (16-30)BaF.sub.2.(8-26)HfF.sub.4.(6-24)InF.sub.3 or GaF.sub.3.(4-16)CdF.sub.2.(6-24)YbF.sub.3.(4-22)ZnF.sub.2. In an alternative embodiment, a heavy metal fluoride glass composition range (in mol percent) comprises (16-30)BaF.sub.2.(8-26)HfF.sub.4.(6-24) of (0-24)InF.sub.3, (0-24)GaF.sub.3 and (0-19)AlF.sub.3.(1-16)CdF.sub.2.(6-24)YbF.sub.3.(4-26)ZnF.sub.2. A preferred heavy metal fluoride glass produced in accordance with the present invention comprises a composition (in mol %) and comprises about 26BaF.sub.2.18HfF.sub.4.7InF.sub.3.5GaF.sub.3.10CdF.sub.2.18YbF.sub.3. 16ZnF.sub.2. A preferred heavy metal fluoride glass has maximum thickness of most preferably about 3 mm. Another preferred heavy metal fluoride glass comprises a composition (in mol %) and comprises about 26BaF.sub.2.18HfF.sub.4.12AlF.sub.3.10CdF.sub.2.18YbF.sub.3.16ZnF.sub.2.

  1. Developing and Characterizing Bulk Metallic Glasses for Extreme Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Scott Nolan

    Metallic glasses have typically been treated as a "one size fits all" type of material. Every alloy is considered to have high strength, high hardness, large elastic limits, corrosion resistance, etc. However, similar to traditional crystalline materials, properties are strongly dependent upon the constituent elements, how it was processed, and the conditions under which it will be used. An important distinction which can be made is between metallic glasses and their composites. Charpy impact toughness measurements are performed to determine the effect processing and microstructure have on bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs). Samples are suction cast, machined from commercial plates, and semi-solidly forged (SSF). The SSF specimens have been found to have the highest impact toughness due to the coarsening of the dendrites, which occurs during the semi-solid processing stages. Ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) temperatures are measured for a BMGMC. While at room temperature the BMGMC is highly toughened compared to a fully glassy alloy, it undergoes a DTBT by 250 K. At this point, its impact toughness mirrors that of the constituent glassy matrix. In the following chapter, BMGMCs are shown to have the capability of being capacitively welded to form single, monolithic structures. Shear measurements are performed across welded samples, and, at sufficient weld energies, are found to retain the strength of the parent alloy. Cross-sections are inspected via SEM and no visible crystallization of the matrix occurs. Next, metallic glasses and BMGMCs are formed into sheets and eggbox structures are tested in hypervelocity impacts. Metallic glasses are ideal candidates for protection against micrometeorite orbital debris due to their high hardness and relatively low density. A flat single layer, flat BMG is compared to a BMGMC eggbox and the latter creates a more diffuse projectile cloud after penetration. A three tiered eggbox structure is also tested by firing

  2. Research of glass fibre used in the electromagnetic wave shielding and absorption composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Jia, F.; Bao, H. Q.; Cui, K.; Zhang, F.

    2016-07-01

    Electromagnetic shielding and absorption composite material plays an important role in the defence and economic field. Comparing with other filler, Glass fibre and its processed product—metal-coated glass fibre can greatly reduce the material's weight and costs, while it still remains the high strength and the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. In this paper, the electromagnetic absorption mechanism and the reflection mechanism have been investigated as a whole, and the shielding effectiveness of the double-layer glass fibre composite material is mainly focused. The relationship between the shielding effectiveness and the filled glass fibre as well as its metal-coated product's parameters has also been studied. From the subsequent coaxial flange and anechoic chamber analysis, it can be confirmed that the peak electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of this double-layer material can reach -78dB while the bandwidth is from 2GHz to 18GHz.

  3. Exploring Mg-Zn-Ca-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications Based on Thermodynamic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, M.; Sarwat, Syed Ghazi; Udhayabanu, V.; Raj, Baldev; Ravi, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based metallic glasses are considered as possible candidates in orthopedic implant applications. This paper aims to theoretically predict the glass-forming ability (GFA) in Mg-Zn-Ca alloy using a newly proposed thermodynamic model ( P HHS), and the consistency of this model is verified through experimental analysis. P HHS is based on thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy of chemical mixing, elastic enthalpy, and configurational entropy, thus incorporating the pivotal effects, i.e., electron transfer effects, effect of atomic size mismatch, and effect of randomness, which aid to high GFA. In essence, P HHS can be visualized as the energy barrier that exists between the transformations of random atomic structure of glass to ordered crystalline structure. When the P HHS value is more negative, the energy barrier will be high, supporting easy glass formation. Various Mg-Zn-Ca metallic glass compositions displayed almost an expected and supporting trend, where the critical diameter of the metallic glass rod increased with a more negative P HHS value. Among the predicted Mg-Zn-Ca systems, the Mg60Zn35Ca5 composition shows deviation from the expected trend. This discrepancy has been clearly elucidated using a eutectic phase diagram. In addition to the consistency of the P HHS parameter to verifying the GFA of various compositions, the unique ability of this model is to predict unexplored Mg-Zn-Ca glass-forming compositions using contour development. Thus, proving P HHS parameter to be used as an efficient tool in predicting new glass-forming compositions.

  4. Optimizing chemistry of bulk metallic glasses for improved thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulikravich, G. S.; Egorov, I. N.; Colaco, M. J.

    2008-10-01

    Thermo-mechanical-physical properties of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) depend strongly on the concentrations of each of the chemical elements in a given alloy. The proposed methodology for simultaneously optimizing these multiple properties by accurately determining proper concentrations of each of the alloying elements is based on the use of computational algorithms rather than on traditional experimentation, expert experience and intuition. Specifically, the proposed BMG design method combines an advanced stochastic multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm based on self-adapting response surface methodology and an existing database of experimentally evaluated BMG properties. During the iterative computational design procedure, a relatively small number of new BMGs need to be manufactured and experimentally evaluated for their properties in order to continuously verify the accuracy of the entire design methodology. Concentrations of the most important alloying elements can be predicted so that new BMGs have multiple properties optimized in a Pareto sense. This design concept was verified for superalloys using strictly experimental data. Thus, the key innovation here lies in arriving at the BMG compositions which will have the highest glass forming ability by utilizing an advanced multi-objective optimization algorithm while requiring a minimum number of BMGs to be manufactured and tested in order to verify the predicted performance of the predicted BMG compositions.

  5. Process for direct conversion of reactive metals to glass

    DOEpatents

    Rajan, John B.; Kumar, Romesh; Vissers, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is introduced into a cyclone reactor in droplet form by an aspirating gas. In the cyclone metal reactor the aspirated alkali metal is contacted with silica powder introduced in an air stream to form in one step a glass. The sides of the cyclone reactor are preheated to ensure that the initial glass formed coats the side of the reactor forming a protective coating against the reactants which are maintained in excess of 1000.degree. C. to ensure the formation of glass in a single step.

  6. Clustered field evaporation of metallic glasses in atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Zemp, J; Gerstl, S S A; Löffler, J F; Schönfeld, B

    2016-03-01

    Field evaporation of metallic glasses is a stochastic process combined with spatially and temporally correlated events, which are referred to as clustered evaporation (CE). This phenomenon is investigated by studying the distance between consecutive detector hits. CE is found to be a strongly localized phenomenon (up to 3nm in range) which also depends on the type of evaporating ions. While a similar effect in crystals is attributed to the evaporation of crystalline layers, CE of metallic glasses presumably has a different - as yet unknown - physical origin. The present work provides new perspectives on quantification methods for atom probe tomography of metallic glasses. PMID:26724469

  7. General nanomoulding with bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze; Schroers, Jan

    2015-04-10

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are ideal for nanomoulding as they possess desirable strength for molds as well as for moldable materials and furthermore lack intrinsic size limitations. Despite their attractiveness, only recently Pt-based BMGs have been successfully molded into pores ranging 10-100 nm (Kumar et al 2009 Nature 457 868-72). Here, we introduce a quantitative theory, which reveals previous challenges in filling nanosized pores. This theory considers, in addition to a viscous and a capillary term, also oxidation, which becomes increasingly more important on smaller length scales. Based on this theory we construct a nanomoulding processing map for BMG, which reveals the limiting factors for BMG nanomoulding. Based on the quantitative prediction of the processing map, we introduce a strategy to reduce the capillary effect through a wetting layer, which allows us to mold non-noble BMGs below 1 μm in air. An additional benefit of this strategy is that it drastically facilitates demoulding, one of the main challenges of nanomoulding in general. PMID:25785815

  8. Relationship between topological order and glass forming ability in densely packed enstatite and forsterite composition glasses.

    PubMed

    Kohara, S; Akola, J; Morita, H; Suzuya, K; Weber, J K R; Wilding, M C; Benmore, C J

    2011-09-01

    The atomic structures of magnesium silicate melts are key to understanding processes related to the evolution of the Earth's mantle and represent precursors to the formation of most igneous rocks. Magnesium silicate compositions also represent a major component of many glass ceramics, and depending on their composition can span the entire fragility range of glass formation. The silica rich enstatite (MgSiO(3)) composition is a good glass former, whereas the forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) composition is at the limit of glass formation. Here, the structure of MgSiO(3) and Mg(2)SiO(4) composition glasses obtained from levitated liquids have been modeled using Reverse Monte Carlo fits to diffraction data and by density functional theory. A ring statistics analysis suggests that the lower glass forming ability of the Mg(2)SiO(4) glass is associated with a topologically ordered and very narrow ring distribution. The MgO(x) polyhedra have a variety of irregular shapes in MgSiO(3) and Mg(2)SiO(4) glasses and a cavity analysis demonstrates that both glasses have almost no free volume due to a large contribution from edge sharing of MgO(x)-MgO(x) polyhedra. It is found that while the atomic volume of Mg cations in the glasses increases compared to that of the crystalline phases, the number of Mg-O contacts is reduced, although the effective chemical interaction of Mg(2+) remains similar. This unusual structure-property relation of Mg(2)SiO(4) glass demonstrates that by using containerless processing it may be possible to synthesize new families of dense glasses and glass ceramics with zero porosity. PMID:21873237

  9. Relationship between topological order and glass forming ability in densely packed enstatite and forsterite composition glasses

    PubMed Central

    Kohara, S.; Akola, J.; Morita, H.; Suzuya, K.; Weber, J. K. R.; Wilding, M. C.; Benmore, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The atomic structures of magnesium silicate melts are key to understanding processes related to the evolution of the Earth’s mantle and represent precursors to the formation of most igneous rocks. Magnesium silicate compositions also represent a major component of many glass ceramics, and depending on their composition can span the entire fragility range of glass formation. The silica rich enstatite (MgSiO3) composition is a good glass former, whereas the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) composition is at the limit of glass formation. Here, the structure of MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 composition glasses obtained from levitated liquids have been modeled using Reverse Monte Carlo fits to diffraction data and by density functional theory. A ring statistics analysis suggests that the lower glass forming ability of the Mg2SiO4 glass is associated with a topologically ordered and very narrow ring distribution. The MgOx polyhedra have a variety of irregular shapes in MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 glasses and a cavity analysis demonstrates that both glasses have almost no free volume due to a large contribution from edge sharing of MgOx-MgOx polyhedra. It is found that while the atomic volume of Mg cations in the glasses increases compared to that of the crystalline phases, the number of Mg-O contacts is reduced, although the effective chemical interaction of Mg2+ remains similar. This unusual structure-property relation of Mg2SiO4 glass demonstrates that by using containerless processing it may be possible to synthesize new families of dense glasses and glass ceramics with zero porosity. PMID:21873237

  10. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Day, D.E.

    1991-09-03

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  11. Elasticity dominates strength and failure in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. Q.; Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-01-07

    Two distinct deformation mechanisms of shearing and volume dilatation are quantitatively analyzed in metallic glasses (MGs) from the fundamental thermodynamics. Their competition is deduced to intrinsically dominate the strength and failure behaviors of MGs. Both the intrinsic shear and normal strengths give rise to the critical mechanical energies to activate destabilization of amorphous structures, under pure shearing and volume dilatation, respectively, and can be determined in terms of elastic constants. By adopting an ellipse failure criterion, the strength and failure behaviors of MGs can be precisely described just according to their shear modulus and Poisson's ratio without mechanical testing. Quantitative relations are established systematically and verified by experimental results. Accordingly, the real-sense non-destructive failure prediction can be achieved in various MGs. By highlighting the broad key significance of elasticity, a “composition-elasticity-property” scheme is further outlined for better understanding and controlling the mechanical properties of MGs and other glassy materials from the elastic perspectives.

  12. General 2.5 power law of metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiaoshi; Lin, Yu; Liu, Yijin; Zeng, Zhidan; Shi, Crystal Y.; Zhang, Bo; Lou, Hongbo; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Weihua; Sheng, Hongwei; Mao, Ho-kwang; Mao, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass (MG) is an important new category of materials, but very few rigorous laws are currently known for defining its “disordered” structure. Recently we found that under compression, the volume (V) of an MG changes precisely to the 2.5 power of its principal diffraction peak position (1/q1). In the present study, we find that this 2.5 power law holds even through the first-order polyamorphic transition of a Ce68Al10Cu20Co2 MG. This transition is, in effect, the equivalent of a continuous “composition” change of 4f-localized “big Ce” to 4f-itinerant “small Ce,” indicating the 2.5 power law is general for tuning with composition. The exactness and universality imply that the 2.5 power law may be a general rule defining the structure of MGs. PMID:26831105

  13. Mechanical behaviour of degradable phosphate glass fibres and composites-a review.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, R; Tanner, K E

    2016-02-01

    Biodegradable materials are potentially an advantageous alternative to the traditional metallic fracture fixation devices used in the reconstruction of bone tissue defects. This is due to the occurrence of stress shielding in the surrounding bone tissue that arises from the absence of mechanical stimulus to the regenerating bone due to the mismatch between the elastic modulus of bone and the metal implant. However although degradable polymers may alleviate such issues, these inert materials possess insufficient mechanical properties to be considered as a suitable alternative to current metallic devices at sites of sufficient mechanical loading. Phosphate based glasses are an advantageous group of materials for tissue regenerative applications due to their ability to completely degrade in vivo at highly controllable rates based on the specific glass composition. Furthermore the release of the glass's constituent ions can evoke a therapeutic stimulus in vivo (i.e. osteoinduction) whilst also generating a bioactive response. The processing of these materials into fibres subsequently allows them to act as reinforcing agents in degradable polymers to simultaneously increase its mechanical properties and enhance its in vivo response. However despite the various review articles relating to the compositional influences of different phosphate glass systems, there has been limited work summarising the mechanical properties of different phosphate based glass fibres and their subsequent incorporation as a reinforcing agent in degradable composite materials. As a result, this review article examines the compositional influences behind the development of different phosphate based glass fibre compositions intended as composite reinforcing agents along with an analysis of different potential composite configurations. This includes variations in the fibre content, matrix material and fibre architecture as well as other novel composites designs. PMID:26694533

  14. High expansion coefficient glasses can be sealed to common metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, F. E.; Champman, J. W.; Hirayama, C.

    1970-01-01

    New series of high expansion coefficient glasses can be sealed by fusion onto hot surfaces of metals and alloys. Glasses have relatively low working temperatures, good chemical durability, and can be used in electrical insulators and feedthroughs to fluid or vacuum systems.

  15. GLASS COMPOSITIONS FOR THE NEPHELINE PHASE III STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-29

    A series of 29 test glass compositions were selected for Phase III of the nepheline study using a combination of two approaches. The first approach was based on evaluating the glass composition region allowable by all of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models with the exception of the current nepheline discriminator. This approach was taken to determine whether there are glass compositions that, while predicted to crystallize nepheline upon slow cooling, would otherwise be acceptable for processing in the DWPF. The second approach was based on quasicrystalline theory of glass structure, which helped predict compositional regions where nepheline should form. A detailed description of this methodology is forthcoming. The selection strategy outlined here will provide an opportunity to determine experimentally whether the glasses that fail the current nepheline discriminator but pass the newly proposed nepheline discriminator are indeed free of nepheline after slow cooling. If this is the case, these data will serve as a significant step toward reducing conservatism in the current nepheline discriminator. The 29 glass compositions selected for testing address both the PCCS model and quasicrystalline theory approaches in evaluating both a reduction in conservatism for the current nepheline discriminator and possible implementation of the newly proposed discriminator based on glass structural theory. These glasses will be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory, with the results and conclusions described in a technical report.

  16. Prediction of glass durability as a function of glass composition and test conditions: Thermodynamics and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1988-01-01

    The long-term durability of nuclear waste glasses can be predicted by comparing their performance to natural and ancient glasses. Glass durability is a function of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of glass in solution. The relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of glass durability can be understood when the relative contributions of glass composition and imposed test conditions are delineated. Glass durability has been shown to be a function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy which can be calculated from the glass composition. Hydration thermodynamics also furnishes a quantitative frame of reference to understand how various test parameters affect glass durability. Linear relationships have been determined between the logarithmic extent of hydration and the calculated hydration free energy for several different test geometries. Different test conditions result in different kinetic reactivity parameters such as the exposed glass surface area (SA), the leachant solution volume (V), and the length of time that the glass is in the leachant (t). Leachate concentrations are known to be a function of the kinetic test parameter (SAV)t. The relative durabilities of glasses, including pure silica, obsidians, nuclear waste glasses, medieval window glasses, and frit glasses define a plane in three dimensional ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration-(SAV)t space. At constant kinetic conditions, e.g., test geometry and test duration, the three dimensional plane is intersected at constant (SAV)t and the ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration plots have similar slopes. The slope represents the natural logarithm of the theoretical slope, (12.303 RT), for the rate of glass dissolution. 53 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Glass Formation Ability and Kinetics of the Gd55Al20Ni25 Bulk Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Chol-Lyong; Xia, Lei; Ding, Ding; Dong, Yuan-Da

    2006-03-01

    We report a new bulk glass-forming alloy Gd55Al20Ni25. The bulk sample of the alloy is prepared in the shape of rods in diameter 2 mm by suction casting. The rod exhibits typical amorphous characteristics in the x-ray diffraction pattern, paramagnetic property at 300 K, distinct glass transition and multi-step crystallization behaviour in differential scanning calorimetry traces. The glass formation ability of the alloy is investigated by using the reduced glass transition temperature Trg and the parameter γ. Kinetics of glass transition and primary crystallization is also studied. The fragility parameter m obtained from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann dependence of glass transition temperature Tg on ln phi (phi is the heating rate) classifies the bulk metallic glasses into the intermediate category according to Angell's classification.

  18. Localized crystallization in shear bands of a metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhijie; Song, Kaikai; Hu, Yong; Dai, Fuping; Chu, Zhibing; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced viscous flow is the characteristic of atomic movements during plastic deformation of metallic glasses in the absence of substantial temperature increase, which suggests that stress state plays an important role in mechanically induced crystallization in a metallic glass. However, it is poorly understood. Here, we report on the stress-induced localized crystallization in individual shear bands of Zr60Al15Ni25 metallic glass subjected to cold rolling. We find that crystallization in individual shear bands preferentially occurs in the regions neighboring the amorphous matrix, where the materials are subjected to compressive stresses demonstrated by our finite element simulations. Our results provide direct evidence that the mechanically induced crystallization kinetics is closely related with the stress state. The crystallization kinetics under compressive and tensile stresses are interpreted within the frameworks of potential energy landscape and classical nucleation theory, which reduces the role of stress state in mechanically induced crystallization in a metallic glass. PMID:26758530

  19. Localized crystallization in shear bands of a metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhijie; Song, Kaikai; Hu, Yong; Dai, Fuping; Chu, Zhibing; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced viscous flow is the characteristic of atomic movements during plastic deformation of metallic glasses in the absence of substantial temperature increase, which suggests that stress state plays an important role in mechanically induced crystallization in a metallic glass. However, it is poorly understood. Here, we report on the stress-induced localized crystallization in individual shear bands of Zr60Al15Ni25 metallic glass subjected to cold rolling. We find that crystallization in individual shear bands preferentially occurs in the regions neighboring the amorphous matrix, where the materials are subjected to compressive stresses demonstrated by our finite element simulations. Our results provide direct evidence that the mechanically induced crystallization kinetics is closely related with the stress state. The crystallization kinetics under compressive and tensile stresses are interpreted within the frameworks of potential energy landscape and classical nucleation theory, which reduces the role of stress state in mechanically induced crystallization in a metallic glass. PMID:26758530

  20. Compressive behavior of bulk metallic glass under different conditions --- Coupled effect of temperature and strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Weihua

    Metallic glass was first reported in 1960 by rapid quenching of Au-Si alloys. But, due to the size limitation, this material did not attract remarkable interest until the development of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with specimen sizes in excess of 1 mm. BMGs are considered to be promising engineering materials because of their ultrahigh strength, high elastic limit and wear resistance. However, they usually suer from a strong tendency for localized plastic deformation with catastrophic failure. Many basic questions, such as the origin of shear softening and the strain rate eect remain unclear. In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of the Zr55Al 10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass and a metallic glass composite is investigated. The stress-strain relationship for Zr55Al10Ni 5Cu30 over a wide range of strain rate (5x10 --5 to 2x103 s--1) was investigated in uniaxial compression loading using both MTS servo-hydraulic system (quasi-static) and compression Kolsky bar system (dynamic). The effect of the strain rate on the fracture stress at room temperature was discussed. Based on the experimental results, the strain rate sensitivity of the bulk metallic glass changes from a positive value to a negative value at high strain rate, which is a consequence of the significant adiabatic temperature rise during the dynamic testing. In order to characterize the temperature eect on the mechanical behavior of the metallic glass, a synchronically assembled heating unit was designed to be attached onto the Kolsky bar system to perform high temperature and high strain rate mechanical testing. A transition from inhomogeneous deformation to homogeneous deformation has been observed during the quasi-static compressive experiments at testing temperatures close to the glass transition temperature. However, no transition has been observed at high strain rates at all the testing temperatures. A free volume based model is applied to analyze the stress-strain behavior of the homogeneous

  1. Liquid-liquid phase separation in heavy-metal fluoride glass

    SciTech Connect

    Suscavaye, M.J.; El-Bayoumi, O.H.

    1985-09-01

    The microstructure of heavy-metal fluoride glass of composition 28.5CdF/sub 2/. 5.0LiF.28.5AlF/sub 3/.38PbF/sub 2/ was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray techniques. Liquid-liquid phase separation was observed in crucible-cooled glass samples. The volume fraction of the dispersed glass phase increased substantially as a result of heating the sample at 309/sup 0/C for 1 h.

  2. Guided evolution of bulk metallic glass nanostructures: A platform for designing three-dimensional electrocatalytic surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C.; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; et al

    2015-12-22

    Precise control over catalyst surface composition and structure is necessary to improve the function of electrochemical systems. To that end, bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys with atomically dispersed elements provide a highly processable, nanoscale platform for electrocatalysis and surface modification. Here we report on nanostructures of Pt-based BMGs that are modified with various subtractive and additive processes to improve their electrochemical performance.

  3. Surface modification of bioactive glasses and preparation of PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Chang, Jiang

    2009-08-01

    In order to improve the homogeneous dispersion of particles in the polymeric matrix, 45S5, mesoporous 58S, and 58S bioactive glasses were surface modified by esterification reactions with dodecyl alcohol at reflux temperature of 260 degrees C (named as m-45S5, m-mesoporous 58S, and m-58S, respectively). The modified particles showed better hydrophobicity and longer time of suspension in organic matrix. The PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films were fabricated using surface modified bioactive glass particles through solvent casting-evaporation method. Surface morphology, mechanical property, and bioactivity were investigated. The results revealed that the inorganic particle distribution and tensile strength of the composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were significantly improved while great bioactive properties were maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation illustrated that the modified bioactive glass particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PDLLA matrix. The maximum tensile strengths of composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were higher than that of composite films with unmodified bioactive glass particles. The bioactivity of the composite films were evaluated by being soaked in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and the SEM observation of the films suggested that the modified composite films were still bioactive in that they could induce the formation of HAp on its surface and the distribution of HAp was even more homogeneous on the film. The results mentioned above indicated that the surface modification of bioactive glasses with dodecyl alcohol was an effective method to prepare PDLLA/bioactive glass composites with enhanced properties. By studying the comparisons of modification effects among the three types of bioactive glasses, we could get the conclusion that the size and morphology of the inorganic particles would greatly affect the modification effects and the properties of composites. PMID:18801895

  4. Plasticity in the Supercooled Liquid Region of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T G; Wadsworth, J; Liu, C T; Ice, G E

    2000-10-30

    Intensive efforts have been carried out over the past decade to develop means to slow down the phase transformation kinetics during the forming of metallic glasses. As a result of these efforts, some metallic glasses can now be fabricated in bulk forms (BMG) from the liquid state at cooling rates on the order of 1-10 K/s, which is close to that of conventional casting. This enables the production of bulk amorphous alloys with a thickness of {approx}10 mm. While advances in amorphous metallic alloy development have been impressive, they have been made largely through experience [1]. Three main conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) Bulk metallic glasses generally have excellent mechanical formability in the supercooled liquid region. (2) Bulk metallic glasses may not be necessarily behave like a Newtonian fluid (i.e. m=1). The non-Newtonian behavior is associated with glass instability during deformation. (3) Multi-component Bulk metallic glasses can be used as the precursor of a nanocrystalline solid. However, the nanocrystalline solid is not necessarily superplastic. The non-superplastic behavior is caused by the difficult strain accommodation at grain triple junctions.

  5. Glass/Ceramic Composites for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A family of glass/ceramic composite materials has been investigated for use as sealants in planar solid oxide fuel cells. These materials are modified versions of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass developed previously for the same purpose. The composition of the glass in mole percentages is 35BaO + 15CaO + 5Al2O3 + 10B2O3 + 35SiO2. The glass seal was found to be susceptible to cracking during thermal cycling of the fuel cells. The goal in formulating the glass/ ceramic composite materials was to (1) retain the physical and chemical advantages that led to the prior selection of the barium calcium aluminosilicate glass as the sealant while (2) increasing strength and fracture toughness so as to reduce the tendency toward cracking. Each of the composite formulations consists of the glass plus either of two ceramic reinforcements in a proportion between 0 and 30 mole percent. One of the ceramic reinforcements consists of alumina platelets; the other one consists of particles of yttria-stabilized zirconia wherein the yttria content is 3 mole percent (3YSZ). In preparation for experiments, panels of the glass/ceramic composites were hot-pressed and machined into test bars.

  6. Sintering maps for ceramic-filled-glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ewsuk, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    Ceramic-filled-glass (CFG) composites densify by viscous flow during final-stage, non-reactive, liquid-phase sintering (NLPS). The rate of densification is controlled by the viscosity of the CFG composite dispersion during sintering, which is determined by the concentration of ceramic filler in the composite, and the viscosity of the suspending glass medium. A mathematical expression has been developed that determines the critical filler concentration in a given viscosity glass at which high-density CFG composites will be produced in a given time during final-stage NLPS. This expression has been used to predict the effects of sintering time, pore size, and glass viscosity on critical filler concentration, and to construct final-stage sintering maps that provide guidelines for designing and processing high-density CFG composites. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Methods of Fabricating a Layer of Metallic Glass-Based Material Using Immersion and Pouring Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement layers of metallic glass-based materials. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating a layer of metallic glass includes: applying a coating layer of liquid phase metallic glass to an object, the coating layer being applied in a sufficient quantity such that the surface tension of the liquid phase metallic glass causes the coating layer to have a smooth surface; where the metallic glass has a critical cooling rate less than 1000 K/s; and cooling the coating layer of liquid phase metallic glass to form a layer of solid phase metallic glass.

  8. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid-phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  9. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  10. A comparative study of the mechanical performance of Glass and Glass/Carbon hybrid polymer composites at different temperature environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, M. J.; Kumar, D. S.; Mahato, K. K.; Rathore, D. K.; Prusty, R. K.; Ray, B. C.

    2015-02-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites have been widely accepted as high strength, low weight structural material as compared to their metallic counterparts. Some specific advanced high performance applications such as aerospace components still require superior specific strength and specific modulus. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites exhibit superior specific strength and modulus but have a lower failure strain and high cost. Hence, the combination of both glass and carbon fiber in polymer composite may yield optimized mechanical properties. Further the in-service environment has a significant role on the mechanical performance of this class of materials. Present study aims to investigate the mechanical property of GFRP and Glass/Carbon (G/C hybrid) composites at room temperature, in-situ and ex-situ temperature conditions. In-situ testing at +70°C and +100°C results in significant loss in inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS) for both the composites as compared to room temperature. The ILSS was nearly equal for both the composite systems tested in-situ at +100°C and effect of fiber hybridisation was completely diminished there. At low temperature ex-situ conditioning significant reduction in ILSS was observed for both the systems. Further at -60°C G/C hybrid exhibited 32.4 % higher ILSS than GFRP. Hence this makes G/C hybrid a better choice of material in low temperature environmental applications.

  11. Thermoplastic Micro-Forming of Bulk Metallic Glasses: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Wen; Liu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a fascinating class of metallic alloys with an isotropic amorphous structure that is rapidly quenched from liquid melts. The absence of a crystalline micro-structure endows them with a portfolio of properties such as high strength, high elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance. Whereas the limited plasticity and hence poor workability at ambient temperature impede the structural application of bulk metallic glasses, the unique superplasticity within the supercooled liquid region opens an alternative window of so-called thermoplastic forming, which allows precise and versatile net-shaping of complex geometries on length scales ranging from nanometers to centimeters that were previously unachievable with conventional crystalline metal processing. Thermoplastic forming not only breaks through the bottleneck of the manufacture of bulk metallic glasses at ambient temperature but also offers an alluring prospect in micro-engineering applications. This paper comprehensively reviews some pivotal aspects of bulk metallic glasses during thermoplastic micro-forming, including an in-depth understanding of the crystallization kinetics of bulk metallic glasses and the thermoplastic processing time window, the thermoplastic forming map that clarifies the relationship between the flow characteristics and the formability, the interfacial friction in micro-forming and novel forming methods to improve the formability, and the potential applications of the hot-embossed micro-patterns/components.

  12. Testing composite-to-metal tubular lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guess, T. R.; Reedy, E. D., Jr.; Slavin, A. M.

    Procedures were developed to fabricate, nondestructively evaluate, and mechanically test composite-to-metal tubular joints. The axially loaded tubular lap joint specimen consisted of two metal tubes bonded within each end of a fiberglass composite tube. Joint specimens with both tapered and untapered aluminum adherends and a plain weave E-glass/epoxy composite were tested in tension, compression, and flexure. Other specimens with tapered and untapered steel adherends and a triaxially reinforced E-glass/epoxy composite were tested in tension and compression. Test results include joint strength and failure mode data. A finite element analysis of the axially loaded joints explains the effect of adherend geometry and material properties on measured joint strength. The flexural specimen was also analyzed; calculated surface strains are in good agreement with measured values, and joint failure occurs in the region of calculated peak peel stress.

  13. Testing composite-to-metal tubular lap joints

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Slavin, A.M.

    1993-11-01

    Procedures were developed to fabricate, nondestructively evaluate, and mechanically test composite-to-metal tubular joints. The axially loaded tubular lap joint specimen consisted of two metal tubes bonded within each end of a fiberglass composite tube. Joint specimens with both tapered and untapered aluminum adherends and a plain weave E-glass/epoxy composite were tested in tension, compression, and flexure. Other specimens with tapered and untapered steel adherends and a triaxially reinforced E-glass/epoxy composite were tested in tension and compression. Test results include joint strength and failure mode data. A finite element analysis of the axially loaded joints explains the effect of adherend geometry and material properties on measured joint strength. The flexural specimen was also analyzed; calculated surface strains are in good agreement with measured values, and joint failure occurs in the region of calculated peak peel stress.

  14. Development of metal hydride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Most of current hydride technology at Savannah River Site is based on beds of metal hydride powders; the expansion upon hydridation and the cycling results in continued breakdown into finer particles. Goal is to develop a composite which will contain the fines in a dimensionally stable matrix, for use in processes which require a stable gas flow through a hydride bed. Metal hydride composites would benefit the advanced Thermal Cycling Absorption process (hydrogen isotope separation), and the Replacement Tritium Facility (storage, pumping, compression, purification of hydrogen isotopes). These composites were fabricated by cold compaction of a mixture of metal hydride granules and coarse copper powder; the porosity in the granules was introduced by means of ammonium carbonate. The composite pellets were cycled 138 times in hydrogen with the loss of LANA0.75 (LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75}) limited to the surface. Vacuum sintering can provide additional strength at the edges. Without a coating, the metal hydride particles exposed at the pellet surface can be removed by cycling several times in hydrogen.

  15. Some developments on ceramic-to-metal and glass-ceramics-to-metal seals and related studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothiyal, G. P.; Goswami, M.; Shrikhande, V. K.

    2008-05-01

    Seals and coatings based on ceramics and glass-ceramics find numerous applications in different disciplines of science and technology including space, accelerators, nuclear energy, chemical industry. Ceramic-to-metal (CM) seals based on conventional design (using brazing alloys) and glass-ceramics have been prepared. While Ag-Cu brazing alloy has been used in conventional CM seal, we have employed lithium zinc silicate (LZS) and lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics for glass-ceramics-to-metal (GCM) seals. LZS glass-ceramics based on two different compositions; (a) LZSL composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 12.65, ZnO: 1.85, SiO2: 74.4, Al2O3: 3.8, K2O: 2.95, P2O5: 3.15, and B2O3: 1.2 (low ZnO) and (b) LZSH composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 8.9, ZnO: 24.03, SiO2: 53.7, Na2O: 5.42, P2O5: 2.95, and B2O3: 5.0 (high ZnO) were prepared with desired sealing characteristics for matched type seals. In addition, (wt.%) 12.6Li2O-71.7SiO2-5.1Al2O3-4.9K2O-3.2B2O3-2.5P2O5 (LAS-GC) was investigated for compressive type of seal. LZS glass-ceramics-to-Cu as well as SS-321 seals were found to withstand a vacuum of 10-6 Torr with leak rate 10-9 Torr. 1/s and LAS GC-to-SS304 seal showed high pressure endurance of 12000psi. In order to understand the mechanism of sealing, glass-ceramics-to-metal interface study has also been carried out.

  16. Evolution of shear banding flows in metallic glasses characterized by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Li; Luan, Yingwei

    2016-06-01

    To reveal the evolution of shear banding flows, one-dimensional nanostructure metallic glass composites have been studied with molecular dynamics. The inherent size determines the initial thickness of shear bands, and the subsequent broadening can be restricted to some extent. The vortex-like flows evoke the atomic motion perpendicular to the shear plane, which accelerates the interatomic diffusion. The reduction of local strain rate causes the flow softening for monolithic Cu-Zr glass, but the participation of Cu-atoms in the shear banding flow gradually leads to the shear hardening for the composites.

  17. Thermal characterization of glass ionomer/vinyl IPN composites

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, A.D.; Bennett, B.; Shelby, A. Storey, R.

    1993-12-31

    In and attempt to improve some of the disadvantages of the conventional glass ionomers such as Ketac-fil, two photocurable glass ionomer restoratives have been introduced to the dental profession. The initial objective of this study was to compare the thermal expansion coefficients on the new formulations, Vari-Glass and Fuji II ionomer to the conventional glass ionomer composites using thermal mechanical analysis and to determine the residual monomer contents after photopolymerization using differential scanning calorimetry. Results suggest that these materials exhibit multiphase morphologies. Conventional glass ionomers exhibit two distinct glass transition temperatures. While Fuji II exhibits many of the characteristics of a conventional glass ionomer, Vari-Glass behaves more as a glass-filled resin composite. Fuji II and Ketac-fil exhibit expansion coefficients which are compatible with tooth structure below body temperature, but may cause significant stress on the bond to tooth structure due to shrinkage of the materials at temperatures slightly above body temperature. In contrast, the Vari-Glass formulation exhibits an expansion coefficient which is over three times that of tooth structure and will result in significant stresses above or below body temperature.

  18. Glass fiber addition strengthens low-density ablative compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Approximately 15% of E-glass fibers was added to compositions under test and greatly improved char stability. Use of these fibers also reduced thermal strains which, in turn, minimized char shrinkage and associated cracks, subsurface voids, and disbonds. Increased strength allows honeycomb core reinforcement to be replaced by equivalent amount of glass fibers.

  19. Polyimide fiber-glass composite resists high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Composites synthesized from bismaleimide have superior strength and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures when compared with similar composites prepared with epoxy or silicon polymers of similar cost. Polyimide synthesis technique and processing method yield essentially void-free fiber-glass reinforced composites.

  20. Composite material based on fluoroplast and low melting oxyfluoride glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatieva, L. N.; Savchenko, N. N.; Lalayan, V. M.; Zverev, G. A.; Goncharuk, V. K.; Ustinov, A. Yu.; Shaulov, A. Yu.; Berlin, A. A.; Bouznik, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    The present work summarizes the results of studies of the samples fabricated through extrusion blending of mixtures composed of the perfluorocarbon polymer (polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF), which presently undergoes intensive studies, and the inorganic glass (BF-glass) of the composition 3B2O3-97(40SnF2-30SnO-30P2O5). It is revealed as a result of application of the suggested technique the composite material whose structure depends on the component ratio in the mixture (from individual areas formed by each component to homogeneously distributed composite particles) has been fabricated. The peculiarities of formation of composites were studied on the basis of the results of studying their morphology, molecular structure and phase composition. It was revealed the preservation of the polymer molecular structure and the absence of interaction with the glass in the fabricated samples. We found that in the process of sample fabrication there occur melting of the mixture, mixing of particles and changing of the phase compositions. The polymer partially and the glass almost completely crystallize in the process of composite fabrication. Glass crystals fill polymer cavities forming agglomerates. Along with the increase of the amount of inorganic component crystals, the polymer monolithic nature is disrupted and an inversion occurs at a certain component ratio: polymer particles are located between crystals of the inorganic component, mixing with them and covering them. The glass crystallization is facilitated through pre-crushing in extruder mill.

  1. Surface characteristics of metallic glass spheres of Au(55)Pb(22.5)Sb(22.5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the production of metallic glasses of high atomic number is currently of considerable importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target applications. In connection with the present investigation, spherules of the alloy Au(55)Pb(22.5)Sb(22.5) were produced. Metallic glass was formed on solidification. With the aid of X-ray diffraction studies, it was established that the spheres were completely amorphous. A near-surface phase separation on spheres of the metallic glass could be observed. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements showed that the average composition of the surface differed from that of the bulk.

  2. Calcium and zinc containing bactericidal glass coatings for biomedical metallic substrates.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Díaz, Luis A; Prado, Catuxa; Cabal, Belén; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3-SiO2-Na2O-ZnO and SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel) have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar) according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log). PMID:25056542

  3. Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Díaz, Luis A.; Prado, Catuxa; Cabal, Belén; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel) have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar) according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log). PMID:25056542

  4. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOEpatents

    Schumacher, Ray F.

    1994-01-01

    A device and method for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method uses the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality.

  5. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOEpatents

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-03-01

    A device and method are described for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method use the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality. 2 figures.

  6. Redox systematics in model glass compositions from West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, H.D.; Schreiber, C.W.; Ward, C.C.

    1993-12-31

    At a processing temperature of 1150{degrees}C for model West Valley glass composition, the prescribed range of oxygen fugacities needed to achieve an [Fe{sup 2+}]/[Fe{sup 3+}] of 0.1 to 0.5 is 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -7} atm. Establishment of the Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 0} equilibrium, resulting in metal precipitation from the melt, occurs at oxygen fugacities lower than 10{sup -11} atm at this temperature. The target processing range as defined by the iron redox ratio is equally valid at both lower and higher temperatures ({+-}100{degrees}C). Elevations of the concentrations of redox-active components to 1 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 1 wt% NiO, 1 wt% CeO{sub 2}, and 4 wt% Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the waste glass will not affect the redox limits as established by the iron redox ratio of 0.1 to 0.5; these limits provide sufficiently large margins of safety to assure no stabilization of reduced or oxidized forms of these elements.

  7. Formation of bulk metallic glass by fluxing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kui, H. W.; Turnbull, D.; Greer, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk specimens (0.4-4 g mass) of the alloy Pd40Ni40P20 have been undercooled consistently to the glass state, with no detectable superficial crystallinity, in a molten flux of dehydrated boron oxide. The minimum dimension of the most massive glass specimen, so formed, was 1.0 cm. The absence of crystallinity in the specimens was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and calorimetry.

  8. High strength glass-ceramic to metal seals

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, L D; Kramer, D P; Moddeman, W E; Wooten, G W

    1986-12-01

    In many applications, ceramics are joined to other materials, especially metals. In such cases, interfacial strength is as important as the strength of each constituent material. Examples are presented for tailoring materials and processes to optimize the glass-ceramic-to-metal seal. Means for detecting defects, nondestructively, are also identified.

  9. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  10. Heavy metal fluoride glass fibers and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    The availability of high quality optical fibers with transmission window, larger than that of silica fiber, extends the use of optical fibers and open new application fields. There is increasing demand of optical fiber with transmission over 2 microns, where silica is opaque, for applications as diverse as sensing, fiber lasers and amplifiers, defense (IRCM), spectroscopy... No materials can fulfill all applications needs. Engineers have to make some compromise when choosing the right materials for the right application. Heavy metal fluoride glass is one of these materials. The glass, under bulk form, has a wide transmission window from 0.3 up to 8 microns, without any absorption peaks. Heavy metal fluoride glass fibers are drawn using the preform technique, the same technique used for silica fiber. This technique has proven to allow good control of fiber dimensions and geometry. Fluoride glass fibers with different exotics shapes have already been obtained, such as D-shaped, square, of centered fiber, multi cladding fibers and microstructured fibers.... As far as active fibers are concerned, heavy metal fluoride glasses have low phonon energy and can contain high concentration of active ions, rare-earth elements. Therefore, new laser lines have been already demonstrated using fluoride glass fibers. Fiber lasers with output power exceeding 10 w have been obtained by different groups. This paper will present the latest development of fluoride glass fiber technology, including fibers optical and mechanical properties, fiber lasers and power handling.

  11. Microstructural characterization of glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Santos, J D; Knowles, J C; Reis, R L; Monteiro, F J; Hastings, G W

    1994-01-01

    The influence of phosphate-based glasses and a bioactive silica glass on the sintering mechanism of hydroxyapatite was studied over a wide range of temperatures. The composites were microstructurally characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Small additions of phosphate-based glasses proved to be beneficial to the sintering process and fully dense materials were obtained. A significant improvement in mechanical properties was achieved. beta-TCP and alpha-TCP were found in the microstructure depending on the sintering temperature. Additions of bioactive glass led to the development of calcium phosphate silicate. PMID:8161658

  12. Relating Dynamic Properties to Atomic Structure in Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, H.W.; Ma, E.; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2012-07-18

    Atomic packing in metallic glasses is not completely random but displays various degrees of structural ordering. While it is believed that local structures profoundly affect the properties of glasses, a fundamental understanding of the structure–property relationship has been lacking. In this article, we provide a microscopic picture to uncover the intricate interplay between structural defects and dynamic properties of metallic glasses, from the perspective of computational modeling. Computational methodologies for such realistic modeling are introduced. Exploiting the concept of quasi-equivalent cluster packing, we quantify the structural ordering of a prototype metallic glass during its formation process, with a new focus on geometric measures of subatomic “voids.” Atomic sites connected with the voids are found to be crucial in terms of understanding the dynamic, including vibrational and atomic transport, properties. Normal mode analysis is performed to reveal the structural origin of the anomalous boson peak (BP) in the vibration spectrum of the glass, and its correlation with atomic packing cavities. Through transition-state search on the energy landscape of the system, such structural disorder is found to be a facilitating factor for atomic diffusion, with diffusion energy barriers and diffusion pathways significantly varying with the degree of structural relaxation/ordering. The implications of structural defects for the mechanical properties of metallic glasses are also discussed.

  13. Correlation between medium-range order structure and glass-forming ability for Al-based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, N. C.; Yan, M.; Zuo, L.; Wang, J. Q.

    2014-01-28

    To clarify the correlation of medium-range order (MRO) structure with glass forming ability (GFA) of Al-based metallic glasses, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 14-a}Y{sub a} (a = 2∼9 at. %) metallic glasses were analyzed by x-ray diffraction in detail and further verified by synchrotron high-energy x-ray diffraction. The prepeak that reflects the MRO structural evolution was found to be much sensitive to alloy composition. We have proposed an icosahedral supercluster MRO structure model in Al-TM (transition metal)-RE (rare earth metal) system, which consists of 12 RE(TM)-centered clusters on the vertex of icosahedral supercluster, one RE(TM)-centered clusters in the center, and TM(RE) atoms located at RE(TM)-centered cluster tetrahedral interstices in the icosahedral supercluster. It was indicated that the MRO structural stability mainly depends on the interaction of efficient dense packing and electrochemical potential equalization principle. The Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9}Y(La){sub 5} alloys present good GFA due to the combination of the two structural factors.

  14. Computational studies of the glass-forming ability of model bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Minglei; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2013-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are produced by rapidly thermally quenching supercooled liquid metal alloys below the glass transition temperature at rates much faster than the critical cooling rate Rc below which crystallization occurs. The glass-forming ability of BMGs increases with decreasing Rc, and thus good glass-formers possess small values of Rc. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) mixtures to quantify how key parameters, such as the stoichiometry, particle size difference, attraction strength, and heat of mixing, influence the glass-formability of model BMGs. For binary LJ mixtures, we find that the best glass-forming mixtures possess atomic size ratios (small to large) less than 0.92 and stoichiometries near 50:50 by number. In addition, weaker attractive interactions between the smaller atoms facilitate glass formation, whereas negative heats of mixing (in the experimentally relevant regime) do not change Rc significantly. These results are tempered by the fact that the slowest cooling rates achieved in our simulations correspond to ˜1011 K/s, which is several orders of magnitude higher than Rc for typical BMGs. Despite this, our studies represent a first step in the development of computational methods for quantitatively predicting glass-formability.

  15. Computational studies of the glass-forming ability of model bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Minglei; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2013-09-28

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are produced by rapidly thermally quenching supercooled liquid metal alloys below the glass transition temperature at rates much faster than the critical cooling rate R(c) below which crystallization occurs. The glass-forming ability of BMGs increases with decreasing R(c), and thus good glass-formers possess small values of R(c). We perform molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) mixtures to quantify how key parameters, such as the stoichiometry, particle size difference, attraction strength, and heat of mixing, influence the glass-formability of model BMGs. For binary LJ mixtures, we find that the best glass-forming mixtures possess atomic size ratios (small to large) less than 0.92 and stoichiometries near 50:50 by number. In addition, weaker attractive interactions between the smaller atoms facilitate glass formation, whereas negative heats of mixing (in the experimentally relevant regime) do not change R(c) significantly. These results are tempered by the fact that the slowest cooling rates achieved in our simulations correspond to ~10(11) K/s, which is several orders of magnitude higher than R(c) for typical BMGs. Despite this, our studies represent a first step in the development of computational methods for quantitatively predicting glass-formability. PMID:24089782

  16. Fs Laser Fabrication of Photonic Structures in Glass: the Role of Glass Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Krol, D M; Chan, J W; Huser, T R; Risbud, S H; Hayden, J S

    2004-06-16

    The use of fs lasers to directly write photonic structures inside a glass has great potential as a fabrication method for three-dimensional all-optical integrated components. The ability to use this technique with different glass compositions--specifically tailored for a specific photonics application--is critical to its successful exploitation. Consequently, it is important to understand how glass composition effects waveguide fabrication with fs laser pulses and how different glasses are structurally modified after exposure to fs laser pulses. We have used confocal laser spectroscopy to monitor the changes in glass structure that are associated with waveguide fabrication. Using a low power continuous wave (cw) Ar laser as excitation source we have measured both Raman and fluorescence spectra of the modified regions. Raman spectroscopy provides us with information on the network structure, whereas fluorescence measurements reveal the presence of optically active point defects in the glass. In this paper we review our work on fs-laser fabrication and characterization of photonic structures in glass and discuss the effect of glass composition on processing parameters and structural modification.

  17. Microwave processing of polyester and polyester-glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hottong, U.; Wei, J.; Dhulipla, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1992-04-27

    Polyester resins and polyester/glass composites were processed using 2.45GHz microwave radiation in single mode resonant cavities. An alkyl phthalate polyester resin (diluted with vinyltoluene) and a unidirectional glass fiber/polyester (diallyl phthalate) prepreg were examined. In the study of polymerization kinetics, a 6 inch diameter resonant cavity and a thin film technique were used to cure neat resin samples. Thermal curing was carried out for comparison. The extents of cure of the samples were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR). Faster reaction rates microwave processing; polyester; polyester/glass composite; extent of cure; dielectric measurement; mode switching.

  18. Hi Nicalon{trademark} SiC fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tredway, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    A multi-year research program was conducted by a team consisting of Nippon Carbon Corporation, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), the University of Tokyo, and the University of Delaware to study and analyze basic mechanisms of failure in SiC fiber reinforced glass matrix composites. This paper presents the results of one portion of this investigation performed by UTRC that studied the mechanical performance and in-situ carbon interfacial layer formation characteristics of glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites reinforced with Hi Nicalon{trademark} SiC fiber. The fiber was produced by Nippon Carbon Corp. and was supplied to UTRC for their use on the program.

  19. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2004-11-02

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  20. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-10-07

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  1. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  2. Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Engineered Metal-Glass Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalmashonak, Andrei; Seifert, Gerhard; Abdolvand, Amin

    Glasses and other dielectrics containing metallic nanoparticles are very promising materials for applications in optoelectronics due to their unique linear and non-linear optical properties. These properties are dominated by the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metal nanoparticles. The SPR occurs when the electron and light waves couple with each other at a metal-dielectric interface. These are regarded as the collective oscillation of the nanoparticle (NP) electrons.

  3. Formation and atomic configuration of binary metallic glasses studied by ion beam mixing and molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, K. P.; Gao, N.; Dai, X. D.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2007-06-15

    Metallic glasses are obtained in an immiscible Ag-Nb system with overall composition ranging from 25 to 90 at. % of Nb by ion beam mixing. Interestingly, the diffraction analysis shows that the formed Nb-rich metallic glass features are two distinct atomic configurations. In atomistic modeling, an n-body Ag-Nb potential is derived, under the assistance of ab initio calculation, and then applied in molecular dynamics simulations. An atomic configuration is discovered, i.e., an icositetrahedral ordering, and as well as an icosahedral ordering observed in the Ag-Nb metallic glasses and in some previously reported systems. Simulations confirm that the two dominate local atomic packing units are formed through a structural phase transition from the Nb-based bcc and fcc solid solutions, respectively, suggesting a concept of structural heredity that the crystalline structure of the constituent metals play a decisive role in determining the atomic structure of the resultant metallic glasses.

  4. Highly evolved rhyolitic glass compositions from the Toba Caldera, Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Chesner, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The quartz latite to rhyolitic ash flow tuffs erupted form the Toba Caldera, perhaps the largest caldera on earth (100 by 30 kms), provide the unique opportunity to study a highly differentiated liquid in equilibrium with numerous mineral phases. Not only are the rocks very crystal rich (30-50%), but at present a minimum of 15 co-existing mineral phases have been identified. Both whole-rock and glass analyses were made by XRF techniques providing data on both major and trace elements. Whole rock chemistry of individual pumices from the youngest eruption at Toba (75,000 years ago), are suggestive of the eruption of two magma compositions across a boundary layer in the magma chamber. Glass chemistry of the pumices also show two distinct liquid compositions. The more silicic pumices, which have the most evolved glass compositions, are similar to the whole rock chemistry of the few aplitic pumices and cognate granitic xenoliths that were collected. This highly evolved composition resulted from the removal of up to 15 mineral phases and may be a fractionation buffered, univariant composition. The glasses from the less silicic pumices are similar to the whole rock chemistry of the more silicic pumice, thus falling nicely on a fractionation trend towards the univariant composition for these rocks. This set of glass compositions allows an independent test for the origin of distal ashes thought to have erupted from Toba and deposited in Malaysia, the Indian Ocean, and as far away as India.

  5. Crack initiation in borosilicate glass-SiC fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, R.E.; Pagano, N.J.; Kim, R.Y.

    1996-04-01

    The initiation of matrix microcracking was investigated in unidirectional glass matrix composites having controlled fiber spacing. Observations were taken from composites consisting of regular arrays of TiB{sub 2}-coated SIGMA 1240 and carbon-coated SCS-6 monofilament SiC fibers in a series of borosilicate glasses. The thermal expansion mismatch between the fibers and glass matrix was varied such that the resulting radial stresses after processing ranged from tensile to compressive. The glass strongly bonds to the TiB{sub 2}-coated SIGMA 1240 fiber but weakly bonds to the carbon coating of the SCS-6 fiber, allowing the investigation of the effects of bonding at the fiber/matrix interface. The observed crack initiation stresses of the various composites are compared to predictions based on a previously developed semiempirical model and used to study the influence of the volume fraction of fibers, residual stress state and interface strength.

  6. Fracture behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Avci, A.; Arikan, H.; Akdemir, A

    2004-03-01

    Chopped strand glass fiber reinforced particle-filled polymer composite beams with varying notch-to-depth ratios and different volume fractions of glass fibers were investigated in Mode I fracture using three-point bending tests. Effects of polyester resin content and glass fiber content on fracture behavior was also studied. Polyester resin contents were used 13.00%%, 14.75%, 16.50%, 18.00% and 19.50%, and glass fiber contents were 1% and 1.5% of the total weight of the polymer composite system. Flexural strength of the polymer composite increases with increase in polyester and fiber content. The critical stress intensity factor was determined by using several methods such as initial notch depth method, compliance method and J-integral method. The values of K{sub IC} obtained from these methods were compared.

  7. Process for preparing ceramic-metal composite bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, M.C.

    1993-05-25

    A process for forming an aluminum/ceramic composite is described comprising the non-vapor phase oxidation of molten aluminum achieved by contacting the molten aluminum to a sacrificial ceramic body, wherein the molten aluminum is at a temperature at least 300 degrees above the melting point of aluminum but below the softening point of the ceramic body, wherein the sacrificial ceramic body is a material selected from the group consisting of silica, quartz, sand, wollastonite, mullite, silicate glass, fluorosilicate glass, fluoroborosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass, calcium silicate glass, calcium aluminum silicate glass, calcium aluminum fluorosilicate glass, titanium dioxide, titanium carbide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, zirconium carbide, zirconium nitride, metal sulfides, and mixtures thereof, whereby the sacrificial ceramic body at least partially oxidizes the aluminum to form an aluminum oxide ceramic component, and wherein molten aluminum flows into the aluminum oxide ceramic component, and wherein the sacrificial ceramic body is at least partially reduced, whereby an aluminum/ceramic composite is produced possessing a near net shape relative to the shape of the sacrificial ceramic body.

  8. Rejuvenation of metallic glasses by non-affine thermal strain.

    PubMed

    Ketov, S V; Sun, Y H; Nachum, S; Lu, Z; Checchi, A; Beraldin, A R; Bai, H Y; Wang, W H; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Carpenter, M A; Greer, A L

    2015-08-13

    When a spatially uniform temperature change is imposed on a solid with more than one phase, or on a polycrystal of a single, non-cubic phase (showing anisotropic expansion-contraction), the resulting thermal strain is inhomogeneous (non-affine). Thermal cycling induces internal stresses, leading to structural and property changes that are usually deleterious. Glasses are the solids that form on cooling a liquid if crystallization is avoided--they might be considered the ultimate, uniform solids, without the microstructural features and defects associated with polycrystals. Here we explore the effects of cryogenic thermal cycling on glasses, specifically metallic glasses. We show that, contrary to the null effect expected from uniformity, thermal cycling induces rejuvenation, reaching less relaxed states of higher energy. We interpret these findings in the context that the dynamics in liquids become heterogeneous on cooling towards the glass transition, and that there may be consequent heterogeneities in the resulting glasses. For example, the vibrational dynamics of glassy silica at long wavelengths are those of an elastic continuum, but at wavelengths less than approximately three nanometres the vibrational dynamics are similar to those of a polycrystal with anisotropic grains. Thermal cycling of metallic glasses is easily applied, and gives improvements in compressive plasticity. The fact that such effects can be achieved is attributed to intrinsic non-uniformity of the glass structure, giving a non-uniform coefficient of thermal expansion. While metallic glasses may be particularly suitable for thermal cycling, the non-affine nature of strains in glasses in general deserves further study, whether they are induced by applied stresses or by temperature change. PMID:26268190

  9. Static and Dynamic Behavior of High Modulus Hybrid Boron/Glass/Aluminum Fiber Metal Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Po-Ching

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation presents the investigation of a newly developed hybrid fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which contains commingled boron fibers, glass fibers, and 2024-T3 aluminum sheets. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs are developed. The first, type I hybrid FMLs, contained a layer of boron fiber prepreg in between two layers of S2-glass fiber prepreg, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The second, type II hybrid FMLs, contained three layer of commingled hybrid boron/glass fiber prepreg layers, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics including blunt notch strength, bearing strength and fatigue behavior of these two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were investigated. Compared to traditional S2-glass fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE), the newly developed hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates possess high modulus, high yielding stress, and good blunt notch properties. From the bearing test result, the hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates showed outstanding bearing strength. The high fiber volume fraction of boron fibers in type II laminates lead to a higher bearing strength compared to both type I laminates and traditional GLARE. Both types of hybrid FMLs have improved fatigue crack initiation lives and excellent fatigue crack propagation resistance compared to traditional GLARE. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, improved the fatigue crack initiation life and crack propagation rates of the aluminum sheets. Moreover, a finite element model was established to predict and verify the properties of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Anomalous structure-property relationships in metallic glasses through pressure-mediated glass formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jun; Asta, Mark; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2016-04-01

    Metallic glasses are commonly found to favor denser packing structures and icosahedral order in experiments, simulations, and theoretical models. Here we present a molecular dynamics simulation study of Cu-Zr metallic glasses, prepared through a pressure-mediated pathway. The resulting glasses exhibit anomalous structure-property relationships; these glasses are less energetically stable, concomitant with a denser atomic packing and a significant increase in icosahedral short-range order. The enhanced icosahedral order is shown to be accompanied by a pressure-mediated change in chemical short-range order. The results demonstrate that in amorphous alloys (nonmonatomic), theoretical frameworks of the two-order-parameter model must be generalized to account for chemical degrees of freedom.

  11. Glass-to-Metal Seal Against Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Gatewood, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Simple compression joint with indium gasket forms demountable seal for superfluids. Seal developed for metal lid on glass jar used in experiments on liquid helium. Glass container allows contents to be viewed for such purposes as calibration of liquid-level detectors and adjustments of displacement plungers. Seal contains liquid helium even when temperature drops below 2.19K. Made from inexpensive, commercially available materials and parts.

  12. Metal-matrix composites: Status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Applications of metal matrix composites for air frames and jet engine components are discussed. The current state of the art in primary and secondary fabrication is presented. The present and projected costs were analyzed to determine the cost effectiveness of metal matrix composites. The various types of metal matrix composites and their characteristics are described.

  13. Effect of Seawater and Warm Environment on Glass/Epoxy and Glass/Polyurethane Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Abdel-Magid, Beckry Mohamed; El-Maaddawy, Tamer; Grami, Maryam E.

    2010-10-01

    A study of the durability of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials in seawater and warm environment is presented in this paper. The major objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of seawater and temperature on the structural properties of glass/epoxy and glass/polyurethane composite materials. These effects were studied in terms of seawater absorption, permeation of salt and contaminants, chemical and physical bonds at the interface, degradation in mechanical properties, and failure mechanisms. Test parameters included immersion time, ranging from 3 months to 1 year, and temperature including room temperature and 65°C. Seawater absorption increased with immersion time and with temperature. The matrix in both composites was efficient in protecting the fibers from corrosive elements in seawater; however moisture creates a dual mechanism of stress relaxation—swelling—mechanical adhesion, and breakdown of chemical bonds between fiber and matrix at the interface. It is observed that high temperature accelerates the degradation mechanism in the glass/polyurethane composite. No significant changes were observed in tensile strength of glass/epoxy and in the modulus of both glass/epoxy and glass/polyurethane composites. However, the tensile strength of the glass/polyurethane composite decreased by 19% after 1 year of exposure to seawater at room temperature and by 31% after 1 year of exposure at 65°C. Plasticization due to moisture absorption leads to ductile failure in the matrix, but this can be reversed in glass/polyurethane composites after extended exposure to seawater at high temperature where brittle failure of matrix and fiber were observed.

  14. Probing the evolution of slow flow dynamics in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, P.; Lu, Z.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wen, P.; Wang, W. H.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of glass is of paramount importance for understanding glass, while experimental studies of it covering broad time and temperature ranges are fraught with difficulty. We employ a method which can probe the extremely slow dynamics in various glassy states in metallic glass (MG). The flow dynamics of as-cast MG is found to follow a universal Arrhenius behavior in a wide temperature range, and aged MG follows a stretched exponential function with a "magic" exponent number of 3/7. Our observations have implications for understanding the structural evolution of the slow flow and the issue of finite temperature divergence in MGs.

  15. Aging characteristics of short glass fiber reinforced ZA-27 alloy composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. C.; Girish, B. M.; Satish, B. M.; Kamath, R.

    1998-12-01

    Aging characteristics of short glass fiber reinforced ZA-27 alloy composite materials have been evaluated in the present study. The liquid metallurgy technique was used to fabricate the composites, in which preheated short glass fibers were introduced into the ZA-27 alloy melt above its liquidus temperature. The aging temperature employed was 125 °C for 6, 12,18, and 24 h. The aged alloy (no fibers) reached the peak hardness after 18 h, while the composites (regardless of filler content) reached the same hardness in 12 h. It is hypothesized that the aging treatment of a composite improves the strength of the interface between the short fibers and the matrix. This is confirmed by the tensile fractograph analysis, which indicates that at a given aging temperature, the composites aged for 18 h exhibit short fibers that remain attached to the metal matrix, while those aged for 6 h undergo debonding.

  16. Atomic mechanism of internal friction in a model metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-Bin; Samwer, Konrad

    2014-10-01

    Internal friction (IF) describes the ability of materials to damp out mechanical oscillations. It is a crucial engineering parameter and also conveys unique microscopic information about structural defects, transport phenomena, and phase transformations in solids. While IF predominately results from lattice defects in crystalline materials, the origin of IF remains unclear in disordered materials, like metallic glasses. In this paper, we study the atomic rearrangements that govern IF in a model metallic glass, via numerical simulations of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy together with structural analysis. We identify cooperative and avalanchelike thermal-driven excitations as an underlying mechanism and demonstrate a linearlike relation between the concentrations of these excitations and the values of IF. Structurally, these excitations can be hindered, and thus suppress IF, by slow atoms that usually associate with full icosahedral symmetry. Our results also provide practical guides in tuning IF in metallic glasses from atomistic perspectives.

  17. Metallic glass mold insert for hot embossing of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, W. H.

    2012-07-01

    Molding of micro components from thermoplastic polymers (TPs) has become a routinely used industrial production process. To find hard, ductile and durable material for mold insert and to fabricate the mold insert are two big challenges for the thermoplastic polymers fabrication techniques. We report that a Pd-based metallic glass (MG) mold insert was readily fabricated in its supercooled liquid region, and the atomic force microscope measurement and time-temperature-transformation analysis show that the metallic glass mold insert has very fine surface quality and long service life. We show that the metallic glasses, which have remarkable mechanical properties and excellent thermoplastic forming ability, are new ideal materials for hot embossing mold insert of thermoplastic polymers.

  18. Ion beam induced nanosized Ag metal clusters in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnke, H.-E.; Schattat, B.; Schubert-Bischoff, P.; Novakovic, N.

    2006-04-01

    Silver metal clusters have been formed in soda lime glass by high-energy heavy-ion irradiation at ISL. The metal cluster formation was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) in fluorescence mode, and the shape of the clusters was imaged with transmission electron microscopy. While annealing in reducing atmosphere alone, leads to the formation of metal clusters in Ag-containing glasses, where the Ag was introduced by ion-exchange, such clusters are not very uniform in size and are randomly distributed over the Ag-containing glass volume. Irradiation with 600-MeV Au ions followed by annealing, however, results in clusters more uniform in size and arranged in chains parallel to the direction of the ion beam.

  19. Effect of mixed transition metal ions on DC conductivity in lithium bismuth borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Khasa, S.; Yadav, Arti Dahiya, M. S.; Seema,; Ashima; Agarwal, A.

    2015-06-24

    The DC conductivities of glasses having composition x(2NiO·V{sub 2}O{sub 5})·(30-x)Li{sub 2}O·20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}·50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (with x=0, 2, 5, 7 and 10, i.e. NVLBB glasses) and glass samples having composition 7NiO·23 Li{sub 2}O·20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}·50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 7V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·23Li{sub 2}O·20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}·50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (NLBB and VLBB respectively) are investigated as a function of temperature. Conductivity for glasses containing higher percentage of lithium ions is predominantly ionic and in glasses containing higher percentage of transition metal (TM) ions is predominantly electronic. The observed increase in conductivity with x and peak-like behavior at x=7 in NVLBB glasses due to competitive transport of small polaron contributing to a significant structural change in NVLBB glasses. Variation of molar volume and density was also observed with x. In NVLBB glasses, as x increases density increases except a slight decrease at x=7. Also density increases in NLBB whereas in case of VLBB it decreases in comparison to NVLBB1 glass composition. Mott’s small polaron hopping (SPH) model has been applied to analyze the high temperature conductivity data and activation energy.

  20. Synthesis of new amorphous metallic spin glasses

    DOEpatents

    Haushalter, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous metallic precipitates having the formula (M.sub.1).sub.a (M.sub.2).sub.b wherein M.sub.1 is at least one transition metal, M.sub.2 is at least one main group metal and the integers "a" and "b" provide stoichiometric balance; the precipitates having a degree of local order characteristic of chemical compounds from the precipitation process and useful electrical and mechanical properties.

  1. Synthesis of new amorphous metallic spin glasses

    DOEpatents

    Haushalter, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous metallic precipitates having the formula (M.sub.1).sub.a (M.sub.2).sub.b wherein M.sub.1 is at least one transition metal, M.sub.2 is at least one main group metal and the integers "a" and "b" provide stoichiometric balance; the precipitates having a degree of local order characteristic of chemical compounds from the precipitation process and useful electrical and mechanical properties.

  2. Synthesis of new amorphous metallic spin glasses

    DOEpatents

    Haushalter, R.C.

    1985-02-11

    Disclosed are: amorphous metallic precipitates having the formula (M/sub 1/)/sub a/(M/sub 2/)/sub b/ wherein M/sub 1/ is at least one transition metal, M/sub 2/ is at least one main group metal and the integers ''a'' and ''b'' provide stoichiometric balance; the precipitates having a degree of local order characteristic of chemical compounds from the precipitation process and useful electrical and mechanical properties.

  3. Diamond-Glass Composite Processing in a Microgravity Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noma, Tatsuo; Tanii, Jun; Kuwano, Ryushi; Sawaoka, Akira B.

    1986-12-01

    Diamond-glass composite was fabricated under microgravity in the Challenger, a space shuttle orbiter. Fracture toughness and hardness were compared with the composites fabricated on earth. Under microgravity, uniform distributions in toughness and hardness were obtained. On earth, the values decreased with the distance from the bottom of the crucible.

  4. Effect of modified aminosilane interfaces in glass/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.E.; Blum, F.D.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of the interfacial modification of glass/epoxy composites have been studied using 3-point bending tests. Hydrolyzed {gamma}-aminopropyltriethyoxysilane APS and {gamma}-aminobutyltriethoxysilane (ABS) were separately adsorbed onto E-glass and the treated fibers were then used in composites that used both a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and a diglycidyl ether of polypropylene epoxy matrix. Mechanical tests were used to characterize the flexural strength of the composite as a function of the silane coupling agent and the flexibility of the epoxy used.

  5. Structural features of plastic deformation in bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Scudino, S. Shakur Shahabi, H.; Stoica, M.; Kühn, U.; Kaban, I.; Escher, B.; Eckert, J.; Vaughan, G. B. M.

    2015-01-19

    Spatially resolved strain maps of a plastically deformed bulk metallic glass (BMG) have been created by using high-energy X-ray diffraction. The results reveal that plastic deformation creates a spatially heterogeneous atomic arrangement, consisting of strong compressive and tensile strain fields. In addition, significant shear strain is introduced in the samples. The analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the strain tensor indicates that considerable structural anisotropy occurs in both the magnitude and direction of the strain. These features are in contrast to the behavior observed in elastically deformed BMGs and represent a distinctive structural sign of plastic deformation in metallic glasses.

  6. Bioactivity of thermal plasma synthesized bovine hydroxyapatite/glass ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganand, C. P.; Selvarajan, V.; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Cannillo, Valeria; Sola, Antonella

    2010-02-01

    Bone injuries and failures often require the inception of implant biomaterials. Research in this area is receiving increasing attention worldwide. A variety of artificial bone materials, such as metals, polymeric materials, composites and ceramics, are being explored to replace diseased bones. Calcium phosphate ceramics are currently used as biomaterials for many applications in both dentistry and orthopedics. Bioactive silicate-based glasses show a higher bioactive behaviour than calcium phosphate materials. It is very interesting to study the mixtures of HA and silicate-based glasses. In the present study; natural bovine hydroxyapatite / SiO2-CaO-MgO glass composites were produced using the Transferred arc plasma (TAP) melting method. TAP melting route is a brisk process of preparation of glass-ceramics in which the raw materials are melted in the plasma and crystallization of the melt occurs while cooling down at a much faster rate in relatively short processing times compared to the conventional methods of manufacture of glass ceramics/composites. It is well known that; one essential step to the understanding of the biological events occurring at the bone tissue/material interface is the biological investigation by in vitro tests. Cell lines are commonly used for biocompatibility tests, and are very efficient because of their reproducibility and culture facility. In this study, we report the results of a study on the response of primary cultures of human fibroblast cells to TAP melted bioactive glass ceramics.

  7. Major element composition of glasses in three Apollo 15 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Warner, J.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 180 glasses in each of three Apollo 15 soils have been analyzed for nine elements. Cluster analysis techniques allow the recognition of preferred glass compositions that are equated with parent rock compositions. Green glass rich in Fe and Mg, poor in Al and Ti may be derived from deep-seated pyroxenitic material now present at the Apennine Front. Fra Mauro basalt (KREEP) is most abundant in the LM soil and is tentatively identified as ray material from the Aristillus-Autolycus area. Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro), believed to be derived from the lunar highlands, has the same composition as at other landing sites, but is less abundant. The Apennine Front is probably not true highland material but may contain a substantial amount of material with the composition of Fra Mauro basalt, but lacking the high-K content.

  8. Designing heavy metal oxide glasses with threshold properties from network rigidity

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Shibalik; Boolchand, P.; Malki, M.; Micoulaut, M.

    2014-01-07

    Here, we show that a new class of glasses composed of heavy metal oxides involving transition metals (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–TeO{sub 2}) can surprisingly be designed from very basic tools using topology and rigidity of their underlying molecular networks. When investigated as a function of composition, such glasses display abrupt changes in network packing and enthalpy of relaxation at T{sub g}, underscoring presence of flexible to rigid elastic phase transitions. We find that these elastic phases are fully consistent with polaronic nature of electronic conductivity at high V{sub 2}O{sub 5} content. Such observations have new implications for designing electronic glasses which differ from the traditional amorphous electrolytes having only mobile ions as charge carriers.

  9. Metallic glass coating on metals plate by adjusted explosive welding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. D.; Liu, K. X.; Chen, Q. Y.; Wang, J. T.; Yan, H. H.; Li, X. J.

    2009-09-01

    Using an adjusted explosive welding technique, an aluminum plate has been coated by a Fe-based metallic glass foil in this work. Scanning electronic micrographs reveal a defect-free metallurgical bonding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate. Experimental evidence indicates that the Fe-based metallic glass foil almost retains its amorphous state and mechanical properties after the explosive welding process. Additionally, the detailed explosive welding process has been simulated by a self-developed hydro-code and the bonding mechanism has been investigated by numerical analysis. The successful welding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate provides a new way to obtain amorphous coating on general metal substrates.

  10. Flexural Strength of Glass and Polyethylene Fiber Combined with Three Different Composites

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, F; Alavi, AA; Talei, Z

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The flexure of the fiber- reinforced composites (FRC) which can be generally used instead of fixed metal- framework prostheses have been more advocated due to the enormous demands for the conservative and esthetic restoration. The flexure of the fiber should be well-fitted to its covering composite. No study has been reported the comparison of the combination of glass and polyethylene fiber with particulate filled composite and fiber reinforced composite yet. Purpose: This study compared the flexural strength of two types of fibers combined with three types of composites. Materials and Method: Sixty-six specimens were prepared in a split mold (25×2×2 mm). The specimens were divided into six groups according to the type of resin and the fiber (N = 11): group 1: Z250 composite + Polyethylene fiber; group 2: Build It composite + Polyethylene fiber; group 3: Nulite F composite+ Polyethylene fiber; group 4: glass fiber + Z250 composite; group 5: glass fiber + Build-It composite and group 6: glass fiber + Nulite F. The mean flexural strengths (MPa) values were determined in a 3-point bending test at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min by a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany). The results were statistically analyzed, using one and two- way ANOVA and LSD post-hoc tests (p< 0.05). Results: The highest flexural strength was registered for glass fiber in combination with Z250 composite (500 MPa) and the lowest for polyethylene fiber in combination with Build-It composite (188 MPa). One-way ANOVA test revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between polyethylene fiber combinations (p= 0.62) but there was a significant difference between glass fiber combinations (p= 0.0001). Two-way ANOVA revealed that the fiber type had a significant effect on flexural strength (p= 0.0001). Conclusion: The choice of fiber and composite type was shown to have a significant positive influence on the flexural properties of the

  11. Method of joining metallic and composite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for joining a metallic member to a structure made of a composite matrix material. One or more surfaces of a portion of the metallic member that is to be joined to the composite matrix structure is provided with a plurality of outwardly projecting studs. The surface including the studs is brought into engagement with a portion of an uncured composite matrix material so that fibers of the composite matrix material intertwine with the studs, and the metallic member and composite structure form an assembly. The assembly is then companion cured so as to join the metallic member to the composite matrix material structure.

  12. Properties of a glass-ionomer/resin-composite hybrid material.

    PubMed

    Mathis, R S; Ferracane, J L

    1989-09-01

    A small percentage of the liquid resin used in commercial dental composites was added to the liquid used in a commercial glass-ionomer restorative in order to produce a fluoride-containing hybrid restorative-type material that would adhere to dentin while being stronger, less brittle, and less sensitive to desiccation in the oral cavity than glass ionomer. Compressive strength, yield strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and tensile strength were analyzed for this hybrid, light-cured material. In addition, the solubility in water, adhesion to dentin, and surface roughness were also examined in vitro. The results suggest that the early (one-hour) mechanical properties of the hybrid material exceed those of glass ionomer. In addition, the brittleness and solubility of the material are less than those of commercial glass ionomer, while adhesion to dentin is unaffected. Most importantly, surface crazing, a documented problem with some glass ionomers when they become desiccated, is alleviated with this hybrid formulation. PMID:2638281

  13. Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Chun, H. J.; Karalekas, D.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental methods were developed, adapted, and applied to the characterization of a metal matrix composite system, namely, silicon carbide/aluminim (SCS-2/6061 Al), and its constituents. The silicon carbide fiber was characterized by determining its modulus, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The aluminum matrix was characterized thermomechanically up to 399 C (750 F) at two strain rates. The unidirectional SiC/Al composite was characterized mechanically under longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear loading up to 399 C (750 F). Isothermal and non-isothermal creep behavior was also measured. The applicability of a proposed set of multifactor thermoviscoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations and a computer code was investigated. Agreement between predictions and experimental results was shown in a few cases. The elastoplastic thermomechanical behavior of the composite was also described by a number of new analytical models developed or adapted for the material system studied. These models include the rule of mixtures, composite cylinder model with various thermoelastoplastic analyses and a model based on average field theory. In most cases satisfactory agreement was demonstrated between analytical predictions and experimental results for the cases of stress-strain behavior and thermal deformation behavior at different temperatures. In addition, some models yielded detailed three-dimensional stress distributions in the constituents within the composite.

  14. Structural Anisotropy in Metallic Glasses Induced by Mechanical Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, Wojtek; Egami, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Metallic glasses have been studied vigorously since the first report on amorphous gold-silicon alloy back in 1960.[1] Initially soft magnetic properties were the most promising features for industrial applications. The recent development of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs)[2 5] initiated interests in engineering applications such as structural or biomedical materials because of attractive properties such as high strength,[6] high elasticity,[7,8] and good corrosion resistance,[9,10] among others. In addition, high temperature processing of BMGs allows for near-net-shape formability,[11 13] which could simplify and possibly reduce the cost of the final product. The glasses retain the disordered atomic structure of a liquid, and ideally are isotropic solids. Frequently because of processing conditions, such as directional heat flow, some structural anisotropy is produced during quenching, and has been observed by structural investigations. Usually, annealing at high temperatures results in an isotropic structure. Also, formation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy[14] had been observed in studies of creep deformed ferromagnetic metallic glasses. Samples with a near-zero magnetostriction coefficient had been studied to establish the origin of the magnetic anisotropy. It was concluded that anisotropy resulted from the atomic level anisotropy[15] and not the heterogeneous internal stress distribution. Indeed X-ray diffraction study of the creep deformed metallic glass showed bond anisotropy.[ 16,17] Such structural studies had been cumbersome and lengthy because they required measurement of many orientations with high statistics. Recently we have shown that use of an area detector and high energy X-rays at a synchrotron source can speed up data collection without compromising statistics.[18] In this contribution, we present data showing structural anisotropy in glassy samples after homogenous (creep) and inhomogeneous (compression) mechanical deformation. The observation of the

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seal Glass - BN Nanotubes Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.; Hurst, Janet B.; Garg, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell seal glass G18 composites reinforced with approx.4 weight percent of BN nanotubes were fabricated via hot pressing. Room temperature strength and fracture toughness of the composite were determined by four-point flexure and single edge V-notch beam methods, respectively. The strength and fracture toughness of the composite were higher by as much as 90% and 35%, respectively, than those of the glass G18. Microscopic examination of the composite fracture surfaces using SEM and TEM showed pullout of the BN nanotubes, similar in feature to fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with weak interfaces. Other mechanical and physical properties of the composite will also be presented.

  16. Graphite-Fiber-Reinforced Glass-Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Dicus, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    G/GI structural composite material made of graphite fibers embedded in borosilicate glass exhibit excellent strength, fracture toughness, and dimensional stability at elevated temperatures. It is made by passing graphite-fiber yarn through slurry containing suspension of fine glass particles in carrier liquid and winding on drum to produce prepegged uniaxial tape. After drying, tapes are cut into appropriate lengths and laid up in graphite die in desired stacking scheme. Stack is consolidated by hot pressing in furnace.

  17. Recovery of recyclable metals from waste glass melts

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, A.B.; Schreiber, H.D.

    1994-12-31

    The redox chemistries of copper and silver were determined in borosilicate glass melts representative of those to be used in nuclear waste immobilization and electronic circuit board vitrification. The recovery of these elements during waste processing depend on their solubilities, which are controlled by the Cu{sup 2+}-Cu{sup +}-Cu{sup 0} and Ag{sup +}-Ag{sup 0} redox equilibria in the melt. The copper and the silver redox equilibria operate independently without interaction in melts simultaneously containing both elements. The individual equilibria are independent of the total content of copper (to 10 wt%) and of silver (to 5 wt%) in glass. Immiscible metallic copper separates from the melt at oxygen fugacities more reducing than that required for silver metal precipitation. After settling, the metallic liquids tend to react at the melt/metal interface with the alumina container and {open_quotes}drill{close_quotes} through the container bottom under oxidizing conditions.

  18. Revealing the nanoparticles aspect ratio in the glass-metal nanocomposites irradiated with femtosecond laser

    PubMed Central

    Chervinskii, S.; Drevinskas, R.; Karpov, D. V.; Beresna, M.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Svirko, Yu. P.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    We studied a femtosecond laser shaping of silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass. Comparing experimental absorption spectra with the modeling based on Maxwell Garnett approximation modified for spheroidal inclusions, we obtained the mean aspect ratio of the re-shaped silver nanoparticles as a function of the laser fluence. We demonstrated that under our experimental conditions the spherical shape of silver nanoparticles changed to a prolate spheroid with the aspect ratio as high as 3.5 at the laser fluence of 0.6 J/cm2. The developed approach can be employed to control the anisotropy of the glass-metal composites. PMID:26348691

  19. Revealing the nanoparticles aspect ratio in the glass-metal nanocomposites irradiated with femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervinskii, S.; Drevinskas, R.; Karpov, D. V.; Beresna, M.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Svirko, Yu. P.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2015-09-01

    We studied a femtosecond laser shaping of silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass. Comparing experimental absorption spectra with the modeling based on Maxwell Garnett approximation modified for spheroidal inclusions, we obtained the mean aspect ratio of the re-shaped silver nanoparticles as a function of the laser fluence. We demonstrated that under our experimental conditions the spherical shape of silver nanoparticles changed to a prolate spheroid with the aspect ratio as high as 3.5 at the laser fluence of 0.6 J/cm2. The developed approach can be employed to control the anisotropy of the glass-metal composites.

  20. Revealing the nanoparticles aspect ratio in the glass-metal nanocomposites irradiated with femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Chervinskii, S; Drevinskas, R; Karpov, D V; Beresna, M; Lipovskii, A A; Svirko, Yu P; Kazansky, P G

    2015-01-01

    We studied a femtosecond laser shaping of silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass. Comparing experimental absorption spectra with the modeling based on Maxwell Garnett approximation modified for spheroidal inclusions, we obtained the mean aspect ratio of the re-shaped silver nanoparticles as a function of the laser fluence. We demonstrated that under our experimental conditions the spherical shape of silver nanoparticles changed to a prolate spheroid with the aspect ratio as high as 3.5 at the laser fluence of 0.6 J/cm2. The developed approach can be employed to control the anisotropy of the glass-metal composites. PMID:26348691

  1. Model vapor-deposited glasses: Growth front and composition effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimov, Ivan; Ediger, M. D.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2013-10-01

    A growing body of experimental work indicates that physical vapor deposition provides an effective route for preparation of stable glasses, whose properties correspond in some cases to those expected for glasses that have been aged for thousands of years. In this work, model binary glasses are prepared in a process inspired by physical vapor deposition, in which particles are sequentially added to the free surface of a growing film in molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting glasses are shown to be more stable than those prepared by gradual cooling from the liquid phase. However, it is also shown that the composition of the resulting glass, which is difficult to control in physical vapor deposition simulations of thin films, plays a significant role on the physical characteristics of the material. That composition dependence leads to a re-evaluation of previous results from simulations of thinner films than those considered here, where the equivalent age of the corresponding glasses was overestimated. The simulations presented in this work, which correspond to films that are approximately 38 molecular diameters thick, also enable analysis of the devitrification mechanism by which vapor-deposited glasses transform into the supercooled liquid. Consistent with experiments, it is found that this mechanism consists of a mobility front that propagates from the free interface into the interior of the films. Eliminating surface mobility eliminates this route of transformation into the supercooled liquid.

  2. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A broad group of fibers and matrices were combined to create a wide range of composite properties. Primary material fabrication procedures were developed which readily permit the fabrication of flat plate and shaped composites. Composite mechanical properties were measured under a wide range of test conditions. Tensile, flexure mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance were evaluated. Selected fiber-matrix combinations were shown to maintain their strength at up to 1300 K when tested in an inert atmosphere. Composite high temperature mechanical properties were shown to be limited primarily by the oxidation resistance of the graphite fibers. Composite thermal dimensional stability was measured and found to be excellent.

  3. Phase transformations and thermodynamics of aluminum-based metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changhua (Michael)

    This thesis examines the thermodynamics and associated kinetics and phase transformations of the glass forming Al-Ni-Gd and Al-Fe-Gd systems. In order to fully understand the unique glass forming ability (GFA) of Al-based metallic glasses, the ternary Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems in their Al-rich corners were examined experimentally to assist in a thermodynamic assessment. The solid-state phase equilibria are determined using XRD and TEM-EDS techniques. While this work basically confirms the solid-state equilibria in Al-Fe-Gd reported previously, the ternary phase in Al-Ni-Gd system has been identified to be Al15Ni3Gd2 rather than Al16Ni 3Gd reported in the literature. DTA analysis of 24 alloys in the Al-Fe-Gd system and 42 alloys in the Al-Ni-Gd system have yielded critical temperatures pertaining to the solid-liquid transition. Based on these data and information from the literature, a self-consistent thermodynamic database for these systems has been developed using the CALPHAD technique. Parameters describing the Gibbs free energy for various phases of the Al-Gd, Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems are manually optimized in this study. Once constructed, the database is used to calculate driving forces for nucleation of crystalline phases which can qualitatively explain the phase formation sequence during crystallization at low temperatures. It was also confirmed that alloy compositions with the lowest Gibbs free energy difference between the equilibrium state and undercooled liquid state exhibit better GFA than other chemistries. Based on 250°C isothermal devitrification phase transformations of 17 Al-Ni-Gd alloys, a phase formation sequence map is constructed. Fcc-Al nanocrystals are formed first in most of the alloys studied, but eutectic crystallization of a metastable phase and fcc-Al is also observed. Addition of Al or Ni promotes fcc-Al phase formation, while increasing Gd suppresses it. The continuous heating DSC scans revealed that crystallization in Al

  4. Soldering of Thin Film-Metallized Glass Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.; Glass, S.J.

    1999-03-31

    The ability to produce reliable electrical and structural interconnections between glass and metals by soldering was investigated. Soldering generally requires premetallization of the glass. As a solderable surface finish over soda-lime-silicate glass, two thin films coatings, Cr-Pd-Au and NiCr-Sn, were evaluated. Solder nettability and joint strengths were determined. Test samples were processed with Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy at a reflow temperature of 210 C. Glass-to-cold rolled steel single lap samples yielded an average shear strength of 12 MPa. Solder fill was good. Control of the Au thickness was critical in minimizing the formation of AuSn{sub 4} intermetallic in the joint, with a resulting joint shear strength of 15 MPa. Similar glass-to-glass specimens with the Cr-Pd-Au finish failed at 16.5 MPa. The NiCr-Sn thin film gave even higher shear strengths of 20-22.5 MPa, with failures primarily in the glass.

  5. Diffusion between glass and metals for optical fiber preform extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Felicia Yan Xin; Zhang, Zhifeng; Kumar Chakkathara Janardhanan Nair, Dileep; Zhang, Yilei

    2015-07-01

    When silica is extruded, diffusion of metal atoms into silica results contamination to the silica being heated, and thus is a serious concern for the glass extrusion process, such as extrusion of glass fiber preform. This paper examines diffusion between fused silica and two high strength metals, the stainless steel SS410 and the superalloy Inconel 718, at 1000 °C and under the normal atmosphere condition by SEM and Electron Dispersion Spectrum. It is found that diffusion occurs between silica and SS410, and at the same time, SS410 is severely oxidized during diffusion experiment. On the contrary, the diffusion between Inconel 718 and silica is unnoticeable, suggesting excellent high temperature performance of Inconel 718 for glass extrusion.

  6. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminium oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  7. The Critical Criterion on Runaway Shear Banding in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, B. A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The plastic flow of metallic glasses (MGs) in bulk is mediated by nanoscale shear bands, which is known to proceed in a stick-slip manner until reaching a transition state causing catastrophic failures. Such a slip-to-failure transition controls the plasticity of MGs and resembles many important phenomena in natural science and engineering, such as friction, lubrication and earthquake, therefore has attracted tremendous research interest over past decades. However, despite the fundamental and practical importance, the physical origin of this slip-to-failure transition is still poorly understood. By tracking the behavior of a single shear band, here we discover that the final fracture of various MGs during compression is triggered as the velocity of the dominant shear band rises to a critical value, the magnitude of which is independent of alloy composition, sample size, strain rate and testing frame stiffness. The critical shear band velocity is rationalized with the continuum theory of liquid instability, physically originating from a shear-induced cavitation process inside the shear band. Our current finding sheds a quantitative insight into deformation and fracture in disordered solids and, more importantly, is useful to the design of plastic/tough MG-based materials and structures. PMID:26893196

  8. The Critical Criterion on Runaway Shear Banding in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, B. A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The plastic flow of metallic glasses (MGs) in bulk is mediated by nanoscale shear bands, which is known to proceed in a stick-slip manner until reaching a transition state causing catastrophic failures. Such a slip-to-failure transition controls the plasticity of MGs and resembles many important phenomena in natural science and engineering, such as friction, lubrication and earthquake, therefore has attracted tremendous research interest over past decades. However, despite the fundamental and practical importance, the physical origin of this slip-to-failure transition is still poorly understood. By tracking the behavior of a single shear band, here we discover that the final fracture of various MGs during compression is triggered as the velocity of the dominant shear band rises to a critical value, the magnitude of which is independent of alloy composition, sample size, strain rate and testing frame stiffness. The critical shear band velocity is rationalized with the continuum theory of liquid instability, physically originating from a shear-induced cavitation process inside the shear band. Our current finding sheds a quantitative insight into deformation and fracture in disordered solids and, more importantly, is useful to the design of plastic/tough MG-based materials and structures.

  9. The Critical Criterion on Runaway Shear Banding in Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Sun, B A; Yang, Y; Wang, W H; Liu, C T

    2016-01-01

    The plastic flow of metallic glasses (MGs) in bulk is mediated by nanoscale shear bands, which is known to proceed in a stick-slip manner until reaching a transition state causing catastrophic failures. Such a slip-to-failure transition controls the plasticity of MGs and resembles many important phenomena in natural science and engineering, such as friction, lubrication and earthquake, therefore has attracted tremendous research interest over past decades. However, despite the fundamental and practical importance, the physical origin of this slip-to-failure transition is still poorly understood. By tracking the behavior of a single shear band, here we discover that the final fracture of various MGs during compression is triggered as the velocity of the dominant shear band rises to a critical value, the magnitude of which is independent of alloy composition, sample size, strain rate and testing frame stiffness. The critical shear band velocity is rationalized with the continuum theory of liquid instability, physically originating from a shear-induced cavitation process inside the shear band. Our current finding sheds a quantitative insight into deformation and fracture in disordered solids and, more importantly, is useful to the design of plastic/tough MG-based materials and structures. PMID:26893196

  10. Universal fractional noncubic power law for density of metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiaoshi; Kono, Yoshio; Lin, Yu; Zeng, Zhidan; Wang, Junyue; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V; Park, Changyong; Meng, Yue; Yang, Wenge; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Mao, Wendy L

    2014-05-01

    As a fundamental property of a material, density is controlled by the interatomic distances and the packing of microscopic constituents. The most prominent atomistic feature in a metallic glass (MG) that can be measured is its principal diffraction peak position (q1) observable by x-ray, electron, or neutron diffraction, which is closely associated with the average interatomic distance in the first shell. Density (and volume) would naturally be expected to vary under compression in proportion to the cube of the one-dimensional interatomic distance. However, by using high pressure as a clean tuning parameter and high-resolution in situ techniques developed specifically for probing the density of amorphous materials, we surprisingly found that the density of a MG varies with the 5/2 power of q1, instead of the expected cubic relationship. Further studies of MGs of different compositions repeatedly produced the same fractional power law of 5/2 in all three MGs we investigated, suggesting a universal feature in MG. PMID:24856706

  11. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminum oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  12. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals metals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Day, Delbert E.

    1991-01-01

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  13. Homogeneity and structure of CuZrAlY metallic glass ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetić, A. Salčinović; Selimović, A.; Fakić, B.; Hrvat, K.; Djekić, M.

    2016-03-01

    Metallic glasses are metastable amorphous structures produced by quenching-rapid cooling technique. Due to very high cooling rates during the production process, it is very difficult to produce homogeneous samples with identical chemical composition. In this paper we will present preliminary results of homogeneity and structure examinations of a CuZrAlY metallic glass ribbon. The ribbon, approximately 1.5 m long and 1 mm wide, was produced using melt spinning technique. Samples from the middle and the end of the ribbon were chosen for further examination. Surface was checked by metallographic and electron scanning microscopy. Chemical composition in different areas of each sample was checked by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity measurements in the temperature range from 80 K to 280 K were also conducted.

  14. Correlation between dynamic flow and thermodynamic glass transition in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, H. B.; Wen, P.; Zhao, D. Q.; Wang, W. H.

    2010-06-01

    We report the values of steps of heat capacity (ΔCp) during the glass transition in a variety of metallic glasses (MGs). It is found that ΔCp is around 13.69 J mol-1 K-1 and almost invariable for the MGs. Based on the Eyring's theory [N. Hirai and H. Eyring, J. Polym. Sci. 37, 51 (1959)], the phenomenon corresponds to a critical reduced free volume value. This exhibits that the glass transition takes place when the reduced free volume approaches to ˜2.35% in the MG systems. The value, consistent with that of the yielding of MGs, confirms that temperature and stress are equivalent for fluidizing MGs. Our results give an implication to understanding the glass transition in MGs as a Lindemann-type melting behavior [F. A. Lindemann, Z. Phys. 11, 609 (1910)].

  15. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthi, M.; Gupta, M.; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Tan, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.

  16. Structural anisotropy in metallic glasses induced by mechanical deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, W.; Egami, T.

    2009-03-06

    We observed structural anisotropy in metallic glasses samples deformed by homogenous mechanical creep and by inhomogeneous compression using high energy X-ray diffraction. Pair distribution function analysis indicates bond anisotropy in the first atomic shell. This suggests that mechanical deformation involves rearrangements in a cluster of atoms by a bond reformation.

  17. Brittle-to-Ductile Transition in Metallic Glass Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Şopu, D; Foroughi, A; Stoica, M; Eckert, J

    2016-07-13

    When reducing the size of metallic glass samples down to the nanoscale regime, experimental studies on the plasticity under uniaxial tension show a wide range of failure modes ranging from brittle to ductile ones. Simulations on the deformation behavior of nanoscaled metallic glasses report an unusual extended strain softening and are not able to reproduce the brittle-like fracture deformation as found in experiments. Using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations we provide an atomistic understanding of the deformation mechanisms of metallic glass nanowires and differentiate the extrinsic size effects and aspect ratio contribution to plasticity. A model for predicting the critical nanowire aspect ratio for the ductile-to-brittle transition is developed. Furthermore, the structure of brittle nanowires can be tuned to a softer phase characterized by a defective short-range order and an excess free volume upon systematic structural rejuvenation, leading to enhanced tensile ductility. The presented results shed light on the fundamental deformation mechanisms of nanoscaled metallic glasses and demarcate ductile and catastrophic failure. PMID:27248329

  18. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shanthi, M.; Gupta, M.; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Tan, M. J.

    2011-01-17

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.

  19. Design Guide for glass fiber reinforced metal pressure vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design Guide has been prepared for pressure vessel engineers concerned with specific glass fiber reinforced metal tank design or general tank tradeoff study. Design philosophy, general equations, and curves are provided for safelife design of tanks operating under anticipated space shuttle service conditions.

  20. Shock Interaction Studies on Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. P. J.; Jagadeesh, G.; Jayaram, V.; Reddy, B. Harinath; Madhu, V.; Reddy, C. Jaya Rami

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites are being extensively used for structural applications both in civil and defense sectors, owing to their high specific strength, stiffness and good energy absorbing capability. Understanding the dynamic response of these composites on shock loading is very essential for effective design of structures resistant to blast loads. In the present study, E- glass/epoxy composite laminate has been fabricated and evaluated for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Further, dynamic response of E-glass laminates is presently studied by shock loading. When E-glass composite subjected to peak shock reflected pressure of 7.2 MPa and estimated temperature of about 14000 K for short duration, it underwent surface discolorations and charring of epoxy matrix. Post test analysis of the composite sample was carried out to study the damage analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), changes in thermal properties of composites using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The results of these investigations are discussed in this paper.

  1. Thermal-expansion hysteresis in graphite/glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Janas, V.F.

    1988-07-01

    The thermal-expansion hysteresis phenomena in graphite/glass composites was studied. Neat (unfilled) glass and unidirectional composites showed no observable hysteresis, while (0/90) cross-ply composites showed significant residual thermal strain (approx. 20 PPM) after thermal cycling (25 ..-->.. 150 ..-->.. 25/sup 0/C). Multiple thermal cycling of the composite and the strengthening of the fiber/matrix bond were found to greatly reduce the magnitude of the residual thermal strain. Bond strengthening also weakened and embrittled the composite, supporting a fiber-slippage mechanism for hysteresis. Thermal precycling and interface modification are proposed as methods of diminishing the effects of thermal-expansion hysteresis. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Guided Evolution of Bulk Metallic Glass Nanostructures: A Platform for Designing 3D Electrocatalytic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; Bordeenithikasem, Punnathat; Kinser, Emily; Liu, Yanhui; Tong, Xiao; Osuji, Chinedum O; Schroers, Jan; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Taylor, André D

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical devices such as fuel cells, electrolyzers, lithium-air batteries, and pseudocapacitors are expected to play a major role in energy conversion/storage in the near future. Here, it is demonstrated how desirable bulk metallic glass compositions can be obtained using a combinatorial approach and it is shown that these alloys can serve as a platform technology for a wide variety of electrochemical applications through several surface modification techniques. PMID:26689722

  3. Effect of glass composition on activation energy of viscosity in glass-melting-temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Han, Sang Soo

    2012-08-01

    In the high-temperature range, where the viscosity (Eta) of molten glass is <10{sup 3} Pa s, the activation energy (B) is virtually ln(Eta) = A + B/T, is nearly independent of melt composition. Hence, the viscosity-composition relationship for Eta < 10{sup 3} Pa s is defined by B as a function of composition. Using a database encompassing over 1300 compositions of high-level waste glasses with nearly 7000 viscosity data, we developed mathematical models for B(x), where x is the composition vector in terms of mass fractions of components. In this paper, we present 13 versions of B(x) as first- and second-order polynomials with coefficients for 15 to 39 components, including Others, a component that sums constituents having little effect on viscosity.

  4. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294-328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment. PMID:26902824

  5. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Rajan, Senthilperumal Thanka

    2015-01-01

    Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) of approximately 1.5 μm and 3 μm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature. PMID:26491304

  6. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-02-01

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294-328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment.

  7. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294–328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment. PMID:26902824

  8. High-temperature testing of glass/ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, John F.; Grande, Dodd H.; Dannemann, Kathryn A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in ceramic and other high-temperature composites have created a need for test methods that can be used at 1000 C and above. Present test methods usually require adhesively bonded tabs that cannot be used at high temperatures. This paper discusses some of the difficulties with high-temperature test development and describes several promising test methods. Stress-strain data are given for Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites tested in air at temperatures up to 1000 C.

  9. Metallic glass ingots based on yttrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Faqiang; Poon, S. Joseph; Shiflet, Gary J.

    2003-09-01

    We report a family of yttrium metallic alloys that are able to form glassy ingots directly from the liquid, as well as forming bulk-sized amorphous rods with diameters over 2 cm by water cooling of the alloy melt sealed in quartz tubes. It is apparent that, in addition to the strong chemical interaction among the components, the simultaneous occurrence of well-distributed atom sizes and a strongly depressed liquidus temperature in multicomponent metallic alloys is responsible for the formation of glassy ingots.

  10. Microstructure of Fragile Metallic Glasses Inferred from Ultrasound-Accelerated Crystallization in Pd-Based Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichitsubo, T.; Matsubara, E.; Yamamoto, T.; Chen, H. S.; Nishiyama, N.; Saida, J.; Anazawa, K.

    2005-12-01

    By utilizing ultrasonic annealing at a temperature below (or near) the glass transition temperature Tg, we revealed a microstructural pattern of a partially crystallized Pd-based metallic glass with a high-resolution electron microscopy. On the basis of the observed microstructure, we inferred a plausible microstructural model of fragile metallic glasses composed of strongly bonded regions surrounded by weakly bonded regions (WBRs). The crystallization in WBRs at such a low temperature under the ultrasonic vibrations is caused by accumulation of atomic jumps associated with the β relaxation being resonant with the ultrasonic strains. This microstructural model successfully illustrates a marked increase of elasticity after crystallization with a small density change and a correlation between the fragility of the liquid and the Poisson ratio of the solid.

  11. Near-net-shape processing of metal-ceramic composites by reactive metal penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, W.G.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Ellerby, D.T.; Loehman, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    Metal-ceramic composites were made to near-net shape by reacting phase-pure mullite and mullite-glass preforms with molten Al using a reactive metal penetration process. Conversion of the two ceramic preforms to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al composites was accompanied by a 0.32% volume expansion and a 1.42% volume shrinkage, respectively. Molar volume and density calculations made assuming a net-shape reaction estimate {approximately}17 and {approximately}27 vol% Al to be present in the two composites after reaction. Results from quantitative stereology measurements used to quantify the concentration of metal in the reactively formed composites validate the calculations.

  12. Microscopic insight into the origin of enhanced glass-forming ability of metallic melts on micro-alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. J.; Podlesnyak, A.; Mamontov, E.; Wang, W. H.; Chathoth, S. M.

    2015-09-28

    We've made extensive efforts to develop metallic-glasses with large casting diameter. Such efforts were hindered by the poor understanding of glass formation mechanisms and the origin of the glass-forming ability (GFA) in metallic glass-forming systems. We have investigated relaxation dynamics of a model bulk glass-forming alloy system that shows the enhanced at first and then diminished GFA on increasing the percentage of micro-alloying. The micro-alloying did not have any significant impact on the thermodynamic properties. The GFA increasing on micro-alloying in this system cannot be explained by the present theoretical knowledge. Finally, our results indicate that atomic caging is the primary factor that influences the GFA. The composition dependence of the atomic caging time or residence time is found to be well correlated with GFA of the system.

  13. Microscopic insight into the origin of enhanced glass-forming ability of metallic melts on micro-alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. J.; Podlesnyak, A.; Mamontov, E.; Wang, W. H.; Chathoth, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to develop metallic-glasses with large casting diameter. Such efforts were hindered by the poor understanding of glass formation mechanisms and the origin of the glass-forming ability (GFA) in metallic glass-forming systems. In this work, we have investigated relaxation dynamics of a model bulk glass-forming alloy system that shows the enhanced at first and then diminished GFA on increasing the percentage of micro-alloying. The micro-alloying did not have any significant impact on the thermodynamic properties. The GFA increasing on micro-alloying in this system cannot be explained by the present theoretical knowledge. Our results indicate that atomic caging is the primary factor that influences the GFA. The composition dependence of the atomic caging time or residence time is found to be well correlated with GFA of the system.

  14. Microscopic insight into the origin of enhanced glass-forming ability of metallic melts on micro-alloying

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, C. J.; Podlesnyak, A.; Mamontov, E.; Wang, W. H.; Chathoth, S. M.

    2015-09-28

    We've made extensive efforts to develop metallic-glasses with large casting diameter. Such efforts were hindered by the poor understanding of glass formation mechanisms and the origin of the glass-forming ability (GFA) in metallic glass-forming systems. We have investigated relaxation dynamics of a model bulk glass-forming alloy system that shows the enhanced at first and then diminished GFA on increasing the percentage of micro-alloying. The micro-alloying did not have any significant impact on the thermodynamic properties. The GFA increasing on micro-alloying in this system cannot be explained by the present theoretical knowledge. Finally, our results indicate that atomic caging is themore » primary factor that influences the GFA. The composition dependence of the atomic caging time or residence time is found to be well correlated with GFA of the system.« less

  15. Microscopic insight into the origin of enhanced glass-forming ability of metallic melts on micro-alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. J.; Chathoth, S. M.; Podlesnyak, A.; Mamontov, E.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-09-28

    Extensive efforts have been made to develop metallic-glasses with large casting diameter. Such efforts were hindered by the poor understanding of glass formation mechanisms and the origin of the glass-forming ability (GFA) in metallic glass-forming systems. In this work, we have investigated relaxation dynamics of a model bulk glass-forming alloy system that shows the enhanced at first and then diminished GFA on increasing the percentage of micro-alloying. The micro-alloying did not have any significant impact on the thermodynamic properties. The GFA increasing on micro-alloying in this system cannot be explained by the present theoretical knowledge. Our results indicate that atomic caging is the primary factor that influences the GFA. The composition dependence of the atomic caging time or residence time is found to be well correlated with GFA of the system.

  16. Composition and property measurements for PHA Phase 4 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.B.

    2000-01-25

    The results presented in this report are for nine Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) Phase 4 glasses. Three of the glasses contained HM sludge at 22, 26, and 30 wt% respectively, 10 wt% PHA and 1.25 wt% monosodium titanate (MST), all on an oxide basis. The remaining six glasses were selected from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies (Purex sludge) but with an increased amount of MST. The high-end target for MST of 2.5 wt% oxide was missed in Phases 1 and 2 due to {approximately}30 wt% water content of the MST. A goal of this Phase 4 study was to determine whether this increase in titanium concentration from the MST had any impact on glass quality or processibility. Two of the glasses, pha14c and pha15c, were rebatched and melted due to apparent batching errors with pha14 and pha15. The models currently in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) were used to predict durability, homogeneity, liquidus, and viscosity for these nine glasses. All of the HM glasses and half of the Purex glasses were predicted to be phase separated, and consequently prediction of glass durability is precluded with the cument models for those glasses that failed the homogeneity constraint. If one may ignore the homogeneity constraint, the measured durabilities were within the 95% prediction limits of the model. Further efforts will be required to resolve this issue on phase separation (inhomogeneity). The liquidus model predicted unacceptable liquidus temperatures for four of the nine glasses. The approximate, bounding liquidus temperatures measured for all had upper limits of 1,000 C or less. Given the fact that liquidus temperatures were only approximated, the 30 wt% loading of Purex may be near or at the edge of acceptability for liquidus. The measured viscosities were close to the predictions of the model. For the Purex glasses, pha12c and pha15c, the measured viscosities of 28 and 23 poise, respectively, indicate that DWPF processing may be

  17. High thermal stability and sluggish crystallization kinetics of high-entropy bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Liu, X. J.; Ruan, H. H.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.; Lu, Z. P.

    2016-06-01

    Metallic glasses are metastable and their thermal stability is critical for practical applications, particularly at elevated temperatures. The conventional bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), though exhibiting high glass-forming ability (GFA), crystallize quickly when being heated to a temperature higher than their glass transition temperature. This problem may potentially be alleviated due to the recent developments of high-entropy (or multi-principle-element) bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs). In this work, we demonstrate that typical HE-BMGs, i.e., ZrTiHfCuNiBe and ZrTiCuNiBe, have higher kinetic stability, as compared with the benchmark glass Vitreoy1 (Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5) with a similar chemical composition. The measured activation energy for glass transition and crystallization of the HE-BMGs is nearly twice that of Vitreloy 1. Moreover, the sluggish crystallization region ΔTpl-pf, defined as the temperature span between the last exothermic crystallization peak temperature Tpl and the first crystallization exothermic peak temperature Tpf, of all the HE-BMGs is much wider than that of Vitreloy 1. In addition, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization of the crystallized products at different temperatures and the continuous heating transformation diagram which is proposed to estimate the lifetime at any temperature below the melting point further confirm high thermal stability of the HE-BMGs. Surprisingly, all the HE-BMGs show a small fragility value, which contradicts with their low GFA, suggesting that the underlying diffusion mechanism in the liquid and the solid of HE-BMGs is different.

  18. Tomographic Imaging of Glass/Epoxy Composite with a Laser Based Ultrasonics Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, N.; Raghuram, V.; Munshi, P.; Kishore, N. N.; Arnold, W.

    2008-09-26

    The present work is an attempt to augment the classical laser-based-ultrasonics setup for tomographic imaging purposes. A Glass/epoxy composite with steel insert is the test specimen and time-of-flight data has been used for tomographic reconstruction. Multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique is used for this limited-view experiment. The resulting image is able to bring out the strong metal features.

  19. Non-toxic invert analog glass compositions of high modulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi are described. They and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consist essentially of, in mols, 15 to 40% SiO2, 6 to 15% Li2O, 24 to 45% of at least two bivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Ca, NzO, MgO and CuO; 13 to 39% of at least two trivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, La2O3, and Y2O3 and up to 15% of one or more tetravelent oxides selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2. The high modulus, low density glass compositions contain no toxic elements. The composition, glass density, Young's modulus, and specific modulus for 28 representative glasses are presented. The fiber modulus of five glasses are given.

  20. Optimization of glass composition for the vitrification of nuclear waste at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, P D; Roberts, G J; Lightner, L F; Walker, D D; Plodinec, M J

    1982-01-01

    Waste glasses of different compositions were compared in terms of leachability, viscosity, liquidus temperature, and coefficient of expansion. The compositions of the glasses were determined by statistical optimization. Waste glass of the optimized composition is more durable than the current reference composition but can still be processed at low temperature.

  1. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components. PMID:27471073

  2. New Alloy for Glass-to-Metal Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmuck, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Coefficient of thermal expansion approximates that of glass more closely. Alloy composed of about 60 percent iron, 40 percent nickel, and traces of six other elements. Developed as replacement for Kovar Fe/Ni/Co alloy in ferrule-and-tube assembly, new alloy has same strength, solderability, and compatibility with fuel as does Kovar. Used in glass-to-metal seals without excessive residual stresses. Potential for other applications in which low thermal expansion important; mechanical measuring devices and precise sliding parts that must function over wide temperature ranges.

  3. Memory Effect Manifested by a Boson Peak in Metallic Glass.

    PubMed

    Luo, P; Li, Y Z; Bai, H Y; Wen, P; Wang, W H

    2016-04-29

    We explore the correlation between a boson peak and structural relaxation in a typical metallic glass. Consistent with enthalpy recovery, a boson peak shows a memory effect in an aging-and-scan procedure. Single-step isothermal aging produces a monotonic decrease of enthalpy and boson peak intensity; for double-step isothermal aging, both enthalpy and boson peak intensity experience, coincidently, an incipient increase to a maximum and a subsequent decrease toward the equilibrium state. Our results indicate a direct link between slow structural relaxation and fast boson peak dynamics, which presents a profound understanding of the two dynamic behaviors in glass. PMID:27176528

  4. Optical response of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass

    SciTech Connect

    Burchianti, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Bogi, A; Marmugi, L; Giomi, S; Maccari, M; Veronesi, S; Moi, L

    2014-03-28

    We study the influence of optical radiation on adsorption and desorption processes of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass matrices. Exposure of the sample to near-IR or visible light changes the atomic distribution inside the glass nanopores, forcing the entire system to evolve towards a different state. This effect, due to both atomic photodesorption and confinement, causes the growth and evaporation of metastable nanoparticles. It is shown that, by a proper choice of light characteristics and pore size, these processes can be controlled and tailored, thus opening new perspectives for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces. (nanoobjects)

  5. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components. PMID:27471073

  6. Memory Effect Manifested by a Boson Peak in Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, P.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wen, P.; Wang, W. H.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the correlation between a boson peak and structural relaxation in a typical metallic glass. Consistent with enthalpy recovery, a boson peak shows a memory effect in an aging-and-scan procedure. Single-step isothermal aging produces a monotonic decrease of enthalpy and boson peak intensity; for double-step isothermal aging, both enthalpy and boson peak intensity experience, coincidently, an incipient increase to a maximum and a subsequent decrease toward the equilibrium state. Our results indicate a direct link between slow structural relaxation and fast boson peak dynamics, which presents a profound understanding of the two dynamic behaviors in glass.

  7. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  8. Melting, solidification, remelting, and separation of glass and metal

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.; Xin, R.C.; Liu, Y.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Several high-temperature vitrification technologies have been developed for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level waste and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories currently in storage at DOE sites throughout the nation. The products of these processes are an oxide slag phase and a reduced metal phase. The metal phase has the potential to be recycled within the DOE Complex. Enhanced slag/metal separation methods are needed to support these processes. This research project involves an experimental investigation of the melting, solidification, remelting, and separation of glass and metal and the development of an efficient separation technology. The ultimate goal of this project is to find an efficient way to separate the slag phase from the metal phase in the molten state. This two-year project commenced in October 1995 (FY96). In the first fiscal year, the following tasks were accomplished: (1) A literature review and an assessment of the baseline glass and metal separation technologies were performed. The results indicated that the baseline technology yields a high percentage of glass in the metal phase, requiring further separation. (2) The main melting and solidification system setup was established. A number of melting and solidification tests were conducted. (3) Temperature distribution, solidification patterns, and flow field in the molten metal pool were simulated numerically for the solidification processes of molten aluminum and iron steel. (4) Initial designs of the laboratory-scale DCS and CS technologies were also completed. The principal demonstration separation units were constructed. (5) An application for a patent for an innovative liquid-liquid separation technology was submitted and is pending.

  9. Apollo 15 green glass - Relationships between texture and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Alison M.

    1992-01-01

    A suite of 365 Apollo 15 green-glass particles was analyzed by INAA and then described petrographically so that comparisons between composition and physical characteristics could be made. Nonuniform compositional distributions of crystalline and elongate particles were evident, although differences in the distribution of volatile-element coatings and extent of particle breakage were not as striking. A binomial evaluation of these textures on an intergroup basis supports the previously proposed hypothesis that the green-glass groups formed during discrete eruptive events because the groups that were defined compositionally also show significant differences in the average texture and structure of particles. Furthermore, in at least one case (Group D), intragroup differences in the distribution of vitrophyric and vitric particles were apparent. An extension of previous models for pyroclastic volcanism suggests that this feature may indicate that a systematic change in the composition of ejecta occurred as eruption progressed.

  10. Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites: mechanical properties and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Anesi, Alexandre; Salvatori, Roberta; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue repair and regeneration have been produced and discussed. The use of a recently developed glass, namely BG_Ca/Mix, with its low tendency to crystallize, allowed one to sinter the samples at a relatively low temperature thus avoiding several adverse effects usually reported in the literature, such as extensive crystallization of the glassy phase, hydroxyapatite (HA) decomposition and reaction between HA and glass. The mechanical properties of the composites with 80wt.% BG_Ca/Mix and 20wt.% HA are sensibly higher than those of Bioglass® 45S5 reference samples due to the presence of HA (mechanically stronger than the 45S5 glass) and to the thermal behaviour of the BG_Ca/Mix, which is able to favour the sintering process of the composites. Biocompatibility tests, performed with murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 and osteocites MLO-Y4 throughout a multi-parametrical approach, allow one to look with optimism to the produced composites, since both the samples themselves and their extracts do not induce negative effects in cell viability and do not cause inhibition in cell growth. PMID:25842126

  11. Bioactive glass/ZrO2 composites for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-02-01

    Binary biocomposites were realized by combining yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) with a bioactive glass matrix. Few works are available regarding composites containing zirconia and a relatively high content of glass because the resulting samples are usually biocompatible but not bioactive after thermal treatment. In the present research, the promising properties of the new BG_Ca-K glass, with its low tendency to crystallize and high apatite-forming ability, allowed us to sinter the composites at a relatively low temperature with excellent effects in terms of bioactivity. In addition, it was possible to benefit from the good mechanical behaviour of Y-TZP, thus obtaining samples with microhardness values that were among the highest reported in the literature. After a detailed analysis regarding the thermal behaviour of the composite powders, the sintered bodies were fully characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, SEM equipped with EDS, density measurements, volumetric shrinkage determination, mechanical testing and in vitro evaluation in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. According to the experimental results, the presence of Y-TZP improved the mechanical performance. Meanwhile, the BG_Ca-K glass, which mainly preserved its amorphous structure after sintering, provided the composites with a good apatite-forming ability in SBF. PMID:24343516

  12. Vitrified metal finishing wastes I. Composition, density and chemical durability.

    PubMed

    Bingham, P A; Hand, R J

    2005-03-17

    Durable phosphate glasses were formed by vitrifying waste filter cakes from two metal finishing operations. Some melts formed crystalline components during cooling. Compositional analysis of dried, heat treated and vitrified samples was made using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy and Leco induction furnace combustion analysis. Hydrolytic dissolution, measured by an adapted product consistency test, was reduced by up to 3 orders of magnitude upon heat treatment or vitrification, surpassing the performance of borosilicate glass in some cases. This was attributed to the high levels of iron and zinc in the wastes, which greatly improve the durability of phosphate glasses. One of the wastes arose from a metal phosphating process and was particularly suitable for vitrification due to its high P2O5 content and favourable melting behaviour. The other waste, which arose from a number of processes, was less suitable as it had a low P2O5 content and during heating it emitted harmful corrosive gases and underwent violent reactions. Substantial volume reductions were obtained by heat treatment and vitrification of both wastes. Compositions and performances of some vitrified wastes were comparable with those of glasses which are under consideration for the immobilisation of toxic and nuclear wastes. PMID:15752857

  13. Structural disorder in metallic glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shao-Peng; Feng, Shi-Dong; Wang, Li-Min; Qiao, Jun-Wei; Niu, Xiao-Feng; Dong, Bang-Shao; Wang, Wei-Min; Qin, Jing-Yu

    2016-06-01

    We investigated structural disorder by a new structural parameter, quasi-nearest atom (QNA), in atomistic configurations of eight metallic glass-forming systems generated through molecular dynamics simulations at various temperatures. Structural analysis reveals that the scaled distribution of the number of QNA appears to be an universal property of metallic liquids and the spatial distribution of the number of QNA displays to be clearly heterogeneous. Furthermore, the new parameter can be directly correlated with potential energy and structural relaxation at the atomic level. Some straightforward relationships between QNA and other properties (per-atom potential energy and α-relaxation time) are introduced to reflect structure-property relationship in metallic liquids. We believe that the new structural parameter can well reflect structure disorder in metallic liquids and play an important role in understanding various properties in metallic liquids.

  14. Structural disorder in metallic glass-forming liquids

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shao-Peng; Feng, Shi-Dong; Wang, Li-Min; Qiao, Jun-Wei; Niu, Xiao-Feng; Dong, Bang-Shao; Wang, Wei-Min; Qin, Jing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated structural disorder by a new structural parameter, quasi-nearest atom (QNA), in atomistic configurations of eight metallic glass-forming systems generated through molecular dynamics simulations at various temperatures. Structural analysis reveals that the scaled distribution of the number of QNA appears to be an universal property of metallic liquids and the spatial distribution of the number of QNA displays to be clearly heterogeneous. Furthermore, the new parameter can be directly correlated with potential energy and structural relaxation at the atomic level. Some straightforward relationships between QNA and other properties (per-atom potential energy and α-relaxation time) are introduced to reflect structure-property relationship in metallic liquids. We believe that the new structural parameter can well reflect structure disorder in metallic liquids and play an important role in understanding various properties in metallic liquids. PMID:27278113

  15. Structural disorder in metallic glass-forming liquids.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shao-Peng; Feng, Shi-Dong; Wang, Li-Min; Qiao, Jun-Wei; Niu, Xiao-Feng; Dong, Bang-Shao; Wang, Wei-Min; Qin, Jing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated structural disorder by a new structural parameter, quasi-nearest atom (QNA), in atomistic configurations of eight metallic glass-forming systems generated through molecular dynamics simulations at various temperatures. Structural analysis reveals that the scaled distribution of the number of QNA appears to be an universal property of metallic liquids and the spatial distribution of the number of QNA displays to be clearly heterogeneous. Furthermore, the new parameter can be directly correlated with potential energy and structural relaxation at the atomic level. Some straightforward relationships between QNA and other properties (per-atom potential energy and α-relaxation time) are introduced to reflect structure-property relationship in metallic liquids. We believe that the new structural parameter can well reflect structure disorder in metallic liquids and play an important role in understanding various properties in metallic liquids. PMID:27278113

  16. Evaluation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.

    1971-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of candidate metal-matrix composite materials for shuttle space radiators mounted to external structure are presented. The evaluation was specifically applicable to considerations of the manufacturing and properties of a potential space radiator. Two candidates, boron/aluminum and graphite/aluminum were obtained or made in various forms and tested in sufficient depth to allow selection of one of the two for future scale-up programs. The effort accomplished on this program verified that aluminum reinforced with boron was within the state-of-the-art in industry and possessed properties usable in the external skin areas available for shuttle radiators where re-entry temperatures will not exceed 800 F. It further demonstrated that graphite/aluminum has an apparently attractive future for space applications but requires extension development prior to scale-up.

  17. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter systems.

  18. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter systems. PMID:27030071

  19. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; et al

    2016-03-31

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disordermore » transitions in condensed matter systems.« less

  20. Melting, Solidification, Remelting, and Separation of Glass and Metal

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Ebadian; R. C.Xin; Z. F. Dong

    1998-11-02

    Several kinds of radioactive waste exist in mixed forms at DOE sites throughout the United States. These Wastes consist of radionuclides and some usefil bme materials. One purpose of waste treatment technologies is to vitrify the radionuclides into durable, stable glass-like materials to reduce the size of the waste form requiring final disposal. The other purpose is to recycle and reuse most of the usefi.d base materials. Thus, improved techniques for the separation of molten metal and glass are essential. Several high temperature vitrification technologies have been developed for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level waste and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories currently in storage at DOE sites throughout the nation. These processes include the plasma hearth process, which is being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and the arc melter vitrification process, which is being developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The products of these processes are an oxide slag phase and a reduced metal phase. The metal phase has the potential to be recycled within the DOE Complex. Enhanced slag/metal separation methods are needed to suppoti these process. A separation method is also needed for the radioactively contaminated scrap metal recycling processe; in order to obtain highly refined recycled metals.

  1. Compositional dependence of in vitro response to commercial silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlicka, Amy B.

    Materials are often incorporated into the human body, interacting with surrounding fluids, cells and tissues. The reactions that occur between a material and this surrounding biological system are not fundamentally understood. Basic knowledge of material biocompatibility and the controlling processes is lacking. This thesis examines material biocompatibility of a series of silicate-based glasses on a primary level determining cell response to material composition and durability. The silicate glass system studied included two BioglassRTM compositions with known biologically favorable response, two fiberglass compositions, with demonstrated 'not-unfavorable' in vitro response, a ternary soda-lime-silicate glass, a binary alkali silicate glass, and pure silica. Chemical durability was analyzed in three different fluids through solution analysis and material characterization. In vitro response to the substrates was observed. Cell behavior was then directly correlated to the material behavior in cell culture medium under the same conditions as the in vitro test, yet in the absence of cells. The effect of several physical and chemical surface treatments on substrates with predetermined biocompatible behavior was subsequently determined. The chemically durable glasses with no added B2O3 elicited similar cell response as the control polystyrene substrate. The addition of B2O3 resulted in polygonal cell shape and restricted cell proliferation. The non-durable glasses presented a dynamic surface to the cells, which did not adversely affect in vitro response. Extreme dissolution of the binary alkali silicate glass in conjunction with increased pH resulted in unfavorable cell response. Reaction of the Bioglass RTM compositions, producing a biologically favorable calcium-phosphate surface film, caused enhanced cell attachment and spreading. Surface energy increase due to sterilization procedures did not alter cellular response. Surface treatment procedures influencing substrate

  2. Volcanic Coatings on Picritic Apollo 17 Glasses; Submicrometer-Deposits of Fe-CR-Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Ross, K.; Clementt, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of our ongoing investigations of Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange and black volcanic glasses are threefold: first, to increase our understanding of the volcanic origin of the glasses; second, to determine the nature of the coating materials deposited on the glasses during their cooling in the volcanic environment; and, third, to help determine the nature of the gases involved in the volcanic fire-fountaining that occurred at approximately 3.5 Ga on the moon. We are continuing studies of coatings on volcanic glasses using analytical techniques not available when these glasses were originally studied; these include high-resolution FE-TEM and X-ray mapping, along with other highly detailed methods including TEM electron diffraction analysis. Initial studies of Apollo 15 green volcanic glasses using the techniques described above revealed for the first time the presence of areas containing distinct layering of volcanic surface deposits. S was associated with some of the inner layer of metallic Fe but was absent from the outer layer. Zn was associated with S in some places in the inner layer. An example of a typical spherule used for this study is shown in Fig. 1. It is a black (quench-crystallized) bead from near the bottom of the 74001/2 double drive tube; black beads such as this one are essentially identical in composition to the orange (uncrystallized) beads of the 74001/2 core.

  3. Glass ceramics for sealing to high-thermal-expansion metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Jr., J. A.

    1980-10-01

    Glass ceramics were studied, formulated in the Na/sub 2/O CaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, Na/sub 2/O.BaOP/sub 2/O/sub 5/, Na/sub 2/O.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and Li/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems to establish their suitability for sealing to high thermal expansion metals, e.g. aluminum, copper, and 300 series stainless steels. Glass ceramics in Na/sub 2/O.CaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Na/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems have coefficients of thermal expansion in the range 140 x 10/sup -1/ per /sup 0/C less than or equal to ..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 225 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C and fracture toughness values generally greater than those of phosphate glasses; they are suitable for fabricating seals to high thermal expansion metals. Crystal phases include NaPo/sub 3/, (NaPO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, NaBa(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, and NaCa(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. Glass ceramics formed in the Na/sub 2/O.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems have coefficients of thermal expansion greater than 240 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C, but they have extensive microcracking. Due to their low thermal expansion values (..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 120 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C), glass ceramics in the Li/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ system are unsuitable for sealing to high thermal expansion metals.

  4. Bacterial adhesion to glass and metal-oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Baikun; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-07-15

    Metal oxides can increase the adhesion of negatively-charged bacteria to surfaces primarily due to their positive charge. However, the hydrophobicity of a metal-oxide surface can also increase adhesion of bacteria. In order to understand the relative contribution of charge and hydrophobicity to bacterial adhesion, we measured the adhesion of 8 strains of bacteria, under conditions of low and high-ionic strength (1 and 100 mM, respectively) to 11 different surfaces and examined adhesion as a function of charge, hydrophobicity (water contact angle) and surface energy. Inorganic surfaces included three uncoated glass surfaces and eight metal-oxide thin films prepared on the upper (non-tin-exposed) side of float glass by chemical vapor deposition. The Gram-negative bacteria differed in lengths of lipopolysaccharides on their outer surface (three Escherichia coli strains), the amounts of exopolysaccharides (two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains), and their known relative adhesion to sand grains (two Burkholderia cepacia strains). One Gram positive bacterium was also used that had a lower adhesion to glass than these other bacteria (Bacillus subtilis). For all eight bacteria, there was a consistent increase in adhesion between with the type of inorganic surface in the order: float glass exposed to tin (coded here as Si-Sn), glass microscope slide (Si-m), uncoated air-side float glass surface (Si-a), followed by thin films of (Co(1-y-z)Fe(y)Cr(z))3O4, Ti/Fe/O, TiO2, SnO2, SnO2:F, SnO2:Sb, A1(2)O3, and Fe2O3 (the colon indicates metal doping, a slash indicates that the metal is a major component, while the dash is used to distinguish surfaces). Increasing the ionic strength from 1 to 100 mM increased adhesion by a factor of 2.0 +/- 0.6 (73% of the sample results were within the 95% CI) showing electrostatic charge was important in adhesion. However, adhesion was not significantly correlated with bacterial charge and contact angle. Adhesion (A) of the eight strains was

  5. On a solution to the problem of the poor cyclic fatigue resistance of bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-01-09

    The recent development of metallic glass-matrix composites represents a particular milestone in engineering materials for structural applications owing to their remarkable combinations of strength and toughness. However, metallic glasses are highly susceptible to cyclic fatigue damage and previous attempts to solve this problem have been largely disappointing. Here we propose and demonstrate a microstructural design strategy to overcome this limitation by matching the microstructural length scales (of the second phase) to mechanical crack-length scales. Specifically, semi-solid processing is used to optimize the volume fraction, morphology, and size of second phase dendrites to confine any initial deformation (shear banding) to the glassy regions separating dendrite arms having length scales of {approx} 2 {micro}m, i.e., to less than the critical crack size for failure. Confinement of the damage to such interdendritic regions results in enhancement of fatigue lifetimes and increases the fatigue limit by an order of magnitude making these 'designed' composites as resistant to fatigue damage as high-strength steels and aluminum alloys. These design strategies can be universally applied to any other metallic glass systems.

  6. Solution to the problem of the poor cyclic fatigue resistance of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of metallic glass-matrix composites represents a particular milestone in engineering materials for structural applications owing to their remarkable combination of strength and toughness. However, metallic glasses are highly susceptible to cyclic fatigue damage, and previous attempts to solve this problem have been largely disappointing. Here, we propose and demonstrate a microstructural design strategy to overcome this limitation by matching the microstructural length scales (of the second phase) to mechanical crack-length scales. Specifically, semisolid processing is used to optimize the volume fraction, morphology, and size of second-phase dendrites to confine any initial deformation (shear banding) to the glassy regions separating dendrite arms having length scales of ≈2 μm, i.e., to less than the critical crack size for failure. Confinement of the damage to such interdendritic regions results in enhancement of fatigue lifetimes and increases the fatigue limit by an order of magnitude, making these “designed” composites as resistant to fatigue damage as high-strength steels and aluminum alloys. These design strategies can be universally applied to any other metallic glass systems. PMID:19289820

  7. Solution to the problem of the poor cyclic fatigue resistance of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Launey, Maximilien E; Hofmann, Douglas C; Johnson, William L; Ritchie, Robert O

    2009-03-31

    The recent development of metallic glass-matrix composites represents a particular milestone in engineering materials for structural applications owing to their remarkable combination of strength and toughness. However, metallic glasses are highly susceptible to cyclic fatigue damage, and previous attempts to solve this problem have been largely disappointing. Here, we propose and demonstrate a microstructural design strategy to overcome this limitation by matching the microstructural length scales (of the second phase) to mechanical crack-length scales. Specifically, semisolid processing is used to optimize the volume fraction, morphology, and size of second-phase dendrites to confine any initial deformation (shear banding) to the glassy regions separating dendrite arms having length scales of approximately 2 mum, i.e., to less than the critical crack size for failure. Confinement of the damage to such interdendritic regions results in enhancement of fatigue lifetimes and increases the fatigue limit by an order of magnitude, making these "designed" composites as resistant to fatigue damage as high-strength steels and aluminum alloys. These design strategies can be universally applied to any other metallic glass systems. PMID:19289820

  8. Microstructural characterization of Mg-based bulk metallic glass and nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Babilas, Rafał; Nowosielski, Ryszard; Pawlyta, Mirosława; Fitch, Andy; Burian, Andrzej

    2015-04-15

    New magnesium-based bulk metallic glasses Mg{sub 60}Cu{sub 30}Y{sub 10} have been prepared by pressure casting. Glassy alloys were successfully annealed to become nanocomposite containing 200 nm crystallites in an amorphous matrix. The microstructure of bulk glassy alloy and nanocomposite obtained during heat treatment was examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning and high-resolution electron microscopy. Metallic glass has been also studied to explain the structural characteristics by the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling based on the diffraction data. The HRTEM images allow to indicate some medium-range order (MRO) regions about 2–3 nm in size and formation of local atomic clusters. The RMC modeling results confirmed some kinds of short range order (SRO) structures. It was found that the structure of bulk metallic glass formed by the pressure casting is homogeneous. The composite material contained very small particles in the amorphous matrix. Homogeneous glassy alloy had better corrosion resistance than a composite containing nanocrystalline particles in a glassy matrix. - Highlights: • RMC modeling demonstrates some kinds of SRO structures in Mg-based BMGs. • HRTEM indicated MRO regions about 2–3 nm and SRO regions about 0.5 nm in size. • Mg-based glassy alloys were successfully annealed to become nanocomposite material. • Crystalline particles have spherical morphology with an average diameter of 200 nm. • Glassy alloy had higher corrosion resistance than a nanocomposite sample.

  9. Spectroscopic and ultrasonic investigations on structural characterization of borate glass specimen doped with transition metal ions.

    PubMed

    Sathish, K; Thirumaran, S

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes the glass samples of composition (x% V₂O₅-(80-x)% B₂O₃-20% Na₂CO₃) VBS glass system and (x%MnO₂-(80-x)% B₂O₃-20% Na₂CO₃) in MBS glass system with mol% ranging from x=3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 in steps of 3 mol% are prepared by melt quenching technique. For these prepared glass systems, sound velocity (longitudinal and shear velocities) and density have been measured. The sound velocity (longitudinal and shear) was measured by using pulse-echo technique at 5 MHz. The XRD study was carried to out to ascertain the amorphous nature of the glass specimen. Using these measured values, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, acoustic impedance and thermal expansion coefficient of the two glass systems were evaluated. The elastic and mechanical properties of the prepared glass systems are analyzed from ultrasonic study and the structural characterization from spectroscopic study. The effects due to the doping of transition metal ions with borate have been discussed. In the V₂O₅ doped glass system,(VBS glass system) the sound velocity, density and elastic moduli, steeply increases after 12 mol% comparatively with MnO₂ doped glass system (VBS glass system). The present study critically observes the doping of V₂O₅ with borate enhances the strengthening of network linkage and hardening of the glassy network structure than MnO₂. The IR spectral analysis reveals depolymerization of the borate network and conversion of BO₃ or BO4 units with the formation of non-bridging oxygen. The FTIR spectral studies confirm the presence of various functional groups of the sample. FTIR spectrum of sample exhibits broad absorption bands indicating the wide distribution of borate structural units. The effect of Na₂CO₃, V₂O₅ and MnO₂ contents on the structures of borate glass is evaluated from the FTIR spectra. The topological aspects of the prepared glass samples are exhaustively reported from SEM micrographs

  10. Spectroscopic and ultrasonic investigations on structural characterization of borate glass specimen doped with transition metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, K.; Thirumaran, S.

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes the glass samples of composition (x% V2O5-(80-x)% B2O3-20% Na2CO3) VBS glass system and (x% MnO2-(80-x)% B2O3-20% Na2CO3) in MBS glass system with mol% ranging from x = 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 in steps of 3 mol% are prepared by melt quenching technique. For these prepared glass systems, sound velocity (longitudinal and shear velocities) and density have been measured. The sound velocity (longitudinal and shear) was measured by using pulse-echo technique at 5 MHz. The XRD study was carried to out to ascertain the amorphous nature of the glass specimen. Using these measured values, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, acoustic impedance and thermal expansion coefficient of the two glass systems were evaluated. The elastic and mechanical properties of the prepared glass systems are analyzed from ultrasonic study and the structural characterization from spectroscopic study. The effects due to the doping of transition metal ions with borate have been discussed. In the V2O5 doped glass system, (VBS glass system) the sound velocity, density and elastic moduli, steeply increases after 12 mol% comparatively with MnO2 doped glass system (VBS glass system). The present study critically observes the doping of V2O5 with borate enhances the strengthening of network linkage and hardening of the glassy network structure than MnO2. The IR spectral analysis reveals depolymerization of the borate network and conversion of BO3 or BO4 units with the formation of non-bridging oxygen. The FTIR spectral studies confirm the presence of various functional groups of the sample. FTIR spectrum of sample exhibits broad absorption bands indicating the wide distribution of borate structural units. The effect of Na2CO3, V2O5 and MnO2 contents on the structures of borate glass is evaluated from the FTIR spectra. The topological aspects of the prepared glass samples are exhaustively reported from SEM micrographs.

  11. Elastic properties and atomic bonding character in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouxel, T.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The elastic properties of glasses from different metallic systems were studied in the light of the atomic packing density and bonding character. We found that the electronegativity mismatch (Δe-) between the host- and the major solute-elements provides a plausible explanation to the large variation observed for Poisson's ratio (ν) among metallic glasses (MGs) (from 0.28 for Fe-based to 0.43 for Pd-based MGs), notwithstanding a similar atomic packing efficiency (Cg). Besides, it is found that ductile MGs correspond to Δe- smaller than 0.5 and to a relatively steep atomic potential well. Ductility is, thus, favored in MGs exhibiting a weak bond directionality on average and opposing a strong resistance to volume change.

  12. Optical reflectivity improvement by upgrading metallic glass film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. H.; Hsu, J. H.; Huang, J. C.

    2013-10-14

    The effects of atomic-defect and free-volume amounts of metallic glassy film on the optical reflectivity and mechanical properties of the sputtered metallic glass thin films are explored. With a lower Ar working pressure and the proper post-annealing at temperatures slightly lower than the glass-transition temperature T{sub g}, film free volumes and defects would reduce, resulting in better atomic bonding and higher film hardness/modulus, which in turn leads to lower electric resistivity and higher optical reflectivity. Annealing above T{sub g} would induce crystalline structure which would lead to competition with the optical transition of the Drude free electrons and hinder the optical reflectivity in the visible range.

  13. Ductile-to-brittle transition in spallation of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Ling, Z.; Dai, L. H.

    2014-10-14

    In this paper, the spallation behavior of a binary metallic glass Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} is investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. With increasing the impact velocity, micro-voids induced by tensile pulses become smaller and more concentrated. The phenomenon suggests a ductile-to-brittle transition during the spallation process. Further investigation indicates that the transition is controlled by the interaction between void nucleation and growth, which can be regarded as a competition between tension transformation zones (TTZs) and shear transformation zones (STZs) at atomic scale. As impact velocities become higher, the stress amplitude and temperature rise in the spall region increase and micro-structures of the material become more unstable. Therefore, TTZs are prone to activation in metallic glasses, leading to a brittle behavior during the spallation process.

  14. Failure mechanisms of woven carbon and glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Alif, N.; Carlsson, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    Stress-strain responses in tension, compression, and shear of a five-harness satin-weave carbon/epoxy composite and a four-harness satin-weave glass/epoxy composite have been examined. Damage progression under tension was examined by optical microscopic inspection of the polished edges of the specimens. Models for elastic property and failure predictions of woven-fabric composites were examined and correlated with the experimental data. Damage inspection of the carbon/epoxy composite under tension revealed that the initial failure was cracking of pure matrix regions followed by transverse bundle cracking. Fill/weft debonding and longitudinal splits of the fill bundles occurred close to ultimate failure of the composite. The glass/epoxy composite displayed damage in the form of fill/weft debonding and longitudinal splits, but no transverse yarn cracking. The damage observed in both composites was confined to the region where ultimate failure occurred. Elastic properties of the composites were overall in good agreement with micromechanical predictions based on uniform strain, but failure stress predictions were less accurate.

  15. Vapor phase deposition of transition metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulard, Brigitte; Jacoboni, Charles

    1991-08-01

    Multicomponent fluoride glasses in the PbF2-ZnF2-GaF3 (PZG) vitreous ternary system have been prepared by vapor phase deposition. The thermal stability of the deposited glass was improved by adding stabilizing agents (AlF3, NaF, LiF, InF3). The thin films, deposited on different substrates (fluoride glass, fluoride single crystal, metal, and silica glass) have been characterized by x-ray diffraction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The quality of the film, adherence, and homogeneity was controlled by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The optical characteristics of the film and PZG glass are given: the visible-infrared (VIS-IR) window is 0.3-8 micrometers and the refractive index 1.59+/- 0.2 depends on the lead content. Mn2+ doped films (up to 3 mole % MnF2) are optically active: Mn2+ exhibits a broad luminescence band at 560-570 nm (orange). The achieved film thickness varies from 0.5 to 80 micrometers , and the refractive index gradient approaches the required geometry for planar waveguides (doping of the film with lanthanides is in progress).

  16. Cytotoxicity of Resin Composites Containing Bioactive Glass Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Satin; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Pfeifer, Carmem; Ferracane, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of dental composites containing bioactive glass fillers. Methods Dental composites (50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin: 72.5wt% filler, 67.5%Sr-glass and 5% OX50) containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt %) of two sol-gel bioactive glasses, BAG65 (65 mole% SiO2, 31 mole% CaO, 4 mole% P2O5) and BAG62 (3 mole% F added) were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Alamar Blue assay. First, composite extracts were obtained from 7 day incubations of composite in cell culture medium at 37° C. Undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to dilutions of the original extracts for 3, 5, and 7 days. Then freshly cured composite disks were incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 2 days. Subsequently, fresh composite disks were incubated in culture medium at 37°C for 7 days, and then the extracted disks were incubated with OD-21 cells for 2 days. Finally, fresh composites disks were light cured for 3, 5, and 20 seconds and incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. To verify that the three different curing modes produced different levels of degree of conversion (DC), the DC of each composite was determined by FTIR. Groups (n=5) were compared with ANOVA/Tukey’s (α≤0.05). Results Extracts from all composites significantly reduced cell viability until a dilution of 1:8 or lower, where the extract became equal to the control. All freshly-cured composites showed significantly reduced cell viability at two days. However, no reduction in cell viability was observed for any composite that had been previously soaked in media before exposure to the cells. Composites with reduced DC (3 s vs. 20 s cure), as verified by FTIR, showed significantly reduced cell viability. Significance The results show that the composites, independent of composition, had equivalent potency in terms of reducing the viability of the cells in culture. Soaking the composites for 7 days before exposing them to the cells suggested that the

  17. Charge transfer and atomic-level pressure in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2014-02-03

    This paper presents a systematic study on the charge transfer and ionicity in various metallic-glass forming systems, as well as its relationship with other atomic-level structure indicators, using the Bader analysis method and molecular dynamics simulation. It is shown that in a binary or multicomponent system, the chemical effects (when more than one elements present) appear to play a more important role in setting the absolute level of the atomic-level pressure, compared to the topological fluctuation.

  18. Bulk Metallic Glasses for Implantable Medical Devices and Surgical Tools.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Philip; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Byrne, James H; Browne, David J

    2016-07-01

    With increasing knowledge of the materials science of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and improvements in their properties and processing, they have started to become candidate materials for biomedical devices. A dichotomy in the types of medical applications has also emerged, in which some families of BMGs are being developed for permanent devices whilst another family - of Mg-based alloys - is showing promise in bioabsorbable implants. The current status of these metallurgical and technological developments is summarized. PMID:27031058

  19. Crystallization behavior and glass formation of selected lunar compositions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, G.; Hopper, R. W.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The kinetics of crystal growth have been determined over a wide range of temperature, from 800 to 1219 C, for lunar compositions 14259 and 14310. At all temperatures for both compositions the extent of crystal growth is found to be a linear function of time. For both materials, the growth rate versus temperature relations exhibit the form generally found with glass-forming materials. At all temperatures measured, the crystal growth rate of composition 14259 is smaller than that of composition 14310. The maximum growth rate for both compositions occurs at a temperature of about 1120 C. The growth rate data are combined with viscosity data obtained on the same compositions to construct the reduced growth rate versus undercooling relations.

  20. Medium-range structure and glass forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Pei; Maldonis, Jason J.; Besser, M. F.; Kramer, M. J.; Voyles, Paul M.

    2016-03-05

    Fluctuation electron microscopy experiments combined with hybrid reverse Monte Carlo modeling show a correlation between medium-range structure at the nanometer scale and glass forming ability in two Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys. Both Zr50Cu35Al15 and Zr50Cu45Al5 exhibit two nanoscale structure types, one icosahedral and the other more crystal-like. In Zr50Cu35Al15, the poorer glass former, the crystal-like structure is more stable under annealing below the glass transition temperature, Tg, than in Zr50Cu45Al5. Variable resolution fluctuation microscopy of the MRO clusters show that in Zr50Cu35Al15 on sub-Tg annealing, the crystal-like clusters shrink even as they grow more ordered, while icosahedral-like clustersmore » grow. Furthermore, the results suggest that achieving better glass forming ability in this alloy system may depend more on destabilizing crystal-like structures than enhancing non-crystalline structures.« less

  1. Effects of microscopic iron metal on the reflectance spectra of glass and minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Mckay, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Maturity, which is a measure of the time lunar soils have been in the upper approximately 1 mm of the surface, is correlated with changes in the soils' optical properties. Mature soil is darker and somewhat redder than immature soil of the same composition, and features in the reflectance spectrum become more subdued with increasing maturity. The maturation process also involves accumulation of agglutinitic glass and submicroscopic metallic iron particles. We have produced submicrometer iron metal blebs on the surface and within glass and mineral grains by the method of high-temperature reduction. This technique has permitted the determination of optical changes in samples much simpler than lunar soil, and offers a useful tool with which to investigate the maturation process.

  2. Cr-based bulk metallic glasses with ultrahigh hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, J. J.; Wang, T.; Wu, Y. D.; Cai, Y. H.; Chen, X. H.; Wang, W. Y.; Liu, Z. K.; Hui, X. D.

    2015-06-01

    This letter reports quaternary Cr-Co-Nb-B bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with ultrahigh hardness and Young's moduli. Especially, Cr55Co24Nb7B14 BMG exhibits ultrahigh Vickers hardness and Young's modulus of 1605 and 278 GPa, respectively, and the highest specific Young's modulus of 37.0 × 106 N m/kg among all the developed BMGs so far. It is considered that the high hardness and Young's moduli for this kind of BMGs are intrinsically attributed to the strong interactions between metallic constituent elements and B.

  3. Design of ductile bulk metallic glasses by adding ''soft'' atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, N.; Pauly, S.; Calin, M.; Gemming, T.; Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. F.; Eckert, J.

    2012-04-02

    We propose a strategy for the design of ductile bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) through minor substitution using relatively large atoms, which make the bonding nature become more metallic and with it less shear resistant. Such a locally modified structure results in topological heterogeneity, which appears to be crucial for achieving enhanced plasticity. This strategy is verified for Ti-Zr-Cu-Pd glassy alloys, in which Cu was replaced by In, and seems to be extendable to other BMG systems. The atomic-scale heterogeneity in BMGs is somewhat analog to defects in crystalline alloys and helps to improve the overall plasticity of BMGs.

  4. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B. Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C.; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D.; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Schroers, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design.

  5. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D; Kyriakides, Themis R; Schroers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design. PMID:27230692

  6. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B. Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C.; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D.; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Schroers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design. PMID:27230692

  7. Understanding the Properties and Structure of Metallic Glasses at the Atomic Level

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, T.

    2010-01-01

    Liquids and glasses have been well known to human kind for millennia. And yet major mysteries remain in the behavior of glasses and liquids at the atomic level, and identifying the microscopic mechanisms that control the properties of glasses is one of the most challenging unsolved problems in physical sciences. For this reason, applying simplistic approaches to explain the behavior of metallic glasses can lead to serious errors. On the other hand because metallic glasses are atomic glasses with relatively simple structure, they may offer better opportunities to advance our fundamental understanding on the nature of the glass. The difficulties inherent to the problem and some recent advances are reviewed here.

  8. Boron, graphite, glass, metal and aramid fiber reinforced plastics. January, 1973-May, 1981 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association Data Base). Report for January 1973-May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The citations cover information about advanced reinforced composites such as boron, graphite, glass, metal, and aramid. Topics include applications, fabrication processes, proerties, nondestructive testing, and economics of composite materials. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. Fretting maps of glass fiber-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Turki, C.; Salvia, M.; Vincent, L.

    1993-12-31

    Industrial development of new materials are often limited due to an insufficient knowledge in their functional properties. The paper deals with fretting behavior of glass fiber reinforced epoxy/metal contacts. Fretting is a plague for all industries, especially in the case of quasi-static loadings. Furthermore friction testing under small displacements appeared well fitted to understand the effect of fiber orientations and to relate results to microstructure (fiber, matrix and interface).

  10. Composite Laminate With Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Matching D263 Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Rodini, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory project seeks to make an X-ray telescope assembly with 14,000 flexible glass segments. The glass used is commercially available SCHOTT D263 glass. Thermal expansion causes the mirror to distort out of alignment. A housing material is needed that has a matching coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) so that when temperatures change in the X-ray mirror assembly, the glass and housing pieces expand equally, thus reducing or eliminating distortion. Desirable characteristics of this material include a high stiffness/weight ratio, and low density. Some metal alloys show promise in matching the CTE of D263 glass, but their density is high compared to aluminum, and their stiffness/weight ratio is not favorable. A laminate made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) should provide more favorable characteristics, but there has not been any made with the CTE matching D263 Glass. It is common to create CFRP laminates of various CTEs by stacking layers of prepreg material at various angles. However, the CTE of D263 glass is 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which is quite high, and actually unachievable solely with carbon fiber and resin. A composite laminate has been developed that has a coefficient of thermal expansion identical to that of SCHOTT D263 glass. The laminate is made of a combination of T300 carbon fiber, Eglass, and RS3C resin. The laminate has 50% uni-T300 plies and 50% uni-E-glass plies, with each fiber-layer type laid up in a quasi-isotropic laminate for a total of 16 plies. The fiber volume (percent of fiber compared to the resin) controls the CTE to a great extent. Tests have confirmed that a fiber volume around 48% gives a CTE of 6.3 ppm/ C. This is a fairly simple composite laminate, following well established industry procedures. The unique feature of this laminate is a somewhat unusual combination of carbon fiber with E-glass (fiberglass). The advantage is that the resulting CTE comes out to 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which matches D

  11. Composite yarns of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with metallic electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Randeniya, Lakshman K; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Philip J; Tran, Canh-Dung

    2010-08-16

    Unique macrostructures known as spun carbon-nanotube fibers (CNT yarns) can be manufactured from vertically aligned forests of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). These yarns behave as semiconductors with room-temperature conductivities of about 5 x 10(2) S cm(-1). Their potential use as, for example, microelectrodes in medical implants, wires in microelectronics, or lightweight conductors in the aviation industry has hitherto been hampered by their insufficient electrical conductivity. In this Full Paper, the synthesis of metal-CNT composite yarns, which combine the unique properties of CNT yarns and nanocrystalline metals to obtain a new class of materials with enhanced electrical conductivity, is presented. The synthesis is achieved using a new technique, self-fuelled electrodeposition (SFED), which combines a metal reducing agent and an external circuit for transfer of electrons to the CNT surface, where the deposition of metal nanoparticles takes place. In particular, the Cu-CNT and Au-CNT composite yarns prepared by this method have metal-like electrical conductivities (2-3 x 10(5) S cm(-1)) and are mechanically robust against stringent tape tests. However, the tensile strengths of the composite yarns are 30-50% smaller than that of the unmodified CNT yarn. The SFED technique described here can also be used as a convenient means for the deposition of metal nanoparticles on solid electrode supports, such as conducting glass or carbon black, for catalytic applications. PMID:20665629

  12. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Observations of distinct atomic packings in Cu Nb metallic glasses synthesized by ion beam mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, K. P.; Wang, T. L.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2006-09-01

    The structural transformation and disordered atomic packing of metallic glasses in a selected immiscible system at equilibrium, i.e. the Cu-Nb system characterized by a positive heat of formation, are studied using ion beam mixing far from equilibrium. The experimental results indicate that the Cu-Nb metallic glasses could be formed in a composition range from 30 to 85 at.% of Nb and that the Cu-Nb metallic glasses are formed through two different structural phase transition routes, i.e. from the Nb-based body centred cubic and face centred cubic solid solutions, in which the two distinct predominant atomic packings have icosahedral and icositetrahedral orderings, respectively, revealed by the respective diffraction patterns. These observations not only help in formulating a general atomic structural spectrum for the binary metallic glasses, but also suggest an important concept of structural heredity: that the crystalline structure of the constituent metals plays a decisive role in determining the atomic structure of the resultant metallic glasses.

  13. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Patachia, Silvia; Papancea, Adina; Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  14. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.; Huffsmith, Sarah A.

    1981-01-01

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi.sub.2 indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi.sub.2 with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400.degree. C.; and, simultaneously with the heating, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  15. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, R.L.; Huffsmith, S.A.

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite are described. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi/sub 2/ indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi/sub 2/ with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400/sup 0/C; and, simultaneously, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  16. Simulating Microfracture In Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1994-01-01

    Computational procedures developed for simulating microfracture in metal-matrix/fiber composite materials under mechanical and/or thermal loads at ambient and high temperatures. Procedures evaluate microfracture behavior of composites, establish hierarchies and sequences of fracture modes, and examine influences of compliant layers and partial debonding on properties of composites and on initiation of microfractures in them.

  17. Negative strain rate sensitivity in bulk metallic glass and its similarities with the dynamic strain aging effect during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalla Torre, Florian H.; Dubach, Alban; Siegrist, Marco E.; Loeffler, Joerg F.

    2006-08-28

    Detailed investigations were carried out on the deformation behavior of Zr-based monolithic bulk metallic glass and bulk metallic glass matrix composites. The latter, due to splitting and multiplication of shear bands, exhibits larger compressive strains than the former, without significant loss of strength. Serrated flow in conjunction with a negative strain rate sensitivity was observed in both materials. This observation, together with an increase in stress drops with increasing strain and their decrease with increasing strain rate, indicates phenomenologically close similarities with the dynamic strain aging deformation mechanism known for crystalline solids. The micromechanical mechanism of a shear event is discussed in light of these results.

  18. Development of a glass polymer composite sewer pipe from waste glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rayfiel, R.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1980-02-01

    A range of polymer-aggregate composites for applications in industry which appear to be economically attractive and contribute to energy conservation were developed at BNL. Waste glass is the aggregate in one such material, which is called glass-polymer-composite (GPC). This report assays the economics and durability of GPC in piping for storm drains and sewers. The properties of the pipe are compared statistically with the requirements of industrial specifications. These establish the raw materials requirements. The capital and operating costs for producing pipe are then estimated. Using published sales values for competing materials, the return on investment is calculated for two cases. The ultimate energy requirement of the raw materials in GPC is compared with the corresponding requirement for vitrified clay pipe. The strengths of GPC, reinforced concrete, vitrified clay and asbestos cement pipe are compared after extended exposure to various media. The status of process and product development is reviewed and recommendations are made for future work.

  19. Towards the Better: Intrinsic Property Amelioration in Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Sarac, Baran; Zhang, Long; Kosiba, Konrad; Pauly, Simon; Stoica, Mihai; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the intrinsic length-scale effects in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) via post-heat treatment necessitates a systematic analyzing strategy. Although various achievements were made in the past years to structurally enhance the properties of different BMG alloys, the influence of short-term sub-glass transition annealing on the relaxation kinetics is still not fully covered. Here, we aim for unraveling the connection between the physical, (thermo)mechanical and structural changes as a function of selected pre-annealing temperatures and time scales with an in-house developed Cu46Zr44Al8Hf2 based BMG alloy. The controlled formation of nanocrystals below 50 nm with homogenous distribution inside the matrix phase via thermal treatment increase the material’s resistance to strain softening by almost an order of magnitude. The present work determines the design aspects of metallic glasses with enhanced mechanical properties via nanostructural modifications, while postulating a counter-argument to the intrinsic property degradation accounted for long-term annealing. PMID:27273477

  20. Towards the Better: Intrinsic Property Amelioration in Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, Baran; Zhang, Long; Kosiba, Konrad; Pauly, Simon; Stoica, Mihai; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Tailoring the intrinsic length-scale effects in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) via post-heat treatment necessitates a systematic analyzing strategy. Although various achievements were made in the past years to structurally enhance the properties of different BMG alloys, the influence of short-term sub-glass transition annealing on the relaxation kinetics is still not fully covered. Here, we aim for unraveling the connection between the physical, (thermo)mechanical and structural changes as a function of selected pre-annealing temperatures and time scales with an in-house developed Cu46Zr44Al8Hf2 based BMG alloy. The controlled formation of nanocrystals below 50 nm with homogenous distribution inside the matrix phase via thermal treatment increase the material’s resistance to strain softening by almost an order of magnitude. The present work determines the design aspects of metallic glasses with enhanced mechanical properties via nanostructural modifications, while postulating a counter-argument to the intrinsic property degradation accounted for long-term annealing.